WorldWideScience

Sample records for glycerol dialkyl glycerol

  1. Seasonal variability of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in a temperate lake system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomis, S.E.; Russell, J.M.; Heureux, A.M.; D'Andrea, W.J.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative climate reconstructions are crucial for understanding the magnitude of and mechanisms behind natural and anthropogenic climate change, yet there are few proxies that can reliably reconstruct terrestrial temperature. Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial

  2. Searching for branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether membrane lipid producing bacteria in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydin, R.

    2012-01-01

    KEYWORDS:Branched GDGTs, proxy, pH, temperature, Acidobacteria, methylotrophy, high-throughput techniques

    Bacteria present in soil and peat bog environments were previously found to produce branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol

  3. Searching for branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether membrane lipid producing bacteria in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydin, R.

    2012-01-01

    KEYWORDS:Branched GDGTs, proxy, pH, temperature, Acidobacteria, methylotrophy, high-throughput techniques Bacteria present in soil and peat bog environments were previously found to produce branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether membrane

  4. Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether membrane lipids in lacustrine environments and their application as proxies for palaeoclimate reconstructions. Geologica Ultraiectina (322)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaga, C.I.

    2010-01-01

    Lacustrine sediments often contain relatively high amounts of organic matter because of limited bottom water oxygenation and relatively high sedimentation rates. The membrane lipids of Crenarchaeota, a major group of the domain Archaea, consist of isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether

  5. Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers and crenarchaeol record post-glacial sea level rise in the Kara Sea (Arctic Ocean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonge, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.N.; Cherkashov, Georgy; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    This study evaluates the glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) distribution and provenance in sediments (spanning a minimum of 13.3 ka) from the St. Anna Trough (Northern Kara Sea). The site has experienced extensive fluctuation in the delivery of river-derived organic matter (OM), caused by a

  6. Influence of lake water pH and alkalinity on the distribution of coreand intact polar branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, P.L.; de Kluijver, A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Downing, J.A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.

    2013-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids, ubiquitously present in soils and peat bogs, as well as in rivers, lakes and lake sediments. Their distribution in soil is controlled mainly by pH and mean annual air temperature, but the controls on their

  7. Seasonal changes in glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether concentrations and fluxes in a perialpine lake: Implications for the use of the TEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaga, C.I.; Reichart, G.J.; Vissers, E.W.; Lotter, A.F.; Anselmetti, F.S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    To determine where and when glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids in lakes are produced, we collected descending particles in Lake Lucerne (Switzerland) using two sediment traps (at 42 and 72 m water depth) with a monthly resolution from January 2008 to late March 2009.

  8. Influence of lake water pH and alkalinity on the distribution of core and intact polar branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, P.L.; de Kluijver, A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Downing, J.A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.

    2013-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids, ubiquitously present in soils and peat bogs, as well as in rivers, lakes and lake sediments. Their distribution in soil is controlled mainly by pH and mean annual air temperature, but the controls on their

  9. Impact of riverine suspended particulate matter on the branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether composition of lakes: The outflow of the Selenga River in Lake Baikal (Russia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonge, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; Fedotov, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids found in several environments, including soils, rivers and lakes, whose distribution varies with temperature and pH, although this dependence is apparently not the same for the different environments. Mixing of

  10. Development of a regional glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT)-temperature calibration for Antarctic and sub-Antarctic lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Louise C.; Pearson, Emma J.; Juggins, Steve; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Saunders, Krystyna M.; Verleyen, Elie; Roberts, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    A regional network of quantitative reconstructions of past climate variability is required to test climate models. In recent studies, temperature calibration models based on the relative abundances of sedimentary glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) have enabled past temperature reconstructions in both marine and terrestrial environments. Nevertheless, to date these methods have not been widely applied in high latitude environments due to poor performance of the GDGT-temperature calibrations at lower temperatures. To address this we studied 32 lakes from Antarctica, the sub-Antarctic Islands and Southern Chile to: 1) quantify their GDGT composition and investigate the environmental controls on GDGT composition; and 2) develop a GDGT-temperature calibration model for inferring past temperatures from Antarctic and sub-Antarctic lakes. GDGTs were found in all 32 lakes studied and in 31 lakes branched GDGTs (brGDGTs) were the dominant compounds. Statistical analyses of brGDGT composition in relation to temperature, pH, conductivity and water depth showed that the composition of brGDGTs is strongly correlated with mean summer air temperature (MSAT). This enabled the development of the first regional brGDGT-temperature calibration for use in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic lakes using four brGDGT compounds (GDGT-Ib, GDGT-II, GDGT-III and GDGT-IIIb). A key discovery was that GDGT-IIIb is of particular importance in cold lacustrine environments. The addition of this compound significantly improved the model's performance from r2 = 0.67, RMSEP-LOO (leave-one-out) = 2.23 °C, RMSEP-H (h-block) = 2.37 °C when applying the re-calibrated global GDGT-temperature calibration to our Antarctic dataset to r2 = 0.83, RMSEP-LOO = 1.68 °C, RMSEP-H = 1.65 °C for our new Antarctic calibration. This shows that Antarctic and sub-Antarctic, and possibly other high latitude, palaeotemperature reconstructions should be based on a regional GDGT-temperature calibration where specific

  11. Wide distribution of autochthonous branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs in U.S. Great Basin hot springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Hedlund

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs are membrane-spanning lipids that likely stabilize membranes of some bacteria. Although bGDGTs have been reported previously in certain geothermal environments, it has been suggested that they may derive from surrounding soils since bGDGTs are known to be produced by soil bacteria. To test the hypothesis that bGDGTs can be produced by thermophiles in geothermal environments, we examined the distribution and abundance of bGDGTs, along with extensive geochemical data, in 40 sediment and mat samples collected from geothermal systems in the U.S. Great Basin (temperature: 31-95°C; pH: 6.8-10.7. bGDGTs were found in 38 out of 40 samples at concentrations up to 824 ng/g sample dry mass and comprised up to 99.5% of total GDGTs (branched plus isoprenoidal. The wide distribution of bGDGTs in hot springs, strong correlation between core and polar lipid abundances, distinctness of bGDGT profiles compared to nearby soils, and higher concentration of bGDGTs in hot springs compared to nearby soils provided evidence of in situ production, particularly for the minimally methylated bGDGTs I, Ib, and Ic. Polar bGDGTs were found almost exclusively in samples ≤ 70°C and the absolute abundance of polar bGDGTs correlated negatively with properties of chemically reduced, high temperature spring sources (temperature, H2S/HS- and positively with properties of oxygenated, low temperature sites (O2, NO3-. Two-way cluster analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling based on relative abundance of polar bGDGTs supported these relationships and showed a negative relationship between the degree of methylation and temperature, suggesting a higher abundance for minimally methylated bGDGTs at high temperature. This study presents evidence of the widespread production of bGDGTs in mats and sediments of natural geothermal springs in the U.S. Great Basin, especially in oxygenated, low-temperature sites (≤ 70°C.

  12. Wide distribution of autochthonous branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) in U.S. Great Basin hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Brian P; Paraiso, Julienne J; Williams, Amanda J; Huang, Qiuyuan; Wei, Yuli; Dijkstra, Paul; Hungate, Bruce A; Dong, Hailiang; Zhang, Chuanlun L

    2013-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (bGDGTs) are membrane-spanning lipids that likely stabilize membranes of some bacteria. Although bGDGTs have been reported previously in certain geothermal environments, it has been suggested that they may derive from surrounding soils since bGDGTs are known to be produced by soil bacteria. To test the hypothesis that bGDGTs can be produced by thermophiles in geothermal environments, we examined the distribution and abundance of bGDGTs, along with extensive geochemical data, in 40 sediment and mat samples collected from geothermal systems in the U.S. Great Basin (temperature: 31-95°C; pH: 6.8-10.7). bGDGTs were found in 38 out of 40 samples at concentrations up to 824 ng/g sample dry mass and comprised up to 99.5% of total GDGTs (branched plus isoprenoidal). The wide distribution of bGDGTs in hot springs, strong correlation between core and polar lipid abundances, distinctness of bGDGT profiles compared to nearby soils, and higher concentration of bGDGTs in hot springs compared to nearby soils provided evidence of in situ production, particularly for the minimally methylated bGDGTs I, Ib, and Ic. Polar bGDGTs were found almost exclusively in samples ≤70°C and the absolute abundance of polar bGDGTs correlated negatively with properties of chemically reduced, high temperature spring sources (temperature, H2S/HS(-)) and positively with properties of oxygenated, low temperature sites (O2, NO(-) 3). Two-way cluster analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling based on relative abundance of polar bGDGTs supported these relationships and showed a negative relationship between the degree of methylation and temperature, suggesting a higher abundance for minimally methylated bGDGTs at high temperature. This study presents evidence of the widespread production of bGDGTs in mats and sediments of natural geothermal springs in the U.S. Great Basin, especially in oxygenated, low-temperature sites (≤70°C).

  13. Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers and crenarchaeol record post-glacial sea level rise and shift in source of terrigenous brGDGTs in the Kara Sea (Arctic Ocean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, C.; Stadnitskaia, Alina; Cherkashov, G.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) distribution and provenance in sediments(spanning a minimum of 13.3 ka) from the St. Anna Trough (Northern Kara Sea). The site has experiencedextensive fluctuation in the delivery of river-derived organic matter (OM), caused by a

  14. Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers and crenarchaeol record post-glacial sea level rise and shift in source of terrigenous brGDGTs in the Kara Sea (Arctic Ocean)

    OpenAIRE

    de Jonge, C.; Stadnitskaia, Alina; Cherkashov, G.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) distribution and provenance in sediments(spanning a minimum of 13.3 ka) from the St. Anna Trough (Northern Kara Sea). The site has experiencedextensive fluctuation in the delivery of river-derived organic matter (OM), caused by a eustaticchange in sea level. This is in line with the record of the concentration of the isoprenoid GDGT, crenarchaeol,produced by marine Thaumarchaota, which was low at the bottom of the core, incr...

  15. Rhizospheric effects on the microbial community of e-waste-contaminated soils using phospholipid fatty acid and isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mengke; Cheng, Zhineng; Luo, Chunling; Jiang, Longfei; Zhang, Dayi; Yin, Hua; Zhang, Gan

    2018-01-26

    We performed the study of rhizospheric effects on soil microbial community structure, including bacteria, fungi, actinomycete, and archaea, at an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site by analyzing the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) contents. By comparing PLFA and isoprenoid GDGT profiles of rhizospheric and surrounding bulk soils of 11 crop species, we observed distinct microbial community structures. The total PLFA concentration was significantly higher in rhizospheric soils than in non-rhizospheric soils, whereas no obvious difference was found in the total isoprenoid GDGT concentrations. The microbial community structure was also different, with higher ratios of fungal-to-bacterial PLFAs (F/B) and lower relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in rhizospheric soils. The extent of rhizospheric effects varied among plant species, and Colocasia esculenta L. had the greatest positive effects on the total microbial biomass. Dissolved organic carbon and pH were the main environmental factors affecting the microbial community represented by PLFAs, while the archaeal community was influenced by copper and zinc in all soils. These results offer a comprehensive view of rhizospheric effects on microbes in heavy metal and persistent organic pollutant co-contaminated soil, and provide fundamental knowledge regarding microbial ecology in e-waste-contaminated soils.

  16. Insights into the biological source and environmental gradients shaping the distribution of H-shaped glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in Yellowstone National Park geothermal springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, C.; Xie, W.; Wang, J.; Boyd, E. S.; Zhang, C.

    2013-12-01

    Archaea are ubiquitous in natural environments. The unique tetraether lipids in archaeal membranes enable the maintenance of ion permeability across broad environmental gradients. H-shaped isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (H-GDGTs), in which the two biphytanyl carbon skeletons are covalently bound by a carbon-carbon bond, have been recently identified in both marine and geothermal environments. Here we report the core H-GDGTs (C-H-GDGTs) and polar H-GDGTs (P-H-GDGTs) associated with sediments sampled from geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park and investigate their abundance in relation to environmental gradients. The abundance of C- and P-H-GDGTs exhibit strong and negative correlation with pH (P = 0.007), suggesting that H-shaped GDGTs help to maintain cell membrane fluidity in acidic environments. Reanalysis of archaeal 16S rRNA gene pyrotags published previously from (Boyd E. Hamilton T. L., Wang J., He L., Zhang C. L. 2013. The role of tetraether lipid composition in the adaptation of thermophilic archaea to acidity. Frontiers in Terrestrial Microbiology. 4: doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2013.00062) indicates that these H-GDGTs are associated with environments dominanted by Thermoplasmatales, which are thermoacidiphiles. Two equations were established to define the relationships between the abundance of H-GDGTs, the abundance of archaeal taxa based on 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic affiliations, and pH. Both equations have high predictive capacity in predicting the distribution of archaeal lipids in the geothermal system. These observations provide new insight into the biological source of H-GDGTs and suggest a prominent role for these lipids in the diversification of archaea into or out of acidic high temperature environments.

  17. Distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in surface soils of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau: implications of brGDGTs-based proxies in cold and dry regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ding

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT and cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers (CBT based on the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGT are useful proxies for the reconstruction of mean annual air temperature (MAT and soil pH. Recently, a series of 6-methyl brGDGTs were identified which were previously co-eluted with 5-methyl brGDGTs. However, little is known about 6-methyl brGDGTs in the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (QTP, a critical region of the global climate system. Here, we analyze 30 surface soils covering a large area of the QTP, among which 6-methyl brGDGTs were the most abundant components (average 53 ± 17% of total brGDGT. The fractional abundance of 6-methyl brGDGTs showed a good correlation with soil pH, while the global MBT'5ME calibration overestimates MAT in the QTP. We therefore proposed a MBT5/6 index including both 5- and 6-methyl brGDGTs, presenting a strong correlation with MAT in QTP: MAT = −20.14 + 39.51 × MBT5/6 (n = 27, r2 = 0.82; RMSE = 1.3 °C. Another index, namely IBT (isomerization of branched tetraether, based on carbon skeleton isomerization of the 5-methyl to 6-methyl brGDGTs, is dependent on soil pH: pH = 6.77 − 1.56 × IBT (n = 27; r2 = 0.74, RMSE = 0.32. Our study suggests that changing the position of methyl group of brGDGTs may be another mechanism for some soil bacteria to adapt to the ambient pH change in addition to the well-known cyclization.

