Sample records for glycine max allergy

  1. Soybean (Glycine max) allergy in Europe: Gly m 5 (beta-conglycinin) and Gly m 6 (glycinin) are potential diagnostic markers for severe allergic reactions to soy

    Holzhauser, Thomas; Wackermann, Olga; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K


    BACKGROUND: Soybean is considered an important allergenic food, but published data on soybean allergens are controversial. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify relevant soybean allergens and correlate the IgE-binding pattern to clinical characteristics in European patients with confirmed soy allergy....

  2. Diversity of endophytic fungi in Glycine max.

    Fernandes, Elio Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; da Silva, Cynthia Cânedo; Bento, Claudia Braga Pereira; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira


    Endophytic fungi are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing disease during part of their life cycle. With the isolation and identification of these fungi, new species are being discovered, and ecological relationships with their hosts have also been studied. In Glycine max, limited studies have investigated the isolation and distribution of endophytic fungi throughout leaves and roots. The distribution of these fungi in various plant organs differs in diversity and abundance, even when analyzed using molecular techniques that can evaluate fungal communities in different parts of the plants, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results show there is greater species richness of culturable endophytic filamentous fungi in the leaves G. max as compared to roots. Additionally, the leaves had high values for diversity indices, i.e. Simpsons, Shannon and Equitability. Conversely, dominance index was higher in roots as compared to leaves. The fungi Ampelomyces sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Diaporthe helianthi, Guignardia mangiferae and Phoma sp. were more frequently isolated from the leaves, whereas the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium sp. were prevalent in the roots. However, by evaluating the two communities by DGGE, we concluded that the species richness was higher in the roots than in the leaves. UPGMA analysis showed consistent clustering of isolates; however, the fungus Leptospora rubella, which belongs to the order Dothideales, was grouped among species of the order Pleosporales. The presence of endophytic Fusarium species in G. max roots is unsurprising, since Fusarium spp. isolates have been previously described as endophyte in other reports. However, it remains to be determined whether the G. max Fusarium endophytes are latent pathogens or non-pathogenic forms that benefit the plant. This study provides a broader knowledge of the distribution of the fungal

  3. Analysis of resource use efficiency among soybean ( Glycine max ...

    Analysis of resource use efficiency among soybean ( Glycine max ) farmers in ... Resource-use efficiency revealed that quantity of seed, farm size, herbicide and ... making loans accessible to farmers and reasonable market price of soybean ...

  4. Isolation and identification of glycinol from Glycine max [L.] Merri

    Qi, Y.; Moco, S.I.A.; Boeren, S.; Vos, de C.H.; Bovy, A.G.


    As one of the main phytoalexins and phytoestrogens, glyceollin is an important prenylflavonoid in Glycine max [L.] Merri. (soybean). Many kinds of elicitors can be used to induce its accumulation. Its biosynthesis pathway is commonly used to study the characteristics of prenyltransferase, which cata

  5. Comparative mapping of the wild perennial Glycine latifolia and soybean (G. max) reveals extensive chromosome rearrangements in the genus Glycine.

    Chang, Sungyul; Thurber, Carrie S; Brown, Patrick J; Hartman, Glen L; Lambert, Kris N; Domier, Leslie L


    Soybean (Glycine max L. Mer.), like many cultivated crops, has a relatively narrow genetic base and lacks diversity for some economically important traits. Glycine latifolia (Benth.) Newell & Hymowitz, one of the 26 perennial wild Glycine species related to soybean in the subgenus Glycine Willd., shows high levels of resistance to multiple soybean pathogens and pests including Alfalfa mosaic virus, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. However, limited information is available on the genomes of these perennial Glycine species. To generate molecular resources for gene mapping and identification, high-density linkage maps were constructed for G. latifolia using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by genotyping by sequencing and evaluated in an F2 population and confirmed in an F5 population. In each population, greater than 2,300 SNP markers were selected for analysis and segregated to form 20 large linkage groups. Marker orders were similar in the F2 and F5 populations. The relationships between G. latifolia linkage groups and G. max and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) chromosomes were examined by aligning SNP-containing sequences from G. latifolia to the genome sequences of G. max and P. vulgaris. Twelve of the 20 G. latifolia linkage groups were nearly collinear with G. max chromosomes. The remaining eight G. latifolia linkage groups appeared to be products of multiple interchromosomal translocations relative to G. max. Large syntenic blocks also were observed between G. latifolia and P. vulgaris. These experiments are the first to compare genome organizations among annual and perennial Glycine species and common bean. The development of molecular resources for species closely related to G. max provides information into the evolution of genomes within the genus Glycine and tools to identify genes within perennial wild relatives of cultivated soybean that could be beneficial to soybean production.

  6. Metabolic and Transcriptional Reprogramming in Developing Soybean (Glycine max Embryos

    Ruth Grene


    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max seeds are an important source of seed storage compounds, including protein, oil, and sugar used for food, feed, chemical, and biofuel production. We assessed detailed temporal transcriptional and metabolic changes in developing soybean embryos to gain a systems biology view of developmental and metabolic changes and to identify potential targets for metabolic engineering. Two major developmental and metabolic transitions were captured enabling identification of potential metabolic engineering targets specific to seed filling and to desiccation. The first transition involved a switch between different types of metabolism in dividing and elongating cells. The second transition involved the onset of maturation and desiccation tolerance during seed filling and a switch from photoheterotrophic to heterotrophic metabolism. Clustering analyses of metabolite and transcript data revealed clusters of functionally related metabolites and transcripts active in these different developmental and metabolic programs. The gene clusters provide a resource to generate predictions about the associations and interactions of unknown regulators with their targets based on “guilt-by-association” relationships. The inferred regulators also represent potential targets for future metabolic engineering of relevant pathways and steps in central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in soybean embryos and drought and desiccation tolerance in plants.

  7. Regeneration of Transgenic Soybean (Glycine max) Plants from Electroporated Protoplasts.

    Dhir, S K; Dhir, S; Savka, M A; Belanger, F; Kriz, A L; Farrand, S K; Widholm, J M


    Transgenic soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) plants were regenerated from calli derived from protoplasts electroporated with plasmid DNA-carrying genes for a selectable marker, neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII), under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35-Svedberg unit promoter, linked with a nonselectable mannityl opine synthesis marker. Following electroporation and culture, the protoplast-derived colonies were subjected to kanamycin selection (50 micrograms per milliliter) beginning on day 15 for 6 weeks. Approximately, 370 to 460 resistant colonies were recovered from 1 x 10(6) electroporated protoplasts, giving an absolute transformation frequency of 3.7 to 4.6 x 10(-4). More than 80% of the kanamycin-resistant colonies showed NPTII activity, and about 90% of these also synthesized opines. This indicates that the linked marker genes were co-introduced and co-expressed at a very high frequency. Plants were regenerated from the transformed cell lines. Southern blot analysis of the transformed callus and leaf DNA demonstrated the integration of both genes. Single-plant assays performed with different plant parts showed that both shoot and root tissues express NPTII activity and accumulate opines. Experiments with NPTII and mannityl opine synthesis marker genes on separate plasmids resulted in a co-expression rate of 66%. These results indicate that electroporation can be used to introduce both linked and unlinked genes into the soybean to produce transformed plants.

  8. [Relationship between chloride tolerance and polyamine accumulation in Glycine max, Glycine soja, and their hybrid seedlings].

    Chen, Xuan-Qin; Yu, Bing-Jun; Liu, You-Liang


    The seedlings of the F4 hybrid strain 'JB185' selected for salt tolerance generation by generation, their parents Glycine max cv. Jackson and Glycine soja population 'BB52' were treated with different NaCl concentrations and iso-osmotic (-0.53 MPa) PEG-6000, NaCl, Na+ (without Cl-) and Cl- (without Na+) solutions for 6 d. The results showed that: (1) The relative electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves of the above three soybean seedlings showed an increase trend when the NaCl concentration was elevated, but chlorophyll contents decreased except the significant increase in 'BB52' and 'JB185' under NaCl 50 mmol/L stress. The change in 'JB185' was between its parents. (2) Under different iso-osmotic stresses, the relative electrolyte leakage and MDA contents in leaves of three soybean seedlings also increased mostly, the changes in 'BB52' and 'JB185' under Na+ (without Cl-) stress were more than those under Cl- (without Na+) stress. The free and bound Put, Spd and Spm contents in leaves all increased when compared with the control, the ratios of free (Spd+Spm)/Put and total bound polyamines in 'BB52' and 'JB185' seedlings under Na+ (without Cl-) treatment were the lowest one among three iso-osmotic salt stresses. The results indicate that the F4 hybrid strain 'JB185' is more sensitive to Na+ than Cl- as its wild parent 'BB52' population.

  9. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria can inhibit the in vitro germination of Glycine max L. seeds

    Marius Stefan; Marius Mihasan; Simona Dunca


    .... Because soybean represent a crop of major economic importance, a study wasperformed to analyze the impact of some rhizobacteria isolated from soybean roots on the on the germination process ofGlycine max L...

  10. Genetic diversity in domesticated soybean (Glycine max) and its wild progenitor (Glycine soja) for simple sequence repeat and single-nucleotide polymorphism loci

    Ying-Hui Li; Wei Li; Chen Zhang; Liang Yang; Ru-Zhen Chang; Brandon S. Gaut; Li-Juan Qiu


    .... In this study, we genotyped a sample of 303 accessions of domesticated soybean (Glycine max) and its wild progenitor Glycine soja with 99 microsatellite markers and 554 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers...

  11. Genetic Analysis of Seed Isoflavones, Protein, and Oil Contents in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.


    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Soybean (Glycine max L.) is an important crop in the US and worldwide. It has numerous health benefits because of its...for protein, oil, and isoflavones contents in three recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of soybean . We have achieved 100% of the goals. We have...Contents in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued

  12. Anatomical Study of Somatic Embryogenesis in Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Juliana Aparecida Fernando


    Full Text Available A comparative anatomical analysis of somatic embryogenesis in two soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill genotypes was carried out. The somatic embryos were originated from cotyledonary explants obtained from immature zygotic embryos. The medium used for somatic embryogenesis induction was Murashige and Skoog, 1962, salts and Gamborg et al., 1968, vitamins (MSB supplemented with 0.8 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D for genotype PI 123439 and 40 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D for ‘Williams 82’. Globular structures, constituted by meristematic cells, originated from subepidermal cell divisions of the cotyledonary mesophyll. In PI 123439, the globular structures presented tracheary differentiation among meristematic cells and they could follow distinct morphogenetic process depending on their location along the explant. For ‘Williams 82’ it was observed globular structures along the cotyledonary explant surface. They gave rise to somatic embryos. These embryos showed different morphologies and they were classified based on their shape and number of cotyledons. The ability of these morphological types to convert to plantlets was discussed.Realizou-se uma análise anatômica comparativa da embriogênese somática em dois genótipos de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill. Os embriões somáticos foram obtidos a partir de explantes cotiledonares excisados de embriões zigóticos imaturos do genótipo PI 123439, adaptado às condições tropicais, e ‘Williams 82’. O meio utilizado para indução da embriogênese somática constituiu-se de sais de Murashige e Skoog,1962, e vitaminas de Gamborg et al., 1968 (MSB suplementado com 0,8 mg.L-1 de 2,4-D (PI 123439 e 40 mg.L-1 (‘Williams 82’. Estruturas globulares originaram-se a partir de divisões celulares nas camadas subepidérmicas do mesofilo cotiledonar e foram constituídas por células meristemáticas. No genótipo PI 123439, as estruturas globulares apresentaram diferenciação traqueal entre as células meristemáticas e

  13. Comparison of Small RNA Profiles of Glycine max and Glycine soja at Early Developmental Stages.

    Sun, Yuzhe; Mui, Zeta; Liu, Xuan; Yim, Aldrin Kay-Yuen; Qin, Hao; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Chan, Ting-Fung; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Lam, Hon-Ming; Lim, Boon Leong


    Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and phased small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs; from PHAS loci), play key roles in plant development. Cultivated soybean, Glycine max, contributes a great deal to food production, but, compared to its wild kin, Glycine soja, it may lose some genetic information during domestication. In this work, we analyzed the sRNA profiles of different tissues in both cultivated (C08) and wild soybeans (W05) at three stages of development. A total of 443 known miRNAs and 15 novel miRNAs showed varying abundances between different samples, but the miRNA profiles were generally similar in both accessions. Based on a sliding window analysis workflow that we developed, 50 PHAS loci generating 55 21-nucleotide phasiRNAs were identified in C08, and 46 phasiRNAs from 41 PHAS loci were identified in W05. In germinated seedlings, phasiRNAs were more abundant in C08 than in W05. Disease resistant TIR-NB-LRR genes constitute a very large family of PHAS loci. PhasiRNAs were also generated from several loci that encode for NAC transcription factors, Dicer-like 2 (DCL2), Pentatricopeptide Repeat (PPR), and Auxin Signaling F-box 3 (AFB3) proteins. To investigate the possible involvement of miRNAs in initiating the PHAS-phasiRNA pathway, miRNA target predictions were performed and 17 C08 miRNAs and 15 W05 miRNAs were predicted to trigger phasiRNAs biogenesis. In summary, we provide a comprehensive description of the sRNA profiles of wild versus cultivated soybeans, and discuss the possible roles of sRNAs during soybean germination.

  14. Effects of benzyl isothiocyanate on the reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Glycine max and Capsicum annuum

    Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Capsicum annuum or Glycine max was suppressed when infective juveniles (J2) were exposed to 0.03 millimolar benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) for 2hr prior to inoculation of the host. Infectivity assessed by gall index was significantly reduced on both G. max (co...




    Full Text Available La soya (Glycine max L., es el cultivo de legumbres más importante en el mundo. La magnitud de las pérdidas en el rendimiento de la soya debido a deficiencias varía dependiendo de los nutrientes. Las deficiencias de N, P, Fe, B y S pueden causar pérdidas en rendimiento de hasta 10 %, 29-45 %, 22-90 %, 100 % y 16-30 %, respectivamente, en la soya dependiendo de la fertilidad del suelo, clima y factores intrínsecos a las plantas. La textura de los suelos utilizados en el cultivo de soya varía entre arenosa y arcillosa. La salinidad del suelo es uno de los mayores factores limitantes en la producción del cultivo en regiones semiáridas, y la salinidad por cloro tiene un mayor efecto en la disminución del rendimiento que la salinidad por sulfatos. Los granos de soya son una gran fuente de energía que contienen 40 % de proteína y 19 % de aceite. El éxito del manejo de nutrientes es maximizar la productividad del cultivo mientras se minimizan los impactos ambientales. Las prácticas de manejo de nutrientes balan- ceadas y reguladas en el tiempo contribuyen a un crecimiento sostenido del rendimiento y la calidad, influencian la salud de las plantas y reducen los riesgos ambientales. Una nutrición balanceada con fertilizantes minerales puede ayudar en el manejo integrado de plagas para reducir los daños causados por las infestaciones de pestes y enfermedades y reducir los insumos requeridos para su control. Una fertilización balanceada genera mayores ganancias para los agricultores, no necesariamente por reducción de los insumos. El papel de la educación y la extensión en la difusión del conocimiento actual sobre manejo de nutrientes es crucial, desafiante y continuo.

  16. Nutrient Management practices for enhancing Soybean (Glycine max L. production



    Full Text Available percent protein and 19 percent oil in the seeds. The magnitude of soybean yield losses due to nutrient deficiency also varies among the nutrients. Deficiencies of N, P, Fe, B and S nutrients may cause yield losses up to 10 %, 29-45 %, 22-90 %, 100 % and 16-30 %, respectively, in soybean depending on soil fertility, climate and plant factors. Soil salinity is one of the major limiting factors of soybean production in semiarid regions, and chloride salinity has a more depressive effect on yield than sulphate salinity. The goal of nutrient management is to maximize soybean productivity while minimizing environmental consequences. Balanced and timely nutrient management practices applied for soybean contributes to sustainable growth of yield and quality, influences plant health and reduces environmental risks. Balanced nutrition with mineral fertilizers can assist in integrated pest management to reduce damage from infestations of pests and diseases and save inputs required to control them. Balanced fertilization generates higher profits for the farmers, not necessarily through reduced inputs. The role of education and extension in delivering the upto-date knowledge on nutrient management is crucial, challenging, and continuous. La soya (Glycine max L., es el cultivo de legumbres más importante en el mundo. La magnitud de las pérdidas en el rendimientode la soya debido a deficiencias varía dependiendo de los nutrientes. Las deficiencias de N, P, Fe, B y S pueden causar pérdidas en rendimiento de hasta 10 %, 29-45 %, 22-90 %, 100 % y 16-30 %, respectivamente, en la soya dependiendo de la fertilidad del suelo, clima y factores intrínsecos a las plantas. La textura de los suelos utilizados en el cultivo de soya varía entre arenosa y arcillosa. La salinidad del suelo es uno de los mayores factores limitantes en la producción del cultivo en regiones semiáridas, y la salinidad por cloro tiene un mayor efecto en la disminución del

  17. Keragaman Karakter Morfologi, Komponen Hasil, dan Hasil Plasma Nutfah Kedelai (Glycine max L.)

    Putri, Priskilla Purnaning; Adisyahputra, Adisyahputra; Asadi, Asadi


    Abstract Soybean (Glycine max L.) is annual crop that have high morphologies and yield components diversity. The research was conducted at the first season of 2011, the objective of the research were to find morphological, yield, and yield component of Soybean germplasm (Glicine max L.). The research was carried out at experimental station BB-BIOGEN Citayam, Depok, and laboratory of Gene Bank BB-BIOGEN. The experiment used randomized block design with 100 different accessions and three rep...

  18. RNA-Seq Atlas of Glycine max: a guide to the soybean transcriptome

    A first analysis of the Glycine max (L.) Merr. (soybean) transcriptome using next generation sequencing technology and RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) is presented. This analysis will provide an important resource for understanding transcription and gene co-regulatory networks in soybean, the most economic...

  19. Pathogenicity of diaporthe spp. isolates recovered from soybean (glycine max) seeds in Paraguay

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) caused by Diaporthe longicolla (Hobbs) J.M. Santos, Vrandecic & A.J.L. Phillips has been documented as part of a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fungal disease complex that affects the quality of soybean seed. In 2006, 16 isolates of Diaporthe were recovered from soybean...

  20. Physiological changes in soybean (Glycine max) Wuyin9 in response to N and P nutrition

    Gan, YB; Stulen, [No Value; van Keulen, H; Kuiper, PJC


    Phosphor-us deficiency is a very common problem in the acid soil of central China. Previous research has shown that starter N and N topdressing at the flowering stage (RI) increased soybean (Glycine max) yield and N 2 fixation (Gan et al., 1997, 2000). However, there is little information available

  1. Physiological changes in soybean (Glycine max) Wuyin9 in response to N and P nutrition

    Gan, Y.; Stulen, I.; Keulen, van H.; Kuiper, P.J.C.


    Phosphorus deficiency is a very common problem in the acid soil of central China. Previous research has shown that starter N and N topdressing at the flowering stage (RI) increased soybean (Glycine max) yield and N2 fixation (Gan et al., 1997, 2000). However, there is little information available co

  2. Effects of two phytotherapic formulations containing Glycine max (L.) Merr on male rat fertility

    Hollenbach, Clarissa Boemler; Bortolini, Carlos Eduardo; Rodrigues, Juliano Mattos; Hirtz, Lucas; Mello, Fernanda Bastos de; Mello, Joao Roberto Braga de


    The present study evaluates the effects of two commercial phytotherapic formulations containing Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Soy) (Phytotherapic A and Phytotherapic B) on Wistar rat fertility. Doses were based on the manufacturer’s recommendation and increased in a logarithmic scale. The animals were divided into six experimental groups and a control group, which received distillated water. Three groups were treated with Phytotherapic A and three groups were treated with Phytotherapic B. The doses...

  3. Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa (mucuna deeringiana) and soybean (glycine max)

    Sandra Patricia Chaparro Acuña; Jesús Humberto Gil González; Iván Darío Aristizábal Torres


    Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa flour (Mucuna deeringiana) and soybean flour (Glycine max) were determined. Oil absorption capacity was higher in vitabosa. Water absorption capacity was higher in soy and it was affected by the change in the ionic strength of the medium. Emulsifying Activity (EA) decreased with increasing concentration of flour, while Emulsifying Stability (ES) showed an increased. EA and ES of flours have more ionic strength in the range ...

  4. Chemomodulatory potential of Glycine max against murine skin and cervical papillomagenesis.

    Singh, M; Mendez, E; Rao, A Ramesha; Kale, R K


    In the present study, chemopreventive potential of Glycine max (G. Max) seeds was examined against DMBA-induced skin and MCA-induced cervical papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice. Different doses (2.5, 5, and 7.5% w/w) of G. max were provided to animals in feed. Results exhibited a significant reduction in skin as well as cervical tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity (up to 75%) at all doses of test diet as compared to the control. Relatively, 7.5% test diet was most effective in protecting the animals against carcinogenesis. Further, detoxifying enzymes and antioxidative status was also evaluated in the liver of mice to understand the role of G. max in prevention of cancer. It was observed that the test diet containing G. max significantly elevated the specific activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), DT-diaphorase (DTD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glyoxalase I (Gly I). The test diet also elevated the content of reduced glutathione whereas it decreased the level of the peroxidative damage along with the specific activity of lactate dehydrogenase. It appeared that G. max seeds provided chemoprevention against skin and cervical papillomagenesis probably by modulating the detoxifying and antioxidative enzymes. It could be inferred that intake of G. max might help in reducing the risk of cancer.

  5. Biochemical Response of Glycine Max after Inoculation of Different Concentrations of Fusarium Solani

    N. Hamid


    Full Text Available Diseases of agricultural crops are old as agriculture itself. It has been estimated that fungal diseases are responsible for an annual reduction for more than 20% of total potential world food production from crop plants. Randomized complete block design experiments were conducted to study the effect of different colonies of Fusarium solani on some biochemical and physiological parameters of Glycine max. Sterilized seeds of Glycine max (L. Merr was artificially inoculated with conidia of 3 different concentrations (10,000, 100,000 and 1000, 000 cfu. Seedlings of Glycine max was grown in 350g acid washed sand. Complete Nutrient Hoagland solution was regularly used to irrigate the plants. Leaves samples were weekly collected for analysis of biochemical tests. It was observed that inoculation of Fusarium solani significantly increase the concentration of total soluble carbohydrate and reducing sugar in inoculated plants over healthy tissues. Protein analysis revealed a significant reduction with the development of disease. Activity of invertase illustrate a variable change initially it was increased than afterward declined.

  6. Comparative metabolomics in Glycine max and Glycine soja under salt stress to reveal the phenotypes of their offspring.

    Lu, Yonghai; Lam, Honming; Pi, Erxu; Zhan, Qinglei; Tsai, Sauna; Wang, Chunmei; Kwan, Yiuwa; Ngai, Saiming


    Metabolomics is developing as an important functional genomics tool for understanding plant systems' response to genetic and environmental changes. Here, we characterized the metabolic changes of cultivated soybean C08 (Glycine max L. Merr) and wild soybean W05 (Glycine soja Zucc.) under salt stress using MS-based metabolomics, in order to reveal the phenotypes of their eight hybrid offspring (9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590). Total small molecule extracts of soybean seedling leaves were profiled by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LC-FT/MS). We found that wild soybean contained higher amounts of disaccharides, sugar alcohols, and acetylated amino acids than cultivated soybean, but with lower amounts of monosaccharides, carboxylic acids, and unsaturated fatty acids. Further investigations demonstrated that the ability of soybean to tolerate salt was mainly based on synthesis of compatible solutes, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, cell membrane modifications, and induction of plant hormones. On the basis of metabolic phenotype, the salt-tolerance abilities of 9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590 were discriminated. Our results demonstrated that MS-based metabolomics provides a fast and powerful approach to discriminate the salt-tolerance characteristics of soybeans.

  7. Characterization of storage proteins in wild (Glycine soja) and cultivated (Glycine max) soybean seeds using proteomic analysis.

    Natarajan, Savithiry S; Xu, Chenping; Bae, Hanhong; Caperna, Thomas J; Garrett, Wesley M


    A combined proteomic approach was applied for the separation, identification, and comparison of two major storage proteins, beta-conglycinin and glycinin, in wild (Glycine soja) and cultivated (Glycine max) soybean seeds. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) with three different immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips was an effective method to separate a large number of abundant and less-abundant storage proteins. Most of the subunits of beta-conglycinin were well-separated in the pH range 3.0-10.0, while acidic and basic glycinin polypeptides were well-separated in pH ranges 4.0-7.0 and 6.0-11.0, respectively. Although the overall distribution pattern of the protein spots was similar in both genotypes using pH 3.0-10.0, variations in number and intensity of protein spots were better resolved using a combination of pH 4.0-7.0 and pH 6.0-11.0. The total number of storage protein spots detected in wild and cultivated genotypes was approximately 44 and 34, respectively. This is the first study reporting the comparison of protein profiles of wild and cultivated genotypes of soybean seeds using proteomic tools.


    Marius Stefan


    Full Text Available Now it is an accepted fact that plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR can increase the productivity of several crops. The main objective of the present study was to find if there are any differences in protein content in the seeds of soybean (Glycine max L. MERR.. Using spectrophotometric methods for analyzing the protein contents and electrophoretic methods for qualitative analysis it was observed that no major modifications occur in protein spectrum. Looking at the quantitative side there was a small improvement in protein quantity.

  9. Assessment of soybean (Glycine max vigour by the seed leachate conductivity assay

    J. S. Knypl


    Full Text Available Conductivity of seed leachates is inversely correlated with germination and growth of soybean, Glycine max (L. Merr., at low temperatures. It is concluded that the seed leachate conductivity assay can be employed to assess soybean seed vigour. Cold tolerance of soybean can markedly be enhanced by increasing the hydration level of the seeds to at least 20% by means of exposure of the seeds to HRH (water saturated atmosphere for 4 days. It is suggested that increased vigour following HRH exposure is due to re-establishment of the cell membrane integrity in the course of exposure.

  10. Enteromorpha intestinalis Derived Seaweed Liquid Fertilizers as Prospective Biostimulant for Glycine max

    Chetna Mathur


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present study, the potential of seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF of marine algae Enteromorpha intestinalis was evaluated for its effect on seed germination, yield, biochemical parameters and pigment characteristics of Glycine maxE. intestinalis was collected form Mandapam coast of Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, and the dried seaweeds were used for the preparation of SLF. G. max seeds were germinated with four different concentrations (20, 40, 60, and 100% of SLF; its growth and yield parameters were evaluated and compared with chemical fertilizer and control. The morphological and bio-chemical parameters such as seed germination (100%, root (6.6cm and shoot length (5.4 cm, carbohydrates (0.098 mg/g, protein (0.56 mg/g, pigment (0.444 mg/g chl a; 1.073 mg/g chl b; 3.70 mg/g carotenoids of the plant was found maximum at a concentration of 60% SLF. The phenol content (3.25 mg/g was maximum in 40% SLF. The GC-MS analysis of SLF revealed the presence of notable benzoic compounds involved in plant growth promotion. Results showed thatE. intestinalis derived SLF was potential biostimulant forG. max. Thus, marine algae based fertilizer could be an effective and alternate to the chemical fertilizers emphasizing the need for systematic evaluation programme for SLF on various crops.

  11. Calcium ion involvement in growth inhibition of mechanically stressed soybean (Glycine max) seedlings

    Jones, R. S.; Mitchell, C. A.


    A 40-50% reduction in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Century 84] hypocotyl elongation occurred 24 h after application of mechanical stress. Exogenous Ca2+ at 10 mM inhibited growth by 28% if applied with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 to the zone of maximum hypocotyl elongation. La3+ was even more inhibitory than Ca2+, especially above 5 mM. Treatment with ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethylether)-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) alone had no effect on growth of non-stressed seedlings at the concentrations used but negated stress-induced growth reduction by 36% at 4 mM when compared to non-treated, stressed controls. Treatment with EDTA was ineffective in negating stress-induced growth inhibition. Calmodulin antagonists calmidazolium, chlorpromazine, and 48/80 also negated stress-induced growth reduction by 23, 50, and 35%, respectively.

  12. Seed Transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in White Soybean (Glycine max).

    Kil, Eui-Joon; Park, Jungho; Choi, Hong-Soo; Kim, Chang-Seok; Lee, Sukchan


    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) infection of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been reported, but soybean (Glycine max) has not previously been identified as a TYLCV host. Five cultivars of white soybean were agro-inoculated using an infectious TYLCV clone. At 30 days post-inoculation, they showed infection rates of 25% to 100%. Typical TYLCV symptoms were not observed in any inoculated plants. To examine whether TYLCV was transmitted in soybean seeds, DNA was isolated from bundles of five randomly selected seeds from TYLCV-inoculated soybean plants and amplified with a TYLCV-specific primer set. With the exception of one bundle, all bundles of seeds were verified to be TYLCV-infected. Virus dissemination was also confirmed in three of the 14 bunches. Viral replication was also identified in seeds and seedlings. This is the first report demonstrating that soybean is a TYLCV host, and that TYLCV is a seed-transmissible virus in white soybean.

  13. Genome-Wide Analysis and Molecular Characterization of Heat Shock Transcription Factor Family in Glycine max

    Eunsook Chung; Kyoung-Mi Kim; Jai-Heon Lee


    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play an essential role on the increased tolerance against heat stress by regulating the expression of heat-responsive genes.In this study,a genome-wide analysis was performed to identify all of the soybean (Glycine max) GmHsfgenes based on the latest soybean genome sequence.Chromosomal location,protein domain,motif organization,and phylogenetic relationships of 26 non-redundant GmHsf genes were analyzed compared with AtHsfs (Arabidopsis thaliana Hsfs).According to their structural features,the predicted members were divided into the previously defined classes A-C,as described for AtHsfs.Transcript levels and subcellular localization of five GmHsfs responsive to abiotic stresses were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR.These results provide a fundamental clue for understanding the complexity of the soybean GmHsfgene family and cloning the functional genes in future studies.


    Vita Murniati Tarawan


    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the relationship between nutrition and brain memory. Methods: This study was an experimental laboratory study conducted during the period of June 2011 to July 2012 at the Biomedical and Biochemistry laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. The subjects were 56 8-week-old male Wistar rats weighing approximately 200–250 grams which were divided into 8 groups with different treatments. The treatment groups received no exercise or exercise and soybean (Glycine max, Phyllanthus niruri, or combination of both. Results: NR2B gene expression changes found is described as follows: (1 without practicing exercise (3.8 and after exercise (4.6; (2 Glycine max minus exercise (2.86 and Glycine max and exercise (3.17; (3 Phyllanthus niruri minus exercises (4.7 and Phyllanthus niruri and exercise (4.9; and (4 Glycine max and Phyllanthus niruri combination minus exercise (3.14 and Glycine max and Phyllanthus niruri combination and exercise (4.83. Conclusions: This study determines that exercises and Phyllanthus niruri intake enhance NR2B gene expressions. Glycine max inhibits the NR2B gene expressions. Glycine max and Phyllanthus niruri combination, both with and without practicing exercises, enhance NR2B gene expressions. Therefore, practicing exercise and Phyllanthus niruri intake might cause brain cell apoptosis while Glycine max intake inhibits brain cell apoptosis.

  15. RNA-Seq Atlas of Glycine max: A guide to the soybean transcriptome

    Severin Andrew J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next generation sequencing is transforming our understanding of transcriptomes. It can determine the expression level of transcripts with a dynamic range of over six orders of magnitude from multiple tissues, developmental stages or conditions. Patterns of gene expression provide insight into functions of genes with unknown annotation. Results The RNA Seq-Atlas presented here provides a record of high-resolution gene expression in a set of fourteen diverse tissues. Hierarchical clustering of transcriptional profiles for these tissues suggests three clades with similar profiles: aerial, underground and seed tissues. We also investigate the relationship between gene structure and gene expression and find a correlation between gene length and expression. Additionally, we find dramatic tissue-specific gene expression of both the most highly-expressed genes and the genes specific to legumes in seed development and nodule tissues. Analysis of the gene expression profiles of over 2,000 genes with preferential gene expression in seed suggests there are more than 177 genes with functional roles that are involved in the economically important seed filling process. Finally, the Seq-atlas also provides a means of evaluating existing gene model annotations for the Glycine max genome. Conclusions This RNA-Seq atlas extends the analyses of previous gene expression atlases performed using Affymetrix GeneChip technology and provides an example of new methods to accommodate the increase in transcriptome data obtained from next generation sequencing. Data contained within this RNA-Seq atlas of Glycine max can be explored at

  16. Nitrate and ammonium influxes in soybean (Glycine max) roots : Direct comparison of N-13 and N-15 tracing

    Clarkson, DT; Gojon, A; Saker, LR; Wiersema, PK; Purves, JV; Tillard, P; Arnold, GM; Paans, AJM; Vaalburg, W; Stulen, [No Value


    We compared influxes and internal transport in soybean plants (Glycine max cv. Kingsoy) of labelled N from external solutions where either ammonium or nitrate was labelled with the stable isotope N-15 and the radioactive isotope N-13. The objective was to see whether mass spectrometric determination

  17. Nitrate and ammonium influxes in soybean (Glycine max) roots : Direct comparison of N-13 and N-15 tracing

    Clarkson, DT; Gojon, A; Saker, LR; Wiersema, PK; Purves, JV; Tillard, P; Arnold, GM; Paans, AJM; Vaalburg, W; Stulen, [No Value

    We compared influxes and internal transport in soybean plants (Glycine max cv. Kingsoy) of labelled N from external solutions where either ammonium or nitrate was labelled with the stable isotope N-15 and the radioactive isotope N-13. The objective was to see whether mass spectrometric

  18. Minimal enhancer elements of the leghemoglobin lba and lbc3 gene promoters from Glycine max L. have different properties

    She, Q; Lauridsen, P; Stougaard, J


    The characteristics of the soybean leghemoglobin lba gene promoter were analyzed and important promoter elements from the lba and lbc3 promoters were compared using transgenic Lotus corniculatus plants. A 5' deletion analysis of the lba promoter delimited two cis-acting elements controlling expre...... function. This may reflect the differential expression of the two lb genes of Glycine max L....

  19. Enhanced single seed trait predictions in soybean (Glycine max) and robust calibration model transfer with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Single seed near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy predicts soybean (Glycine max) seed quality traits of moisture, oil, and protein. We tested the accuracy of transferring calibrations between different single seed NIR analyzers of the same design by collecting NIR spectra and analytical trait...

  20. Genetic diversity in domesticated soybean (Glycine max) and its wild progenitor (Glycine soja) for simple sequence repeat and single-nucleotide polymorphism loci.

    Li, Ying-Hui; Li, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Yang, Liang; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Gaut, Brandon S; Qiu, Li-Juan


    • The study of genetic diversity between a crop and its wild relatives may yield fundamental insights into evolutionary history and the process of domestication. • In this study, we genotyped a sample of 303 accessions of domesticated soybean (Glycine max) and its wild progenitor Glycine soja with 99 microsatellite markers and 554 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. • The simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci averaged 21.5 alleles per locus and overall Nei's gene diversity of 0.77. The SNPs had substantially lower genetic diversity (0.35) than SSRs. A SSR analyses indicated that G. soja exhibited higher diversity than G. max, but SNPs provided a slightly different snapshot of diversity between the two taxa. For both marker types, the primary division of genetic diversity was between the wild and domesticated accessions. Within taxa, G. max consisted of four geographic regions in China. G. soja formed six subgroups. Genealogical analyses indicated that cultivated soybean tended to form a monophyletic clade with respect to G. soja. • G. soja and G. max represent distinct germplasm pools. Limited evidence of admixture was discovered between these two species. Overall, our analyses are consistent with the origin of G. max from regions along the Yellow River of China.

  1. Identification and analysis of alternative splicing events in Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max.

    Iñiguez, Luis P; Ramírez, Mario; Barbazuk, William B; Hernández, Georgina


    The vast diversification of proteins in eukaryotic cells has been related with multiple transcript isoforms from a single gene that result in alternative splicing (AS) of primary transcripts. Analysis of RNA sequencing data from expressed sequence tags and next generation RNA sequencing has been crucial for AS identification and genome-wide AS studies. For the identification of AS events from the related legume species Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max, 157 and 88 publicly available RNA-seq libraries, respectively, were analyzed. We identified 85,570 AS events from P. vulgaris in 72% of expressed genes and 134,316 AS events in 70% of expressed genes from G. max. These were categorized in seven AS event types with intron retention being the most abundant followed by alternative acceptor and alternative donor, representing ~75% of all AS events in both plants. Conservation of AS events in homologous genes between the two species was analyzed where an overrepresentation of AS affecting 5'UTR regions was observed for certain types of AS events. The conservation of AS events was experimentally validated for 8 selected genes, through RT-PCR analysis. The different types of AS events also varied by relative position in the genes. The results were consistent in both species. The identification and analysis of AS events are first steps to understand their biological relevance. The results presented here from two related legume species reveal high conservation, over ~15-20 MY of divergence, and may point to the biological relevance of AS.

  2. SoyNet: a database of co-functional networks for soybean Glycine max.

    Kim, Eiru; Hwang, Sohyun; Lee, Insuk


    Soybean (Glycine max) is a legume crop with substantial economic value, providing a source of oil and protein for humans and livestock. More than 50% of edible oils consumed globally are derived from this crop. Soybean plants are also important for soil fertility, as they fix atmospheric nitrogen by symbiosis with microorganisms. The latest soybean genome annotation (version 2.0) lists 56 044 coding genes, yet their functional contributions to crop traits remain mostly unknown. Co-functional networks have proven useful for identifying genes that are involved in a particular pathway or phenotype with various network algorithms. Here, we present SoyNet (available at, a database of co-functional networks for G. max and a companion web server for network-based functional predictions. SoyNet maps 1 940 284 co-functional links between 40 812 soybean genes (72.8% of the coding genome), which were inferred from 21 distinct types of genomics data including 734 microarrays and 290 RNA-seq samples from soybean. SoyNet provides a new route to functional investigation of the soybean genome, elucidating genes and pathways of agricultural importance. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Analysis of promoters of microRNAs from a Glycine max degradome library

    Yi-qiang HAN; Zheng HU; Dian-feng ZHENG; Ya-mei GAO


    本文题目:大豆降解组文库microRNAs的启动子分析Analysis of promoters of microRNAs from a Glycine max degradome library研究目的:通过分析 miRNA 的核心启动子和顺式作用元件为进一步解析大豆(Glycine max)miRNAs表达调控及其功能研究提供重要信息。创新要点:利用生物信息学方法全面解析了大豆降解组文库miRNA的启动子特征,并依据顺式作用元件及靶基因构建了miRNA的表达与生长素响应因子、赤霉素响应因子之间存在潜在的负反馈调控网络。研究方法:本研究利用TSSP程序和PlantCARE数据库预测了来自大豆降解组文库的440个miRNA的核心启动子以及369个miRNAs的顺式作用元件,并依据顺式作用元件及靶基因构建miRNA调控网络。重要结论:83.86%的miRNA在其上游序列中含有启动子,8.64%的miRNA在其下游序列中含有启动子,21.59%的miRNA包含增强子。核心启动子的TATA盒与转录起始位点(TSSs)的分布相似(见图2)。此外,对转录起始位点5'端的顺式作用元件预测为miRNAs的可能功能和表达的时空性提供了线索。miRNAs的顺式作用元件和靶基因的分析显示,部分miRNA的表达与生长素响应因子、赤霉素响应因子之间存在潜在的负反馈调控(见图3)。%Objective: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are genome-encoded, smal non-coding RNAs that play important functions in development, biotic and abiotic stress responses, and other processes. Our aim was to explore the regu-lation of miRNA expression. Methods:We used bioinformatics methods to predict the core promoters of 440 miRNAs identified from a soybean (Glycine max) degradome library and to analyze cis-acting elements for 369 miRNAs. Results: The prediction results showed that 83.86% of the 440 miRNAs contained promoters in their upstream se-quences, and 8.64% (38 loci) in their downstream sequences. The distributions of two core promoter elements, TATA

  4. In silico comparison of transcript abundances during Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max resistance to Fusarium virguliforme

    Iqbal M Javed


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sudden death syndrome (SDS of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. is an economically important disease, caused by the semi-biotrophic fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, recently renamed Fusarium virguliforme (Fv. Due to the complexity and length of the soybean-Fusarium interaction, the molecular mechanisms underlying plant resistance and susceptibility to the pathogen are not fully understood. F. virguliforme has a very wide host range for the ability to cause root rot and a very narrow host range for the ability to cause a leaf scorch. Arabidopsis thaliana is a host for many types of phytopathogens including bacteria, fungi, viruses and nematodes. Deciphering the variations among transcript abundances (TAs of functional orthologous genes of soybean and A. thaliana involved in the interaction will provide insights into plant resistance to F. viguliforme. Results In this study, we reported the analyses of microarrays measuring TA in whole plants after A. thaliana cv 'Columbia' was challenged with fungal pathogen F. virguliforme. Infection caused significant variations in TAs. The total number of increased transcripts was nearly four times more than that of decreased transcripts in abundance. A putative resistance pathway involved in responding to the pathogen infection in A. thaliana was identified and compared to that reported in soybean. Conclusion Microarray experiments allow the interrogation of tens of thousands of transcripts simultaneously and thus, the identification of plant pathways is likely to be involved in plant resistance to Fusarial pathogens. Dissection of the set functional orthologous genes between soybean and A. thaliana enabled a broad view of the functional relationships and molecular interactions among plant genes involved in F. virguliforme resistance.

  5. The syntaxin 31-induced gene, LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1), functions in Glycine max defense to the root parasite Heterodera glycines.

    Pant, Shankar R; Krishnavajhala, Aparna; McNeece, Brant T; Lawrence, Gary W; Klink, Vincent P


    Experiments show the membrane fusion genes α soluble NSF attachment protein (α-SNAP) and syntaxin 31 (Gm-SYP38) contribute to the ability of Glycine max to defend itself from infection by the plant parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines. Accompanying their expression is the transcriptional activation of the defense genes ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) and NONEXPRESSOR OF PR1 (NPR1) that function in salicylic acid (SA) signaling. These results implicate the added involvement of the antiapoptotic, environmental response gene LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1) in defense. Roots engineered to overexpress the G. max defense genes Gm-α-SNAP, SYP38, EDS1, NPR1, BOTRYTIS INDUCED KINASE1 (BIK1) and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) in the susceptible genotype G. max[Williams 82/PI 518671] have induced Gm-LSD1 (Gm-LSD1-2) transcriptional activity. In reciprocal experiments, roots engineered to overexpress Gm-LSD1-2 in the susceptible genotype G. max[Williams 82/PI 518671] have induced levels of SYP38, EDS1, NPR1, BIK1 and XTH, but not α-SNAP prior to infection. In tests examining the role of Gm-LSD1-2 in defense, its overexpression results in ∼52 to 68% reduction in nematode parasitism. In contrast, RNA interference (RNAi) of Gm-LSD1-2 in the resistant genotype G. max[Peking/PI 548402] results in an 3.24-10.42 fold increased ability of H. glycines to parasitize. The results identify that Gm-LSD1-2 functions in the defense response of G. max to H. glycines parasitism. It is proposed that LSD1, as an antiapoptotic protein, may establish an environment whereby the protected, living plant cell could secrete materials in the vicinity of the parasitizing nematode to disarm it. After the targeted incapacitation of the nematode the parasitized cell succumbs to its targeted demise as the infected root region is becoming fortified.

  6. Molecular docking of Glycine max and Medicago truncatula ureases with urea; bioinformatics approaches.

    Filiz, Ertugrul; Vatansever, Recep; Ozyigit, Ibrahim Ilker


    Urease (EC is a nickel-dependent metalloenzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. It is present in many bacteria, fungi, yeasts and plants. Most species, with few exceptions, use nickel metalloenzyme urease to hydrolyze urea, which is one of the commonly used nitrogen fertilizer in plant growth thus its enzymatic hydrolysis possesses vital importance in agricultural practices. Considering the essentiality and importance of urea and urease activity in most plants, this study aimed to comparatively investigate the ureases of two important legume species such as Glycine max (soybean) and Medicago truncatula (barrel medic) from Fabaceae family. With additional plant species, primary and secondary structures of 37 plant ureases were comparatively analyzed using various bioinformatics tools. A structure based phylogeny was constructed using predicted 3D models of G. max and M. truncatula, whose crystallographic structures are not available, along with three additional solved urease structures from Canavalia ensiformis (PDB: 4GY7), Bacillus pasteurii (PDB: 4UBP) and Klebsiella aerogenes (PDB: 1FWJ). In addition, urease structures of these species were docked with urea to analyze the binding affinities, interacting amino acids and atom distances in urease-urea complexes. Furthermore, mutable amino acids which could potentially affect the protein active site, stability and flexibility as well as overall protein stability were analyzed in urease structures of G. max and M. truncatula. Plant ureases demonstrated similar physico-chemical properties with 833-878 amino acid residues and 89.39-90.91 kDa molecular weight with mainly acidic (5.15-6.10 pI) nature. Four protein domain structures such as urease gamma, urease beta, urease alpha and amidohydro 1 characterized the plant ureases. Secondary structure of plant ureases also demonstrated conserved protein architecture, with predominantly α-helix and random coil structures. In

  7. Stress of Cl- is Stronger than That of Na+ on Glycine max Seedlings Under NaCl Stress

    LUO Qing-yun; YU Bing-jun; LIU You-liang


    Seedlings of six Glycine max cultivars were used to compare Cl- with Na+ in stress effects onsoybean seedlings under NaCl stress. Results showed that stress of NaCl on G. max seedlings was mainlycaused by Cl- and not by Na+. After treatment with isoosmotic solutions of Cl- (without Na+ ) and Na+ (with-out Cl-) respectively, fresh weight and height of G. max seedlings growing in solution of Cl- were much morestressed than those in solution of Na+. And the roots and leaves electrolyte leakage were much more increasedunder stress of Cl- than those under stress of Na+. Salt tolerance of G. max seedlings was mainly contributedto Cl- withheld in roots of seedlings to decrease its content in leaves.

  8. In Vitro Regeneration Potential of Seven Commercial Soybean Cultivars (Glycine max L. for Use in Biotechnology

    Sojková Jana


    Full Text Available This work is aimed to evaluate in vitro regeneration potential of seven commercial soybean varieties Bohemians, Cardiff, Gallec, Merlin, Moravians, Naya and Silensia (Glycine max L. cultivated in Central Europe. Our results showed the half-seeds could be effectively used as an explant source for all tested cultivars. The regeneration was initiated on the media containing growth regulators 1.67 mg.l-1 BAP and 0.25 mg.l-1 GA3. Within the first five days culture, green chlorophyll-containing explants were observed with frequency from 18.3% to 55.9%. Two weeks later, the explants responded by production of calli with the efficiency up to 83.0%. First shoots appeared after 2–3 weeks of subculture on the media. The soybean regeneration showed to be genotype-dependent with variable efficiencies from 5.7% (cv. Naya to 37.7% (cv. Gallec. The cultivars Cardiff, Merlin and Gallec appear to be the most promising candidates for further biotechnological use. Application of antioxidants such as L-cysteine, dithiothreitol and sodium thiosulfate does not have effect on the explant regeneration for the first five days.

  9. Effect of Hypergravity and Phytohormones on Isoflavonoid Accumulation in Soybean ( Glycine max. L.) Callus

    Downey, Peter J.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Musgrave, Mary E.; McKeon-Bennett, Michelle; Moane, Siobhán


    The objective of this study was to explore the potential interaction between gravity and growth hormones on isoflavonoid accumulation. Soybean callus ( Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. `Acme') was grown in the dark for 16 days at 22 °C in a growth medium supplemented with four different combinations of phytohormones and subjected to 4- g and 8- g forces simulated in a centrifuge and 1- g in an adjacent stationary control. Isoflavonoid aglycones and their glycoside concentrations (daidzein, genistein, daidzin, 6″-O-malonyl-7-O-glucosyl daidzein, genistin, 6″-O-malonyl-7-O-glucosyl genistein) were determined in the resulting tissues. Although gravity had no significant impact on callus growth, increasing gravity reduced isoflavonoid accumulation in three out of the four phytohormone-supplemented culture media. The ratio of the auxin naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) to the cytokinin benzylaminopurine (BAP) was found to have profound effect on both callus growth and isoflavonoid accumulation. The cytokinin BAP promoted callus tissue growth, but reduced callus isoflavonoid suggesting the isoflavonoid accumulation was not keeping pace with the cell growth in the elevated concentration of BAP. On the other hand, NAA had little or no effect on callus growth, but greatly enhanced isoflavonoid accumulation. Interactive effects of gravity and hormone on isoflavonoid accumulation were evident and its implication to the mechanism by which gravity exerts the effect on plant secondary metabolites is discussed.


    Sandeep Kumar


    Full Text Available The soybean (Glycine max urease was characterized with respect to kinetic parameters, stability studies and thermal inactivation. The stability temperature and stability pH of the purified urease was found to be 4 °C and 7.6, respectively. The optimum pH and optimum temperature were 7.0 oC and 65 oC, respectively. The energy of activation (Ea was 15.40 kJ/mol. Further, the Km and Vmax were determined by Lineweaver Burk plot and the values were 2.70 ± 0.10 mM and 2.85 x102 µmol NH3/min/mg protein,respectively. Thermal inactivation studies at 65 oC, revealed the mono-phasic kinetics, which indicated the loss in activity in single phase. However, at higher temperatures (70 oC, 75 oC and 77 oC, the kinetic pattern was mainly bi-phasic. At 80 oC, there was complete loss in activity thereby showing the denaturation of enzyme. Thermal inactivation studies strongly support the oligomeric nature of urease.

  11. Effect of tillage system on yield and weed populations of soybean ( Glycin Max L.).

    Hosseini, Seyed Z; Firouzi, Saeed; Aminpanah, Hashem; Sadeghnejhad, Hamid R


    Field experiment was conducted at Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Golestan Province, Iran, to determine the effects of tillage system and weed management regime on yield and weed populations in soybean ( Glycin max L.). The experimental design was a split plot where the whole plot portion was a randomized complete block with three replicates. Main plots were tillage system: 1- No-till row crop seeding, 2- No-till seed drilling, 3- Tillage with disc harrow and drill planting, 4- Tillage with chisel packer and drill planting. The subplots were weed management regimes: 1-Weed control with herbicide application, 2- Hand weeding, 3- Herbicide application plus hand weeding, and 4- Non-weeding. Results indicated that the main effects of tillage system and weed management regime were significant for seed yield, pod number per plant, seed number per pod, weed density and biomass, while their interaction were significant only for weed density, weed biomass, and seed number per pod. The highest grain yields (3838 kg ha-1) were recorded for No-till row crop seeding. The highest seed yield (3877 kg ha-1) also was recorded for weed control with herbicide and hand weeding treatment, followed by hand weeding (3379 kg ha-1).

  12. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH activity in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. under flooding stress

    Govinda Rizal and Shanta Karki


    Full Text Available Sowing time of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. often coincides with the early onset of rainy season. Germinating seedsencounter a transient to prolonged period of water-logging that causes anoxia (absence of oxygen and hypoxia (insufficientoxygen resulting in poor germination. This reduces crop stability and yield. One of the factors responsible for flood tolerance isactivity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH during flood. The effect of ADH activity during flooding and difference in floodtolerance level were investigated using two soybean cultivars, Peking and Tamahomare, and their F9 recombinant inbred lines(RILs. Tamahomare showed higher ADH activity than Peking. There was a great variation in ADH activity among the RILs.QTL analysis detected five QTLs for ADH activity (qAas1-5 on five linkage groups, LG_A2, D1a, F, K and L. The QTL qAas4was close to a QTL for shoot damage and conductivity of germinating seeds after flooding treatment.

  13. Interference of Selected Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri Biotypes in Soybean (Glycine max

    Aman Chandi


    Full Text Available Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats. has become difficult to control in row crops due to selection for biotypes that are no longer controlled by acetolactate synthase inhibiting herbicides and/or glyphosate. Early season interference in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] for 40 days after emergence by three glyphosate-resistant (GR and three glyphosate-susceptible (GS Palmer amaranth biotypes from Georgia and North Carolina was compared in the greenhouse. A field experiment over 2 years compared season-long interference of these biotypes in soybean. The six Palmer amaranth biotypes reduced soybean height similarly in the greenhouse but did not affect soybean height in the field. Reduction in soybean fresh weight and dry weight in the greenhouse; and soybean yield in the field varied by Palmer amaranth biotypes. Soybean yield was reduced 21% by Palmer amaranth at the established field density of 0.37 plant m−2. When Palmer amaranth biotypes were grouped by response to glyphosate, the GS group reduced fresh weight, dry weight, and yield of soybean more than the GR group. The results indicate a possible small competitive disadvantage associated with glyphosate resistance, but observed differences among biotypes might also be associated with characteristics within and among biotypes other than glyphosate resistance.

  14. Effects of phosphorus on nutrient uptake and rhizosphere acidification of soybean (Glycine max L.)


    Pot experiment was conducted to examine how application of KH2PO4 (0-165 mg·kg-1 P) to affect nutrient ion uptake and rhizosphere acidification of soybean (Glycine max L.) grown in greenhouse for 90 days. When supplied of 82 and 165 mg·kg-1 P,soybeans showed excessive poison. Under all kinds of P levels, the K, Ca, Na and Mg concents in plant tissues were as below order:K was nodules > roots > pods > shoots; Ca was shoots > roots > nodules > pods; Na was roots > nodules > pods > shoots and Mg was shoots > nodules > roots > pods. K concent in plant tisssues had greater effect on rhizosphere acidification than other cations in this experiment irrespective of P supply, and was significantly negative to pH. Na concentration was significantly positive to pH. Excessive P supply induced rhizosphere acidification, pH decreased as P supply increased from 82 to 165 mg·kg-1. Ash alkalinity in shoots and roots was significantly positively correlated with rhizosphere pH irrespective of P supply. All these results suggested that P supply affected nutrient uptake, induced ash alkalinity to increase and rhizosphere pH to decrease in soybean.

  15. Factors underlying genotypic differences in the induction of photosynthesis in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    Soleh, Mochamad Arief; Tanaka, Yu; Nomoto, Yuko; Iwahashi, Yu; Nakashima, Keiichiro; Fukuda, Yasuko; Long, Stephen P; Shiraiwa, Tatsuhiko


    Crop leaves are subject to continually changing light levels in the field. Photosynthetic efficiency of a crop canopy and productivity will depend significantly on how quickly a leaf can acclimate to a change. One measure of speed of response is the rate of photosynthesis increase toward its steady state on transition from low to high light. This rate was measured for seven genotypes of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. After 10 min of illumination, cultivar 'UA4805' (UA) had achieved a leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn ) of 23.2 μmol · m(-2)  · s(-1) , close to its steady-state rate, while the slowest cultivar 'Tachinagaha' (Tc) had only reached 13.0 μmol · m(-2)  · s(-1) and was still many minutes from obtaining steady state. This difference was further investigated by examining induction at a range of carbon dioxide concentrations. Applying a biochemical model of limitations to photosynthesis to the responses of Pn to intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci ), it was found that the speed of apparent in vivo activation of ribulose-1:5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was responsible for this difference. Sequence analysis of the Rubisco activase gene revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms that could relate to this difference. The results show a potential route for selection of cultivars with increased photosynthetic efficiency in fluctuating light.

  16. Effect of tillage system on yield and weed populations of soybean ( Glycin Max L.

    Seyed Z. Hosseini


    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted at Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Golestan Province, Iran, to determine the effects of tillage system and weed management regime on yield and weed populations in soybean ( Glycin max L.. The experimental design was a split plot where the whole plot portion was a randomized complete block with three replicates. Main plots were tillage system: 1- No-till row crop seeding, 2- No-till seed drilling, 3- Tillage with disc harrow and drill planting, 4- Tillage with chisel packer and drill planting. The subplots were weed management regimes: 1-Weed control with herbicide application, 2- Hand weeding, 3- Herbicide application plus hand weeding, and 4- Non-weeding. Results indicated that the main effects of tillage system and weed management regime were significant for seed yield, pod number per plant, seed number per pod, weed density and biomass, while their interaction were significant only for weed density, weed biomass, and seed number per pod. The highest grain yields (3838 kg ha-1 were recorded for No-till row crop seeding. The highest seed yield (3877 kg ha-1 also was recorded for weed control with herbicide and hand weeding treatment, followed by hand weeding (3379 kg ha-1.


    Nyimas Sa’diyah


    Full Text Available Heritability, potential ratio, and heterosis of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill resistance to soybean mosaic virus. The use of soybean cultivars with resistance to SMV is a way for controlling soybean mosaic disease. The objective of this research was to estimate the disease severity, the narrow sense heritability, potential ratio and heterosis of resistance character and number of pithy pods, number of healthy seeds, and healthy seeds weight per plant of ten F1 populations of soybean crossing result to SMV infection. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in two replications. Observed characters were disease severity, number of pithy pods, number of healthy seeds, and healthy seeds weight per plant. The result of this research showed that 1 the crossing combinations those which were resistant to SMV (lower disease severity were Yellow Bean x Tanggamus, Tanggamus x Orba, and Tanggamus x Taichung, 2 the narrow sense heritability of disease severity was included in medium criteria, 3 number of pithy pods belonged to high criteria, and 4 number of healthy seeds and healthy seeds weight per plant were included in low criteria. The crossing combinations that had low estimation value of heterosis and heterobeltiosis of resistance to SMV infection were Yellow Bean x Taichung, Bean x Tanggamus and Tanggamus x B3570. Disease severity or resistance to SMV is influenced by genetic and environmental factors.

  18. Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa (mucuna deeringiana and soybean (glycine max

    Sandra Patricia Chaparro Acuña


    Full Text Available Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa flour (Mucuna deeringiana and soybean flour (Glycine max were determined. Oil absorption capacity was higher in vitabosa. Water absorption capacity was higher in soy and it was affected by the change in the ionic strength of the medium. Emulsifying Activity (EA decreased with increasing concentration of flour, while Emulsifying Stability (ES showed an increased. EA and ES of flours have more ionic strength in the range between 0.0 and 0.4 M, but it is reduced afterwards with the higher concentration of NaCl. Foaming stability varied with the concentration of flour solution reaching maximum values of 39 and 33% for vitabosa and soybean, respectively at 10% flour concentration.Vitabosa had the best foaming capacity (56% to 0.6 M compared with soybeans (47% to 0.4 M. Maximum capacity of gelation was observed in vitabosa at 10% flour concentration. Increases in ionic strength of the flour solution, at low salt concentrations (<0.4 M, improved the gelation of flours.

  19. Screening of Soybean Cultivars Glycine max (L. Merrill under Sodium Chloride Stress Condition

    Ratna Yuniati


    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the most serious and widespread agricultural problems resulting in losses of yield. Generally, as land is more intensively cultivated, the salinity problem becomes more severe. A high concentration of NaCl greatly reduces growth of both the shoot and the root. One strategy available to cope with saline soil is to choose salt-tolerance crops or to select salt-tolerance cultivars within a crop. Experiments were conducted to asses the performance of ten cultivars soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill to salt stress at germination and seedling stages. Salinity treatments were begun by adding 70, 80, 90, and 100 mM NaCl to the basal nutrient solution. According to germination percentage, fresh weight/dry weight ratios, and the percentage of dead apical buds we suggest that Wilis, Malabar and Sindoro were tolerant lines, Genjah Jepang, Lokan, and Tidar were moderate and the sensitive lines were Lumut, Yellow Biloxy, Si Cinang and Sriyono.

  20. Suppression of extracellular invertase inhibitor gene expression improves seed weight in soybean (Glycine max).

    Tang, Xiaofei; Su, Tao; Han, Mei; Wei, Lai; Wang, Weiwei; Yu, Zhiyuan; Xue, Yongguo; Wei, Hongbin; Du, Yejie; Greiner, Steffen; Rausch, Thomas; Liu, Lijun


    Cell wall invertase (CWI) and vacuolar invertase (VI) play multiple functions in plant growth. As well as depending on transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation, there is growing evidence that CWI and VI are also subject to post-translational control by small inhibitory proteins. Despite the significance of this, genes encoding inhibitors, their molecular and biochemical properties, and their potential roles in regulating seed production have not been well documented in soybean (Glycine max). In this study, two invertase inhibitor isoforms, GmCIF1 and GmC/VIF2, were characterized to possess inhibitory activities in vitro via heterologous expression. Transcript analyses showed that they were predominantly expressed in developing seeds and in response to ABA. In accordance with this, surveys of primary targets showed subcellular localizations to the apoplast in tobacco epidermis after expressing YFP-fusion constructs. Investigations using RNAi transgenic plants demonstrated marked elevations of CWI activities and improvements in seed weight in conjunction with higher accumulations of hexoses, starch, and protein in mature seeds. Further co-expression analyses of GmCIF1 with several putative CWI genes corroborated the notion that GmCIF1 modulation of CWI that affects seed weight is mainly contingent on post-translational mechanisms. Overall, the results suggest that post-translational elevation of CWI by silencing of GmCIF1 expression orchestrates the process of seed maturation through fine-tuning sucrose metabolism and sink strength.

  1. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Li, Weili; Jiang, Yuqian


    In this study, soybean seeds and sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) were exposed to radiation doses up to 3.0 kGy. The irradiated and non-irradiated seeds were germinated, and then germination rate, sprouts length, vitamin C content, antioxidants and visual and olfactory quality were determined after irradiation. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in the germination rate and sprouts length between the control and 0.3 kGy treated soybeans, however, the reductions in sprouts length of the 1.0 kGy and 3.0 kGy treated samples were quite significant with reductions of 20.4% and 58.8%, respectively. Irradiated sprouts had similar visual and olfactory quality as the non-irradiated one. Therefore, irradiation of seeds alone would have limited value in terms of commercial use due to reduced germination and length of sprouts. However, irradiation of sprouts at doses up to 3.0 kGy was feasible to enhance microbial safety of sprouts.

  2. Major QTLs associated with green stem disorder insensitivity of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.).

    Yamada, Tetsuya; Shimada, Shinji; Hajika, Makita; Hirata, Kaori; Takahashi, Koji; Nagaya, Taiko; Hamaguchi, Hideo; Maekawa, Tomiya; Sayama, Takashi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Ishimoto, Masao; Tanaka, Junichi


    Green stem disorder (GSD) is one of the most serious syndromes affecting soybean (Glycine max) cultivation in Japan. In GSD, stems remain green even when pods mature. When soybean plants develop GSD, seed surfaces are soiled by tissue fluid and seed quality is deteriorated during machine harvesting. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses for GSD insensitivity using recombinant inbred lines (RILs; n = 154) derived from a cross between an insensitive line ('Touhoku 129') and a sensitive leading cultivar ('Tachinagaha') during a 6-year evaluation. Three effective QTLs were detected. The influences of these QTLs were in the following order: qGSD1 (LG_H) > qGSD2 (LG_F) > qGSD3 (LG_L). At these three QTLs, 'Touhoku 129' genotypes exhibited more GSD insensitivity than 'Tachinagaha' genotypes. The lower incidence of GSD for 'Touhoku129' was attributable primarily to these three QTLs because RILs harboring a 'Touhoku 129' genotype at the three QTLs exhibited a GSD incidence similar to that of 'Touhoku 129.' Although a limitation of this study is that only one mapping population was evaluated, this QTL information and the flanking markers of these QTLs would be effective tools for resolving GSD in soybean breeding programs.