  18. PPARa governs glycerol metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patsouris, D.A.; Mandard, S.J.; Voshol, P.J.; Escher, P.; Tan, N.S.; Havekes, L.M.; Koenig, W.; März, W.; Müller, M.R.; Kersten, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    Glycerol, a product of adipose tissue lipolysis, is an important substrate for hepatic glucose synthesis. However, little is known about the regulation of hepatic glycerol metabolism. Here we show that several genes involved in the hepatic metabolism of glycerol, i.e., cytosolic and mitochondrial

  19. Chemical equilibrium of glycerol carbonate synthesis from glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiabo; Wang Tao

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Transesterification of glycerol with cyclic carbonates or alkyl carbonates is thermodynamically favourable for the preparation of glycerol carbonate from glycerol. → The reaction of glycerol and carbon dioxide is thermodynamically limited. → High temperature and low pressure is favourable to the reaction of glycerol and urea. → Increasing temperature can increase the chemical equilibrium constant for the reaction of glycerol and dimethyl carbonate. → For the reaction of glycerol and ethylene carbonate, increasing temperature can decrease the chemical equilibrium constant. - Abstract: In this paper, the chemical equilibrium for the glycerol carbonate preparation from glycerol was investigated. The chemical equilibrium constants were calculated for the reactions to produce glycerol carbonate from glycerol. The theoretical calculation was compared with the experimental results for the transesterification of glycerol with dimethyl carbonate. Transesterification of glycerol with cyclic carbonates or alkyl carbonates is thermodynamically favourable for producing glycerol carbonate from glycerol according to the equilibrium constant. Increasing temperature can increase the chemical equilibrium constant for the reaction of glycerol with dimethyl carbonate. For the reaction of glycerol with ethylene carbonate, increasing temperature can decrease the chemical equilibrium constant. The reaction of glycerol with carbon dioxide is thermodynamically limited. High temperature and low pressure are favourable to the reaction of glycerol and urea.

  20. Glycerol-induced hyperhydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedesel, Marvin L.; Lyons, Timothy P.; Mcnamara, M. Colleen

    1991-01-01

    Maintenance of euhydration is essential for maximum work performance. Environments which induce hypohydration reduce plasma volume and cardiovascular performance progressively declines as does work capacity. Hyperhydration prior to exposure to dehydrating environments appears to be a potential countermeasure to the debilitating effects of hypohydration. The extravascular fluid space, being the largest fluid compartment in the body, is the most logical space by which significant hyperhydration can be accomplished. Volume and osmotic receptors in the vascular space result in physiological responses which counteract hyperhydration. Our hypothesis is that glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH) can accomplish extravascular fluid expansion because of the high solubility of glycerol in lipid and aqueous media. A hypertonic solution of glycerol is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, results in mild increases in plasma osmolality and is distributed to 65 percent of the body mass. A large volume of water ingested within minutes after glycerol intake results in increased total body water because of the osmotic action and distribution of glycerol. The resulting expanded extravascular fluid space can act as a reservoir to maintain plasma volume during exposure to dehydrating environments. The fluid shifts associated with exposure to microgravity result in increased urine production and is another example of an environment which induces hypohydration. Our goal is to demonstrate that GIH will facilitate maintenance of euhydration and cardiovascular performance during space flight and upon return to a 1 g environment.

  1. The Lubricity of Glycerol and its Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Jakobsen, J.

    2016-01-01

    the one predicted by hydrodynamic lubrication calculations. Addition of water to glycerol lowers the friction but increases the wear. In the present paper the lubricity (boundary lubrication performance) of glycerol and its solutions with water, ethanol and methanol is investigated. Dilution of glycerol...... up to 15% shows no wear in a standard wear test. Decrease in the glycerol content below 85% reveals significant wear and solutions with less than 15% glycerol show nearly the same wear as the solvent itself. The conclusion is that glycerol may be an excellent lubricant in hydrodynamics but when...

  2. Preparation of silver powder through glycerol process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High purity fine silver powder with uniform particle morphology was prepared through glycerol process. The process involves reduction of silver nitrate by glycerol under atmospheric conditions at a temperature below 175°C. Glycerol, in this process, acts as a solvent as well as a reducing agent. The powders prepared ...

  3. Preparation of silver powder through glycerol process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. High purity fine silver powder with uniform particle morphology was prepared through glycerol process. The process involves reduction of silver nitrate by glycerol under atmospheric conditions at a tem- perature below 175°C. Glycerol, in this process, acts as a solvent as well as a reducing agent. The powders.

  4. The expression of glycerol facilitators from various yeast species improves growth on glycerol of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Mathias; Islam, Zia ul; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol is an abundant by-product during biodiesel production and additionally has several assets compared to sugars when used as a carbon source for growing microorganisms in the context of biotechnological applications. However, most strains of the platform production organism Saccharomyces...... cerevisiae grow poorly in synthetic glycerol medium. It has been hypothesized that the uptake of glycerol could be a major bottleneck for the utilization of glycerol in S. cerevisiae. This species exclusively relies on an active transport system for glycerol uptake. This work demonstrates that the expression...... of predicted glycerol facilitators (Fps1 homologues) from superior glycerol-utilizing yeast species such as Pachysolen tannophilus, Komagataella pastoris, Yarrowia lipolytica and Cyberlindnera jadinii significantly improves the growth performance on glycerol of the previously selected glycerol-consuming S...

  5. Hyperhydrating with glycerol: implications for athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, D R

    1999-02-01

    Small decreases in hydration status can result in a dramatic decrement in athletic performance and greatly increase the risk of thermal injury. Because of its osmotic properties, which enable greater fluid retention than the ingestion of water alone, glycerol has been proposed as a hyperhydrating agent. In fact, glycerol is now commercially available and marketed as a sport supplement to be ingested with water or sport drinks; thus, dietitians need to be cognizant of this new addition to the sports nutrition table. The results of glycerol-induced hyperhydration research have been equivocal, most likely because of methodologic differences between studies, such as variations in the intensity of exercise, environmental conditions, and concentration or dose of glycerol administered. Although the suggested dosage of glycerol depends on body size and varies between manufacturers, 1 g/kg body weight with an additional 1.5 L fluid taken 60 to 120 minutes before competition is standard. Some test subjects reported feeling bloated or nauseated after ingesting glycerol. This review examines glycerol-induced hyperhydration research and the safety of ingesting glycerol, discusses commercial availability of glycerol, and makes recommendations for glycerol-induced hyperhydration research.

  6. Oxidation of glycerol by Streptococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLARIDGE, C A; HENDLIN, D

    1962-12-01

    Claridge, C. A. (Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories, Rahway, N.J.) and David Hendlin. Oxidation of glycerol by Streptococcus faecalis. J. Bacteriol. 84:1181-1186. 1962.-The nature of the factors in yeast autolysate essential for the oxidation of glycerol by Streptococcus faecalis F24 was examined. Two factors appear to be involved in the oxidation of glycerol. One factor was shown to be an inducer of the enzyme system required for glycerol oxidation; the other was shown to be alpha-lipoic acid. Minute quantities of glucose will "spark" growth of S. faecalis in a medium containing glycerol and acetate as carbon sources, probably by supplying sufficient energy for induction of the glycerol-oxidation system.

  7. Efficient green methanol synthesis from glycerol

    OpenAIRE

    Haider, Muhammad H.; Dummer, Nicholas F.; Knight, David W.; Jenkins, Robert L.; Howard, Mark; Moulijn, Jacob; Taylor, Stuart H.; Hutchings, Graham J.

    2015-01-01

    The production of biodiesel from the transesterification of plant-derived triglycerides with methanol has been commercialized extensively. Impure glycerol is obtained as a by-product at roughly one-tenth the mass of the biodiesel. Utilization of this crude glycerol is important in improving the viability of the overall process. Here we show that crude glycerol can be reacted with water over very simple basic or redox oxide catalysts to produce methanol in high yields, together with other usef...

  8. Inhibition of cell proliferation by glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, J.P.; Dinsdale, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of glycerol on proliferation of BHK, CHO, HBL, MCF-7, and human glioma cells was studied. Cell proliferation was significantly decreased in all the cell lines at glycerol concentrations of 2-4% in the culture medium. The inhibition was dose-dependent, complete suppression of proliferation occurring at a glycerol concentration of 4% for the MCF-7 cell line and 6-8% for the BHK, CHO and human glioma cells. Studies on [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation correlate with the effect on cell proliferation. The viability of the cells was not significantly affected until higher concentrations of glycerol were present. Recovery studies with BHK cells indicated that replacement of the glycerol medium with glycerol-free medium resulted in full recovery following exposure to 4% glycerol and only partial recovery of proliferation rate following exposure to 10-12% glycerol. It is concluded that glycerol, a substance that is normally present in tissues, can serve as a potent inhibitor of cell proliferation

  9. Production of dihydroxyacetone from glycerol by engineered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the whole-cell biotransformation process. These results should be useful for the development of advanced bioprocess in terms of glycerol utilization. Keywords: Dihydroxyacetone, Glycerol dehydrogenase, NAD+, whole-cell biotransformation, Escherichia coli. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(27), pp. 4387-4392 ...

  10. Production of dihydroxyacetone from glycerol by engineered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zino

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... (Accession No. CP000948) in E. coli, catalyzes reversible reactions for the interconversion of glycerol and DHA. In the forward reaction, glycerol is oxidized to DHA at the expense of a stoichiometric amount of the cofactor NAD+. Therefore, NAD+ supply and recycling is essential to drive the forward reaction ...

  11. Biosynthesis of glycerol carbonate from glycerol by lipase in dimethyl carbonate as the solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Hwa; Park, Chang-Ho; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2010-11-01

    Glycerol carbonate was synthesized from renewable glycerol and dimethyl carbonate using lipase in solvent-free reaction system in which excess dimethyl carbonate played as the reaction medium. A variety of lipases have been tested for their abilities to catalyze transesterification reaction, and Candida antartica lipase B and Novozyme 435 exhibited higher catalytic activities. The silica-coated glycerol with a 1:1 ratio was supplied to prevent two-phase formation between hydrophobic dimethyl carbonate and hydrophilic glycerol. Glycerol carbonate was successfully synthesized with more than 90% conversion from dimethyl carbonate and glycerol with a molar ratio of 10 using Novozyme 435-catalyzed transesterification at 70 °C. The Novozyme 435 [5% (w/w) and 20% (w/w)] and silica gel were more than four times recycled with good stability in a repeated batch operation for the solvent-free synthesis of glycerol carbonate.

  12. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Zhu, Zhi; Wang, Weihua; Lu, Xuefeng

    2013-12-01

    The sustainable supply of lipids is the bottleneck for current biodiesel production. Here microbial recycling of glycerol, byproduct of biodiesel production to biodiesel in engineered Escherichia coli strains was reported. The KC3 strain with capability of producing fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) from glucose was used as a starting strain to optimize fermentation conditions when using glycerol as sole carbon source. The YL15 strain overexpressing double copies of atfA gene displayed 1.7-fold increase of FAEE productivity compared to the KC3 strain. The titer of FAEE in YL15 strain reached to 813 mg L(-1) in minimum medium using glycerol as sole carbon source under optimized fermentation conditions. The titer of glycerol-based FAEE production can be significantly increased by both genetic modifications and fermentation optimization. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel expands carbon sources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ecotoxicology of Glycerol Monolaurate nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Leonardo Q S; Santos, Cayane G; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; Raffin, Renata P; da Silva, Aleksandro S; Baretta, Dilmar; Maccari, Ana Paula; Giombelli, Laura Caroline D D; Volpato, Andreia; Arruda, Jessyka; de Ávila Scheeren, Cecília; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Santos, Roberto C V

    2017-05-01

    Glycerol Monolaurate (GML) is a compound with known antimicrobial potential, however it is not much used due to its low solubility in water and high melting point. The nanoencapsulation of some drugs offers several advantages such as improved stability and solubility in water. The present study aimed to produce, characterize, and evaluate the ecotoxicity of GML nanocapsules. The nanocapsules were produced and presented a mean diameter of 210nm, polydispersity index of 0.044, and zeta potential of -23.4mV. The electron microscopy images showed the nanometric size and spherical shape. The assay in soil showed that GML has a high toxicity while the GML nanocapsules showed decreased toxic effects. Nanostructuration also protected the Rhamdia quelen against the toxic effects of GML. Concluding, the formulation shows positive results and is useful to predict the success of development besides not damaging the soil. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Esters of oligo-(glycerol carbonate-glycerol): New biobased oligomeric surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmiere, Sébastien; Valentin, Romain; Maréchal, Philippe; Mouloungui, Zéphirin

    2017-02-01

    Glycerol carbonate is one of the most potentially multifunction glycerol-derived compounds. Glycerol is an important by-product of the oleochemical industry. The oligomerization of glycerol carbonate, assisted by the glycerol, results in the production of polyhydroxylated oligomers rich in linear carbonate groups. The polar moieties of these oligomers (M w ethylene oxide as in most commercial surfactants. The insertion of linear carbonate groups into the glycerol-based skeleton rendered the oligomers amphiphilic, resulting in a decrease in air/water surface tension to 57mN/m. We improved the physical and chemical properties of the oligomers, by altering the type of acylation reaction and the nature of the acyl donor. The polar head is constituted of homo-oligomers and hetero-oligomers. Homo-oligomers are oligoglycerol and/or oligocarbonate, hetero-oligomers are oligo(glycerol-glycerol carbonate). Coprah oligoesters had the best surfactant properties (CMCethylene glycol monododecyl ether, glycol ethers and fatty acid esters of sorbitan polyethoxylates. The self-assembling properties of oligocarbonate esters were highlighted by their ability to stabilize inverse and multiple emulsions. The oligo-(glycerol carbonate-glycerol ether) with relatively low molecular weights showed properties of relatively high-molecular weight molecules, and constitute a viable "green" alternative to ethoxylated surfactants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of crude glycerol from South African biodiesel production on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of crude glycerol as a partial replacement of maize at 50 g/kg and 100 g/kg in pig grower diets. Three experimental diets were formulated, a control (CN) and two diets containing 50 g/kg (low glycerol (LG)) and 100 g/kg (high glycerol (HG)) glycerol.

  16. Valorization of crude glycerol from biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović Sandra S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of biodiesel as an alternative fuel involves the simultaneous growth in production of crude glycerol as its main by-product. Therefore, the feasibility and sustainability of biodiesel production requires the effective utilization of crude glycerol. This review describes various uses of crude glycerol as a potential green solvent for chemical reactions, a starting raw material for chemical and biochemical conversions into value-added chemicals, a substrate or co-substrate in microbial fermentations for synthesis of valuable chemicals and production of biogas and biohydrogen as well as a feedstuff for animal feed. A special attention is paid to various uses of crude glycerol in biodiesel production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45001

  17. Efficient green methanol synthesis from glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Muhammad H; Dummer, Nicholas F; Knight, David W; Jenkins, Robert L; Howard, Mark; Moulijn, Jacob; Taylor, Stuart H; Hutchings, Graham J

    2015-12-01

    The production of biodiesel from the transesterification of plant-derived triglycerides with methanol has been commercialized extensively. Impure glycerol is obtained as a by-product at roughly one-tenth the mass of the biodiesel. Utilization of this crude glycerol is important in improving the viability of the overall process. Here we show that crude glycerol can be reacted with water over very simple basic or redox oxide catalysts to produce methanol in high yields, together with other useful chemicals, in a one-step low-pressure process. Our discovery opens up the possibility of recycling the crude glycerol produced during biodiesel manufacture. Furthermore, we show that molecules containing at least two hydroxyl groups can be converted into methanol, which demonstrates some aspects of the generality of this new chemistry.

  18. Liquid dynamics in partially crystalline glycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz, Alejandro; Niss, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    influences the liquid dynamics visibly. For one of the samples studied, a tiny fraction of glycerol remained in the disordered state after the end of the transition. We examined the nature of the relaxation in this frustrated crystal and find that it is virtually identical to the bulk dynamics. In addition......, we have found no evidence that supercooled glycerol transforms into a peculiar phase in which either a new solid amorphous state or nano-crystals dispersed in a liquid matrix are formed....

  19. Radiometric assays for glycerol, glucose, and glycogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.C.; Kaslow, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed radiometric assays for small quantities of glycerol, glucose and glycogen, based on a technique described by Thorner and Paulus for the measurement of glycerokinase activity. In the glycerol assay, glycerol is phosphorylated with [32P]ATP and glycerokinase, residual [32P]ATP is hydrolyzed by heating in acid, and free [32P]phosphate is removed by precipitation with ammonium molybdate and triethylamine. Standard dose-response curves were linear from 50 to 3000 pmol glycerol with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Of the substances tested for interference, only dihydroxyacetone gave a slight false positive signal at high concentration. When used to measure glycerol concentrations in serum and in media from incubated adipose tissue, the radiometric glycerol assay correlated well with a commonly used spectrophotometric assay. The radiometric glucose assay is similar to the glycerol assay, except that glucokinase is used instead of glycerokinase. Dose response was linear from 5 to 3000 pmol glucose with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine gave false positive signals when equimolar to glucose. When glucose concentrations in serum were measured, the radiometric glucose assay agreed well with hexokinase/glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H/GDH)-based and glucose oxidase/H2O2-based glucose assays. The radiometric method for glycogen measurement incorporates previously described isolation and digestion techniques, followed by the radiometric assay of free glucose. When used to measure glycogen in mouse epididymal fat pads, the radiometric glycogen assay correlated well with the H/GDH-based glycogen assay. All three radiometric assays offer several practical advantages over spectral assays

  20. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Monica; Mihet, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H 2 . In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al 2 O 3 . The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N 2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H 2 , CH 4 , CO, CO 2 . The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H 2 O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%

  1. From Symmetric Glycerol Derivatives to Dissymmetric Chlorohydrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Villorbina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The anticipated worldwide increase in biodiesel production will result in an accumulation of glycerol for which there are insufficient conventional uses. The surplus of this by-product has increased rapidly during the last decade, prompting a search for new glycerol applications. We describe here the synthesis of dissymmetric chlorohydrin esters from symmetric 1,3-dichloro-2-propyl esters obtained from glycerol. We studied the influence of two solvents: 1,4-dioxane and 1-butanol and two bases: sodium carbonate and 1-butylimidazole, on the synthesis of dissymmetric chlorohydrin esters. In addition, we studied the influence of other bases (potassium and lithium carbonates in the reaction using 1,4-dioxane as the solvent. The highest yield was obtained using 1,4-dioxane and sodium carbonate.

  2. Tandem transformation of glycerol to esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotenko, Maria V; Rebroš, Martin; Sans, Victor S; Loponov, Konstantin N; Davidson, Matthew G; Stephens, Gill; Lapkin, Alexei A

    2012-12-31

    Tandem transformation of glycerol via microbial fermentation and enzymatic esterification is presented. The reaction can be performed with purified waste glycerol from biodiesel production in a continuous mode, combining continuous fermentation with membrane-supported enzymatic esterification. Continuous anaerobic fermentation was optimized resulting in the productivity of 2.4 g L⁻¹ h⁻¹ of 1,3-propanediol. Biphasic esterification of 1,3-propanediol was optimized to achieve ester yield of up to 75%. A hollow fibre membrane contactor with immobilized Rhizomucor miehei lipase was demonstrated for the continuous tandem fermentation-esterification process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of glycerol assimilation and cofactor metabolism in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders Koefoed

    : anaerobic, aerobic and respiration permissive growth in combination with either glycerol as a sole substrate or with co-metabolization of glycerol with common sugar substrates. Although no growth on glycerol was seen, both positive and detrimental effects were observed from cultures with glycerol...... itself under both anaerobic and respiration permissive conditions, but was not found to have the same profound effect on other sugar substrates such as galactose or ribose. Supplementation of nucleosides to the growth medium or increased substrate concentration were found to counteract the inhibitory...... of glycerol kinase from L. lactis, introduction of a heterologous glycerol assimilation pathway and construction of a library of NADH oxidase activity. Based on a preliminary analysis of transcription level data, an attempt was made to stimulate glycerol assimilation by overexpressing the glycerol kinase...

  4. Glycerol hypersensitivity in a Drosophila model for glycerol kinase deficiency is affected by mutations in eye pigmentation genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J Wightman

    Full Text Available Glycerol kinase plays a critical role in metabolism by converting glycerol to glycerol 3-phosphate in an ATP dependent reaction. In humans, glycerol kinase deficiency results in a wide range of phenotypic variability; patients can have severe metabolic and CNS abnormalities, while others possess hyperglycerolemia and glyceroluria with no other apparent phenotype. In an effort to help understand the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the phenotypic variation, we have created a Drosophila model for glycerol kinase deficiency by RNAi targeting of dGyk (CG18374 and dGK (CG7995. As expected, RNAi flies have reduced glycerol kinase RNA expression, reduced phosphorylation activity and elevated glycerol levels. Further investigation revealed these flies to be hypersensitive to fly food supplemented with glycerol. Due to the hygroscopic nature of glycerol, we predict glycerol hypersensitivity is a result of greater susceptibility to desiccation, suggesting glycerol kinase to play an important role in desiccation resistance in insects. To evaluate a role for genetic modifier loci in determining severity of the glycerol hypersensitivity observed in knockdown flies, we performed a preliminary screen of lethal transposon insertion mutant flies using a glycerol hypersensitive survivorship assay. We demonstrate that this type of screen can identify both enhancer and suppressor genetic loci of glycerol hypersensitivity. Furthermore, we found that the glycerol hypersensitivity phenotype can be enhanced or suppressed by null mutations in eye pigmentation genes. Taken together, our data suggest proteins encoded by eye pigmentation genes play an important role in desiccation resistance and that eye pigmentation genes are strong modifiers of the glycerol hypersensitive phenotype identified in our Drosophila model for glycerol kinase deficiency.

  5. Glycerol Hypersensitivity in a Drosophila Model for Glycerol Kinase Deficiency Is Affected by Mutations in Eye Pigmentation Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Patrick J.; Jackson, George R.; Dipple, Katrina M.

    2012-01-01

    Glycerol kinase plays a critical role in metabolism by converting glycerol to glycerol 3-phosphate in an ATP dependent reaction. In humans, glycerol kinase deficiency results in a wide range of phenotypic variability; patients can have severe metabolic and CNS abnormalities, while others possess hyperglycerolemia and glyceroluria with no other apparent phenotype. In an effort to help understand the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the phenotypic variation, we have created a Drosophila model for glycerol kinase deficiency by RNAi targeting of dGyk (CG18374) and dGK (CG7995). As expected, RNAi flies have reduced glycerol kinase RNA expression, reduced phosphorylation activity and elevated glycerol levels. Further investigation revealed these flies to be hypersensitive to fly food supplemented with glycerol. Due to the hygroscopic nature of glycerol, we predict glycerol hypersensitivity is a result of greater susceptibility to desiccation, suggesting glycerol kinase to play an important role in desiccation resistance in insects. To evaluate a role for genetic modifier loci in determining severity of the glycerol hypersensitivity observed in knockdown flies, we performed a preliminary screen of lethal transposon insertion mutant flies using a glycerol hypersensitive survivorship assay. We demonstrate that this type of screen can identify both enhancer and suppressor genetic loci of glycerol hypersensitivity. Furthermore, we found that the glycerol hypersensitivity phenotype can be enhanced or suppressed by null mutations in eye pigmentation genes. Taken together, our data suggest proteins encoded by eye pigmentation genes play an important role in desiccation resistance and that eye pigmentation genes are strong modifiers of the glycerol hypersensitive phenotype identified in our Drosophila model for glycerol kinase deficiency. PMID:22427807

  6. Preparation of silver powder through glycerol process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    These in- clude reduction of silver salts by NaBH4, HCHO/NaOH/ ... solid inorganic/organic salt of metal is suspended in a liquid polyol, the suspension is stirred and heated to a given temperature. The reduction of metallic salt by polyol quantitatively ... Though the solubility of silver nitrate in glycerol at room temperature is ...

  7. Conversion of glycerol to hydrogen rich gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nguyen H; Kannangara, G S Kamali

    2013-12-21

    Presently there is a glut of glycerol as the by-product of biofuel production and it will grow as production increases. The conundrum is how we can consume this material and convert it into a more useful product. One potential route is to reform glycerol to hydrogen rich gas including synthesis gas (CO + H2) and hydrogen. However, there is recent literature on various reforming techniques which may have a bearing on the efficiency of such a process. Hence in this review reforming of glycerol at room temperature (normally photo-catalytic), catalysis at moderate and high temperature and a non-catalytic pyrolysis process are presented. The high temperature processes allow the generation of synthesis gas with the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratios being suitable for synthesis of dimethyl ether, methanol and for the Fischer-Tropsch process using established catalysts. Efficient conversion of synthesis gas to hydrogen involves additional catalysts that assist the water gas shift reaction, or involves in situ capture of carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Reforming at reduced temperatures including photo-reforming offers the opportunity of producing synthesis gas or hydrogen using single catalysts. Together, these processes will assist in overcoming the worldwide glut of glycerol, increasing the competitiveness of the biofuel production and reducing our dependency on the fossil based, hydrogen rich gas.

  8. Synthesis of prebiotic glycerol in interstellar ices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Ralf I; Maity, Surajit; Jones, Brant M

    2015-01-02

    Contemporary mechanisms for the spontaneous formation of glycerol have not been able to explain its existence on early Earth. The exogenous origin and delivery of organic molecules to early Earth presents an alternative route to their terrestrial in situ formation since biorelevant molecules like amino acids, carboxylic acids, and alkylphosphonic acids have been recovered from carbonaceous chondrites. Reported herein is the first in situ identification of glycerol, the key building block of all cellular membranes, formed by exposure of methanol-based - interstellar model ices to ionizing radiation in the form of energetic electrons. These results provide compelling evidence that the radiation-induced formation of glycerol in low-temperature interstellar model ices is facile. Synthesized on interstellar grains and eventually incorporated into the "building material" of solar systems, biorelevant molecules such as glycerol could have been dispensed to habitable planets such as early Earth by comets and meteorites. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. METHYLENE BLUE ADSORPTION FROM GLYCEROL SOLUTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. The mechanism of methylene blue adsorption onto the surface of synthetic acicular habit of α- goethite from glycerol solution has been studied through batch experiment at 25, 30 and 35 0C in a glass cell of minimal dead volume. To describe the adsorption results, an attempt was made to fit the data to the ...