  3. Potential of marker selection to increase prediction accuracy of genomic selection in soybean (Glycine max L.).

    Ma, Yansong; Reif, Jochen C; Jiang, Yong; Wen, Zixiang; Wang, Dechun; Liu, Zhangxiong; Guo, Yong; Wei, Shuhong; Wang, Shuming; Yang, Chunming; Wang, Huicai; Yang, Chunyan; Lu, Weiguo; Xu, Ran; Zhou, Rong; Wang, Ruizhen; Sun, Zudong; Chen, Huaizhu; Zhang, Wanhai; Wu, Jian; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Chunyan; Luan, Xiaoyan; Fu, Yashu; Guo, Tai; Han, Tianfu; Zhang, Mengchen; Sun, Bincheng; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Weiyuan; Wu, Cunxiang; Sun, Shi; Yuan, Baojun; Zhou, Xinan; Han, Dezhi; Yan, Hongrui; Li, Wenbin; Qiu, Lijuan

    Genomic selection is a promising molecular breeding strategy enhancing genetic gain per unit time. The objectives of our study were to (1) explore the prediction accuracy of genomic selection for plant height and yield per plant in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], (2) discuss the relationship between prediction accuracy and numbers of markers, and (3) evaluate the effect of marker preselection based on different methods on the prediction accuracy. Our study is based on a population of 235 soybean varieties which were evaluated for plant height and yield per plant at multiple locations and genotyped by 5361 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. We applied ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction coupled with fivefold cross-validations and evaluated three strategies of marker preselection. For plant height, marker density and marker preselection procedure impacted prediction accuracy only marginally. In contrast, for grain yield, prediction accuracy based on markers selected with a haplotype block analyses-based approach increased by approximately 4 % compared with random or equidistant marker sampling. Thus, applying marker preselection based on haplotype blocks is an interesting option for a cost-efficient implementation of genomic selection for grain yield in soybean breeding.

  4. Isoflavones profiling of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] germplasms and their correlations with metabolic pathways.

    Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Eun-Hye; Park, Inmyoung; Yu, Bo-Ra; Lim, Jung Dae; Lee, Young-Sang; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Ill-Min


    The isoflavone diversity (44 varieties) of the soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, from China, Japan, and Korea was examined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The profiles of 12 isoflavones identified from the grains were subjected to data-mining processes, including partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), Pearson's correlation analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). Although PLS-DA did not reveal significant differences among extracts of soybean from 3 countries, the results clearly show that the variation between varieties was low. The CS02554 variety was separate from the others in the first 2 principal components of PLS-DA. HCA of these phytochemicals resulted in clusters derived from closely related biochemical pathways. Daidzin, genistin, and glycitin contents were significantly correlated with their respective malonyl glycoside contents. Daidzein content correlated positively with genistein content (r=0.8189, P<0.0001). The CS02554 variety appears to be a good candidate for future breeding programs, as it contains high levels of isoflavone compounds. These results demonstrate the use of metabolite profiling combined with chemometrics as a tool for assessing the quality of food and identifying metabolic links in biological systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthetic apatite nanoparticles as a phosphorus fertilizer for soybean (Glycine max)

    Liu, Ruiqiang; Lal, Rattan


    Some soluble phosphate salts, heavily used in agriculture as highly effective phosphorus (P) fertilizers, cause surface water eutrophication, while solid phosphates are less effective in supplying the nutrient P. In contrast, synthetic apatite nanoparticles could hypothetically supply sufficient P nutrients to crops but with less mobility in the environment and with less bioavailable P to algae in comparison to the soluble counterparts. Thus, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the fertilizing effect of synthetic apatite nanoparticles on soybean (Glycine max). The particles, prepared using one-step wet chemical method, were spherical in shape with diameters of 15.8 +/- 7.4 nm and the chemical composition was pure hydroxyapatite. The data show that application of the nanoparticles increased the growth rate and seed yield by 32.6% and 20.4%, respectively, compared to those of soybeans treated with a regular P fertilizer (Ca(H2PO4)2). Biomass productions were enhanced by 18.2% (above-ground) and 41.2% (below-ground). Using apatite nanoparticles as a new class of P fertilizer can potentially enhance agronomical yield and reduce risks of water eutrophication.

  6. Genetic divergence in a soybean (Glycine max) diversity panel based on agro-morphological traits.

    Marconato, M B; Pereira, E M; Silva, F M; Bizari, E H; Pinheiro, J B; Mauro, A O; Unêda-Trevisoli, S H


    Owing to the narrow genetic basis of soybean (Glycine max), the incorporation of new sources of germplasm is indispensable when searching for alleles that contribute to a greater diversity of varieties. The alternative is plant introduction, which may increase genetic variability within breeding programs. Multivariate techniques are important tools to study genetic diversity and allow the precise elucidation of variability in a set of genotypes of interest. The agro-morphological traits of 93 soybean accessions from various continents were analyzed in order to assess the genetic diversity present, and to highlight important traits. The experimental design was incomplete blocks (Alpha lattice, 8 x 12) with three replicates. Nine agro-morphological traits were analyzed, and principal component analysis and cluster analysis were performed, the latter by Ward's method. The dendrogram obtained contained eight subgroups, confirming the genetic diversity among the accessions and revealing similarities between 11 national genotypes. The geographical origin of the accessions was not always related to the clusters. The traits evaluated, and the methods used, facilitated the distinction and characterization of genotypes between and within groups, and could be used in Brazilian soybean breeding programs.

  7. Isolation and characterization of a novel phytase gene (Sphyl) from soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)

    Li GUO; Jiaojiao WANG; Kai XIAO


    A novel phytase gene Sphyl was isolated based on screening a cDNA library which was constructed from germinated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Kefeng 6) cotyledon. The full-length cDNA of Sphyl was 1644 bp predicated to encode 547 amino acids including an N terminal signal peptide of 27 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indi-cated that Sphyl had high similarities with the phytase genes from Medicago truncatula and rice, and acid phosphatase genes from M. truncatula and Arabidopsis. Prokaryotic expression of Sphyl in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) showed that the induced protein had high phytase activities. The tran-scripts of Sphyl could be detected in various tissues, such as cotyledons, leaves, stems and roots of seedlings. The phytase activities in the above tissues were in accordance with their corresponding Sphyl transcripts. The transcripts of Sphyl in cotyledons showed an increasing trend from 5 to 30 days after germination, suggesting that Sphyl had involved the hydrolyses of the organic phosphorus compounds in seeds from the stages of early seed germination to young seedlings in soybean. Therefore, it was speculated that Sphyl played an important role during the seed germination and the growth of the seedlings by releasing inorganic phosphorus (P) from phosphorus reserve in seeds.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of the Brassinosteroid Receptor Gene (GmBRI1 from Glycine max

    Miao Wang


    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs constitute a group of steroidal phytohormones that contribute to a wide range of plant growth and development functions. The genetic modulation of BR receptor genes, which play major roles in the BR signaling pathway, can create semi-dwarf plants that have great advantages in crop production. In this study, a brassinosteroid insensitive gene homologous with AtBRI1 and other BRIs was isolated from Glycine max and designated as GmBRI1. A bioinformatic analysis revealed that GmBRI1 shares a conserved kinase domain and 25 tandem leucine-rich repeats (LRRs that are characteristic of a BR receptor for BR reception and reaction and bear a striking similarity in protein tertiary structure to AtBRI1. GmBRI1 transcripts were more abundant in soybean hypocotyls and could be upregulated in response to exogenous BR treatment. The transformation of GmBRI1 into the Arabidopsis dwarf mutant bri1-5 restored the phenotype, especially regarding pod size and plant height. Additionally, this complementation is a consequence of a restored BR signaling pathway demonstrated in the light/dark analysis, root inhibition assay and BR-response gene expression. Therefore, GmBRI1 functions as a BR receptor to alter BR-mediated signaling and is valuable for improving plant architecture and enhancing the yield of soybean.

  9. Regeneration of transformed shoots from electroporated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) protoplasts.

    Dhir, S K; Dhir, S; Sturtevant, A P; Widholm, J M


    Stable transformation of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) protoplasts isolated from immature cotyledons was achieved following electroporation with plasmid DNA carrying chimeric genes encoding ß-glucuronidase (GUS) and hygromycin phosphotransferase (HPT) under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Transformed colonies were stringently selected by growing 15-day-old protoplast-derived cells in the presence of 40 μg/ml of hygromycin-B for 6 weeks. Over 93% of the resistant cells and colonies exhibited GUS activity, indicating that the two marker genes borne on a single plasmid were co-introduced and co-expressed at a very high freguency. This transformation procedure reproducibly yields transformants at frequencies of 2.9-6.8 × 10(-4) (based on the number of protoplasts electroporated) or 23.0% (based on the number of control microcalli formed) counted after 6 weeks of selection. After repeated subculturing on regeneration medium, shoots were induced from 8.0% of the transformed calli. Southern hybridization confirmed the presence of both the GUS and hygromycin genes in the transformed calli and shoots.

  10. Heme Oxygenase Contributes to Alleviate Salinity Damage in Glycine max L. Leaves

    Carla Giannina Zilli


    Full Text Available Plants are frequently subjected to different kinds of stress, such as salinity and, like other organisms, they have evolved strategies for preventing and repairing cellular damage caused by salt stress. Glycine max L. plants were subjected to different NaCl concentrations (0–200 mM for 10 days. Treatments with 100 and 200 mM NaCl induced ion leakage and lipid peroxidation augmentation, loss in chlorophyll content, and accumulation of O2•- and H2O2. However, 50 mM NaCl did not modify these parameters, which remains similar to control values. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, and heme oxygenase (HO-1 activities and gene expressions were increased under 100 mM NaCl, while no differences were observed with respect to controls under 50 mM salt. Treatment with 200 mM NaCl caused a diminution in the enzyme activities and gene expressions. Results here reported let us conclude that HO also plays a leading role in the defense mechanisms against salinity.

  11. Changes of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase Activities of Glycine max Seeds by PEG Treatment

    Yang Yong-qing; Wang Xiao-feng


    The soybean (Glycine max) Heihe No. 23 is sensitive to imbibitional chilling injury. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)treatment can improve chilling tolerance of soybean seeds to a certain extent. The changes of hydrolytic ATPase in plasma membranes and H+-pumping responses in soybean seeds were investigated during PEG treatments. Effects of exogenous calcium and exogenous ABA on the hydrolytic ATPase were also examined in order to understand the mechanism of chilling resistance. Highly purified plasma membranes were isolated by 6.0% aqueous two-phase partitioning from soybean seeds, as judged by the sensitivity of hydrolytic ATPase to sodium vanadate. PEG treatment resulted in a slight increase of the hydrolytic ATPase activity in 12 h. Then the activity decreased gradually, but still higher than the control. The H+-pumping activity increased steadily during PEG treatment.Exogenous calcium had both activating and inhibiting effects on the hydrolytic ATPase, but the activity was inhibited in soybean seeds treated with exogenous ABA. Results suggested that PEG treatment, not the exogenous calcium and ABA, up-regulated H+-ATPase activities in soybean seeds.

  12. Hydrogen Sulfide Promotes Root Organogenesis in Ipomoea batatas, Salix matsudana and Glycine max

    Hua Zhang; Jun Tang; Xiao-Ping Liu; Yun Wang; Wei Yu; Wei-Yan Peng; Fang Fang; Dai-Fu Ma; Zhao-Jun Wei; Lan-Ying Hu


    In this report, we demonstrate that sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, promoted adventitious root formation mediated by auxin and nitric oxide (NO). Application of the H2S donor to seedling cuttings of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) promoted the number and length of adventltious roots in a dose-dependent manner. It was also verified that H2S or HS- rather than other sulfur-containing components derived from NariS could be attributed to the stimulation of adventitious root formation. A rapid Increase In endogenous H2S, indole acetic acid (IAA) and NO were sequentially observed in shoot tips of sweet potato seedlings treated with HallS. Further investigation showed that HzS-mediated root formation was alleviated by N-l-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), an IAA transport inhibitor, and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO), an NO scavenger. Similar phenomena in H2S donor-dependent root organogenesis were observed in both excised willow (Sallx matsudana var. tortuosa Vilm) shoots and soybean (Glycine max L.) seedlings. These results indicated that the process of H2S-induced adventitious root formation was likely mediated by IAA and NO, and that H2S acts upstream of IAA and NO signal transduction pathways.

  13. Effect of fungicides and bioagents on number of microorganisms in soil and yield of soybean (Glycine max



    Full Text Available Mishra G, Kumar N, Giri K, Pandey S, Kumar R. 2014. Effect of fungicides and bioagents on number of microorganisms in soil and yield of soybean (Glycine max. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 45-48. In field experiments, the effect of selected fungicides and bioagents on number of soil microorganisms and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merill was investigated. The results showed that some of the crop protections preparations applied in the experiment (as seed dressing increased the populations of the examined microorganisms after the harvest of crops. Maximum counts of bacteria were recorded with Thiomethaxam at 3 g kg-1 while Pseudomonas at 3 g kg-1 showed the highest population of fungi, Actinomycetes, B. japonicum, PSB and Pseudomonas. The highest straw and grain yields of 3241.6 and 1439.4 kg ha-1, respectively, were recorded with Pseudomonas at 3 g kg-1.

  14. Identification of SNPs in RNA-seq data of two cultivars of Glycine max (soybean) differing in drought resistance

    Ramon Oliveira Vidal; Leandro Costa do Nascimento; Jorge Maurício Costa Mondego; Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães Pereira; Marcelo Falsarella Carazzolle


    The legume Glycine max (soybean) plays an important economic role in the international commodities market, with a world production of almost 260 million tons for the 2009/2010 harvest. The increase in drought events in the last decade has caused production losses in recent harvests. This fact compels us to understand the drought tolerance mechanisms in soybean, taking into account its variability among commercial and developing cultivars. In order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (...

  15. Identification of candidate genes involved in early iron deficiency chlorosis signaling in soybean (Glycine max) roots and leaves


    Background Iron is an essential micronutrient for all living things, required in plants for photosynthesis, respiration and metabolism. A lack of bioavailable iron in soil leads to iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC), causing a reduction in photosynthesis and interveinal yellowing of leaves. Soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) grown in high pH soils often suffer from IDC, resulting in substantial yield losses. Iron efficient soybean cultivars maintain photosynthesis and have higher yields under IDC...

  16. Enhanced cadmium phytoremediation of Glycine max L. through bioaugmentation of cadmium-resistant bacteria assisted by biostimulation.

    Rojjanateeranaj, Pongsarun; Sangthong, Chirawee; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn


    This study examined the potential of three strains of cadmium-resistant bacteria, including Micrococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Arthrobacter sp., to promote root elongation of Glycine max L. seedlings, soil cadmium solubility and cadmium phytoremediation in G. max L. planted in soil highly polluted with cadmium with and without nutrient biostimulation. Micrococcus sp. promoted root length in G. max L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions. Soil inoculation with Arthrobacter sp. increased the bioavailable fraction of soil cadmium, particularly in soil amended with a C:N ratio of 20:1. Pot culture experiments observed that the highest plant growth was in Micrococcus sp.-inoculated plants with nutrient biostimulation. Cadmium accumulation in the roots, stems and leaves of G. max L. was significantly enhanced by Arthrobacter sp. with nutrient biostimulation. A combined use of G. max L. and Arthrobacter sp. with nutrient biostimulation accelerated cadmium phytoremediation. In addition, cadmium was retained in roots more than in stems and leaves and G. max L. had the lowest translocation factor at all growth stages, suggesting that G. max L. is a phytostabilizing plant. We concluded that biostimulation-assisted bioaugmentation is an important strategy for improving cadmium phytoremediation efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sur quelques aspects de la production du soja (Glycine max L. au Congo : essais préliminaires

    Mandimba, GR.


    Full Text Available About some cropping systems of soybean (Glycine max. L. in Congo : first results. Field experiments were conducted to assess the response of soybean Glycine max cv. FN3 to N fertilization and inoculation respectively. In the first experiment, the effects of different levels of N fertilizer (0 ; 20 ; 40 and 80 kg N/ha with or without liming were studied. Soybean podyield were related to N fertilization only when liming was added to the soil In the second one, the effects of four Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains F A3 ; 3-40 ; SA 1 and G3S on nodulation and yields were also studied. Inoculation has significant effect on nodulation and plant top dry weight at full bloom, and seed yield at harvest when compared to the control. However, the Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains tested had various symbiotic effectiveness on Glycine max cv. FN3. In addition, soybean plants inoculated with G3S strain and those fertilized with 100 kg N/ha produced similar seed yield. Our study illustrated that G3S strain had the better adaptability in environmental conditions of Congo soil.

  18. Neuroprotective effects of triterpene glycosides from glycine max against glutamate induced toxicity in primary cultured rat cortical cells.

    Moon, Hyung-In; Lee, Jai-Heon


    To examine the neuroprotective effects of Glycine max, we tested its protection against the glutamate-induced toxicity in primary cortical cultured neurons. In order to clarify the neuroprotective mechanism(s) of this observed effect, isolation was performed to seek and identify active fractions and components. From such fractionation, two triterpene glycosides, 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl(1-2)-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl]olean-12-en-3β,22β,24-triol (1) and 3-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl(1-2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl(1-2)-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl]olean-12-en-3β,22β,24-triol (2) were isolated with the methanol extracts with of air-dried Glycine max. Among these compounds, compound 2 exhibited significant neuroprotective activities against glutamate-induced toxicity, exhibiting cell viability of about 50% at concentrations ranging from 0.1 μM to 10 μM. Therefore, the neuroprotective effect of Glycine max might be due to the inhibition of glutamate-induced toxicity by triterpene glycosides.

  19. Genotype Response of Soybean (Glycine max) Whole Plants and Hairy Roots to Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines Infection

    Fusarium solani f. sp. Glycines, a soilborne fungus, infects soybean roots and causes sudden death syndrome. The response of 13 soybean genotypes to the pathogen infection was tested with potted greenhouse grown plants and with cultured hairy roots. The taproots of all genotypes grown plants measure...


    Chechui O. F


    We investigated the activity of isocitrate lyase in seeds of Glycine max L. after 24, 72, and 120 hours of germination and effect of cobalt ions on the activity of the enzyme in time limit of the experiment...

  1. Identification and colonization of endophytic fungi from soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril under different environmental conditions

    Ida Chapaval Pimentel


    Full Text Available A total of 297 endophytic fungi were isolated from 1728 leaf and stem fragments collected about twenty and forty days after germination from soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril plants grown in the field and a greenhouse. The fungi belonged to eight groups, six dematiaceous genera (Alternaria, Cladosporium, Chaetomium, Curvularia, Drechslera and Scopulariopsis and the non-dematiaceous genera Acremonium, Aspergillus, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Paecilomyces and Penicillium along with some Mycelia sterilia.. There were qualitative and quantitative differences in the type and number of isolates obtained from greenhouse and field-grown plants, with more isolates being obtained from the latter. No difference was found in the number of fungi isolated from leaves and stems irrespective of where the plants was grown. For was field-grown plants, the number of isolates decreased as the plants aged and more fungi were found in tissues near the soil, while for greenhouse-grown plants the number of isolates increased as the plants aged but in this case no more fungi were isolated from those tissues nearer the soil. These results could have biotechnological relevance for the biological control of pests or plant growth promotion.A partir de 1728 fragmentos de hastes e folhas de soja (Glycine max (L. Merril. provenientes de plantas do campo e de casa de vegetação, coletadas cerca de 20 e 40 dias após a germinação das sementes, 297 fungos endofíticos foram isolados. Os gêneros encontrados foram: Alternaria, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Chaetomium, Scopulariopsis, Drechslera (todos dematiáceos além de Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Acremonium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces e Mycelia sterilia. Foram detectadas diferenças qualitativas e quantitativas entre os isolados, em relação a micobiota de hospedeiros provenientes do campo e de casa de vegetação com maior frequência de fungos isolados de plantas no campo em comparação com as de casa de vegeta

  2. Peran Kedelai (Glycine max L. dalam Pencegahan Apoptosis pada Cedera Jaringan Hati

    Maya Tejasari


    Soy (Glycine max L. Prevent Apoptotic Cells in Liver Tissue Injury Abstract In the state of liver injury by any cause there are numerous apoptotic cells influencing metabolic function of the liver.  Soy isoflavone (Glycine max L. known to have effect that inhibit apoptotic cells in follicle and osteoblast.  The aim of this study is to evaluate whether soy has anti apoptotic effect of  CCl4induced liver  injury in mice. This study use 30 male DDY mice 8─10 weeks old, divided into 6 groups.   Group I acted as positive control, received standard pellet for 3 weeks and induced by 0,2 mLCCl4per oral.  Group II, the negative control, received only standard pellet.  Group III─VI received standard pellet and treated by soybean extract 145.6 mg, 218.4 mg, 291.2 mg and 364 mg per day respectively administrated orally for 3 weeks and then induced by 0.2 ml CCl4 per oral.  After 4 days of CCl4 induced, the effect of soybean extract was evaluated using histo-chemistry evaluation Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL.  The identification and quantification of the apoptotic cells in mice liver tissue were done using light microscopy and showed that the TUNEL immune-histochemical examination. The results showed that the number of cells undergoing apoptosis in the group treated by soybean extract were less than the group that was not treated. The results enhanced by analysis of varians (ANOVA  between the groups showed a significant difference with p<0.05. In conclusion, soy administrated orally could  prevent apoptotic cells in liver tissue. Key words: Apoptotic, CCl4, isoflavone, liver injury, soybean, TUNEL

  3. Intersubgeneric hybridization between Glycine max and G. tomentella: production of F₁, amphidiploid, BC₁, BC₂, BC₃, and fertile soybean plants.

    Singh, R J; Nelson, R L


    This paper describes methods for unlocking genetic treasure from wild perennial Glycine species of Australia for soybean improvement. The genetic resources of the ca. 26 species of the genus Glycine subgenus Glycine have not been exploited to broaden the genetic base of soybean (Glycine max; 2n = 40). The objectives of this study were to develop methods for producing F1, amphidiploid, BC1, BC2, BC3, and fertile soybean plants from crosses of soybean and the genus Glycine subgenus Glycine species, in order to utilize the subgenus Glycine germplasm in soybean breeding. Soybean cultivars were hybridized with six accessions of 78-chromosome G. tomentella as well as one accession each of 40-chromosome G. tomentella, G. argyrea and G. latifolia. They were chosen because they exhibit resistance to soybean rust. We were successful in producing fertile soybean from soybean cv. 'Dwight' and 78-chromosome G. tomentella accession PI 441001, while other hybrids were discontinued either at F1 or amphidiploid stage. The F1 seeds aborted prior to reaching maturity, so developing seeds from 19 to 21 day old pods were cultured aseptically in various media formulations. Seed maturation and multiple embryo generation media were developed. F1 plants with shoots and roots (2n = 59) were transplanted to pots in greenhouse. Amphidiploid (2n = 118) plants were backcrossed to 'Dwight'. BC1 (2n = 79) plants were propagated through in vitro and 43 mature BC2F1 seeds were harvested. Fifteen surviving BC2F1 plants were morphologically distinct, sterile, and had chromosome numbers ranging 2n = 56-59. Chromosome numbers of the BC3F1 plants ranged 2n = 40-49. Derived fertile soybeans were first planted in the field in 2008 and are being evaluated for yield, resistance to pathogens and pests and tolerance to salt through material transfer agreement.

  4. Pod and seed mycoflora on transgenic and conventional soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] cultivars in Mississippi.

    Villarroel, D A; Baird, R E; Trevathan, L E; Watson, C E; Scruggs, M L


    A 2-year (1999-2000) study was conducted at Starkville and Stoneville, MS to determine if the occurrence of the mycoflora varied on Roundup Ready (transgenic) compared to conventional soybean (Glycine max) cultivars. A total of 7,658 fungal isolates were identified from the pod and seed tissues of four cultivars compared at growth stages R6 and R8. Ninety-nine percent of all fungi isolated were mitosporic fungi and ascomycetes. In both years, total fungal isolates from the two locations were greater from the pod (65%) than from seed (33%) tissues. Isolation frequency from conventional cultivars was 54% compared to 46% for the transgenic cultivars. The most common fungi identified that are reported pathogens of soybean included Alternaria, Cercospora, Cladosporium, Diaporthe, Fusarium and Verticillium spp. When main effects and interactions were compared among the frequency data for the fungal genera, significant differences occurred, but consistent trends were not noted. Isolation frequencies of Diaporthe spp. during the R6 growth stage, were significantly greater on the conventional than on the transgenic cultivars in both years of the study, but only at Starkville. Isolation frequencies from samples taken during the R8 growth stage were similar at both locations in 1999 and 2000. Fusarium spp. isolated at R6 and R8 growth stages from pod and seed tissues were significantly greater on conventional than on transgenic cultivars in 2000. Even though frequencies were often significantly different between the transgenic and conventional cultivars, the data was not consistent between locations, pod and seed tissues, or growth stages. The pod and seed mycoflora of transgenic and conventional soybean cultivars was, therefore, similar in Mississippi.

  5. Row Spacing in Relation to Competition for Limited Resources in Soybean (Glycine Max L.Merrill)

    LIU Xiao-bing; S J Herbert; JIN Jian; M Hashemi; WANG Guang-hua


    Growing soybeans in different row-spacings introduces competition. Competition begins when the immediate supply of a single necessary factor falls below the combined demands of all plants. This paper reviews the main competition factors of genotypes, light, water, nutrients and weed in responses to row spacings for the past four decades. It demonstrated that responses of soybean genotypes to row width differ among cultivars, which depend on seasonal rainfall and irrigation. Determinate types produce more yield in narrow-rows, and cultivars with lodging resistance should be adopted in narrow-spacings, but indeterminate soybean should also be used to optimize yields in certain system. Narrow-compared with wide-row soybean (Glycine max) cultivation increases light interception (LI) and dominant components for the increase come from LAI, light extinction coefficients and branch types. Water use efficiency (WUE) and evapotranspiration are not influenced by row spacing, but seed yield could be increased if irrigation is applied. Nutrient uptake is significantly affected by row spacing, seed yields and uptake of N, P, K in plants increases with decreasing row spacing, and the effects depend on the fertilizer levels. Other factors rather than row spacing affect nitrogen fixation. Weed density, peak time and periodicity of weed emergence are not affected by row spacing, but better complementary weed control by the herbicides at the used doses can be obtained in narrow spacing due to the reduced weed number and dry weight. More researches are required to investigate the physiological responses, nutrient and water uptake and translocation, light utilization at different layers of canopy and soil environment changes in different row-spacings.

  6. Effects of glyphosate on the mineral content of glyphosate-resistant soybeans (Glycine max).

    Duke, Stephen O; Reddy, Krishna N; Bu, Kaixuan; Cizdziel, James V


    There are conflicting claims as to whether treatment with glyphosate adversely affects mineral nutrition of glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops. Those who have made claims of adverse effects have argued links between reduced Mn and diseases in these crops. This article describes experiments designed to determine the effects of a recommended rate (0.86 kg ha(-1)) of glyphosate applied once or twice on the mineral content of young and mature leaves, as well as in seeds produced by GR soybeans (Glycine max) in both the greenhouse and field using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In the greenhouse, there were no effects of either one application (at 3 weeks after planting, WAP) or two applications (at 3 and 6 WAP) of glyphosate on Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Ba, Al, Cd, Cr, Co, or Ni content of young or old leaves sampled at 6, 9, and 12 WAP and in harvested seed. Se concentrations were too low for accurate detection in leaves, but there was also no effect of glyphosate applications on Se in the seeds. In the field study, there were no effects of two applications (at 3 and 6 WAP) of glyphosate on Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Ba, Al, Cd, Cr, Co, or Ni content of young or old leaves at either 9 or 12 WAP. There was also no effect on Se in the seeds. There was no difference in yield between control and glyphosate-treated GR soybeans in the field. The results indicate that glyphosate does not influence mineral nutrition of GR soybean at recommended rates for weed management in the field. Furthermore, the field studies confirm the results of greenhouse studies.

  7. A Global Analysis of the Polygalacturonase Gene Family in Soybean (Glycine max)

    Wang, Feifei; Sun, Xia; Shi, Xinyi; Zhai, Hong; Tian, Changen; Kong, Fanjiang; Liu, Baohui; Yuan, Xiaohui


    Polygalacturonase is one of the pectin hydrolytic enzymes involved in various developmental and physiological processes such as seed germination, organ abscission, pod and anther dehiscence, and xylem cell formation. To date, no systematic analysis of polygalacturonase incorporating genome organization, gene structure, and expression profiling has been conducted in soybean (Glycine max var. Williams 82). In this study, we identified 112 GmPG genes from the soybean Wm82.a2v1 genome. These genes were classified into three groups, group I (105 genes), group II (5 genes), and group III (2 genes). Fifty-four pairs of duplicate paralogous genes were preferentially identified from duplicated regions of the soybean genome, which implied that long segmental duplications significantly contributed to the expansion of the GmPG gene family. Moreover, GmPG transcripts were analyzed in various tissues using RNA-seq data. The results showed the differential expression of 64 GmPGs in the tissue and partially redundant expression of some duplicate genes, while others showed functional diversity. These findings suggested that the GmPGs were retained by substantial subfunctionalization during the soybean evolutionary processes. Finally, evolutionary analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in wild and cultivated soybeans revealed that 107 GmPGs had selected site(s), which indicated that these genes may have undergone strong selection during soybean domestication. Among them, one non-synonymous SNP of GmPG031 affected floral development during selection, which was consistent with the results of RNA-seq and evolutionary analyses. Thus, our results contribute to the functional characterization of GmPG genes in soybean. PMID:27657691

  8. Genetic Architecture of Phenomic-Enabled Canopy Coverage in Glycine max.

    Xavier, Alencar; Hall, Benjamin; Hearst, Anthony A; Cherkauer, Keith A; Rainey, Katy M


    Digital imagery can help to quantify seasonal changes in desirable crop phenotypes that can be treated as quantitative traits. Because limitations in precise and functional phenotyping restrain genetic improvement in the postgenomic era, imagery-based phenomics could become the next breakthrough to accelerate genetic gains in field crops. Whereas many phenomic studies focus on exploratory analysis of spectral data without obvious interpretative value, we used field images to directly measure soybean canopy development from phenological stage V2 to R5. Over 3 years, we collected imagery using ground and aerial platforms of a large and diverse nested association panel comprising 5555 lines. Genome-wide association analysis of canopy coverage across sampling dates detected a large quantitative trait locus (QTL) on soybean (Glycine max, L. Merr.) chromosome 19. This QTL provided an increase in yield of 47.3 kg ha(-1) Variance component analysis indicated that a parameter, described as average canopy coverage, is a highly heritable trait (h(2) = 0.77) with a promising genetic correlation with grain yield (0.87), enabling indirect selection of yield via canopy development parameters. Our findings indicate that fast canopy coverage is an early season trait that is inexpensive to measure and has great potential for application in breeding programs focused on yield improvement. We recommend using the average canopy coverage in multiple trait schemes, especially for the early stages of the breeding pipeline (including progeny rows and preliminary yield trials), in which the large number of field plots makes collection of grain yield data challenging. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  9. Supraoptimal carbon dioxide effects on growth of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Siegriest, L. M.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M. (Principal Investigator)


    In tightly closed environments used for human life support in space, carbon dioxide (CO2) partial pressures can reach 500 to 1000 Pa, which may be supraoptimal or toxic to plants used for life support. To study this, soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cvs. McCall and Pixie] were grown for 90 days at 50, 100, 200, and 500 Pa partial pressure CO2 (500, 1000, 2000, and 5000 ppm). Plants were grown using recirculating nutrient film technique with a 12-h photoperiod, a 26 degrees C/20 degrees C thermoperiod, and approximately 300 micromoles m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Seed yield and total biomass were greatest at 100 Pa for cv. McCall, suggesting that higher CO2 levels were supraoptimal. Seed yield and total biomass for cv. Pixie showed little difference between CO2 treatments. Average stomatal conductance of upper canopy leaves at 50 Pa CO2 approximately 500 Pa > 200 Pa > 100 Pa. Total water use over 90 d for both cultivars (combined on one recirculating system) equalled 822 kg water for 100 Pa CO2, 845 kg for 50 Pa, 879 kg for 200 Pa, and 1194 kg for 500 Pa. Water use efficiences for both cultivars combined equalled 3.03 (g biomass kg-1 water) for 100 Pa CO2, 2.54 g kg-1 for 200 Pa, 2.42 g kg-1 for 50 Pa, and 1.91 g kg-1 for 500 Pa. The increased stomatal conductance and stand water use at the highest CO2 level (500 Pa) were unexpected and pose interesting considerations for managing plants in a tightly closed system where CO2 concentrations may reach high levels.

  10. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma costaricanum' a novel phytoplasma associated with an emerging disease in soybean (Glycine max).

    Lee, I-M; Bottner-Parker, K D; Zhao, Y; Villalobos, W; Moreira, L


    A novel phytoplasma, designated strain SoyST1c1, associated with a newly emerging disease in soybean (Glycine max), known as soybean stunt (SoyST), was found in 2002 in a soybean plantation in Alajuela Province, Costa Rica. The same phytoplasma, or a very closely related strain, also infected sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) with purple vein syndrome (SwPPV) and passion fruit vine (Passiflora edulis) with bud proliferation disease (PasFBP) in the same region. Sequence analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences (GenBank accession nos FJ226068-FJ226073 and HQ225624-HQ225635) indicated that all three affected plants were infected by phytoplasmas that shared <97.5% sequence similarity with previously described phytoplasmas. The SoyST-causing phytoplasma represents a new taxon, most closely related to phytoplasma group 16SrI and 16SrXII strains. Virtual RFLP analysis indicated that the SoyST-causing phytoplasma and its closely related strains represent a novel 16Sr group, designated 16SrXXXI. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from the new phytoplasma strains, those previously described as 'Candidatus Phytoplasma spp.' and other distinct, as yet unnamed, phytoplasmas indicated that the SoyST-causing phytoplasma represents a distinct lineage within the aster yellows/stolbur branch on the phylogenetic tree. On the basis of its unique 16S rRNA gene sequence and biological properties, strain SoyST1c1 represents a novel taxon, for which the name 'Candidatus Phytoplasma costaricanum' is proposed with SoyST1c1 as the reference strain.

  11. Deteksi senyawa isoflavon daidzein dan genistein pada kultur invitro kalus kedelai Glycine max Merr

    Tintrim Rahayu


    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to identify the isofl avon compounds in the in-vitro cultured callus of soybean (Glycine max Merr.. This is an explorative research, in which callus were cultured in the B5 medium supplemented with 2 ppm 2,4 D. The friable callus were found when it was cultured in the solid medium containing 8 g/l agar and 20 g/l sucrose. When the callus and soybean were extracted with ethanol, a yellow colored substance appeared. If further analysis was done with thin layer chromatography (TLC method employing 0,2 mm thin layer silica gel 60 F254 (DC-Plastikfolien Schicht-dicke, and eluent consisting n-Butanol - HCL 0.1 N (1:1, six light blue color nodes appeared under 366 nm UV light. The nodes have the following Rf: 0,14; 0,30; 0,52; 0,63; 0,79 and 0,92 respectively. This TLC result is comparable with the TLC result from soybeans since they have two nodes with the same Rf and color, namely blue color at Rf 0,81 and 0,92 respectively. Further confi rmation using HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography equipped with UVvis detector and Lichrospher 100RP–18, (10 μm colom, as well as Hitachi D–2500 Chromato-integrator indicated that those similar two nodes identifi ed in the TLC were either daidzein or genistein. They can be detected by HPLC at 250 nm and 260 nm, when they were eluated at the 80% metanol. The HPLC quantitative calculation indicated that concentration of daidzein is four time higher as it was compared with the daidzein concentration in the bean. The concentration of daidzein in the callus remained high up to 4–5 weeks after plantation. It’s concentration will decrease when the callus reached 6 weeks after plantation. Genistein as another component of isofl avon is not appear upon callus, while on soybean seeds extracts, both daidzen and genistein are detected.

  12. Analysis of embryo, cytoplasm and maternal effects on fatty acid components in soybean (Glycine max Merill.)

    NING Hailong; LI Wenxia; LI Wenbin


    The quality of oil determined by the constituents and proportion of fatty acid components,and the understanding of heredity of fatty acid components are of importance to breeding good quality soybean varieties.Embryo,cytoplasmic and maternal effects and genotype×environment interaction effects for quality traits of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill.] seeds were analyzed using a general genetic model for quantitative traits of seeds with parents,F1 and F2,of 20 crosses from a diallel mating design of five parents planted in the field in 2003 and 2004 in Harbin,China.The interaction effects of palmitic,stearic,and linoleic acid contents were larger than the genetic main effects,while the genetic main effects were equal to interaction effects for linolenic and oleic acid content.Among all kinds of genetic main effects,the embryo effects were the largest for palmitic,stearic,and linoleic acids,while the cytoplasm effects were the largest for oleic and linolenic acids.Among all kinds of interaction effects,the embryo interaction effects were the largest for fatty acids.The sum of additive and additive× environment effects were larger than that of dominance and dominance×environment effects for the linolenic acid content,but not for other quality traits.The general heritabilities were the main parts of heritabilities for palmitic and oleic acid contents,but the interaction was more important for stearic,linoleic,and linolenic acid contents.For the general heritability,maternal and cytoplasm heritabilities were the main components for palmitic,oleic,and linolenic acid contents.It was shown for the interaction heritabilities that the embryo interaction heritabilities were more important for oleic and linolenic acid contents,while the maternal interaction heritabilities were more important for linoleic acid content.Among selection response components,the maternal and cytoplasm general responses and/or interaction responses were more important for palmitic

  13. Divergent patterns of endogenous small RNA populations from seed and vegetative tissues of Glycine max

    Zabala Gracia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small non-coding RNAs (smRNAs are known to have major roles in gene regulation in eukaryotes. In plants, knowledge of the biogenesis and mechanisms of action of smRNA classes including microRNAs (miRNAs, short interfering RNAs (siRNAs, and trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs has been gained mostly through studies with Arabidopsis. In recent years, high throughput sequencing of smRNA populations has enabled extension of knowledge from model systems to plants with larger, more complex genomes. Soybean (Glycine max now has many genomics resources available including a complete genome sequence and predicted gene models. Relatively little is known, however, about the full complement of its endogenous smRNAs populations and the silenced genes. Results Using Illumina sequencing and computational analysis, we characterized eight smRNA populations from multiple tissues and organs of soybean including developing seed and vegetative tissues. A total of 41 million raw sequence reads collapsed into 135,055 unique reads were mapped to the soybean genome and its predicted cDNA gene models. Bioinformatic analyses were used to distinguish miRNAs and siRNAs and to determine their genomic origins and potential target genes. In addition, we identified two soybean TAS3 gene homologs, the miRNAs that putatively guide cleavage of their transcripts, and the derived tasiRNAs that could target soybean genes annotated as auxin response factors. Tissue-differential expression based on the flux of normalized miRNA and siRNA abundances in the eight smRNA libraries was evident, some of which was confirmed by smRNA blotting. Our global view of these smRNA populations also revealed that the size classes of smRNAs varied amongst different tissues, with the developing seed and seed coat having greater numbers of unique smRNAs of the 24-nt class compared to the vegetative tissues of germinating seedlings. The 24-nt class is known to be derived from repetitive

  14. Generation and characterization of two novel low phytate mutations in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.).

    Yuan, Feng-Jie; Zhao, Hai-Jun; Ren, Xue-Liang; Zhu, Shen-Long; Fu, Xu-Jun; Shu, Qing-Yao


    Phytic acid (PA, myo-inositol 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hexakisphosphate) is important to the nutritional quality of soybean meal. Organic phosphorus (P) in PA is indigestible in humans and non-ruminant animals, which affects nutrition and causes P pollution of ground water from animal wastes. Two novel soybean [(Glycine max L. (Merr.)] low phytic acid (lpa) mutations were isolated and characterized. Gm-lpa-TW-1 had a phytic acid P (PA-P) reduction of 66.6% and a sixfold increase in inorganic P (Pi), and Gm-lpa-ZC-2 had a PA-P reduction of 46.3% and a 1.4-fold increase in Pi, compared with their respective non-mutant progenitor lines. The reduction of PA-P and increase of Pi in Gm-lpa-TW-1 were molar equivalent; the decrease of PA-P in Gm-lpa-ZC-2, however, was accompanied by the increase of both Pi and lower inositol phosphates. In both mutant lines, the total P content remained similar to their wild type parents. The two lpa mutations were both inherited in a single recessive gene model but were non-allelic. Sequence data and progeny analysis indicate that Gm-lpa-TW-1 lpa mutation resulted from a 2 bp deletion in the soybean D: -myo-inositol 3-phosphate synthase (MIPS1 EC gene 1 (MIPS1). The lpa mutation in Gm-lpa-ZC-2 was mapped on LG B2, closely linked with microsatellite loci Satt416 and Satt168, at genetic distances of approximately 4.63 and approximately 9.25 cM, respectively. Thus this mutation probably represents a novel soybean lpa locus. The seed emergence rate of Gm-lpa-ZC-2 was similar to its progenitor line and was not affected by seed source and its lpa mutation. However, Gm-lpa-TW-1 had a significantly reduced field emergence when seeds were produced in a subtropic environment. Field tests of the mutants and their progenies further demonstrated that the lpa mutation in Gm-lpa-ZC-2 does not negatively affect plant yield traits. These results will advance understanding of the genetic, biochemical and molecular control of PA synthesis in soybean. The

  15. Differential sensitivity to chloride and sodium ions in seedlings of Glycine max and G. soja under NaCl stress.

    Luo, Qingyun; Yu, Bingjun; Liu, Youliang


    High Na+ and Cl- concentrations in soil cause hyperionic and hyperosmotic stress effects, the consequence of which can be plant demise. Ion-specific stress effects of Na+ and Cl- on seedlings of cultivated (Glycine max (L.) Merr) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. Et Zucc.) were evaluated and compared in isoosmotic solutions of Cl-, Na+ and NaCl. Results showed that under NaCl stress, Cl- was more toxic than Na+ to seedlings of G. max. Injury of six G. max cultivars, including 'Jackson' (salt sensitive) and 'Lee 68' (salt tolerant), was positively correlated with the content of Cl- in the leaves, and negatively with that in the roots. In subsequent research, seedlings of two G. max cultivars (salt-tolerant Nannong 1138-2, and salt-sensitive Zhongzihuangdou-yi) and two G. soja populations (BB52 and N23232) were subjected to isoosmotic solutions of 150mM Na+, Cl- and NaCl, respectively. G. max cv. Nannong 1138-2 and Zhongzihuangdou-yi were damaged much more heavily in the solution of Cl- than in that of Na+. Their Leaves were found to be more sensitive to Cl- than to Na+, and salt tolerance of these two G. max cultivars was mainly due to successful withholding of Cl- in the roots and stems to decrease its content in the leaves. The reverse response to isoosmotic stress of 150 mM Na+ and Cl- was shown in G. soja populations of BB52 and N23232; their leaves were not as susceptible to toxicity of Cl- as that of Na+. Salt tolerance of BB52 and N23232 was mainly due to successful withholding of Na+ in the roots and stems to decrease its content in the leaves. These results indicate that G. soja have advantages over G. max in those traits associated with the mechanism of Cl-tolerance, such as its withholding in roots and vacuoles of leaves. It is possible to use G. soja to improve the salt tolerance of G. max.

  16. Floral biology and behavior of Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera in soybean (Glycine max L. Merril

    Wainer César Chiari


    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the pollination by Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera, the floral biology and to observe the hoarding behavior in the soybean flowers (Glycine max Merril, var. BRS-133. The treatments were constituted of demarcated areas for free visitation of insects, covered areas by cages with a honeybee colony (A. mellifera and also covered areas by cage without insects visitation. All areas had 24 m² (4m x 6m. The soybean flowers stayed open for a larger time (82.82 ± 3.48 hours in covered area without honeybees. The stigma of the flowers was also more receptive (P=0.0021 in covered area without honeybees (87.3 ± 33.0% and at 10:42 o'clock was the schedule of greater receptivity. The pollen stayed viable in all treatments, the average was 99.60 ± 0.02%, which did not present differences among treatments. The percentage of abortion of the flowers was 82.91% in covered area without honeybees, this result was superior (P=0.0002 to the 52.66% and 53.95% of the treatments uncovered and covered with honeybees, respectively. Honeybees were responsible for 87.7% of the pollination accomplished by the insects. The medium amounts of total sugar and glucose measured in the nectar of the flowers were, 14.33 ± 0.96 mg/flower and 3.61 ± 0.36 mg/ flower, respectively, not showing differences (PEste experimento teve como objetivos avaliar a polinização realizada por abelhas Apis mellifera, estudar a biologia floral e observar o comportamento de coleta nas flores de soja (Glycine max L. Merril, variedade BRS-133 plantadas na região de Maringá-PR. Os tratamentos constituíram de áreas demarcadas de livre visitação por insetos, áreas cobertas por gaiolas, com uma colônia de abelhas (A. mellifera no seu interior e plantas também cobertas por gaiola que impedia a visitação por insetos. Todas as áreas possuíam 24 m² (4 m x 6 m. As flores de soja permaneceram abertas por um tempo maior (82,82 ± 3,48 horas no

  17. Antiulcer activity of water soaked Glycine max L. grains in aspirin induced model of gastric ulcer in Wistar rats.

    Kumar, Dushyant; Hegde, H V; Patil, P A; Roy, Subarna; Kholkute, S D


    Glycine max L. with Drakshasava, widely used by traditional healers as a formulation for the treatment of peptic ulcer in rural northern Karnataka in India, appears to be effective as assessed by patients and in our previously published research work of traditionally used formulation. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the overnight water soaked G. max grains. This is one of the components of traditional formulation. The study, approved by Institutional Animal Ethics Committee was carried out in male Wistar rats after assessing its toxicity in mice. Four groups of rats (n = 6 in each group) were treated with aspirin 200 mg/kg oral. In addition to aspirin control group received normal saline, standard group received 20 mg/kg omeprazole and 3(rd) and 4(th) group received G. max 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. All treatments were administered orally every 24 h for 7 days. After 24 hours fasting, on the 8(th) day stomach contents were aspirated under anesthesia to estimate free and total acidity. Stomachs were opened along the greater curvature to calculate ulcer index and subjected to histopathology studies. The results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed-by Dunnett's post hoc test. P ≤0.05 was considered as significant. The severity of aspirin induced ulceration was found significantly (P max was found to be effective against aspirin induced ulcers.

  18. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum enhances the organic and fatty acids content of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) seeds.

    Silva, Luís R; Pereira, Maria J; Azevedo, Jessica; Mulas, Rebeca; Velazquez, Encarna; González-Andrés, Fernando; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B


    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the most important food crops for human and animal consumption, providing oil and protein at relatively low cost. The least expensive source of nitrogen for soybean is the biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by the symbiotic association with soil bacteria, belonging mainly to the genus Bradyrhizobium. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the inoculation of G. max with Bradyrhizobium japonicum on the metabolite profile and antioxidant potential of its seeds. Phenolic compounds, sterols, triterpenes, organic acids, fatty acids and volatiles profiles were characterised by different chromatographic techniques. The antioxidant activity was evaluated against DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide radicals. Inoculation with B. japonicum induced changes in the profiles of primary and secondary metabolites of G. max seeds, without affecting their antioxidant capacity. The increase of organic and fatty acids and volatiles suggest a positive effect of the inoculation process. These findings indicate that the inoculation with nodulating B. japonicum is a beneficial agricultural practice, increasing the content of bioactive metabolites in G. max seeds owing to the establishment of symbiosis between plant and microorganism, with direct effects on seed quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) under field conditions in Japan.

    Mizuguti, Aki; Ohigashi, Kentaro; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Kaga, Akito; Kuroda, Yosuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito


    Accumulation of information about natural hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max) and wild soybean (Glycine soja) is required for risk assessment evaluation and to establish biosafety regulations in Japan. This is particularly important in areas where wild relatives of cultivated soybean are grown (i.e. East Asia including Japan). To collect information on temporal and spatial factors affecting variation in hybridization between wild and GM soybean, a two year hybridization experiment was established that included one wild soybean and five GM soybean cultivars with different maturity dates. Hybridization frequencies ranged from 0 to 0.097%. The maximum hybridization frequency (0.097%) was obtained from wild soybean crossed with GM soybean cv. AG6702RR, which were adjacently cultivated with wild soybean, with 25 hybrids out of 25 741 seedlings tested. Cultivar AG6702RR had the most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Ten hybrids out of 25 741 were produced by crossing with cv. AG5905RR, which had the second most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Most hybrids were found where GM and wild soybeans were adjacently cultivated, whereas only one hybrid was detected from wild soybean plants at 2 m, 4 m and 6 m from a pollen source (GM soybean). Differences in flowering phenology, isolation distance and presence of buffer plants accounted for half of the variation in hybridization frequency in this study. Temporal and spatial isolation will be effective strategies to minimize hybridization between GM and wild soybean.

  20. FT-IR Method for the Quantification of Isoflavonol Glycosides in Nutritional Supplements of Soy (Glycine max (L.) MERR.).

    Mulsow, Katharina; Eidenschink, Juliane; Melzig, Matthias F


    Due to increasing health consciousness, a lot of food supplements are sold and used. Dietary supplements of Glycine max (L.) MERR. are used as an alternative treatment for menopausal complaints such as hot flashes. Thereby, the effective soy compounds are the isoflavones daidzin, genistin, and glycitin. However, only the total soy extract content of the nutritional supplements is indicated. The aim of this study is to introduce a fast, efficient, and economic Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy method to quantify the active ingredients in the complex matrix of soy-based supplements. Five different nutritional supplements of Glycine max (L.) MERR. were purchased from a German pharmacy and were extracted with 80% aqueous methanol. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used for the separation. The samples were concentrated and measured with infrared spectroscopy. An FT-IR method was established to quantify the active ingredients in the complex matrix of soy-based nutritional supplements. The partial least-squares algorithm was used to develop the method, which enabled the estimation of the content of particular isoflavones (daidzin R(2) = 0.86, glycitin R(2) = 0.94, genistin R(2) = 0.96) and the quantification of the total isoflavone content (R(2) = 0.92) despite peak overlap in the infrared (IR) spectra. The method for the quantification of the isoflavonol glycosides is precise with the standard error of prediction being 13.54%.

  1. Glycine

    Sabin, John R.; Oddershede, Jens; Sauer, Stephan P. A.


    With the advent of the use of precise ion accelerators for medical purposes, it becomes ever more important to understand the interaction of biomolecules with fast ions.  Glycine is both a protein component and a model biomolecule, and is thus an important test system.    In this report, we discu...


    Alessandro Ramos Nonato


    Full Text Available

    Cultura de soja (Glycine max, variedade Crixás, cultivada a campo, naturalmente infectada por Cercospora kikuchii e Septoria glycines, foi pulverizada uma ou duas vezes com diferentes dosagens de produtos fitossanitários. Foram avaliados o nível de infecção nas folhas e sementes, nível de desfolha e rendimento de grãos. Entre os produtos testados, o mais eficiente foi o azoxystrobin, que foi superior ao difeconazole e benomyl, comparando-se à testemunha. Entre os tratamentos com fungicida não houve diferença estatística significante ao nível de 5% de probabilidade, fato este também constatado quando se comparam os tratamentos com fungicida e a testemunha, em relação à produção de grãos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Soja; Cercospora kikuchii; Septoria glycines.

    Soybean Crixás crop (Glycine max, naturally infected by Cercospora kikuchii and Septoria glycines was sprayed once or twice with different dosages of fungicides. Infection level on leaves and seeds, leaf fall level and seed production were evaluated. Among tested fungicides, the most efficient was azoxystrobin, which was superior to difeconazole and benomyl. All were superior to the control. Among the treatments, there was no significant difference at 5% level. This fact was also noticed when seed yield was compared between treatments and the control.

    KEY-WORDS: Cercospora kikuchii; Septoria glycines; soybean.

  3. Effect of germinated Glycine max seeds on glycemic control in STZ+NAD induced type 2 diabetic models: a preliminary study

    Suman Bala Sharma


    Full Text Available Objective: Glycine max (soybean is a legume (Fabaceae native to East Asia. Glycine max seeds are a powerful stimulant of immune system, used to decrease menopause symptoms, estrogen, treat certain types of cancers including that of the breast, lungs, prostate. It is also used for treating diabetes, liver and kidney disorders. The study aimed to investigate the effect of germinated Glycine max seeds on glycemic control in Streptozotocin (STZ plus Nicotinamide (NAD induced type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: The effect of Glycine max seed extract at the dose of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg b.w, respectively, germinated at different time intervals was investigated in STZ+NAD induced diabetic rats. The study was conducted for 21 days to investigate the effect of extract on blood biochemical parameters indicative of hyperglycemia; fasting blood glucose (FBG, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb and lipid profile, i.e. total cholesterol (TC, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c and HDL-c and triacylglycerol (triglycerides, TG levels. Results: Aqueous extract (200 mg/kg b.w of 12 h soaked and germinated Glycine max seeds produced significant reduction in FBG after 90 min (9.6% and 3 h (15.6% of administration. When the extract (200 mg/kg was administered daily for three weeks to diabetic rats, significant fall in FBG (48.6% and GHb (30.2% was observed. Glucose tolerance was also found to be improved. Extract also showed significant hypolipidemic effect in diabetic rats as apparent from fall in TG, TC and LDL-c, and significant improvement on HDL-c. Conclusion: The results suggest that aqueous extract of 12 h germinated Glycine max seeds possess antihyperglycemic as well as hypolipidemic activity. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(2.000: 155-160

  4. Comparative physiology and transcriptional networks underlying the heat shock response in Populus trichocarpa, Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max

    Weston, David [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Karve, Abhijit A [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Jawdy, Sara [ORNL; Allen, Sara M [ORNL


    The heat shock response continues to be layered with additional complexity as interactions and crosstalk among heat shock proteins (HSPs), the reactive oxygen network and hormonal signalling are discovered. However, comparative analyses exploring variation in each of these processes among species remain relatively unexplored. In controlled environment experiments, photosynthetic response curves were conducted from 22 to 42 C and indicated that temperature optimum of light-saturated photosynthesis was greater for Glycine max relative to Arabidopsis thaliana or Populus trichocarpa. Transcript profiles were taken at defined states along the temperature response curves, and inferred pathway analysis revealed species-specific variation in the abiotic stress and the minor carbohydrate raffinose/galactinol pathways. A weighted gene co-expression network approach was used to group individual genes into network modules linking biochemical measures of the antioxidant system to leaf-level photosynthesis among P. trichocarpa, G. max and A. thaliana. Network-enabled results revealed an expansion in the G. max HSP17 protein family and divergence in the regulation of the antioxidant and heat shock modules relative to P. trichocarpa and A. thaliana. These results indicate that although the heat shock response is highly conserved, there is considerable species-specific variation in its regulation.

  5. A distinct subfamily of papain-like cystein proteinases regulated by senescence and stresses in Glycine max.

    Esteban-García, Belén; Garrido-Cárdenas, José Antonio; Alonso, Diego López; García-Maroto, Federico


    GMCP3 encodes a cystein proteinase of Glycine max belonging to the papain-like family (C1A in MEROPS database) that was previously found to be involved in the mobilization of protein reserves during seed germination. Here, we report that GMCP3 is induced by senescence and diverse stresses in non-seed tissues, thus indicating a more general function in plants. Cladistic analysis of papain-like proteins of plants indicated that GMCP3, along with related proteases of other species, belongs to a distinct new group within the C1A family, which can also be distinguished by the four-exon structure of the gene. We also describe the genomic organization of GMCP3 revealing the presence of two closely related copies that are transcriptionally regulated in a similar way, although only one appears to be functional.

  6. Determination of Genetic Polymorphism Among Soybean (Glycine max. L. Merrill Cultivars Developed in Recent Years through RAPD Markers



    Full Text Available Genotype or cultivar identification is the first step to ensure plant breeder’s rights. If registered cultivars or germplasms were not distinguished by any mechanism, then seed production or novel varieties could not be controlled. The RAPD markers are chosen to distinguish seven soybean ( Glycine max. L. Merrill cultivars from each other  and to assign the polymorphisms among of them in this study. Eight primers were used and DNA fingerprinting of all cultivars were determined with that primers. According to that fingerprinting all cultivars were distingusihed from each other in DNA banding pattern. Using these markers results, similarity index in between soybean cultivars were calculated. Dwight and Maverick were the most similar cultivars ( These two cultivars were similar at 0,70 point to each other. In addition that Maverick and Defiance cultivars have shown the highest polymorphism rate ( These two cultivars were similar at 0,39 point each other. .

  7. Quantitative trait loci mapping of pubescence density and flowering time of insect-resistant soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.

    Kunihiko Komatsu


    Full Text Available Analysis of antibiosis resistance to common cutworm (Spodoptera litura Fabricius in soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. has progressed significantly, but the immediate cause remains unknown. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis of pubescence density and plant development stage because these factors are assumed to be the immediate cause of resistance to cutworm. The QTLs for pubescence appeared to be identical to the previously detected the Pd1 and Ps loci controlling pubescence density. We found no candidate loci for flowering time QTLs, although one could be identical to the gene governing the long-juvenile trait or to the E6 loci controlling maturity. None of the QTLs overlapped with the QTLs for antibiosis resistance.

  8. Evaluation of Probiotic Diversity from Soybean (Glycine max) Seeds and Sprouts Using Illumina-Based Sequencing Method.

    Huang, Yali; Zhang, Miaomiao; Deng, Zujun; Cao, Lixiang


    There is increasing interest in the use of plant probiotics as environmental-friendly and healthy biofertilizers. The study aimed at selecting for novel probiotic candidates of soybean (Glycine max). The bacteriome and mycobiome of soybean sprouts and seeds were analyzed by Illumina-based sequencing. Seeds contained more diverse bacteria than those in sprouts. The seeds contained similar fungal diversity with sprouts. Total 15 bacterial OTUs and 4 fungal OTUs were detected in seeds and sprouts simultaneously, suggesting that the sprouts contained bacterial and fungal taxa transmitted from seeds. The Halothiobacillus was the most dominant bacterial genus observed and coexisted in seeds and sprouts. The OTUs belonged to Ascomycota were the most dominant fungal taxa observed in seeds and sprouts. Halothiobacillus was firstly identified as endophytic probiotics of soybean. The results suggested that sprouts might contain diverse plant probiotics of mature plants and Illumina-based sequencing can be used to screen for probiotic candidates.

  9. Optimization of ultrasonic assisted extraction of antioxidants from black soybean (Glycine max var) sprouts using response surface methodology.

    Lai, Jixiang; Xin, Can; Zhao, Ya; Feng, Bing; He, Congfen; Dong, Yinmao; Fang, Yun; Wei, Shaomin


    Response surface methodology (RSM) using a central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the conditions for extraction of antioxidants from black soybean (Glycine max var) sprouts. Three influencing factors: liquid-solid ratio, period of ultrasonic assisted extraction and extraction temperature were investigated in the ultrasonic aqueous extraction. Then Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the extraction process focused on DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the antioxidants with respect to the above influencing factors. The best combination of each significant factor was determined by RSM design and optimum pretreatment conditions for maximum radical-scavenging capacity were established to be liquid-solid ratio of 29.19:1, extraction time of 32.13 min, and extraction temperature of 30 °C. Under these conditions, 67.60% of DPPH radical-scavenging capacity was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 66.36%.

  10. Optimization of Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Antioxidants from Black Soybean (Glycine max var Sprouts Using Response Surface Methodology

    Yun Fang


    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM using a central composite design (CCD was employed to optimize the conditions for extraction of antioxidants from black soybean (Glycine max var sprouts. Three influencing factors: liquid-solid ratio, period of ultrasonic assisted extraction and extraction temperature were investigated in the ultrasonic aqueous extraction. Then Response Surface Methodology (RSM was applied to optimize the extraction process focused on DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the antioxidants with respect to the above influencing factors. The best combination of each significant factor was determined by RSM design and optimum pretreatment conditions for maximum radical-scavenging capacity were established to be liquid-solid ratio of 29.19:1, extraction time of 32.13 min, and extraction temperature of 30 °C. Under these conditions, 67.60% of DPPH radical-scavenging capacity was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 66.36%.

  11. Effect of N fertilizer top-dressing at various reproductive stages on growth, N-2 fixation and yield of three soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes

    Gan, YB; Stulen, [No Value; van Keulen, H; Kuiper, PJC


    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is one of the most important food and cash crops in China and a key protein source for the farmers in northern China. Previous experiments in both the field and greenhouse have shown that N-2 fixation alone cannot meet the N requirement for maximizing soybean yield,

  12. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Bradyrhizobium elkanii type strain USDA 76T, isolated from Glycine max (L.) Merr

    Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA 76T (INSCD = ARAG00000000), the type strain for Bradyrhizobium elkanii, is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen-fixing root nodule of Glycine max (L. Merr) grown in the USA. Because of its significance as a ...

  13. Effect of N fertilizer top-dressing at various reproductive stages on growth, N2 fixation and yield of three soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes

    Gan, Y.B.; Stulen, I.; Kuiper, P.J.C.; Keulen, van H.


    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is one of the most important food and cash crops in China and a key protein source for the farmers in northern China. Previous experiments in both the field and greenhouse have shown that N2 fixation alone cannot meet the N requirement for maximizing soybean yield, a

  14. Confidence interval estimation for an empirical model quantifying the effect of soil moisture and plant development on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaf conductance

    In this work, we address uncertainty analysis for a model, presented in a companion paper, quantifying the effect of soil moisture and plant development on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaf conductance. To achieve this we present several methods for confidence interval estimation. Estimation ...

  15. Medicago truncatula and Glycine max: Different Drought Tolerance and Similar Local Response of the Root Nodule Proteome.

    Gil-Quintana, Erena; Lyon, David; Staudinger, Christiana; Wienkoop, Stefanie; González, Esther M


    Legume crops present important agronomical and environmental advantages mainly due to their capacity to reduce atmospheric N2 to ammonium via symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF). This process is very sensitive to abiotic stresses such as drought, but the mechanism underlying this response is not fully understood. The goal of the current work is to compare the drought response of two legumes with high economic impact and research importance, Medicago truncatula and Glycine max, by characterizing their root nodule proteomes. Our results show that, although M. truncatula exhibits lower water potential values under drought conditions compared to G. max, SNF declined analogously in the two legumes. Both of their nodule proteomes are very similar, and comparable down-regulation responses in the diverse protein functional groups were identified (mainly proteins related to the metabolism of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur). We suggest lipoxygenases and protein turnover as newly recognized players in SNF regulation. Partial drought conditions applied to a split-root system resulted in the local down-regulation of the entire proteome of drought-stressed nodules in both legumes. The high degree of similarity between both legume proteomes suggests that the vast amount of research conducted on M. truncatula could be applied to economically important legume crops, such as soybean.

  16. Genome-wide identification and evolution of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) gene family in Glycine max.