  10. Determining Atmospheric Pressure with a Eudiometer and Glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Jed; Rohald, Kate; Sutton, Atasha

    2010-01-01

    We consider a volume of air trapped over a glycerol column in a eudiometer. We demonstrate that there is an approximately linear relationship between the volume of trapped air and the height of the glycerol column. Simply by moving the eudiometer up and down, we cause the glycerol-column height and trapped-air volume to vary. The plot of volume…

  11. Synthesis of glycerol mono-laurate from lauric acid and glycerol for food antibacterial additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setianto, W. B.; Wibowo, T. Y.; Yohanes, H.; Illaningtyas, F.; Anggoro, D. D.

    2017-05-01

    Synthesis of glycerol mono-laurate (GML) has been performed using esterification reaction of glycerol and lauric acid. The reaction was performed at the condition of temperature of 120-140 °C within 7 hour, variation of molar ratio of glycerol - lauric acid, and was using heterogeneous catalyst of zeolist Y. Without catalyst dealumination the maximum acid conversion was 78%, with GML contained in the sample was 38.6%, and it was obtained at the reaction condition of 140 oC, 15wt% catalyst, and 8:1 molar ratio of glycerol - lauric acid. At the same condition, using dealuminated catalyst, the maximum acid conversion was increased up to 98%, with GML contained in the sample was 50.4%. The GML antibacterial activity was examined. It was observed that the GML has antibacterial activity against gram positive bacterial such as B. cereus and S. aureus.

  12. Clinical heterogeneity and novel mutations in the glycerol kinase gene in three families with isolated glycerol kinase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjarif, D. R.; Sinke, R. J.; Duran, M.; Beemer, F. A.; Kleijer, W. J.; Ploos van Amstel, J. K.; Poll-The, B. T.

    1998-01-01

    Isolated glycerol kinase deficiency (GKD) is an X linked recessive disorder. The clinical and biochemical picture may vary from a childhood metabolic crisis to asymptomatic adult "pseudohypertriglyceridaemia", the result of hyperglycerolaemia. We performed glycerol kinase (GK) gene analysis to study

  13. Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn S Donkin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattle is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05 except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of

  14. An improved glycerol biosensor with an Au-FeS-NAD-glycerol-dehydrogenase anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Aishwarya; Fernando, Sandun

    2017-06-15

    An improved glycerol biosensor was developed via direct attachment of NAD + -glycerol dehydrogenase coenzyme-apoenzyme complex onto supporting gold electrodes, using novel inorganic iron (II) sulfide (FeS)-based single molecular wires. Sensing performance factors, i.e., sensitivity, a detection limit and response time of the FeS and conventional pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-based biosensor were evaluated by dynamic constant potential amperometry at 1.3V under non-buffered conditions. For glycerol concentrations ranging from 1 to 25mM, a 77% increase in sensitivity and a 53% decrease in detection limit were observed for the FeS-based biosensor when compared to the conventional PQQ-based counterpart. The electrochemical behavior of the FeS-based glycerol biosensor was analyzed at different concentrations of glycerol, accompanied by an investigation into the effects of applied potential and scan rate on the current response. Effects of enzyme stimulants ((NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and MnCl 2 ·4H 2 O) concentrations and buffers/pH (potassium phosphate buffer pH 6-8, Tris buffer pH 8-10) on the current responses generated by the FeS-based glycerol biosensor were also studied. The optimal detection conditions were 0.03M (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and 0.3µm MnCl 2 ·4H 2 O in non-buffered aqueous electrolyte under stirring whereas under non-stirring, Tris buffer at pH 10 with 0.03M (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and 30µm MnCl 2 ·4H 2 O were found to be optimal detection conditions. Interference by glucose, fructose, ethanol, and acetic acid in glycerol detection was studied. The observations indicated a promising enhancement in glycerol detection using the novel FeS-based glycerol sensing electrode compared to the conventional PQQ-based one. These findings support the premise that FeS-based bioanodes are capable of biosensing glycerol successfully and may be applicable for other enzymatic biosensors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Glycerol stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Cellular responses and evolved adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattenberger, Florian; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Hallsworth, John E; Fares, Mario A

    2017-03-01

    Glycerol synthesis is key to central metabolism and stress biology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yet the cellular adjustments needed to respond and adapt to glycerol stress are little understood. Here, we determined impacts of acute and chronic exposures to glycerol stress in S. cerevisiae. Glycerol stress can result from an increase of glycerol concentration in the medium due to the S. cerevisiae fermenting activity or other metabolic activities. Acute glycerol-stress led to a 50% decline in growth rate and altered transcription of more than 40% of genes. The increased genetic diversity in S. cerevisiae population, which had evolved in the standard nutrient medium for hundreds of generations, led to an increase in growth rate and altered transcriptome when such population was transferred to stressful media containing a high concentration of glycerol; 0.41 M (0.990 water activity). Evolution of S. cerevisiae populations during a 10-day period in the glycerol-containing medium led to transcriptome changes and readjustments to improve control of glycerol flux across the membrane, regulation of cell cycle, and more robust stress response; and a remarkable increase of growth rate under glycerol stress. Most of the observed regulatory changes arose in duplicated genes. These findings elucidate the physiological mechanisms, which underlie glycerol-stress response, and longer-term adaptations, in S. cerevisiae; they also have implications for enigmatic aspects of the ecology of this otherwise well-characterized yeast. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The expression of glycerol facilitators from various yeast species improves growth on glycerol ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Mathias; Islam, Zia-Ul; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen; Carrillo, Martina; Swinnen, Steve; Workman, Mhairi; Nevoigt, Elke

    2016-12-01

    Glycerol is an abundant by-product during biodiesel production and additionally has several assets compared to sugars when used as a carbon source for growing microorganisms in the context of biotechnological applications. However, most strains of the platform production organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae grow poorly in synthetic glycerol medium. It has been hypothesized that the uptake of glycerol could be a major bottleneck for the utilization of glycerol in S. cerevisiae . This species exclusively relies on an active transport system for glycerol uptake. This work demonstrates that the expression of predicted glycerol facilitators (Fps1 homologues) from superior glycerol-utilizing yeast species such as Pachysolen tannophilus , Komagataella pastoris , Yarrowia lipolytica and Cyberlindnera jadinii significantly improves the growth performance on glycerol of the previously selected glycerol-consuming S. cerevisiae wild-type strain (CBS 6412-13A). The maximum specific growth rate increased from 0.13 up to 0.18 h -1 and a biomass yield coefficient of 0.56 g DW /g glycerol was observed. These results pave the way for exploiting the assets of glycerol in the production of fuels, chemicals and pharmaceuticals based on baker's yeast.

  17. Biological Conversion of Glycerol to Ethanol by Enterobacter aerogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Raymond E. S.

    In a search to turn the economically and environmentally non-valuable "waste" streams of biodiesel production into a profitable byproduct, a mutant strain of Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048 was developed by six-tube subculturing technique. This technique is based on the principle of adaptive evolution, and involved subculturing the bacterium in a tryptic soy broth without dextrose (TSB) containing specific glycerol and ethanol concentration for six consecutive times. Then, the six consecutive subculturing was repeated in a fresh TSB of higher glycerol and ethanol concentrations. A new mutant strain, E. aerogenes S012, which could withstand a combination of 200 g/l glycerol and 30 g/l ethanol concentrations, was developed. The wild and mutant strains were used for the fermentation of pure (P-) and recovered (R-) glycerol. Taguchi and full factorial methods of design of experiments were used to screen and optimize the important process factors that influence the microbial production of ethanol. A statistically sound regression model was used to establish the mathematical relationship between the process variables and ethanol production. Temperature of 38°C, agitation speed of 200 rpm, pH of 6.3-6.6, and microaerobic condition were the optimum process conditions. Different pretreatment methods to recover glycerol from the crude glycerol and the subsequent fermentation method showed that direct acidification using 85% H3PO4 was the best. The R-glycerol contained 51% pure glycerol and 21% methanol. The wild strain, E. aerogenes ATCC 13048, produced only 12 g/l and 12.8 g/l ethanol from 20 g/l P- and R-glycerol respectively, and could not utilize higher glycerol concentrations. The mutant, E. aerogenes S012, produced ethanol amount and yield of 43 g/l and 1.12 mol/mol-glycerol from P-glycerol, respectively within 96 h. It also produced ethanol amount and yield of 26.8 g/l and 1.07 mol/mol-glycerol, respectively, from R-glycerol within the same duration. In a

  18. Isothermal Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Methanol + Glycerol and 1-Propanol + Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annas Wiguno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE data for two binary mixtures of methanol + glycerol and 1-propanol + glycerol were determined at the temperature range from (313.15 to 363.15 K using a simple quasi-static ebulliometer. All systems showed that the vapor pressures increased with increasing alcohols (methanol or 1-propanol concentrations at corresponding system. The Wilson, Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL and Universal Quasi-Chemical (UNIQUAC activity coefficient models were used to correlate the experimental data. Both systems showed slightly deviations from the ideal liquid phase behavior.

  19. Intercalation compounds of vanadium(5) phosphates with glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovleva, T.N.; Vykhodtseva, K.I.; Tarasova, D.V.; Soderzhinova, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Interaction products of glycerol aqueous solutions with vanadium(5) phosphates were investigated by the methods of ESR, X-ray phase and thermal analyses. It is shown that glycerol molecules enter the interlayer space of VOPO 4 · 2H 2 O lattice with formation of disordered intercalated compounds with glycerol on the basis of partially reduced vanadium phosphate form when using α-VOPO 4 . 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. Rebound phenomenon complicating cerebral dehydration with glycerol. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado, R; Tourtellotte, W W; Arieff, A I; Tomiyasu, U; Mishra, S K; Schotz, M C

    1975-02-01

    A patient with glioblastoma multiforme of the brain was treated with both intravenous and oral glycerol as well as intravenous mannitol in an attempt to reduce increased intracranial pressure. After an initial lowering of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure to near normal values during continuous glycerol administration, a secondary rise in CSF pressure above the initial level occurred despite a persistent elevation of plasma osmolality (315 mOsm/kg) and glycerol level (30 mmole/l). Similarly, 4 hours after the administration of a single oral dose of glycerol, CSF pressure increased to levels higher (700 mm H2O) than the original baseline (400 mm H2O).

  1. Growth and energy metabolism of Nile tilapia juveniles fed glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Vicente da Costa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of dietary glycerol in replacement to starch on the growth and energy metabolism of Nile tilapia juveniles. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with four treatments (0, 5, 10, and 15% purified glycerol and six replicates. Pelleted, isonitrogenous, and isocaloric diets were provided for 60 days. Growth performance parameters and muscle glucose and protein concentrations were not affected by dietary glycerol levels. The treatment with 15% glycerol presented higher levels of muscle and liver triglycerides. A quadratic effect of treatments on muscle and liver triglyceride concentrations was observed. The treatment with 0% glycerol presented higher hepatic glucose levels than the one with 15%. Treatments did not differ for concentrations of liver protein, as well as of plasma glucose, triglycerides, and protein. Treatments with 10 and 15% glycerol showed higher activity of the glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase enzyme than the treatment with 5%; however, there were no significant differences in the hepatic activities of the malic and glycerol kinase enzymes. A linear positive effect of treatments was observed on the activity of the glycerol kinase enzyme in liver. Levels of glycerol inclusion above 10% in the diet of Nile tilapia juveniles characterize it as a lipogenic nutrient.

  2. Apposite of pig skin preserved in glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Gonzalez V, C.; Salinas A, M.

    2007-01-01

    In the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) of the ININ apposite of pig skin are processed and preserved to low temperature (-80 C), which are sterilized by irradiation and transported to the hospitals in dry ice to avoid its unfreezing. With the purpose of making more simple the manipulation of the apposite it was carried out this work that consisted on developing the processing of the pig skin using glycerol like preservation medium, since this way the irradiation, the storage and transport of the apposite is carried out at refrigeration temperature, that makes its manage more simple. (Author)

  3. Effects of glycerol on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production using sugarcane bagasse pretreated by acidified glycerol solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanying; Wong, Heng H; Albertson, Peter L; Harrison, Mark D; Doherty, William O S; O'Hara, Ian M

    2015-09-01

    In this study, for the first time the effects of glycerol on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation were investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis was inhibited slightly with 2.0 wt% glycerol, leading to reduction in glucan digestibility from 84.9% without glycerol to 82.9% (72 h). With 5.0 wt% and 10.0 wt% glycerol, glucan digestibility was reduced by 4.5% and 11.0%, respectively. However, glycerol did not irreversibly inhibit cellulase enzymes. Ethanol fermentation was not affected by glycerol up to 5.0 wt%, but was inhibited slightly at 10.0 wt% glycerol, resulting in reduction in ethanol yield from 86.0% in the absence of glycerol to 83.7% (20 h). Based on the results of laboratory and pilot-scale experiments, it was estimated that 0.142 kg ethanol can be produced from 1.0 kg dry bagasse (a glucan content of 38.0%) after pretreatment with acidified glycerol solution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbial community engineering for biopolymer production from glycerol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moralejo-Gárate, H.; Mar'atusalihat, E.; Kleerebezem, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the potential of using microbial community engineering for production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from glycerol was explored. Crude glycerol is a by-product of the biofuel (biodiesel and bioethanol) industry and potentially a good substrate for bioplastic production. A PHA-producing

  5. The Acrylation of Glycerol: a Precursor to Functionalized Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didecanoylacryloylglycerol was synthesized from decanoic and acrylic acids and glycerol using K2O as catalyst. This reaction was carried out in hexane in a closed stainless steel reactor at 200°C for 5h. The reactants were added in a 1:3:4 glycerol:decanoic acid:acrylic acid molar ratio. The resu...

  6. Slow rheological mode in glycerol and glycerol–water mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel Hartmann; Gainaru, Catalin; Alba-Simionesco, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Glycerol–water mixtures were studied at molar concentrations ranging from xgly = 1 (neat glycerol) to xgly = 0.3 using shear mechanical spectroscopy. We observed a low frequency mode in neat glycerol, similar to what has been reported for monohydroxy alcohols. This mode has no dielectric...