    Liu, Yuan; Wei, Haichao


    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crop plants. Wild and cultivated soybean varieties have significant differences worth further investigation, such as plant morphology, seed size, and seed coat development; these characters may be related to auxin biology. The PIN gene family encodes essential transport proteins in cell-to-cell auxin transport, but little research on soybean PIN genes (GmPIN genes) has been done, especially with respect to the evolution and differences between wild and cultivated soybean. In this study, we retrieved 23 GmPIN genes from the latest updated G. max genome database; six GmPIN protein sequences were changed compared with the previous database. Based on the Plant Genome Duplication Database, 18 GmPIN genes have been involved in segment duplication. Three pairs of GmPIN genes arose after the second soybean genome duplication, and six occurred after the first genome duplication. The duplicated GmPIN genes retained similar expression patterns. All the duplicated GmPIN genes experienced purifying selection (Ka/Ks < 1) to prevent accumulation of non-synonymous mutations and thus remained more similar. In addition, we also focused on the artificial selection of the soybean PIN genes. Five artificially selected GmPIN genes were identified by comparing the genome sequence of 17 wild and 14 cultivated soybean varieties. Our research provides useful and comprehensive basic information for understanding GmPIN genes.

  17. A bacterial gene codA encoding cytosine deaminase is an effective conditional negative selectable marker in Glycine max.

    Shao, Min; Michno, Jean-Michel; Hotton, Sara K; Blechl, Ann; Thomson, James


    Research describes the practical application of the codA negative selection marker in Soybean. Conditions are given for codA selection at both the shooting and rooting stages of regeneration. Conditional negative selection is a powerful technique whereby the absence of a gene product allows survival in otherwise lethal conditions. In plants, the Escherichia coli gene codA has been employed as a negative selection marker. Our research demonstrates that codA can be used as a negative selection marker in soybean, Glycine max. Like most plants, soybean does not contain cytosine deaminase activity and we show here that wild-type seedlings are not affected by inclusion of 5-FC in growth media. In contrast, transgenic G. max plants expressing codA and grown in the presence of more than 200 μg/mL 5-FC exhibit reductions in hypocotyl and taproot lengths, and severe suppression of lateral root development. We also demonstrate a novel negative selection-rooting assay in which codA-expressing aerial tissues or shoot cuttings are inhibited for root formation in media containing 5-FC. Taken together these techniques allow screening during either the regeneration or rooting phase of tissue culture.

  18. GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 are seed-specific activators for isoflavonoid biosynthesis in Glycine max.

    Han, Xiaoyan; Yin, Qinggang; Liu, Jinyue; Jiang, Wenbo; Di, Shaokang; Pang, Yongzhen


    GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 are key positive regulators that are involved in isoflavonoid biosynthesis in seeds of Glycine max, and they activate the expression of several structural genes in the isoflavonoid pathway. MYB transcription factors (TFs) are major regulators involved in flavonoid/isoflavonoid biosynthesis in many plant species. However, functions of most MYB TFs remain unknown in flavonoid/isoflavonoid pathway in Glycine max. In this study, we identified 321 MYB TFs by genome-wide searching, and further isolated and functionally characterized two MYB TFs, GmMYB58 and GmMYB205. The deduced GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 proteins contain highly conserved R2R3 repeat domain at the N-terminal region that is the signature motif of R2R3-type MYB TFs. GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 were highly expressed in early seed development stages than in the other tested organs. GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 GFP fusion proteins were found to be localized in the nucleus when they were transiently expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplast. Both GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 can activate the promoter activities of GmCHS, GmIFS2, and GmHID in the transient trans-activation assays, and the activation of GmHID by both GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 was further confirmed by yeast one-hybrid assay. In addition, over-expression of GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 resulted in significant increases in expression levels of several pathway genes in soybean hairy roots, in particular, IFS2 by more than fivefolds in GmMYB205-over-expressing lines. Moreover, isoflavonoid contents were remarkably enhanced in the GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 over-expressing hairy roots than in the control. Our results suggest that GmMYB58 and GmMYB205 are seed-specific TFs, and they can enhance isoflavonoid biosynthesis mainly through the regulation of GmIFS2 and GmHID in G. max.

  19. A correlation between host-mediated expression of parasite genes as tandem inverted repeats and abrogation of development of female Heterodera glycines cyst formation during infection of Glycine max.

    Klink, Vincent P; Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Martins, Veronica; Macdonald, Margaret H; Beard, Hunter S; Alkharouf, Nadim W; Lee, Seong-Kon; Park, Soo-Chul; Matthews, Benjamin F


    Host-mediated (hm) expression of parasite genes as tandem inverted repeats was investigated as a means to abrogate the formation of mature Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) female cysts during its infection of Glycine max (soybean). A Gateway-compatible hm plant transformation system was developed specifically for these experiments in G. max. Three steps then were taken to identify H. glycines candidate genes. First, a pool of 150 highly conserved H. glycines homologs of genes having lethal mutant phenotypes or phenocopies from the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were identified. Second, annotation of those 150 genes on the Affymetrix soybean GeneChip allowed for the identification of a subset of 131 genes whose expression could be monitored during the parasitic phase of the H. glycines life cycle. Third, a microarray analyses identified a core set of 32 genes with induced expression (>2.0-fold, log base 2) during the parasitic stages of infection. H. glycines homologs of small ribosomal protein 3a and 4 (Hg-rps-3a [accession number CB379877] and Hg-rps-4 [accession number CB278739]), synaptobrevin (Hg-snb-1 [accession number BF014436]) and a spliceosomal SR protein (Hg-spk-1 [accession number BI451523.1]) were tested for functionality in hm expression studies. Effects on H. glycines development were observed 8 days after infection. Experiments demonstrated that 81-93% fewer females developed on transgenic roots containing the genes engineered as tandem inverted repeats. The effect resembles RNA interference. The methodology has been used here as an alternative approach to engineer resistance to H. glycines.

  20. Genome-Wide Identification and Functional Characterization of UDP-Glucosyltransferase Genes Involved in Flavonoid Biosynthesis in Glycine max.

    Yin, Qinggang; Shen, Guoan; Di, Shaokang; Fan, Cunying; Chang, Zhenzhan; Pang, Yongzhen


    Flavonoids, natural products abundant in the model legume Glycine max, confer benefits to plants and to animal health. Flavonoids are present in soybean mainly as glycoconjugates. However, the mechanisms of biosynthesis of flavonoid glycosides are largely unknown in G. max. In the present study, 212 putative UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes were identified in G. max by genome-wide searching. The GmUGT genes were distributed differentially among the 20 chromosomes, and they were expressed in various tissues with distinct expression profiles. We further analyzed the enzymatic activities of 11 GmUGTs that are potentially involved in flavonoid glycosylation, and found that six of them (UGT72X4, UGT72Z3, UGT73C20, UGT88A13, UGT88E19 and UGT92G4) exhibited activity toward flavonol, isoflavone, flavone and flavanol aglycones with different kinetic properties. Among them, UGT72X4, UGT72Z3 and UGT92G4 are flavonol-specific UGTs, and UGT73C20 and UGT88E19 exhibited activity toward both flavonol and isoflavone aglycones. In particular, UGT88A13 exhibited activity toward epicatechin, but not for the flavonol aglycones kaempferol and quercetin. Overexpression of these six GmUGT genes significantly increased the contents of isoflavone and flavonol glucosides in soybean hairy roots. In addition, overexpression of these six GmUGT genes also affected flavonol glycoside contents differently in seedlings and seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. We provide valuable information on the identification of all UGT genes in soybean, and candidate GmUGT genes for potential metabolic engineering of flavonoid compounds in both Escherichia coli and plants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  1. Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa (mucuna deeringiana and soybean (glycine max Características físico-químicas e propriedades funcionais de vitabosa(Mucuna deeringiana e soja (Glycine max

    Sandra Patricia Chaparro Acuña


    Full Text Available Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa flour (Mucuna deeringiana and soybean flour (Glycine max were determined. Oil absorption capacity was higher in vitabosa. Water absorption capacity was higher in soy and it was affected by the change in the ionic strength of the medium. Emulsifying Activity (EA decreased with increasing concentration of flour, while Emulsifying Stability (ES showed an increased. EA and ES of flours have more ionic strength in the range between 0.0 and 0.4 M, but it is reduced afterwards with the higher concentration of NaCl. Foaming stability varied with the concentration of flour solution reaching maximum values of 39 and 33% for vitabosa and soybean, respectively at 10% flour concentration.Vitabosa had the best foaming capacity (56% to 0.6 M compared with soybeans (47% to 0.4 M. Maximum capacity of gelation was observed in vitabosa at 10% flour concentration. Increases in ionic strength of the flour solution, at low salt concentrations (Varias características físico-químicas e funcionais para farinha de vitabosa (Mucuna deeringiana e soja (Glycine max foram avaliadas. A vitabosa apresentou maior capacidade de absorção de óleo enquanto a soja mostrou maior capacidade de absorção de água, sendo esta última altamente dependente das mudanças na força iônica do meio. A Atividade Emulsificante (AE diminuiu com o aumento da concentração de farinha, enquanto que a estabilidade de emulsão (ES aumentou. Tanto para a farinha de vitabosa quanto a de soja, os valores de AE e ES incrementaram no intervalo 0,0-0,4 M. Com relação à estabilidade da espuma, esta propriedade variou com a concentração da farinha, atingindo valores máximos de 39% (vitabosa e 33% (soja para uma concentração de 10%. A farinha de vitabosa teve a melhor capacidade espumante (56% para 0,6 M em comparação com a de soja (47% a 0,4 M. A maior capacidade de gelificação foi observada em farinha de vitabosa para

  2. Allergies

    ... most common allergens. Airborne particles that can cause allergies include dust mites (tiny bugs that live in house dust); mold ... breathe in (like pollen, pet dander, or dust mites) or insect allergies. Immunotherapy doesn't help with some allergies, like ...

  3. Physiological responses of three soybean species (Glycine soja, G. gracilis, and G. max cv. Melrose) to salinity stress.

    Liu, Haoran; Song, Jinhui; Dong, Lijun; Wang, Di; Zhang, Shuling; Liu, Jianfeng


    Understanding the mechanism for salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja) can help researchers improve that trait in cultivated soybean lines. We analyzed the effects of excess NaCl on the growth, physiology, and ion distribution in three soybean species: wild G. soja (W8), semi-wild G. gracilis (SW18), and the cultivated salt-sensitive G. max (cv. Melrose). These comparisons revealed that, under salt stress, shoot and root lengths and biomass (either shoot or root dry weights) were significantly higher for the W8 genotype than for the other two. Most of the morphological parameters for roots from the W8 plants were also increased, including total length, specific root length, and surface area. However, the average root diameter for W8 was significantly lower than that of either SW18 or 'Melrose' soybeans. In response to salinity, photosynthesis was suppressed to a greater extent in 'Melrose' than in W8. The relatively higher tolerance shown by W8 plants was also associated with lower levels of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and relative electrical conductivity, but higher activities by superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, as well as more free proline and glycine betaine. In addition, the W8 plants contained less Na(+) and Cl(-), but more K(+), and they had a higher K(+)/Na(+) ratio in their leaves and roots when compared with either SW18 or 'Melrose' plants. Therefore, the W8 genotype performs better in terms of seedling growth, photosynthetic characteristics, and physiological indexes. These findings provide guidance for developing new soybean cultivars with improved tolerance to salt stress. Our data also contribute to the knowledge base for plant salt tolerance as a tool for increasing the yields of other crops in high-salinity soils.

  4. Ensifer shofinae sp. nov., a novel rhizobial species isolated from root nodules of soybean (Glycine max).

    Chen, Wen Hao; Yang, Sheng Hui; Li, Zhao Hu; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin; Chen, Wen Feng


    Two bacterial strains isolated from root nodules of soybean were characterized phylogenetically as members of a distinct group in the genus Ensifer based on 16S rRNA gene comparisons. They were also verified as a separated group by the concatenated sequence analyses of recA, atpD and glnII (with similarities ≤93.9% to the type strains for defined species), and by the average nucleotide identities (ANI) between the whole genome sequence of the representative strain CCBAU 251167(T) and those of the closely related strains in Ensifer glycinis and Ensifer fredii (90.5% and 90.3%, respectively). Phylogeny of symbiotic genes (nodC and nifH) grouped these two strains together with some soybean-nodulating strains of E. fredii, E. glycinis and Ensifer sojae. Nodulation tests indicated that the representative strain CCBAU 251167(T) could form root nodules with capability of nitrogen fixing on its host plant and Glycine soja, Cajanus cajan, Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus vulgaris and Astragalus membranaceus, and it formed ineffective nodules on Leucaena leucocephala. Strain CCBAU 251167(T) contained fatty acids 18:1 ω9c, 18:0 iso and 20:0, differing from other related strains. Utilization of l-threonine and d-serine as carbon source, growth at pH 6.0 and intolerance of 1% (w/v) NaCl distinguished strain CCBAU 251167(T) from other type strains of the related species. The genome size of CCBAU 251167(T) was 6.2Mbp, comprising 7,581 predicted genes with DNA G+C content of 59.9mol% and 970 unique genes. Therefore, a novel species, Ensifer shofinae sp. nov., is proposed, with CCBAU 251167(T) (=ACCC 19939(T)=LMG 29645(T)) as type strain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Soybean Glycine Max L Merill Promiscuity Reaction To Indigenous Bradyrhizobia inoculation In Some Ghanaian Soils

    Phanuel Y. Klogo


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT For many tropical countries particularly in Africa Biological Nitrogen Fixation BNF continues to be the most promising alternative or supplement to the use of chemical Nitrogen fertilizers for sustainable Agriculture. In contrast to cowpea that nodulate profusely in tropical soilswith the naturally occurring bradyrhizobia nodulation and nitrogen fixation in the American-type soybean in similar environments has largely depended on inoculating bradyrhizobia into the soil. The development of the Tropical Glycine Cross TGx soybean varieties by IITA has made it possible for these promiscuous varieties to nodulate with the naturally occurring strains belonging to the cowpea Bradyrhizobiumspp. The Most Probable Number MPN technique was used to determine the bradyrhizobial population in these soils. Eighty four Bradyrhizobium isolates obtained from randomly selected nodules on soybean were assessed for effectiveness in nitrogen fixation. Three of the most effective isolates were used in inoculation studies carried out in the greenhouse atthe University of Ghana-Legonon three promiscuous soybean varieties Anidaso TGx 813-6D TGx 1903-8F and TGx 1448-2E and a non- promiscuous genotype Davis in three Ghanaian soil series Toje Chromic cambisols Chichiwere Dystricfluvisol and Bekwai Ferric acrisols. There were tremendous inoculation responses in these soils for both the promiscuous and non-promiscuous cultivars with even the promiscuous ones responding better to inoculation than the non-promiscuous Davis. Inoculation gave rise to significant increases in nodule number nodule dry weight shoot dry weight and total nitrogen accumulation compared to the uninoculated control even intheChichiwere soil series which harboured the highestpopulation of indigenous bradyrhizobia suggesting that the populations of the naturally occurring bradyrhizobia in these soils were either not highly competitive or sufficient for optimum nodulation and nitrogen fixation. For

  6. Development and Evaluation of Glycine max Germplasm Lines with Quantitative Resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    McCaghey, Megan; Willbur, Jaime; Ranjan, Ashish; Grau, Craig R; Chapman, Scott; Diers, Brian; Groves, Carol; Kabbage, Mehdi; Smith, Damon L


    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the causal agent of Sclerotinia stem rot, is a devastating fungal pathogen of soybean that can cause significant yield losses to growers when environmental conditions are favorable for the disease. The development of resistant varieties has proven difficult. However, poor resistance in commercial cultivars can be improved through additional breeding efforts and understanding the genetic basis of resistance. The objective of this project was to develop soybean germplasm lines that have a high level of Sclerotinia stem rot resistance to be used directly as cultivars or in breeding programs as a source of improved Sclerotinia stem rot resistance. Sclerotinia stem rot-resistant soybean germplasm was developed by crossing two sources of resistance, W04-1002 and AxN-1-55, with lines exhibiting resistance to Heterodera glycines and Cadophora gregata in addition to favorable agronomic traits. Following greenhouse evaluations of 1,076 inbred lines derived from these crosses, 31 lines were evaluated for resistance in field tests during the 2014 field season. Subsequently, 11 Sclerotinia stem rot resistant breeding lines were moved forward for field evaluation in 2015, and seven elite breeding lines were selected and evaluated in the 2016 field season. To better understand resistance mechanisms, a marker analysis was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci linked to resistance. Thirteen markers associated with Sclerotinia stem rot resistance were identified on chromosomes 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19. Our markers confirm previously reported chromosomal regions associated with Sclerotinia stem rot resistance as well as a novel region of chromosome 16. The seven elite germplasm lines were also re-evaluated within a greenhouse setting using a cut petiole technique with multiple S. sclerotiorum isolates to test the durability of physiological resistance of the lines in a controlled environment. This work presents a novel and comprehensive classical

  7. Identification of SNPs in RNA-seq data of two cultivars of Glycine max (soybean differing in drought resistance

    Ramon Oliveira Vidal


    Full Text Available The legume Glycine max (soybean plays an important economic role in the international commodities market, with a world production of almost 260 million tons for the 2009/2010 harvest. The increase in drought events in the last decade has caused production losses in recent harvests. This fact compels us to understand the drought tolerance mechanisms in soybean, taking into account its variability among commercial and developing cultivars. In order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes up-regulated during drought stress, we evaluated suppression subtractive libraries (SSH from two contrasting cultivars upon water deprivation: sensitive (BR 16 and tolerant (Embrapa 48. A total of 2,222 soybean genes were up-regulated in both cultivars. Our method identified more than 6,000 SNPs in tolerant and sensitive Brazilian cultivars in those drought stress related genes. Among these SNPs, 165 (in 127 genes are positioned at soybean chromosome ends, including transcription factors (MYB, WRKY related to tolerance to abiotic stress.

  8. Identification of SNPs in RNA-seq data of two cultivars of Glycine max (soybean) differing in drought resistance.

    Vidal, Ramon Oliveira; do Nascimento, Leandro Costa; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella


    The legume Glycine max (soybean) plays an important economic role in the international commodities market, with a world production of almost 260 million tons for the 2009/2010 harvest. The increase in drought events in the last decade has caused production losses in recent harvests. This fact compels us to understand the drought tolerance mechanisms in soybean, taking into account its variability among commercial and developing cultivars. In order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes up-regulated during drought stress, we evaluated suppression subtractive libraries (SSH) from two contrasting cultivars upon water deprivation: sensitive (BR 16) and tolerant (Embrapa 48). A total of 2,222 soybean genes were up-regulated in both cultivars. Our method identified more than 6,000 SNPs in tolerant and sensitive Brazilian cultivars in those drought stress related genes. Among these SNPs, 165 (in 127 genes) are positioned at soybean chromosome ends, including transcription factors (MYB, WRKY) related to tolerance to abiotic stress.

  9. Molecular identification of dominant microflora associated with 'Hawaijar' - a traditional fermented soybean (Glycine max (L.)) food of Manipur, India.

    Jeyaram, K; Mohendro Singh, W; Premarani, T; Devi, A Ranjita; Chanu, K Selina; Talukdar, N C; Singh, M Rohinikumar


    The dominant microorganisms in 'Hawaijar', a traditional non-salted fermented soybean (Glycine max (L.)) food of Manipur, India, were isolated and identified by molecular techniques. Bacillus spp. were the predominant microorganisms in 'Hawaijar'. A total of 274 isolates were obtained from forty-one 'Hawaijar' samples collected from household preparations and markets of valley districts of Manipur. Phenotypic grouping followed by Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Digestion Analysis (ARDRA), PCR amplification of 16S-23S rDNA region, RFLP by Hae III and Hind III double digest (by comparing MTCC type strains) and sequencing of 9-1514 region of 16S rDNA resulted in three major phylogenic groups. Bacillus subtilis group comprising B. subtilis and B. licheniformis representing 112 isolates, B. cereus group representing of 128 isolates and Staphylococcus spp. group comprising S. aureus and S. sciuri representing 23 isolates. A few bacterial isolates belongs to Alkaligenes spp. and Providencia rettgeri were also found. Genetic diversity of B. subtilis phylogenic group was investigated by RAPD-PCR. Eighty-two strains of B. subtilis phylogenic group were identified using RAPD-PCR using OPA-18 and OPA-20 primers. These strains will be investigated for potential starter culture selection.

  10. Isolation and characterization of "GmScream" promoters that regulate highly expressing soybean (Glycine max Merr.) genes.

    Zhang, Ning; McHale, Leah K; Finer, John J


    To increase our understanding of the regulatory components that control gene expression, it is important to identify, isolate and characterize new promoters. In this study, a group of highly expressed soybean (Glycine max Merr.) genes, which we have named "GmScream", were first identified from RNA-Seq data. The promoter regions were then identified, cloned and fused with the coding region of the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene, for introduction and analysis in different tissues using 3 tools for validation. Approximately half of the GmScream promoters identified showed levels of GFP expression comparable to or higher than the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S (35S) promoter. Using transient expression in lima bean cotyledonary tissues, the strongest GmScream promoters gave over 6-fold higher expression than the 35S promoter while several other GmScream promoters showed 2- to 3-fold higher expression. The two highest expressing promoters, GmScreamM4 and GmScreamM8, regulated two different elongation factor 1A genes in soybean. In stably transformed soybean tissues, GFP driven by the GmScreamM4 or GmScreamM8 promoter exhibited constitutive high expression in most tissues with preferentially higher expression in proliferative embryogenic tissues, procambium, vascular tissues, root tips and young embryos. Using deletion analysis of the promoter, two proximal regions of the GmScreamM8 promoter were identified as contributing significantly to high levels of gene expression.

  11. Vitamin E levels in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) expressing a p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate gene from oat (Avena sativa L.).

    Kramer, Catherine M; Launis, Karen L; Traber, Maret G; Ward, Dennis P


    The enzyme p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is ubiquitous in plants and functions in the tyrosine catabolic pathway, resulting in the formation of homogentisate. Homogentisate is the aromatic precursor of all plastoquinones and tocochromanols, including tocopherols and tocotrienols. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has been genetically modified to express the gene avhppd-03 that encodes the protein AvHPPD-03 derived from oat (Avena sativa L.). The AvHPPD-03 isozyme has an inherent reduced binding affinity for mesotrione, a herbicide that inhibits the wild-type soybean HPPD enzyme. Expression of avhppd-03 in soybean plants confers a mesotrione-tolerant phenotype. Seeds from three different avhppd-03-expressing soybean events were quantitatively assessed for content of eight vitamin E isoforms. Although increased levels of two tocopherol isoforms were identified for each of the three soybean events, they were within, or not substantially different from, the ranges of these isoforms found in nontransgenic soybean varieties. The increases of these tocopherols in the avhppd-03-expressing soybean events may have a slight benefit with regard to vitamin E nutrition but, given the commercial processing of soybeans, are unlikely to have a material impact on human nutrition with regard to vitamin E concentrations in soybean oil.

  12. Host-pathogen interactions. XIV. Isolation and partial characterization of an elicitor from yeast extract. [Glycine max, Phytophthora megasperma

    Hahn, M.G.; Albersheim, P.


    An elicitor of glyceollin accumulation in soybeans (Glycine max L.) has been isolated from a commercially available extract of brewers' yeast. Yeast is not a known pathogen of plants. The elicitor was isolated by precipitation in 80% (v/v) ethanol followed by column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, sulfopropyl-Sephadex, and concanavalin A-Sepharose. Compositional and structural analysis showed the elicitor to be a glucan containing terminal, 3-, 6-, and 3,6-linked glucosyl residues. The yeast elicitor stimulates the accumulation of glyceollin in the cotyledons and hypocotyls of soybeans when as little as 15 nanograms or 100 nanograms of the elicitor is applied to the respective tissues. The yeast elicitor is very similar in both structure and absolute elicitor activity to an elicitor isolated from the mycelial walls of Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae, a pathogen of soybeans. These and other results of this laboratory suggest that plants are able to respond to the presence of a wide range of fungi by recognizing, as foreign to the plant, structural polysaccharides of the mycelial walls of the fungi.

  13. Comprehensive phenolic composition analysis and evaluation of Yak-Kong soybean (Glycine max) for the prevention of atherosclerosis.

    Lee, Charles C; Dudonné, Stéphanie; Dubé, Pascal; Desjardins, Yves; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Ji Seung; Kim, Jong-Eun; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Chang Yong


    Yak-Kong (YK) (Glycine max), a small black soybean cultivar with a green embryo, was evaluated for functional constituents with a focus on atherosclerosis prevention. In comparison to common yellow and black soybean cultivars, YK contains significantly higher concentrations of antioxidants, particularly in its seed coat. A comprehensive phenolic composition analysis revealed that proanthocyanidins were the major phenolic group in YK. In contrast to other proanthocyanidin-rich foods, YK was rich in bioavailable proanthocyanidins (with a degree of polymerization ≤3) specifically with A-type dimers. Significant concentrations of phloridzin and coumestrol were also exclusively found in YK seed coat and the embryo, respectively. Extracts of both the proanthocyanidin-rich seed coat and isoflavonoid-rich embryo of YK attenuated adhesion of THP-1 to LPS-stimulated human umbilical vascular endothelial cells, suggesting that they are important sources of coronary heart disease-preventive phenolics. YK has promising potential for further development as a functional food source targeted at atherosclerosis prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Meta-Analyses of QTLs Associated with Protein and Oil Contents and Compositions in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Seed.

    Van, Kyujung; McHale, Leah K


    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a valuable and nutritious crop in part due to the high protein meal and vegetable oil produced from its seed. Soybean producers desire cultivars with both elevated seed protein and oil concentrations as well as specific amino acid and fatty acid profiles. Numerous studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed composition traits, but validation of these QTLs has rarely been carried out. In this study, we have collected information, including genetic location and additive effects, on each QTL for seed contents of protein and oil, as well as amino acid and fatty acid compositions from over 80 studies. Using BioMercator V. 4.2, a meta-QTL analysis was performed with genetic information comprised of 175 QTLs for protein, 205 QTLs for oil, 156 QTLs for amino acids, and 113 QTLs for fatty acids. A total of 55 meta-QTL for seed composition were detected on 6 out of 20 chromosomes. Meta-QTL possessed narrower confidence intervals than the original QTL and candidate genes were identified within each meta-QTL. These candidate genes elucidate potential natural genetic variation in genes contributing to protein and oil biosynthesis and accumulation, providing meaningful information to further soybean breeding programs.

  15. Genome-Wide Identification, Classification, and Expression Analysis of Amino Acid Transporter Gene Family in Glycine Max.

    Cheng, Lin; Yuan, Hong-Yu; Ren, Ren; Zhao, Shi-Qi; Han, Ya-Peng; Zhou, Qi-Ying; Ke, Dan-Xia; Wang, Ying-Xiang; Wang, Lei


    Amino acid transporters (AATs) play important roles in transporting amino acid across cellular membranes and are essential for plant growth and development. To date, the AAT gene family in soybean (Glycine max L.) has not been characterized. In this study, we identified 189 AAT genes from the entire soybean genomic sequence, and classified them into 12 distinct subfamilies based upon their sequence composition and phylogenetic positions. To further investigate the functions of these genes, we analyzed the chromosome distributions, gene structures, duplication patterns, phylogenetic tree, tissue expression patterns of the 189 AAT genes in soybean. We found that a large number of AAT genes in soybean were expanded via gene duplication, 46 and 36 GmAAT genes were WGD/segmental and tandemly duplicated, respectively. Further comprehensive analyses of the expression profiles of GmAAT genes in various stages of vegetative and reproductive development showed that soybean AAT genes exhibited preferential or distinct expression patterns among different tissues. Overall, our study provides a framework for further analysis of the biological functions of AAT genes in either soybean or other crops.

  16. Auxins action on Glycine max secretory phospholipase A2 is mediated by the interfacial properties imposed by the phytohormones.

    Mariani, María Elisa; Madoery, Ricardo Román; Fidelio, Gerardo Daniel


    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) are soluble enzymes that catalyze the conversion of phospholipids to lysophospholipids and free fatty acids at membrane interfaces. The effect of IAA and IPA auxins over the activity of recombinant sPLA2 isoforms from Glycine max was studied using membrane model systems including mixed micelles and Langmuir lipid monolayers. Both phytohormones stimulate the activity of both plant sPLA2 using DLPC/Triton mixed micelles as substrate. To elucidate the mechanism of action of the phytohormones, we showed that both auxins are able to self-penetrate lipid monolayers and cause an increment in surface pressure and an expansion of lipid/phytohormone mixed interfaces. The stimulating effect of auxins over phospholipase A2 activity was still present when using Langmuir mixed monolayers as organized substrate regardless of sPLA2 source (plant or animal). All the data suggest that the stimulating effect of auxins over sPLA2 is due to a more favorable interfacial environment rather to a direct effect over the enzyme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization and functional analysis of a recombinant tau class glutathione transferase GmGSTU2-2 from Glycine max.

    Skopelitou, Katholiki; Muleta, Abdi W; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C; Chronopoulou, Evangelia G; Pavli, Ourania; Flemetakis, Emmanouil; Skaracis, Georgios N; Labrou, Nikolaos E


    The plant tau class glutathione transferases (GSTs) perform diverse catalytic as well as non-catalytic roles in detoxification of xenobiotics, prevention of oxidative damage and endogenous metabolism. In the present work, the tau class isoenzyme GSTU2-2 from Glycine max (GmGSTU2-2) was characterized. Gene expression analysis of GmGSTU2 suggested a highly specific and selective induction pattern to osmotic stresses, indicating that gene expression is controlled by a specific mechanism. Purified, recombinant GmGSTU2-2 was shown to exhibit wide-range specificity towards xenobiotic compounds and ligand-binding properties, suggesting that the isoenzyme could provide catalytic flexibility in numerous metabolic conditions. Homology modeling and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the catalytic and ligand binding sites of GmGSTU2-2 are well conserved compared to other tau class GSTs. Structural analysis identified key amino acid residues in the hydrophobic binding site and provided insights into the substrate specificity of this enzyme. The results established that GmGSTU2-2 participates in a broad network of catalytic and regulatory functions involved in the plant stress response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of inoculation with organic-phosphorus-mineralizing bacteria on soybean (Glycine max) growth and indigenous bacterial community diversity.

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Yang; Duan, Man-Li


    Three different organic-phosphorus-mineralizing bacteria (OPMB) strains were inoculated to soil planted with soybean (Glycine max), and their effects on soybean growth and indigenous bacterial community diversity were investigated. Inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens Z4-1 and Brevibacillus agri L7-1 increased organic phosphorus degradation by 22% and 30%, respectively, compared with the control at the mature stage. Strains P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 significantly improved the soil alkaline phosphatase activity, average well color development, and the soybean root activity. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated that P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 could persist in the soil at relative abundances of 2.0%-6.4% throughout soybean growth. Thus, P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 could potentially be used in organic-phosphorus-mineralizing biofertilizers. OPMB inoculation altered the genetic structure of the soil bacterial communities but had no apparent influence on the carbon source utilization profiles of the soil bacterial communities. Principal components analysis showed that the changes in the carbon source utilization profiles of bacterial community depended mainly on the plant growth stages rather than inoculation with OPMB. The results help to understand the evolution of the soil bacterial community after OPMB inoculation.

  19. [Characterization and subcellular localization of two SBP genes and their response to abiotic stress in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)].

    Yang, Yan; Wang, Shuang; Huang, Liyan; Ma, Hongyu; Shu, Yingjie; He, Xiaoling; Ma, Hao


    High temperature and humidity stress during seed growth and development of spring soybean can result in seed deterioration in South China. We isolated two genes (GmSBP and GmSBPL) encoding putative SBP proteins from soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) to study their biological functions and response to abiotic stress,. The two SBP proteins are hydrophilic and incomplete membrane ones. Real-time quantitative (RT-PCR) analysis reveals that the expression of the two genes in the developing seeds of the seed deterioration resistant cultivar Xiangdou No. 3 and sensitive cultivar Ningzhen No. 1 was significantly affected by high temperature and humidity treatment. Meanwhile, the levels of sucrose and soluble sugar in the developing seeds of both cultivars were also affected under high temperature and humidity stress. During seed growth and development, the expression of the two genes as well as the levels of sucrose and soluble sugar reached the highest at 30 days after flower. GmSBP2 and GmSBPL were found to be differentially expressed in different soybean tissues. Sub-cellular localization indicated that two genes were located in cytoplasm and cell membrane. Our results indicate that GmSBP2 and GmSBPL might be involved in the response to abiotic stress, which will enrich our understanding of pre-harvest seed deterioration and resistance in soybean from one side.

  20. Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and ozone on leaf thermotolerance in field-grown Glycine max.

    Mishra, Sasmita; Heckathorn, Scott A; Barua, Deepak; Wang, Dan; Joshi, Puneet; Hamilton Iii, E William; Frantz, Jonathan


    Humans are increasing atmospheric CO2, ground-level ozone (O3), and mean and acute high temperatures. Laboratory studies show that elevated CO2 can increase thermotolerance of photosynthesis in C3 plants. O3-related oxidative stress may offset benefits of elevated CO2 during heat-waves. We determined effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on leaf thermotolerance of field-grown Glycine max (soybean, C3). Photosynthetic electron transport (et) was measured in attached leaves heated in situ and detached leaves heated under ambient CO2 and O3. Heating decreased et, which O3 exacerbated. Elevated CO2 prevented O3-related decreases during heating, but only increased et under ambient O3 in the field. Heating decreased chlorophyll and carotenoids, especially under elevated CO2. Neither CO2 nor O3 affected heat-shock proteins. Heating increased catalase (except in high O3) and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), but not Mn-SOD; CO2 and O3 decreased catalase but neither SOD. Soluble carbohydrates were unaffected by heating, but increased in elevated CO2. Thus, protection of photosynthesis during heat stress by elevated CO2 occurs in field-grown soybean under ambient O3, as in the lab, and high CO2 limits heat damage under elevated O3, but this protection is likely from decreased photorespiration and stomatal conductance rather than production of heat-stress adaptations.

  1. Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2 and Ozone on Leaf Thermotolerance in Field-grown Glycine max

    Sasmita Mishra; Scott A. Heckathorn; Deepak Barua; Dan Wang; Puneet Joshi; E. William Hamilton Ⅲ; Jonathan Frantz


    Humans are increasing atmospheric CO2, ground-level ozone (O3), and mean and acute high temperatures. Laboratory studies show that elevated CO2 can increase thermotolerance of photosynthesis in C3 plants. O3-related oxidative stress may offset benefits of elevated CO2 during heat-waves. We determined effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on leaf thermotolerance of field-grown Glycine max (soybean, C3). Photosynthetic electron transport (φet) was measured in attached leaves heated in situ and detached leaves heated under ambient CO2 and O3. Heating decreased φet, which O3 exacerbated. Elevated CO2 prevented O3-related decreases during heating, but only increased φet under ambient O3 in the field. Heating decreased chlorophyll and carotenoids, especially under elevated CO2. Neither CO2 nor O3 affected heat-shock proteins. Heating increased catalase (except in high O3) and CulZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), but not MnSOD; CO2 and O3 decreased catalase but neither SOD. Soluble carbohydrates were unaffected by heating, but increased in elevated CO2. Thus, protection of photosynthesis during heat stress by elevated CO2 occurs in field-grown soybean under ambient O3, as in the lab, and high CO2 limits heat damage under elevated O3, but this protection is likely from decreased photorespiration and stomatal conductance rather than production of heat-stress adaptations.

  2. MDA and Histologic Profile of Pancreatic Diabetic-Rats Model Administered With Extract of Glycine max (L. Merr.

    Luh Putu Gina


    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus is characterized by leveling up glucose in human blood and affects increasing of free radicals in body as well as leading to cellular oxidative stress. Experimentally, this condition is able to be characterized by increasing malondialdehyde (MDA level in cell and histological changing in pancreas appearance. Consumption of antioxidant substances was reported able to reduce the MDA quantity as free radicals. Black soybean or Glycine max (L Merr. was reported contains important antioxidant agents such as anthocyanin and isoflavone. This paper discloses recent investigation on application of black soybean water extract to reduce the MDA level on diabetes mellitus-rat model induced by STZ (DM and also reports the pancreas histological changing of the DM rats. Investigation revealed that black soybean water extract significantly affect decreasing of MDA level by 4.9%, 27.1% and 45.7% in three different doses theraphy (500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg BW. Histologically, it also clearly indicates repairing of pancreas tissue of the DM rats.

  3. Nodule Formation and Development in Soybeans (Glycine max L.) in Response to Phosphorus Supply in Solution Culture

    MIAO Shu-Jie; QIAO Yun-Fa; HAN Xiao-Zeng; M. AN


    Phosphorus (P) is necessary for growth and nitrogen fixation, and thus its deficiency is a major factor limiting legume production in most agricultural soils. The effect of phosphorus supply on nodule development and its role in soybeans (Glycine max L.) was studied in a nutrient solution. Plants were inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and grown for 35 days in a glasshouse at a day and night temperature of 25 ℃ and 15 ℃, respectively. Although increasing P supply increased the concentrations of P and N in the shoots and roots, the external P supply did not significantly affect the P concentration in the nodules, and the N fixed per unit nodule biomass decreased with increasing P supply. The nitrogen content in the shoots correlated well with the P content (r = 0.92**). At an inoculation level of 102 cells mL-1, the P supply did not affect the number of nodules; however, at inoculation levels of 103.5 and 105 cells mL-1, increasing P supply increased both the number and size of nodules. Irrespective of the inoculation level, increasing P supply increased the nodule biomass relative to the biomass of the host plant. It is suggested that the P deficiency specifically inhibited the nodule development and thereby the total N2 fixation.

  4. Evaluating effect of biofertilizer on nodulation and soybean (Glycine max L plants growth characteristics under water deficit stress of seed

    M. Tajik Khaveh


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of biofertilizer on soybean (Glycine max L. seed vigor that produced under water deficit condition and related traits, an experiment was conducted in a factorial layout based of complete randomized block design with four replications at the research greenhouse of Aboureihan campus- Tehran University, Iran. Experimental treatments were include biofertilizer (seed inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Pseudomonas fluorescens, co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae, Cultivar (Zalta Zalha and Clark×Hobbit line and water deficit stress [irrigation plants after 50 (normal irrigation, 100 (medium stress, 150 (sever stress mm evaporation from pan class A, in parents field]. Results showed that the water deficit stress had negative effects on seed quality and seedling emergence percentage, mean daily seedling emergence, root, leaf and shoot dry weight, number of nodule were decreased. ZaltaZalha cultivar had higher shoot dry weight and number of leaf compared with other cultivars. Applications of biofertilzer was effective on stem diameter, root, leaf and shoot dry weight, number of leaf and nodule and those attributes increased by co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae. Also, use of biofertilizer in stress levels was effective on stem dry weight. Stem dry weight was increased by Co-inoculation of cultivar seeds with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae.

  5. Vermiculite's strong buffer capacity renders it unsuitable for studies of acidity on soybean (Glycine max L.) nodulation and growth.

    Indrasumunar, Arief; Gresshoff, Peter M


    Vermiculite is the most common soil-free growing substrate used for plants in horticultural and scientific studies due to its high water holding capacity. However, some studies are not suitable to be conducted in it. The described experiments aimed to test the suitability of vermiculite to study the effect of acidity on nodulation and growth of soybean (Glycine max L.). Two different nutrient solutions (Broughton & Dilworth, and modified Herridge nutrient solutions) with or without MES buffer addition were used to irrigate soybean grown on vermiculite growth substrates. The pH of nutrient solutions was adjusted to either pH 4.0 or 7.0 prior its use. The nodulation and vegetative growth of soybean plants were assessed at 3 and 4 weeks after inoculation. The unsuitability of presumably inert vermiculite as a physical plant growth substrate for studying the effects of acidity on soybean nodulation and plant growth was illustrated. Nodulation and growth of soybean grown in vermiculite were not affected by irrigation with pH-adjusted nutrient solution either at pH 4.0 or 7.0. This was reasonably caused by the ability of vermiculite to neutralise (buffer) the pH of the supplied nutrient solution (pH 2.0-7.0). Due to its buffering capacity, vermiculite cannot be used as growth support to study the effect of acidity on nodulation and plant growth.

  6. Determination of the variations in levels of phenolic compounds in soybean (Glycine max Merr.) sprouts infected by anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides).

    Lee, Jung Han; Jeong, Sung Woo; Cho, Young Ah; Park, Semin; Kim, Yun-Hi; Bae, Dong Won; Chung, Jong Il; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Park, Soo-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han; Jin, Jong Sung; Shin, Sung Chul


    Soybean sprouts (Kongnamool) are one of the most popular and nutritive traditional vegetables in East Asia. Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most serious diseases of soybean sprouts. In order to obtain basic information for breeding and/or selecting soybean genotypes with increased natural defense against anthracnose, phenolic compounds were profiled for healthy and infected soybean (Glycine max Merr.) sprouts by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Tryptophan and eight phenolic compounds (daidzin, genistin, malonyldaidzin, malonylgenistin, daidzein, glycitein, genistein and coumestrol) were determined from healthy and inoculated sprouts. Total identified phenolic content was 40.02 ± 0.03 mg kg⁻¹, 99.4% of which was isoflavones. The monitoring suggested that de novo induced glycitein appeared to act as a phytoalexin in the defence mechanism of the soybean sprouts against C. gloeosporioides, and constitutively formed seven phenolic components that functioned as phytoanticipins in the diseased soybean sprouts. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Enhanced Single Seed Trait Predictions in Soybean (Glycine max) and Robust Calibration Model Transfer with Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    Hacisalihoglu, Gokhan; Gustin, Jeffery L; Louisma, Jean; Armstrong, Paul; Peter, Gary F; Walker, Alejandro R; Settles, A Mark


    Single seed near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy predicts soybean (Glycine max) seed quality traits of moisture, oil, and protein. We tested the accuracy of transferring calibrations between different single seed NIR analyzers of the same design by collecting NIR spectra and analytical trait data for globally diverse soybean germplasm. X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT) was used to collect seed density and shape traits to enhance the number of soybean traits that can be predicted from single seed NIR. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression gave accurate predictive models for oil, weight, volume, protein, and maximal cross-sectional area of the seed. PLS models for width, length, and density were not predictive. Although principal component analysis (PCA) of the NIR spectra showed that black seed coat color had significant signal, excluding black seeds from the calibrations did not impact model accuracies. Calibrations for oil and protein developed in this study as well as earlier calibrations for a separate NIR analyzer of the same design were used to test the ability to transfer PLS regressions between platforms. PLS models built from data collected on one NIR analyzer had minimal differences in accuracy when applied to spectra collected from a sister device. Model transfer was more robust when spectra were trimmed from 910 to 1679 nm to 955-1635 nm due to divergence of edge wavelengths between the two devices. The ability to transfer calibrations between similar single seed NIR spectrometers facilitates broader adoption of this high-throughput, nondestructive, seed phenotyping technology.

  8. Identification of Alternaria alternata mycotoxins by LC-SPE-NMR and their cytotoxic effects to soybean (Glycine max) cell suspension culture

    Edson Rodrigues-Filho; Cristina Daolio; Bernd Schneider; De Souza, Gezimar D.; Axel Mithöfer


    This present work describes the application of liquid chromatograpy-solid phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to analyse Alternaria alternata crude extracts. Altenusin (1), alternariol (2), 3'-hydroxyalternariol monomethyl ether (3), and alternariol monomethyl ether (4), were separated and identified. High-resolution mass spectrometry confirmed the proposed structures. The cytotoxic effects of these compounds towards plants were determined using soybean (Glycine max)...

  9. Desempenho de genótipos de soja-hortaliça de ciclo precoce [Glycine max (L. Merril] em diferentes densidades Performance of genotypes of early-cycle vegetable soybeans [Glycine max (L. Merril] in different densities

    Hamilton César de O. Charlo


    Full Text Available Objetivando-se avaliar o desempenho de dois genótipos de soja-hortaliça de ciclo precoce [Glycine max (L. Merril], em diferentes densidades, foi instalado um ensaio, em área experimental do Setor de Olericultura e Plantas Aromático-Medicinais, pertencente ao Departamento de Produção Vegetal, nas dependências da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV-UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal-SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de parcelas subdivididas, adotando-se nas parcelas os genótipos e nas subparcelas as densidades, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Cada parcela experimental foi constituída por quatro linhas de 4,5m de plantio, com densidades de 20, 10 e 7 plantas por metro e 0,60m nas entrelinhas, sendo consideradas para avaliação 20 plantas por parcela, das duas linhas centrais. As sementes foram semeadas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido de 128 células, contendo substrato Plantmax Hortaliças®. O transplantio ocorreu dez dias após a semeadura, em solo devidamente preparado, conforme recomendações para a cultura. A colheita foi realizada quando os legumes estavam em estádio reprodutivo R6. Avaliaram-se os genótipos JLM010 e CNPSOI quanto às características: número médio de legumes por planta, número médio de sementes por legume, massa fresca de 100 sementes e produtividade estimada de grãos imaturos. Com base nos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que o genótipo JLM010 é o mais recomendado e deve ser plantado na densidade de 7 plantas por metro.With the aim of evaluating the performance of two genotypes of early-cycle soybeans [Glycine max (L. Merril] in different spacings, a study was carried out in the experimental area of the Sector of Vegetable Crops and Aromatic Medicinal Plants, belonging to the Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences (FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus-SP. The experimental design used was the one of subdivided parcels, each parcel representing

  10. Composição química e conteúdo de ferro solúvel em soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] Chemical composition and soluble iron content in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Letícia Tamie Paiva Yamada


    Full Text Available A soja é um grão que possui um dos maiores teores de proteína e ferro entre os alimentos de origem vegetal e teve a sua utilização muito aumentada nos últimos anos, principalmente por lactentes que têm problemas de intolerância ao leite de vaca em todo mundo. Em razão da sua grande quantidade de ferro, a soja tem sido investigada quanto à sua capacidade de recuperação de indivíduos anêmicos. No passado, a investigação baseou-se somente na sua quantidade de ferro total, não considerando as frações solúveis (mais biodisponíveis das insolúveis (que são mais dificilmente absorvidas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho realizar análises químicas em quatro cultivares de soja Glycine max (L. Merrill (IAC PL-1; IAC 22; IAC 8-2 E IAC 15-2, bem como os seus respectivos conteúdos de ferro solúvel. Os teores de proteína nos grãos, que foram em média de 34,46%, foram estatisticamente iguais; o de lipídeos foi maior para a cultivar IAC PL-1, com 20,07% (PSoybean is a grain which possesses one of the highest contents of protein and iron among the foods of plant origin and had its use greatly increased in the latest years, in the eastern countries mainly by lactents who have problems of intolerance to bovine's milk. Due to its great concentration of iron, soybean has been investigated as to its capacity of recovering anemic individuals. In the past, the investigation was based only on its concentration of total iron, not taking into account the soluble fractions (greater bioavailability from the insoluble (which are less bioavailable. This work was designed to accomplish chemical analyses on four soybean cultivars Glycine max (L. Merrill (IAC PL-1; IAC 22; IAC 8-2 and IAC 15-2, as well as their respective contents of soluble iron. Protein contents in the grains, that were on average 34,46% were statistically similar; oil content was greater for the cultivar IAC PL-1, with 20,07% (P<0,01, the same cultivar which presented the lower

  11. The Effect of using Quail Litter Biochar on Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. Production Efecto del uso de Biocarbón de Lecho de Codorniz en la Producción de Soya (Glycine max L. Merr.

    Tawadchai Suppadit


    Full Text Available Biochars can be used as soil amendments for improving soil properties and crop yield. The objective of this research was to study the plant growth, yield, yield components, and seed quality, including nutrients and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and Hg, in the soybean plant (Glycine max L. Merr. and soil. The experiment was conducted from September 2010 to January 2011 in a greenhouse located in the Dan Khun Thot District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. The research comprised six treatments with four replicates in a completely randomized design. Quail litter biochar (QLB at rates of 0, 24.6, 49.2, 73.8, 98.4 and 123 g per pot mixture were provided to soybean cv. Chiang Mai 60. The results showed that QLB could be used as a soil fertility improvement and amendment for soybean production with an optimum rate of 98.4 g per pot mixture, which gave the best performance in terms of the number of nodes, height, DM accumulation, total yield, and seed quality. After the experiment, the nutrient contents in the soil increased as the QLB content increased, but the heavy metal residues in the leaves and seeds did not change. However, QLB at levels higher than 98.4 g per pot mixture is not advisable because QLB is alkaline in nature, which may affect soil pH.El biocarbón puede usarse como enmienda para mejorar las propiedades del suelo y el rendimiento del cultivo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue el estudio del crecimiento de la planta, rendimiento y sus características, así como la calidad de semilla, incluyéndose el estudio de nutrientes y metales pesados (Pb, Cd y Hg en la planta de soya (Glycine max L. Merr. y el suelo. La experimentación se realizó en condiciones de invernadero en el distrito de Dan Khun Thot, provincia de Nakhon Ratchasima, Tailandia, entre septiembre del 2010 y enero del 2011. La investigación constó de seis tratamientos con cuatro repeticiones en un diseño completamente al azar. Se administró biocarbón de lecho de

  12. Biodegradation of glyphosate in rhizospheric soil cultivated with Glycine max, Canavalia ensiformis e Stizolobium aterrimum Biodegradação de glyphosate em solo rizosférico de Glycine max, Canavalia ensiformis e Stizolobium aterrimum

    J.B. Santos


    Full Text Available Biodegradation of glyphosate was evaluated in rhizospheric soil cultivated with Glycine max (soybean, var. BRS245-RR, Canavalia ensiformis and Stizolobium aterrimum. After these species were cultivated for 60 days, soil samples were collected, placed in flasks and treated with 14C-glyphosate. After 30 days of incubation, the total release rate of C-CO2 was determined along with microbial biomass (MBC, metabolic quotient (qCO2, and degradation percentage of the radio-labeled glyphosate released as 14C-CO2. A higher mass of rhizosphere-associated microorganisms was verified in the soil samples from pots cultivated with soybean, regardless of glyphosate addition. However, in the presence of the herbicide, this characteristic was the most negatively affected. Microorganisms from the C. ensiformis rhizosphere released a lower amount of 14C-CO2, while for those originated from S. aterrimum, the amount released reached 1.3% more than the total carbon derived from the respiratory activity. The rhizospheric soil from S. aterrimum also presented higher glyphosate degradation efficiency per microbial biomass unit. However, considering qCO2, the microbiota of the rhizospheric soil cultivated with soybean was more efficient in herbicide degradation.Avaliou-se neste trabalho a degradação de glyphosate em solo rizosférico proveniente do cultivo de Glycine max (soja var. BRS245-RR, Canavalia ensiformis e Stizolobium aterrimum. Para isso, após o cultivo, em vasos, das citadas espécies por 60 dias, coletaram-se amostras de solo, as quais foram acondicionadas em frascos e tratadas com 14C-glyphosate. Após 32 dias de incubação, foram determinados a taxa de desprendimento total de C-CO2, a biomassa microbiana (MBC, o quociente metabólico (qCO2 e a porcentagem de degradação do glyphosate radiomarcado liberado na forma de 14C-CO2. Verificou-se a maior massa de microrganismos associados à rizosfera em amostras de solo proveniente de vasos cultivados com a

  13. Endogenous, tissue-specific short interfering RNAs silence the chalcone synthase gene family in glycine max seed coats.

    Tuteja, Jigyasa H; Zabala, Gracia; Varala, Kranthi; Hudson, Matthew; Vodkin, Lila O


    Two dominant alleles of the I locus in Glycine max silence nine chalcone synthase (CHS) genes to inhibit function of the flavonoid pathway in the seed coat. We describe here the intricacies of this naturally occurring silencing mechanism based on results from small RNA gel blots and high-throughput sequencing of small RNA populations. The two dominant alleles of the I locus encompass a 27-kb region containing two perfectly repeated and inverted clusters of three chalcone synthase genes (CHS1, CHS3, and CHS4). This structure silences the expression of all CHS genes, including CHS7 and CHS8, located on other chromosomes. The CHS short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) sequenced support a mechanism by which RNAs transcribed from the CHS inverted repeat form aberrant double-stranded RNAs that become substrates for dicer-like ribonuclease. The resulting primary siRNAs become guides that target the mRNAs of the nonlinked, highly expressed CHS7 and CHS8 genes, followed by subsequent amplification of CHS7 and CHS8 secondary siRNAs by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Most remarkably, this silencing mechanism occurs only in one tissue, the seed coat, as shown by the lack of CHS siRNAs in cotyledons and vegetative tissues. Thus, production of the trigger double-stranded RNA that initiates the process occurs in a specific tissue and represents an example of naturally occurring inhibition of a metabolic pathway by siRNAs in one tissue while allowing expression of the pathway and synthesis of valuable secondary metabolites in all other organs/tissues of the plant.

  14. Identification and mapping of resistance genes to Phakopsora pachyrhizi in soybean (Glycine max L.) accession PI 594767-A.

    Rocha, G A F; Alves, D P; Oliveira, J C; Brommonschenke, S H


    The goal of this study was to study resistance inheritance in the soybean (Glycine max L.) accession PI 594767-A to the Phakopsora pachyrhizi isolate PPUFV02, and map the resistance gene(s) identified using microsatellite markers. Crosses between PI 594767-A and the susceptible cultivar 'Conquista' gave rise to the segregating subpopulations 26C-2 and 26C-5, which in the F2 generation were evaluated for their reactions to PPUFV02. In addition, analyses with microsatellite markers linked to the Rpp1-Rpp5 loci were also performed. The segregation pattern obtained in 26C-2 revealed that resistance was governed by a recessive gene; a 1:2:1 segregation pattern was observed in 26C-5, indicating control by a gene with partial dominance. This variability may have been caused because environmental conditions, particularly temperature, when 26C-5 was assessed were unfavorable for pathogen development, allowing the phenotypic expression of heterozygous alleles in PI 594767-A. A resistance gene was located in the soybean linkage group G, in the genomic region between Sct_187r2 and Sat_064 that contains the Rpp1 locus. Resistance in PI 594767-A is probably conferred by a new Rpp1 gene allele, because this accession has a haplotype for Sct_187r2 and Sat_064, which differs from haplotypes of accessions that also contain resistance alleles that map the Rpp1 locus. The use of Sct_187r2 and Sat_064 will facilitate the introgression of the resistance allele from PI 594767-A and its pyramiding with other resistance genes into genotypes with superior agronomic characteristics, in order to obtain cultivars with broad-spectrum resistance to P. pachyrhizi.

  15. Ameliorative symbiosis of endophyte (Penicillium funiculosum LHL06) under salt stress elevated plant growth of Glycine max L.

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Hamayun, Muhammad; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung


    Experiments were conducted to investigate the role of a newly isolated endophytic fungus GMC-2A on physiology of host plant (Glycine max. L cv. Hwangkeum-kong) growing under salinity stress. GMC-2A was identified as a new strain of Penicillium funiculosum on the basis of sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis of D1/D2 regions of 28S rDNA. Preliminary screening experiment showed that the culture filtrate (CF) of GMC-2A promoted the growth of Waito-C, a dwarf gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis mutant rice cultivar. Analysis of fungal CF revealed the presence of GAs (GA₁ 1.53 ng/ml; GA₄ 9.34 ng/ml; GA₈ 1.21 ng/ml; GA₉ 37.87 ng/ml) and indole acetic acid (14.85 μg/ml). GMC-2A also showed high phosphate solubilization of tricalcium phosphate. Besides that, GMC-2A application enhanced soybean seed germination as compared to control. Under salinity stress (70 and 140 mM), GMC-2A significantly promoted the soybean growth attributes (shoot length, shoot fresh/dry biomass, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis rate and leaf area) in comparison to control treatments. We also observed low endogenous abscisic acid and elevated jasmonic acid contents in GMC-2A treated plants under salt stress. GMC-2A treatment significantly enhanced levels of isoflavones (34.22% and 75.37%) under salinity stress as compared to control. In conclusion, P. funiculosum LHL06 has significantly ameliorated the adverse effects of salinity induced abiotic stress, and re-programmed soybean to higher growth and isoflavone biosynthesis.

  16. Influence of pulsed magnetic field on soybean (Glycine max L.) seed germination, seedling growth and soil microbial population.

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kumari, Bollipo Dyana Ranjitha


    The effects of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) treatment of soybean (Glycine max L. cv CO3) seeds were investigated on rate of seed germination, seedling growth, physico-chemical properties of seed leachates and soil microbial population under laboratory conditions. Seeds were exposed to PMF of 1500 nT at 0.1, 1.0 10.0 and 100.0 Hz for 5 h per day for 20 days, induced by enclosure coil systems. Non-treated seeds were considered as controls. All PMF treatments significantly increased the rate of seed germination, while 10 and 100 Hz PMFs showed the most effective response. The 1.0 and 10 Hz PMFs remarkably improved the fresh weight of shoots and roots, leaf area and plant height from seedlings from magnetically-exposed seeds compared to the control, while 10 Hz PMF increased the total soluble sugar, total protein and phenol contents. The leaf chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll were higher in PMF (10 and 100 Hz) pretreated plants, as compared to other treatments. In addition, activities of alpha-amylase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, nitrate reductase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase were increased, while beta-amylase and protease activities were declined in PMF (10 Hz)-exposed soybean plants. Similarly, the capacity of absorbance of water by seeds and electrical conductivity of seed leachates were significantly enhanced by 10 Hz PMF exposure, whereas PMF (10 Hz) pretreated plants did not affect the microbial population in rhizosphere soil. The results suggested the potential of 10 Hz PMF treatment to enhance the germination and seedling growth of soybean.

  17. A single origin and moderate bottleneck during domestication of soybean (Glycine max): implications from microsatellites and nucleotide sequences.

    Guo, Juan; Wang, Yunsheng; Song, Chi; Zhou, Jianfeng; Qiu, Lijuan; Huang, Hongwen; Wang, Ying


    Background and Aims It is essential to illuminate the evolutionary history of crop domestication in order to understand further the origin and development of modern cultivation and agronomy; however, despite being one of the most important crops, the domestication origin and bottleneck of soybean (Glycine max) are poorly understood. In the present study, microsatellites and nucleotide sequences were employed to elucidate the domestication genetics of soybean. Methods The genomes of 79 landrace soybeans (endemic cultivated soybeans) and 231 wild soybeans (G. soja) that represented the species-wide distribution of wild soybean in East Asia were scanned with 56 microsatellites to identify the genetic structure and domestication origin of soybean. To understand better the domestication bottleneck, four nucleotide sequences were selected to simulate the domestication bottleneck. Key Results Model-based analysis revealed that most of the landrace genotypes were assigned to the inferred wild soybean cluster of south China, South Korea and Japan. Phylogeny for wild and landrace soybeans showed that all landrace soybeans formed a single cluster supporting a monophyletic origin of all the cultivars. The populations of the nearest branches which were basal to the cultivar lineage were wild soybeans from south China. The coalescent simulation detected a bottleneck severity of K' = 2 during soybean domestication, which could be explained by a foundation population of 6000 individuals if domestication duration lasted 3000 years. Conclusions As a result of integrating geographic distribution with microsatellite genotype assignment and phylogeny between landrace and wild soybeans, a single origin of soybean in south China is proposed. The coalescent simulation revealed a moderate genetic bottleneck with an effective wild soybean population used for domestication estimated to be approximately 2 % of the total number of ancestral wild soybeans. Wild soybeans in Asia, especially in

  18. Yields and Yield Components of Maize (Zea Mays L. and Soybean (Glycine Max as Affected by Different Tillage Methods

    Kvaternjak Ivka


    Full Text Available At the experiment station of the Krizevci College of Agriculture, yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L. and soybean (Glycine max grown in rotation under five different methods of tillage were investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different tillage methods on yield and yield components of maize and soybean. The results and the determined number of plants per hectare of maize and soybean show that more favorable conditions for germination are in variants where ploughing performed in the autumn (variants C, D and E. During a four-year study, the minimum number of plants per hectare of maize and soybean was found in variant A. The dry season in panicle stage of maize in 2006 has lowered yields compared to 2008, and the drought in 2007 during the seed-filling period reduced the yield and the 1000 kernel weight of soybean compared with 2009 in all variants of tillage methods. The highest grain yield of maize was recorded in variant B. During 2006, with the unfavorable weather conditions, the lowest grain yield of maize was recorded in variant E with intensive tillage treatment. The highest yield of soybean was recorded in variant E, but there were no statistically significant differences compared to variants with the reduction of additional tillage interventions (variant B, C and D. With respect to maize grain and soybean seed yield, variant A was the lowest. Considering the achieved yields of maize grain, there is a possibility of reducing additional tillage interventions, whilst for achieving higher yield of soybean seed intensive tillage is recommended.

  19. A peroxisomal long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase from Glycine max involved in lipid degradation.

    Lili Yu

    Full Text Available Seed storage oil, in the form of triacylglycerol (TAG, is degraded to provide carbon and energy during germination and early seedling growth by the fatty acid β-oxidation in the peroxisome. Although the pathways for lipid degradation have been uncovered, understanding of the exact involved enzymes in soybean is still limited. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL is a critical enzyme that activates free fatty acid released from TAG to form the fatty acyl-CoA. Recent studies have shown the importance of ACSL in lipid degradation and synthesis, but few studies were focused on soybean. In this work, we cloned a ACSL gene from soybean and designated it as GmACSL2. Sequence analysis revealed that GmACSL2 encodes a protein of 733 amino acid residues, which is highly homologous to the ones in other higher plants. Complementation test showed that GmACSL2 could restore the growth of an ACS-deficient yeast strain (YB525. Co-expression assay in Nicotiana benthamiana indicated that GmACSL2 is located at peroxisome. Expression pattern analysis showed that GmACSL2 is highly expressed in germinating seedling and strongly induced 1 day after imbibition, which indicate that GmACSL2 may take part in the seed germination. GmACSL2 overexpression in yeast and soybean hairy root severely reduces the contents of the lipids and fatty acids, compared with controls in both cells, and enhances the β-oxidation efficiency in yeast. All these results suggest that GmACSL2 may take part in fatty acid and lipid degradation. In conclusion, peroxisomal GmACSL2 from Glycine max probably be involved in the lipid degradation during seed germination.

  20. Effect of mycorrhizae, Thiobacillus and sulfur nutrition on the chemical composition of soybean [Glycine max (L.)] Merr. seed.

    Mostafavian, S R; Pirdashti, H; Ramzanpour, M R; Andarkhor, A A; Shahsavari, A


    A field experiment carried out in a calcareous soil with a low available phosphorus to evaluate effectiveness of biofertilizers, mycorrhizae (Glomus intraradices) and Thiobacillus sp. inoculation individually or in combination on seed yield, oil, protein and some elements (P, Fe, Mn, Zn) concentration in two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars. The applied treatments were different fertilizers with 6 levels (including: NP (control, 12 kg N ha(-1) as urea, 46 kg P2O5 ha(-1) as triple super phosphate); NPK (NP + 75 kg K2O ha(-1) as potassium sulphate); NPKS [NPK+ S (100 kg S ha(-1))]; NPKST (NPKS + seed inoculation with Thiobacillus bacteria); NPKM (NPK + Seed inoculation with mycorrhizae fungi) and NPKSTM (NPKS + seed inoculation with Thiobacillus and mycorrhizae) and two cultivars (JK and 032). Before planting, soybean seeds were inoculated by Bradyrhizobium japonicum in all treatments. Results showed that combined inoculation of biofertilizers increased yield, however the highest yield was observed in treatment NPKST. Increasing oil content (percentage) was more pronounced in treatments NPKM, while most protein content (percentage) increasing was observed in NPKS and NPKM. Fe and Zn concentrations were unaffected significantly by fertilizer treatments, but NPKSTM showed significantly higher value of seed's Mn concentration compared to treatments NP and NPK. Although no significant difference was observed in terms ofP concentration of 032 line among fertilizer treatments, JK cultivar and NPKSTM caused a significant increasing in P concentration compared to NP, NPKS and NPKM. Present results suggested that applying biofertilizers i.e., mycorrhizae and Thiobacillus increased soybean yield compared to control (NP). Overall, this study demonstrated that soybean seed yield and its chemical composition could be affected by biofertilizer inoculation.

  1. Evolution and structural diversification of Nictaba-like lectin genes in food crops with a focus on soybean (Glycine max).

    Van Holle, Sofie; Rougé, Pierre; Van Damme, Els J M


    The Nictaba family groups all proteins that show homology to Nictaba, the tobacco lectin. So far, Nictaba and an Arabidopsis thaliana homologue have been shown to be implicated in the plant stress response. The availability of more than 50 sequenced plant genomes provided the opportunity for a genome-wide identification of Nictaba -like genes in 15 species, representing members of the Fabaceae, Poaceae, Solanaceae, Musaceae, Arecaceae, Malvaceae and Rubiaceae. Additionally, phylogenetic relationships between the different species were explored. Furthermore, this study included domain organization analysis, searching for orthologous genes in the legume family and transcript profiling of the Nictaba -like lectin genes in soybean. Using a combination of BLASTp, InterPro analysis and hidden Markov models, the genomes of Medicago truncatula , Cicer arietinum , Lotus japonicus , Glycine max , Cajanus cajan , Phaseolus vulgaris , Theobroma cacao , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum tuberosum , Coffea canephora , Oryza sativa , Zea mays, Sorghum bicolor , Musa acuminata and Elaeis guineensis were searched for Nictaba -like genes. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using RAxML and additional protein domains in the Nictaba-like sequences were identified using InterPro. Expression analysis of the soybean Nictaba -like genes was investigated using microarray data. Nictaba -like genes were identified in all studied species and analysis of the duplication events demonstrated that both tandem and segmental duplication contributed to the expansion of the Nictaba gene family in angiosperms. The single-domain Nictaba protein and the multi-domain F-box Nictaba architectures are ubiquitous among all analysed species and microarray analysis revealed differential expression patterns for all soybean Nictaba-like genes. Taken together, the comparative genomics data contributes to our understanding of the Nictaba -like gene family in species for which the occurrence of Nictaba domains had not

  2. Arsenic-induced genotoxic responses and their amelioration by diphenylene iodonium, 24-epibrassinolide and proline in Glycine max L.

    Chandrakar, Vibhuti; Yadu, Bhumika; Meena, Rakesh Kumar; Dubey, Amit; Keshavkant, S


    Presence of the toxic metalloid, "arsenic (As)" is ubiquitous in the environment especially in the soil and water. Its excess availability in the soil retards growth and metabolism of plants via (a) slowing down the cell division/elongation, (b) overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), (c) modulation of antioxidant enzymes, and (d) alteration of DNA profile/genomic template stability (GTS). In the current study, diphenylene iodonium (DPI), 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) and proline (Pro) were used to analyze their roles in eliminating the adverse effects of As. Glycine max L. (variety JS 335) seeds were subjected to As (75 μM, Sodium arsenite was used as source of As), and in combination with DPI (10 μM), EBL (0.5 μM) or Pro (10 mM), for five consecutive days, and effects of these treatment combinations were analyzed on germination percentage, biomass, membrane stability, GTS and expressions of defensive genes. In addition, the levels of As, ROS, malondialdehyde, DNA content, oxidation, fragmentation, polymorphism, DNase activity, endogenous Pro and pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase activity were evaluated. The results indicated that the treatments of DPI, EBL or Pro are capable to alleviate detrimental effects of As, gauged from above variables, but with different magnitudes. Apropos As-stress mitigation, Pro was found to be the most effective under the confines of the study protocol. This study certainly provides new ideas for intensifying studies to unravel elusive central mechanism of amelioration involving use of DPI, EBL or Pro in plants with confirmed As-toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of long-term cropping of glyphosate-resistant transgenic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] on soil microbiome.

    Babujia, Letícia Carlos; Silva, Adriana Pereira; Nakatani, André Shigueyoshi; Cantão, Mauricio Egidio; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergilio; Hungria, Mariangela


    The transgenic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] occupies about 80 % of the global area cropped with this legume, the majority comprising the glyphosate-resistant trait (Roundup Ready(®), GR or RR). However, concerns about possible impacts of transgenic crops on soil microbial communities are often raised. We investigated soil chemical, physical and microbiological properties, and grain yields in long-term field trials involving conventional and nearly isogenic RR transgenic genotypes. The trials were performed at two locations in Brazil, with different edaphoclimatic conditions. Large differences in physical, chemical and classic microbiological parameters (microbial biomass of C and N, basal respiration), as well as in grain production were observed between the sites. Some phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria), classes (Alphaproteobacteria, Actinomycetales, Solibacteres) and orders (Rhizobiales, Burkholderiales, Myxococcales, Pseudomonadales), as well as some functional subsystems (clustering-based subsystems, carbohydrates, amino acids and protein metabolism) were, in general, abundant in all treatments. However, bioindicators related to superior soil fertility and physical properties at Londrina were identified, among them a higher ratio of Proteobacteria:Acidobacteria. Regarding the transgene, the metagenomics showed differences in microbial taxonomic and functional abundances, but lower in magnitude than differences observed between the sites. Besides the site-specific differences, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Chlorophyta were higher in the transgenic treatment, as well as sequences related to protein metabolism, cell division and cycle. Although confirming effects of the transgenic trait on soil microbiome, no differences were recorded in grain yields, probably due to the buffering capacity associated with the high taxonomic and functional microbial diversity observed in all treatments.

  4. Elicited soybean (Glycine max L.) extract improves regulatory T cell activity in high fat-fructose diet mice

    Atho'illah, Mochammad Fitri; Widyarti, Sri; Rifa'i, Muhaimin


    Obesity is a metabolic disorder characterized by the central distribution of abdominal fat, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. A high-fat diet can lead to overnutrition and directly trigger inflammation in adipose tissue. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential negative regulators of inflammation. Soybean (Glycine max L.) has a variety of beneficial health. It contains isoflavones, particularly daidzein and genistein which can be transformed using microbial and physical stimuli to enhance bioactivity. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of elicited soybean extract (ESE) on Treg activity in high fat-fructose (HFFD) mice. Twenty-eight female Balb/C mice were divided into seven groups: normal diet (ND) only, ND + ESE 104 mg/kg BW, HFFD only, HFFD + Simvastatin 2.8 mg/kg, HFFD + ESE 78 mg/kg BW, HFFD + ESE 104 mg/kg BW, and HFFD + ESE 130 mg/kg BW. The high fat-fructose diet was given over a period of 20 weeks, and ESE was administered orally per day after 20 weeks for four weeks. At week 24, the animals were sacrificed and the spleen was collected. Tregs were labeled as CD4+CD25+CD62L+ and the relative Treg number was measured using flow cytometry. The HFFD treatment significantly decreased Treg number (p < 0.05) compared to a normal diet. The ESE treatment in HFFD mice could improve Treg numbers compared to HFFD mice. Our results suggest that ESE has potential to be used as a supplement to suppress chronic inflammation via increased Treg number.

  5. Exogenous low-dose hydrogen peroxide enhances drought tolerance of soybean (Glycine max L.) through inducing antioxidant system.

    Guler, Neslihan Saruhan; Pehlivan, Necla


    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) functions as a signal molecule in plants under abiotic and biotic stress. In this study, the role of exogenous H(2)O(2) in improving drought tolerance in two soybean cultivars (Glycine max L. Merrill) differing in their tolerance to drought was evaluated. Plants were grown in plastic pots with normal irrigation in a phytotron. Four weeks after radicle emergence, either 1 mM H(2)O(2) or distilled water was sprayed as foliar onto the leaves of each plant, after drought stress was applied. Leaf samples were harvested on the 4(th) and 7(th) days of the drought. Antioxidant-related enzyme activity, such as the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was measured during the drought period. Drought stress decreased leaf water potential, relative water content and photosynthetic pigment content but enhanced lipid peroxidation and endogenous H(2)O(2) concentration. By contrast, exogenous low dose H(2)O(2) improved water status, pigment content and lipid peroxidation under drought stress. Endogenous H(2)O(2) concentration was reduced by exogenous H(2)O(2) as compared to drought treatment alone. H(2)O(2) pre-treatment induced all the antioxidant enzyme activities, to a greater extent than the control leaves, during drought. H(2)O(2) pretreatment further enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the tolerant cultivar compared to the sensitive cultivar. Results suggested that low dose H(2)O(2) pre-treatment alleviated water loss and H(2)O(2) content and increased drought stress tolerance by inducing the antioxidant system.

  6. Molecular cloning, heterologous expression and functional characterization of gamma tocopherol methyl transferase (γ-TMT) from Glycine max.

    Tewari, Kalpana; Dahuja, Anil; Sachdev, Archana; Kumar, Vaibhav; Ali, Kishwar; Kumar, Amresh; Kumari, Sweta


    γ-Tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT) (EC is the last enzyme in the tocopherol biosynthetic pathway and it catalyzes the conversion of γ-tocopherol into α-tocopherol, the nutritionally significant and most bioactive form of vitamin E. Although the γ-TMT gene has been successfully overexpressed in many crops to enhance their α-tocopherol content but still only few attempts have been made to uncover its structural, functional and regulation aspects at protein level. In this study, we have cloned the complete 909bp coding sequence of Glycine max γ-TMT (Gm γ-TMT) gene that encodes the corresponding protein comprising of 302 amino acid residues. The deduced Gm γ-TMT protein showed 74-87% sequence identity with other characterized plant γ-TMTs. Gm γ-TMT belongs to Class I Methyl Transferases that have a Rossmann-like fold which consists of a seven-stranded β sheet joined by α helices. Heterologous expression of Gm γ-TMT in pET29a expression vector under the control of bacteriophage T7 promoter produced a 37.9 kDa recombinant Gm γ-TMT protein with histidine hexamer tag at its C-terminus. The expression of recombinant Gm γ-TMT protein was confirmed by western blotting using anti-His antibody. The recombinant protein was purified by Ni(2+)-NTA column chromatography. The purified protein showed SAM dependent methyltransferase activity. The α-tocopherol produced in the in-vitro reaction catalyzed by the purified enzyme was detected using reverse phase HPLC. This study has laid the foundation to unveil the biochemical understanding of Gm γ-TMT enzyme which can be further explored by studying its kinetic behaviour, substrate specificity and its interaction with other biomolecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Regeneration of fertile plants from protoplasts of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.): genotypic differences in culture response.

    Dhir, S K; Dhir, S; Widholm, J M


    Fourteen soybean (Glycine max L.) genotypes were evaluated for their regenerability from protoplasts using a procedure previously descibed for the cultivar Clark 63. Protoplasts were isolated from immature cotyledon tissue and were cultured in liquid or agarose gelled KP8, MS or B5 medium with different sugars. Significant differences were observed in plating efficiency, which was as high as 63% in Jack and A-2396, and as low as 38% in X-3337. Upon regular dilution with K8 medium, 1-2 mm diameter colonies were formed in 5-6 weeks with all the genotypes tested. These colonies were then transferred onto MSB (MS salts; Murashige & Skoog, 1962 + B5 organics; Gamborg et al., 1968) medium with 0.5 mg l(-1) each of 2,4-D, BA and KN and 500 mg l(-1) CH for further growth. Once the colonies had become green, compact and nodular, and were 8-10 mm in size, they were transferred to regeneration medium. Upon regular subculturing, calli of six genotypes; A-2396, Chamberlain, Heilong-26, Jack, Resnick and XP-3015 developed shoots, with the regeneration frequency being highest 27% in Jack (52 calli out of 192 produced 8-12 shoots). The regenerated shoots from different genotypes were elongated and rooted. So far, sixty three complete plants have been obtained, including twelve A-2396, nineteen Chamberlain, fifteen Jack, nine Resnick and eight XP-3015. A total of thirty five plants have been transplanted into pots in the greenhouse. Sixteen have set seeds and others are producing flowers and pods.

  8. Transient Nod factor-dependent gene expression in the nodulation-competent zone of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) roots.

    Hayashi, Satomi; Reid, Dugald E; Lorenc, Michał T; Stiller, Jiri; Edwards, David; Gresshoff, Peter M; Ferguson, Brett J


    All lateral organ development in plants, such as nodulation in legumes, requires the temporal and spatial regulation of genes and gene networks. A total mRNA profiling approach using RNA-seq to target the specific soybean (Glycine max) root tissues responding to compatible rhizobia [i.e. the Zone Of Nodulation (ZON)] revealed a large number of novel, often transient, mRNA changes occurring during the early stages of nodulation. Focusing on the ZON enabled us to discard the majority of root tissues and their developmentally diverse gene transcripts, thereby highlighting the lowly and transiently expressed nodulation-specific genes. It also enabled us to concentrate on a precise moment in early nodule development at each sampling time. We focused on discovering genes regulated specifically by the Bradyrhizobium-produced Nod factor signal, by inoculating roots with either a competent wild-type or incompetent mutant (nodC(-) ) strain of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Collectively, 2915 genes were identified as being differentially expressed, including many known soybean nodulation genes. A number of unknown nodulation gene candidates and soybean orthologues of nodulation genes previously reported in other legume species were also identified. The differential expression of several candidates was confirmed and further characterized via inoculation time-course studies and qRT-PCR. The expression of many genes, including an endo-1,4-β-glucanase, a cytochrome P450 and a TIR-LRR-NBS receptor kinase, was transient, peaking quickly during the initiation of nodule ontogeny. Additional genes were found to be down-regulated. Significantly, a set of differentially regulated genes acting in the gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthesis pathway was discovered, suggesting a novel role of GAs in nodulation. © 2012 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Multi-Population Selective Genotyping to Identify Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] Seed Protein and Oil QTLs

    Piyaporn Phansak


    Full Text Available Plant breeders continually generate ever-higher yielding cultivars, but also want to improve seed constituent value, which is mainly protein and oil, in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.]. Identification of genetic loci governing those two traits would facilitate that effort. Though genome-wide association offers one such approach, selective genotyping of multiple biparental populations offers a complementary alternative, and was evaluated here, using 48 F2:3 populations (n = ∼224 plants created by mating 48 high protein germplasm accessions to cultivars of similar maturity, but with normal seed protein content. All F2:3 progeny were phenotyped for seed protein and oil, but only 22 high and 22 low extreme progeny in each F2:3 phenotypic distribution were genotyped with a 1536-SNP chip (ca. 450 bimorphic SNPs detected per mating. A significant quantitative trait locus (QTL on one or more chromosomes was detected for protein in 35 (73%, and for oil in 25 (52%, of the 48 matings, and these QTL exhibited additive effects of ≥ 4 g kg–1 and R2 values of 0.07 or more. These results demonstrated that a multiple-population selective genotyping strategy, when focused on matings between parental phenotype extremes, can be used successfully to identify germplasm accessions possessing large-effect QTL alleles. Such accessions would be of interest to breeders to serve as parental donors of those alleles in cultivar development programs, though 17 of the 48 accessions were not unique in terms of SNP genotype, indicating that diversity among high protein accessions in the germplasm collection is less than what might ordinarily be assumed.




    Full Text Available A pot experiment was carried out using factorial CRBD with four replications during Kharif 2012 to investigate S and Zn application effects on soybean (Glycine max L. yield, yield attributing traits and quality parameters. The experiment comprised four levels of sulphur (0, 20, 40 and 60 ppm and zinc (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 ppm. Cultivar PK 1024 was used as the test crop. The results revealed that all these mentioned parameters were significantly affected by the addition of sulphur and zinc doses. Highest grain yield 14.59 and 14.25 g pot-1 were obtained when S (40 ppm and Zn (5 ppm were applied individually. The highest yield (15.30 g pot-1 and the yield attributes viz; plant height (43.5 cm, branches plant-1 (6.7, capsule plant-1 (13.0, grains capsule-1 (3.2, 100-grain weight (9.96 g were also obtained for the treatment combination of 40 ppm S and 5 ppm Zn. On the other hand content and uptake of Zn increased up to 40 ppm S and thereafter decreases at 60 ppm S level. Contents of S increased with increase in S doses up to 60 ppm. However the values at 40 and 60 ppm were statistically at par. Zinc content increased up to 20 ppm S and thereafter decreased. Highest protein (38.64% and oil (21.54% content was observed due to application of 60 ppm S, while 5 ppm Zn gave the highest protein (38.42% and oil (20.90% content of soybean grain. Therefore, it was concluded that application of 60 ppm S and 5 ppm Zn should be used for improvement of yield and quality traits of soybean grain.

  11. Allergy

    ... not bother most other people. People who have allergies often are sensitive to more than one thing. Substances that often cause reactions are Pollen Dust mites Mold spores Pet dander Food Insect stings Medicines ...

  12. Jasmonic acid Modulates the Physio-Biochemical Attributes, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Gene Expression in Glycine max under Nickel Toxicity

    Geetika eSirhindi


    Full Text Available In present study, we evaluated the effects of Jasmonic acid (JA on physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression in soybean (Glycine max L. plants subjected to nickel (Ni stress. Ni stress decreases the shoot and root length and chlorophyll content by 37.23%, 38.31% and 39.21% respectively over the control. However, application of JA was found to improve the chlorophyll content and growth of Ni-stressed seedlings in terms of root and shoot length. Plants supplemented with Jasmonate restores the chlorophyll fluorescence, which was disturbed by Ni stress. The present study demonstrated increase in proline, glycinebetaine, total protein and total soluble sugar (TSS by 33.09%, 51.26%, 22.58% and 49.15% respectively under Ni toxicity as compared to control. Supplementation of JA to Ni stressed plants further enhanced the above parameters. Ni stress increases hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 by 68.49%, lipid peroxidation (MDA by 50.57% and NADPH oxidase by 50.92% over the control. Supplementation of JA minimizes the accumulation of H2O2, MDA and NADPH oxidase, which helps in stabilization of biomolecules. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX increases by 40.04%, 28.22%, 48.53% and 56.79% respectively over the control in Ni treated seedlings and further enhancement in the antioxidant activity was observed by the application of JA. Ni treated soybean seedlings showed increase in expression of Fe-SOD by 77.62%, CAT by 15.25%, POD by 58.33% and APX by 80.58% over the control. Nevertheless, application of JA further enhanced the expression of the above genes in the present study. Our results signified that Ni stress caused negative impacts on soybean seedlings, but, co-application of JA facilitate the seedlings to combat the detrimental effects of Ni through enhanced osmolytes and osmoprotectants, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression.

  13. Effects of potassium deifciency on photosynthesis and photo-protection mechanisms in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)

    WANG Xiao-guang; ZHAO Xin-hua; JIANG Chun-ji; LI Chun-hong; CONG Shan; WU Di; CHEN Yan-qiu; YU Hai-qiu; WANG Chun-yan


    Potassium is an important nutrient element requiring high concentration for photosynthetic metabolism. The potassium deifciency in soil could inhibit soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) photosynthesis and result in yield reduction. Research on the photosynthetic variations of the different tolerant soyben varieties should provide important information for high yield tolerant soybean breeding program. Two representative soybean varieties Tiefeng 40 (tolerance to K+ deifciency) and GD8521 (sensitive to K+deifciency) were hydroponical y grown to measure the photosynthesis, chlorophyl lfuorescence parameters and Rubisco activity under different potassium conditions. With the K-deifciency stress time extending, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (Gs) of GD8521 were signiifcantly decreased under K-deifciency condition, whereas the intercel ular CO2 concentration (Ci) was signiifcantly increased. As a contrast, the variations of Tiefeng 40 were almost little under K-deifciency condition, which indicated tolerance to K+deifciency variety could maintain higher efifcient photosynthesis. On the 25th d after treatment, the minimal lfuorescence (F0) of GD8521 was signiifcantly increased and the maximal lfuorescence (Fm), the maximum quantum efifciency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), actual photochemical efifciency of PSII (ΦPSI ), photochemical quenching (qP), and electron transport rate of PSII (ETR) were signiifcantly decreased under K+deifciency condition. In addition, the Rubisco content of GD8521 was signiifcantly decreased in leaves. It is particularly noteworthy that the chlorophyl lfuorescence parameters and Rubisco content of Tiefeng 40 were unaffected under K+deifciency condition. On the other hand, the non-photochemical quenching (qN) of Tiefeng 40 was signiifcantly increased. The dry matter weight of Tiefeng 40 was little affected under K+deifciency condition. Results indicated that Tiefeng 40 could avoid or relieve the


    Mónica Beatriz Barrios


    Full Text Available La soja es el principal cultivo en Argentina debido a su adaptación a los suelos, la incorporación de tecnología con el empleo de la siembra directa y el precio del mercado internacional. Las propiedades físicas, químicas y biológicas de cada suelo se ven modificadas por el tipo de sistema de laboreo empleado. El entorno generado por la labranza altera el crecimiento y el equilibrio funcional de los cultivos herbáceos. En el año 2006, se instaló un ensayo en el Partido de Ezeiza (Pampa Ondulada, con el objetivo de evaluar los efectos del sistema de laboreo en el equilibrio funcional entre biomasa de raíces/biomasa total en soja (Glycine max durante la campaña 2012/2013. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con dos tratamientos que consistieron en: labranza convencional (LC y siembra directa (SD, con cuatro repeticiones. Se midió: peso de biomasa aérea, área foliar, rendimiento en grano, peso de raíces de 0-10 y 10-20 cm de profundidad, y se calculó biomasa total y la relación biomasa de raíces/biomasa total. El peso de raíces se determinó con el método del cilindro, el área foliar con el paquete estadístico Iproplus y el rendimiento con el cuadrado de corte. Los datos obtenidos fueron sometidos a análisis de varianza y las medias de los tratamientos fueron comparadas según Tukey (P < 0.05. El efecto del sistema de labranza generó diferentes respuestas en función de la variable evaluada y la fecha de muestreo. LC resultó significativamente superior (P < 0.05 respecto a SD en biomasa total y biomasa aérea en las etapas fenológicas R3 y R5; biomasa de raíces en R1 y R3; IAF en R2, R3 y R5. El rendimiento en grano fue mayor en LC respecto de SD, sin embargo el sistema de labranza no afectó la relación biomasa de raíz/biomasa total.

  15. Glyphosate-resistant and -susceptible soybean (Glycine max) and canola (Brassica napus) dose response and metabolism relationships with glyphosate.

    Nandula, Vijay K; Reddy, Krishna N; Rimando, Agnes M; Duke, Stephen O; Poston, Daniel H


    Experiments were conducted to determine (1) dose response of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and -susceptible (non-GR) soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and canola (Brassica napus L.) to glyphosate, (2) if differential metabolism of glyphosate to aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) is the underlying mechanism for differential resistance to glyphosate among GR soybean varieties, and (3) the extent of metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA in GR canola and to correlate metabolism to injury from AMPA. GR50 (glyphosate dose required to cause a 50% reduction in plant dry weight) values for GR (Asgrow 4603RR) and non-GR (HBKC 5025) soybean were 22.8 kg ae ha-1 and 0.47 kg ha-1, respectively, with GR soybean exhibiting a 49-fold level of resistance to glyphosate as compared to non-GR soybean. Differential reduction in chlorophyll by glyphosate was observed between GR soybean varieties, but there were no differences in shoot fresh weight reduction. No significant differences were found between GR varieties in metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA, and in shikimate levels. These results indicate that GR soybean varieties were able to outgrow the initial injury from glyphosate, which was previously caused at least in part by AMPA. GR50 values for GR (Hyola 514RR) and non-GR (Hyola 440) canola were 14.1 and 0.30 kg ha-1, respectively, with GR canola exhibiting a 47-fold level of resistance to glyphosate when compared to non-GR canola. Glyphosate did not cause reduction in chlorophyll content and shoot fresh weight in GR canola, unlike GR soybean. Less glyphosate (per unit leaf weight) was recovered in glyphosate-treated GR canola as compared to glyphosate-treated GR soybean. External application of AMPA caused similar injury in both GR and non-GR canola. The presence of a bacterial glyphosate oxidoreductase gene in GR canola contributes to breakdown of glyphosate to AMPA. However, the AMPA from glyphosate breakdown could have been metabolized to nonphytotoxic metabolites before causing injury

  16. RNA-Seq analysis of differential gene expression responding to different rhizobium strains in soybean (Glycine max roots

    Songli eYuan


    Full Text Available The root nodule symbiosis (RNS between legume plants and rhizobia is the most efficient and productive source of nitrogen fixation, and has critical importance in agriculture and mesology. Soybean (Glycine max, one of the most important legume crops in the world, establishes a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with different types of rhizobia, and the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean greatly depends on the symbiotic host-specificity. Although it has been reported that rhizobia use surface polysaccharides, secretion proteins of the type-three secretion systems and nod factors to modulate host range, the host control of nodulation specificity remains poorly understood. In this report, the soybean roots of two symbiotic systems (Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain 113-2-soybean and Sinorhizobium fredii USDA205-soybeanwith notable different nodulation phenotypes and the control were studied at five different post-inoculation time points (0.5h, 7-24h, 5d, 16d and 21d by RNA-seq (Quantification. The results of qPCR analysis of 11 randomly-selected genes agreed with transcriptional profile data for 136 out of 165 (82.42% data points and quality assessment showed that the sequencing library is of quality and reliable. Three comparisons (control vs 113-2, control vs USDA205 and USDA205 vs 113-2 were made and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs between them were analyzed. The number of DEGs at 16 days post-inoculation (dpi was the highest in the three comparisons, and most of the DEGs in USDA205 vs 113-2 were found at 16 dpi and 21 dpi. 44 go function terms in USDA205 vs 113-2 were analyzed to evaluate the potential functions of the DEGs, and 10 important KEGG pathway enrichment terms were analyzed in the three comparisons. Some important genes induced in response to different strains (113-2 and USDA205 were identified and analyzed, and these genes primarily encoded soybean resistance proteins, NF-related proteins, nodulins and immunity

  17. [Rapid determination of fatty acids in soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] by FT-near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy].

    Sun, Jun-ming; Han, Fen-xia; Yan, Shu-rong; Yang, Hua; Tetsuo, Sato


    Current breeding programs dealing with fatty acid (FA) concentrations in soybean [Glycine max (L. ) Merr.] require large numbers for gas chromatographic analyses, thus it is important to develop a method for rapid determination of fatty acid by Near-Infrared Reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) in soybeans. The objective of this work was to study the potential of fourier-transform near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) to estimate the fatty acid concentrations in Chinese soybean varieties. One hundred and eight of soybean cultivars or lines (the calibration set: 64; the external validation set: 44) were scanned within 4000-12500 cm(-1) of wavenumbers using a standard sample cup by NIRS machinery, and analyzed the fatty acids by gas chromatograph (GC) methods. Equations were developed using partial least squares (PLS) regression and cross validation for multivariate calibration in this study. The optimal spectral region was selected from 6101.9 to 5446.5 cm(-1) based on the OPUS 5.0 software. Cross validation results showed that major FA components such as oleic acid (R2(CV) = 0.94), linoleic acid (R2(CV) = 0.87), linolenic acid (R2(CV) = 0.85), and total saturates (R2(CV) = 0.88) were accurately determined by the proposed equations as compared with the reference data obtained by the GC method. External validation results also demonstrated that equation for oleic acid had the highest predictive ability R(2)val = 0.91), root mean square error of predication (RMSEP) value was 2.47 g x kg(-1) dry weight, the ratios of RMSEP to the standard deviation (SD) was 0.29, which was usable for quality assurance application. Moreover, equations for palmitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and total saturates were predicted with the determination coefficients ranging from 0.66 to 0.76, RMSEP values from 0.37 to 2.74 g x kg(-1) dry weight, and RMSEP/SD values from 0.47 to 0.53, which could be used for sample screening. Therefore, we confirmed that a

  18. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of two members of the Pht1 family of phosphate transporters in Glycine max.

    Zhaoyun Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phosphorus is one of the macronutrients essential for plant growth and development. The acquisition and translocation of phosphate are pivotal processes of plant growth. In a large number of plants, phosphate uptake by roots and translocation within the plant are presumed to occur via a phosphate/proton cotransport mechanism. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We cloned two cDNAs from soybean (Glycine max, GmPT1 and GmPT2, which show homology to the phosphate/proton cotransporter PHO84 from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The amino acid sequence of the products predicted from GmPT1 and GmPT2 share 61% and 63% identity, respectively, with the PHO84 in amino acid sequence. The deduced structure of the encoded proteins revealed 12 membrane-spanning domains with a central hydrophilic region. The molecular mass values are ∼58.7 kDa for GmPT1 and ∼58.6 kDa for GmPT2. Transiently expressed GFP-protein fusions provide direct evidence that the two Pi transporters are located in the plasma membrane. Uptake of radioactive orthophosphate by the yeast mutant MB192 showed that GmPT1 and GmPT2 are dependent on pH and uptake is reduced by the addition of uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. The K(m for phosphate uptake by GmPT1 and GmPT2 is 6.65 mM and 6.63 mM, respectively. A quantitative real time RT-PCR assay indicated that these two genes are expressed in the roots and shoots of seedlings whether they are phosphate-deficient or not. Deficiency of phosphorus caused a slight change of the expression levels of GmPT1 and GmPT2. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our experiments show that the two phosphate transporters have low affinity and the corresponding genes are constitutively expressed. Thereby, the two phosphate transporters can perform translocation of phosphate within the plant.

  19. Allergy


    930036 Skin tests in patients with history ofanaphylactic reaction to penicillin.WENZhaoming(文昭明),et al.Dept Allergy,PUMCHosp,Beijing,100730.Chin J Intern Med 1992;31(9);526—529.Skin tests including immediate patch test(IPT),skin prick test(SPT),or intradermaltest(IT)with penicillin G(PenG)and SPT withbenzylpenicilloyl human serum albumin(BPO)were done in 54 patients with history of anaphy-lactic reaction to penicillin or shock of unknowncause.Penicillin allergy were diagnosed in 26patients.BPO specific IgE measured with

  20. Identification of Alternaria alternata mycotoxins by LC-SPE-NMR and their cytotoxic effects to soybean (Glycine max) cell suspension culture.

    de Souza, Gezimar D; Mithöfer, Axel; Daolio, Cristina; Schneider, Bernd; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson


    This present work describes the application of liquid chromatography-solid phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to analyse Alternaria alternata crude extracts. Altenusin (1), alternariol (2), 3'-hydroxyalternariol monomethyl ether (3), and alternariol monomethyl ether (4), were separated and identified. High-resolution mass spectrometry confirmed the proposed structures. The cytotoxic effects of these compounds towards plants were determined using soybean (Glycine max) cell cultures as a model. EC(50) values which range from 0.11 (± 0.02) to 4.69 (± 0.47) μM showed the high cytotoxicity of these compounds.

  1. Identification of Alternaria alternata Mycotoxins by LC-SPE-NMR and Their Cytotoxic Effects to Soybean (Glycine max Cell Suspension Culture

    Edson Rodrigues-Filho


    Full Text Available This present work describes the application of liquid chromatograpy-solid phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to analyse Alternaria alternata crude extracts. Altenusin (1, alternariol (2, 3'-hydroxyalternariol monomethyl ether (3, and alternariol monomethyl ether (4, were separated and identified. High-resolution mass spectrometry confirmed the proposed structures. The cytotoxic effects of these compounds towards plants were determined using soybean (Glycine max cell cultures as a model. EC50 values which range from 0.11 (±0.02 to 4.69 (±0.47 μM showed the high cytotoxicity of these compounds.

  2. Elaboración y valoración del hierro en el pan enriquecido con harina de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa w.) y soja (Glycine max)

    Mendoza Pérez, Diana Gloria; Palacios Morales, Félix Nicolás


    Objetivo: Elaborar y valorar el hierro en el pan enriquecido con harina de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa W.) y soja (Glycine max); para este fin se enriqueció el pan, planteando dos formulaciones. Materiales y métodos: Se evaluó la cantidad de hierro en la harina de quinua y soja, prueba de aceptabilidad y la valoración de la cantidad de hierro en el producto final, se realizó también a los panes elaborados el análisis proximal, en el Laboratorio Calidad Total de la Universidad Nacional Agraria ...

  3. Metabolismo de nitrogenio em plantas de soja [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv IAC-17] submetidas a deficiencia de O2 no sistema radicular

    Carlos Antonio Ferreira de Sousa


    Resumo: A soja [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] é um dos modelos mais usados para se estudar a deficiência de 'O IND.2' no sistema radicular de plantas. Apesar disso, a literatura é carente de informações a respeito do encharcamento radicular na soja e seus efeitos sobre os teores de metabólitos, especialmente os nitrogenados, nas raízes e suas formas de transporte pelo xilema e floema. Portanto, este trabalho teve os seguintes objetivos: 1. determinar os efeitos da hipoxia no sistema radicular da so...

  4. Allergies

    ... The immune system normally protects the body against harmful substances, such as bacteria and viruses. It also reacts ... during the allergic reaction Drowsiness and other side effects of medicines When to Contact a Medical ... Breastfeeding can help prevent or decrease allergies when you ...

  5. Integration of the Draft Sequence and Physical Map as a Framework for Genomic Research in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.).

    Ha, Jungmin; Abernathy, Brian; Nelson, William; Grant, David; Wu, Xiaolei; Nguyen, Henry T; Stacey, Gary; Yu, Yeisoo; Wing, Rod A; Shoemaker, Randy C; Jackson, Scott A


    Soybean is a model for the legume research community because of its importance as a crop, densely populated genetic maps, and the availability of a genome sequence. Even though a whole-genome shotgun sequence and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are available, a high-resolution, chromosome-based physical map linked to the sequence assemblies is still needed for whole-genome alignments and to facilitate map-based gene cloning. Three independent G. max BAC libraries combined with genetic and gene-based markers were used to construct a minimum tiling path (MTP) of BAC clones. A total of 107,214 clones were assembled into 1355 FPC (FingerPrinted Contigs) contigs, incorporating 4628 markers and aligned to the G. max reference genome sequence using BAC end-sequence information. Four different MTPs were made for G. max that covered from 92.6% to 95.0% of the soybean draft genome sequence (gmax1.01). Because our purpose was to pick the most reliable and complete MTP, and not the MTP with the minimal number of clones, the FPC map and draft sequence were integrated and clones with unpaired BES were added to build a high-quality physical map with the fewest gaps possible ( A physical map was also constructed for the undomesticated ancestor (G. soja) of soybean to explore genome variation between G. max and G. soja. 66,028 G. soja clones were assembled into 1053 FPC contigs covering approximately 547 Mbp of the G. max genome sequence. These physical maps for G. max and its undomesticated ancestor, G. soja, will serve as a framework for ordering sequence fragments, comparative genomics, cloning genes, and evolutionary analyses of legume genomes.

  6. Efeito do metribuzin no controle das plantas daninhas e na produção de grãos em Glycine max (L merrill Effect of metribuzin in weed control and yield of Glycine max (L. merrill

    J. P. Silva Neto


    Full Text Available No ano agrícola 1985/ 86, em Viçosa-MG, foi instalado um ensaio de campo em solo Pdzólico Vermelho-Amarelo argiloso e com 2,9% de matéria orgânica, objetivando estudar o efeito das doses de metribuzin (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1 no controle de plantas daninhas e na produtividade da soja (Geycine max (L. Merri ll, cv. 'Uber aba'. A maioria das monocotiledôneas que ocorreram na area experimental foi represent ada por Cyperus rotundus L., Brachiaria plantaginea (Link Hitch. e Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., tendo-se verificado somente redução em Brachiaria planta taginea em virtude do aumento das doses de metribuzin, ocorrendo o mesmo com relação às dicotiledôneas que se fizerem presentes no experimento, com exceção de Oxalis Oxyptera Prop., que não foi controlada nas doses utilizadas. A densidade total médias das invasoras, menos Cyperus rotundus , Oxalis oxyptera e Cynodon dactylon, foi de 141; 124; 62 e 59 plantas . m-2, respectivamente, para as doses de 0,0; 0,35 ; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1 de metribuzin. A dose de 0,35 kg i.a. de metribuzin.ha-1 foi suficiente para promover a redução da matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas daninhas com a mesma eficiência de controle da dose de 1,05 kg i.a .ha-1 Entretanto, a densidade total médil das invasoras foi reduzida sig nificativamente nas doses de 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a. de metribuzin.ha-l. O efeito do metribuzin na soja foi evidenciado somente na dose de 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1, com injúria foliar (clorose leve ocorrida até 25 dias, aproximadamente, apôs a emergência das plântulas. Após esse período, houve total recuperação de todas as plantas de soja submetidas a essa dose. A produção de grão se o índice de colheita não foram influencia dos significativamente pelas doses de metribuzin.In order to test doses of metribu zin (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 and 1,05 kg a.i.ha ¹ in weed control and yield of soybe an (Glycine max (L. Merri ll, Uberaba, an experiment was conducted under

  7. Seleccion de cepas de rizobios en suelos promisorios para el cultivo de la soya (Glycine max (L Merril en Colombia

    Sylvester Bradley Rosemary


    Full Text Available En el invernadero se evaluó la efectividad de las cepas preseleccionadas de B. japonicum (CIAT 199,209,3778,3874 y 3876 de la recomendada (CIAT51 y una de Rhizobium spp (CIAT 3779. En el suelo Fluventic Haplustoll, de reacción casi neutra, se presentó respuesta altamente significativa a la inoculación. El tratamiento fertilizado con 150 kg de N/ha produjo el mayor rendimiento de N. Las cepas más efectivas fueron CIAT 3778 y 51, que también presentaron el mayor indice de efectividad a la inoculación (IEI. En el suelo Typic Pellustert,de reacción alcalina, se presentó respuesta significativa a la inoculación. El mayor rendimiento de N se obtuvo con las cepas CIAT 3778 y 51, que fueron además estadísticamente iguales a las cepas CIAT 199 y 3876 en cuanto al IEI. En el suelo Arenic Haplustalf, de reacción ligeramente ácida, hubo respuesta altamente significativa a la inoculación y la cepa más efectiva fue la CJAT 199. En el suelo Fluventic Ustropept, de reacci6n ligeramente ácida, se presentaron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos inoculados. El mayor rendimiento de N se presentó en el tratamiento fertilizado con N. Las mejores cepas fueron CIAT 3778,3779 y 209. En el suelo Vertic Ustropept, de reacción alcalina, se presentó respuesta altamente significativa a la inoculación. En cuanto al rendimiento de N no se encontraron diferencias entre el tratamiento fertilizado con N y las cepas CIAT 51, 209 y CIAT 3778, siendo también las más efectivas en cuanto al IEI, junto oon la cepa CIAT 199. En los suelos Tropentic Haplorthox y Typic Tropudult no se enoontró respuesta a la inoculación.Screening of Rhizobium strains in soils apt for soybean (Glycine max (L Merril cultivation in Colombia. Under greenhouse conditions were evaluated the effectivity of the preselected strains of the preselected strains of B. japonicum (CIAT 199, 209, 3778, 3874 and 3876, in addition to the recommended strain (CIAT 51 and one of

  8. Manganese (Mn) stress toward hyperaccumulators plants combination (HPC) using Jatropha curcas and lamtoro gung (L. leucocephala) in mychorrizal addition on soybean (Glycine max) seedling stage

    Darmawan, Tania Sylviana; Zahroh, Tata Taqiyyatuz; Merindasya, Mirza; Masfaridah, Ririn; Hartanti, Dyah Ayu Sri; Arum, Sekar; Nurhatika, Sri; Muhibuddin, Anton; Surtiningsih, Tini; Arifiyanto, Achmad


    Heavy metals were a metal bracket which had a specific gravity greater than 5 g / cm3. Manganese was one of them because it has a specific gravity of 7.4 g / cm3. Together with widespread cases of soil contamination caused by heavy metals as well as increased development of the science of breeding ground rapidly, then the alternative rehabilitation techniques were relatively cheap and effective it needs to be developed and even some cases of contaminated management soil using a combination of plants with microorganisms to be more effective. Thus it was necessary to develop research on plants that were able to accumulate heavy metals and other toxic materials, such as Mn so that the land becomes safe for health and the environment. Based on above reason this research aimed to see the influence of hyperaccumulators combination of plants using Jatropha curcas and lamtoro gung (L. leucocephala) in mychorrizal addition to stressed by manganese (Mn) on soybean (Glycine max). Observations of growth, chlorophyll content and heavy metals analysis performed on nine treatments (P1-P9) and one control (P0). The results showed a combination of hyperaccumulators under mychorrizal helped overcome the stress of manganese (Mn) in the leaves of soybean (G. max). It gave an influence on the number of leaves and chlorophyll content of soybean (G. max), but no effect performed on the height and the roots of soybean (G. max). The use of plants in small amounts hyperaccumulators (P1;1 jatropha and 1 lamtoro) was sufficient to cope with stress of Mn in the leaves of soybean (G. max).

  9. Identification of candidate genes involved in early iron deficiency chlorosis signaling in soybean (Glycine max) roots and leaves

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for all living things, required in plants for photosynthesis, respiration and metabolism. A lack of bioavailable iron in soil leads to iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC), causing a reduction in photosynthesis and interveinal yellowing of leaves. Soybeans (Glycine ma...

  10. Protective effect of Mn(III)-desferrioxamine B upon oxidative stress caused by ozone and acid rain in the Brazilian soybean cultivar Glycine max "Sambaiba".

    Esposito, Jéssica Bordotti Nobre; Esposito, Breno Pannia; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes; Cruz, Luciano Soares; da Silva, Luzimar Campos; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro


    This study aimed to investigate the effects of the Mn complex (Mn(III)-desferrioxamine B (MnDFB)) on oxidative stress in the Brazilian soybean cultivar Glycine max "Sambaiba" following exposure to ozone and acid rain. We determined the suitable dose of MnDFB to apply to G. max seedlings using a dose-response curve. The highest superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and Mn content in leaves were found upon the application of 8 μM MnDFB. Thus, G. max seedlings pretreated with 8 μM MnDFB were individually exposed to ozone and acid rain simulated. Pretreatment with MnDFB reduced lipid peroxidation upon ozone exposure and increased SOD activity in leaves; it did not alter the metal content in any part of the plant. Conversely, following acid rain exposure, neither the metal content in leaves nor SOD enzyme activity were directly affected by MnDFB, unlike pH. Our findings demonstrated that exogenous MnDFB application before ozone exposure may modulate the MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD, and FeSOD activities to combat the ROS excess in the cell. Here, we demonstrated that the applied dose of MnDFB enhances antioxidative defenses in soybean following exposure to acid rain and especially to ozone.

  11. Identification of large variation in the photosynthetic induction response among 37 soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes that is not correlated with steady-state photosynthetic capacity.

    Soleh, M A; Tanaka, Y; Kim, S Y; Huber, S C; Sakoda, K; Shiraiwa, T


    Irradiance continuously fluctuates during the day in the field. The speed of the induction response of photosynthesis in high light affects the cumulative carbon gain of the plant and could impact growth and yield. The photosynthetic induction response and its relationship with the photosynthetic capacity under steady-state conditions (P max) were evaluated in 37 diverse soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes. The induction response of leaf photosynthesis showed large variation among the soybean genotypes. After 5 min illumination with strong light, genotype NAM23 had the highest leaf photosynthetic rate of 33.8 µmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1), while genotype NAM12 showed the lowest rate at 4.7 µmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1). Cumulative CO2 fixation (CCF) during the first 5 min of high light exposure ranged from 5.5 mmol CO2 m(-2) for NAM23 to 0.81 mmol CO2 m(-2) for NAM12. The difference in the induction response among genotypes was consistent throughout the growth season. However, there was no significant correlation between CCF and P max among genotypes suggesting that different mechanisms regulate P max and the induction response. The observed variation in the induction response was mainly attributed to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activation, but soybean lines differing in the induction response did not differ in the leaf content of Rubisco activase α- and β-proteins. Future studies will be focused on identifying molecular determinants of the photosynthetic induction response and determining whether this trait could be an important breeding target to achieve improved growth of soybeans in the field.


    Chechui O. F.


    Full Text Available We investigated the activity of isocitrate lyase in seeds of Glycine max L. after 24, 72, and 120 hours of germination and effect of cobalt ions on the activity of the enzyme in time limit of the experiment. We fixed the increase in the activity of isocitrate lyase under influence of cobalt ions occurs by means of enzyme induction on third day of experiment while maintaining performance of enzyme activity on the fifth day; one of the reasons caused the increased activity of the key enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle under the influence of cobalt ions can be increasing of the concentration of lipid peroxidation. In addition, during experiments with usage of actinomycin D we determined the increasing of activity ofisocitrate lyase under the influence of cobalt ions by enzyme induction.

  13. Gene transcript accumulation and in situ mRNA hybridization of two putative glutamate dehydrogenase genes in etiolated Glycine max seedlings.

    Dimou, M; Tsaniklidis, G; Aivalakis, G; Katinakis, P


    Glutamate dehydrogenase (EC is a multimeric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible amination of α-ketoglutarate to form glutamate. We characterized cDNA clones of two Glycine max sequences, GmGDH1 and GmGDH2, that code for putative α- and β-subunits, respectively, of the NADH dependent enzyme. Temporal and spatial gene transcript accumulation studies using semiquantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization have shown an overlapping gene transcript accumulation pattern with differences in relative gene transcript accumulation in the organs examined. Detection of NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase activity in situ using a histochemical method showed concordance with the spatial gene transcript accumulation patterns. Our findings suggest that although the two gene transcripts are co-localized in roots of etiolated soybean seedlings, the ratio of the two subunits of the active holoenzyme may vary among tissues.

  14. Computational Identification of Amino-Acid Mutations that Further Improve the Activity of a Chalcone-Flavonone Isomerase from Glycine max.

    Yuan, Hui; Wu, Jiaqi; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Jiakuan; Zhong, Yang; Huang, Qiang; Nan, Peng


    Protein design for improving enzymatic activity remains a challenge in biochemistry, especially to identify target amino-acid sites for mutagenesis and to design beneficial mutations for those sites. Here, we employ a computational approach that combines multiple sequence alignment, positive selection detection, and molecular docking to identify and design beneficial amino-acid mutations that further improve the intramolecular-cyclization activity of a chalcone-flavonone isomerase from Glycine max (GmCHI). By this approach, two GmCHI mutants with higher activities were predicted and verified. The results demonstrate that this approach could determine the beneficial amino-acid mutations for improving the enzymatic activity, and may find more applications in engineering of enzymes.

  15. Computational Identification of Amino-Acid Mutations that Further Improve the Activity of a Chalcone–Flavonone Isomerase from Glycine max

    Yuan, Hui; Wu, Jiaqi; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Jiakuan; Zhong, Yang; Huang, Qiang; Nan, Peng


    Protein design for improving enzymatic activity remains a challenge in biochemistry, especially to identify target amino-acid sites for mutagenesis and to design beneficial mutations for those sites. Here, we employ a computational approach that combines multiple sequence alignment, positive selection detection, and molecular docking to identify and design beneficial amino-acid mutations that further improve the intramolecular-cyclization activity of a chalcone–flavonone isomerase from Glycine max (GmCHI). By this approach, two GmCHI mutants with higher activities were predicted and verified. The results demonstrate that this approach could determine the beneficial amino-acid mutations for improving the enzymatic activity, and may find more applications in engineering of enzymes. PMID:28286513

  16. Effect of Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 inoculation on nodulation, nitrogen fixation and yield of soybean (Glycine max) genotypes in gray terrace soil.

    Alam, Faridul; Bhuiyan, M A H; Alam, Sadia Sabrina; Waghmode, Tatoba R; Kim, Pil Joo; Lee, Yong Bok


    Soybean plants require high amounts of nitrogen, which are mainly obtained from biological nitrogen fixation. A field experiment was conducted by soybean (Glycine max) genotypes, growing two varieties (Shohag and BARI Soybean6) and two advanced lines (MTD10 and BGM02026) of soybean with or without Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 inoculation. Soybean plants of all genotypes inoculated with Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 produced greater nodule numbers, nodule weight, shoot and root biomass, and plant height than non-inoculated plants. Similarly, inoculated plants showed enhanced activity of nitrogenase (NA) enzyme, contributing to higher nitrogen fixation and assimilation, compared to non-inoculated soybean plants in both years. Plants inoculated with Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 also showed higher pod, stover, and seed yield than non-inoculated plants. Therefore, Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 established an effective symbiotic relationship with a range of soybean genotypes and thus increased the nodulation, growth, and yield of soybean grown in gray terrace soils in Bangladesh.

  17. Effect of soaking and fermentation on content of phenolic compounds of soybean (Glycine max cv. Merit) and mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek).

    María Landete, José; Hernández, Teresa; Robredo, Sergio; Dueñas, Montserrat; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Estrella, Isabel; Muñoz, Rosario


    Mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek) purchased from a Spanish company as "green soybeans", showed a different phenolic composition than yellow soybeans (Glycine max cv. Merit). Isoflavones were predominant in yellow soybeans, whereas they were completely absent in the green seeds on which flavanones were predominant. In order to enhance their health benefits, both types of bean were subjected to technological processes, such as soaking and fermentation. Soaking increased malonyl glucoside isoflavone extraction in yellow beans and produced an increase in apigenin derivatives in the green beans. Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748 T fermentation produced an increase in the bioactivity of both beans since a conversion of glycosylated isoflavones into bioactive aglycones and an increase of the bioactive vitexin was observed in yellow and green beans, respectively. In spite of potential consumer confusion, since soybean and "green soybean" are different legumes, the health benefits of both beans were enhanced by lactic fermentation.

  18. Papel da redutase do nitrato e da asparagina sintetase em plantas de soja (Glycine max L.) sob condições de estresse de nitrogenio

    Flavia Antunes


    Resumo: O sistema radicular da soja (Glycine max L.) é um importante sítio da assimilação do nitrogênio (N), seja pela assimilação do nitrato nas raízes, seja pela fixação simbiótica de N atmosférico nos nódulos. Os principais produtos da assimilação do N inorgânico, os aminoácidos asparagina e glutamina, os ureídeos, a alantoína e o ácido alantóico, são usados no transporte de N para a parte aérea. Assim, esses produtos representam uma fonte de N reduzido tanto para os sítios de consumo, qua...

  19. RP-HPLC法测定药材黑豆中大豆苷的含量%Determination of daidzin in Glycine max (L.) Merr. by RP-HPLC



    Objective To establish a RP-HPLC method for the determination of daidzin in Glycine max ( L. ) Merr. Methods A cosmosil C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5μm) was used. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-0.1 % trifluoroacetic acid ( 12:88, v/v ). The wavelength was set at 254 nm. Results The linear range of daidzin was 1.11~88.8 μg/mL. The average recovery was 99.99%(RSD was 1.45%). Conclusion The method is simple, accurate, reproducible, and it could be used for the quality control of Glycine max (L.) Merr..%目的:建立RP-HPLC法测定黑豆中大豆苷(Daidzin)的含量。方法色谱柱为cosmosil-C18柱(250mm×4.6mm,5μm),流动相为乙腈:0.1%三氟乙酸溶液(12:88,v/v),检测波长为254nm,柱温为25℃,流速为1.0mL/min。结果大豆苷质量浓度在1.11~88.8μg/mL内线性关系良好(R=0.9999)。大豆苷的平均回收率为99.99%,RSD为1.45%。结论该方法准确,重复性良好,适用于黑豆药材的质量控制。

  20. Genome-wide comparative in silico analysis of the RNA helicase gene family in Zea mays and Glycine max: a comparison with Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa.

    Xu, Ruirui; Zhang, Shizhong; Huang, Jinguang; Zheng, Chengchao


    RNA helicases are enzymes that are thought to unwind double-stranded RNA molecules in an energy-dependent fashion through the hydrolysis of NTP. RNA helicases are associated with all processes involving RNA molecules, including nuclear transcription, editing, splicing, ribosome biogenesis, RNA export, and organelle gene expression. The involvement of RNA helicase in response to stress and in plant growth and development has been reported previously. While their importance in Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa has been partially studied, the function of RNA helicase proteins is poorly understood in Zea mays and Glycine max. In this study, we identified a total of RNA helicase genes in Arabidopsis and other crop species genome by genome-wide comparative in silico analysis. We classified the RNA helicase genes into three subfamilies according to the structural features of the motif II region, such as DEAD-box, DEAH-box and DExD/H-box, and different species showed different patterns of alternative splicing. Secondly, chromosome location analysis showed that the RNA helicase protein genes were distributed across all chromosomes with different densities in the four species. Thirdly, phylogenetic tree analyses identified the relevant homologs of DEAD-box, DEAH-box and DExD/H-box RNA helicase proteins in each of the four species. Fourthly, microarray expression data showed that many of these predicted RNA helicase genes were expressed in different developmental stages and different tissues under normal growth conditions. Finally, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of 10 genes in Arabidopsis and 13 genes in Zea mays were in close agreement with the microarray expression data. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a comparative genome-wide analysis of the RNA helicase gene family in Arabidopsis, Oryza sativa, Zea mays and Glycine max. This study provides valuable information for understanding the classification and putative functions of

  1. Analysis of Gene expression in soybean (Glycine max roots in response to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita using microarrays and KEGG pathways

    Gamal El-Din Abd El Kader Y


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root-knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasites that can infect more than 3000 plant species. Root-knot nematodes cause an estimated $100 billion annual loss worldwide. For successful establishment of the root-knot nematode in its host plant, it causes dramatic morphological and physiological changes in plant cells. The expression of some plant genes is altered by the nematode as it establishes its feeding site. Results We examined the expression of soybean (Glycine max genes in galls formed in roots by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, 12 days and 10 weeks after infection to understand the effects of infection of roots by M. incognita. Gene expression was monitored using the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip containing 37,500 G. max probe sets. Gene expression patterns were integrated with biochemical pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes using PAICE software. Genes encoding enzymes involved in carbohydrate and cell wall metabolism, cell cycle control and plant defense were altered. Conclusions A number of different soybean genes were identified that were differentially expressed which provided insights into the interaction between M. incognita and soybean and into the formation and maintenance of giant cells. Some of these genes may be candidates for broadening plants resistance to root-knot nematode through over-expression or silencing and require further examination.

  2. The role of isoflavone metabolism in plant protection depends on the rhizobacterial MAMP that triggers systemic resistance against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines in Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Osumi.

    Algar, Elena; Gutierrez-Mañero, F Javier; Garcia-Villaraco, Ana; García-Seco, Daniel; Lucas, J Antonio; Ramos-Solano, Beatriz


    Glycine max (L.) Merr. plays a crucial role in both the field of food and the pharmaceutical industry due to their input as plant protein and to the benefits of isoflavones (IF) for health. In addition, IF play a key role in nodulation and plant defense and therefore, an increase in IF would be desirable for better field performance. IF are secondary metabolites and therefore, inducible, so finding effective agents to increase IF contents is interesting. Among these agents, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been used to trigger systemic induction of plant's secondary metabolism through their microbe associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) that fit in the plant's receptors to start a systemic response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of 4 PGPR that had a contrasted effect on IF metabolism, to protect plants against biotic stress and to establish the relation between IF profile and the systemic response triggered by the bacteria. Apparently, the response involves a lower sensitivity to ethylene and despite the decrease in effective photosynthesis, growth is only compromised in the case of M84, the most effective in protection. All strains protected soybean against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines (M84 > N5.18 > Aur9>N21.4) and only M84 and N5.18 involved IF. N5.18 stimulated accumulation of IF before pathogen challenge. M84 caused a significant increase on IF only after pathogen challenge and N21.4 caused a significant increase on IF content irrespective of pathogen challenge. Aur9 did not affect IF. These results point out that all 4 strains have MAMPs that trigger defensive metabolism in soybean. Protection induced by N21.4 and Aur9 involves other metabolites different to IF and the role of IF in defence depends on the previous metabolic status of the plant and on the bacterial MAMP.

  3. Overexpression of Nictaba-Like Lectin Genes from Glycine max Confers Tolerance towards Pseudomonas syringae Infection, Aphid Infestation and Salt Stress in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    Sofie Van Holle


    Full Text Available Plants have evolved a sophisticated immune system that allows them to recognize invading pathogens by specialized receptors. Carbohydrate-binding proteins or lectins are part of this immune system and especially the lectins that reside in the nucleocytoplasmic compartment are known to be implicated in biotic and abiotic stress responses. The class of Nictaba-like lectins (NLL groups all proteins with homology to the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum lectin, known as a stress-inducible lectin. Here we focus on two Nictaba homologs from soybean (Glycine max, referred to as GmNLL1 and GmNLL2. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of fusion constructs with the green fluorescent protein either transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves or stably transformed in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells revealed a nucleocytoplasmic localization for the GmNLLs under study. RT-qPCR analysis of the transcript levels for the Nictaba-like lectins in soybean demonstrated that the genes are expressed in several tissues throughout the development of the plant. Furthermore, it was shown that salt treatment, Phytophthora sojae infection and Aphis glycines infestation trigger the expression of particular NLL genes. Stress experiments with Arabidopsis lines overexpressing the NLLs from soybean yielded an enhanced tolerance of the plant towards bacterial infection (Pseudomonas syringae, insect infestation (Myzus persicae and salinity. Our data showed a better performance of the transgenic lines compared to wild type plants, indicating that the NLLs from soybean are implicated in the stress response. These data can help to further elucidate the physiological importance of the Nictaba-like lectins from soybean, which can ultimately lead to the design of crop plants with a better tolerance to changing environmental conditions.

  4. Overexpression of Nictaba-Like Lectin Genes from Glycine max Confers Tolerance toward Pseudomonas syringae Infection, Aphid Infestation and Salt Stress in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    Van Holle, Sofie; Smagghe, Guy; Van Damme, Els J. M.


    Plants have evolved a sophisticated immune system that allows them to recognize invading pathogens by specialized receptors. Carbohydrate-binding proteins or lectins are part of this immune system and especially the lectins that reside in the nucleocytoplasmic compartment are known to be implicated in biotic and abiotic stress responses. The class of Nictaba-like lectins (NLL) groups all proteins with homology to the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) lectin, known as a stress-inducible lectin. Here we focus on two Nictaba homologs from soybean (Glycine max), referred to as GmNLL1 and GmNLL2. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of fusion constructs with the green fluorescent protein either transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves or stably transformed in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells revealed a nucleocytoplasmic localization for the GmNLLs under study. RT-qPCR analysis of the transcript levels for the Nictaba-like lectins in soybean demonstrated that the genes are expressed in several tissues throughout the development of the plant. Furthermore, it was shown that salt treatment, Phytophthora sojae infection and Aphis glycines infestation trigger the expression of particular NLL genes. Stress experiments with Arabidopsis lines overexpressing the NLLs from soybean yielded an enhanced tolerance of the plant toward bacterial infection (Pseudomonas syringae), insect infestation (Myzus persicae) and salinity. Our data showed a better performance of the transgenic lines compared to wild type plants, indicating that the NLLs from soybean are implicated in the stress response. These data can help to further elucidate the physiological importance of the Nictaba-like lectins from soybean, which can ultimately lead to the design of crop plants with a better tolerance to changing environmental conditions. PMID:27826309

  5. Modulatory role of jasmonic acid on photosynthetic pigments, antioxidants and stress markers of Glycine max L. under nickel stress.

    Sirhindi, Geetika; Mir, Mudaser Ahmad; Sharma, Poonam; Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Kaur, Harpreet; Mushtaq, Ruquia


    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a very young candidate of plant growth regulators which is being explored for various antistress properties. Present study deals with the hypothesis that JA can modulate antioxidant mechanism of higher plants with tight regulation of biomembrane peroxidation, making plants tolerant to toxic Ni(2+). 2 mM NiCl2 as a source of Ni(2+) appeared as sub lethal dose for the growth of 15 days old Glycine max seedlings. Exogenous application of 1 μM and 1 nM JA prior to NiCl2 exposure, made seedlings of Glycine max more tolerant to Ni(2+)stress as compared to control untreated seedlings. Regulatory inhibition of MDA and H2O2 production by JA with or without Ni(2+) treatment made plants more resistant to Ni(2+) stress which may be associated with ameliorative activity of antioxidant enzymes system composed of SOD, POD, CAT and APOX. Ascorbate, a secondary metabolite synthesized from D-glucose act as an antioxidant in plant cells. Many fold enhancements in AsA content of Ni(2+) treated seedlings supplemented with different concentrations of JA was observed. Significant improvement in AsA levels by JA with or without Ni(2+) stress may involve two aspects, either denovo synthesis level regulation of AsA or recycling of AsA from an oxidized form. Improvement in total protein content showed the uplift modulation of transcriptional machinery by JA which was also maintained under Ni(2+) stress. Photosynthetic pigments as total chl, chl a and b showed inhibition in presence of Ni(2+) stress which was not found much effective under JA supplementation as compared to control. Present findings revealed that although JA was not helpful for protection of photosynthetic pigments but it modulates the other machinery of plants significantly including various antioxidants positively, while tightly inhibiting stress related processes responsible for lipid peroxidation to make plants tolerant to Ni(2+) stress.

  6. Analyses of a Glycine max Degradome Library Identify microRNA Targets and MicroRNAs that Trigger Secondary SiRNA Biogenesis

    Zheng Hu; Qiyan Jiang; Zhiyong Ni; Rui Chen; Shuo Xu; Hui Zhang


    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression mainly by guiding cleavage of target mRNAs.In this study,a degradome library constructed from different soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) tissues was deep-sequenced.428 potential targets of small interfering RNAs and 25 novel miRNA families were identified.A total of 211 potential miRNA targets,including 174 conserved miRNA targets and 37 soybeanspecific miRNA targets,were identified.Among them,121 targets were first discovered in soybean.The signature distribution of soybean primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) showed that most pri-miRNAs had the characteristic pattern of Dicer processing.The biogenesis of TAS3 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) was conserved in soybean,and nine Auxin Response Factors were identified as TAS3 siRNA targets.Twentythree miRNA targets produced secondary small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in soybean.These targets were guided by five miRNAs:gma-miR393,gma-miR1508,gma-miR1510,gma-miR1514,and novel-11.Multiple targets of these secondary siRNAs were detected.These 23 miRNA targets may be the putative novel TAS genes in soybean.Global identification of miRNA targets and potential novel TAS genes will contribute to research on the functions of miRNAs in soybean.

  7. Analyses of a Glycine max degradome library identify microRNA targets and microRNAs that trigger secondary siRNA biogenesis.

    Hu, Zheng; Jiang, Qiyan; Ni, Zhiyong; Chen, Rui; Xu, Shuo; Zhang, Hui


    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression mainly by guiding cleavage of target mRNAs. In this study, a degradome library constructed from different soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) tissues was deep-sequenced. 428 potential targets of small interfering RNAs and 25 novel miRNA families were identified. A total of 211 potential miRNA targets, including 174 conserved miRNA targets and 37 soybean-specific miRNA targets, were identified. Among them, 121 targets were first discovered in soybean. The signature distribution of soybean primary miRNAs (pri-miRNAs) showed that most pri-miRNAs had the characteristic pattern of Dicer processing. The biogenesis of TAS3 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) was conserved in soybean, and nine Auxin Response Factors were identified as TAS3 siRNA targets. Twenty-three miRNA targets produced secondary small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in soybean. These targets were guided by five miRNAs: gma-miR393, gma-miR1508, gma-miR1510, gma-miR1514, and novel-11. Multiple targets of these secondary siRNAs were detected. These 23 miRNA targets may be the putative novel TAS genes in soybean. Global identification of miRNA targets and potential novel TAS genes will contribute to research on the functions of miRNAs in soybean.