  7. Glycerol reforming in supercritical water : a short review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markocic, Elena; Kramberger, Boris; van Bennekom, Joost G.; Heeres, Hero Jan; Vos, John; Knez, Zeljko; Markočič, Elena; Knez, Željko

    Due to the rise in global biodiesel production, the amount of crude glycerol, the main byproduct, has increased steadily. Identification of high value added outlets for crude glycerol has been explored in detail to increase the overall economics of the biodiesel process. Examples are the use of

  8. Development of ethanol production from cooking oil glycerol waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-10-12

    Oct 12, 2016 ... toiletries, plastics, leather, and textile. Glycerol, a major by-product in biodiesel manufacturing process, ..... Purification of crud glycerol from waste cooking oil based biodiesel production by orthogonal test method. China Pet. Process. Petrochem. Technol. 15:48-53. Volker FW, Steffen NL, Tobias MM (2011).

  9. On the amino acid esters of phosphatidyl glycerol from bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtsmuller, U.M.T.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1965-01-01

    1. 1. The phospholipids of Staphylococcus aureus were fractionated on silicic acid columns. The major compounds all appeared to be polyglycerol lipids. Diphosphatidyl glycerol and phosphatidyl glycerol were identified by comparison with the synthetic phospholipids. 2. 2. An amino acid derivative

  10. Effect of crude glycerol from South African biodiesel production on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OlivierR

    2013-06-13

    Jun 13, 2013 ... growth, carcass characteristics and pork quality of pigs. E.K. Chiloane. 2 ... A study was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of crude glycerol as a partial replacement of ... that crude glycerol can be included up to 100 g/kg in grower pig diets without any negative effects on pig performance.

  11. Studi Awal Proses Pembuatan Glycerol Tribenzoat Dari Gliserol Dan Asam Benzoat Dengan Menggunakan Katalis Asam Klorida

    OpenAIRE

    Abdurrakhman, A; Rifianto, Yanuar; Widayat, W

    2013-01-01

    Glycerol esterification process is one method that is widely in the conversion of glycerol. The product of conversion glycerol is environmentally friendly and renewable because it is not derived from petroleum. The products of the conversion of glycerol is commonly used in the food industry, cosmetics industry, polymer industry and can also be used as an additive for biodiesel which is also the compound before the glycerol formed. This study aims to examine the reaction of glycerol and benzoi...

  12. Bioconversion of crude glycerol feedstocks into ethanol by Pachysolen tannophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Workman, Mhairi

    2012-01-01

    Glycerol, the by-product of biodiesel production, is considered as a waste by biodiesel producers. This study demonstrated the potential of utilising the glycerol surplus through conversion to ethanol by the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus (CBS4044). This study demonstrates a robust bioprocess which...... glycerol, corresponding to 56% of the theoretical yield. A staged batch process achieved 28.1 g/L ethanol, the maximum achieved so far for conversion of glycerol to ethanol in a microbial bioprocess. The fermentation physiology has been investigated as a means to designing a competitive bioethanol...... was not sensitive to the batch variability in crude glycerol dependent on raw materials used for biodiesel production. The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) was a key factor for ethanol production, with lower OTR having a positive effect on ethanol production. The highest ethanol production was 17.5 g/L on 5% (v/v) crude...

  13. Conserved family of glycerol kinase loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Agosto, Julian A.; McCabe, Edward R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Glycerol kinase (GK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol, the rate-limiting step in glycerol utilization. We analyzed the genome of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster and identified five GK orthologs, including two loci with sequence homology to the mammalian Xp21 GK protein. Using a combination of sequence analysis and evolutionary comparisons of orthologs between species, we characterized functional domains in the protein required for GK activity. Our findings include additional conserved domains that suggest novel nuclear and mitochondrial functions for glycerol kinase in apoptosis and transcriptional regulation. Investigation of GK function in Drosophila will inform us about the role of this enzyme in development and will provide us with a tool to examine genetic modifiers of human metabolic disorders. PMID:16545593

  14. Microemulsion based hybrid biofuels using glycerol monooleate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, Plaban; Konwar, Lakhya Jyoti; Deka, Dhanapati

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fuel quality of GMO based MHBFs. • Effect of externally added monoglyceride surfactant (GMO) on fuel characteristics of MHBF. • Structural and dynamic behaviors of GMO based MHBFs. • Can offer strong candidature for future biofuel industry. - Abstract: The present investigation aims to highlighten the effect of monoglyceride surfactant (GMO) on structure and dynamic behavior and other fuel characteristics of microemulsion based hybrid biofuels (MHBFs). Fuel quality of MHBFs formulated using purified GMO (>90%), which was prepared by esterification of glycerol, was investigated in the study. Phase behaviors, droplet size distribution, number of droplets present in the system, average droplet size and average length of surface active agents were studied as a part of structural investigations of the GMO based MHBFs. Diffusion coefficient, energy barrier to droplet coalescence and rate of coalescence of droplets were also investigated for the formulated MHBFs. The number of droplets, length of surface active agent and the diffusion co-efficient were in the ranges of 1.87 × 10 21 –5.66 × 10 21 /m 3 , 0.92–1.07 nm and 1.00 × 10 −11 –1.79 × 10 −11 m 2 /s, respectively. The rate of droplet coalescence was obtained in the range 2.77 × 10 −4 –8.78 × 10 −4 times the collision factor. MHBFs incorporating the glycerol derived bio-based nonionic surfactant GMO exhibited viscosity of 4.12 mm 2 /s (at 40 °C), gross calorific value (GCV) of 39.17 MJ/kg and pour point of −7 °C.

  15. Design and analysis of biorefineries based on raw glycerol: addressing the glycerol problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, John A; Rincón, Luis E; Cardona, Carlos A

    2012-05-01

    Glycerol as a low-cost by-product of the biodiesel industry can be considered a renewable building block for biorefineries. In this work, the conversion of raw glycerol to nine added-value products obtained by chemical (syn-gas, acrolein, and 1,2-propanediol) or bio-chemical (ethanol, 1,3-propanediol, d-lactic acid, succinic acid, propionic acid, and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) routes were considered. The technological schemes for these synthesis routes were designed, simulated, and economically assessed using Aspen Plus and Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator, respectively. The techno-economic potential of a glycerol-based biorefinery system for the production of fuels, chemicals, and plastics was analyzed using the commercial Commercial Sale Price/Production Cost ratio criteria, under different production scenarios. More income can be earned from 1,3-propanediol and 1,2-propanediol production, while less income would be obtained from hydrogen and succinic acid. This analysis may be useful mainly for biodiesel producers since several profitable alternatives are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of glycerol administration on experimental brain edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado, R; Arieff, A I; Massry, S G

    1976-01-01

    The effects of glycerol on brain water and solute distribution in cerebral edema are not well known. In brail edema induced in dogs by focal freezing, tissue underlying the necrotic lesion had an elevated water content but the remainder of the brain was unaltered. Administration of glycerol to maintain plasma glycerol at about 35 mM dehydrated normal white matter, but water and solute contents of the edematous white matter were not changed. During the initial 3 hours of glycerol infusion, CSF pressure fell, but when the infusion was continued for 6 hours or more, a gradual rise in CSF pressure was observed. In three animals, the final CSF pressure was higher than preinfusion values. At this time, brain water content was significantly less than normal, but both CSF osmolality and glycerol concentration were higher than plasma. The data show that glycerol infusion can decrease intracranial volume towards normal by dehydration of normal, but not damaged, brain tissue. The rebound rise in CSF pressure observed during the continuous administration of glycerol cannot be explained by rehydration of brain tissue but may be related to alterations in CSF dynamics.

  17. Vanadium-Catalyzed Deoxydehydration of Glycerol Without an External Reductant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Allan Robertson; Nielsen, Lasse Bo; Dethlefsen, Johannes Rytter

    2018-01-01

    A vanadium‐catalysed deoxydehydration (DODH) of neat glycerol has been developed. Cheap and readily available ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3) affords higher yields of allyl alcohol than the well‐established catalyst methyltrioxorhenium. A study in which deuterium‐labelled glycerol was used was und...... was undertaken to further elucidate the dual role of glycerol as both an oxidant and reductant. This study led to the proposal of a metal‐catalysed DODH mechanism for the production of allyl alcohol and a deeper understanding of the formation of the byproducts acrolein and propanal....

  18. Slow rheological mode in glycerol and glycerol–water mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikkel Hartmann; Gainaru, Catalin; Alba-Simionesco, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    counterpart and disappears with increased water concentration. We propose that the hydrogen-bonded network formed between glycerol molecules is responsible for the observed slow mode and that water acts as a plasticizer for the overall dynamics and as a lubricant softening the hydrogen-bonding contribution......Glycerol–water mixtures were studied at molar concentrations ranging from xgly = 1 (neat glycerol) to xgly = 0.3 using shear mechanical spectroscopy. We observed a low frequency mode in neat glycerol, similar to what has been reported for monohydroxy alcohols. This mode has no dielectric...

  19. Glycerol metabolism in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha : phosphorylation as the initial step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, W. de; Harder, W.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1987-01-01

    In Hansenula polymorpha glycerol is metabolized via glycerol kinase and NAD(P)-independent glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) dehydrogenase, enzymes which hitherto were reported to be absent in this methylotrophic yeast. Activity of glycerol kinase was readily detectable when cell-free extracts were

  20. Production of polyhydroxybutyrate and alginate from glycerol by Azotobacter vinelandii under nitrogen-free conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Fuminori; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is an interesting feedstock for biomaterials such as biofuels and bioplastics because of its abundance as a by-product during biodiesel production. Here we demonstrate glycerol metabolism in the nitrogen-fixing species Azotobacter vinelandii through metabolomics and nitrogen-free bacterial production of biopolymers, such as poly-d-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and alginate, from glycerol. Glycerol-3-phosphate was accumulated in A. vinelandii cells grown on glycerol to the exponential phase, and its level drastically decreased in the cells grown to the stationary growth phase. A. vinelandii also overexpressed the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene when it was grown on glycerol. These results indicate that glycerol was first converted to glycerol-3-phosphate by glycerol kinase. Other molecules with industrial interests, such as lactic acid and amino acids including γ-aminobutyric acid, have also been accumulated in the bacterial cells grown on glycerol. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that glycerol-grown A. vinelandii stored PHB within the cells. The PHB production level reached 33% per dry cell weight in nitrogen-free glycerol medium. When grown on glycerol, alginate-overproducing mutants generated through chemical mutagenesis produced 2-fold the amount of alginate from glycerol than the parental wild-type strain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on bacterial production of biopolymers from glycerol without addition of any nitrogen source.

  1. Recent Advances in Glycerol Polymers: Chemistry and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol polymers are attracting increased attention due to the diversity of polymer compositions and architectures available. This article provides a brief chronological review on the current status of these polymers along with representative examples of their use for biomedical applications. First, we describe the underlying chemistry of glycerol, which provides access to a range of monomers for subsequent polymerizations. We then review the various synthetic methodologies to prepare glycerol-based polymers including polyethers, polycarbonates, polyesters, and so forth. Next, we describe several biomedical applications where glycerol polymers are being investigated including carriers for drug delivery, sealants or coatings for tissue repair, and agents possessing antibacterial activity. Fourth, we describe the growing market opportunity for the use of polymers in medicine. Finally we conclude and summarize the findings, as well as discuss potential opportunities for continued research efforts. PMID:25308354

  2. Supercritical water reformation of crude glycerol solution for hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a less desirable byproduct formed in the production of biodiesel via the transesterification otriglycerides and presents a nontrivial issue in terms of developing other beneficial end uses. With an inflated glycer...

  3. Recent advances in glycerol polymers: chemistry and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2014-11-01

    Glycerol polymers are attracting increased attention due to the diversity of polymer compositions and architectures available. This article provides a brief chronological review on the current status of these polymers along with representative examples of their use for biomedical applications. First, the underlying chemistry of glycerol that provides access to a range of monomers for subsequent polymerizations is described. Then, the various synthetic methodologies to prepare glycerol-based polymers including polyethers, polycarbonates, polyesters, and so forth are reviewed. Next, several biomedical applications where glycerol polymers are being investigated including carriers for drug delivery, sealants or coatings for tissue repair, and agents possessing antibacterial activity are described. Fourth, the growing market opportunity for the use of polymers in medicine is described. Finally, the findings are concluded and summarized, as well as the potential opportunities for continued research efforts are discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Glycerol extracting dealcoholization for the biodiesel separation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianchu; Sha, Yong; Zhang, Yun; Yuan, Yunlong; Wu, Housheng

    2011-04-01

    By means of utilizing sunflower oil and Jatropha oil as raw oil respectively, the biodiesel transesterification production and the multi-stage extracting separation were carried out experimentally. Results indicate that dealcoholized crude glycerol can be utilized as the extracting agent to achieve effective separation of methanol from the methyl ester phase, and the glycerol content in the dealcoholized methyl esters is as low as 0.02 wt.%. For the biodiesel separation process utilizing glycerol extracting dealcoholization, its technical and equipment information were acquired through the rigorous process simulation in contrast to the traditional biodiesel distillation separation process, and results show that its energy consumption decrease about 35% in contrast to that of the distillation separation process. The glycerol extracting dealcoholization has sufficient feasibility and superiority for the biodiesel separation process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of visceral adiposity on glycerol pathways in gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeland, Ian J; Hughes, Connor; Ayers, Colby R; Malloy, Craig R; Jin, Eunsook S

    2017-02-01

    To determine the feasibility of using oral 13 C labeled glycerol to assess effects of visceral adiposity on gluconeogenic pathways in obese humans. Obese (BMI ≥30kg/m 2 ) participants without type 2 diabetes underwent visceral adipose tissue (VAT) assessment and stratification by median VAT into high VAT-fasting (n=3), low VAT-fasting (n=4), and high VAT-refed (n=2) groups. Participants ingested [U- 13 C 3 ] glycerol and blood samples were subsequently analyzed at multiple time points over 3h by NMR spectroscopy. The fractions of plasma glucose (enrichment) derived from [U- 13 C 3 ] glycerol via hepatic gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were assessed using 13 C NMR analysis of glucose. Mixed linear models were used to compare 13 C enrichment in glucose between groups. Mean age, BMI, and baseline glucose were 49years, 40.1kg/m 2 , and 98mg/dl, respectively. Up to 20% of glycerol was metabolized in the TCA cycle prior to gluconeogenesis and PPP activity was minor (gluconeogenesis from glycerol in obese humans. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that excess visceral fat disrupts multiple pathways in hepatic gluconeogenesis from glycerol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrogen generation from glycerol in batch fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, K.; Waligorska, M.; Wojtowski, M.; Laniecki, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    The influence of concentration of glycerol, inoculum and total nitrogen on hydrogen generation, in batch dark fermentation process in the presence of digested sludge (at 37 C and at initial pH = 6) was studied. Changes in substrate and products concentrations were modeled with modified Gompertz equations (correlation coefficient R{sup 2} = 0.9015). The 1,3-propandiol, butyric acid, acetic acid, lactic acid and ethanol were found as the main liquid metabolites. Maximal substrate yield for hydrogen was 0.41 mol H{sub 2}/mol glycerol and was obtained for medium containing 10 g/l of glycerol with the lowest amount of inoculum - 1.16 g volatile suspended solid (VSS)/l. Increase of glycerol concentration from 5 to 30 g/l resulted in much better hydrogen generation, namely from 0.345 to 0.715 l H{sub 2}/l. Further increase of glycerol concentration did not cause any changes. The H{sub 2}:CO{sub 2} ratio in biogas in system with the highest substrate yield was always 1. The initial concentration of glycerol does not influence the rate of hydrogen generation. The increase of initial concentration of inoculum from 1.2 to 11.6 g VSS/l results in the decrease of specific hydrogen yield. Nitrogen concentration in medium does not influence the hydrogen production. (author)

  7. Baker's yeast catalyzed asymmetric reduction of methyl acetoacetate in glycerol containing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Wolfson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric hydrogenation of methyl acetoacetate was successfully performed with baker's yeast in pure glycerol and mixtures of glycerol and water. Though yeast viability was very low after exposure to glycerol, the enzymatic activity in pure glycerol was preserved for some days. In addition, a mixture of glycerol and water combined the advantageous of each individual solvent and resulted in high catalytic performance and efficient product extraction yield

  8. Processes and systems for the production of propylene glycol from glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, John G; Oberg, Aaron A; Zacher, Alan H

    2015-01-20

    Processes and systems for converting glycerol to propylene glycol are disclosed. The glycerol feed is diluted with propylene glycol as the primary solvent, rather than water which is typically used. The diluted glycerol feed is sent to a reactor where the glycerol is converted to propylene glycol (as well as other byproducts) in the presence of a catalyst. The propylene glycol-containing product from the reactor is recycled as a solvent for the glycerol feed.

  9. Combinations of glycerol percent, glycerol equilibration time, and thawing rate upon freezability of bull spermatozoa in plastic straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggin, H B; Almquist, J O

    1975-03-01

    Twelve ejaculates were used in a central composite experiment to test 15 combinations of glycerol (7, 9, 11, 13, or 15%), glycerol equilibration times (1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 h) and thawing rates (water at 35 C for 15 s, 50 C for 13 s, 65 C for 11 s, 80 C for 9 s, or 95 C for 7 s). Semen was diluted in heated skim milk-glycerol, packaged in .3-ml. Continental U.S. straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor. Based on post-thaw progressive sperm motility after storage at -196 C for 9 to 11 days, estimated optima from multiple regression were 10.7% for glycerol, 2.0 h for glycerol equilibration time, and 76 C for thawing bath temperature. Only the linear effect for each variable was significant. Much faster thawing rates and shorter glycerol equilibration times than those for freezing bull spermatozoa in glass ampules should be used for maximum post-thaw sperm motility in straws.

  10. Activation of glycerol metabolic pathway by evolutionary engineering of Rhizopus oryzae to strengthen the fumaric acid biosynthesis from crude glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Di; Wang, Ru; Du, Wenjie; Wang, Guanyi; Xia, Menglei

    2015-11-01

    Rhizopus oryzae is strictly inhibited by biodiesel-based by-product crude glycerol, which results in low fumaric acid production. In this study, evolutionary engineering was employed to activate the glycerol utilization pathway for fumaric acid production. An evolved strain G80 was selected, which could tolerate and utilize high concentrations of crude glycerol to produce 14.9g/L fumaric acid with a yield of 0.248g/g glycerol. Key enzymes activity analysis revealed that the evolved strain displayed a significant upregulation in glycerol dissimilation, pyruvate consumption and reductive tricarboxylic acid pathways, compared with the parent strain. Subsequently, intracellular metabolic profiling analysis showed that amino acid biosynthesis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acid and stress response metabolites accounted for metabolic difference between two strains. Moreover, a glycerol fed-batch strategy was optimized to obtain the highest fumaric acid production of 25.5g/L, significantly increased by 20.9-fold than that of the parent strain of 1.2g/L. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Crude glycerol-based production of amino acids and putrescine by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiswinkel, Tobias M; Rittmann, Doris; Lindner, Steffen N; Wendisch, Volker F

    2013-10-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum possesses genes for glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that were shown to support slow growth with glycerol only when overexpressed from a plasmid. Pure glycerol and crude glycerol from biodiesel factories were tested for growth of recombinant strains expressing glpF, glpK and glpD from Escherichia coli. Some, but not all crude glycerol lots served as good carbon sources. Although the inhibitory compound(s) present in these crude glycerol lots remained unknown, the addition of substoichiometric glucose concentrations (below 10% by weight) enabled the utilization of some of the inhibitory crude glycerol lots. Besides growth, production of the amino acids L-glutamate, L-lysine, L-ornithine and L-arginine as well as of the diamine putrescine based on crude glycerol qualities from biodiesel factories was demonstrated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of Carrageenan Edible films Plasticized with Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arham Rusli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentration of base materials and plasticizers used in the formulation of edible film was believed to affect physical characteristics of the film. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of base material (carrageenan and plasticiser (glycerol concentrations on the characteristics of edible films produced and to determine the best concentrations of these two components based on the physical characteristics of the films. The experiment was conducted using a completely randomized factorial design with triplicated. The treatments applied were the concentrations of carrageenan (1%, 2%, and 3% (w/v and glycerol (5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w. The results showed that carrageenan and glycerol concentrations used in the formulation of edible film affect the edible film characteristics. Film thickness and moisture content were significantly influenced by carrageenan and glycerol concentrations, while film elongation was only affected by carrageenan concentration. The best physical characteristic of the edible films was obtained when carrageenan and glycerol concentrations were 3% and 10% respectively.

  13. Digestible energy of crude glycerol for pacu and silver catfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ernesto Balen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in global biodiesel production is originating a glycerol surplus, which has no defined destination. An alternative to overcome this problem is its use as energy source in animal feeding. In Brazil, Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus is one of the most farmed native fish species, whereas Silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen is suitable for production in subtropical region. Considering little knowledge about crude glycerol utilization in feeds for Neotropical fish species, it was evaluated the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs for energy of crude glycerol for P. mesopotamicus and R. quelen. The digestibility and digestible energy content of crude glycerol can be considered excellent even when compared to energy of common ingredients such as maize and wheat, presenting 0.97 and 0.89 of energy ADCs, and 15.2 and 13.95MJ kg-1 of digestible energy for Pacu and Silver catfish, respectively. In conclusion, crude glycerol is an energetic ingredient with good potential in Brazilian native fish diets.

  14. An experimental and kinetic modeling study of glycerol pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantozzi, F.; Frassoldati, A.; Bartocci, P.; Cinti, G.; Quagliarini, F.; Bidini, G.; Ranzi, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Glycerol pyrolysis can produce about 44–48%v hydrogen at 750–800 °C. • A simplified 452 reactions kinetic model of glycerol pyrolysis has been developed. • The model has good agreement with experimental data. • Non condensable gas yields can reach 70%. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of glycerol, a by-product of the biodiesel industry, is an important potential source of hydrogen. The obtained high calorific value gas can be used either as a fuel for combined heat and power (CHP) generation or as a transportation fuel (for example hydrogen to be used in fuel cells). Optimal process conditions can improve glycerol pyrolysis by increasing gas yield and hydrogen concentration. A detailed kinetic mechanism of glycerol pyrolysis, which involves 137 species and more than 4500 reactions, was drastically simplified and reduced to a new skeletal kinetic scheme of 44 species, involved in 452 reactions. An experimental campaign with a batch pyrolysis reactor was properly designed to further validate the original and the skeletal mechanisms. The comparisons between model predictions and experimental data strongly suggest the presence of a catalytic process promoting steam reforming of methane. High pyrolysis temperatures (750–800 °C) improve process performances and non-condensable gas yields of 70%w can be achieved. Hydrogen mole fraction in pyrolysis gas is about 44–48%v. The skeletal mechanism developed can be easily used in Computational Fluid Dynamic software, reducing the simulation time.

  15. Effects of addition glycerol co-product of biodiesel in the thermophysical properties of water-glycerol solution applied as secondary coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Pedro Samuel Gomes; Barbosa, Cleiton Rubens Formiga; Fontes, Francisco de Assis Oliveira [Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Energy Laboratory. Thermal Systems Studies Group], e-mail: cleiton@ufrnet.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper evaluates the effects of glycerol concentration on thermophysical properties of water-glycerol solution applied as a secondary coolant in refrigeration systems by expansion-indirect. The processing of triglycerides for biodiesel production generates glycerol as co-product and there are concerns of environmental and economic order on the surplus of glycerol. The addition of glycerol in water alters the colligative and thermophysical properties (melting point, mass, specific heat, thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity). There are studies that prove the feasibility of using glycerol as an additive and this paper has the goal to verify the changes on properties compared with pure water. This comparison was made from data obtained by the software simulation and they analyzed using graphs and tables. It was shown that glycerol increases the density and dynamic viscosity, and reduces the specific heat and thermal conductivity. This behavior of water-glycerol solution is proportional to the mass concentration of glycerol and it is justified because the glycerol has low values of specific heat, thermal conductivity and high viscosity when compared with water. Despite the losses in the thermophysical properties, glycerol shows its potential application, because of the cryoscopic effect and it is a non-toxic substance at low cost. (author)

  16. Towards the sustainable production of acrolein by glycerol dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katryniok, Benjamin; Paul, Sébastien; Capron, Mickaël; Dumeignil, Franck

    2009-01-01

    The massive increase in biodiesel production by transesterification of vegatable oils goes hand-in-hand with the availability of a large volume of glycerol, which must be valorized. Glycerol dehydration to acrolein over acid catalysts is one of the most promising ways of valorization, because this compound is an important chemical intermediate used in, for example, the DL-methionine synthesis. In this Minireview, we give a detailed critical view of the state-of-the-art of this dehydration reaction. The processes developed in both the liquid and the gas phases are detailed and the best catalytic results obtained so far are reported as a benchmark for future developments. The advances on the understanding of the reaction mechanism are also discussed and we further focus particularly on the main obstacles for an immediate industrial application of this technology, namely catalyst coking and crude glycerol direct-use issues.

  17. Studies on the dehydration of glycerol over niobium catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Yi; Moon, Dong Ju; Kim, Jong Ho; Park, Nam Cook; Kim, Young Chul

    2011-08-01

    The dehydration of glycerol over nanosize niobium catalysts was conducted in a stainless steel autoclave reactor. The catalysts were prepared by the calcination of niobium oxalate between 200 and 700 degrees C. Catalysts were characterized by N2 Physisorption, XRD and TPD of ammonia to investigate the effect of the calcination temperature and water on catalytic performance, catalysts' structures and acidity. Acrolein was mainly produced about 51-71% with useful by-products such as acetaldehyde and methanol. Amorphous Nb2O5 catalysts calcined at 200-400 degrees C significantly showed higher conversion of glycerol than the crystallized Nb2O5 catalyst calcined at 500-700 degrees C. Also the conversion of glycerol and selectivity of acrolein was increased with increasing the acidity of catalyst, which can be controlled by calcination temperature.

  18. Ru/FTO: Heterogeneous catalyst for glycerol hydrogenolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Wan Zurina; Isahak, Wan Nor Roslam Wan; Liew, Kin Hong; Nordin, Norazzizi; Yarmo, Mohd Ambar; Yusop, Muhammad Rahimi

    2014-09-01

    An introduction of Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as new catalyst support with Ru metal had enhanced the conversion and selectivity for glycerol hydrogenolysis. A small cluster of Ru were highly dispersed and intercalated over FTO via simple chemical mixture and reduction method. In comparison with various metal (Pd, Os, Cu), Ru/FTO catalyst showed the highest conversion (100%) and highly selectivity of 1,2-propanediol (94%) in the hydrogenolysis of glycerol. The reaction was optimally conducted at 150 °C, 20 bar of H2 pressure and at 8 hours. Ru/FTO catalyst was ascribed as active catalyst due to the amphoteric sites of FTO and small size of Ru metal. This provides high surface concentration of reduction process that involves the chemical bond dissociation in the glycerol hydrogenolysis.