  8. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of microbial community in soy-daddawa, a Nigerian fermented soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) condiment.

    Ezeokoli, Obinna T; Gupta, Arvind K; Mienie, Charlotte; Popoola, Temitope O S; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius C


    Soy-daddawa, a fermented soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) condiment, plays a significant role in the culinary practice of West Africa. It is essential to understand the microbial community of soy-daddawa for a successful starter culture application. This study investigated the microbial community structure of soy-daddawa samples collected from Nigerian markets, by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting the V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of fungi. Six bacterial and 16 fungal (nine yeasts and seven molds) operational taxonomic units (OTUs)/species were obtained at 97% sequence similarity. Taxonomic assignments revealed that bacterial OTUs belonged to the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, and included species from the genera Atopostipes, Bacillus, Brevibacterium and Nosocomiicoccus. Densitometric analysis of DGGE image/bands revealed that Bacillus spp. were the dominant OTU/species in terms of population numbers. Fungal OTUs belonged to the phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota, and included species from the genera, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Candida, Cladosporium, Dokmaia, Issatchenkia, Kodamaea, Lecythophora, Phoma, Pichia, Rhizopus, Saccharomyces and Starmerella. The majority of fungal species have not been previously reported in soy-daddawa. Potential opportunistic human pathogens such as Atopostipes suicloacalis, Candida rugosa, Candida tropicalis, and Kodamaea ohmeri were detected. Variation in soy-daddawa microbial communities amongst samples and presence of potential opportunistic pathogens emphasises the need for starter culture employment and good handling practices in soy-daddawa processing.

  9. Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial

    Jeong Tae-Sook


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural food supplements with high flavonoid content are often claimed to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol in animal studies, but human studies have been more equivocal. The aim of this study was firstly to determine the effectiveness of natural food supplements containing Glycine max leaves extract (EGML or Garcinia cambogia extract (GCE to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol. Secondly to examine whether these supplements have any beneficial effect on lipid, adipocytokine or antioxidant profiles. Methods Eighty-six overweight subjects (Male:Female = 46:40, age: 20~50 yr, BMI > 23 Results EGML and GCE supplementation failed to promote weight-loss or any clinically significant change in %body fat. The EGML group had lower total cholesterol after 10 weeks compared to the placebo group (p Conclusions Ten weeks of EGML or GCE supplementation did not promote weight-loss or lower total cholesterol in overweight individuals consuming their habitual diet. Although, EGML did increase plasma HDL-C levels which is associated with a lower risk of atherosclerosis.


    Yuniet Hernández Avera


    Full Text Available La salinidad es una amenaza creciente para la productividad de cultivares de soya ( Glycine max (L. Merril. Diferentes estrategias se han adoptado para superar el problema de la baja productividad. El empleo de genotipos tolerantes a la salinidad es una buena opción para obtener rendimientos económicos en estas áreas. Por esta razón, es importante disponer de métodos rápidos para evaluar la tolerancia a este estrés sobre todo en las primeras etapas de su crecimiento. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la tolerancia a la salinidad en nueve genotipos de soya. Los experimentos se desarrollaron en casas verdes bajo condiciones controladas. El índice de tolerancia a la salinidad de germinación (IG, longitud de los brotes (ILB, longitud de la raíz (ILR, materia seca de brotes (IMSB y de la raíz (IMSR, así como la lesión de la membrana celular se midieron en todos los genotipos tratados con NaCl en concentraciones de 0 y 150 mM. Los resultados, a partir de los criterios fisiológicos, permitieron identificar a los cultivares AT22 e INCASoy36 como los más tolerantes en comparación con el resto de los genotipos, por lo que pueden considerarse como prometedores para elevar la productividad en las zonas afectadas por la sal.


    Corneliu Tanase


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of spruce bark aqueous extract and deuterium depleted water (DDW as bioregulators on the plant growth Glycine max L. and Helianthus annuus. The following specific parameteres were closely monitorised: germination energy and germination capacity, plants vegetative organelles growth and development and photoassimilatory pigments concentrations. The results have shown that DDW presents different effects depending on tested plant species. In the case of soybean, DDW presented stimulatory effects on both germination energy and capacity, radicles elongation, primary leaves growth and development but inhibitory effects on photoassimilatory pigments. Spruce bark extract reduced the germination capacity of soybean seeds, but accelerated the germination process of sunflower seeds and present stimulatory effects on plantlets biomass accumulation. The combination of DDW with Picea abies polyphenolic extract promoted soybean plantlet elongation, especially the rootlets ones and stimulated green biomass accumulation for both soybean and sunflower plantlets. Analyzing the photoassimilatory pigments concentration for sunflower, it can be observed an increasing trend (almost 100% comparing with control when introduce into the growth medium DDW and P. abies polyphenolic extract. DDW and P. abies bark extract have shown an important role in plant growth and development, improving photoassimiliation process.

  12. Antioxidative Defense Responses to lead-induced Oxidative Stress in Glycine max L. CV. Merrill grown in Different pH Gradient

    Mishra, Pankaj Kishor


    Full Text Available Physiological and biochemical changes as well as the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes under lead (Pb2+ phytotoxicity were investigated in 20 days old soybean (Glycine max L. seedlings grown hydroponically in the laboratory under different pH conditions. The rapid uptake of Pb 2+ was observed immediately after the start of treatment. The quantity of accumulation of Pb2+ was much higher in roots than in shoots, its level rising with increasing pH from 3.0 to 8.0 . Not only that, an oxidative stress conditions were observed due to increased level of superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide in shoots and root cells of 20 days old seedlings when treated with Pb(NO32 at a concentration of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 μM. Spectrometric assays of seedlings showed increased level of activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, peroxidase and glutathione reductase. The presence of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS indicates the enhanced lipid peroxidation compared to controls. The alteration in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes and the induction of lipid peroxidation reflects the presence of Pb2+, which may cause oxidative stress.

  13. Alpha-amylase from germinating soybean (Glycine max) seeds--purification, characterization and sequential similarity of conserved and catalytic amino acid residues.

    Kumari, Arpana; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Fitter, Jörg; Polen, Tino; Kayastha, Arvind M


    Starch hydrolyzing amylase from germinated soybeans seeds (Glycine max) has been purified 400-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity with a final specific activity of 384 units/mg. SDS-PAGE of the final preparation revealed a single protein band of 100 kDa, whereas molecular mass was determined to be 84 kDa by MALDI-TOF and gel filtration on Superdex-200 (FPLC). The enzyme exhibited maximum activity at pH 5.5 and a pI value of 4.85. The energy of activation was determined to be 6.09 kcal/mol in the temperature range 25-85 degrees C. Apparent Michaelis constant (K(m)((app))) for starch was 0.71 mg/mL and turnover number (k(cat)) was 280 s(-1) in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.5. Thermal inactivation studies at 85 degrees C showed first-order kinetics with rate constant (k) equal to 0.0063 min(-1). Soybean alpha-amylase showed high specificity for its primary substrate starch. High similarity of soybean alpha-amylase with known amylases suggests that this alpha-amylase belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 13. Cereal alpha-amylases have gained importance due to their compatibility for biotechnological applications. Wide availability and easy purification protocol make soybean as an attractive alternative for plant alpha-amylase. Soybean can be used as commercially viable source of alpha-amylase for various industrial applications.

  14. Residual Effect Of Organic Fertilizer And Addition Inorganik Fertilizer To Nutrient Uptake Growth And Productions Of Black Soy Bean Glycine Max L. Merr At Rainfed Areas.

    Elli Afrida


    Full Text Available Abstract Research that have theme Residual Effect of Organic Fertilizer and Addition Anorganik Fertilizer to Nutrient Uptake Growth and pruductions of Black Soy Bean Glycine max L. Merr at Rainfed Wetland. Research was conducted at Suka Makmur village sub-distric Binjai Distric Langkat. Research was arranged in split plot design main plot is applications of phonska fertilizerwith 4 level i.e 0 t ha-1 A0 0.20 t ha-1 A1 0.25 t ha-1 A2 dan 0.30 t ha-1 A3 and sub plot is residual effect from first research with 16 combinations. Research was replicated 3 times. Result of research was showed application organic fertilizer that was combinated with anorganic fertilizer can increased N and K uptake. Application organic and anorganic fertilizer as single factor showed significantly effect of number of pods and soy bean productions but at interaction treatment not significantly effect however generally occurs increased production at O33A3 tratment until 80 comparison with control.

  15. Yield response of soy bean cultivars (Glycine max [L.] Merrill to the application of different doses of biofertilizer FitoMás–E

    Yanitza Meriño Hernández


    Full Text Available This research was done under field conditions, from December 2012 through February 2013. The objective was to evaluate the yield response of soy bean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill, variety “INCASOY-24”, to the application of different doses of FitoMás-E, in a randomized block experimental design with 4 treatments: T1 (control, T2 (1 L.ha-1, T3 (1.5 L.ha-1 and T4 (2 L.ha-1, and 4 replications. The bioestimulant was applied to foliage early in the morning from the 10th day after germination. The data were analyzed statistically with Statistica, ver. 8.0 software. When the indicators used showed significant differences, the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test was applied to p < 0.05. The results of each evaluated variable showed a significant effect of FitoMás-E on the cultivar. The best results were achieved where the application dose was 1 L.ha-1 (T2.

  16. Decreased GmAGL15 expression and reduced ethylene synthesis may contribute to reduced somatic embryogenesis in a poorly embryogenic cultivar of Glycine max.

    Zheng, Qiaolin; Zheng, Yumei; Perry, Sharyn E


    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is the process by which cells become dedifferentiated and reprogram to follow an embryogenic pathway. It is important for regeneration of transgenic plants as well as for propagation of certain genotypes. However, competence for SE varies, even among genotypes of a species, and the basis for this variation is not understood. We have found that the MADS-box transcription factor (Glycine max) AGAMOUS-Like 15 [(Gm)AGL15] promotes SE in Arabidopsis and in soybean when overexpressed. In soybean, part of the promotion of SE is via GmAGL15-mediated control of ethylene biosynthesis and response. Addition of ACC, the precursor to ethylene, to culture media enhanced SE in Arabidopsis and soybean. Transcription factors important for embryogenesis responded directly to GmAGL15 and to ethylene accumulation. Here we correlate ethylene production and patterns of gene expression with SE potential of soybean genotypes. However, other results indicate that there is not a complete positive correlation between ethylene production and SE, indicating that the interactions between hormones, gene expression and developmental outcomes are complex.

  17. Assessing the effects of cultivating genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant varieties of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) on populations of field arthropods.

    Imura, Osamu; Shi, Kun; Iimura, Keiji; Takamizo, Tadashi


    We assessed the effects of cultivating two genetically modified (GM) glyphosate-tolerant soybean varieties (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) derived from Event 40-3-2 and a Japanese conventional variety on arthropods under field conditions, with weed control using glyphosate and conventional weed control for two years. Plant height and dry weight of the conventional variety were significantly larger than those of the GM varieties, but the GM varieties bore more pods than the conventional variety. We found arthropods of nine taxonomic orders (Araneae, Acari, Thysanoptera, Homoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera) on the plants. The arthropod incidence (number per plant unit weight pooled for each taxonomic order) on the soybean stems and leaves generally did not differ significantly between the GM and conventional varieties. However, the incidence of Thysanoptera and total incidence (all orders combined) were greater on the GM variety in the second year. The weed control regimes had no significant influence on the arthropod incidence on the soybean stems and leaves. The number of flower-inhabiting Thysanoptera (the dominant arthropod in the flowers) was not significantly different between the GM and conventional varieties. Asphondylia yushimai (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) was more numerous on the pods of the GM variety in both years. Neither the soybean variety nor the weed control regime significantly affected the density of soil macro-organisms. However, the glyphosate weed control affected arthropods between the rows of plants by decreasing the abundances of Homoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, and diversity of arthropods. © ISBR, EDP Sciences, 2011.

  18. Additivity of the Stabilization Effect of Single Amino Acid Substitutions in Triple Mutants of Recombinant Formate Dehydrogenase from the Soybean Glycine max.

    Alekseeva, A A; Kargov, I S; Kleimenov, S Yu; Savin, S S; Tishkov, V I


    Recently, we demonstrated that the amino acid substitutions Ala267Met and Ala267Met/Ile272Val (Alekseeva et al., Biochemistry, 2012), Phe290Asp, Phe290Asn and Phe290Ser (Alekseeva et al., Prot. Eng. Des. Select, 2012) in recombinant formate dehydrogenase from soya Glycine max (SoyFDH) lead to a significant (up to 30-100 times) increase in the thermal stability of the enzyme. The substitutions Phe290Asp, Phe290Asn and Phe290Ser were introduced into double mutant SoyFDH Ala267Met/Ile272Val by site-directed mutagenesis. Combinations of three substitutions did not lead to a noticeable change in the catalytic properties of the mutant enzymes. The stability of the resultant triple mutants was studied through thermal inactivation kinetics and differential scanning calorimetry. The thermal stability of the new mutant SoyFDHs was shown to be much higher than that of their precursors. The stability of the best mutant SoyFDH Ala267Met/Ile272Val/Phe290Asp turned out to be comparable to that of the most stable wild-type formate dehydrogenases from other sources. The results obtained with both methods indicate a great synergistic contribution of individual amino acid substitutions to the common stabilization effect.

  19. A Novel Sucrose-Regulatory MADS-Box Transcription Factor GmNMHC5 Promotes Root Development and Nodulation in Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.).

    Liu, Wei; Han, Xiangdong; Zhan, Ge; Zhao, Zhenfang; Feng, Yongjun; Wu, Cunxiang


    The MADS-box protein family includes many transcription factors that have a conserved DNA-binding MADS-box domain. The proteins in this family were originally recognized to play prominent roles in floral development. Recent findings, especially with regard to the regulatory roles of the AGL17 subfamily in root development, have greatly broadened their known functions. In this study, a gene from soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), GmNMHC5, was cloned from the Zigongdongdou cultivar and identified as a member of the AGL17 subfamily. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that GmNMHC5 was expressed at much higher levels in roots and nodules than in other organs. The activation of expression was first examined in leaves and roots, followed by shoot apexes. GmNMHC5 expression levels rose sharply when the plants were treated under short-day conditions (SD) and started to pod, whereas low levels were maintained in non-podding plants under long-day conditions (LD). Furthermore, overexpression of GmNMHC5 in transgenic soybean significantly promoted lateral root development and nodule building. Moreover, GmNMHC5 is upregulated by exogenous sucrose. These results indicate that GmNMHC5 can sense the sucrose signal and plays significant roles in lateral root development and nodule building.

  20. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling under heat and drought treatments of HSP70 gene family in soybean (Glycine max L.).

    Zhang, Ling; Zhao, Hong-Kun; Dong, Qian-Li; Zhang, Yuan-Yu; Wang, Yu-Min; Li, Hai-Yun; Xing, Guo-Jie; Li, Qi-Yun; Dong, Ying-Shan


    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) perform a fundamental role in protecting plants against abiotic stresses. Previous studies have made great efforts in the functional analysis of individual family members, but there has not yet been an overall analysis or expression profiling of the HSP70 gene family in soybeans (Glycine max L.). In this study, an investigation of the soybean genome revealed 61 putative HSP70 genes, which were evaluated. These genes were classified into eight sub-families, denoted I-VIII, based on a phylogenetic analysis. In each sub-family, the constituent parts of the gene structure and motif were relatively conserved. These GmHSP70 genes were distributed unequally on 17 of the 20 chromosomes. The analysis of the expression profiles showed that 53 of the 61 GmHSP70 genes were differentially expressed across the 14 tissues. However, most of the GmHSP70s were differentially expressed in a tissue-specific expression pattern. Furthermore, the expression of some of the duplicate genes was partially redundant, while others showed functional diversity. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of the 61 soybean HSP70 genes confirmed their stress-inducible expression patterns under both drought and heat stress. These findings provide a thorough overview of the evolution and modification of the GmHSP70 gene family, which will help to determine the functional characteristics of the HSP70 genes in soybean growth and development.

  1. Selection of Rhizobium strain from Wonogiri, Central Java on the growth of soybean (Glycine max L. on the sand sterile medium in greenhouse



    Full Text Available An experiment on the selection of Rhizobium strain from Wonogiri, Central Java on the growth of soybean (Glycine max L. on the sand sterile medium in green house. The aim of the experiment the selection and potency of the Rhizobium strain to increase the growth of soybean. The experiment was carried out in green house condition in Microbiology Division, Research Center for Biology-LIPI with sterile sand medium. The research design was Completely Randomized Design with three replications for each treatment. The Rhizobium strains used were 1 W (isolated from bean, Vigna radiata, 2 W (isolated from soybean, 3 W (isolated from bean, 4 W (isolated from soybean, 5 W (isolated from soybean, 6 W (isolated from peanut, Arachis hypogaea, 7 W (isolated from peanut, 8 W (isolated from peanut, the controls were uninoculated with Rhizobium strain and without urea fertilizer (K1, uninoculated and with urea fertilizer equal 100 kg/ha (K2. The plants were harvested after 50 days, the variable of investigation were the dry weight of canopy, roots, nodules root, total plants, number of nodules and ‘symbiotic capacity”. The results showed that all of experiment plant which be inoculated with Rhizobium able to form nodule. Strain of 2 W (isolated from soybean has given the best effects on the growth of soybean.

  2. Salt-induced difference between Glycine cyrtoloba and G. max in anti-oxidative ability and K+ vs. Na+selective accumulation

    Kaixing Lu; Wona Ding; Shihua Zhu; De'an Jiang


    To characterize differences in soybean resistance to salt stress, two soybean species, the wild salt-tolerant soybean Glycine cyrtoloba (serial number ACC547) and the cultivated salt-sensitive soybean G. max (cv. Melrose) were treated with 0, 50, 100, or 150 mmol L−1 NaCl for 5 days. A series of physiological parameters were determined in both shoots and roots, including content of chlorophyll (Chl) and malondialdehyde (MDA); electrolyte leakage (EL); hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration; superoxide oxygen radical (O2−) production rate; activities of several enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD); and selective ion (Na+ and K+) accumulation. Our results showed that the relative salt tolerance of ACC547 was associated with lower loss of Chl content; lower MDA content, EL, H2O2 concentration, and O2− production rate in both shoots and roots; higher POD activity caused by new isoforms in roots; and higher K+concentration and K+/Na+ ratio in shoots. These results suggested that relative lower membrane injury, efficient K+ vs. Na+ selective accumulation, and newly induced POD isoenzymes are mechanisms of salt tolerance in soybean.

  3. A Novel Sucrose-Regulatory MADS-Box Transcription Factor GmNMHC5 Promotes Root Development and Nodulation in Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.

    Wei Liu


    Full Text Available The MADS-box protein family includes many transcription factors that have a conserved DNA-binding MADS-box domain. The proteins in this family were originally recognized to play prominent roles in floral development. Recent findings, especially with regard to the regulatory roles of the AGL17 subfamily in root development, have greatly broadened their known functions. In this study, a gene from soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr., GmNMHC5, was cloned from the Zigongdongdou cultivar and identified as a member of the AGL17 subfamily. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that GmNMHC5 was expressed at much higher levels in roots and nodules than in other organs. The activation of expression was first examined in leaves and roots, followed by shoot apexes. GmNMHC5 expression levels rose sharply when the plants were treated under short-day conditions (SD and started to pod, whereas low levels were maintained in non-podding plants under long-day conditions (LD. Furthermore, overexpression of GmNMHC5 in transgenic soybean significantly promoted lateral root development and nodule building. Moreover, GmNMHC5 is upregulated by exogenous sucrose. These results indicate that GmNMHC5 can sense the sucrose signal and plays significant roles in lateral root development and nodule building.

  4. Novel process of fermenting black soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] yogurt with dramatically reduced flatulence-causing oligosaccharides but enriched soy phytoalexins.

    Feng, Shengbao; Saw, Chin Lee; Lee, Yuan Kun; Huang, Dejian


    Black soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] were germinated under fungal stress with food grade R. oligosporus for 3 days and were homogenized and fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to produce soy yogurt. Fungal stress led to the generation of oxylipins [oxooctadecadienoic acids (KODES) isomers and their respective glyceryl esters] and glyceollins--a type of phytoalexins unique to soybeans. In soy yogurt, the concentrations of total KODES and total glyceollins were 0.678 mg/g (dry matter) and 0.953 mg/g, respectively. The concentrations of other isoflavones (mainly genistein and daidzein and their derivatives) in soy yogurt remained largely unchanged after the processes compared with the control soy yogurt. Germination of black soybean under fungal stress for 3 days was sufficient to reduce stachyose and raffinose (which cause flatulence) by 92 and 80%, respectively. With a pH value of 4.42, a lactic acid content of 0.262%, and a maximum viable cell count of 2.1 x 10 (8) CFU/mL in the final soy yogurt, soy milk from germinated soybeans under fungal stress was concluded to be a suitable medium for yogurt-making. The resulting soy yogurt had significantly altered micronutrient profiles with significantly reduced oligosaccharides and enriched glyceollins.

  5. Phenylalanine is required to promote specific developmental responses and prevents cellular damage in response to ultraviolet light in soybean (Glycine max) during the seed-to-seedling transition.

    Sullivan, Joe H; Muhammad, DurreShahwar; Warpeha, Katherine M


    UV-radiation elicits a suite of developmental (photomorphogenic) and protective responses in plants, but responses early post-germination have received little attention, particularly in intensively bred plants of economic importance. We examined germination, hypocotyl elongation, leaf pubescence and subcellular responses of germinating and/or etiolated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seedlings in response to treatment with discrete wavelengths of UV-A or UV-B radiation. We demonstrate differential responses of germinating/young soybean seedlings to a range of UV wavelengths that indicate unique signal transduction mechanisms regulate UV-initiated responses. We have investigated how phenylalanine, a key substrate in the phenylpropanoid pathway, may be involved in these responses. Pubescence may be a key location for phenylalanine-derived protective compounds, as UV-B irradiation increased pubescence and accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds within primary leaf pubescence, visualized by microscopy and absorbance spectra. Mass spectrometry analysis of pubescence indicated that sinapic esters accumulate in the UV-irradiated hairs compared to unirradiated primary leaf tissue. Deleterious effects of some UV-B wavelengths on germination and seedling responses were reduced or entirely prevented by inclusion of phenylalanine in the growth media. Key effects of phenylalanine were not duplicated by tyrosine or tryptophan or sucrose, nor is the specificity of response due to the absorbance of phenylalanine itself. These results suggest that in the seed-to-seedling transition, phenylalanine may be a limiting factor in the development of initial mechanisms of UV protection in the developing leaf.

  6. Salt-induced difference between Glycine cyrtoloba and G.max in anti-oxidative ability and K~+ vs. Na~+ selective accumulation

    Kaixing Lu; Wona Ding; Shihua Zhu; De’an Jiang


    To characterize differences in soybean resistance to salt stress, two soybean species, the wild salt-tolerant soybean Glycine cyrtoloba(serial number ACC547) and the cultivated salt-sensitive soybean G. max(cv. Melrose) were treated with 0, 50, 100, or 150 mmol L-1Na Cl for 5 days. A series of physiological parameters were determined in both shoots and roots, including content of chlorophyll(Chl) and malondialdehyde(MDA); electrolyte leakage(EL); hydrogen peroxide(H2O2) concentration; superoxide oxygen radical(O2-)production rate; activities of several enzymes including superoxide dismutase(SOD),catalase(CAT), and peroxidase(POD); and selective ion(Na+and K+) accumulation. Our results showed that the relative salt tolerance of ACC547 was associated with lower loss of Chl content; lower MDA content, EL, H2O2 concentration, and O2-production rate in both shoots and roots; higher POD activity caused by new isoforms in roots; and higher K+concentration and K+/Na+ratio in shoots. These results suggested that relative lower membrane injury, efficient K+vs. Na+selective accumulation, and newly induced POD isoenzymes are mechanisms of salt tolerance in soybean.

  7. Emisiones de óxido nitroso en un cultivo de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill]: efecto de la inoculación y de la fertilización nitrógenada Nitrous oxide emission during a soybean [Glycine max (L. Merril] culture: inoculation and nitrogen fertilization effects

    Ignacio A Ciampitti


    Full Text Available El óxido nitroso absorbe radiación infrarroja contribuyendo al efecto invernadero; este gas es producido principalmente en el suelo, mediante los procesos de nitrificación y denitrificación. En un estudio a campo, sobre un suelo Argiudol típico, se evaluó el efecto de la fertilización y la inoculación con Bradyrhizobium japonicum en un cultivo de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill], sobre las emisiones de óxido nitroso. Los gases se extrajeron de cilindros de PVC y la lectura se realizó con cromatografía gaseosa. Las emisiones presentaron valores crecientes desde la siembra hacia madurez fisiológica del cultivo, para todos los tratamientos; este comportamiento fue concomitante con la evolución presentada por la humedad edáfica. La fertilización nitrogenada aumentó significativamente (PNitrous oxide gas absorbs infrared radiation contributing to the greenhouse effect; this gas is produced mainly in soil, by means of the processes of nitrification and denitrification. In a field study at the FAUBA on a typic Argiudol, we evaluated the effect of fertilization and inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum during a soybean culture [Glycine max (L. Merrill], on nitrous oxide emisión. Gases were sampled with PVC cylinders and were read with gaseous chromatography. Emissions presented increasing values from seeding towards physiological maturity for all treatments; this behavior was similar to the evolution presented by nitrate level and soil moisture. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased (P<0.05 nitrous oxide emissions and inoculation only had a significant effect with the highest level of fertilization (P=0.09. Plots fertilized at highest dose and inoculated gave the greatest nitrous oxide emissions. The variable that better explains the emissions is the nitrate level (r² = 0.1899; P=0.0231.

  8. Combined analysis of transcriptome and metabolite data reveals extensive differences between black and brown nearly-isogenic soybean (Glycine max seed coats enabling the identification of pigment isogenes

    Arnason John T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The R locus controls the color of pigmented soybean (Glycine max seeds. However information about its control over seed coat biochemistry and gene expressions remains limited. The seed coats of nearly-isogenic black (iRT and brown (irT soybean (Glycine max were known to differ by the presence or absence of anthocyanins, respectively, with genes for only a single enzyme (anthocyanidin synthase found to be differentially expressed between isolines. We recently identified and characterized a UDP-glycose:flavonoid-3-O-glycosyltransferase (UGT78K1 from the seed coat of black (iRT soybean with the aim to engineer seed coat color by suppression of an anthocyanin-specific gene. However, it remained to be investigated whether UGT78K1 was overexpressed with anthocyanin biosynthesis in the black (iRT seed coat compared to the nearly-isogenic brown (irT tissue. In this study, we performed a combined analysis of transcriptome and metabolite data to elucidate the control of the R locus over seed coat biochemistry and to identify pigment biosynthesis genes. Two differentially expressed late-stage anthocyanin biosynthesis isogenes were further characterized, as they may serve as useful targets for the manipulation of soybean grain color while minimizing the potential for unintended effects on the plant system. Results Metabolite composition differences were found to not be limited to anthocyanins, with specific proanthocyanidins, isoflavones, and phenylpropanoids present exclusively in the black (iRT or the brown (irT seed coat. A global analysis of gene expressions identified UGT78K1 and 19 other anthocyanin, (isoflavonoid, and phenylpropanoid isogenes to be differentially expressed between isolines. A combined analysis of metabolite and gene expression data enabled the assignment of putative functions to biosynthesis and transport isogenes. The recombinant enzymes of two genes were validated to catalyze late-stage steps in anthocyanin

  9. Growth at elevated ozone or elevated carbon dioxide concentration alters antioxidant capacity and response to acute oxidative stress in soybean (Glycine max)

    Gillespie, K.M.; Rogers, A.; Ainsworth, E. A.


    Soybeans (Glycine max Merr.) were grown at elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO{sub 2}]) or chronic elevated ozone concentration ([O{sub 3}]; 90 ppb), and then exposed to an acute O{sub 3} stress (200 ppb for 4 h) in order to test the hypothesis that the atmospheric environment alters the total antioxidant capacity of plants, and their capacity to respond to an acute oxidative stress. Total antioxidant metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, and antioxidant transcript abundance were characterized before, immediately after, and during recovery from the acute O{sub 3} treatment. Growth at chronic elevated [O{sub 3}] increased the total antioxidant capacity of plants, while growth at elevated [CO{sub 2}] decreased the total antioxidant capacity. Changes in total antioxidant capacity were matched by changes in ascorbate content, but not phenolic content. The growth environment significantly altered the pattern of antioxidant transcript and enzyme response to the acute O{sub 3} stress. Following the acute oxidative stress, there was an immediate transcriptional reprogramming that allowed for maintained or increased antioxidant enzyme activities in plants grown at elevated [O{sub 3}]. Growth at elevated [CO{sub 2}] appeared to increase the response of antioxidant enzymes to acute oxidative stress, but dampened and delayed the transcriptional response. These results provide evidence that the growth environment alters the antioxidant system, the immediate response to an acute oxidative stress, and the timing over which plants return to initial antioxidant levels. The results also indicate that future elevated [CO{sub 2}] and [O{sub 3}] will differentially affect the antioxidant system.

  10. Heat waves imposed during early pod development in soybean (Glycine max) cause significant yield loss despite a rapid recovery from oxidative stress.

    Siebers, Matthew H; Yendrek, Craig R; Drag, David; Locke, Anna M; Rios Acosta, Lorena; Leakey, Andrew D B; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R


    Heat waves already have a large impact on crops and are predicted to become more intense and more frequent in the future. In this study, heat waves were imposed on soybean using infrared heating technology in a fully open-air field experiment. Five separate heat waves were applied to field-grown soybean (Glycine max) in central Illinois, three in 2010 and two in 2011. Thirty years of historical weather data from Illinois were analyzed to determine the length and intensity of a regionally realistic heat wave resulting in experimental heat wave treatments during which day and night canopy temperatures were elevated 6 °C above ambient for 3 days. Heat waves were applied during early or late reproductive stages to determine whether and when heat waves had an impact on carbon metabolism and seed yield. By the third day of each heat wave, net photosynthesis (A), specific leaf weight (SLW), and leaf total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration (TNC) were decreased, while leaf oxidative stress was increased. However, A, SLW, TNC, and measures of oxidative stress were no different than the control ca. 12 h after the heat waves ended, indicating rapid physiological recovery from the high-temperature stress. That end of season seed yield was reduced (~10%) only when heat waves were applied during early pod developmental stages indicates the yield loss had more to do with direct impacts of the heat waves on reproductive process than on photosynthesis. Soybean was unable to mitigate yield loss after heat waves given during late reproductive stages. This study shows that short high-temperature stress events that reduce photosynthesis and increase oxidative stress resulted in significant losses to soybean production in the Midwest, U.S. The study also suggests that to mitigate heat wave-induced yield loss, soybean needs improved reproductive and photosynthetic tolerance to high but increasingly common temperatures. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is

  11. Phenylalanine is required to promote specific developmental responses and prevents cellular damage in response to ultraviolet light in soybean (Glycine max during the seed-to-seedling transition.

    Joe H Sullivan

    Full Text Available UV-radiation elicits a suite of developmental (photomorphogenic and protective responses in plants, but responses early post-germination have received little attention, particularly in intensively bred plants of economic importance. We examined germination, hypocotyl elongation, leaf pubescence and subcellular responses of germinating and/or etiolated soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. seedlings in response to treatment with discrete wavelengths of UV-A or UV-B radiation. We demonstrate differential responses of germinating/young soybean seedlings to a range of UV wavelengths that indicate unique signal transduction mechanisms regulate UV-initiated responses. We have investigated how phenylalanine, a key substrate in the phenylpropanoid pathway, may be involved in these responses. Pubescence may be a key location for phenylalanine-derived protective compounds, as UV-B irradiation increased pubescence and accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds within primary leaf pubescence, visualized by microscopy and absorbance spectra. Mass spectrometry analysis of pubescence indicated that sinapic esters accumulate in the UV-irradiated hairs compared to unirradiated primary leaf tissue. Deleterious effects of some UV-B wavelengths on germination and seedling responses were reduced or entirely prevented by inclusion of phenylalanine in the growth media. Key effects of phenylalanine were not duplicated by tyrosine or tryptophan or sucrose, nor is the specificity of response due to the absorbance of phenylalanine itself. These results suggest that in the seed-to-seedling transition, phenylalanine may be a limiting factor in the development of initial mechanisms of UV protection in the developing leaf.

  12. Crystal structure of Glycine max glutathione transferase in complex with glutathione: investigation of the mechanism operating by the Tau class glutathione transferases.

    Axarli, Irene; Dhavala, Prathusha; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C; Labrou, Nikolaos E


    Cytosolic GSTs (glutathione transferases) are a multifunctional group of enzymes widely distributed in Nature and involved in cellular detoxification processes. The three-dimensional structure of GmGSTU4-4 (Glycine max GST Tau 4-4) complexed with GSH was determined by the molecular replacement method at 2.7 A (1 A=0.1 nm) resolution. The bound GSH is located in a region formed by the beginning of alpha-helices H1, H2 and H3 in the N-terminal domain of the enzyme. Significant differences in the G-site (GSH-binding site) as compared with the structure determined in complex with Nb-GSH [S-(p-nitrobenzyl)-glutathione] were found. These differences were identified in the hydrogen-bonding and electrostatic interaction pattern and, consequently, GSH was found bound in two different conformations. In one subunit, the enzyme forms a complex with the ionized form of GSH, whereas in the other subunit it can form a complex with the non-ionized form. However, only the ionized form of GSH may form a productive and catalytically competent complex. Furthermore, a comparison of the GSH-bound structure with the Nb-GSH-bound structure shows a significant movement of the upper part of alpha-helix H4 and the C-terminal. This indicates an intrasubunit modulation between the G-site and the H-site (electrophile-binding site), suggesting that the enzyme recognizes the xenobiotic substrates by an induced-fit mechanism. The reorganization of Arg111 and Tyr107 upon xenobiotic substrate binding appears to govern the intrasubunit structural communication between the G- and H-site and the binding of GSH. The structural observations were further verified by steady-state kinetic analysis and site-directed mutagenesis studies.

  13. Douchi (fermented Glycine max Merr.) alleviates atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by regulation of PKC and IL-4.

    Jung, A-Ram; Ahn, Sang-Hyun; Park, In-Sik; Park, Sun-Young; Jeong, Seung-Il; Cheon, Jin-Hong; Kim, Kibong


    Douchi (fermented Glycine max Merr.) is produced from fermented soybeans, which is widely used in traditional herbal medicine. In this study, we investigated whether Douchi attenuates protein kinase C (PKC) and interleukin (IL)-4 response and cutaneous inflammation in Atopic dermatitis (AD)-like NC/Nga mice. To induce AD-like skin lesions, D. farinae antigen was applied to the dorsal skin of 3-week-old NC/Nga mice. After inducing AD, Douchi extract was administered 20 mg/kg daily for 3 weeks to the Douchi-treated mice group. We identified the changes of skin barrier and Th2 differentiation through PKC and IL-4 by immunohistochemistry. Douchi treatment of NC/Nga mice significantly reduced clinical scores (p < 0.01) and histological features. The levels of PKC and IL-4 were significantly reduced in the Douchi-treated group (p < 0.01). The reduction of IL-4 and PKC led to decrease of inflammatory factors such as substance P, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) (all p < 0.01). Douchi also down-regulated Th1 markers (IL-12, TNF-α) as well as Th2 markers (IL-4, p-IκB) (p < 0.01). Douchi alleviates AD-like skin lesions through suppressing of PKC and IL-4. These results also lead to diminish levels of substance P, iNOS and MMP-9 in skin lesions. Therefore, Douchi may have potential applications for the prevention and treatment of AD.

  14. Mutations in Argonaute5 Illuminate Epistatic Interactions of the K1 and I Loci Leading to Saddle Seed Color Patterns in Glycine max.

    Cho, Young B; Jones, Sarah I; Vodkin, Lila O


    The soybean (Glycine max) seed coat has distinctive, genetically programmed patterns of pigmentation, and the recessive k1 mutation can epistatically overcome the dominant I and i(i) alleles, which inhibit seed color by producing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting chalcone synthase (CHS) mRNAs. Small RNA sequencing of dissected regions of immature seed coats demonstrated that CHS siRNA levels cause the patterns produced by the i(i) and i(k) alleles of the I locus, which restrict pigment to the hilum or saddle region of the seed coat, respectively. To identify the K1 locus, we compared RNA-seq data from dissected regions of two Clark isolines having similar saddle phenotypes mediated by CHS siRNAs but different genotypes (homozygous i(k) K1 versus homozygous i(i) k1). By examining differentially expressed genes, mapping information, and genome resequencing, we identified a 129-bp deletion in Glyma.11G190900 encoding Argonaute5 (AGO5), a member of the Argonaute family. Amplicon sequencing of several independent saddle pattern mutants from different genetic backgrounds revealed independent lesions affecting AGO5, thus establishing Glyma.11G190900 as the K1 locus. Nonfunctional AGO5 from k1 alleles leads to altered distributions of CHS siRNAs, thus explaining how the k1 mutation reverses the phenotype of the seed coat regions from yellow to pigmented, even in the presence of the normally dominant I or i(i) alleles. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  15. Barcode System for Genetic Identification of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] Cultivars Using InDel Markers Specific to Dense Variation Blocks.

    Sohn, Hwang-Bae; Kim, Su-Jeong; Hwang, Tae-Young; Park, Hyang-Mi; Lee, Yu-Young; Markkandan, Kesavan; Lee, Dongwoo; Lee, Sunghoon; Hong, Su-Young; Song, Yun-Ho; Koo, Bon-Cheol; Kim, Yul-Ho


    For genetic identification of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] cultivars, insertions/deletions (InDel) markers have been preferred currently because they are easy to use, co-dominant and relatively abundant. Despite their biological importance, the investigation of InDels with proven quality and reproducibility has been limited. In this study, we described soybean barcode system approach based on InDel makers, each of which is specific to a dense variation block (dVB) with non-random recombination due to many variations. Firstly, 2,274 VBs were mined by analyzing whole genome data in six soybean cultivars (Backun, Sinpaldal 2, Shingi, Daepoong, Hwangkeum, and Williams 82) for transferability to dVB-specific InDel markers. Secondly, 73,327 putative InDels in the dVB regions were identified for the development of soybean barcode system. Among them, 202 dVB-specific InDels from all soybean cultivars were selected by gel electrophoresis, which were converted as 2D barcode types according to comparing amplicon polymorphisms in the five cultivars to the reference cultivar. Finally, the polymorphism of the markers were assessed in 147 soybean cultivars, and the soybean barcode system that allows a clear distinction among soybean cultivars is also detailed. In addition, the changing of the dVBs in a chromosomal level can be quickly identified due to investigation of the reshuffling pattern of the soybean cultivars with 27 maker sets. Especially, a backcross-inbred offspring, "Singang" and a recurrent parent, "Sowon" were identified by using the 27 InDel markers. These results indicate that the soybean barcode system enables not only the minimal use of molecular markers but also comparing the data from different sources due to no need of exploiting allele binning in new varieties.

  16. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Biological Activities of the Essential Oil and Extract of the Seeds of Glycine max (Soybean) from North Iran.

    Ghahari, Somayeh; Alinezhad, Heshmatollah; Nematzadeh, Ghorban Ali; Tajbakhsh, Mahmood; Baharfar, Robabeh


    Glycine max (L.) Merrill (soybean) is a major leguminous crop, cultivated globally as well as in Iran. This study examines the chemical composition of soybean essential oil, and evaluates the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of seeds on various plant pathogens that commonly cause irreparable damages to agricultural crops. The essential oil of soybean seeds was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activity was tested against 14 microorganisms, including three gram-positive, five gram-negative bacteria, and six fungi, using disk diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration technique. The soybean seeds were also subjected to screening for possible antioxidant activity by using catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Forty components were identified, representing 96.68% of the total oil. The major constituents of the oil were carvacrol (13.44%), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (9.15%), p-allylanisole (5.65%), p-cymene (4.87%), and limonene (4.75%). The oil showed significant activity against Pseudomonas syringae subsp. syringae, Rathayibacter toxicus with MIC = 25 µg/mL, and Pyricularia oryzae with MIC = 12.5 µg/mL. In addition, the free radical scavenging capacity of the essential oil was determined with an IC50 value of 162.35 µg/mL. Our results suggest that this plant may be a potential source of biocide, for economical and environmentally friendly disease control strategies. It may also be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations.

  17. Endophytic Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 Augments Glycine max L. Adaptation to Ni-Contamination through Affecting Endogenous Phytohormones and Oxidative Stress.

    Bilal, Saqib; Khan, Abdul L; Shahzad, Raheem; Asaf, Sajjad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung


    This study investigated the Ni-removal efficiency of phytohormone-producing endophytic fungi Penicillium janthinellum, Paecilomyces formosus, Exophiala sp., and Preussia sp. Among four different endophytes, P. formosus LHL10 was able to tolerate up to 1 mM Ni in contaminated media as compared to copper and cadmium. P. formosus LHL10 was further assessed for its potential to enhance the phytoremediation of Glycine max (soybean) in response to dose-dependent increases in soil Ni (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mM). Inoculation with P. formosus LHL10 significantly increased plant biomass and growth attributes as compared to non-inoculated control plants with or without Ni contamination. LHL10 enhanced the translocation of Ni from the root to the shoot as compared to the control. In addition, P. formosus LHL10 modulated the physio-chemical apparatus of soybean plants during Ni-contamination by reducing lipid peroxidation and the accumulation of linolenic acid, glutathione, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Stress-responsive phytohormones such as abscisic acid and jasmonic acid were significantly down-regulated in fungal-inoculated soybean plants under Ni stress. LHL10 Ni-remediation potential can be attributed to its phytohormonal synthesis related genetic makeup. RT-PCR analysis showed the expression of indole-3-acetamide hydrolase, aldehyde dehydrogenase for indole-acetic acid and geranylgeranyl-diphosphate synthase, ent-kaurene oxidase (P450-4), C13-oxidase (P450-3) for gibberellins synthesis. In conclusion, the inoculation of P. formosus can significantly improve plant growth in Ni-polluted soils, and assist in improving the phytoremediation abilities of economically important crops.

  18. Kinetic characterization, optimum conditions for catalysis and substrate preference of secretory phospholipase A2 from Glycine max in model membrane systems.

    Mariani, María Elisa; Madoery, Ricardo Román; Fidelio, Gerardo Daniel


    Two secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2s) from Glycine max, GmsPLA2-IXA-1 and GmsPLA2-XIB-2, have been purified as recombinant proteins and the activity was evaluated in order to obtain the optimum conditions for catalysis using mixed micelles and lipid monolayers as substrate. Both sPLA2s showed a maximum enzyme activity at pH 7 and a requirement of Ca(2+) in the micromolar range. These parameters were similar to those found for animal sPLA2s but a surprising optimum temperature for catalysis at 60 °C was observed. The effect of negative interfacial charges on the hydrolysis of organized substrates was evaluated through initial rate measurements using short chain phospholipids with different head groups. The enzymes showed subtle differences in the specificity for phospholipids with different head groups (DLPC, DLPG, DLPE, DLPA) in presence or absence of NaCl. Both recombinant enzymes showed lower activity toward anionic phospholipids and a preference for the zwitterionic ones. The values of the apparent kinetic parameters (Vmax and KM) demonstrated that these enzymes have more affinity for phosphatidylcholine compared with phosphatidylglycerol, in contrast with the results observed for pancreatic sPLA2. A hopping mode of catalysis was proposed for the action of these sPLA2 on mixed phospholipid/triton micelles. On the other hand, Langmuir-monolayers assays indicated an optimum lateral surface pressure for activity in between 13 and 16 mN/m for both recombinant enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  19. Genome-wide analysis of DWD proteins in soybean (Glycine max): Significance of Gm08DWD and GmMYB176 interaction in isoflavonoid biosynthesis.

    Bian, Shaomin; Li, Xuyan; Mainali, Hemanta; Chen, Ling; Dhaubhadel, Sangeeta


    A subset of WD40 proteins with DWD motif has been proposed to serve as substrate receptor of DDB-CUL4-ROC1 complex, thereby getting involved in protein degradation via ubiquitination pathway. Here, we identified a total of 161 potential DWD proteins in soybean (Glycine max) by searching DWD motif against the genome-wide WD40 repeats, and classified them into 20 groups on the basis of their functional domains and annotations. These putative DWD genes in soybean displayed tissue-specific expression patterns, and their genome localization and analysis of evolutionary relationship identified 48 duplicated gene pairs within 161 GmDWDs. Among the 161 soybean DWD proteins, Gm08DWD was previously found to interact with an isoflavonoid regulator, GmMYB176. Therefore, Gm08DWD and its homologue Gm05DWD were further investigated. Expression profile of both genes in different soybean tissues revealed that Gm08DWD was expressed higher in embryo, while Gm05DWD exhibited maximum transcript accumulation in leaf. Our protein-protein interaction studies demonstrated that Gm08DWD interacts with GmMYB176. Although Gm08DWD was localized both in nucleus and cytoplasm, the resulting complex of Gm08DWD and GmMYB176 was mainly observed in the nucleus. This finding is consistent with the functional localization of CUL4-E3 ligase complex. In conclusion, the survey on soybean potential DWD protein is useful reference for the further functional investigation of their DDB1-binding ability. Based on the functional investigation of Gm08DWD, we speculate that protein-protein interaction between Gm08DWD and GmMYB176 may lead to the degradation of GmMYB176 through CUL4-DDB1complex.

  20. System-level insights into the cellular interactome of a non-model organism: inferring, modelling and analysing functional gene network of soybean (Glycine max).

    Xu, Yungang; Guo, Maozu; Zou, Quan; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chunyu; Liu, Yang


    Cellular interactome, in which genes and/or their products interact on several levels, forming transcriptional regulatory-, protein interaction-, metabolic-, signal transduction networks, etc., has attracted decades of research focuses. However, such a specific type of network alone can hardly explain the various interactive activities among genes. These networks characterize different interaction relationships, implying their unique intrinsic properties and defects, and covering different slices of biological information. Functional gene network (FGN), a consolidated interaction network that models fuzzy and more generalized notion of gene-gene relations, have been proposed to combine heterogeneous networks with the goal of identifying functional modules supported by multiple interaction types. There are yet no successful precedents of FGNs on sparsely studied non-model organisms, such as soybean (Glycine max), due to the absence of sufficient heterogeneous interaction data. We present an alternative solution for inferring the FGNs of soybean (SoyFGNs), in a pioneering study on the soybean interactome, which is also applicable to other organisms. SoyFGNs exhibit the typical characteristics of biological networks: scale-free, small-world architecture and modularization. Verified by co-expression and KEGG pathways, SoyFGNs are more extensive and accurate than an orthology network derived from Arabidopsis. As a case study, network-guided disease-resistance gene discovery indicates that SoyFGNs can provide system-level studies on gene functions and interactions. This work suggests that inferring and modelling the interactome of a non-model plant are feasible. It will speed up the discovery and definition of the functions and interactions of other genes that control important functions, such as nitrogen fixation and protein or lipid synthesis. The efforts of the study are the basis of our further comprehensive studies on the soybean functional interactome at the genome

  1. Spectroscopic characterization of a higher plant heme oxygenase isoform-1 from Glycine max (soybean)--coordination structure of the heme complex and catabolism of heme.

    Gohya, Tomohiko; Zhang, Xuhong; Yoshida, Tadashi; Migita, Catharina T


    Heme oxygenase converts heme into biliverdin, CO, and free iron. In plants, as well as in cyanobacteria, heme oxygenase plays a particular role in the biosynthesis of photoreceptive pigments, such as phytochromobilins and phycobilins, supplying biliverdin IX(alpha) as a direct synthetic resource. In this study, a higher plant heme oxygenase, GmHO-1, of Glycine max (soybean), was prepared to evaluate the molecular features of its heme complex, the enzymatic activity, and the mechanism of heme conversion. The similarity in the amino acid sequence between GmHO-1 and heme oxygenases from other biological species is low, and GmHO-1 binds heme with 1 : 1 stoichiometry at His30; this position does not correspond to the proximal histidine of other heme oxygenases in their sequence alignments. The heme bound to GmHO-1, in the ferric high-spin state, exhibits an acid-base transition and is converted to biliverdin IX(alpha) in the presence of NADPH/ferredoxin reductase/ferredoxin, or ascorbate. During the heme conversion, an intermediate with an absorption maximum different from that of typical verdoheme-heme oxygenase or CO-verdoheme-heme oxygenase complexes was observed and was extracted as a bis-imidazole complex; it was identified as verdoheme. A myoglobin mutant, H64L, with high CO affinity trapped CO produced during the heme degradation. Thus, the mechanism of heme degradation by GmHO-1 appears to be similar to that of known heme oxygenases, despite the low sequence homology. The heme conversion by GmHO-1 is as fast as that by SynHO-1 in the presence of NADPH/ferredoxin reductase/ferredoxin, thereby suggesting that the latter is the physiologic electron-donating system.

  2. Catalytic features and crystal structure of a tau class glutathione transferase from Glycine max specifically upregulated in response to soybean mosaic virus infections.

    Skopelitou, Katholiki; Muleta, Abdi W; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C; Chronopoulou, Evangelia; Labrou, Nikolaos E


    The plant tau class glutathione transferases (GSTs) play important roles in biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in crops and weeds. In this study, we systematically examined the catalytic and structural features of a GST isoenzyme from Glycine max (GmGSTU10-10). GmGSTU10-10 is a unique isoenzyme in soybean that is specifically expressed in response to biotic stress caused by soybean mosaic virus (SMV) infections. GmGSTU10-10 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized. The results showed that GmGSTU10-10 catalyzes several different reactions and exhibits wide substrate specificity. Of particular importance is the finding that the enzyme shows high antioxidant catalytic function and acts as hydroperoxidase. In addition, its Km for GSH is significantly lower, compared to other plant GSTs, suggesting that GmGSTU10-10 is able to perform efficient catalysis under conditions where the concentration of reduced glutathione is low (e.g. oxidative stress). The crystal structure of GmGSTU10-10 was solved by molecular replacement at 1.6Å resolution in complex with glutathione sulfenic acid (GSOH). Structural analysis showed that GmGSTU10-10 shares the same overall fold and domain organization as other plant cytosolic GSTs; however, major variations were identified in helix H9 and the upper part of helix H4 that affect the size of the active site pockets, substrate recognition and the catalytic mechanism. The results of the present study provide new information into GST diversity and give further insights into the complex regulation and enzymatic functions of this plant gene superfamily.

  3. Yield and Yield Attributes Responses of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill to Elevated CO2 and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Inoculation in the Humid Transitory Rainforest

    Nurudeen ADEYEMI


    Full Text Available Variations in yield components and grain yield of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculated soybean varieties (Glycine max L. Merrill grown in CO2 enriched environment in the humid rainforest were tested.  A screen house trial was established with soybean varieties (‘TGx 1448-2E’, ‘TGx 1440-1E’ and ‘TGx 1740-2F’, AMF inoculation (with and without and CO2 enrichment (350±50 ppm and 550±50 ppm in open top chamber, arranged in completely randomised design, replicated three times. A field trial was also conducted; the treatments were arranged in a split-split plot configuration fitted into randomised complete block design. In the main plot the variant was CO2 enrichment, the sub-plot consisted of AMF inoculation (with and without, while the sub-sub plot consisted of soybean varieties, replicated three times. Both trials had significantly higher grain yield at elevated CO2 than ambient. This could be attributed to improved yield attributes, more spore count and root colonisation. In both trials, inoculated soybean had significantly higher dry pod weight than un-inoculated, which could suggest the increased grain yield observed on the field. AMF inoculated soybean varieties outperformed un-inoculated in both CO2 enriched and ambient concentrations. AMF inoculated soybean variety ‘TGx 1740-2F’ is most preferable in CO2 enriched environment, while variety ‘TGx 1448-2E’ had the most stable grain yield in all growth environments.

  4. Site of clomazone action in tolerant-soybean and susceptible-cotton photomixotrophic cell suspension cultures. [Glycine max (L. ); Gossypium hirsutum

    Norman, M.A.; Liebl, R.A.; Widholm, J.M. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))


    Studies were conducted to determine the herbicidal site of clomazone action in tolerant-soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv Corsoy) (SB-M) and susceptible-cotton (Gossypium hirsutum (L.) cv Stoneville 825) (COT-M) photomixotrophic cell suspension cultures. Although a 10 micromolar clomazone treatment did not significantly reduce the terpene or mixed terpenoid content (microgram per gram fresh weight) of the SB-M cell line, there was over a 70% reduction in the chlorophyll (Chl), carotenoid (CAR), and plastoquinone (PQ) content of the COT-M cell line. The tocopherol (TOC) content was reduced only 35.6%. Reductions in the levels of Chl, CAR, TOC, and PQ indicate that the site of clomazone action in COT-M cells is prior to geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP). The clomazone treatment did not significantly reduce the flow of ({sup 14}C)mevalonate (({sup 14}C)MEV) (nanocuries per gram fresh weight) into CAR and the three mixed terpenoid compounds of SB-M cells. Conversely, ({sup 14}C)MEV incorporation into CAR and the terpene moieties of Chl, PQ, and TOC in COT-M cells was reduced at least 73%, indicating that the site of clomazone action must be after MEV. Sequestration of clomazone away from the chloroplast cannot account for soybean tolerance to clomazone since chloroplasts isolated from both cell lines incubated with ({sup 14}C)clomazone contained a similar amount of radioactivity (disintegrations per minute per microgram of Chl). The possible site(s) of clomazone inhibition include mevalonate kinase, phosphomevalonate kinase, pyrophosphomevalonate decarboxylase, isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase, and/or a prenyl transferase.

  5. Improvement of wheat drought and salt tolerance by expression of a stress-inducible transcription factor GmDREB of soybean (Glycine max)

    GAO Shiqing; MA Youzhi; XU Huijun; CHENG Xianguo; CHEN Ming; XU Zhaoshi; LI Liancheng; YE Xingguo; DU Lipu; HAO Xiaoyan


    Under stress conditions such as drought,high-salinity and low-temperature, the transcription factor of DREB (dehydration responsive element binding proteins)improved efficiently stress resistance by regulating the expression of its downstream genes with various environmental stress resistance in plants. GmDREB gene (GenBank Accession No. AF514908) encoding a stress-inducible transcription factor was cloned by screening a cDNA library of Glycine max cv. Jinong 27 with yeast one-hybrid method. GmDREB gene was 910 bp in length and encoded 174 amino acids containing a conserved AP2/EREBP DNA-binding domain of 58amino acids. Two conserved functional amino acids, valine and glutamic acid, were located on the 14th and the 19th amino acid residues in the conserved structural domain. An alkaline amino acid region (KKR) related to a nuclear localization signal was at the N-terminal, while an acidic amino acid region (DDD) related to trans-activation was at the C-terminal. Plant expression vectors were constructed and transformed into wheat by bombardment. In total, 13 transgenic plants with Ubi::GmDREB and 11 transgenic plants with rd29A::GmDREB were identified from 103 regeneration plants by molecular analysis. The drought and salt tolerances of T1 transgenic lines with Ubi::GmDREB or rd29A::GmDREB were demonstrated to be improved as compared to wild type. The result also suggested that both Ubiquitin and rd29A promoters could effectively drive the expression of the GmDREB gene and enhance drought and salt tolerance of T1 plants.

  6. In silico comparison of genomic regions containing genes coding for enzymes and transcription factors for the phenylpropanoid pathway in Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Glycine max L. Merr

    Yarmilla eReinprecht


    Full Text Available Legumes contain a variety of phytochemicals derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway that have important effects on human health as well as seed coat color, plant disease resistance and nodulation. However, the information about the genes involved in this important pathway is fragmentary in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The objectives of this research were to isolate genes that function in and control the phenylpropanoid pathway in common bean, determine their genomic locations in silico in common bean and soybean, and analyze sequences of the 4CL gene family in two common bean genotypes. Sequences of phenylpropanoid pathway genes available for common bean or other plant species were aligned, and the conserved regions were used to design sequence-specific primers. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced and the gene sequences along with common bean gene-based (g markers were BLASTed against the Glycine max v.1.0 genome and the P. vulgaris v.1.0 (Andean early release genome. In addition, gene sequences were BLASTed against the OAC Rex (Mesoamerican genome sequence assembly. In total, fragments of 46 structural and regulatory phenylpropanoid pathway genes were characterized in this way and placed in silico on common bean and soybean sequence maps. The maps contain over 250 common bean g and SSR (simple sequence repeat markers and identify the positions of more than 60 additional phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences, plus the putative locations of seed coat color genes. The majority of cloned phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences were mapped to one location in the common bean genome but had two positions in soybean. The comparison of the genomic maps confirmed previous studies, which show that common bean and soybean share genomic regions, including those containing phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences, with conserved synteny. Indels identified in the comparison of Andean and Mesoamerican common bean sequences might be used to develop

  7. Assessing the short-term impact of an insecticide (Deltamethrin) on predator and herbivore abundance in soybean Glycine max using a replicated small-plot field experiment

    Sarina Macfadyen; Myron P. Zalucki


    A greater understanding of the relative impact of insecticide use on non-target species is critical for the incorporation of natural enemies into integrated pest management strategies.Here we use a small-plot field trial to examine the relative impact of an insecticide on herbivores and predators found in soybean (Glycine max L.),and to highlight the issues associated with calculating impact factors from these studies.The pyrethroid insecticide (Deltamethrin) caused a significant reduction in invertebrate abundance in the treated plots,and populations did not recover to pre-treatment levels even 20 days after spraying.To assess the relative impact of the spray on arthropods we first examined the mean difference in abundance in each plot before and after spraying.All herbivores decreased in abundance in the sprayed plots but increased in the control plots after spraying.Most predators (excluding hemipterans) showed a decrease in the control plots but a proportionally greater decrease in the sprayed plots.Next we examined the corrected percentage population reduction calculated using Abbott's formula.All predators (including Araneae) experienced a greater reduction (mean 87% ± 3.54 SE) than herbivores (mean 56% ± 4.37 SE) and Araneae alone (mean 71% ± 8.12 SE).The range in values across the plots varied and made categorising overall impact subjective for some taxa.Despite the constraints associated with small-plot trials,by using a combination of impact factors and examining community-level response across time,we did get some indication of the likely impact of this insecticide if used in a commercial situation.

  8. Evaluation of replacement intercropping of soybean (Glycine max L. with sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L. under weed infestation

    M. Bagheri Shirvan


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate intercropping of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. JK with sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L. with weed interference, an experiment was performed in randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and three replications at a field located 10 km of Shirvan during year of 2011. The treatments were included 75% soybean: 25%sweet basil, 50%soybean: 50% sweet basil, 25% soybean: 75% sweet basil, 75% soybean: 25% borage, 50% soybean: 50% borage and 25% soybean: 75% borage under weed infestation, in addition sole cropping of plants under weed control and weed interference. Intercropped plants had more success in reduction of weed density and biomass compared to monoculture. Soybean50: sweet basil50, reduced the weed density by 47.95% and 52.9%, and reduced the weed biomass by 68.91% and 61.87% more than sweet basil and soybean pure stand, respectively. Investigation of dry matter accumulation showed that increasing of plant proportion in intercropping caused increasing of plant dry matter. The height of soybean and borage was increased in intercropping and weed interference, while the highest height of sweet basil was observed in monoculture at second harvest. Biological and economical yield of soybean in intercropping with sweet basil was higher than intercropping with borage. The highest harvest index was related to 50:50 soybean: sweet basil ratio. In this ratio, the harvest index increased 4.9% compared to soybean monoculture. Yield of sweet basil and borage decreased with increasing of soybean rows in intercropping. Based on area-time equivalent ratio, soybean 75% with sweet basil and borage 25% (based on borage seed yield had 3% and 4% advantage compared to monoculture.

  9. 78 FR 9317 - Glycine max


    ... pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes...., June 25, 2012. 22 pgs. MRID No. 48872003. 14. US-FDA (2007a) Biotechnology Consultation Note to the File BNF No. 000108. U.S. Food and Drug Administration,

  10. Efeito de doses de metribuzin no crescimento e na conversão da energia solar em plantas de soja (Glycine max (L . merrill Effect of metribuzin doses on the growth and solar energy conversion in soybean (Glycine max (L. merrill plants

    P. J. Silva Neto


    Full Text Available O crescimento e a eficiência na conversão da energia solar foram estudados em soja (Glycine max (L. Merri ll, cv. 'Uberaba', cultivada em condições de campo, sob quatro doses de metribuzin (0, 0,35; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1. O valor máximo da conversão da energia solar foi de 0,75%, para as plantas cultiva das na maior dose do herbicida. Os valores da conversão da energia solar média durante o ciclo da cultura foram 0,32 ; 0,31 ; 0,32 e 0,33%. em ordem crescente de dose do metribuzin. De modo geral, na fase vegetativa as plantas controle apresentaram valores inferiores em todos os valores de crescimento determinados, superando as tratadas com metribuzin somente na fase reprodutiva, mostrando que no período crítico de competição o dano causado pelas plantas daninhas é maior que a possível fitotoxicida de causada pelo metribuzin.Growth analysis and evaluation of solar energy conversion in soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill, Uberaba unver field conditions and four doses of metribuzin (0,0;0,35; 0,70 and 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1 were performed in this study. Maximum solar energy conversion was 0,75% for pla nts tre ate d wit h 1,05 kg i.a.ha -1 metribuzin. The aver age of solar energy conversion throughout the entire crop cycle were 0,32, 0,31 , 0,32 and 0,33% for the increasing metribuzin doses. In general, the control showed lower figures for all growth values studied than the treated during the vegetative phase. During the reproductive phase, however, they surpassed those tre ated with metribuzin, showing that in the critical period of competition weeds were more harmful than the phytotoxicity produced by metribuzin.

  11. Diaspora, a large family of Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons in Glycine max, is an envelope-less member of an endogenous plant retrovirus lineage

    Das Arpita


    the Diaspora family in Glycine max. Diaspora is presently the only fully characterized member of a lineage of putative plant endogenous retroviruses that contains virtually no trace of an extra coding region. The loss of an envelope-like coding domain suggests that non-infectious retrotransposons could swiftly evolve from infectious retroviruses, possibly by anomalous splicing of genomic RNA.

  12. pH-dependent phytoavailability and speciation of tungsten (W) in soil affecting growth and N nutrition of soy (Glycine max)

    Oburger, Eva; Vergara Cid, Carolina; Preiner, Julian; Hu, Junjian; Hann, Stephan; Wanek, Wolfgang; Richter, Andreas


    Tungsten (W) is an economically important transition metal that finds a broad scope of applications ranging from household appliances to high-end technology goods. However, in the past decades, increasing industrial and military use of W-based products (particularly ammunition, as well as drilling, milling and cutting tools) opened new pathways of W into natural systems and raise the need for a better understanding of the behavior of W in the environment. Soils play an important role in controlling the bioavailability of pollutants and their entry into the food web via plant uptake as they serve as filter and buffer systems. However, compared to other trace metals, knowledge about the fate of W in the plant-soil environment is rather sketchy. The chemical alikeness of W and molybdenum (Mo) suggests not only similar, typical anionic behaviour in soil but also a potential negative effect of W on important plant physiological processes that require Mo. We examined how soil pH dependent solubility and W speciation affected biomass production, W and nutrient uptake by soy (Glycine max cv Primus) and the activity of molybdoenzymes involved in N assimilation (nitrate reductase) and symbiotic N2 fixation (nitrogenase). Increased solubility of mainly monomeric W in high pH soils resulted in increased W plant uptake, demonstrating a greater risk of entry of W into the food web in alkaline soils. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation was able to compensate for reduced nitrate reductase activity until W soil solution concentrations became too phytotoxic, indicating a more efficient detoxification/compartmentalization mechanism in nodules than in soy leaves. The increasing presence of polymeric W species observed in low pH soils spiked with high W concentrations resulted in decreased W uptake but simultaneously had an overall negative effect on nutrient assimilation and plant growth, suggesting a greater phytotoxicity of W polymers. Our results demonstrate the importance of soil pH for

  13. Redox markers for drought-induced nodule senescence, a process occurring after drought-induced senescence of the lowest leaves in soybean (Glycine max).

    Marquez-Garcia, Belén; Shaw, Daniel; Cooper, James William; Karpinska, Barbara; Quain, Marian Dorcas; Makgopa, Eugene Matome; Kunert, Karl; Foyer, Christine Helen


    Water is an increasingly scarce resource that limits crop productivity in many parts of the world, and the frequency and severity of drought are predicted to increase as a result of climate change. Improving tolerance to drought stress is therefore important for maximizing future crop yields. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of drought on soybean (Glycine max) leaves and nodules in order to define phenotypic markers and changes in cellular redox state that characterize the stress response in different organs, and to characterize the relationships between leaf and nodule senescence during drought. Leaf and crown nodule metabolite pools were measured together with leaf and soil water contents, and leaf chlorophyll, total protein contents and chlorophyll a fluorescence quenching parameters in nodulated soybeans that were grown under either well-watered conditions or deprived of water for up to 21 d. Ureides, ascorbate, protein, chlorophyll and the ratios of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fv') to maximal chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fm') fell to levels below detection in the oldest leaves after 21 d of drought. While these drought-induced responses were not observed in the youngest leaf ranks, the Fv'/Fm' ratios, pyridine nucleotide levels and the reduction state of the ascorbate pool were lower in all leaf ranks after 21 d of drought. In contrast to leaves, total nodule protein, pyridine nucleotides, ureides, ascorbate and glutathione contents increased as a result of the drought treatment. However, the nodule ascorbate pool was significantly less reduced as a result of drought. Higher levels of transcripts encoding two peroxiredoxins were detected in nodules exposed to drought stress but senescence-associated transcripts and other mRNAs encoding redox-related proteins were similar under both conditions. While the physiological impact of the drought was perceived throughout the shoot, stress-induced senescence occurred only in the oldest

  14. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of the Bradyrhizobium elkanii type strain USDA 76(T), isolated from Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Reeve, Wayne; van Berkum, Peter; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; Gollagher, Margaret; Marinova, Dora; Elia, Patrick; Reddy, T B K; Pillay, Manoj; Varghese, Neha; Seshadri, Rekha; Ivanova, Natalia; Woyke, Tanja; Baeshen, Mohamed N; Baeshen, Nabih A; Kyrpides, Nikos


    Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA 76(T) (INSCD = ARAG00000000), the type strain for Bradyrhizobium elkanii, is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen-fixing root nodule of Glycine max (L. Merr) grown in the USA. Because of its significance as a microsymbiont of this economically important legume, B. elkanii USDA 76(T) was selected as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria sequencing project. Here the symbiotic abilities of B. elkanii USDA 76(T) are described, together with its genome sequence information and annotation. The 9,484,767 bp high-quality draft genome is arranged in 2 scaffolds of 25 contigs, containing 9060 protein-coding genes and 91 RNA-only encoding genes. The B. elkanii USDA 76(T) genome contains a low GC content region with symbiotic nod and fix genes, indicating the presence of a symbiotic island integration. A comparison of five B. elkanii genomes that formed a clique revealed that 356 of the 9060 protein coding genes of USDA 76(T) were unique, including 22 genes of an intact resident prophage. A conserved set of 7556 genes were also identified for this species, including genes encoding a general secretion pathway as well as type II, III, IV and VI secretion system proteins. The type III secretion system has previously been characterized as a host determinant for Rj and/or rj soybean cultivars. Here we show that the USDA 76(T) genome contains genes encoding all the type III secretion system components, including a translocon complex protein NopX required for the introduction of effector proteins into host cells. While many bradyrhizobial strains are unable to nodulate the soybean cultivar Clark (rj1), USDA 76(T) was able to elicit nodules on Clark (rj1), although in reduced numbers, when plants were grown in Leonard jars containing sand or vermiculite. In these conditions, we postulate that the presence of Nop

  15. Calcium oxalate crystal production and density at different phenological stages of soybean plants (Glycine max L.) from the southeast of the Pampean Plain, Argentina.

    Borrelli, N; Benvenuto, M L; Osterrieth, M


    Glycine max L. (soybean) is one of the major crops of the world. Although the process of biomineralisation has been reported in some organs of soybean, we now report the description and quantification of calcium oxalate crystals in vegetative and reproductive organs of soybean during its life cycle, as they act as an important source of calcium to the soil, once the harvesting is finished. Through diaphanisation, cross-sectioning, optical and scanning electron microscopy analysis of the organs, morphology, size and location of the crystals were identified. In addition, crystal density (n° crystals·mm(-2) ) and the input of crystals to soil (n° crystals·ha(-1) ) were calculated. Soybean produced prismatic calcium oxalate crystals in vegetative and reproductive organs, generally associated with vascular bundles, resulting in a potencial transfer to the soil of 81.4 x 10(7) crystals·ha(-1) throughout its life cycle. Pods were the organs with higher calcium oxalate crystal production (1112.7 ± 384.6 crystals·mm(-2) ), but with the smaller size (12.3 ± 2.1 μm long). However, cotyledons were the organs that produce the larger crystals (21.3 ± 3.5 μm long), but in lesser amounts (150.9 ± 64.4 crystals·mm(-2) ). In leaves, although crystal size did not differ from vegetative to reproductive stage (14.5 ± 4.2 and 14.5 ± 4 μm in length, respectively), the crystal density increased (293.2 and 409 crystals·mm(-2) , respectively). These results will contribute to knowledge of the amount of calcium oxalate crystals involved in the process of Ca recycling through cultivated vegetation in fields from humid plains at medium latitudes, which therefore have biological, botanical, biogeochemical and pedological relevance. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. System-level insights into the cellular interactome of a non-model organism: inferring, modelling and analysing functional gene network of soybean (Glycine max.

    Yungang Xu

    Full Text Available Cellular interactome, in which genes and/or their products interact on several levels, forming transcriptional regulatory-, protein interaction-, metabolic-, signal transduction networks, etc., has attracted decades of research focuses. However, such a specific type of network alone can hardly explain the various interactive activities among genes. These networks characterize different interaction relationships, implying their unique intrinsic properties and defects, and covering different slices of biological information. Functional gene network (FGN, a consolidated interaction network that models fuzzy and more generalized notion of gene-gene relations, have been proposed to combine heterogeneous networks with the goal of identifying functional modules supported by multiple interaction types. There are yet no successful precedents of FGNs on sparsely studied non-model organisms, such as soybean (Glycine max, due to the absence of sufficient heterogeneous interaction data. We present an alternative solution for inferring the FGNs of soybean (SoyFGNs, in a pioneering study on the soybean interactome, which is also applicable to other organisms. SoyFGNs exhibit the typical characteristics of biological networks: scale-free, small-world architecture and modularization. Verified by co-expression and KEGG pathways, SoyFGNs are more extensive and accurate than an orthology network derived from Arabidopsis. As a case study, network-guided disease-resistance gene discovery indicates that SoyFGNs can provide system-level studies on gene functions and interactions. This work suggests that inferring and modelling the interactome of a non-model plant are feasible. It will speed up the discovery and definition of the functions and interactions of other genes that control important functions, such as nitrogen fixation and protein or lipid synthesis. The efforts of the study are the basis of our further comprehensive studies on the soybean functional

  17. Re-annotation of the physical map of Glycine max for polyploid-like regions by BAC end sequence driven whole genome shotgun read assembly

    Shultz Jeffry


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many of the world's most important food crops have either polyploid genomes or homeologous regions derived from segmental shuffling following polyploid formation. The soybean (Glycine max genome has been shown to be composed of approximately four thousand short interspersed homeologous regions with 1, 2 or 4 copies per haploid genome by RFLP analysis, microsatellite anchors to BACs and by contigs formed from BAC fingerprints. Despite these similar regions,, the genome has been sequenced by whole genome shotgun sequence (WGS. Here the aim was to use BAC end sequences (BES derived from three minimum tile paths (MTP to examine the extent and homogeneity of polyploid-like regions within contigs and the extent of correlation between the polyploid-like regions inferred from fingerprinting and the polyploid-like sequences inferred from WGS matches. Results Results show that when sequence divergence was 1–10%, the copy number of homeologous regions could be identified from sequence variation in WGS reads overlapping BES. Homeolog sequence variants (HSVs were single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; 89% and single nucleotide indels (SNIs 10%. Larger indels were rare but present (1%. Simulations that had predicted fingerprints of homeologous regions could be separated when divergence exceeded 2% were shown to be false. We show that a 5–10% sequence divergence is necessary to separate homeologs by fingerprinting. BES compared to WGS traces showed polyploid-like regions with less than 1% sequence divergence exist at 2.3% of the locations assayed. Conclusion The use of HSVs like SNPs and SNIs to characterize BACs wil improve contig building methods. The implications for bioinformatic and functional annotation of polyploid and paleopolyploid genomes show that a combined approach of BAC fingerprint based physical maps, WGS sequence and HSV-based partitioning of BAC clones from homeologous regions to separate contigs will allow reliable de

  18. In silico comparison of genomic regions containing genes coding for enzymes and transcription factors for the phenylpropanoid pathway in Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Glycine max L. Merr

    Reinprecht, Yarmilla; Yadegari, Zeinab; Perry, Gregory E.; Siddiqua, Mahbuba; Wright, Lori C.; McClean, Phillip E.; Pauls, K. Peter


    Legumes contain a variety of phytochemicals derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway that have important effects on human health as well as seed coat color, plant disease resistance and nodulation. However, the information about the genes involved in this important pathway is fragmentary in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The objectives of this research were to isolate genes that function in and control the phenylpropanoid pathway in common bean, determine their genomic locations in silico in common bean and soybean, and analyze sequences of the 4CL gene family in two common bean genotypes. Sequences of phenylpropanoid pathway genes available for common bean or other plant species were aligned, and the conserved regions were used to design sequence-specific primers. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced and the gene sequences along with common bean gene-based (g) markers were BLASTed against the Glycine max v.1.0 genome and the P. vulgaris v.1.0 (Andean) early release genome. In addition, gene sequences were BLASTed against the OAC Rex (Mesoamerican) genome sequence assembly. In total, fragments of 46 structural and regulatory phenylpropanoid pathway genes were characterized in this way and placed in silico on common bean and soybean sequence maps. The maps contain over 250 common bean g and SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers and identify the positions of more than 60 additional phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences, plus the putative locations of seed coat color genes. The majority of cloned phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences were mapped to one location in the common bean genome but had two positions in soybean. The comparison of the genomic maps confirmed previous studies, which show that common bean and soybean share genomic regions, including those containing phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences, with conserved synteny. Indels identified in the comparison of Andean and Mesoamerican common bean 4CL gene sequences might be used to develop inter

  19. A Glycine max homolog of NON-RACE SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1 (NDR1) alters defense gene expression while functioning during a resistance response to different root pathogens in different genetic backgrounds.

    McNeece, Brant T; Pant, Shankar R; Sharma, Keshav; Niruala, Prakash; Lawrence, Gary W; Klink, Vincent P


    A Glycine max homolog of the Arabidopsis thaliana NON-RACE SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE 1 (NDR1) coiled-coil nucleotide binding leucine rich repeat (CC-NB-LRR) defense signaling gene (Gm-NDR1-1) is expressed in root cells undergoing a defense response to the root pathogenic nematode, Heterodera glycines. Gm-NDR1-1 overexpression in the H. glycines-susceptible genotype G. max[Williams 82/PI 518671] impairs parasitism. In contrast, Gm-NDR1-1 RNA interference (RNAi) in the H. glycines-resistant genotype G. max[Peking/PI 548402] facilitates parasitism. The broad effectiveness of Gm-NDR1-1 in impairing parasitism has then been examined by engineering its heterologous expression in Gossypium hirsutum which is susceptible to the root pathogenic nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The heterologous expression of Gm-NDR1-1 in G. hirsutum effectively impairs M. incognita parasitism, reducing gall, egg mass, egg and juvenile numbers. In contrast to our prior experiments examining the effectiveness of the heterologous expression of a G. max homolog of the A. thaliana salicyclic acid signaling (SA) gene NONEXPRESSOR OF PR1 (Gm-NPR1-2), no cumulative negative effect on M. incognita parasitism has been observed in G. hirsutum expressing Gm-NDR1-1. The results indicate a common genetic basis exists for plant resistance to parasitic nematodes that involves Gm-NDR1. However, the Gm-NDR1-1 functions in ways that are measurably dissimilar to Gm-NPR1-2. Notably, Gm-NDR1-1 overexpression leads to increased relative transcript levels of its homologs of A. thaliana genes functioning in SA signaling, including NPR1-2, TGA2-1 and LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1-2) that is lost in Gm-NDR1-1 RNAi lines. Similar observations have been made regarding the expression of other defense genes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  20. The Influence Water Extract of Black Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. on Reducing of Blood Glucose Level and The Superoxide Dismutase (SOD Activity on Diabetes Mellitus Rats Induced With Multiple Low Dose of Streptozotocin (MLD-STZ

    Luh Putu Gina


    Full Text Available Black soybean (Glycine max ( L. Merr. is a tropical plant and spread widely in South East Asia including Indonesia. It contains anthocyanins and isoflavones which acts commonly as natural antioxidants. This paper discloses recent investigation on the benefits of its water extract on the oxidative stress in diabetes rat model exposed with multiple low dose of streptozotocin (MLD-STZ. It will also be reported the effect on increasing of the superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and lowering of blood glucose levels. Groups of male Rattus novergicus strain Winstar was applied as animal model.

  1. Influência do manejo da palhada de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de soja (Glycine max e amendoim-bravo (Euphorbia heterophylla Influence of straw management of Brachiaria decumbens on the initial development of Glycine max and Euphorbia heterophylla

    C.D.G. Maciel


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes manejos de palhada de capim-braquiária sobre o desenvolvimento inicial da cultura de soja e da planta daninha amendoimbravo, foi conduzido um experimento em condições de casa de vegetação no NuPAMFCA/UNESP, BotucatuSP. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: manejo da palhada na superfície do solo + irrigação superficial (T1; manejo da palhada na superfície do solo + irrigação subsuperficial (T2; palhada incorporada ao solo (T3; e testemunha sem cobertura (T4. A palhada foi colhida no campo 30 dias após dessecação com o herbicida glyphosate (1,44 g i.a. ha-1. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com sete repetições, sendo as unidades experimentais vasos plásticos, com a soja e o amendoim-bravo semeados paralelamente, em linhas distintas. O T1 reduziu significativamente o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e a altura das plântulas de soja aos 5 e 10 dias após a emergência (DAE, ao contrário do amendoim-bravo, o qual não sofreu interferência dos tratamentos estudados, constituindo-se em uma planta-problema para sistemas produtivos com palhada de capim-braquiária. Os resultados da análise de crescimento (TCA - taxa de crescimento absoluto, TCR - taxa de crescimento relativo e TAL - taxa de assimilação líquida das plântulas de soja e amendoim-bravo apresentaram valores máximos aos 15 DAE, com exceção do T3 para soja, o qual reduziu expressivamente o desenvolvimento em relação aos demais tratamentos.An experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions at NuPAM-FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brazil to evaluate the effects of different types of straw management of Brachiaria decumbens on the initial development of Glycine max and Euphorbia heterophylla. The treatments were: straw on soil surface + irrigation on the top (T1; straw on soil surface + underirrigation (T2; straw incorporated into the soil (T3 and control (T4. B. decumbens

  2. Analysis of isoflavone, phenolic, soyasapogenol, and tocopherol compounds in soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merrill] germplasms of different seed weights and origins.

    Kim, Eun-Hye; Ro, Hee-Myong; Kim, Sun-Lim; Kim, Hong-Sig; Chung, Ill-Min


    This study investigated the functional compounds, including isoflavones, phenolics, soyasapogenols, and tocopherols, that were detected in 204 soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merrill] germplasms. The soybean samples were divided into three groups according to origin: America, China, and Korea. The soybean samples were also classified into three groups on the basis of 100-seed weight: small (24 g). Among the soybean germplasms, CSRV121 (Bosukkong) had the highest level of isoflavone content (4778.1 μg g(-1)), whereas CS01316 had the lowest isoflavone content (682.4 μg g(-1)). Of the soybeans from the three different countries of origin, those from Korea showed the highest average concentration of total isoflavones (2252.6 μg g(-1)). The small seeds had the highest average total isoflavone concentration (2520.0 μg g(-1)) of the three different seed sizes. Among the 204 soybean germplasms, CS01405 had the highest content of total phenolics (5219.6 μg g(-1)), and CSRV017 (Hwangkeumkong) had the lowest phenolic content (654.6 μg g(-1)). The mean concentrations of total phenolic compounds were 2729.1 μg g(-1) in American soybean seeds, 1680.4 μg g(-1) in Chinese soybean seeds, and 1977.6 μg g(-1) in Korean soybean seeds. Of the soybean seeds from the three different countries of origin, American soybean seeds had the highest average concentration of total phenolic compounds, and Korean varieties showed the second highest value. Small soybean seeds had the highest average content of total phenolic compounds (2241.7 μg g(-1)), whereas medium-sized (1926.8 μg g(-1)) and large (1949.9 μg g(-1)) soybeans had lower concentrations of phenolic compounds. In whole soybean germplasms, the level of total soyasapogenols was higher in CS01173 (1802.3 μg g(-1)) and CS01346 (1736.8 μg g(-1)) than in the other types of soybeans. The mean concentrations of total soyasapogenol were 1234.0 μg g(-1) in American, 1294.5 μg g(-1) in Chinese, and 1241.5 μg g(-1) in Korean soybean

  3. Comparative study of the anti-oxidant activity of the total polyphenols extracted from Hibiscus Sabdariffa L., Glycine max L. Merr., yellow tea and red wine through reaction with DPPH free radicals

    T. Andzi Barhé


    Full Text Available The present study is part of the evaluation of extracts of Glycine max L. Merr and Hibiscus L. Sabdariffa as antioxidants. A comparative study was performed with extracts of yellow tea and commercial red wine, two foods known for their antioxidant activity. The method applied is free radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH°. The antioxidant properties were identified and measured by the determining the anti-radical activity reducing index, expressed in percentage % RSA (Radical Scavenger Activity, and by the determination of the colouring intensity (IC50. All results are compared to those of ascorbic acid as reference antioxidant. The results indicate the following order for the antioxidant power of the extracts tested. % RSA (tea > % RSA (Glycine max % > RSA (red wine % > RSA (Sabdariffa Hibiscus, and colouring intensities (IC50 ranging from 4.62 μM (ascorbic acid to 1.10 μM (Hibiscus sabdariffa correlated with their chemical structure and the content of phenolic compounds.

  4. Comparison of HeNe laser and sinusoidal non-uniform magnetic field seed pre-sowing treatment effect on Glycine max (Var 90-I) germination, growth and yield.

    Asghar, Tehseen; Iqbal, Munawar; Jamil, Yasir; Zia-Ul-Haq; Nisar, Jan; Shahid, Muhammad


    Recently, laser and magnetic field pre-sowing seed treatments attracted the attention of the scientific community in response to their positive effect on plant characteristics and the present study was exemplified for Glycine max Var 90-I. Seeds were exposed to laser (HeNe-wave length 632nm and density power of 1mW/cm(2)) and magnetic field (sinusoidal non-uniform-50, 75 and 100mT for 3, 5min with exposure) and seed germination, seedling growth and yield attributes were compared. The germination (mean germination, germination percentage, emergence index, germination speed, relative germination coefficient, emergence coefficient of uniformity) growth (root dry weight, root length, shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight, leaf dry & fresh weight, root fresh weight, leaf area, shoot length, plant total dry weight at different stages, stem diameter, number of leaves, vigor index I & II), biochemical (essential oil) and yield attributes (seed weight, count) were enhanced significantly in response to both laser and magnetic field treatments. However, magnetic field treatment furnished slightly higher response versus laser except relative water contents, whole plant weight and shoot length. Results revealed that both laser and magnetic field pre-sowing seed treatments affect the germination, seedling growth, and yield characteristics positively and could possibly be used to enhance Glycine max productivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Polinização por Apis mellifera em soja transgênica [Glycine max (L. Merrill] Roundup Ready™ cv. BRS 245 RR e convencional cv. BRS 133 = Pollination by Apis mellifera in transgenic soy (Glycine max (L. Merrill Roundup Ready™ cv. BRS 245 RR and conventional cv. BRS 133

    Tais da Silva Lopes


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência de Apis mellifera na produção de grãos e qualidade de sementes da soja transgênica Glycine max (L. Merrill Roundup Ready™ e convencional. A soja transgênica foi plantada intercalada com a convencional, em 18 parcelas, em três tratamentos: gaiolas com abelhas A. mellifera, gaiolas sem abelhas e áreas descobertas, com livre visitação de insetos. Na soja transgênica, em três parcelas de cada tratamento, foi aplicado glifosato, 30 dias após a emergência. Os parâmetros analisados foram: produção de grãos; número de vagens por planta; peso de 100 sementes e porcentagem de germinação das sementes. Não houve diferença entre as cultivares, entretanto a produção de 2.757,40 kg ha-1 obtida na área coberta por gaiola com abelhas, e2.828,47 kg ha-1 na área livre para visitação de insetos foram superiores a 2.000,53 kg ha-1 da área coberta por gaiola sem abelhas. O número de vagens por planta foi maior na área coberta por gaiola com abelhas (38,28 e área livre (32,65, quando comparado com o daárea coberta por gaiola sem abelhas (21,19. O peso médio de 100 sementes e a germinação das sementes não foram diferentes entre as cultivares e nem entre os tratamentos. Concluise que, para as cultivares estudadas, houve benefício na produção de grãos de 37,84%,quando foi permitida a visita de abelhas.This research was carried out to evaluate the influence of Africanized honeybees in grain production and seed quality of Glycine max (L. Merrill Roundup Ready™ transgenic soy, as well as of conventional soy. Transgenic soy was interposed with conventional soybean, in 18 plots and three treatments: covered area with Africanized honeybees, covered area without honeybees, and uncovered area with free insect visitation. The herbicide Glyphosate was applied on three plots of each treatment of transgenic soy, 30 days after emergence. Grain production, number of pods/plant, weight per

  6. Desenvolvimento, partição de assimilados e produção de matéria seca de plantas de soja (Glycine max (L. merrill submetidas a quatro doses de metribuzin Development,assimilate partition and dry matter production in soybean (Glycine max (L. merrill plants treated with four doses of metribuzin

    P. J. Silva Neto


    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento, a partição e a produção de matéria seca, foram estudados em soja (Glycine Max (L. Merri ll, cv. 'Uberaba', cultivadas em condições de campo, sob quatro doses de metribuzin - (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a. ha-1. O metri buzin não reduziu a população e nem alterou significativamente a razão parte aérea/sistema radicular. A altura média das plantas aumentou significativamente com o incremento das doses de metribuzin, sendo que as alturas máximas das plantas foram 761, 784, 815 e 812 mm, em ordem crescente de dose de metribuzin. As variações das taxas de acúmulo de matéria seca foram nitida mente seqüenciais em todos os tratamentos, ocorrendo mudanças do dreno metabólico preferencial de um órgão para outro, de acordo com as transformações morfológicas das plantas, ressaltando-se que o metribuzin não alterou esse comportamento. Os tratamentos não influencia ramo acumulo de matéria seca das vagens (Wv, no entanto, a partir do inicio da maturação, as plantas-controle apres entaram maiores Wv, provavelmente, devido a maior taxa assi milatória líquida verificada a partir da floração plena. A matéria seca acumulada nos pericarpos (Wp diminuiu, a partir das sementes completamente desenvolvid os, para todos os tratamentos com exceção de Wp das plantas tratadas com 0,7 kg i.a. ha-1 de metribuzin que, manteve-se estável. Por outro lado, a matéria seca nas sementes (Ws aumentou de forma acentuada, desde o seu aparecimento até a colheita final , em todas as doses do herbicida.Development, assimlate partition and dry matter production in soybean (Glycine Max (L. Merri ll, cv. Uberaba plants treat ed with four metri buzin doses (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 and 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1 were studied in a field experiment. Metribuzin did not reduce the stand or alter ed significantly shoot /root ratio. Plants height average incre ased as the doses of metribuzin increased; maximum heights were 761, 784, 815 and 812 mm, for

  7. Differences in gene expression amplitude overlie a conserved transcriptomic program occurring between the rapid and potent localized resistant reaction at the syncytium of the Glycine max genotype Peking (PI 548402) as compared to the prolonged and potent resistant reaction of PI 88788.

    Klink, Vincent P; Hosseini, Parsa; Matsye, Prachi D; Alkharouf, Nadim W; Matthews, Benjamin F


    Glycine max L. Merr. (soybean) resistance to Heterodera glycines Ichinohe occurs at the site of infection, a nurse cell known as the syncytium. Resistance is classified into two cytologically-defined responses, the G. max ([Peking])- and G. max ([PI 88788])-types. Each type represents a cohort of G. max genotypes. Resistance in G. max ([Peking]) occurs by a potent and rapid localized response, affecting parasitic second stage juveniles (p-J2). In contrast, resistance occurs by a potent but more prolonged reaction in the genotype G. max ([PI 88788]) that affects nematode development at the J3 and J4 stages. Microarray analyses comparing these cytologically and developmentally distinct resistant reactions reveal differences in gene expression in pericycle and surrounding cells even before infection. The differences include higher relative levels of the differentially expressed in response to arachidonic acid 1 gene (DEA1 [Gm-DEA1]) (+224.19-fold) and a protease inhibitor (+68.28-fold) in G. max ([Peking/PI 548402]) as compared to G. max ([PI 88788]). Gene pathway analyses compare the two genotypes (1) before, (2) at various times during, (3) constitutively throughout the resistant reaction and (4) at all time points prior to and during the resistant reaction. The amplified levels of transcriptional activity of defense genes may explain the rapid and potent reaction in G. max ([Peking/PI 548402]) as compared to G. max ([PI 88788]). In contrast, the shared differential expression levels of genes in G. max ([Peking/PI 548402]) and G. max ([PI 88788]) may indicate a conserved genomic program underlying the G. max resistance on which the genotype-specific gene expression programs are built off.

  8. Eye Allergies

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Written by: David Turbert Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan- ...

  9. Effects of salinity on activities of H+-ATPase, H+-PPase and membrane lipid composition in plasma membrane and tonoplast vesicles isolated from soybean (Glycine max L.) seedlings

    YU Bing-jun; LAM Hon-ming; SHAO Gui-hua; LIU You-ling


    The effects of NaCl stress on the H+ -ATPase, H+ -PPase activity and lipid composition of plasma membrane(PM) and tonoplast(TP) vesicles isolated from roots and leaves of two soybean cultivars( Glycine max L. ) differing in salt tolerance(Wenfeng7,salt-tolerant; Union, salt-sensitive) were investigated. When Wenfeng7 was treated with 0.3% (W/V) NaCl for 3 d, the H+ -ATPase activities in PM and TP from roots and leaves exhibited a reduction and an enhancement, respectively. The H+ -PPase activity in TP from roots also increased. Similar effects were not observed in roots of Union. In addition, the increases of phospholipid content and ratios ofphospholipid to galactolipid in PM and TP from roots and leaves of Wenfeng7 may also change membrane permeability and hence affect salt tolerance.

  10. Qualidade da aplicação aérea líquida com uma aeronave agrícola experimental na cultura da soja (Glycine Max L. Liquid aerial pesticide application quality with an experimental agricultural aircraft in soybean crop (Glycine Max L.

    Elton F. dos Reis


    Full Text Available Os avanços da tecnologia de aplicação aérea de agroquímicos têm-se dado na direção de redução do volume de calda, o que pode ocasionar má distribuição e consequente deposição irregular. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da aplicação de calda de pulverização em aplicação aérea, na cultura da soja (Glycine Max L.. Para a aplicação, foi utilizada uma aeronave agrícola experimental, aplicando um volume de calda de 20 L ha-1 . Para a determinação dos volumes depositados nas folhas do terço superior, médio e inferior das plantas de soja, foi utilizado corante alimentício azul brilhante adicionado à calda de pulverização. Estas folhas foram lavadas, e o volume determinado por espectrofotometria. Para a obtenção do espectro de gotas, foram utilizados alvos artificiais constituídos por papel hidrossensível, distribuídos no terço superior e médio das plantas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância de fator único, considerando as diferentes posições na planta, e cartas de controle foram feitas a partir dos limites inferior e superior de controle. A aplicação aérea de calda de pulverização na cultura da soja apresentou menores valores de diâmetro da mediana volumétrica, amplitude relativa e cobertura no terço médio em relação ao terço superior da cultura da soja. Houve menor deposição da calda de pulverização no terço inferior. Os indicadores de cobertura da calda de pulverização demonstraram que a aplicação aérea com a aeronave agrícola experimental avaliada não se encontra sob controle estatístico de processo, ou seja, fora do padrão de qualidade.Advances in aerial pesticide application technology of chemicals have been given in the direction of reducing the syrup volume, which can cause poor distribution and consequent irregular deposition. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the syrup spray on aerial application in soybean crop (Glycine Max

  11. The Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 MucR1 Global Regulator Is Connected With the nod Regulon and Is Required for Efficient Symbiosis With Lotus burttii and Glycine max cv. Williams.

    Acosta-Jurado, Sebastián; Alias-Villegas, Cynthia; Navarro-Gómez, Pilar; Zehner, Susanne; Murdoch, Piedad Del Socorro; Rodríguez-Carvajal, Miguel A; Soto, María J; Ollero, Francisco-Javier; Ruiz-Sainz, José E; Göttfert, Michael; Vinardell, José-María


    Sinorhizobium fredii HH103 is a rhizobial strain showing a broad host range of nodulation. In addition to the induction of bacterial nodulation genes, transition from a free-living to a symbiotic state requires complex genetic expression changes with the participation of global regulators. We have analyzed the role of the zinc-finger transcriptional regulator MucR1 from S. fredii HH103 under both free-living conditions and symbiosis with two HH103 host plants, Glycine max and Lotus burttii. Inactivation of HH103 mucR1 led to a severe decrease in exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis but enhanced production of external cyclic glucans (CG). This mutant also showed increased cell aggregation capacity as well as a drastic reduction in nitrogen-fixation capacity with G. max and L. burttii. However, in these two legumes, the number of nodules induced by the mucR1 mutant was significantly increased and decreased, respectively, with respect to the wild-type strain, indicating that MucR1 can differently affect nodulation depending on the host plant. RNA-Seq analysis carried out in the absence and the presence of flavonoids showed that MucR1 controls the expression of hundreds of genes (including some related to EPS production and CG transport), some of them being related to the nod regulon.

  12. RAPD ANALYSIS OF THREE SOYBEAN LINES FROMTHE CROSS OF ( Glycine soja × Glycine max) × G. max%利用RAPD技术分析野生大豆×栽培大豆后代品系遗传组成

    郑翠明; 李玉清


    Three soybean elite lines(8650-1-4 and 8702-2-4, 8702-2-8) wasdeveloped by using Glycine soja as female parent and Glycine maa as male parent. 8650-1-4 was developed by backcrossing of Tongjiao 81-1543 with F1 of ( G. soja × Chengdou No. 1), and 8702-2-4, 8702-2-8 were developed by backcrossing of Tongjiao 81-1543 with F2 of ( G. soja × Chengdou No. 1). Parental and progeny nuclear DNA was analysised by RAPD method. A total of 79 primers were analyzed with parents, fifteen of which were polymorphic between parents. Using these 15 primers, G. Soja amplified 19 special loci, 4 in Chengdou and 9 in Tongjiao respectively, which indicates that genetic background of G. soja differ from G. max. The number of special loci coming from G. soja , Chengdou No. 1 and Tongjiao 81-1543 is 2,2 and 5 for 8702-2-4;. 1,2 and 8 for 8702-2-8; 11,1 and 2 for 8650-1- 4, respectively. These results were in accordance with their agronomic character performance, 8702-2-8 was more similar to Tongjiao 81-1543 and 8650- 1-4 inherited more characters from G. soja , which indicated that RAPD markers is an useful tool to study relationship between parents and progenies . In addition , we also found some RAPD loci were stronger in 8702-2-4 and 8702-2-8 than their parents, but the mechanism is not clear.%本研究通过对育成品系及亲本DNA组成位点的分析,探讨亲本遗传物质在后代中所占的比例,为大豆育种提供理论指导。本研究所用的三个优良品系8702-2-4、8702-2-8、8650-1-4是从种间杂交组合{(固新野生大豆(P1)(承豆1号(P2)(通交81-1543(P3)}选育出的。前2个姊妹系是在组合(P1×P2)的F2代用P3进行回交选育成的,8650-1-4是在组合(P1×P2)的F1代用P3回交选育成的。用79个引物进行RAPD分析亲本及后代品系细胞核DNA,其中15个引物在亲本间具有多态性,这15个引物总扩增位点121个,P1、P2、P3的特异位点数分别是19、4、9个,表明野生

  13. Biochemical acclimation, stomatal limitation and precipitation patterns underlie decreases in photosynthetic stimulation of soybean (Glycine max) at elevated [CO₂] and temperatures under fully open air field conditions.

    Rosenthal, David M; Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M; Siebers, Matthew H; Gray, Sharon B; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R


    The net effect of elevated [CO2] and temperature on photosynthetic acclimation and plant productivity is poorly resolved. We assessed the effects of canopy warming and fully open air [CO2] enrichment on (1) the acclimation of two biochemical parameters that frequently limit photosynthesis (A), the maximum carboxylation capacity of Rubisco (Vc,max) and the maximum potential linear electron flux through photosystem II (Jmax), (2) the associated responses of leaf structural and chemical properties related to A, as well as (3) the stomatal limitation (l) imposed on A, for soybean over two growing seasons in a conventionally managed agricultural field in Illinois, USA. Acclimation to elevated [CO2] was consistent over two growing seasons with respect to Vc,max and Jmax. However, elevated temperature significantly decreased Jmax contributing to lower photosynthetic stimulation by elevated CO2. Large seasonal differences in precipitation altered soil moisture availability modulating the complex effects of elevated temperature and CO2 on biochemical and structural properties related to A. Elevated temperature also reduced the benefit of elevated [CO2] by eliminating decreases in stomatal limitation at elevated [CO2]. These results highlight the critical importance of considering multiple environmental factors (i.e. temperature, moisture, [CO2]) when trying to predict plant productivity in the context of climate change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Shellfish Allergy

    ... or swollen eyes hives red spots swelling a drop in blood pressure causing lightheadedness or loss of ... Food Labels Food Allergies Nut and Peanut Allergy Egg Allergy Shellfish Allergy Food Allergies and Travel 5 ...

  15. Physical Allergy

    ... Appears Safe in Study Additional Content Medical News Physical Allergy By Peter J. Delves, PhD, Professor of ... Disorders Exercise-Induced Allergic Reactions Food Allergy Mastocytosis Physical Allergy Seasonal Allergies Year-Round Allergies A physical ...

  16. Milk Allergy

    ... Events Blog Media Shop Alerts Donate About Food Allergies Home About Food Allergy Food Allergy Basics Facts ... Registration Create Your Own Events Educational Events Milk Allergy Allergy to cow’s milk is the most common ...

  17. Wheat Allergy

    ... Events Blog Media Shop Alerts Donate About Food Allergies Home About Food Allergy Food Allergy Basics Facts ... Registration Create Your Own Events Educational Events Wheat Allergy Wheat allergy is most common in children, and ...

  18. The Seed Biotinylated Protein of Soybean (Glycine max): A Boiling-Resistant New Allergen (Gly m 7) with the Capacity To Induce IgE-Mediated Allergic Responses.

    Riascos, John J; Weissinger, Sandra M; Weissinger, Arthur K; Kulis, Michael; Burks, A Wesley; Pons, Laurent


    Soybean is a common allergenic food; thus, a comprehensive characterization of all the proteins that cause allergy is crucial to the development of effective diagnostic and immunotherapeutic strategies. A cDNA library was constructed from seven stages of developing soybean seeds to investigate candidate allergens. We searched the library for cDNAs encoding a seed-specific biotinylated protein (SBP) based on its allergenicity in boiled lentils. A full-length cDNA clone was retrieved and expressed as a 75.6-kDa His-tagged recombinant protein (rSBP) in Escherichia coli. Western immunoblotting of boiled bacterial extracts demonstrated specific IgE binding to rSBP, which was further purified by metal affinity and anion exchange chromatographies. Of the 23 allergic sera screened by ELISA, 12 contained IgEs specific to the purified rSBP. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a predominantly unordered structure consistent with SBP's heat stability. The natural homologues (nSBP) were the main proteins isolated from soybean and peanut embryos after streptavidin affinity purification, yet they remained low-abundance proteins in the seed as confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Using capture ELISAs, the soybean and peanut nSBPs were bound by IgEs in 78 and 87% of the allergic sera tested. The soybean nSBP was purified to homogeneity and treatments with different denaturing agents before immunoblotting highlighted the diversity of its IgE epitopes. In vitro activation of basophils was assessed by flow cytometry in a cohort of peanut-allergic children sensitized to soybean. Stronger and more frequent (38%) activations were induced by nSBP-soy compared to the major soybean allergen, Gly m 5. SBPs may represent a novel class of biologically active legume allergens with the structural resilience to withstand many food-manufacturing processes.

  19. Food Allergies

    ... Want to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  20. Fish Allergy

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  1. Mold Allergy

    ... Ask the Allergist Health Professionals Partners Media Donate Allergies Mold Allergy What Is a Mold Allergy? If you have an allergy that occurs over ... basement. What Are the Symptoms of a Mold Allergy? The symptoms of mold allergy are very similar ...

  2. Allergy testing - skin

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test; Allergic rhinitis - allergy testing; Asthma - allergy testing; Eczema - allergy testing; Hayfever - allergy testing; Dermatitis - allergy testing; Allergy testing; ...

  3. The symbiotic biofilm of Sinorhizobium fredii SMH12, necessary for successful colonization and symbiosis of Glycine max cv Osumi, is regulated by Quorum Sensing systems and inducing flavonoids via NodD1.

    Francisco Pérez-Montaño

    Full Text Available Bacterial surface components, especially exopolysaccharides, in combination with bacterial Quorum Sensing signals are crucial for the formation of biofilms in most species studied so far. Biofilm formation allows soil bacteria to colonize their surrounding habitat and survive common environmental stresses such as desiccation and nutrient limitation. This mode of life is often essential for survival in bacteria of the genera Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Rhizobium. The role of biofilm formation in symbiosis has been investigated in detail for Sinorhizobium meliloti and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. However, for S. fredii this process has not been studied. In this work we have demonstrated that biofilm formation is crucial for an optimal root colonization and symbiosis between S. fredii SMH12 and Glycine max cv Osumi. In this bacterium, nod-gene inducing flavonoids and the NodD1 protein are required for the transition of the biofilm structure from monolayer to microcolony. Quorum Sensing systems are also required for the full development of both types of biofilms. In fact, both the nodD1 mutant and the lactonase strain (the lactonase enzyme prevents AHL accumulation are defective in soybean root colonization. The impairment of the lactonase strain in its colonization ability leads to a decrease in the symbiotic parameters. Interestingly, NodD1 together with flavonoids activates certain quorum sensing systems implicit in the development of the symbiotic biofilm. Thus, S. fredii SMH12 by means of a unique key molecule, the flavonoid, efficiently forms biofilm, colonizes the legume roots and activates the synthesis of Nod factors, required for successfully symbiosis.

  4. Differential gene expression and mitotic cell analysis of the drought tolerant soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill Fabales, Fabaceae cultivar MG/BR46 (Conquista under two water deficit induction systems

    Polyana K. Martins


    Full Text Available Drought cause serious yield losses in soybean (Glycine max, roots being the first plant organ to detect the water-stress signals triggering defense mechanisms. We used two drought induction systems to identify genes differentially expressed in the roots of the drought-tolerant soybean cultivar MG/BR46 (Conquista and characterize their expression levels during water deficit. Soybean plants grown in nutrient solution hydroponically and in sand-pots were submitted to water stress and gene expression analysis was conducted using the differential display (DD and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. Three differentially expressed mRNA transcripts showed homology to the Antirrhinum majus basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor bHLH, the Arabidopsis thaliana phosphatidylinositol transfer protein PITP and the auxin-independent growth regulator 1 (axi 1. The hydroponic experiments showed that after 100 min outside the nutrient solution photosynthesis completely stopped, stomata closed and leaf temperature rose. Both stress induction treatments produced significant decrease in the mitotic indices of root cells. Axi 1, PITP and bHLH were not only differentially expressed during dehydration in the hydroponics experiments but also during induced drought in the pot experiments. Although, there were differences between the two sets of experiments in the time at which up or down regulation occurred, the expression pattern of all three transcripts was related. Similar gene expression and cytological analysis results occurred in both systems, suggesting that hydroponics could be used to simulate drought detection by roots growing in soil and thus facilitate rapid and easy root sampling.

  5. Identification of Rotylenchulus reniformis resistant Glycine lines

    Identification of resistance to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is the first step in developing resistant soybean (Glycine max) cultivars that will benefit growers in the Mid South. This study was conducted to identify soybean (G. max and G. soja) lines with resistance to this pathogen....

  6. Vegetable soybean (Glycine max) tolerance to pyroxasulfone

    If registered for use on vegetable soybean, pyroxasulfone would fill an important gap in weed management systems in the crop. In order to determine the potential crop injury risk of pyroxasulfone on vegetable soybean, the objective of this work was to quantify vegetable soybean tolerance to pyroxasu...

  7. Milk Allergy

    ... rash, often around the mouth Colic, in babies Milk allergy or milk intolerance? A true milk allergy differs from milk ... Question ingredients when ordering in restaurants. Sources of milk products Obvious sources of allergy-causing milk proteins ...

  8. Allergy Capitals

    ... Health Professionals Partners Media Donate Research 2016 Fall Allergy Capitals If you’re one of the millions ... needs of their residents with allergic diseases. Fall Allergies by the Numbers Nasal allergies affect more than ...

  9. Drug Allergy

    ... Loss of consciousness Other conditions resulting from drug allergy Less common drug allergy reactions occur days or ... you take the drug. Drugs commonly linked to allergies Although any drug can cause an allergic reaction, ...

  10. Teste de lixiviação de potássio para avaliação do vigor de sementes de soja [Glycine max (L.Merril] Potassium leaching test for the evaluation of soybean seed vigour

    D.C.F.S. Dias


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo principal investigar a possibilidade de se obter indicações rápidas sobre a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja através do teste de lixiviação de potássio, cuja eficiência foi avaliada comparativamente as informações fornecidas por outros métodos considerados adequados para a determinação do vigor. Para tanto, utilizou-se quatro lotes de sementes de soja dos cultivares IAC-8 e IAC-15 que foram submetidos aos testes de germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, envelhecimento artificial, condutividade elétrica e determinação do grau de umidade. Além destes foram conduzidos estudos de lixiviação de potássio utilizando-se amostras de sementes não danificadas e de sementes fisicamente puras. A quantidade de potássio lixiviado foi avaliada em fotômetro de chama após 60, 90, 120 e 150 minutos de embebição a 30ºC. As avaliações feitas aos 60, 90 e 120 minutos mostraram-se adequadas para a identificação de lotes com diferentes níveis de vigor, constituindo-se em um método simples e rápido para a avaliação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes.This work was performed to investigate the possibilities of providing rapid indications on the physiological quality of seeds through the potassium leaching test. Four lots of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill seeds, cultivars IAC-8 and IAC-15 were submitted to germination, first count, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity and seed moisture tests. In addition, studies on potassium leaching were conducted with samples of selected non damaged seeds and with pure seeds. The amount of leached potassium was evaluated in a flame photometer after a 60, 90, 120 and 150 minute imbibition at 30°C. The evaluations after 60, 90 and 120 minutes were suitable for the identification of lots with different levels of vigour, thus proving to be a simple and rapid method for seed vigour evaluation.

  11. Effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations and fly ash amended soils on trace element accumulation and translocation among roots, stems and seeds of Glycine max (L.) Merr

    Rodriguez, J.H. [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina); Klumpp, A.; Fangmeier, A. [Institute of Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), Plant Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Universitaet Hohenheim, August-von-Hartmann-Str. 3, 70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Pignata, M.L., E-mail: [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina)


    The carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels of the global atmosphere and the emissions of heavy metals have risen in recent decades, and these increases are expected to produce an impact on crops and thereby affect yield and food safety. In this study, the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and fly ash amended soils on trace element accumulation and translocation in the root, stem and seed compartments in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] were evaluated. Soybean plants grown in fly ash (FA) amended soil (0, 1, 10, 15, and 25% FA) at two CO{sub 2} regimes (400 and 600 ppm) in controlled environmental chambers were analyzed at the maturity stage for their trace element contents. The concentrations of Br, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in roots, stems and seeds in soybeans were investigated and their potential risk to the health of consumers was estimated. The results showed that high levels of CO{sub 2} and lower concentrations of FA in soils were associated with an increase in biomass. For all the elements analyzed except Pb, their accumulation in soybean plants was higher at elevated CO{sub 2} than at ambient concentrations. In most treatments, the highest concentrations of Br, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb were found in the roots, with a strong combined effect of elevated CO{sub 2} and 1% of FA amended soils on Pb accumulation (above maximum permitted levels) and translocation to seeds being observed. In relation to non-carcinogenic risks, target hazard quotients (TQHs) were significant in a Chinese individual for Mn, Fe and Pb. Also, the increased health risk due to the added effects of the trace elements studied was significant for Chinese consumers. According to these results, soybean plants grown for human consumption under future conditions of elevated CO{sub 2} and FA amended soils may represent a toxicological hazard. Therefore, more research should be carried out with respect to food consumption (plants and animals) under these conditions and their consequences for human

  12. Aboveground feeding by soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, affects soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, reproduction belowground.

    Michael T McCarville

    Full Text Available Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27-52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity.

  13. Food Allergy

    ... Facebook and Twitter . Play our Food Allergy Bubble Game with Mr. Nose-it-All. Test your knowledge ... IgG4 » Clinical Cases: Food Allergy » CME P.I. Pro: Food Allergy » Food allergy: a practice parameter update ( ...

  14. Mapeamento de semeaduras de soja (Glycine max (L.Merr. mediante dados MODIS/Terra E TM/Landsat 5: um comparativo Mapping of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. culture by MODIS/Terra and TM/Landsat 5: a comparative

    Rubens A. C. Lamparelli


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar mapeamentos de semeadura da cultura da soja na região oeste do Paraná, realizados com imagens MODIS/Terra e TM/Landsat 5. Primeiramente, construiu-se máscara de referência, considerando seis imagens TM ao longo do ciclo da cultura, utilizando-se dos algoritmos Paralelepípedo e MaxVer com posterior análise visual. As imagens MODIS foram classificadas com o algorítimo Paralelepípedo, em quatro passagens referentes ao pico vegetativo. O desempenho das classificações foi avaliado por meio de Matrizes de Erros, calculadas pela análise de 100 pontos amostrais (soja ou não-soja, aleatoriamente distribuídos em cada um dos oito municípios da área de estudo. Os principais resultados mostraram que a Exatidão Global (EG e o Índice Kappa (IK, que variaram entre 0,55 e 0,80, em ambos os sensores, são considerados bons a muito bons. Quando EG e IK dos sensores TM e MODIS foram comparados, não se encontrou diferença significativa. O mapeamento da soja utilizando o sensor MODIS produziu 70% de confiabilidade sob o ponto de vista do usuário. A principal conclusão é a viabilidade de mapear a soja pelo sensor MODIS com as vantagens de que as imagens MODIS têm melhor resolução temporal e são disponibilizadas gratuitamente na Internet.The objective of this work was to compare the soybean crop mapping in the western of Parana State by MODIS/Terra and TM/Landsat 5 images. Firstly, it was generated a soybean crop mask using six TM images covering the crop season, which was used as a reference. The images were submitted to Parallelepiped and Maximum Likelihood digital classification algorithms, followed by visual inspection. Four MODIS images, covering the vegetative peak, were classified using the Parallelepiped method. The quality assessment of MODIS and TM classification was carried out through an Error Matrix, considering 100 sample points between soybean or not soybean, randomly allocated in each of

  15. Water deficiency at different developmental stages of Glycine max can improve drought tolerance Deficiência hídrica em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento de soja pode aumentar a tolerância à seca

    Alan Panaia Kron


    Full Text Available Developmental windows are specific periods of sensitivity during normal plant development in which a perturbation may be adaptively integrated. In these periods, sub-lethal environmental perturbations may improve the capacity to grow at lethal conditions. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that previous non-lethal water deficit applied in different developmental stages in soybean plants could enables them to improve the tolerance to environmental perturbations. In order to test this hypothesis we carried out an experiment with soybean plants submitted to water deficit in different stages of plant development, evaluating yield and physiological aspects. Our results indicated that water deficit experienced on V4 stage (vegetative induces more suitable response, enabling plants to develop a process of tolerance improvement to a further water shortage period, probably through a reduction of growth, which maintains a conservative strategy of energy use. On the other hand, water deficit in R1 stage (reproductive, increased the plant susceptibility to posterior water withholding. This " strategy" was the opposite of the one employed by plants on V4 stage, i.e., to maintain growth rate probably at the expense of a higher energetic cost.Janelas de desenvolvimento são períodos específicos durante o ciclo de vida das plantas em que uma perturbação ambiental pode ser incorporada através de um processo de adaptação. Nesses períodos, perturbações ambientais subletais podem capacitar as plantas a crescer em condições letais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar a hipótese de que plantas de soja (Glycine max submetidas à deficiência hídrica não-letal em diferentes estágios de seu desenvolvimento poderiam otimizar sua tolerância a estresses ambientais posteriores. Para testar essa hipótese, foi conduzido um experimento com plantas de soja submetidas à deficiência hídrica em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento, avaliando

  16. Peanut allergy.

    Hourihane, Jonathan O'B


    Peanut allergy may affect up to 2% of children in some countries, making it one of the most common conditions of childhood. Peanut allergy is a marker of a broad and possibly severe atopic phenotype. Nearly all children with peanut allergy have other allergic conditions. Peanut accounts for a disproportionate number of fatal and near fatal food-related allergies. Families with a child or children with peanut allergy can struggle to adapt to the stringent avoidance measures required. Although oral induction of tolerance represents the cutting edge of peanut allergy management, it is not yet ready for routine practice.

  17. History of food allergy.

    Wüthrich, Brunello


    In this chapter we will first consider whether there is real evidence on the basis of literature for early descriptions in antiquity of pathogenic reactions after food intake that could be comparable to allergy, for instance in the scriptures of Hippocrates or Lucretius. On this topic we are skeptical, which is in agreement with the medical historian Hans Schadewaldt. We also assert that it is unlikely that King Richard III was the first food-allergic individual in medical literature. Most probably it was not a well-planned poisoning ('allergy') with strawberries, but rather a birth defect ('… his harm was ever such since his birth') that allowed the Lord Protector to bring Mylord of Ely to the scaffold in the Tower, as we can read in The History of King Richard III by Thomas More (1478-1535; published by his son-in-law, Rastell, in 1557). In 1912, the American pediatrician Oscar Menderson Schloss (1882-1952) was probably the first to describe scratch tests in the diagnosis of food allergy. Milestones in the practical diagnosis of food allergy are further discussed, including scratch tests, intradermal tests, modified prick tests and prick-to-prick tests. False-negative results can be attributed to the phenomenon of a 'catamnestic reaction' according to Max Werner (1911-1987), or to the fermentative degradation of food products. Prior to the discovery of immunoglobulin E, which marked a turning point in allergy diagnosis, and the introduction of the radioallergosorbent test in 1967, several more or less reliable techniques were used in the diagnosis of food allergy, such as pulse rate increase after food intake according to Coca, the leukopenic index, drop in basophils or drastic platelet decrease. The 'leukocytotoxic test' (Bryan's test), today called the 'ALCAT' test, shows no scientific evidence. The double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of food allergy. For the future, component-resolved diagnostics

  18. Food allergy

    ... Sicherer SH, Lack G, Jones SM. Food allergy management. In: Adkinson NF Jr, Bochner BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  19. Food Allergy

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  20. Food allergy

    Youngshin Han


    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  1. Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America

    ... Allergy Pollen Allergy Allergy Symptoms Anaphylaxis / Severe Allergic Reaction Eye Allergies Rhinitis Sinusitis Skin Allergies Eczema Contact Dermatitis Hives Swelling Allergy Diagnosis Allergy Treatment Allergy ...

  2. Drug allergies

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The ...

  3. Kids with Food Allergies

    ... Stay in Touch Donate Get Support Kids with Food Allergies Search: Resources Recipes Community Home About KFA Programs ... AAFA KFA-AAFA Merger Contact Us Living With Food Allergies Allergens Peanut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Milk Allergy ...

  4. Pet Allergy Quiz

    ... Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Pet Allergy ▸ Pet Allergy Quiz Share | Pet Allergy Quiz More than half of U.S. households ... cat family. Yet, millions of people suffer from pet allergies. Take this quiz to test your knowledge ...

  5. Allergy shots

    ... sensitivity Eczema , a skin condition that a dust mite allergy can make worse Allergy shots are effective for common allergens such as: Weed and tree pollen Grass Mold or fungus Animal dander Dust mites Insect stings Adults (including the older people) as ...

  6. Egg Allergy

    ... we all know skipping breakfast is never a good idea anyway). Living with an egg allergy means you have to ... be just part of your action plan for living with a severe egg allergy. It's also a good idea to carry an over-the-counter antihistamine ...

  7. Hazelnut allergy

    Ortolani, C; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Hansen, K S


    BACKGROUND: Tree nuts are a common cause of food allergy in Europe. However, few studies deal with real food allergy to hazelnuts in subjects believed to be allergic to this food. OBJECTIVE: We sought to select subjects with a history of allergic reactions on ingestion of hazelnut and determine how...... many of these have true allergy by means of the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). METHODS: Eighty-six subjects with a history of symptoms after hazelnut ingestion were recruited from 3 allergy centers (Milan, Zurich, and Copenhagen). All subjects underwent skin prick tests (SPTs......) with aeroallergens and hazelnut, as well as having their specific hazelnut IgE levels determined. Diagnosis of clinical relevant food allergy was made on the basis of the DBPCFC. RESULTS: Sixty-seven (77.9%) of 86 subjects had a positive DBPCFC result; 8 were placebo responders, and 11 were nonresponders. Of the 11...

  8. Эффективность взаимодействия препарата ассоциативных бактерий с сортами Glycine max. L

    Парахин, Н.; Моисеенко, Ю.; Петрова, С.


    Рассмотрено действие препарата ассоциативных бактерий на сортах Glycine max. L. и дана оценка эффективности его применения.

  9. [ Food allergy ].

    Kamke, W; Frosch, B


    Food allergies' following food incompatibilities, which are not caused immunologically. Mostly allergic symptoms are caused by cow's milk or chicken eggs. Allergic reactions are preceded by sensitizing events; certain characteristics of foodstuffs and conditions in the human body facilitate their development. Gastrointestinal symptoms very often are just accompanying signs. In differential diagnosis the so-called "pseudo-allergies' following food ingestion have to be separated. Most important diagnostic measures are clinical history, prick-/scratch test, RAST, gastrointestinal provocation and abstinence test. The therapeutic program consists of allergen abstinence, avoiding all allergy-arousing factors, oral desensitizing and pharmaceutical treatment.

  10. Ectopic phytocystatin expression leads to enhanced drought stress tolerance in soybean (Glycine max) and Arabidopsis thaliana through effects on strigolactone pathways and can also result in improved seed traits.

    Quain, Marian D; Makgopa, Matome E; Márquez-García, Belén; Comadira, Gloria; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Olmos, Enrique; Schnaubelt, Daniel; Kunert, Karl J; Foyer, Christine H


    Ectopic cystatin expression has long been used in plant pest management, but the cysteine protease, targets of these inhibitors, might also have important functions in the control of plant lifespan and stress tolerance that remain poorly characterized. We therefore characterized the effects of expression of the rice cystatin, oryzacystatin-I (OCI), on the growth, development and stress tolerance of crop (soybean) and model (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. Ectopic OCI expression in soybean enhanced shoot branching and leaf chlorophyll accumulation at later stages of vegetative development and enhanced seed protein contents and decreased the abundance of mRNAs encoding strigolactone synthesis enzymes. The OCI-expressing A. thaliana showed a slow-growth phenotype, with increased leaf numbers and enhanced shoot branching at flowering. The OCI-dependent inhibition of cysteine proteases enhanced drought tolerance in soybean and A. thaliana, photosynthetic CO2 assimilation being much less sensitive to drought-induced inhibition in the OCI-expressing soybean lines. Ectopic OCI expression or treatment with the cysteine protease inhibitor E64 increased lateral root densities in A. thaliana. E64 treatment also increased lateral root densities in the max2-1 mutants that are defective in strigolactone signalling, but not in the max3-9 mutants that are defective in strigolactone synthesis. Taken together, these data provide evidence that OCI-inhibited cysteine proteases participate in the control of growth and stress tolerance through effects on strigolactones. We conclude that cysteine proteases are important targets for manipulation of plant growth, development and stress tolerance, and also seed quality traits.

  11. Sun Allergy

    ... if you have unusual, bothersome skin reactions after exposure to sunlight. For severe or persistent symptoms, you may need ... m. when the sun is brightest. Avoid sudden exposure to lots of sunlight. Many people have sun allergy symptoms when they ...

  12. Food Allergy

    ... of Award Clinical Terms of Award Restriction for China Clinical Terms Guidance Compliance Sample Letter Inclusion Codes ... Division of AIDS Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Division of ...

  13. Fish Allergy

    ... in a clear and consistent manner, so that consumers with food allergies and their caregivers can be informed as ... the menu, cross-contact with fish is possible. Ethnic ... fish. Avoid foods like fish sticks and anchovies. Some individuals with ...

  14. Food Allergies

    ... digesting the sugar in milk. This is called "lactose intolerance," and it isn't an allergy because it ... t involve the immune system. The symptoms of lactose intolerance are bloating, cramping, nausea, gas and diarrhea. SymptomsWhat ...

  15. Allergies to Insect Venom

    Allergies To Insect Venom Facts About Allergies The tendency to develop allergies may be inherited. If you have allergic tendencies and ... lives of those who are sensitive to it...insect venom! Although less common than pollen allergy, insect ...

  16. Medication/Drug Allergy

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Medication/Drug Allergy Medication/Drug Allergy Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... immediate or delayed. What Is an Allergy to Medication/Drugs? Allergies to drugs/medications are complicated, because ...

  17. 大豆GmNAC73-like基因的克隆和表达及其对GmIFS2基因的影响%Cloning and expression of GmNAC73-like gene from Glycine max and its effect on GmIFS2 gene

    万群; 刘晓庆; 张大勇; 何晓兰; 徐照龙; 宁丽华; 黄益洪; 邵宏波


    为研究NAC转录因子对大豆﹝Glycine max ( Linn.) Merr.〕异黄酮合成的影响,根据大豆基因组序列设计引物,从豆荚中克隆获得GmNAC73-like基因,并对该基因序列进行生物信息学分析。结果显示:GmNAC73-like基因包含1个长度981 bp的完整开放阅读框,编码326个氨基酸。 GmNAC73-like蛋白的理论相对分子质量37000,理论等电点pI 6.4,为亲水性蛋白,无信号肽,并被定位在细胞核上,包含核定位信号“PKRRK”。同源性比对结果显示:GmNAC73-like蛋白与野大豆( Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.)、蒺藜苜蓿( Medicago truncatula Gaertn.)、可可( Theobroma cacao Linn.)、葡萄( Vitis vinifera Linn.)及拟南芥﹝Arabidopsis thaliana ( Linn.) Heynh.〕的NAC蛋白具有较高的相似性,相似度分别为93%、69%、73%、75%和58%。在NJ系统树上,GmNAC73-like蛋白与野大豆的GsNAC8蛋白和木豆﹝Cajanus cajan ( Linn.) Millsp.〕的CcNAC8蛋白聚在一起,显示出较近的亲缘关系。半定量RT-PCR分析结果显示:在大豆的三叶期、开花期和结荚期,GmNAC73-like基因在根中均不表达,在茎和叶中可不同程度表达且茎中表达量较高;而在开花期或结荚期,该基因在花或豆荚中也可表达,且豆荚中表达量较高。酵母单杂交实验结果显示:GmNAC73-like可与异黄酮生物合成关键酶基因GmIFS2启动子中的CGTG基序结合;在大豆转基因发状根系中过表达GmNAC73-like基因后,除查尔酮异构酶基因的表达量无变化外,其他异黄酮生物合成相关基因的表达量均不同程度提高,其中,肉桂酸-4-羟化酶基因和查尔酮合酶基因的表达量明显提高。此外,在GmNAC73-like基因过表达的大豆转基因发状根系中总异黄酮含量显著降低。综合分析结果表明:GmNAC73-like可能通过与MYB转录因子的互作调控GmIFS2基因的表达,并在大豆异黄酮的生物合成过程中起负调控作用。%In order to study the effect of

  18. Allergy, living and learning

    Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; Dahl, R;


    Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care.......Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care....

  19. Characterization of Seed Storage Proteins of Several Perennial Glycine Species.

    Song, Bo; Oehrle, Nathan W; Liu, Shanshan; Krishnan, Hari B


    Perennial Glycine species, distant relatives of soybean, have been recognized as a potential source of new genetic diversity for soybean improvement. The subgenus Glycine includes around 30 perennial species, which are well-adapted to drought conditions and possess resistance to a number of soybean pathogens. In spite of the potential of the perennial Glycine species for soybean improvement, very little is known about their storage proteins and their relationship with cultivated soybean seed proteins. We have examined the seed protein composition of nine perennial Glycine species by one- and two-dimensional (1-D and 2-D) gel electrophoresis. The relationship between cultivated soybean and perennial soybean seed proteins was examined by immunoblot analyses using antibodies raised against G. max β-conglycinin, glycinin A3 subunit, lipoxygenase, leginsulin, Kunitz trypsin inhibitor, and Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor. Additionally, we have measured the trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities from cultivated soybean and perennial Glycine species and have found marked differences between them. Our 2-D gel and immunoblot analyses demonstrate significant differences in the protein composition and size heterogeneities of the 7S and 11S seed storage proteins of soybean and perennial Glycine species. Perennial Glycine species accumulated a 45 kDa protein that was not detected in G. max and G. soja. This unique 45 kDa protein was immunologically related to the A3 glycinin subunit of G. max. The results of our studies suggest that even though the seed proteins of wild perennial Glycine species and G. max are immunologically related, their genes have diverged from each other during the course of evolution.