  19. Crude glycerol combustion: Particulate, acrolein, and other volatile organic emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Steinmetz, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Crude glycerol is an abundant by-product of biodiesel production. As volumes of this potential waste grow, there is increasing interest in developing new value added uses. One possible use, as a boiler fuel for process heating, offers added advantages of energy integration and fossil fuel substitution. However, challenges to the use of crude glycerol as a boiler fuel include its low energy density, high viscosity, and high autoignition temperature. We have previously shown that a refractory-lined, high swirl burner can overcome challenges related to flame ignition and stability. However, critical issues related to ash behavior and the possible formation of acrolein remained. The work presented here indicates that the presence of dissolved catalysts used during the esterification and transesterification processes results in extremely large amounts of inorganic species in the crude glycerol. For the fuels examined here, the result is a submicron fly ash comprised primarily of sodium carbonates, phosphates, and sulfates. These particles report to a well-developed accumulation mode (0.3-0.7 μm diameter), indicating extensive ash vaporization and particle formation via nucleation, condensation, and coagulation. Particle mass emissions were between 2 and 4 g/m3. These results indicate that glycerol containing soluble catalyst is not suitable as a boiler fuel. Fortunately, process improvements are currently addressing this issue. Additionally, acrolein is of concern due to its toxicity, and is known to be formed from the low temperature thermal decomposition of glycerol. Currently, there is no known reliable method for measuring acrolein in sources. Acrolein and emissions of other volatile organic compounds were characterized through the use of a SUMMA canister-based sampling method followed by GC-MS analysis designed for ambient measurements. Results indicate crude glycerol combustion produces relatively small amounts of acrolein (∼15 ppbv) and other volatile organic

  20. Chemical and biological conversion of crude glycerol derived from waste cooking oil to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiaxin; Yan, Song; Zhang, Xiaolei; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal; Surampalli, Rao Y; Valéro, J R

    2018-01-01

    In this study, crude, purified, and pure glycerol were used to cultivate Trichosporon oleaginosus for lipid production which was then used as feedstock of biodiesel production. The purified glycerol was obtained from crude glycerol by removing soap with addition of H 3 PO 4 which converted soap to free fatty acids and then separated from the solution. The results showed that purified glycerol provided similar performance as pure glycerol in lipid accumulation; however, crude glycerol as carbon source had negatively impacted the lipid production of T. oleaginosus. Purified glycerol was later used to determine the optimal glycerol concentration for lipid production. The highest lipid yield 0.19g/g glycerol was obtained at 50g/L purified glycerol in which the biomass concentration and lipid content were 10.75g/L and 47% w/w, respectively. An energy gain of 4150.51MJ could be obtained with 1tonne of the crude glycerol employed for biodiesel production through the process proposed in this study. The biodiesel production cost estimated was 6.32US$/gal. Fatty acid profiles revealed that C16:0 and C18:1 were the major compounds of the biodiesel from the lipid produced by T. oleaginosus cultivated with crude and purified glycerol. The study found that purified glycerol was promising carbon source for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Propylene from renewable resources: catalytic conversion of glycerol into propylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yong-Mei; He, He-Yong; Fan, Kang-Nian; Cao, Yong

    2014-03-01

    Propylene, one of the most demanded commodity chemicals, is obtained overwhelmingly from fossil resources. In view of the diminishing fossil resources and the ongoing climate change, the identification of new efficient and alternative routes for the large-scale production of propylene from biorenewable resources has become essential. Herein, a new selective route for the synthesis of propylene from bio-derived glycerol is demonstrated. The route consists of the formation of 1-propanol (a versatile bulk chemical) as intermediate through hydrogenolysis of glycerol at a high selectivity. A subsequent dehydration produces propylene. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Freeze resistance in rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax): seasonal pattern of glycerol and antifreeze protein levels and liver enzyme activity associated with glycerol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Johanne M; Ewart, K Vanya; Driedzic, William R

    2004-01-01

    Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) inhabit inshore waters along the North American Atlantic coast. During the winter, these waters are frequently ice covered and can reach temperatures as low as -1.9 degrees C. To prevent freezing, smelt accumulate high levels of glycerol, which lower the freezing point via colligative means, and antifreeze proteins (AFP). The up-regulation of the antifreeze response (both glycerol and AFP) occurs in early fall, when water temperatures are 5 degrees -6 degrees C. The accumulation of glycerol appears to be the main mechanism of freeze resistance in smelt because it contributes more to the lowering of the body's freezing point than the activity of the AFP (0.5 degrees C vs. 0.25 degrees C for glycerol and AFP, respectively) at a water temperature of -1.5 degrees C. Moreover, AFP in smelt appears to be a safeguard mechanism to prevent freezing when glycerol levels are low. Significant increases in activities of the liver enzymes glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) during the initiation of glycerol production and significant correlations between enzyme activities and plasma glycerol levels suggest that these enzymes are closely associated with the synthesis and maintenance of elevated glycerol levels for use as an antifreeze. These findings add further support to the concept that carbon for glycerol is derived from amino acids.

  3. Synthesis of High-Molecular-Weight Multifunctional Glycerol Polyhydroxyurethanes PHUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam Nohra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol carbonate acrylate is a 5-membered cyclic carbonate synthesized from glycerol that is used as a chemical coupling agent and has proven highly suitable for use in the synthesis of multifunctional polyhydroxyurethanes (PHUs. The multifunctionality of the structure of PHUs is determined by the density of the carbon-amine groups generated by the Aza-Michael reaction and that of the urethane groups and adjacent primary and secondary hydroxyl groups generated by aminolysis. Glycerol carbonate acrylate is polymerized with polyfunctional mono-, di-, tri, and tetra-amines, by type-AB polyaddition, either in bulk or in solution, through stepwise or one-pot reaction strategies in the absence of added catalysts. These approaches result in the generation of linear, interchain, and crosslinked structures, through the polyaddition of linear and branched amines to the ethylene and cyclic carbonate sites of glycerol carbonate acrylate. The resulting collection of organic molecules gives rise to polyethylene amino ester PHUs with a high molar mass, exceeding 20,000 g·mol−1, with uniform dispersity.

  4. Production of glycerol from palm kernel oil | Antia | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glycerol production using Palm Kernel Oil (PKO) as a potential raw material was investigated. PKO was optimally hydrolyzed at 268 °C and 500psi (34 atm) pressure using only water. A 96.85 percent maximum yield of the extent of hydrolysis at 61.86 percent water and 38.14 percent oil was achieved The percentage Df ...

  5. Genetic determinants for enhanced glycerol growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Steve; Ho, Ping-Wei; Klein, Mathias; Nevoigt, Elke

    2016-07-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae generally shows a low natural capability to utilize glycerol as the sole source of carbon, particularly when synthetic medium is used and complex supplements are omitted. Nevertheless, wild type isolates have been identified that show a moderate growth under these conditions. In the current study we made use of intraspecies diversity to identify targets suitable for reverse metabolic engineering of the non-growing laboratory strain CEN.PK113-1A. A genome-wide genetic mapping experiment using pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis was conducted, and one major and several minor genetic loci were identified responsible for the superior glycerol growth phenotype of the previously selected S. cerevisiae strain CBS 6412-13A. Downscaling of the major locus by fine-mapping and reciprocal hemizygosity analysis allowed the parallel identification of two superior alleles (UBR2CBS 6412-13A and SSK1CBS 6412-13A). These alleles together with the previously identified GUT1CBS 6412-13A allele were used to replace the corresponding alleles in the strain CEN.PK113-1A. In this way, glycerol growth could be established reaching a maximum specific growth rate of 0.08h(-1). Further improvement to a maximum specific growth rate of 0.11h(-1) could be achieved by heterologous expression of the glycerol facilitator FPS1 from Cyberlindnera jadinii. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. EFFECT OF GLYCEROL SEPARATION ON PALM OIL TRANSESTERIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budy Rahmat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the effect of glycerol separation on palm oil transesterification. Objectives of this study were to suppress the use of excess methanol and shorten the processing time. This research consisted of: design-build reactor, the effect of the glycerol separation on the transesterification reaction, characterization of biodiesel, and mass balance analysis. The reactor was designed by integrating circulate stirrer pump, static mixer, and sprayer that will bring out the intense reaction in the outer tank reactor. The experiment in this research was the treatment of decreasing the quantity of methanol to 5:1 molar ratio and reducing of processing time to 20 min, which was arranged in a completely randomized factorial design. The result showed that, (i the stirring system was effectively worked outside the reactor tank, and in its reactor tank occurred glycerol separation during the process; (ii the rate of glycerol during the process followed the inverse regression equation of Ŷ = 66.44-351.17 X-1; (iii the decrease in the level of methanol to 5:1 molar ratio and the reduction of processing time to 20 min in this engineering did not influence the biodiesel yield and quality that met the SNI 04-7182-2006 standard.

  7. Development of ethanol production from cooking oil glycerol waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial strains, capable of producing ethanol by using cooking oil glycerol waste (derived from biodiesel production) as sole C-source were screened from soil samples. Based on 16S rRNA sequence, the selected strain was identified as Enterobacter aerogenes G2WG. The sequence was submitted to GenBank and the ...

  8. Crude glycerol combustion: particulate, acrolein, and other volatile organic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crude glycerol is an abundant by-product of biodiesel production. As volumes of this potential waste grow, there is increasing interest in developing new value added uses. One possible use, as a boiler fuel for process heating, offers added advantages of energy integration and ...

  9. Investigation of glycerol polymerization in the clinker grinding process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parvulescu, A.N.; Rossi, M.; Della Pina, C.; Ciriminna, R.; Pagliaro, M.

    2011-01-01

    Concrete production is a large scale process that involves high energy consumption. In order to increase the sustainability of this process, the reduction of energy input is necessary. Bio-glycerol was demonstrated to be a highly efficient renewable-based additive in the grinding process for

  10. Novel inhibitors of mitochondrial sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L Orr

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH is a ubiquinone-linked enzyme in the mitochondrial inner membrane best characterized as part of the glycerol phosphate shuttle that transfers reducing equivalents from cytosolic NADH into the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Despite the widespread expression of mGPDH and the availability of mGPDH-null mice, the physiological role of this enzyme remains poorly defined in many tissues, likely because of compensatory pathways for cytosolic regeneration of NAD⁺ and mechanisms for glycerol phosphate metabolism. Here we describe a novel class of cell-permeant small-molecule inhibitors of mGPDH (iGP discovered through small-molecule screening. Structure-activity analysis identified a core benzimidazole-phenyl-succinamide structure as being essential to inhibition of mGPDH while modifications to the benzimidazole ring system modulated both potency and off-target effects. Live-cell imaging provided evidence that iGPs penetrate cellular membranes. Two compounds (iGP-1 and iGP-5 were characterized further to determine potency and selectivity and found to be mixed inhibitors with IC₅₀ and K(i values between ∼1-15 µM. These novel mGPDH inhibitors are unique tools to investigate the role of glycerol 3-phosphate metabolism in both isolated and intact systems.

  11. Dark fermentative bioconversion of glycerol to hydrogen by Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prasun; Sharma, Rishi; Ray, Subhasree; Mehariya, Sanjeet; Patel, Sanjay K S; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kalia, Vipin C

    2015-04-01

    Biodiesel manufacturing units discharge effluents rich in glycerol. The need is to convert crude glycerol (CG) into useful products such as hydrogen (H2). Under batch culture, Bacillusthuringiensis EGU45 adapted on pure glycerol (PG, 2% v/v) resulted in an H2 yield of 0.646 mol/mol glycerol consumed on minimal media (250 mL) supplemented with 1% ammonium nitrate at 37°C over 4 days. Here, H2 constituted 67% of the total biogas. Under continuous culture, at 2 days of hydraulic retention time, B. thuringiensis immobilized on ligno-cellulosic materials (banana leaves - BL, 10% v/v) resulted in a H2 yield of 0.386 mol/mol PG consumed. On CG, the maximal H2 yield of 0.393 mol/mol feed consumed was recorded. In brief, B. thuringiensis could transform CG, on limited resources - minimal medium with sodium nitrate, by immobilizing them on cheap and easily available biowaste, which makes it a suitable candidate for H2 production on a large scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluorescence anisotropy of acridinedione dyes in glycerol: Prolate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Time-dependent reorientations of resorcinol-based acridinidione (ADR) dyes in glycerol were studied using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence studies. The difference between fluorescence anisotropy decays recorded at 460 nm when exciting at 250 nm and those obtained when exciting at 394 nm are reported.

  13. Isolated and contiguous glycerol kinase gene disorders: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjarif, D. R.; Ploos van Amstel, J. K.; Duran, M.; Beemer, F. A.; Poll-The, B. T.

    2000-01-01

    Glycerol kinase deficiency (GKD) is an X-linked recessive disorder. There are two types. an isolated form and a complex form. We review the clinical, biochemical and molecular genetic features of GKD. The clinical and biochemical phenotype of isolated GKD may vary from a life-threatening childhood

  14. Methylene blue adsorption from glycerol solution onto the acicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanism of methylene blue adsorption onto the surface of synthetic acicular habit of α-goethite from glycerol solution has been studied through batch experiment at 25, 30 and 35 0C in a glass cell of minimal dead volume. To describe the adsorption results, an attempt was made to fit the data to the Langmuir, ...

  15. Production of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol by engineered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    propanediol ... 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PD) is one of the most interested ..... containing 40 g/L glycerol. The values showed were averaged from two independent triplicate experiments with means less than 5%. 1 2 M 3 4. kDa. 116.0.