  20. Egg Allergy

    ... know that some people are allergic to certain foods, like peanuts or shrimp. When a person has a food allergy , his ... sure you're still getting protein from other foods. Some good ones are meat, poultry, fish, and legumes (beans and peanuts). If you have ...

  1. Food Allergies


    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of food allergies and the need to be aware if any friends or classmates have them.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  2. Methyldibromoglutaronitrile allergy

    Fischer, L A; Johansen, J D; Menné, T


    BACKGROUND: Methyldibromoglutaronitrile (MDBGN) is a preservative, which was approved for use in cosmetics in the mid-1980s. The incidence of allergy to MDBGN rose during the 1990s, but is now decreasing due to regulatory intervention. Experimental studies with other allergens have shown a signif...

  3. Peanut Allergy

    ... butters (such as almond butter) and sunflower seeds Ethnic foods including African, Chinese, Indonesian, Mexican, Thai and Vietnamese ... Toit G, et al. Randomized trial of peanut consumption in infants at risk for ... RA. Food allergy in children: Prevalence, natural history, and monitoring ...

  4. Drug allergy

    Warrington Richard


    Full Text Available Abstract Drug allergy encompasses a spectrum of immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reactions with varying mechanisms and clinical presentations. This type of adverse drug reaction (ADR not only affects patient quality of life, but may also lead to delayed treatment, unnecessary investigations, and even mortality. Given the myriad of symptoms associated with the condition, diagnosis is often challenging. Therefore, referral to an allergist experienced in the identification, diagnosis and management of drug allergy is recommended if a drug-induced allergic reaction is suspected. Diagnosis relies on a careful history and physical examination. In some instances, skin testing, graded challenges and induction of drug tolerance procedures may be required. The most effective strategy for the management of drug allergy is avoidance or discontinuation of the offending drug. When available, alternative medications with unrelated chemical structures should be substituted. Cross-reactivity among drugs should be taken into consideration when choosing alternative agents. Additional therapy for drug hypersensitivity reactions is largely supportive and may include topical corticosteroids, oral antihistamines and, in severe cases, systemic corticosteroids. In the event of anaphylaxis, the treatment of choice is injectable epinephrine. If a particular drug to which the patient is allergic is indicated and there is no suitable alternative, induction of drug tolerance procedures may be considered to induce temporary tolerance to the drug. This article provides a backgrounder on drug allergy and strategies for the diagnosis and management of some of the most common drug-induced allergic reactions, such allergies to penicillin, sulfonamides, cephalosporins, radiocontrast media, local anesthetics, general anesthetics, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  5. Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Glycine Max and Regene rati on of Transgenic Plants%根癌农杆菌介导β-1,4-半乳糖苷转移酶基因转化大豆及其转基因植株再生

    张毅; 李弘剑; 张俊辉; 郭勇


    A reproducible transformation system was developed for soybean (Glycin e max) using as explants sections from the excised hypocotyls of seeds. A constr uct containing cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) and human β-1,4-galactosyltransferase (hGT) was introduced into soybean culti var using Agrobacterium tumefaciens- mediated transfermation procedures. Regenerat i on was via organogenesis and transformed plants were selected on medium containi ng 50 mg/L kanamycin and 100 mg/L of aminopenicillanic acia. Transgenic soybeans were raised in the glasshouse. The hGT genes was integrated into the chomosomal genome of primary transgenic soybean plants, The transformation of regenerated plants was confirmed by assays for neomycin phosphotransferase activity and Sout hern blotting analyses.%以大豆下胚轴为外植体,通过根癌农杆菌介导转化法,建立起良好的转化系统,将人的β-1,4-半乳糖苷转移酶基因(hGT)导入大豆。经转化的外植体在添加100mg/L氨苄青霉素和50mg/L卡那霉素的选择培养基中可诱导出愈伤组织和芽再生,在1/2MS培养基上诱导生根,并培养成再生苗,获得了完整的抗性再生植株。进行Southern blot分子杂交鉴定,证实了外源基因hGT已稳定地整合到植物基因组中。

  6. Nickel allergy

    Fischer, L A; Johansen, J D; Menné, T


    BACKGROUND: The frequency of nickel allergy varies between different population groups. Exposure regulation has proven effective in decreasing the frequency. Experimental studies with other allergens have shown a significant relation between patch test reactivity and repeated open application test.......78 microg nickel cm(-2) in the patch test. The threshold for the ROAT (in microg nickel cm(-2) per application) was significantly lower than the threshold for the patch test, while the dose-response for the accumulated ROAT dose at 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks was very similar to the patch test dose......-response; indeed, there was no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: For elicitation of nickel allergy the elicitation threshold for the patch test is higher than the elicitation threshold (per application) for the ROAT, but is approximately the same as the accumulated elicitation threshold...

  7. Dust Mite Allergy

    Dust mite allergy Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Dust mite allergy is an allergic reaction to tiny bugs that commonly live in house dust. Signs of dust mite allergy include those common to hay fever, such as ...

  8. Allergies and Hay Fever

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Allergies and Hay Fever Allergies and Hay Fever Patient Health Information News media interested in covering ... suffer from nasal allergies, commonly known as hay fever. An ear, nose, and throat specialist can help ...

  9. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    ... Video: Getting an X-ray Nut and Peanut Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Nut and Peanut Allergy Print ... previous continue How Is a Nut or Peanut Allergy Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you might have ...

  10. Fire Ant Allergy

    ... Treatments ▸ Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Fire ant allergy Share | Fire Ant Allergy This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Fire ants are a stinging insect typically found in ...

  11. Genomic expression profiling of mature soybean (Glycine max pollen

    Singh Mohan B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollen, the male partner in the reproduction of flowering plants, comprises either two or three cells at maturity. The current knowledge of the pollen transcriptome is limited to the model plant systems Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa which have tri-cellular pollen grains at maturity. Comparative studies on pollen of other genera, particularly crop plants, are needed to understand the pollen gene networks that are subject to functional and evolutionary conservation. In this study, we used the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip® to perform transcriptional profiling on mature bi-cellular soybean pollen. Results Compared to the sporophyte transcriptome, the soybean pollen transcriptome revealed a restricted and unique repertoire of genes, with a significantly greater proportion of specifically expressed genes than is found in the sporophyte tissue. Comparative analysis shows that, among the 37,500 soybean transcripts addressed in this study, 10,299 transcripts (27.46% are expressed in pollen. Of the pollen-expressed sequences, about 9,489 (92.13% are also expressed in sporophytic tissues, and 810 (7.87% are selectively expressed in pollen. Overall, the soybean pollen transcriptome shows an enrichment of transcription factors (mostly zinc finger family proteins, signal recognition receptors, transporters, heat shock-related proteins and members of the ubiquitin proteasome proteolytic pathway. Conclusion This is the first report of a soybean pollen transcriptional profile. These data extend our current knowledge regarding regulatory pathways that govern the gene regulation and development of pollen. A comparison between transcription factors up-regulated in soybean and those in Arabidopsis revealed some divergence in the numbers and kinds of regulatory proteins expressed in both species.

  12. Genomic expression profiling of mature soybean (Glycine max) pollen

    Singh Mohan B; Gresshoff Peter M; Wong Chui E; Bhalla Prem L; Haerizadeh Farzad


    Abstract Background Pollen, the male partner in the reproduction of flowering plants, comprises either two or three cells at maturity. The current knowledge of the pollen transcriptome is limited to the model plant systems Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa which have tri-cellular pollen grains at maturity. Comparative studies on pollen of other genera, particularly crop plants, are needed to understand the pollen gene networks that are subject to functional and evolutionary conservation. ...

  13. Changes in RNA Splicing in Developing Soybean (Glycine max Embryos

    Delasa Aghamirzaie


    Full Text Available Developing soybean seeds accumulate oils, proteins, and carbohydrates that are used as oxidizable substrates providing metabolic precursors and energy during seed germination. The accumulation of these storage compounds in developing seeds is highly regulated at multiple levels, including at transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. RNA sequencing was used to provide comprehensive information about transcriptional and post-transcriptional events that take place in developing soybean embryos. Bioinformatics analyses lead to the identification of different classes of alternatively spliced isoforms and corresponding changes in their levels on a global scale during soybean embryo development. Alternative splicing was associated with transcripts involved in various metabolic and developmental processes, including central carbon and nitrogen metabolism, induction of maturation and dormancy, and splicing itself. Detailed examination of selected RNA isoforms revealed alterations in individual domains that could result in changes in subcellular localization of the resulting proteins, protein-protein and enzyme-substrate interactions, and regulation of protein activities. Different isoforms may play an important role in regulating developmental and metabolic processes occurring at different stages in developing oilseed embryos.

  14. Radiation processing and functional properties of soybean (Glycine max)

    Pednekar, Mrinal, E-mail: [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India); Das, Amit K. [Department of Food Engineering, CFTRI, Mysore 570020, Karnataka (India); Rajalakshmi, V; Sharma, Arun [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India)


    Effect of radiation processing (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on soybean for better utilization was studied. Radiation processing reduced the cooking time of soybean and increased the oil absorption capacity of soy flour without affecting its proximate composition. Irradiation improved the functional properties like solubility, emulsification activity and foam stability of soybean protein isolate. The value addition effect of radiation processing has been discussed for the products (soy milk, tofu and tofu fortified patties) prepared from soybean.

  15. Radiation processing and functional properties of soybean ( Glycine max)

    Pednekar, Mrinal; Das, Amit K.; Rajalakshmi, V.; Sharma, Arun


    Effect of radiation processing (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on soybean for better utilization was studied. Radiation processing reduced the cooking time of soybean and increased the oil absorption capacity of soy flour without affecting its proximate composition. Irradiation improved the functional properties like solubility, emulsification activity and foam stability of soybean protein isolate. The value addition effect of radiation processing has been discussed for the products (soy milk, tofu and tofu fortified patties) prepared from soybean.

  16. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial properties of Glycine Max-A review

    Babu Shankar Ponnusha, Sathiyamoorthy Subramaniyam, Palanisamy Pasupathi, Boopathi subramaniyam, Rajaram Virumandy, Int J Cur Bio Med Sci.


    Vegetable soybean is rich in phytochemicals beneficial to the human being and is therefore considered a neutraceutical or a functional food crop. Soybean as a “functional food” that reduces the risk of range of hazardous diseases like atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, various types of cancer (breast, uterus cancer, and prostrate) has attracted people’s attention across the globe. People in India are becoming increasingly aware about the health benefits of consuming soy food. Although isoflavones...

  17. Nodulin gene expression during soybean (Glycine max) nodule development.

    Gloudemans, T.; Vries, de S.; Bussink, H.J.; Malik, N.S.A.; Franssen, H.; Louwerse, J.; Bisseling, T.


    In vitro translation products of total RNA isolated from soybean nodules at successive stages of nodule development were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In that way the occurrence of over 20 mRNAs specifically transcribed from nodulin genes was detected. The nodulin genes could be

  18. (Glycine max L. Merril) in an Ultisol * AHAMEFULE, HE


    Site Description: This study was conducted from. 2007 to 2009, on ... level with Duncan's New Multiple Range Test. RESULTS .... separately reported growth enhancement (fertilizer effect) at 1 .... spent crank-case oil contaminated Ultisol under.

  19. Gene amplification of the Hps locus in Glycine max

    Kuflu Kuflom


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrophobic protein from soybean (HPS is an 8 kD cysteine-rich polypeptide that causes asthma in persons allergic to soybean dust. HPS is synthesized in the pod endocarp and deposited on the seed surface during development. Past evidence suggests that the protein may mediate the adherence or dehiscence of endocarp tissues during maturation and affect the lustre, or glossiness of the seed surface. Results A comparison of soybean germplasm by genomic DNA blot hybridization shows that the copy number and structure of the Hps locus is polymorphic among soybean cultivars and related species. Changes in Hps gene copy number were also detected by comparative genomic DNA hybridization using cDNA microarrays. The Hps copy number polymorphisms co-segregated with seed lustre phenotype and HPS surface protein in a cross between dull- and shiny-seeded soybeans. In soybean cultivar Harosoy 63, a minimum of 27 ± 5 copies of the Hps gene were estimated to be present in each haploid genome. The isolation and analysis of genomic clones indicates that the core Hps locus is comprised of a tandem array of reiterated units, with each 8.6 kb unit containing a single HPS open reading frame. Conclusion This study shows that polymorphisms at the Hps locus arise from changes in the gene copy number via gene amplification. We present a model whereby Hps copy number modulates protein expression levels and seed lustre, and we suggest that gene amplification may result from selection pressures imposed on crop plants.

  20. Genetic Variability in Soybean (Glycine max L.) for Low Soil ...

    Abush Tesfaye

    The application of inorganic P fertilizers is one of the possibilities for addressing the problem of low P ..... (2011), traits combining such high H2 and genetic advance are predominantly controlled ..... Genstat Release 11.1 (PC/Windows). Wang ...

  1. Archaeological Soybean (Glycine max) in East Asia: Does Size Matter?

    Lee, Gyoung-Ah; Crawford, Gary W.; Liu, Li; Sasaki, Yuka; Chen, Xuexiang


    The recently acquired archaeological record for soybean from Japan, China and Korea is shedding light on the context in which this important economic plant became associated with people and was domesticated. This paper examines archaeological (charred) soybean seed size variation to determine what insight can be gained from a comprehensive comparison of 949 specimens from 22 sites. Seed length alone appears to represent seed size change through time, although the length×width×thickness product has the potential to provide better size change resolution. A widespread early association of small seeded soybean is as old as 9000–8600 cal BP in northern China and 7000 cal BP in Japan. Direct AMS radiocarbon dates on charred soybean seeds indicate selection resulted in large seed sizes in Japan by 5000 cal BP (Middle Jomon) and in Korea by 3000 cal BP (Early Mumun). Soybean seeds recovered in China from the Shang through Han periods are similar in length to the large Korean and Japanese specimens, but the overall size of the large Middle and Late Jomon, Early Mumun through Three Kingdom seeds is significantly larger than any of the Chinese specimens. The archaeological record appears to disconfirm the hypothesis of a single domestication of soybean and supports the view informed by recent phyologenetic research that soybean was domesticated in several locations in East Asia. PMID:22073186

  2. Chemical and mechanical weed control in soybean (Glycine max

    Weber, Jonas Felix


    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the possibility of chemical and mechanical weed control strategies in soybean. Soybean field experiments were carried out in 2013 and 2014 in Southern Germany. Five treatments including common herbicide mixtures and four mechanical weed control treatments, implementing a harrow and a hoe, were tested at different locations. In the herbicide experiments two treatments were applied by PRE emergence herbicides (metribuzin, clomazone, dimethenamid and metribuzin, flufenacet, clomazone and another two treatments were sprayed with a combination of PRE + POST emergence herbicides (metribuzin, flufenacet, thifensulfuron and pendimethalin, thifensulfuron, bentazone, cycloxydim. Furthermore, a POST herbicide treatment was implemented (thifensulfuron, bentazone, thifensulfuron and fluazifop-P-butyl. In the mechanical weed control experiments, treatments were: three times hoeing, PRE emergence harrowing plus three times hoeing, hoeing and harrowing in rotation or three times harrowing. In both experiments an untreated control was included. A 90% weed control efficacy and 23% yield increase was observed in the POST herbicide treatment. PRE + POST treatments resulted in 92% to 99% weed control efficiency and 15% yield increase compared to the untreated control. In the mechanical weed control experiments the combination of PRE emergence harrowing and POST emergence hoeing resulted in 82% weed control efficiency and 34% higher yield compared to the untreated control. Less weed control efficiency (72% was observed in the harrow treatment, leading to 20% higher yield compared to the control. The suitability of both strategies for implementation in “Integrated Weed Management” has been investigated.

  3. Nodulin gene expression during soybean (Glycine max) nodule development.

    Gloudemans, T.; Vries, de S.; Bussink, H.J.; Malik, N.S.A.; Franssen, H.; Louwerse, J.; Bisseling, T.


    In vitro translation products of total RNA isolated from soybean nodules at successive stages of nodule development were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In that way the occurrence of over 20 mRNAs specifically transcribed from nodulin genes was detected. The nodulin genes could be d

  4. Food allergies.

    O'Leary, Paula F G


    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  5. Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) KidsHealth > For Parents > Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) Print A A A What's in this article? ... are at work. Seasonal allergies , sometimes called "hay fever" or seasonal allergic rhinitis, are allergy symptoms that ...

  6. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Kids > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? A A A en español ¿Las alergias provocan ... kinds of allergies are more likely to have asthma. Do you have allergies that affect your nose ...

  7. Comparative analysis of complete plastid genomes from wild soybean (Glycine soja) and nine other Glycine species

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Aaqil Khan, Muhammad; Muhammad Imran, Qari; Kang, Sang-Mo; Al-Hosni, Khdija; Jeong, Eun Ju; Lee, Ko Eun; Lee, In-Jung


    The plastid genomes of different plant species exhibit significant variation, thereby providing valuable markers for exploring evolutionary relationships and population genetics. Glycine soja (wild soybean) is recognized as the wild ancestor of cultivated soybean (G. max), representing a valuable genetic resource for soybean breeding programmes. In the present study, the complete plastid genome of G. soja was sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing and then compared it for the first time with previously reported plastid genome sequences from nine other Glycine species. The G. soja plastid genome was 152,224 bp in length and possessed a typical quadripartite structure, consisting of a pair of inverted repeats (IRa/IRb; 25,574 bp) separated by small (178,963 bp) and large (83,181 bp) single-copy regions, with a 51-kb inversion in the large single-copy region. The genome encoded 134 genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes, and 39 transfer RNA genes, and possessed 204 randomly distributed microsatellites, including 15 forward, 25 tandem, and 34 palindromic repeats. Whole-plastid genome comparisons revealed an overall high degree of sequence similarity between G. max and G. gracilis and some divergence in the intergenic spacers of other species. Greater numbers of indels and SNP substitutions were observed compared with G. cyrtoloba. The sequence of the accD gene from G. soja was highly divergent from those of the other species except for G. max and G. gracilis. Phylogenomic analyses of the complete plastid genomes and 76 shared genes yielded an identical topology and indicated that G. soja is closely related to G. max and G. gracilis. The complete G. soja genome sequenced in the present study is a valuable resource for investigating the population and evolutionary genetics of Glycine species and can be used to identify related species. PMID:28763486

  8. Evaluation of protein extraction methods suitable for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines, SCN) is the most destructive pathogen of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) worldwide. In this study, three different protein extraction methods including phenol/ammonium acetate (phenol method), thiourea/urea solublization (lysis method) and trichloroaceti...

  9. Gas Phase Conformations of Tetrapeptide Glycine-Phenylalanine-Glycine-Glycine

    Hui-bin Chen; Yao Wang; Xin Chen; Zi-jing Lin


    Systematic search of the potential energy surface of tetrapeptide glycine-phenylalanineglycine-glycine (GFGG) in gas phase is conducted by a combination of PM3,HF and BHandHLYP methods.The conformational search method is described in detail.The relative electronic energies,zero point vibrational energies,dipole moments,rotational constants,vertical ionization energies and the temperature.dependent conformational distributions for a number of important conformers are obtained.The structural characteristics of these conformers are analyzed and it is found that the entropic effect is a dominating factor in determining the relative stabilities of the conformers.The measurements of dipole moments and some characteristic IR mode are shown to be effective approaches to verify the theoretical prediction.The structures of the low energy GFGG conformers are also analyzed in their connection with the secondary structures of proteins.Similarity between the local structures of low energy GFGG conformers and the α-helix is discussed and manyβ- and γ-turn local structures in GFGG conformers are found.

  10. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents To Find Out More MedlinePlus: Allergy MedlinePlus: Hay Fever medlineplus. ...

  11. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    ... or swollen eyes hives red spots swelling a drop in blood pressure Reactions to foods, like peanuts ... outgrow certain food allergies over time (like milk, egg, soy, and wheat allergies), peanut and tree nut ...

  12. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are ...

  13. Allergies, asthma, and molds

    Reactive airway - mold; Bronchial asthma - mold; Triggers - mold; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Mold is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to mold, you are ...

  14. Vaccines for allergy.

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf


    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic.

  15. Itching for Allergy Relief?

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Itching for Allergy Relief? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... your ability to function, you don't find relief from OTC drugs, or you experience allergy symptoms ...

  16. UV-B辐射对8个大豆品种种子萌发率和 幼苗生长的影响%Effects of increased UV-B radiation on seed germination and seedlings growth of eight cultivars of Glycine max

    冯虎元; 徐世健; 安黎哲; 刘志杰; 王勋陵


    Eight cultivars of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) were exposed to visible light (220 μmol.m-2.s-1),three dose of UV-B radiation (5,10,15 μ,respectively) and the dark to investigated the effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on seed germination and seedlings growth.The results indicate that enhanced UV-B irradiation had no effect on the germination of soybean cultivars,maximum germination,however,was influenced by UV-B in some cultivars.In addition,UV-B retarded the time up to their maximum germination.Germination in the dark was higher than visible light and increased ultraviolet-B irradiance .Enhanced UV-B radiation led to root of seedlings stunt and short.Chlorophyll a,chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll concentration were also reduced by enhanced UV-B irratiation while flavonoids were stimulated.These UV-B effect and differences between soybean cultivars would cause far-reaching biological and ecological significance.%在生长房5种(暗处、可见光、低、中、高强度紫外线-B)处理下,研究了8个大豆品种的种子萌发率和萌发后幼苗的生长状况。结果表明,暗处种子萌发率高于自然光和UV-B辐射的种子。UV-B辐射增强对大豆种子的萌发率没有显著影响,仅使部分品种的最大萌发率降低和导致部分品种达到最大萌发率的时间延长。幼苗的生长对增强的UV-B辐射非常敏感。使大部分品种的胚根变短增粗,这可能是植物激素作用的结果。大豆的叶绿素a、叶绿素b和总叶绿素含量明显受到UV-B辐射的抑制。UV-B作用能促进类黄酮在幼苗中的积累,紫外吸收色素的增设有利于提高对UV-B的抵抗力。UV-B辐射的这种效应及大豆品种间的差异在自然情况下会产生深远的生物学和生态学意义

  17. Root Tip Cell Mitochondria Involvement in Programmed Cell Death Induced by Aluminum Stress of Tamba Black Soybean (Glycine max)%铝胁迫下丹波黑大豆根尖细胞线粒体参与细胞凋亡的研究

    李金金; 刘昂; 王平; 陈丽梅; 年洪娟


    细胞凋亡(apoptosis)也称程序性细胞死亡(programmed cell death,PCD),对于生物体正常发育和繁殖是必不可少的,也受各种生物和非生物胁迫所调控.铝胁迫是酸性土壤中影响植物生长和限制作物产量的一个主要因子,铝对细胞的毒害之一是诱导程序性细胞死亡.本研究通过用4’,6-二脒基-2-苯基吲哚(4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole,DAPI)染色观察铝胁迫下丹波黑大豆(Glycine max)根尖细胞细胞核和线粒体中细胞色素c(cytochrome c,Cytc)含量等的变化.结果表明,铝胁迫下,丹波黑大豆根尖细胞DAPI染色后细胞核在细胞边缘聚集,核内的染色质凝聚呈新月状,分布在核内周边,呈致密浓染.大豆根尖细胞线粒体中的丙二醛(malondialdehyde,MDA)含量均随着铝处理浓度和时间的增加呈上升趋势,表明大豆根尖细胞线粒体膜氧化程度增加,膜系统损害更严重.线粒体Cyt c/a的比值能够反映线粒体内膜上Cyt c量的变化.铝胁迫下,大豆根尖细胞线粒体膜通透性转换孔(mitochondrial permeability transition pore,MPTP)不断开放,线粒体膜电位(△Ψm)降低,线粒体膜的完整性被破坏,促使Cyt c从线粒体内膜上脱落下来,线粒体中的Cyt c/a和Cyt c含量减少,Cyt c有可能通过线粒体膜从线粒体释放到细胞质中.这些研究结果从细胞和生理水平揭示了线粒体和Cyt c在铝诱导丹波黑大豆根尖细胞发生凋亡过程中的作用,进一步阐明了铝胁迫诱导丹波黑大豆根尖细胞凋亡的过程,加深了铝毒对植物毒害机理的认识.

  18. Food allergy: an overview.

    Kagan, Rhoda Sheryl


    Food allergy affects between 5% and 7.5% of children and between 1% and 2% of adults. The greater prevalence of food allergy in children reflects both the increased predisposition of children to develop food allergies and the development of immunologic tolerance to certain foods over time. Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated food allergies can be classified as those that persist indefinitely and those that are predominantly transient. Although there is overlap between the two groups, certain foods...

  19. Preventing food allergy

    de Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Thusu, Sundeep


    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review...... recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to assess the effectiveness of approaches for the primary prevention of food allergy....

  20. Milk Allergy in Infants

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a ...

  1. Addressing Food Allergies

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson


    Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…


    Marta Santalha


    Conclusions: In these cases, most children had co-sensitization with other allergens, as well as another manifestation of concomitant allergy, showing the role of food allergy in allergic march. Food allergy diagnosis is extremely important, as it can be potentially serious if not prevented by food avoidance.

  3. Remembering Max Boisot

    Sanchez, Ron


    This chapter offers some reflections on Max Boisot and his extraordinary intellect drawn from our 15 years of exchanging and crafting ideas together. I first comment on the process of working with Max, and then suggest some of the remarkable qualities of thought that I believe distinguished Max......'s keen intellect as I came to experience it through our collaborations. I note in particular the breadth of perspectives that Max inevitably brought to any discussion, his ability to draw multiple theoretical perspectives together in composing novel representations of economic and organizational...... phenomena, and his ability to rigorously categorize and usefully interrelate the many theories and concepts with which he was conversant. These qualities are illustrated through some further comments on the process of writing our 2010 paper on economic organizing. I conclude by suggesting how...

  4. Patients with multiple contact allergies

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, Torkil;


    Patients with multiple contact allergies, also referred to as polysensitized, are more frequent than predicted from prevalence of single sensitivities. The understanding of why some people develop multiple contact allergies, and characterization of patients with multiple contact allergies...... of developing multiple contact allergies. Evidence of allergen clusters among polysensitized individuals is also reviewed. The literature supports the idea that patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special entity within the field of contact allergy. There is no generally accepted definition...... of patients with multiple contact allergies. We suggest that contact allergy to 3 or more allergens are defined as multiple contact allergies....

  5. Mini MAX - Medicaid Sample

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To facilitate wider use of MAX, CMS contracted with Mathematica to convene a technical expert panel (TEP) and determine the feasibility of creating a sample file for...

  6. A Max Forum

    Desain, P.; Honing, H.; Dannenberg, R.; Jacobs, D.; Lippe, C.; Settel, Z.; Pope, S.; Puckette, M.; Lewis, G.


    A critical review of Max resulted in responses from many researchers (including the original designers). They each focus on different aspects: the language design, the implementation and the consequences of the use of event based software for music composition.

  7. MAX and Survey Linkages

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...

  8. MAX and Survey Linkages

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...

  9. Food allergy: an overview.

    Kagan, Rhoda Sheryl


    Food allergy affects between 5% and 7.5% of children and between 1% and 2% of adults. The greater prevalence of food allergy in children reflects both the increased predisposition of children to develop food allergies and the development of immunologic tolerance to certain foods over time. Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated food allergies can be classified as those that persist indefinitely and those that are predominantly transient. Although there is overlap between the two groups, certain foods are more likely than others to be tolerated in late childhood and adulthood. The diagnosis of food allergy rests with the detection of food-specific IgE in the context of a convincing history of type I hypersensitivity-mediated symptoms after ingestion of the suspected food or by eliciting IgE-mediated symptoms after controlled administration of the suspected food. Presently, the only available treatment of food allergies is dietary vigilance and administration of self-injectable epinephrine.

  10. 土壤加砷对大豆叶绿素、脯氨酸和过氧化氢酶活性的影响%Effects of soil arsenic additions on chlorophyll, proline and the catalase activity in soybean (Glycine max .L .)

    牛昌美; 杨兰芳; 彭小兰; 裴艳艳


    为了认识土壤砷污染对大豆生理指标的影响,设置土壤加砷0、5、10、30、50和100 mg kg -1共6个水平的盆栽大豆试验,测定大豆生长期间叶片的叶绿素、脯氨酸含量和过氧化氢酶活性等生理指标.结果表明,土壤砷污染影响大豆的叶绿素、脯氨酸、过氧化氢酶等生理指标.土壤加砷对大豆叶绿素的影响随生长期而不同,在结荚期,土壤加砷对叶绿素含量的影响不显著,但是高砷水平降低了叶绿素a与b的比值;在鼓粒期,高砷水平增加了大豆的叶绿素含量,叶绿素a、叶绿素b、类胡萝卜素和叶绿素总量的最大增加率分别达119.8%、111.0%、105.6%和117.2%.在大豆结荚期,土壤加砷30~100 mg kg -1使大豆脯氨酸的含量降低了23.4%~31.4%,而所有加砷处理的过氧化氢酶活性都显著低于对照,土壤加砷使大豆过氧化氢酶活性降低了10.7%~46.6%.总之,土壤砷污染会通过影响叶绿素的构成和含量改变大豆光合作用、降低大豆抗逆性和破坏大豆抗氧化系统来妨碍大豆的生长.%In order to understand the effects of soil arsenic pollution on soybean (Glycine max . L .) physiological indexes ,a soil pot experiment cultivating soybean by soil arsenic additions of 0 ,5 , 10 ,30 ,50 and 100 mg kg -1 was conducted and the content of chlorophyll and proline and the activity of catalase was determined during the soybean growing .The results showed that soil arsenic additions had significant effects on chlorophyll ,proline and catalase in soybean leaves .The effects of arsenic on chlorophyll in soybean leaves varied with the growing stages . At the pod stage , the content of chlorophyll in soybean leaves was not significantly influenced by soil arsenic additions ,but the ratios of chlorophyll a to b in 50 and 100 mg kg -1 arsenic additions were significant lower than that in control .While at grain filling

  11. Natural rubber latex allergy

    Deval Ravi


    Full Text Available Natural rubber latex (NRL is a ubiquitous allergen as it is a component of > 40,000 products in everyday life. Latex allergy might be attributed to skin contact or inhalation of latex particles. Latex allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to NRL, presenting a wide range of clinical symptoms such as angioedema, swelling, cough, asthma, and anaphylactic reactions. Until 1979, latex allergy appeared only as type IV delayed hypersensitivity; subsequently, the proportion of different allergy types drifted towards type IV contact allergy reactions. Several risk factors for sensitization to NRL are already known and well documented. Some authors have established a positive correlation between a history of multiple surgical interventions, atopy, spina bifida malformation, and latex allergy incidence. We suspect an increase in latex allergy incidence in association with increased atopy and sensitivity to environmental allergens in the industrial population. It is often postulated in literature that the groups of workers at risk for this allergy are essentially workers in the latex industry and healthcare professionals. In this population, direct internal and mucosal contact with NRL medical devices may be the route of sensitization as factors such as the number of procedures and use of NRL materials (catheters and tubes were associated with increased risk of latex sensitization and allergy.

  12. Adjuvants for allergy vaccines

    Moingeon, Philippe


    .... Aluminum hydroxide or calcium phosphate are broadly used as adjuvants for subcutaneous allergy vaccines, whereas commercial sublingual vaccines rely upon high doses of aqueous allergen extracts...

  13. AuroraMAX!

    Donovan, E.; Spanswick, E. L.; Chicoine, R.; Pugsley, J.; Langlois, P.


    AuroraMAX is a public outreach and education initiative that brings auroral images to the public in real time. AuroraMAX utilizes an observing station located just outside Yellowknife, Canada. The station houses a digital All-Sky Imager (ASI) that collects full-colour images of the night sky every six seconds. These images are then transmitted via satellite internet to our web server, where they are made instantly available to the public. Over the last two years this program has rapidly become one of the most successful outreach programs in the history of Space Science in Canada, with hundreds of thousands of distinct visitors to the CSA AuroraMAX website, thousands of followers on social media, and hundreds of newspaper, magazine, radio, and television spots. Over the next few years, the project will expand to include a high-resolution SLR delivering real-time auroral images (also from Yellowknife), as well as a program where astronauts on the ISS will take pictures of the aurora with a handheld SLR. The objectives of AuroraMAX are public outreach and education. The ASI design, operation, and software were based on infrastructure that was developed for the highly successful ASI component of the NASA THEMIS mission as well as the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) Canadian GeoSpace Monitoring (CGSM) program. So from an education and public outreach perspective, AuroraMAX is a single camera operating in the Canadian north. On the other hand, AuroraMAX is one of nearly 40 All-Sky Imagers that are operating across North America. The AuroraMAX camera produces data that is seamlessly integrated with the CGSM ASI data, and made widely available to the Space Science community through open-access web and FTP sites. One of our objectives in the next few years is to incorporate some of the data from the THEMIS and CGSM imagers into the AuroraMAX system, to maximize viewing opportunities and generate more real-time data for public outreach. This is an exemplar of a program that

  14. Food Allergy Research and Education (FARE)

    ... in 13 children in the U.S. has a food allergy. Help stop this emerging epidemic. GIVE NOW ... Food Allergy Mom Gretchen Food Allergy Mom Managing Food Allergies Learn more about managing food allergies in ...

  15. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to CranMax® and reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract pursuant

    Tetens, Inge

    related to CranMax® and reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract. The food that is the subject of the claim is CranMax®. The Panel considers that the food, CranMax®, which is the subject of the claim is sufficiently characterised...... in relation to the claimed effect. The Panel considers that reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract is a beneficial physiological effect. One human study from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation...... of the claim did not show an effect of CranMax® on reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of CranMax® and reduction...

  16. Allergy Skin Tests

    ... once. This test is usually done to identify allergies to pollen, mold, pet dander, dust mites and foods. In adults, the test is usually done on the forearm. Children may be tested on the upper back. Allergy skin tests aren't painful. This type of ...

  17. Allergy Shots (For Parents)

    ... substance. Some common allergens (substances that trigger the allergy) are dust mites, molds, pollen, pets with fur or feathers, stinging insects, and foods. The body reacts to the trigger by releasing chemicals, ... to prevent or control allergy symptoms is to avoid triggers. An allergist (a ...

  18. Lettuce contact allergy

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E


    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...

  19. Fighting Allergies at School

    Taylor, Kelley R.


    In the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with food allergies has increased significantly--to an estimated 3 million affected in the United States alone (Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network, n.d.). As that number increases, so do the articles, legislation, and policies that are designed to address how to best deal with peanut allergies…

  20. Learning about Allergies

    ... are probably allergic to the allergen. previous continue Taking Control Your doctor will probably suggest ways to stay ... away from the allergen might be enough to control your allergy. If your ... and taking medicines, an allergist might recommend allergy shots. These ...

  1. Growth enhancing effect of exogenous glycine and characterization of its uptake in halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica.

    Bualuang, Aporn; Incharoensakdi, Aran


    Alkaliphilic halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica showed optimal growth in the medium containing 0.5 M NaCl. The increase of exogenously added glycine to the medium up to 10 mM significantly promoted cell growth under both normal (0.5 M NaCl) and salt stress (2.0 M NaCl) conditions. Salt stress imposed by either 2.0 or 3.0 M NaCl retarded cell growth; however, exogenously added glycine at 10 mM concentration to salt-stress medium resulted in the reduction of growth inhibition particularly under 3.0 M NaCl condition. The uptake of glycine by intact A. halophytica was shown to exhibit saturation kinetics with an apparent K s of 160 μM and V max of 3.9 nmol/min/mg protein. The optimal pH for glycine uptake was at pH 8.0. The uptake activity was decreased in the presence of high concentration of NaCl. Both metabolic inhibitors and ionophores decreased glycine uptake in A. halophytica suggesting an energy-dependent glycine uptake. Several neutral amino acids showed considerable inhibition of glycine uptake with higher than 50 % inhibition observed with serine, cysteine and alanine whereas acidic, basic and aromatic amino acids showed only slight inhibition of glycine uptake.

  2. Shellfish allergy in children.

    Kandyil, Roshni M; Davis, Carla M


    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the world's population and can range from a mere inconvenience to a life-threatening condition. Over 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Shellfish allergy is known to be common and persistent in adults, and is an important cause of food induced anaphylaxis around the world for both children and adults. Most shellfish-allergic children have sensitivity to dust mite and cockroach allergens. Diagnostic cut-off levels for skin prick testing in children with shrimp allergy exist but there are no diagnostic serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) values. All patients with symptoms of IgE-mediated reactions to shellfish should receive epinephrine autoinjectors, even if the initial symptoms are mild. In this study, we review three cases of clinical presentations of shellfish allergy in children.

  3. [Allergy in cosmetology].

    Blondeel, A


    The computer analysis of a sample collecting 2,028 patients suffering from an eczematous dermatitis and subordinated to epicutaneous tests allowed us to analyze the rather difficult question of cosmetic allergy. This allergy is observed only in 2 p. 100 of the cases, if one considers the cosmetic allergy isolated; it reaches 5 p. 100 if it is associated with allergens coming from other origins (drugs of professional). However, in a more selected population of 91 patients suffering from a face dermatitis, these levels reach respectively 25 and 43 p. 100. The respective role of topic drugs and cosmetics is studied as well as main allergens associated with cosmetic allergy. The good tolerance of cosmetics encountered in patients allergic to one of their presumed components seems paradoxical. A prevention model of cosmetic allergy is presented, with an hypoallergenic variety of lanolin.

  4. WiMax taking wireless to the max

    Pareek, Deepak


    With market value expected to reach 5 billion by 2007 and the endorsement of some of the biggest names in telecommunications, World Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is poised to change the broadband wireless landscape. But how much of WiMAX's touted potential is merely hype? Now that several pre-WiMAX networks have been deployed, what are the operators saying about QoS and ROI? How and when will device manufacturers integrate WiMAX into their products? What is the business case for using WiMAX rather than any number of other established wireless alternatives?WiMAX: Taking Wireless

  5. [Food allergy in childhood].

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo


    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence.

  6. [Food allergy in adulthood].

    Werfel, Thomas


    Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life.

  7. Characterisation of L-alanine and glycine absorption across the gut of an ancient vertebrate.

    Glover, Chris N; Bucking, Carol; Wood, Chris M


    This study utilised an in vitro technique to characterise absorption of two amino acids across the intestinal epithelium of Pacific hagfish, Eptatretus stoutii. Uptake of L-alanine and glycine conformed to Michaelis-Menten kinetics. An uptake affinity (K(m); substrate concentration required to attain a 50% uptake saturation) of 7.0 mM and an uptake capacity (J (max)) of 83 nmol cm(-2) h(-1) were described for L-alanine. The K(m) and J(max) for glycine were 2.2 mM and 11.9 nmol cm(-2) h(-1), respectively. Evidence suggested that the pathways of L-alanine and glycine absorption were shared, and sodium dependent. Further analysis indicated that glycine uptake was independent of luminal pH and proline, but a component of uptake was significantly impaired by 100-fold excesses of threonine or asparagine. The presence of a short-term (24 h) exposure to waterborne glycine, similar in nature to that which may be expected to occur when feeding inside an animal carcass, had no significant impact on gastrointestinal glycine uptake. This may indicate a lack of cross talk between absorptive epithelia. These results are the first published data to describe gastrointestinal uptake of an organic nutrient in the oldest extant vertebrate and may provide potential insight into the evolution of nutrient transport systems.


    A.N. Pampura


    Full Text Available Allergy prevention is an urgent pediatric issue. Food allergy spread among infants amounts to 6–8%. This review highlights the modern viewpoints on diet prevention of this pathology among children, including by means of the hypoallergic nutritional formulas.Key words: food allergy, prevention, allergies, prebiotics, children.

  9. Max Jakobson : Kommunismisse tuleb suhtuda objektiivselt / Max Jakobson

    Jakobson, Max, 1923-2013


    President Rüütel andis Soome tuntud diplomaadile ja Inimsusevastaste Kuritegude Uurimise Rahvusvahelise Komisjoni (IKURK) esimehele Max Jakobsonile Maarjamaa Risti I klassi teenetemärgi. Tseremooniajärgne intervjuu Max Jakobsoniga

  10. Max Jakobson : Kommunismisse tuleb suhtuda objektiivselt / Max Jakobson

    Jakobson, Max, 1923-2013


    President Rüütel andis Soome tuntud diplomaadile ja Inimsusevastaste Kuritegude Uurimise Rahvusvahelise Komisjoni (IKURK) esimehele Max Jakobsonile Maarjamaa Risti I klassi teenetemärgi. Tseremooniajärgne intervjuu Max Jakobsoniga

  11. Glycine Transporters and Their Inhibitors

    Gilfillan, Robert; Kerr, Jennifer; Walker, Glenn; Wishart, Grant

    Glycine plays a ubiquitous role in many biological processes. In the central nervous system it serves as an important neurotransmitter acting as an agonist at strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and as an essential co-agonist with glutamate at the NMDA receptor complex. Control of glycine concentrations in the vicinity of these receptors is mediated by the specific glycine transporters, GlyT1 and GlyT2. Inhibition of these transporters has been postulated to be of potential benefit in several therapeutic indications including schizophrenia and pain. In this review we discuss our current knowledge of glycine transporters and focus on recent advances in the medicinal chemistry of GlyT1 and GlyT2 inhibitors.

  12. Metal allergy in Singapore.

    Goon, Anthony T J; Goh, C L


    This is a clinical epidemiologic study to determine the frequency of metal allergy among patch-tested patients in the years 2001-2003. The results are compared with those of previous studies. All patients diagnosed as having allergic contact dermatitis in the National Skin Centre, Singapore, from January 2001 to December 2003 were studied retrospectively. The frequency of positive patch tests to the following metals were nickel 19.9%, chromate 5.6%, cobalt 8.2% and gold 8.3%. The frequency of nickel allergy has been steadily rising over the last 20 years. The most common sources of nickel allergy are costume jewelry, belt buckles, wrist watches and spectacle frames. After declining from 1984 to 1990, chromate and cobalt allergies have also been steadily increasing subsequently. The most common sources of chromate allergy were cement, leather and metal objects. Most positive patch tests to cobalt are regarded as co-sensitization due to primary nickel or chromate allergies. There has been a steep increase in positive patch tests to gold from 2001 to 2003, which is difficult to explain because the relevance and sources of such positive patch tests can rarely be determined with certainty. There has been an overall rise in the frequency of metal allergy in the last 20 years.

  13. Management of Food Allergy

    Sh Maleknejad


    Full Text Available Although food allergy is a major public health problem, currently there is no effective and safe treatment except to avoid the foods .But the need for new options is critical now as the number of children diagnosed with food allergies rises. Avoiding the offending allergen in the diet is the primary treatment of food allergy. Once a food to which the patient is sensitive has been identified, the food must be removed from the diet. People with severe food allergies must be prepared to treat an anaphylactic reaction. These individuals also always should carry a syringe of adrenaline (epinephrine [EpiPen], and be prepared to self-administer it if they think they are developing an allergic reaction. Several medications are available for treating the other symptoms of food allergy. For example, antihistamines can relieve gastrointestinal symptoms, hives, sneezing, and a runny nose. Bronchodilators can relieve the symptoms of asthma. They are not effective, however, in preventing an allergic reaction when taken prior to eating the food. In fact, no medication in any form is available to reliably prevent an allergic reaction to a certain food before eating that food.Novel therapeutic approaches to food allergy can be classified as food allergen-specific therapy(immunotherapy with native or modified recombinant allergens, or oral desensitization or food allergen-nonspecifictherapy (anti-IgE, traditional Chinese medicine.   Key Words: Children, Food Allergy, Management.  

  14. Research needs in allergy

    Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Agache, Ioana; Bavbek, Sevim


    ABSTRACT: In less than half a century, allergy, originally perceived as a rare disease, has become a major public health threat, today affecting the lives of more than 60 million people in Europe, and probably close to one billion worldwide, thereby heavily impacting the budgets of public health...... excellence in clinical care, education, training and basic and translational research, all with the ultimate goal of improving the health of allergic patients. The European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients' Associations (EFA) is a non-profit network of allergy, asthma and Chronic...

  15. Asthma and Food Allergies

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... prepared food. Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Nutrition: What Every Parent Needs to Know (Copyright © American ...

  16. Seasonal Allergies in Children

    ... wrists, and ankles also may indicate an allergy. Eczema When it comes to rashes, the most common ... seen with the naked eye Furry animals: cats, dogs, guinea pigs, gerbils, rabbits, and other pets Clothing ...

  17. Prevention of food allergy

    Halken, S


    Development of a food allergy appears to depend on both genetic factors and exposure-especially in early infancy-to food proteins. In prospective studies, the effect of dietary allergy prevention programmes has only been demonstrated in high-risk infants, i.e. infants with at least one first degree...... relative with documented atopic disease. High-risk infants feeding exclusively on breast milk and/or extensively hydrolysed formula (eHF) combined with avoidance of cow's milk proteins and solid foods during at least the first 4 months of life are found to have a significant reduction in the cumulative...... incidence of food allergy, especially cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI), in the first 4 years of life. As no studies have been conducted pertaining to the preventive effect of avoidance of milk and other foods after the age of 4-6 months, recommendation of preventive elimination diets...

  18. Food allergies (image)

    ... upon subsequent exposure to the substance. An actual food allergy, as opposed to simple intolerance due to the lack of digesting enzymes, is indicated by the production of antibodies to the food allergen, and by the release of histamines and ...

  19. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    Reactive airway - pollen; Bronchial asthma - pollen; Triggers - pollen; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. It is important to know your triggers because avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. ...

  20. Ocular allergy and keratoconus

    Namrata Sharma


    Full Text Available Keratoconus is the most common corneal ectatic disorder, the cause of which is largely unknown. Many factors have been implicated, and the ocular allergy is being one of them. The commonly proposed pathogenesis includes the release of inflammatory mediators due to eye rubbing which may alter the corneal collagen and lead to corneal ectasias. The onset of keratoconus is often early in cases associated with allergy and routine corneal topography may detect subtle forms of keratoconus. These cases may require early keratoplasty and are at an increased risk of having acute corneal hydrops. Surgical outcomes are similar to primary keratoconus cases. However, post-operative epithelial breakdown may be a problem in these cases. Control of allergy and eye rubbing is the best measure to prevent corneal ectasias in cases of ocular allergy.

  1. Coping with Food Allergies

    ... accurately predicted from the severity of past ones. Fast Facts About one in 20 children and one in every 25 adults in the United States has a food allergy. In the United States, the most common ...

  2. Traveling with Food Allergies

    ... flight and where your auto-injector is. All-Inclusive Resorts A growing number of family resorts are ... Vehicle How to Get Involved Become a Member Benefits Join Now Renew Events FARE's Food Allergy Heroes ...

  3. Occupational allergies and asthma.

    Tarlo, S.M.


    OBJECTIVE: To review aspects of occupational allergies and asthma for primary care physicians recognizing, diagnosing, and managing patients with these conditions. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Studies in the medical literature mainly provide level 2 evidence, that is, from at least one well-designed clinical trial without randomization, from cohort or case-control analytical studies, from multiple time series, or from dramatic results in uncontrolled experiments. MAIN MESSAGE: Occupational allergies ...

  4. Glycine receptors contribute to cytoprotection of glycine in myocardial cells

    QI Ren-bin; ZHANG Jun-yan; LU Da-xiang; WANG Hua-dong; WANG Hai-hua; LI Chu-jie


    Background The classic glycine receptor (GlyR) in the central nervous system is a ligand-gated membrane-spanning ion channel. Recent studies have provided evidence for the existence of GlyR in endothelial cells, renal proximal tubular cells and most leukocytes. In contrast, no evidence for GlyR in myocardial cells has been found so far. Our recent researches have showed that glycine could protect myocardial cells from the damage induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Further studies suggest that myocardial cells could contain GlyR or binding site of glycine.Methods In isolated rat heart damaged by LPS, the myocardial monophasic action potential (MAP), the heart rate (HR),the myocardial tension and the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the coronary effluent were determined.The concentration of intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) was measured in cardiomyocytes injured by LPS and by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), which excludes the possibility that reduced calcium influx because of LPS neutralized by glycine. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the GlyR in myocardial tissue. GlyR and its subunit in the purified cultured cardiomyocytes were identified by Western blotting.Results Although significant improvement in the MAP/MAPD20, HR, and reduction in LDH release were observed in glycine + LPS hearts, myocardial tension did not recover. Further studies demonstrated that glycine could prevent rat mycordial cells from LPS and hypoxia/reoxygenation injury (no endotoxin) by attenuating calcium influx.Immunohistochemistry exhibited a positive green-fluorescence signaling along the cardiac muscle fibers. Western blotting shows that the purified cultured cardiomyocytes express GlyR β subunit, but GlyR α1 subunit could not be detected.Conclusions The results suggest that glycine receptor is expressed in cardiomyocytes and participates in cytoprotection from LPS and hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Glycine could directly activate GlyR on the cardiomyocytes and

  5. [New food allergies].

    Dutau, G; Rittié, J L; Rancé, F; Juchet, A; Brémont, F


    RISING INCIDENCE OF FOOD ALLERGIES: Food allergies are becoming more and more common, concerning 3 to 4% of the general population. One out of four persons allergic to nuts, the most frequent food allergen, have severe signs and symptoms. A CLASSICAL DIAGNOSIS: Certain diagnosis of food allergy is established on the basis of labial and oral tests. The dose required to induce a reaction is established by the oral test, giving information about the severity of the allergy and its progression. OTHER ALLERGENS: "Emerging" food allergens include spices and condiments, exotic fruits (kiwi, avocado, cashew and pecan nuts, Brazil nuts), sesame seeds, psyllium, sunflower seeds. Endurance exercise following ingestion of a food allergen can lead to severe anaphylactic reactions. Allergen associations "food-pollen", "latex-food", "mitessnails" have been described. INDISPENSABLE PREVENTION: Avoiding contact is essential. Many allergens are "masked" within prepared foods. Precise labeling, with particular attention to nut content, must be reinforced. Individualized counseling on food allergies should be available for school children. Persons with severe allergies should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids and adrenalin (1 mg/ml).

  6. Genetics Home Reference: glycine encephalopathy

    ... atypical types of glycine encephalopathy appear later in childhood or adulthood and cause a variety of medical problems that primarily affect the nervous system. Rarely, the characteristic features of ...

  7. American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

    ... Allergy Syndrome Milk & Dairy Allergy Meat Allergy Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES) Fish Allergy Eosinophilic Esophagitis ... MA Charleston, SC Charlotte, NC Chicago, IL Cincinnati, OH Dallas, TX Denver, CO Detroit, MI Houston, TX ...

  8. IgE-mediated allergy to chlorhexidine

    Garvey, Lene Heise; Krøigaard, Mogens; Poulsen, Lars K.


    Investigations at the Danish Anesthesia Allergy Centre have included testing for allergy to chlorhexidine since 1999.......Investigations at the Danish Anesthesia Allergy Centre have included testing for allergy to chlorhexidine since 1999....

  9. Treating Allergies, Hay Fever, and Hives

    ... other allergies. Newer drugs include Allegra, Claritin, Clarinex, Zyrtec, and Xyzal. They are available as generics and ... drugs (Benadryl Allergy, Chlor-Trimeton Allergy, Dimetapp Allergy). Cetirizine tablets Loratadine tablets, dissolving tablets, and liquid • The ...

  10. maxAlike

    Menzel, Karl Peter; Stadler, Peter F.; Gorodkin, Jan


    MOTIVATION: The task of reconstructing a genomic sequence from a particular species is gaining more and more importance in the light of the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing technologies and their limitations. Applications include not only compensation for missing data in unsequenced...... genomic regions and the design of oligonucleotide primers for target genes in species with lacking sequence information but also the preparation of customized queries for homology searches. RESULTS: We introduce the maxAlike algorithm, which reconstructs a genomic sequence for a specific taxon based...

  11. Food allergy in children

    Radlović Nedeljko


    Full Text Available Food allergy represents a highly up-to-date and continually increasing problem of modern man. Although being present in all ages, it most often occures in children aged up to three years. Sensitization most often occurs by a direct way, but it is also possible to be caused by mother’s milk, and even transplacentally. Predisposition of inadequate immune response to antigen stimulation, reaginic or nonreaginic, is of nonselective character so that food allergy is often multiple and to a high rate associated with inhalation and/ or contact hypersensitivity. Also, due to antigen closeness of some kinds of food, cross-reactive allergic reaction is also frequent, as is the case with peanuts, legumes and tree nuts or cow’s, sheep’s and goat’s milk. Most frequent nutritive allergens responsible for over 90% of adverse reactions of this type are proteins of cow’s milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods. Allergy intolerance of food antigens is characterized by a very wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Highly severe systemic reactions, sometimes fatal, are also possible. The diagnosis of food allergy is based on a detailed personal and family medical history, complete clinical examination, and corresponding laboratory and other examinations adapted to the type of hypersensitivity and the character of patient’s complaints, and therapy on the elimination diet. A positive effect of elimination diet also significantly contributes to the diagnosis. Although most children “outgrow” their allergies, allergy to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods are generally life-long allergies.

  12. Fish allergy: in review.

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L


    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  13. Allergy and orthodontics

    Chakravarthi, Sunitha; Padmanabhan, Sridevi; Chitharanjan, Arun B.


    The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on allergy in orthodontics and to identify the predisposing factors and the implications of the allergic reaction in the management of patients during orthodontic treatment. A computerized literature search was conducted in PubMed for articles published on allergy in relation to orthodontics. The MeSH term used was allergy and orthodontics. Allergic response to alloys in orthodontics, particularly nickel, has been extensively studied and several case reports of nickel-induced contact dermatitis have been documented. Current evidence suggests that the most common allergic reaction reported in orthodontics is related to nickel in orthodontic appliances and allergic response is more common in women due to a previous sensitizing exposure from nickel in jewellery. Studies have implicated allergy in the etiology of hypo-dontia. It has also been considered as a high-risk factor for development of extensive root resorption during the course of orthodontic treatment. This review discusses the relationship and implications of allergy in orthodontics. PMID:24987632

  14. Nutritional implications of food allergies

    protein-energy malnutrition secondary to food allergies having been described.4 A .... was reported in a 34-year-old man with a history of rhinitis and severe oral allergy ..... Summary and recommendations: classification of gastrointestinal.

  15. Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine

    ... Of Age Older Adults Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine Women Infant, Children and Teenagers Living With Lung ... written by Respiratory Experts Like no other health magazine, Allergy & Asthma Health Magazine is published by people ...

  16. Allergy Relief for Your Child

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Allergy Relief for Your Child Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... counter (OTC) and prescription medicines that offer allergy relief as well as allergen extracts used to diagnose ...

  17. Food Allergy Information


    Developed the content of this website in collaboration with a group of leading allergy experts from the food industry, patient organisations, clinical centres, and research institutions in Europe. This has been undertaken as part of the EuroPrevall project coordinated by Clare Mills at the Instit......Developed the content of this website in collaboration with a group of leading allergy experts from the food industry, patient organisations, clinical centres, and research institutions in Europe. This has been undertaken as part of the EuroPrevall project coordinated by Clare Mills...

  18. Allergy in severe asthma

    Del Giacco, Stefano R.; Bakirtas, A.; Bel, E.; Custovic, A.; Diamant, Z.; Hamelmann, E.; Heffler, E.; Kalayci, O.; Saglani, S.; Sergejeva, S.; Seys, S.; Simpson, A.; Bjermer, Leif


    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-

  19. Testing children for allergies

    Eigenmann, P A; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; O'B Hourihane, J;


    Allergic diseases are common in childhood and can cause a significant morbidity and impaired quality-of-life of the children and their families. Adequate allergy testing is the prerequisite for optimal care, including allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy. Children with persisting...

  20. Allergy and the eye.

    Bonini, Sergio


    This review of the major milestones in the history of ocular allergy and immunology shows how significantly this subdiscipline has contributed to the tremendous progress in the understanding of mechanisms of allergic and immunologic diseases, as well as in their better management. It also indicates unmet needs and priority areas for future research.

  1. Oral Allergy Syndrome

    Yasuto Kondo


    Full Text Available Oral allergy syndrome (OAS is defined as the symptoms of IgE-mediated immediate allergy localized in the oral mucosa, and the characteristics depend on the lability of the antigen. Another term used for this syndrome is pollen-food allergy (PFS; the patient is sensitized with pollen via the airways and exhibits an allergic reaction to food antigen with a structural similarity to the pollen (class 2 food allergy. In addition to PFS, latex-fruit syndrome is also well-known as the disease exhibiting OAS. In treating the condition, it must be noted that most but not all symptoms of PFS are those of OAS. In many cases, antigens become edible by heating, but some are resistant to heating. Also, since the exacerbation of atopic dermatitis is occasionally observed after the intake of cooked antigens in asymptomatic individuals, careful inquiry of the history is important in designing the treatment. Immunotherapy against the cross-reacting pollen has also been attempted in PFS.

  2. Kiwifruit allergy across Europe

    Le, T. M.; Knulst, A. C.


    Kiwifruit has a high nutritive and health value. Commercial plantings of kiwifruit started a few decades ago and in the last 30 years, it has become a widely consumed fruit. Nowadays, it is one of the most common causes of food allergy. Symptoms vary between mild symptoms in the oral cavity to sever

  3. Drug allergy REVIEW ARTICLE

    The only definitive test for allergy in a patient with a history of previous .... mental sensitisation by milk and aerosol.11,19 ... for rapid mast cell activation and degranulation. ; ..... sporin reaction,27,2. for which there are no validated skin tests.I'.

  4. Laboratory animal allergy.

    Hollander, A.


    The main objective of the study presented in this thesis was to estimate the prevalence rate of laboratory animal allergy and to determine its association with risk factors, like allergen exposure level, atopy, gender and other host factors. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 540 workers

  5. 3ds Max 2012 Bible

    Murdock, Kelly L


    Updated version of the bestselling 3ds Max book on the market 3ds Max 2012 Bible is one of the most popular 3ds Max how-tos on the market. If you're a beginner just itching to create something right away, the Quick Start project in Part 1 is for you. If you're an experienced user checking out 3ds Max 2012's latest and greatest features, you'll love the fact that the 3ds Max 2012 Bible continues to be the most comprehensive reference on this highly complex application.Find out what's new, what's tried and true, and how creative you can get using the tips, tricks, and techniques in this must-hav

  6. Resistência de plantas daninhas aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS na cultura da soja (Glycine max Weed resistance to ALS - inhibiting herbicides in soybean (Glycine max crop

    P.A. Monqueiro


    Full Text Available As plantas daninhas Bidens pilosa/Bidens subalternans (picão-preto e Amaranthus quitensis (caruru são controladas na cultura da soja por diversos herbicidas, sendo os inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS os mais utilizados pelos sojicultores. O uso intensivo e repetitivo destes herbicidas em áreas cultivadas com soja no município de São Gabriel do Oeste (MS - Brasil e nas províncias de Córdoba e Tucumã (Argentina proporcionou grande pressão de seleção nas populações destas plantas daninhas, resultando em populações resistentes. Com o objetivo de determinar a resistência cruzada aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, pertencentes aos grupos químicos sulfoniluréia e imidazolinona, foi conduzido um experimento, em condições de casa de vegetação, na Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" (ESALQ, Piracicaba, São Paulo. As plantas daninhas picão-preto e caruru, provenientes de áreas com suspeita de resistência aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS, foram tratadas com os herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl, imazethapyr e nicosulfuron em diversas doses e comparadas com as plantas provenientes de populações suscetíveis. Os tratamentos foram estabelecidos considerando-se doses que proporcionariam no mínimo 50% do controle das plantas daninhas (GR50, utilizando-se para isso doses abaixo e acima das doses recomendadas de cada herbicida. O herbicida chlorimuron-ethyl foi aplicado nas doses de 1.500, 750, 150, 75, 15, 7,5 e 1,5 g i.a. ha-1; o imazethapyr, nas doses de 8.000, 4.000, 800, 400, 80, 40 e 8 g i.a. ha-1; e o nicosulfuron, nas doses de 1.200, 600, 120, 60, 12, 6 e 1,2 g i.a. ha-1. Os biotipos resistentes apresentaram diferentes níveis de resistência cruzada aos herbicidas utilizados. O biotipo resistente de picão-preto apresentou GR50 para chlorimuron-ethyl, imazethapyr e nicosulfuron de 1,49; 1,27; e 20,08 g i.a. ha-1, respectivamente. Da mesma forma, o GR50 do biotipo resistente de caruru foi de 6,8; 2,45; e 23,54 g i.a. ha-1. As curvas de dose-resposta da porcentagem de controle das plantas daninhas aos 14 dias após o tratamento dos biotipos resistentes apresentaram valores inferiores aos das curvas de dose-resposta dos biotipos suscetíveis, mesmo nas doses extremas utilizadas. As taxas de resistência (GR50(resistente/GR50(suscetível para picão-preto foram de 9,90 para chlorimuron-ethyl, 9,07 para nicosulfuron e 27,03 para imazethapyr, enquanto para caruru elas foram de 45,03 para o chlorimuron-ethyl, 181 para o nicosulfuron e 24,55 para o imazethapyr.In the soybean crop, the weeds Bidens pilosa/Bidens subalternans and Amaranthus quitensis are controlled by several herbicides, with the acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors being the ones most sprayed by growers. The intensive and repetitive use of these herbicides in soybean areas of São Gabriel do Oeste (Mato Grosso do Sul - Brazil and in the provinces of Córdoba and Tucumã (Argentina have imposed a great selection pressure on the resistant population of these weeds. In order to determine the cross resistance of these biotypes to ALS - inhibiting herbicides (sulfonylureas and imidazolinones, an experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. The weeds Bidens pilosa/Bidens subalternans and Amaranthus quitensis, whose seeds were collected from suspected sites of herbicide resistance, were treated by the herbicides chlorimuron-ethyl, imazethapyr and nicosulfuron at several rates, and compared to plants whose seeds were obtained from susceptible populations. The treatments were established considering rates giving, at least, 50% of control (GR50, using multiples of the recommended rates. Chlorimuron-ethyl was sprayed at 1500, 750, 150, 75, 15, 7.5, 1.5 g a.i. ha-1, imazethapyr at 8000, 4000, 800, 400, 80, 40, 8 g a.i. ha-1 and nicosulfuron at 1.200, 600, 120, 60, 12, 6, 1.2 g a.i. ha-1. The resistant biotype showed different levels of cross-resistance to the herbicides used. The resistant biotype of Bidens pilosa/Bidens subalternans showed a GR50 for chlorimuron-ethyl, imazethapyr and nicosulfuron of 1.49, 1.27 and 20.08 g a.i. ha-1, and for Amaranthus quitensis 6.8, 2.45, and 23.54 g a.i. ha-1, respectively. The dose-response curves of the weed control, at 14 days after treatments of the resistant biotypes consistently showed lower values than the susceptible biotypes, even at extremely high rates. The resistance levels, measured by the relation GR50(resistant/GR50 (susceptible for Bidens pilosa/Bidens subalternans were 9.9 for chlorimuron-ethyl; 9.07 for nicosulfuron and 27.03 for imazethapyr, whereas for Amaranthus quitensis the values were 45.03 for chlorimuron-ethyl, 181 for nicosulfuron and 24.55 for imazethapyr.

  7. Sensibilidade de cultivares de soja (Glycine max aos herbicidas diclosulam e flumetsulam Soybean (Glycine max cultivars sensibility to the herbicides diclosulam and flumetsulam

    Célio R. F. Leite


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar, no campo, no município de Londrina-PR, a resposta de 12 cultivares de soja em relação aos herbicidas diclosulam e flumetsulam aplicados e incorporados em Latossolo Roxo distrófico (80,84 % de argila, pH 5,4 e matéria orgânica 3,07 %. As cultivares foram: 'FT-Guaira', 'Embrapa-48', 'Ocepar-14', 'BR-16', 'Embrapa-4', 'Ocepar-13', 'BR-36', 'FT10-Princesa', 'FT-2000', 'FTAbyara', 'BR-37' e 'RS7- Jacuí'. O diclosulam foi utilizado nas doses de 35 g/ha (normal e 70 g/ha (dobrada; e o flumetsulam nas doses de 120 g/ha (normal e 240 g/ha (dobrada; também foi utilizada a mistura de diclosulam + flumetsulam (20 + 100 g/ha; e imazaquin à 150 g/ha. Nas doses normais utilizadas dos dois herbicidas não foi possível distinguir nenhuma cultivar suscetível. Em dose dobrada do diclosulam os rendimentos das cultivares 'FT-Guaira', 'Embrapa 4' e 'BR-37 ' foram reduzidos em 20,9 %, 11,8 % e 11,0 % respectivamente, em relação à testemunha. O flumetsulam à 240 g/ha e sua mistura com diclosulam também reduziu o rendimento destas cultivares, mais o da 'Ocepar-14'. A maioria das cultivares teve o estande reduzido, nas doses dobradas dos dois herbicidas, mas também sem significância. Somente o estande da cultivar 'Embrapa-48' não foi afetado, ao contrário da 'RS-7 Jacuí'. A altura de plantas foi menor em relação à testemunha no tratamento com flumetsulam à 240 g/ha. Na maioria das cultivares o peso da biomassa seca de nódulos foi menor nas doses dobradas, e em algumas também o peso por unidade de nódulos. A biomassa seca da parte aérea e da raiz não foram reduzidas.The objective of the present paper was to check the behaviour of 12 different soybean cultivars in relation to the tolerance to the herbicides flumetsulam and diclosulam applied on a soil classified as Latossolo Roxo distrófico (80,87% of clay, pH of 5,4 and 3,07 of organic matter in Londrina - PR. The cultivars were: 'FTGuaira', 'Embrapa-48', 'Ocepar-14', 'BR-16', 'Embrapa-4', 'Ocepar-13', 'BR-36', 'FT 10- Princesa', 'FT-2000', 'FT-Abyara', 'BR-37' and 'RS 7-Jacuí'. Diclosulam was used in the rates of 35 g/ha (normal rate and 70 g/ha (double rate and flumetsulam in the rates of 120 g and 240 g/ha (normal and double rate respectively. It was also used a mix of diclosulam and flumetsulam (20 + 100 g/ha and imazaquin at 150 g/ha. At the normal rates of both herbicides it was not poss to find any difference in suscetibily of the cultivars. At double rates of diclosulam the yields of 'FT-Guaira', 'Embrapa-4'and 'BR-37' were reduced in 20,9%, 11,8% and 11,0%, respectively, in relation to the check. Flumetsulam at 240 g/ha and its mix with diclosulam also reduced the yields of these cultivars, plus "Ocepar-14'. The major of the cultivars showed a reduced stand at the double rates of the both herbicides, but without significance. Only the stand of 'Embrapa- 48' was not affected, contrary to 'RS 7-Jacuí'. The plant height was reduced by flumetsulam at 240 g/ha. In all cultivars the nodule dry biomass was reduced in double rates, and in some of them the weight per unit of nodule. The dry biomass of aerial port and roots werw nor reduced.

  8. Resposta da soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill à ação de bioestimulante = Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill response to biostimulant action

    Celestina Alflen Klahold


    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar o efeito do bioestimulante, Stimulate®, aplicado via semente e pulverização foliar, na cultura da soja, conduziu-se um experimento sob ambiente protegido, em vasos. O delineamento foi de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos constaram da combinação de doses de bioestimulate, aplicadas via semente (0, 3 e 5 mL kg-1 de sementes na semeadura e via foliar (0,0; 0,075; 0,150 e 0,225 mL L-1, aos 58 dias após a emergência (DAE. Realizaram-se coletas de plantas aos 73 e 129 DAE.Para algumas das variáveis estudadas, nas doses utilizadas, houve efeito negativo na resposta à aplicação de bioestimulante, para algumas doses testadas. Respostas positivas foram verificadas para massa seca de flores, raízes, razão raiz/parte aérea, número de flores, vagens e grãos e produção por planta. Destacaram-se positivamente os tratamentos: 0,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS + 0,150 mL L-1 (APF; 3,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS + 0,0 mL L-1 (APF; 3,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS+ 0,225 mL L-1 (APF e 5,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS + 0,075 mL L-1 (APF.Aiming to verify the effect of the bioestimulant, Stimulate®, applied saw by seed and leaf pulverization, in the culture of the soybean. It behaved an experiment under greenhouse, in vases. Randomized block experimental design was used, with four repetitions. The treatments consisted of the combination of bioestimulant doses: seed application (SA (0; 3; and 5 mL kg-1 of seeds in the sowing and leaf spray (LS (0.0; 0.075; 0.150; and 0.225 mL L- 1, to the 58 days after the emergency (DAE. Collections of plants were accomplished to the 73 and 129 DAE. For some of the studied variables, in the used doses, there was negative effect in the response of the biostimulant application, for some tested doses. Positives responses were verified for flowers and roots dry mass; root/shoot relation; flowers; beans and grains number; and yield for plant. They stood out the treatments: 0,0 mL 0.5 kg-1 (SA + 0.150 mL L-1 (LS; 3.0 mL 0.5 kg-1 (SA + 0.0 mL L-1 (LS; 3.0 mL 0.5 kg-1 (SA + 0.225 mL L-1 (LS; and 5.0 mL 0.5 kg-1 (SA + 0.075 mL L-1 (LS.

  9. Enxofre aplicado via foliar na cultura da soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] Foliar aplication of sulfur on soybean[Glycine max (L. Merrill] crop

    Pedro Milanez de Rezende


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar doses de enxofre aplicadas via foliar no acúmulo de nutrientes na planta e na produtividade da soja. O ensaio foi constituído por 7 tratamentos sendo utilizado o produto S300(S=26%, densidade=1,16 nas dosagens 1,0; 2,0 e 3,0 l.ha-1 e S800 (S=56%, densidade=1,43 com doses 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 l.ha-1 e um tratamento controle, sendo todas as aplicações realizadas em R3. As parcelas foram constituídas por 4 linhas espaçadas de 0,50m sendo utilizadas como área útil as duas fileiras centrais. A produtividade dos grãos foi alterada significativamente pela aplicação do S, com destaque para S300 2,0 e 3,0 l.ha-1 e S800 1,0 e 1,5 l.ha-1 que proporcionaram rendimento de 2641, 2636, 2621 e 2549 kg.ha-1. Em relação aos nutrientes verificou-se que teor de Ca e S na planta foram elevados com a aplicação de S foliar.The objective of this work was to evaluate doses of foliar sulfur application on the accumulation of nutrients in the plant and on the productivity of the soybean crop. The experiment consisted of seven treatments using the product S300 (S=26%, density =1,16 with doses 1,0; 2,0 and 3,0 l./ha-1 and S800 (S=56%, density =1,43 with doses 0,5; 1,0 and 1,5 l./ha-1 , and a control, with all of the applications being carried out in R3 stage. The plots consisted of 4 rows with 5,0m in length, spaced at 0,50m, utilizing the two central rows. The productivity of the grains was altered significantly by the application of sulfur for treatments S300 2,0 and 3,0 l.ha-1 and S800 1,0 and 1,5 l.ha-1 that yielded 2641, 2636, 2621, and 2549 kg/.ha-1. With respect to nutrients, it was confirmed that the content of Calcium and Sulfur in the plants was high with the foliar application of sulfur.


    Emanuel da Silva Barros


    Full Text Available

    Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito de diferentes sistemas de manejo do solo sobre os componentes de produção da soja cultivada solteira e em consórcio com B. decumbens, nos Tabuleiros Costeiros do Estado de Alagoas. Os tratamentos consistiram no cultivo da variedade de soja Monsoy 9350, nos sistemas preparo convencional do solo, cultivo mínimo e plantio direto. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o em blocos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas (com e sem B. decumbens, e quatro repetições. As variáveis analisadas foram: 1 cultura da soja: determinação dos estágios fenológicos, composição química das plantas, estande de plantas, diâmetro do colmo, altura de plantas, altura de inserção da primeira vagem, número de vagens por planta, número de grãos por vagem, número de grãos por planta, massa de 1.000 grãos e produtividade; e 2 B. decumbens: composição química das plantas, além do acúmulo de matéria seca, em cinco épocas de amostragens. Os sistemas de manejo do solo influenciaram o estande de plantas e a concentração de P, Cu, Fe e Zn, na soja, além do S, na Brachiaria decumbens. O sistema plantio direto apresentou maior produtividade de grãos e produção de fitomassa de B. decumbens, nas condições edafoclimáticas de Rio Largo (AL.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Plantio direto; integração lavoura-pecuária; cultivo mínimo.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different soil management systems on the soybean yield components intercropped or not with Brachiaria decumbens, in the coastal plateau of the Alagoas State, Brazil. For that, the 9350 Monsoy soybean was cultivated under conventional tillage, minimum tillage, and no-tillage. The experiment was carried out by using a split-plot randomized blocks design (with and without B. decumbens and four replications. The variables analyzed were: 1 soybean: determination of phenological stages, chemical composition of plants, stand of plants, stem diameter, plant height, first pod insertion height, number of grains per pod, number of pods, number of grains per plant, mass of 1,000 grains, and yield; and 2 B. decumbens: chemical composition of plants and accumulation of dry matter, in five different sampling times. The soil management systems influenced the stand of plants and the concentration of P, Cu, Fe, and Zn, in soybean, besides S, in B. decumbens. The no-tillage system showed higher grain and biomass yield for B. decumbens, under the edaphoclimatic conditions of Rio Largo, Alagoas State, Brazil.

    KEY-WORDS: No-tillage; crop-livestock integrated system; minimum tillage.

  11. Physiological quality of soybean (Glycine max. L. seeds during to processing Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja (Glycine max. L. durante o beneficiamento

    Ivano Alessandro Devilla


    Full Text Available Processing is an important phase in the seed industry. It encompasses important steps to attain seed quality and high performance. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological quality of soybean seed cultivars during important steps of that process. A completely randomized design in a 4 x 5 factorial arrangement with four replicates was used. Samples of three soybean cultivars (Vencedora, Emgopa 313, Luziânia - non transgenic and one genetically modified – Valiosa were drawn in five points of the processing chain: 1º - seed dryer; 2º – bucket elevator number 1; 3º – bucket elevator number 2; 4º - bucket elevator number 3; and 5º – seed spiral separator. The following tests were performed: germination, first count, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity and tetrazolium (viability and vigor. Results obtained indicated that seeds from cultivars Emgopa-313, Luziânia and Valiosa - RR presented physiological quality higher than Vencedora, in all stages of processing. To cultivar seeds of Vencedora, the number of elevators mug during the stages of drying and processing time increased the percentage of mechanical damage to seed.Na busca de sementes de alto padrão de qualidade, a fase de beneficiamento configura-se como importante etapa. Objetivou com este trabalho avaliar a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de cultivares de soja durante o processo de beneficiamento. Empregou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 5, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de quatro cultivares de soja (Vencedora, Emgopa-313, Luziânia – não transgênicas e Valiosa – transgênica coletadas em cinco pontos de amostragem (1º – secador; 2º – elevadores de caneca número 1; 3º – elevadores de caneca número 2; 4º – elevadores de caneca número 3 e 5º – espiral. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi avaliada pelos seguintes testes: germinação, primeira contagem, envelhecimento acelerado, condutividade elétrica e tetrazólio (viabilidade e vigor. As sementes de soja das cultivares Emgopa-313, Valiosa - RR e Luziânia apresentaram qualidade fisiológica superior à Vencedora, em todas as etapas do beneficiamento. Para as sementes da cultivar Vencedora, o grande número de elevadores de caneca no decorrer das etapas de secagem e no beneficiamento propiciou aumento na porcentagem de dano mecânico à semente.

  12. Max Martins, a hora indiferente Max Martins, the indifferent hour

    Manoel Ricardo de Lima


    Full Text Available Este texto trata de uma ideia de oficina compartilhada em torno da poesia de Max Martins com alguns conceitos retirados do pensamento crítico-poético de Mário Faustino.Este texto describe una idea de taller compartido en la poesía de Max Martins utilizándose de algunos conceptos del pensamiento crítico-poético de Mário Faustino.This paper describes the idea of a shared workshop on the poetry of Max Martins with some concepts taken from Mário Faustino's critical-poetic thought.

  13. 76 FR 55109 - Glycine From China


    ... COMMISSION Glycine From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year... glycine from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry... 2011), entitled Glycine from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-718 (Third Review). By order of...

  14. [Cypress pollen allergy].

    Charpin, D; Calleja, M; Pichot, C; Penel, V; Hugues, B; Poncet, P


    Cypress belongs to the Cupressaceae family, which includes 140 species with non-deciduous foliage. The most important genera in allergic diseases are Cupressus sempervirens or Green cypress, Cupressus arizonica or Blue cypress, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus communis and Thuya. Because J. oxycedrus pollinates in October, C. sempervirens in January and February, C. arizonica in February and March, J. communis in April, the symptomatic period is long-lasting. Because of global warming, the pollination period is tending to last longer and Cupressaceae species are becoming established further the north. In Mediterranean countries, cypress is by far the most important pollinating species, accounting for half of the total pollination. The major allergens belong to group 1. The other allergens from cypress and Juniper share 75 to 97 % structural homology with group 1 major allergens. The prevalence of cypress allergy in the general population ranges from 5 % to 13 %, according to exposure to the pollen. Among outpatients consulting an allergist, between 9 and 35 %, according to different studies, are sensitized to cypress pollen. Repeated cross-sectional studies performed at different time intervals have demonstrated a threefold increase in the percentage of cypress allergy. Risk factors include a genetic predisposition and/or a strong exposure to pollen, but air pollutants could play a synergistic role. The study of the natural history of cypress allergy allows the identification of a subgroup of patients who have no personal or family history of atopy, whose disease began later in life, with low total IgE and often monosensitization to cypress pollen. In these patients, the disease is allergic than rather atopic. In the clinical picture, rhinitis is the most prevalent symptom but conjunctivitis the most disabling. A cross-reactivity between cypress and peach allergy has been demonstrated. The pharmacological treatment of cypress allergy is not different from

  15. 6.1.Allergy


    930238 Preliminary observation on tubercu-lous allergy and cross reaction with atypical my-cobacteria PPD in BCG immunized babies.XUDaoan (徐道安),et al.Hangzhou Tubere Con-trol Clinic,Zhejiang,310014.Chin J Tuberc &Respir Dis 1992;15(6):328—330.In order to know the cross reaction betweenBCG and Atypical Myeobaeteria (AM) anti-.genieity,1150 BCG immunized babies aged 12—24 weeks,undertook a bilateral arm control testwith H-PPD type 11 AM-PPD and BCG-PPD.The results show that all the AM—PPDtested can bring about a delayed allergy in thesebabies,but the total positive rate (42.87%)and mean reactive diameter (3.87mm) are thelowest and smallest among the above mentionedthree types of PPD.The BCG—PPD derived al-

  16. [Occupational allergies to xylanases].

    van Kampen, V; Merget, R; Brüning, T


    The exposure against enzyme dusts have long been known to cause occupational allergies. In the 1960s an increasing number of occupational allergies in the detergent industry were observed. In this context the high sensitization potential of enzyme dusts attracted attention. The present evaluation of literature data confirms that this is also true for xylanases. These frequently used industrial enzymes belong to the hemicellulases and are mostly of fungal origin. Several cases of specific airway sensitization caused by xylanases or other hemicellulases are verified by a number of case reports and cross sectional studies. As symptoms, results of skin prick tests, detection of specific IgE-antibodies and results of specific bronchoprovocation tests are consistent, an immunologic mechanism can be assumed.

  17. Allergy to cypress pollen.

    Charpin, D; Calleja, M; Lahoz, C; Pichot, C; Waisel, Y


    Although Cupressus sempervirens has been spread over southern Europe since antiquity, cypress pollen allergy has not been reported until 1945. In France, the very first case reports were published in 1962. Since then, the prevalence of cypress pollinosis seems to demonstrate an upward trend, concomitantly with the increased use of cypress trees as ornamental plants, as wind breaks and as hedges. Hyposensitization, using improved pollen extracts, is increasingly prescribed. Besides, prevention measures begin to be implemented. Such measures include avoidance of planting new cypress trees, especially near human populations' centres, trimming of cypress hedges before the pollination season and agronomical research for hypoallergenic trees. Altogether, such new developments in cypress allergy deserve an update review.

  18. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    Heine, Ralf G


    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development.

  19. Food Allergies: The Basics

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra


    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients—manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell– and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic ...

  20. Probiotics and food allergy.

    Castellazzi, Anna Maria; Valsecchi, Chiara; Caimmi, Silvia; Licari, Amelia; Marseglia, Alessia; Leoni, Maria Chiara; Caimmi, Davide; Miraglia del Giudice, Michele; Leonardi, Salvatore; La Rosa, Mario; Marseglia, Gian Luigi


    The exact prevalence of food allergy in the general population is unknown, but almost 12% of pediatric population refers a suspicion of food allergy. IgE mediated reactions to food are actually the best-characterized types of allergy, and they might be particularly harmful especially in children. According to the "hygiene hypothesis" low or no exposure to exogenous antigens in early life may increase the risk of allergic diseases by both delaying the development of the immune tolerance and limiting the Th2/Th1 switch. The critical role of intestinal microbiota in the development of immune tolerance improved recently the interest on probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acid, folate and vitamins, which seem to have positive effects on the immune functions.Probiotics consist in bacteria or yeast, able to re-colonize and restore microflora symbiosis in intestinal tract. One of the most important characteristics of probiotics is their safety for human health. Thanks to their ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and to modulate and stabilize the composition of gut microflora, probiotics bacteria may play an important role in the regulation of intestinal and systemic immunity. They actually seem capable of restoring the intestinal microbic equilibrium and modulating the activation of immune cells.Several studies have been recently conducted on the role of probiotics in preventing and/or treating allergic disorders, but the results are often quite contradictory, probably because of the heterogeneity of strains, the duration of therapy and the doses administered to patients. Therefore, new studies are needed in order to clarify the functions and the utility of probiotics in food allergies and ion other types of allergic disorders.

  1. [Stress and allergy].

    Radosević-Vidacek, Biserka; Macan, Jelena; Kosćec, Adrijana


    Stress is one of the components in the complex interaction of environmental, genetic, physiological, psychological, behavioural and social factors that can influence the body's ability to remain healthy or become healthy, to resist or overcome a disease. Stress can alter neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms of health and disease through various psychosocial processes. In addition, it can affect health through the impact on health-impairing behaviours and on compliance with medical regimens. At the same time, the relationship between stress and health is not unidirectional but bi-directional. Current views on the relation between stress and allergy vary from the denial of any relationship that could fundamentally help in allergy treatment to the widespread opinion that psychological stress can exacerbate some skin symptoms and precipitate asthma. The role of stress in the genesis, incidence and symptomatology of allergy still remains a controversial issue since the mechanisms of that relationship are not well understood. Starting from the biopsychosocial model of disease, we introduced the Social Readjustment Rating Scale which measures stressful life events, and the WHOQOL-BREF which measures subjective quality of life, into an extensive multidisciplinary study of immunotoxic effects of indoor bioaerosols and lifestyle. This paper describes the characteristics of those two questionnaires and discusses the relationship between stress and various domains of the quality of life. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale proved to be a reliable predictor for quality of life in the domains of physical health and environment. Future analyses will examine the role of stress and subjective quality of life in allergy.


    A. V. Sergeev


    Full Text Available Abstract. Oral allergy syndrome (OAS is defined as a set of clinical manifestations caused by IgE-mediated allergic  reactions  that  occur  at  oral  and  pharyngeal  mucosae  in  the  patients  with  pollen  sensitization  after ingestion of certain fruits, vegetables, nuts and spices. OAS arises from cross-reactivity between specific pollen and food allergens, due to similarity of a configuration and amino acid sequence of allergenic molecules. OAS is considered as class II food allergy, being caused by thermo- and chemolabile allergens, and it is rarely combined with generalized manifestations of food allergy. Prevalence and spectrum of the causal allergens depend on a kind of pollen sensitization. In Moscow region, as well as in Northern Europe, allergic sensitization most commonly occurs to the pollen of leaf trees, whereas OAS is mostly connected with ingestion of fruits from Rosaceae family and nuts. Since last years, a newly developed technique of component-resolved molecular diagnosis (CR diagnostics allows of more precise detection of OAS-causing allergen molecules. These data are of extreme importance for administration of adequate nutritional therapy and prediction of SIT efficiency. (Med. Immunol., 2011, vol. 13, N 1, pp 17-28

  3. Adjuvants for allergy vaccines.

    Moingeon, Philippe


    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is currently performed via either the subcutaneous or sublingual routes as a treatment for type I (IgE dependent) allergies. Aluminum hydroxide or calcium phosphate are broadly used as adjuvants for subcutaneous allergy vaccines, whereas commercial sublingual vaccines rely upon high doses of aqueous allergen extracts in the absence of any immunopotentiator. Adjuvants to be included in the future in products for allergen specific immunotherapy should ideally enhance Th1 and CD4+ regulatory T cell responses. Imunomodulators impacting dendritic or T cell functions to induce IL10, IL12 and IFNγ production are being investigated in preclinical allergy models. Such candidate adjuvants encompass synthetic or biological immunopotentiators such as glucocorticoids, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3, selected probiotic strains (e.g., Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species) as well as TLR2 (Pam3CSK4), TLR4 (monophosphoryl lipid A, synthetic lipid A analogs) or TLR9 (CpGs) ligands. Furthermore, the use of vector systems such as mucoadhesive particules, virus-like particles or liposomes are being considered to enhance allergen uptake by tolerogenic antigen presenting cells present in mucosal tissues.

  4. Globalisation and allergy.

    Castelain, Michel


    Globalisation brings patients more and more into contact with products or food from other cultures or countries. Europeans may be confronted with allergens not yet known in Europe - such as dimethylfumarate - responsible for contact allergy epidemics. Moreover, "low cost" goods, not always legally imported into Europe, sometimes may lead to European legislation being circumvented and thus bring our patients into contact with components that have been banned from manufacturing processes or strongly regulated, such as nickel in jewelry or telephones, some colouring agents in clothes or preservatives in cosmetics. Disinfection measures for freight containers arriving from other continents into our harbours lead to fumigants and other toxic products contaminating the air and the transported products or goods. Globalisation can not only elicit contact allergy but also airborne contact dermatitis or food allergy. The aim of this paper is not to make an exhaustive review of cutaneous allergic problems elicited by globalisation, but to illustrate this new worldwide problem with a few meaningful examples.

  5. President Ilves kohtus Max Jakobsoniga


    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja Soome tuntud diplomaat Max Jakobson arutasid 16. septembril 2008 Tallinnas toimunud kohtumisel julgeolekuolukorda Euroopas pärast Venemaa-Gruusia sõda, Euroopa Liidu suhteid Venemaaga ja NATO tulevikku

  6. President Ilves kohtus Max Jakobsoniga


    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja Soome tuntud diplomaat Max Jakobson arutasid 16. septembril 2008 Tallinnas toimunud kohtumisel julgeolekuolukorda Euroopas pärast Venemaa-Gruusia sõda, Euroopa Liidu suhteid Venemaaga ja NATO tulevikku

  7. Food Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Food Allergies Food Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / ... available treatments only ease the symptoms. Preventing a food allergy reaction There are no drugs or treatments ...

  8. Food Allergy Research and Education (FARE)

    ... to cookbooks and food allergy awareness materials, FARE's online store has a variety of resources to help you live well with food allergies. Start Shopping True Stories Beth F. Food Allergy Mom Christina ...

  9. Epidemiology of childhood food allergy.

    Dyer, Ashley A; Gupta, Ruchi


    Food allergy is a public health problem that affects nearly 6 million children in the United States. The extent to which children, families, and communities live with food allergies varies as much as the range of clinical symptoms associated with the disease itself. Food allergy is defined as the reproducible adverse event that elicits a pathologic immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated or non-IgE-mediated reaction. Once an allergic child ingests a specific food allergen, the reaction can result in clinical symptoms ranging from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis.Not surprisingly, food allergies have been shown to limit social interactions and impair children's quality of life due to the ubiquity of food where children live, learn, and play. To ensure the safety of our children, the development of sound policy, clinical practice, and health programs must be informed by current research characterizing childhood food allergy at the population level. To set the stage for understanding the current evidence base, this article reviews: 1) epidemiology of childhood food allergy; 2) severity of symptoms; 3) geographic distribution of childhood food allergy; 4) tolerance; 5) economic impact of childhood food allergy; and 6) future directions in childhood food allergy epidemiological research.

  10. Gastrointestinal Food Allergy in Infants

    Hideaki Morita


    In this review, we summarized each type of GI allergy in regard to its historical background and updated clinical features, offending foods, etiology, diagnosis, examinations, treatment and pathogenesis. There are still many problems, especially in regard to the diagnostic approaches for GI allergy, that are closely associated with the definition of each disease. In addition, there are a number of unresolved issues regarding the pathogenic mechanisms of GI allergy that need further study and elucidation. Therefore, we discussed some of the diagnostic and research issues for GI allergy that need further investigation.

  11. Occupational allergies caused by latex.

    Ahmed, Debra D Fett; Sobczak, Steven C; Yunginger, John W


    Allergy to natural rubber latex is an important cause of occupational allergy in healthcare workers. Disposable medical gloves are the major reservoir of latex allergens, particularly powdered gloves, in healthcare delivery settings. Diagnosis of latex allergy requires a history of exacerbation of cutaneous, respiratory, ocular, or systemic signs and symptoms after exposure to natural rubber latex products; and evidence of sensitization by patch testing, skin testing, measurement of latex-specific IgE antibodies, or challenge testing. Optimal management of latex allergy involves education concerning cross-reacting allergens, reduction of cutaneous or mucosal contact with dipped rubber products, and minimization of exposure to latex aeroallergens in work environments.

  12. The management of food allergy in Indonesia

    Muktiarti, Dina


    Prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing worldwide, including food allergy. It is different between countries because food allergy can vary by culture and population. Prevalence of food allergy in Indonesia is unknown; therefore it is not known yet the burden and impact of food allergy in our population. However, we already start to formulate guidelines for diagnosis and management of food allergy, especially cow's milk allergy. PMID:23403763

  13. Crystallization of glycine with ultrasound

    Louhi-Kultanen, Marjatta; Karjalainen, Milja; Rantanen, Jukka


    Sonocrystallization has proved to be an efficient tool to influence the external appearance and structure of a crystalline product obtained by various crystallization methods. The present work focuses on high intensity sonocrystallization of glycine by varying amplitude of ultrasound with an ultr......Sonocrystallization has proved to be an efficient tool to influence the external appearance and structure of a crystalline product obtained by various crystallization methods. The present work focuses on high intensity sonocrystallization of glycine by varying amplitude of ultrasound...... with an ultrasound frequency of 20kHz at two temperature ranges 40-50 and 20-30 degrees C in a jacketed 250-ml cooling crystallizer equipped with a stirrer. The polymorph composition of the obtained crystals was analyzed with a temperature variable X-ray powder diffractometer (XRPD). XRPD results showed that......, besides the operating temperature, the glycine polymorphism was affected also by insonation. This was especially the case at the lower temperature range. Furthermore, based on the heat balance within the crystallizer, an increase in required cooling capacity was presented as a function of increasing...

  14. Allergy to uncommon pets: new allergies but the same allergens.

    Araceli eDiaz-Perales


    Full Text Available The prevalence of exotic pet allergies has been increasing over the last decade. Years ago, the main allergy-causing domestic animals were dogs and cats, although nowadays there is an increasing number of allergic diseases related to insects, rodents, amphibians, fish, and birds, among others. The current socio-economic situation, in which more and more people have to live in small apartments, might be related to this tendency. The main allergic symptoms related to exotic pets are the same as those described for dog and cat allergy: respiratory symptoms. Animal allergens are therefore, important sensitizing agents and an important risk factor for asthma. There are 3 main protein families implicated in these allergies, which are the lipocalin superfamily, serum albumin family, and secretoglobin superfamily. Detailed knowledge of the characteristics of allergens is crucial to improvement treatment of uncommon-pet allergies.

  15. Cashew Nut Allergy in Children

    J.P.M. Kuiper- van der Valk (Hanna)


    markdownabstractThe content of the thesis contributes to the knowledge of the cashew nut and cashew nut allergy. Cashew nut allergy is an important healthcare problem, especially in children. The cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) belongs to the Ancardiaceae family and the major allergen components

  16. Alleged allergy to local anaesthetics.

    Fisher, M M; Bowey, C J


    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of true local anaesthetic allergy in patients with an alleged history of local anaesthetic allergy and whether subsequent exposure to local anaesthetics is safe. Two hundred and eight patients with a history of allergy to local anaesthesia were referred over a twenty-year period to our Anaesthetic Allergy Clinic. In this open study, intradermal testing was performed in three patients and progressive challenge in 202 patients. Four patients had immediate allergy and four patients delayed allergic reactions. One hundred and ninety-seven patients were not allergic to local anaesthetics. In 39 patients an adverse response to additives in local anaesthetic solutions could not be excluded. In all but one patient local anaesthesia has been given uneventfully subsequently. A history of allergy to local anaesthesia is unlikely to be genuine and local anaesthetic allergy is rare. In most instances LA allergy can be excluded from the history and the safety of LA verified by progressive challenge.

  17. Managing Food Allergies in School.

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne


    The number of students with food allergies is increasing, with peanuts the leading culprit. Peer pressure and allergens hidden in baked goods can pose problems for school staff. Children with documented life-threatening allergies are covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. Principals should reassure parents and use Section 504 guidelines…

  18. Allergy to tartrazine in alprazolam.

    Bhatia, M S


    Allergy to tartrazine-containing psychotropic medication (especially antidepressants) had been reported. 20 patients of apparent allergy to tartrazine-containing alprazolam brands in 480 patients exposed to the dye are described. Rechallenge with non tartrazine-containing alprazolam brands did not produce the similar allergic reactions.

  19. Probiotics for allergy prevention.

    West, C E


    Probiotics, given either as a supplement or in infant foods, have been evaluated in randomised controlled trials for allergy prevention. Here, the aim is to give an overview of the results from these primary prevention studies and to discuss current strategies. In most studies, single strains or a mixture of strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria have been used--prenatally, postnatally or perinatally. Several meta-analyses have reported a moderate benefit of probiotics for eczema prevention, and the most consistent effect has been observed with a combined perinatal intervention in infants at high risk of allergic disease due to familial predisposition. In a recent meta-analysis, the use of multi-strain probiotics appeared to be most effective for eczema prevention. No preventive effect has been shown for other allergic manifestations. As long-term follow-up data on later onset allergic conditions (asthma and allergic rhinitis) are available only from a few of the initiated studies, reports from ongoing follow-up studies that are adequately powered to examine long-term outcomes are anticipated to provide more insight. Arguably, the differences in many aspects of study design and the use of different probiotic strains and combinations have made direct comparison difficult. To date, expert bodies do not generally recommend probiotics for allergy prevention, although the World Allergy Organization (WAO) in their recently developed guidelines suggests considering using probiotics in pregnant women, during breastfeeding and/or to the infant if at high risk of developing allergic disease (based on heredity). However, in concordance with other expert bodies, the WAO guideline panel stressed the low level of evidence and the need for adequately powered randomised controlled trials and a more standardised approach before clinical recommendations on specific strains, dosages and timing can be given.

  20. A Survey on WiMAX

    Mohsen Gerami


    This paper describes an overview of WiMAX. The paper outlines fundamental architectural components for WiMAX and explains WiMAX Security Issues. Furthermore various 802.16 standards, IEEE 802.16 protocol architecture and WiMAX Market will be discussed.

  1. [Allergy-related emergencies].

    Kaufman, E; Garfunkel, A; Galili, D; Zusman, S P; Malamed, S F; Findler, M; Elad, S


    Allergic reactions can develop to any of the drugs or materials commonly used in dentistry. They exhibit a broad range of clinical signs and symptoms ranging from mild, delayed reactions to immediate and life-threatening reactions developing within seconds. Allergies usually manifest themselves in reactions that are related to histamine release in one of three ways: skin reactions, respiratory problems and anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis is the most critical allergic reaction in the dental environment. Measures such as airway management, oxygen supplementation, antihistamine, adrenaline and corticosteroid medication, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and evacuation to the emergency room, may be necessary.

  2. Food Allergies and Eczema.

    Santiago, Sabrina


    Eczema is one of the most common skin conditions of childhood. Patients with eczema suffer in a chronic cycle of itch, scratch, and inflammation. For children with severe eczema, constant itching and scratching can have many consequences including skin infections, behavioral issues, and sleep problems. Parents often find themselves searching for a trigger for their child's eczema flare, and after they have switched detergents, applied a thick moisturizer and topical steroids, and removed all wool clothing from their child's wardrobe, they wonder, "Could food allergies be playing a role?"

  3. [Occupational allergies to bromelain].

    van Kampen, V; Merget, R; Brüning, T


    The protease bromelain originating from the pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus) finds frequent use in industry. Exposure to enzyme dusts has long been known to cause occupational allergies. The present paper reviews the results of the evaluation of literature data concerning occupational airway sensitization due to bromelain. Cases of specific airway sensitization caused by bromelain could be shown clearly by the presented studies. Since the symptoms, results of skin prick tests, detection of specific IgE antibodies and results of specific bronchoprovocation tests are consistent, an immunological mechanism can be assumed.

  4. Adult-onset food allergy.

    Kivity, Shmuel


    The prevalence of food allergy is increasing in both the pediatric and adult populations. While symptom onset occurs mostly during childhood, there are a considerable number of patients whose symptoms first begin to appear after the age of 18 years. The majority of patients with adult-onset food allergy suffer from the pollen-plant allergy syndromes. Many of them manifest their allergy after exercise and consuming food to which they are allergic. Eosinophilic esophagitis, an eosinophilic inflammation of the esophagus affecting individuals of all ages, recently emerged as another allergic manifestation, with both immediate and late response to the ingested food. This review provides a condensed update of the current data in the literature on adult-onset allergy.

  5. Analysis list: Max [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Max Blood,Muscle,Pluripotent stem cell + mm9,,

  6. Analysis list: Max [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Max Cell line + dm3 ...

  7. Hydrolyzed Proteins in Allergy.

    Salvatore, Silvia; Vandenplas, Yvan


    Hydrolyzed proteins are used worldwide in the therapeutic management of infants with allergic manifestations and have long been proposed as a dietetic measure to prevent allergy in at risk infants. The degree and method of hydrolysis, protein source and non-nitrogen components characterize different hydrolyzed formulas (HFs) and may determine clinical efficacy, tolerance and nutritional effects. Cow's milk (CM)-based HFs are classified as extensively (eHF) or partially HF (pHF) based on the percentage of small peptides. One whey pHF has been shown to reduce atopic dermatitis in high-risk infants who are not exclusively breastfed. More studies are needed to determine the benefit of these formulas in the prevention of CM allergy (CMA) and in the general population. eHFs represent up to now the treatment of choice for most infants with CMA. However, new developments, such as an extensively hydrolyzed rice protein-based formula, could become alternative options if safety and nutritional and therapeutic efficacy are confirmed as this type of formula is less expensive. In some countries, an extensive soy hydrolysate is available.

  8. Stress and allergy.

    Montoro, J; Mullol, J; Jáuregui, I; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Bartra, J; del Cuvillo, A; Sastre, J; Valero, A


    In recent years it has been seen that the nervous and immune systems regulate each other reciprocally, thus giving rise to a new field of study known as psychoneuroimmunology. Stress is defined as a general body response to initially threatening external or internal demands, involving the mobilization of physiological and psychological resources to deal with them. In other words, stress is characterized by an imbalance between body demands and the capacity of the body to cope with them. The persistence of such a situation gives rise to chronic stress, which is the subject of the present study, considering its repercussions upon different organs and systems, with special emphasis on the immune system and--within the latter--upon the implications in relation to allergic disease. Activation of the neuroendocrine and sympathetic systems through catecholamine and cortisol secretion exerts an influence upon the immune system, modifying the balance between Th1/Th2 response in favor of Th2 action. It is not possible to affirm that chronic stress is intrinsically able to cause allergy, though the evidence of different studies suggests than in genetically susceptible individuals, such stress may favor the appearance of allergic disease on one hand, and complicate the control of existing allergy on the other.

  9. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    Cianferoni A


    Full Text Available Antonella Cianferoni Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Immunology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Triticum aestivum (bread wheat is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy. A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE or eosinophilic gastritis (EG, which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a

  10. Treatment of respiratory allergy with allergy immunotherapy tablets.

    Bachert, C


    Allergy immunotherapy tablets (AIT) have expanded the treatment options for patients suffering from respiratory allergies. Efficacy is established in adults and children for two different commercially available grass AITs. The ALK grass AIT has an efficacy comparable to subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT), with a proven disease-modifying effect after treatment completion. Safety profiles favour AIT over SCIT. Studies suggest that tablets in all aspects are superior to sublingual drops. AITs for other allergies including house dust mite and birch and ragweed pollen are in development. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Food allergy: epidemiology and natural history.

    Savage, Jessica; Johns, Christina B


    The prevalence of food allergy is rising for unclear reasons, with prevalence estimates in the developed world approaching 10%. Knowledge regarding the natural course of food allergies is important because it can aid the clinician in diagnosing food allergies and in determining when to consider evaluation for food allergy resolution. Many food allergies with onset in early childhood are outgrown later in childhood, although a minority of food allergy persists into adolescence and even adulthood. More research is needed to improve food allergy diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

  12. Atopic eczema and food allergy.

    Wassmann, Anja; Werfel, Thomas


    Approximately one-third of children with severe atopic eczema suffer from a food allergy, whereas in adult patients, food allergies are rare. In child patients, three different clinical reaction patterns can be differentiated as follows: (1) immediate-type reactions, (2) isolated late eczematous reactions, and (3) combined immediate-type and late eczematous reactions. In childhood food allergies, food allergens, such as cow's milk or hen's egg, are primarily responsible for allergic reactions, while in adolescents and adults, food allergies often develop consecutively after primary sensitization to pollen allergens. Dysfunctions in the epidermal barrier seem to be vitally important in the development of food allergies in patients with atopic eczema by facilitating sensitization after epicutaneous allergen exposure. Further investigation is required to determine the role of intestinal epithelial barrier defects in the pathogenesis of these allergies as well as the genetic characteristics associated with an increased risk of food allergy. The diagnosis of eczematous reactions to food requires a careful diagnostic procedure, taking into account a patient's history and sensitization patterns. The clinical relevance of sensitization often has to be proven by an oral food challenge, with the rating of the skin condition by validated scores after 24 h and the later evaluation of the eczematous reaction.

  13. Max Weber - bedaget og aktuel

    Eistrup, Jens


    undervisningsartiklen introducerer en række af Max Webers centrale begreber om herredømme, bureaukrati, social handlen, rationalitet og profession. dernæst illustreres hvorledes Webers begreber kan tjene til at belyse spændingsfeltet mellem politik og profession i en socialfaglig kontekst....

  14. Max Weber and Robert Michels.

    Scaff, Lawrence A.


    This paper investigates the unique intellectual partnership of Max Weber and Robert Michels, with particular emphasis on Weber's influence on Michel's inquiry into the sociology of parties and organization. Concludes with an evaluation of the import of Weber's critique of Michels' work. (DB)

  15. International Consensus on drug allergy.

    Demoly, P; Adkinson, N F; Brockow, K; Castells, M; Chiriac, A M; Greenberger, P A; Khan, D A; Lang, D M; Park, H-S; Pichler, W; Sanchez-Borges, M; Shiohara, T; Thong, B Y- H


    When drug reactions resembling allergy occur, they are called drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) before showing the evidence of either drug-specific antibodies or T cells. DHRs may be allergic or nonallergic in nature, with drug allergies being immunologically mediated DHRs. These reactions are typically unpredictable. They can be life-threatening, may require or prolong hospitalization, and may necessitate changes in subsequent therapy. Both underdiagnosis (due to under-reporting) and overdiagnosis (due to an overuse of the term ‘allergy’) are common. A definitive diagnosis of such reactions is required in order to institute adequate treatment options and proper preventive measures. Misclassification based solely on the DHR history without further testing may affect treatment options, result in adverse consequences, and lead to the use of more-expensive or less-effective drugs, in contrast to patients who had undergone a complete drug allergy workup. Several guidelines and/or consensus documents on general or specific drug class-induced DHRs are available to support the medical decision process. The use of standardized systematic approaches for the diagnosis and management of DHRs carries the potential to improve outcomes and should thus be disseminated and implemented. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI), and the World Allergy Organization (WAO), has decided to issue an International CONsensus (ICON) on drug allergy. The purpose of this document is to highlight the key messages that are common to many of the existing guidelines, while critically reviewing and commenting on any differences and deficiencies of evidence, thus providing a comprehensive reference document for the diagnosis and management of

  16. Cow's Milk Allergy

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne


    Since the 1930's the scientific literature on cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has accumulated. Over the last decade new diagnostic tools and treatment approaches have been developed. The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins (CMP), i.e. CMPA, still has to be confirmed...... by controlled elimination and challenge procedures. Advanced diagnostic testing using epitope and microarray technology may in the future improve the diagnostic accuracy of CMPA by determination of specific IgE against specific allergen components of cow's milk protein. The incidence of CMPA in early childhood...... is approximately 2-3% in developed countries. Symptoms suggestive of CMPA may be encountered in 5-15% of infants emphasizing the importance of controlled elimination/milk challenge procedures. Reproducible clinical reactions to CMP in human milk have been reported in 0.5% of breastfed infants. Most infants...

  17. Chemical allergy in humans

    Kimber, Ian; Basketter, David A; Thyssen, Jacob P


    Abstract There is considerable interest in the immunobiological processes through which the development of allergic sensitization to chemicals is initiated and orchestrated. One of the most intriguing issues is the basis for the elicitation by chemical sensitizers of different forms of allergic...... reaction; that is, allergic contact dermatitis or sensitization of the respiratory tract associated with occupational asthma. Studies in rodents have revealed that differential forms of allergic sensitization to chemicals are, in large part at least, a function of the selective development of discrete...... functional sub-populations of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes. Evidence for a similar association of chemical allergy in humans with discrete T-lymphocyte populations is, however, limited. It is of some interest, therefore, that two recent articles from different teams of investigators have shed new light...

  18. Cow's Milk Protein Allergy.

    Mousan, Grace; Kamat, Deepak


    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is a common condition encountered in children with incidence estimated as 2% to 7.5% in the first year of life. Formula and breast-fed babies can present with symptoms of CMPA. It is important to accurately diagnose CMPA to avoid the consequences of either under- or overdiagnosis. CMPA is classically categorized into immunoglobulin E (IgE)- or non-IgE-mediated reaction that vary in clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and prognosis. The most commonly involved systems in patients with CMPA are gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory. Evaluation of CMPA starts with good data gathering followed by testing if indicated. Treatment is simply by avoidance of cow's milk protein (CMP) in the child's or mother's diet, if exclusively breast-feeding. This article reviews the definition, epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, evaluation, management, and prognosis of CMPA and provides an overview of different options for formulas and their indication in the treatment of CMPA.

  19. [Occupational allergies to phytase].

    van Kampen, V; Merget, R; Brüning, T


    Phytases are phosphatases that can break down the undigestible phytic acid (phytate). They are frequently used as an animal feed supplement - often in poultry and swine - to enhance the nutritive value of plant material by liberation of inorganic phosphate from phytate. Exposure to enzyme dusts has long been known to cause occupational allergies. The present paper reviews the results of the evaluation of literature data concerning occupational airway sensitization due to phytases. Cases of specific airway sensitization caused by phytases could be shown clearly by the presented studies. As symptoms, results of skin prick tests, detection of specific IgE-antibodies and results of specific challenge tests are consistent, an immunologic mechanism can be assumed.

  20. Immunology of metal allergies.

    Schmidt, Marc; Goebeler, Matthias


    Allergic contact hypersensitivity to metal allergens is a common health concern worldwide, greatly impacting affected individuals with regard to both quality of life and their ability to work. With an estimated 15-20 % of the Western population hypersensitive to at least one metal allergen, sensitization rates for metallic haptens by far outnumber those reported for other common triggers of allergic contact dermatitis such as fragrances and rubber. Unfortunately, the prevalence of metal-induced hypersensitivity remains high despite extensive legislative efforts to ban/reduce the content of allergy-causing metals in recreational and occupational products. Recently, much progress has been made regarding the perception mechanisms underlying the inflammatory responses to this unique group of contact allergens. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of this enigmatic disease. Particular emphasis is put on the mechanisms of innate immune activation and T cell activation by common metal allergens such as nickel, cobalt, palladium, and chromate.

  1. 76 FR 8771 - Glycine From China


    ... COMMISSION Glycine From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... concerning the antidumping duty order on glycine from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a...

  2. 75 FR 62141 - Glycine From China


    ... COMMISSION Glycine From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on glycine from China. SUMMARY: The Commission... from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. Pursuant...

  3. Conformational Structure of Tyrosine, Tyrosyl-Glycine, and Tyrosyl-Glycyl-Glycine by Double Resonance Spectroscopy

    Abo-Riziq, Ali; Grace, Louis; Crews, Bridgit; Callahan, Michael P,; van Mourik, Tanja; de Vries, Mattanjah S,


    We investigated the variation in conformation for the amino acid tyrosine (Y), alone and in the small peptides tyrosine-glycine (YC) and tyrosine-glycine-glycine (YGG), in the gas phase by using UV-UV and IR-UV double resonance spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. For tyrosine we found seven different conformations, for YG we found four different conformations, and for YGG we found three different conformations. As the peptides get larger, we observe fewer stable conformers, despite the increasing complexity and number of degrees of freedom. We find structural trends similar to those in phenylalanine-glycine glycine (FGG) and tryptophan-glycine-glycine (WGG)j however) the effect of dispersive forces in FGG for stabilizing a folded structure is replaced by that of hydrogen bonding in YGG.

  4. Population Variance and Diversity of Endophytic Fungi in Soybean (Glycine max (L) Merril)/

    JM Dalal; NS Kulkarni


    Present investigation was carried out to study variation in endophytic fungal population colonizing soybean. Endophytic population was assessed at different growth stages of soybean (C.V. JS-335) viz., vegetative and reproductive stages. A 182 (28.88 %) isolates were obtained from vegetative growth stages (V1-V5) and 448 (71.11 %) from reproductive growth stages. As plant grows the endophytic population increases progressively however, at the onset of reproductive stages viz., R1-R8 the endop...

  5. Effects of Cowpea mottle virus and Cucumber mosaic virus on six Soybean (Glycine max L. cultivars

    Aliyu Taiye H


    Full Text Available Abstract The study was carried out to determine the comparative pathogenic response of six cultivars of soybean; TGx 1844-18E, TGx 1448-2E, TGx 1910-8F, TGx 1019-2EN, TGx 1910-8F and TGx 1876-4E to single and mixed infections with cowpea mottle virus and cucumber mosaic virus. The experiment was conducted in the screenhouse at the crop production pavilion, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara state Nigeria. The results of the experiment revealed that all soybean cultivars were susceptible to single and mixed infection of the two viruses but to seemingly different extent. The single infection with cowpea mottle virus (CMeV, however, caused the most severe symptoms on the soybean cultivars. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV alone was not as severe as the CMeV. The mixed infection of CMeV and CMV did not cause higher severity than CMeV alone indicating that there was little or no synergistic effect between the two viruses on soybean.

  6. Producción de soya (Glycine max L. bajo tres sistemas de labranza

    Rojas Palacio Hernán


    Full Text Available

    The goals of this consisted in economically analyzing the conventional pattern with regard to minimum tillage and non tillage; evaluating the influence of the tillage systems on the physical properties of the soil and on the soybean's growth and yield. The experiment was stablished on clay soil. The experimental design employed was that of hierarchy-arranged random blocks with three repetitions (9 experimental units. The conventional tillage permitts the improvement of the physical conditions of the soil, performs a better control on the weeds, gives the soybean plant a full growth and yield causing the highest profitability. The second treatment showing the best efficiency was the minimum tillage.

    Se evaluó la influencia de los sistemas de labranza convencional, mínima y no labranza sobre las propiedades físicas del suelo, en el desarrollo y producción de la soya. El experimento se estableció en suelo arcilloso. El diseño experimental fue el de bloques al azar jerarquizados con tres repeticiones (9 unidades experimentales. La labranza convencional mejora las condiciones físicas del suelo, ejerce mayor control sobre las malezas, confiere a la planta de soya apropiado desarrollo y producción ocasionando así la mayor rentabilidad. El segundo tratamiento en eficiencia fue el de la labranza mínima.

  7. Analisis Sistem Proses Pindah Massa pada Ekstraksi secara Mekanik Minyak Kedelai (Glycine Max Oil

    Bambang Dwi Argo


    Full Text Available Soybean, a vegetable protein-rich commodity needed to improve public nutrition, safe to consume, and the price affordable. The purpose of this research are to: 1. determine the effect of pressure and time of extraction the mass balance, yield and level of soybean oil extraction, 2. Gain mass transfer coefficient value in soybean oil extraction process, and 3. analyze the mechanism of mass changes during the extraction process soybean oil is mechanically using hydraulic pressing. Oil obtained results indicate an increase due to the influence of a given amount of pressure and length of time silenced. The greater the pressure exerted, the more oil produced this shows soybean oil can come out with a maximum at the greatest pressure of 200 kg/cm2. Mass transfer coefficient in soybean oil extraction process at a pressure of 100 kg/cm2 5.57x10-5 gcm3/cm seconds. In the pressure is 200 kg/cm2 15.39 x 10-5g cm3/cm seconds.

  8. Transgenic soybean pollen (Glycine max L.) in honey from the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico.

    Villanueva-Gutiérrez, R; Echazarreta-González, C; Roubik, D W; Moguel-Ordóñez, Y B


    Using precise pollen species determination by conventional microscopic methods, accompanied by molecular genetic markers, we found bees collect GMO (genetically modified) soybean pollen and incorporate it in Yucatan honey. Honey comb samples from Las Flores, Campeche, Mexico, often contained soybean pollen. Pollen in honey was analyzed in nine samples; six contained substantial soy pollen and two tested positive for soybean GMO. Our analyses confirm field observations that honey bees, Apis mellifera, gather soybean pollen and nectar. The resultant risk for honey production in the Yucatán Peninsula and Mexico is evident in wholesale price reduction of 12% when GMO products are detected and honey consignments are rejected. Although this affects only 1% of current export honey (2011-2013) GMO soybean is an unacknowledged threat to apiculture and its economics in one of the world's foremost honey producing areas.

  9. Determinants of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] production system in Benin

    Charlotte Carmelle Zoundji


    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to analyze the soybean production system in Benin. Data were collected from 324 soybean producers selected from the three major soybean-producing agro-ecological areas i.e. agro-ecological zone 3 (southern Borgou, agro-ecological zone 4 (West Atacora and agro-ecological zone 5 (Cotton zone of the Centre of Benin. A participatory research approach with group discussions followed by individual interviews was carried out for extracting the information from respondents. Information mainly referred to the socio-demographic characteristics of soybean producers, production practices, extent of yields and constraints. Descriptive statistics were then used to analyze the data. Ordered Probit regression was further carried out to assess the determinants of soybean yield levels in Benin. Results of this study revealed that soybean producers of the three agro ecological zones have most of the common demographic characteristics. They equally revealed that farmers do not follow correct soybean cropping practices. Improved seeds, plant density, fertilizers, fallow, and sex of farmers have significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.001 influenced the yields of soybean in Benin. Within the context of sustainable agricultural production practices, it is recommended to develop appropriate technologies for soybean cultivation. The extension services should focus more on the appropriate combination of input resources which are found to contribute more to the soybean production

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] Roots Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum Strain CPAC 15.

    Torres, Adalgisa R; Rodrigues, Elisete P; Batista, Jesiane Ss; Gomes, Douglas F; Hungria, Mariangela


    This research intended to analyze the expression pattern of proteins in roots of the Brazilian soybean cultivar Conquista when inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum CPAC 15, a strain broadly used in commercial inoculants in Brazil. At ten days after bacterial inoculation, whole-cell proteins were extracted from roots and separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis. Comparative analysis revealed significant changes in the intensity of 37 spots due to the inoculation (17 up-regulated and 20 down-regulated proteins), identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-TOF. Identified proteins were associated with COG functional categories of information storage and processing, cellular processes and signaling, metabolism, and also in the "poorly characterized" and "not in COG" categories. Among the up-regulated proteins, we identified sucrose synthase (nodulin-100), β-tubulin, rubisco activase, glutathione-S-transferase, a putative heat-shock 70-kDa protein, pyridine nucleotide-disulphideoxidoreductase and a putative transposase. Proteomic analysis allowed for the identification of some putative symbiotic functions and confirmed the main biological processes triggered in the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with soybean.

  11. Mapping of the genomic regions controlling seed storability in soybean (Glycine max L.)

    Hamidreza Dargahi; Patcharin Tanya; Peerasak Srinives


    Seed storability is especially important in the tropics due to high temperature and relative humidity of storage environment that cause rapid deterioration of seeds in storage. The objective of this study was to use SSR markers to identify genomic regions associated with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling seed storability based on relative germination rate in the F2:3 population derived from a cross between vegetable soybean line (MJ0004-6) with poor longevity and landrace cultivar from Myanmar (R18500) with good longevity. The F2:4 seeds harvested in 2011 and 2012 were used to investigate seed storability. The F2 population was genotyped with 148 markers and the genetic map consisted of 128 SSR loci which converged into 38 linkage groups covering 1664.3 cM of soybean genome. Single marker analysis revealed that 13 markers from six linkage groups (C1, D2, E, F, J and L) were associated with seed storability. Composite interval mapping identified a total of three QTLs on linkage groups C1, F and L with phenotypic variance explained ranging from 8.79 to 13.43%. The R18500 alleles increased seed storability at all of the detected QTLs. No common QTLs were found for storability of seeds harvested in 2011 and 2012. This study agreed with previous reports in other crops that genotype by environment interaction plays an important role in expression of seed storability.

  12. Association mapping for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)

    Jutao Sun; Na Guo; Jun Lei; Lihong Li; Guanjun Hu; Han Xing


    Association mapping is a powerful high-resolution mapping tool for complex traits. The objective of this study was to identify QTLs for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae. In this study, we evaluated a total of 214 soybean accessions by the hypocotyl inoculation method, and 175 were susceptible. The 175 susceptible accessions were then evaluated for P. sojae partial resistance using slant board assays. The 175 accessions were screened with 138 SSR markers that generated 730 SSR alleles. A subset of 495 SSR loci with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥0.05 was used for association mapping by the Tassel general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM) programmes. This soybean population could be divided into two subpopulations and no or weak relatedness was detected between pairwise accessions. Four SSR alleles, Satt634-133, Satt634-149, Sat_222-168 and Satt301-190, associated with partial resistance to P. sojae were detected by both GLM and MLM methods. Of these identified markers, one marker, Satt301, was located in regions where P. sojae resistance QTL have been previously mapped using linkage analysis. The identified markers will help to understand the genetic basis of partial resistance, and facilitate future marker-assistant selection aimed to improve resistance to P. sojae and reduce disease-related mortality in soybean.

  13. Studies on induction of chlorophyll mutations in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill

    Mudasir Hafiz KHAN; Sunil Dutt TYAGI


    The phenotypic response of two soybean cultivars to a chemical mutagen (ethyl methane sulphonate, EMS), physical mutagen (gamma rays) and their combinations were studied in M1 and M2 generations and the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll mutations were worked out. Combined treatment was found to be more effective in inducing chlorophyll mutations compared to individual treatments of gamma rays and EMS in both the cultivars. As far as the spectrum of chlorophyll mutations is concerned, a wider spectrum in both the cultivars was observed in 45 kR + 0.2% EMS combined treatment.

  14. Morpho-physiological parameters affecting iron deficiency chlorosis response in soybean (Glycine max L.)

    Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) leads to severe leaf chlorosis, low photosynthetic rates, and yield reductions of several million metric tons each year. In order to devise breeding and genetic transformation programs that aim at generating high-yielding and IDC-tolerant soybean lines, it is necessar...

  15. Metabolic and Signaling Properties of an Itpk Gene Family in Glycine max1


    We have cloned and characterized four Itpk genes from soybean. All four recombinant Itpk proteins showed canonical Ins(1,3,4)P3 5/6-kinase activity, but a kinetic analysis raised questions about its biological significance. Instead, we provide evidence that one alternative biological role for soybean Itpks is to interconvert the Cl− channel inhibitor, Ins(3,4,5,6)P4, and its metabolic precursor, Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5, within a substrate cycle. The soybean Itpks also phosphorylated Ins(3,4,6)P3 to ...

  16. Evaluation of Selected Soybean Genotypes (GLYCINE MAX L. by Physiological Responses during Water Deficit

    Eleonora KRIVOSUDSKA


    Full Text Available During the experiments were monitored the following varieties: Impala (South African Republic, Maverick (USA, Rankoshi No.1h (Japan and their reactions to the water supply at the beginning of the growth stage R1 and R2 blooming in an interaction with the Nitrazon inoculation of the seeds before a sowing. Mentioned genetic resources were provided for our research purposes by the Plant Production Research Center PRRC Piesany, Gene Bank of the Slovak Republic. Seeding of the particular soy genotypes was made into the containers whilst 50% of seed corn from each genotype was before the sowing inoculated by the usage of Nitrazon inoculant (supplier: Agrokomp, spol. s.r.o., Modra. Water stress was secured by an irrigation interruption for a 7-day period in the mentioned growth stage. This stress had a negative impact on the relative water content in RWC plants, proline content, osmotic potential, SPAD, stress index as well as an amount of nodules on the roots by the all monitored varieties. According to an evaluation of the mentioned indicators more significant proline accumulation was confirmed by the genotype Maverick especially by the variant exposed to water deficit 3,25 micro mol g 1 FW according to the calculations on 100 percent RWC without the inoculant Nitrazon use and inoculating variant 2.99 micro mol g 1 FW according to calculations on 100 percent RWC. Variety MAVERICK had got the best reaction to water stress and even more noticeable resistance to the stress was monitored in the variant with Nitrazon application in the foregoing seed treatment of soybean seeds. The opposite response to the inoculation was monitored by IMPALA genotype when RWC had dropped to 41.77% in the comparison with the variant without inoculation where RWC had dropped to 61.86%.

  17. Genetic structure and diversity of cultivated soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) landraces in China

    Li, Yinghui; Guan, Rongxia; Liu, Zhangxiong; Ma, Yansong; Wang, Lixia; Li, Linhai; Lin, Fanyun; Luan, Weijiang; Chen, Pengyin; Yan, Zhe; Guan, Yuan; Zhu, Li; Ning, Xuecheng; Smulders, M.J.M.; Li, W.; Piao, Rihua; Cui, Yanhua; Yu, Zhongmei; Guan, Min; Chang, Ruzhen; Hou, Anfu; Shi, Ainong; Zhang, Bo; Zhu, Shenlong; Qiu, L.


    The Chinese genebank contains 23,587 soybean landraces collected from 29 provinces. In this study, a representative collection of 1,863 landraces were assessed for genetic diversity and genetic differentiation in order to provide useful information for effective management and utilization. A total o

  18. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of sari tempe formulated from import soybean (glycine max)

    Kurniadi, Muhamad; Andriani, Martina; Sari, Intan Indriana; Angwar, Mukhamad; Nurhayati, Rifa; Khasanah, Yuniar; Wiyono, Tri


    Tempe is traditional Indonesian food made from Rhizopus sp. fermentation of soybean. The aims of this research are to know the effect of the addition of water and CMC to nutritional and sensory characteristics of the sari tempe formulated from import soybean. The experimental design used in this study is entirely randomized design (CRD), which consists of two factors: variations addition of water with tempe (1:3, 1:5 and 1:7) and the variation of the addition of CMC concentration (0.05%; 0,10% and 0.15%). Sensory data were analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA. If it showed significant results, then it is continued by real difference test using Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at significance level α = 0.05. The results showed the best formula of sari tempe was F6 with 1:5 water ratio and 0.15% CMC concentration. Folate content and vitamin B6 decreased while processing sari tempe respectively 10.3 times and 2.7 times. Whereas, the vitamin B12 content is increased by 1.7 times. The best formula of sari tempe contains 90.96 % water content; 0.08 % ash content; 0.36 % fat content; 23.41 ppm vitamin B6; 337.49 ppm vitamin B12 and 17.31 ppm folate.

  19. Endophytic Penicillium funiculosum LHL06 secretes gibberellin that reprograms Glycine max L. growth during copper stress

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Lee, In-Jung


    Background Heavy metal pollution in crop fields is one of the major issues in sustainable agriculture production. To improve crop growth and reduce the toxic effects of metals is an ideal strategy. Understanding the resilience of gibberellins producing endophytic fungi associated with crop plants in metal contaminated agriculture fields could be an important step towards reducing agrochemical pollutions. In present study, it was aimed to screen and identify metal resistant endophyte and eluci...

  20. Antioxidant activity of seedling growth in selected soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) responses of submergence

    Damanik, R. I.; Marbun, P.; Sihombing, L.


    In order to better understand the physiological and biochemical responses relating to direct seeding establishment in soybeans, the plant growth rate and antioxidative defense responses of seedlings in seven Indonesian soybean genotypes (Anjasmoro, Detam-1, Detam-2, Dieng, Grobogan, Tanggamus, and Willis) at different submergence periods (4, and 8 days) were examined. Twelve-day old seedlings were hydroponically grown in limited oxygen conditions. The results showed that the chlorophyll content in soybean seedlings was reduced beginning as early as 4 d under submerged condition, except for Detam-1, Detam-2, and Grobogan genotypes. The dry weight and protein concentration of seedlings were significantly higher at control condition (0 d) than those in submerged condition. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased linearly until 8 d submerged for all genotypes. On the other hand, our results showed that catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities did not work together, meaning that CAT is activated and APX deactivated, or vice versa, in response to submergence conditions, except for Grobogan and Tanggamus genotypes which had an effect on both CAT and APX activities. Submergence stress led to a significant increase in glutathione reductase (GR) together with APX activity for Detam-2 and Dieng genotypes at 8 d submerged.