  16. Elastic neutron scattering study of proton dynamics in glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornicchi, Elena; Cinelli, Stefania; Natali, Francesca; Onori, Giuseppe; Paciaroni, Alessandro

    2004-07-01

    A recent neutron scattering investigation on lysozyme embedded in glycerol-water mixtures has shown that solvent dynamics is crucial in determining the dynamical properties of the biomolecule itself (Biophys. J. 83 (2002) 1157). To better understand the role played by solvent, we have performed an elastic incoherent neutron scattering (INS) experiment as a function of the temperature on pure glycerol. To directly compare the dynamics of the solvated protein and that of the pure solvent, we settled the same experimental conditions and applied the same data analysis procedure as in Paciaroni et al. (Biophys. J. 83 (2002) 1157). By using a double-well model and taking into account for the global molecular diffusion, we exploited the measured intensity to estimate the mean square displacements (MSD) of glycerol hydrogen atoms. We found that the total MSD deviate from the low-temperature vibrational harmonic trend at approximately T=235K, consistent with the value of the critical temperature reported in literature (Phys. Rev. E 55 (1997) 3183). The present investigation suggests that the internal dynamics of glycerol molecules, i.e. the vibrations and reorientations of hydrogen atoms relative to the molecular centre of mass (c.o.m.), can be put in relationship with the protein dynamics.

  17. Elastic neutron scattering study of proton dynamics in glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornicchi, Elena; Cinelli, Stefania; Natali, Francesca; Onori, Giuseppe; Paciaroni, Alessandro

    2004-01-01

    A recent neutron scattering investigation on lysozyme embedded in glycerol-water mixtures has shown that solvent dynamics is crucial in determining the dynamical properties of the biomolecule itself (Biophys. J. 83 (2002) 1157). To better understand the role played by solvent, we have performed an elastic incoherent neutron scattering (INS) experiment as a function of the temperature on pure glycerol. To directly compare the dynamics of the solvated protein and that of the pure solvent, we settled the same experimental conditions and applied the same data analysis procedure as in Paciaroni et al. (Biophys. J. 83 (2002) 1157). By using a double-well model and taking into account for the global molecular diffusion, we exploited the measured intensity to estimate the mean square displacements (MSD) of glycerol hydrogen atoms. We found that the total MSD deviate from the low-temperature vibrational harmonic trend at approximately T=235 K, consistent with the value of the critical temperature reported in literature (Phys. Rev. E 55 (1997) 3183). The present investigation suggests that the internal dynamics of glycerol molecules, i.e. the vibrations and reorientations of hydrogen atoms relative to the molecular centre of mass (c.o.m.), can be put in relationship with the protein dynamics

  18. (glycerol-phthalate) based alkyd coating exposed to outdoor weather

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of weathering on poly(glycerol-phthalate) based alkyd coatings of the unstabilised and stabilised samples using varying amounts of dibutyltin distearate have been studied. The weathering and stabilization processes were monitored using infrared spectroscopy,gel formation, colour development, tensile strength ...

  19. Liquid phase conversion of Glycerol to Propanediol over highly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    high acidic strength. Further, the effects of temperature, hydrogen pressure, catalyst loading and glycerol con- centration were studied over 25Cu/MgO catalyst for optimization of reaction parameters. Kinetic .... ous sodium hydrogen carbonate solution until the pH ... Temperature programmed reduction experiments with.

  20. Utilization of a waste glycerol fraction using and reusing immobilized Gluconobacter oxydans ATCC 621 cell extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Stasiak-Różańska

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: The method proposed in this work is based on the conversion of waste glycerol to dihydroxyacetone in a reaction catalyzed by immobilized Gluconobacter oxydans cell extract with glycerol dehydrogenase activity, and it could be an effective way to convert waste glycerol into a valuable product.

  1. Glycerol reforming and methanol synthesis for the production of renewable methanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bennekom, Joost Gerardus

    2013-01-01

    De productie van biodiesel is flink toegenomen in het eerste decennium van de 21ste eeuw. Bij de productie van 100 kg biodiesel komt ongeveer 10 kg aan glycerol vrij, wat heeft geleid tot een sterk gestegen glycerol aanbod. Een mogelijkheid om wat met de glycerol te doen, is het omzetten van

  2. Dynamical modeling of liver Aquaporin-9 expression and glycerol permeability in hepatic glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gena, Patrizia; Buono, Nicoletta Del; D'Abbicco, Marcello; Mastrodonato, Maria; Berardi, Marco; Svelto, Maria; Lopez, Luciano; Calamita, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Liver is crucial in the homeostasis of glycerol, an important metabolic intermediate. Plasma glycerol is imported by hepatocytes mainly through Aquaporin-9 (AQP9), an aquaglyceroporin channel negatively regulated by insulin in rodents. AQP9 is of critical importance in glycerol metabolism since hepatic glycerol utilization is rate-limited at the hepatocyte membrane permeation step. Glycerol kinase catalyzes the initial step for the conversion of the imported glycerol into glycerol-3-phosphate, a major substrate for de novo synthesis of glucose (gluconeogenesis) and/or triacyglycerols (lipogenesis). A model addressing the glucose-insulin system to describe the hepatic glycerol import and metabolism and the correlation with the glucose homeostasis is lacking so far. Here we consider a system of first-order ordinary differential equations delineating the relevance of hepatocyte AQP9 in liver glycerol permeability. Assuming the hepatic glycerol permeability as depending on the protein levels of AQP9, a mathematical function is designed describing the time course of the involvement of AQP9 in mouse hepatic glycerol metabolism in different nutritional states. The resulting theoretical relationship is derived fitting experimental data obtained with murine models at the fed, fasted or re-fed condition. While providing useful insights into the dynamics of liver AQP9 involvement in male rodent glycerol homeostasis our model may be adapted to the human liver serving as an important module of a whole body-model of the glucose metabolism both in health and metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Glycerol fermentation to hydrogen by Thermotoga maritima: Proposed pathway and bioenergetic considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maru, B.T.; Bielen, A.A.M.; Constanti, M.; Medina, F.; Kengen, S.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    The production of biohydrogen from glycerol, by the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima DSM 3109, was investigated in batch and chemostat systems. T. maritima converted glycerol to mainly acetate, CO2 and H2. Maximal hydrogen yields of 2.84 and 2.41 hydrogen per glycerol were observed

  4. Metabolic engineering for high glycerol production by the anaerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkiv, Marta V; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Abbas, Charles A; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2017-06-01

    Glycerol is used by the cosmetic, paint, automotive, food, and pharmaceutical industries and for production of explosives. Currently, glycerol is available in commercial quantities as a by-product from biodiesel production, but the purity and the cost of its purification are prohibitive. The industrial production of glycerol by glucose aerobic fermentation using osmotolerant strains of the yeasts Candida sp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been described. A major drawback of the aerobic process is the high cost of production. For this reason, the development of yeast strains that effectively convert glucose to glycerol anaerobically is of great importance. Due to its ability to grow under anaerobic conditions, the yeast S. cerevisiae is an ideal system for the development of this new biotechnological platform. To increase glycerol production and accumulation from glucose, we lowered the expression of TPI1 gene coding for triose phosphate isomerase; overexpressed the fused gene consisting the GPD1 and GPP2 parts coding for glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase, respectively; overexpressed the engineered FPS1 gene that codes for aquaglyceroporin; and overexpressed the truncated gene ILV2 that codes for acetolactate synthase. The best constructed strain produced more than 20 g of glycerol/L from glucose under micro-aerobic conditions and 16 g of glycerol/L under anaerobic conditions. The increase in glycerol production led to a drop in ethanol and biomass accumulation.

  5. Determination of glycerol concentrations and glycerol isotopic enrichments in human plasma by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackermans, M. T.; Ruiter, A. F.; Endert, E.

    1998-01-01

    An analytical method is presented to determine glycerol concentrations and stable isotope tracer enrichments in human plasma after intravenous tracer infusion in a single analytical run, using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The method uses an internal standard, which is also a

  6. Crystallization and transformation of polymorphic forms of trioleoyl glycerol and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-rac-linoleoyl glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayés-García, Laura; Calvet, Teresa; Cuevas-Diarte, Miquel Àngel; Ueno, Satoru; Sato, Kiyotaka

    2013-08-08

    This study examined the influence of different thermal treatments on the crystallization and transformation of trioleoyl glycerol (OOO) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-rac-linoleoyl glycerol (OOL). Two triacylglycerol (TAG) samples were cooled at 0.5-15 °C·min(-1) and heated at 2 and 15 °C·min(-1). The polymorphic characteristics of the two TAGs were analyzed in situ using differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction. Multiple polymorphic forms were identified in OOO (α, β'2, β'1, β2, and β1) and OOL (α, β'2, and β'1). Larger quantities of more stable forms (e.g., β2 and β1 of OOO and β'1 of OOL) were obtained when the samples were slowly cooled and heated. In contrast, less stable polymorphs were obtained with increased cooling and heating rates. Polymorphic transformations occurred in either solid-state or melt-mediation and were influenced by heating rates. The results were analyzed by considering the activation energies for crystallization and transformation of stable and less stable polymorphic forms in comparison with previous studies on 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol and 1, 3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoyl-glycerol.

  7. Rainbow smelt: the unusual case of cryoprotection by sustained glycerol production in an aquatic animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driedzic, William R

    2015-07-01

    Rainbow smelt flourish at -1.8 °C, the freezing point of sea water. An antifreeze protein contributes to freeze point depression but, more importantly, cryoprotection is due to an elevation in osmotic pressure, by the accumulation of glycerol. The lower the water temperature, the higher the plasma glycerol with levels recorded as high as 400 mmol l(-1). Glycerol freely diffuses out in direct relation to the glycerol concentration and fish may lose as much as 15% of their glycerol reserve per day. Glycerol levels decrease from a maximum in February/March while water temperature is still sub-zero. The decrease in glycerol may respond to a photoperiod signal as opposed to initiation which is triggered by low temperature. The initial increase in glycerol level is supported by liver glycogen but high sustained glycerol level is dependent upon dietary carbohydrate and protein. The metabolic pathways leading to glycerol involve flux from glycogen/glucose to the level of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) via the initial part of glycolysis and from amino acids via a truncated gluconeogenesis again to the level of DHAP. DHAP in turn is converted to glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) and then directly to glycerol. The key to directing DHAP to G3P is a highly active glycerol 3-P dehydrogenase. G3P is converted directly to glycerol via G3P phosphatase, the rate-limiting step in the process. The transition to glycerol production is associated with increased activities of enzymes at key loci in the top part of glycogenolysis/glycolysis. Curtailment of the final section of glycolysis may reside at the level of pyruvate oxidation with an inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) driven by increased levels of PDH kinase. Enzymes associated with amino acid trafficking are elevated as is the pivotal enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase.

  8. Value-added uses for crude glycerol--a byproduct of biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fangxia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biodiesel is a promising alternative, and renewable, fuel. As its production increases, so does production of the principle co-product, crude glycerol. The effective utilization of crude glycerol will contribute to the viability of biodiesel. In this review, composition and quality factors of crude glycerol are discussed. The value-added utilization opportunities of crude glycerol are reviewed. The majority of crude glycerol is used as feedstock for production of other value-added chemicals, followed by animal feeds.

  9. Comparing cellular performance of Yarrowia lipolytica during growth on glucose and glycerol in submerged cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workman, Mhairi; Holt, Philippe; Thykær, Jette

    2013-01-01

    of applications for this yeast, relatively few studies have focused on uptake and metabolism of carbon sources, and the metabolic basis for carbon flow to the different products. The focus of this work was quantification of the cellular performance of Y. lipolytica during growth on glycerol, glucose or a mixture....... Growth on glycerol proceeded at approximately 0.30 h-1, and the substrate uptake rate was 0.02 mol L-1 h-1 regardless of the starting glycerol concentration (10, 20 or 45 g L-1). Utilisation of glycerol was accompanied by higher oxygen uptake rates compared to glucose growth, indicating import...... of glycerol occurred initially via phosphorylation of glycerol into glycerol-3-phosphate. Based on these results it could be speculated that once oxygen limitation was reached, additional production of NADH created imbalance in the cofactor pools and the polyol formation observed could be a result of cofactor...

  10. Glycerol as source of energy in broiler chicken fattening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Kroupa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the possibility of replacing soybean oil in a diet with glycerol, and investigate the effect of glycerol on performance indicators and health in broiler chickens. The experiment was performed on 122 one-day-old chickens that were divided based on sex into two control groups (30 females and 31 males and two experimental groups (30 females and 31 males. Half (50% of the soybean oil in diets used in the experimental groups was replaced with glycerol at a ratio of 1:2. On 15, 32 and 38 day of age chickens of both sexes in the experimental group that were fed with diets containing glycerol showed significantly higher (p ≤ 0.01 mean body weight compared to the control group. At the end of the experiment, the mean weight of chickens in the control group was 2.078 kg, whereas the mean weight of chickens in the experimental group was 2.341 kg. In females, the overall consumption of diets within 38 days of fattening was 3.588 kg in the control group and 4.011 kg in the experimental group, in males, it was 3.915 kg in the control group and 4.366 kg in the experimental group, i.e. it was higher in experimental chickens. Feed conversion in chickens in experimental groups was better, being 1.84 kg in the control group and 1.81 kg in the experimental group in females, and 1.73 kg in the control group and 1.72 kg in the experimental group in males. It follows from our results that the optimum amount of glycerol in feed for poultry is 5%.This study presents an original solution to optimize feed formula by replacing plant oil with glycerol. The results of the study can improve production indicators and economy in broiler fattening.

  11. Glycerol carbonate as green solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a prerequisite for effective saccharification to produce fermentable sugars. In this study, “green” solvent systems based on acidified mixtures of glycerol carbonate (GC) and glycerol were used to treat sugarcane bagasse and the roles of each solvent in deconstructing biomass were determined. Results Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 90°C for only 30 min with acidified GC produced a solid residue having a glucan digestibility of 90% and a glucose yield of 80%, which were significantly higher than a glucan digestibility of 16% and a glucose yield of 15% obtained for bagasse pretreated with acidified ethylene carbonate (EC). Biomass compositional analyses showed that GC pretreatment removed more lignin than EC pretreatment (84% vs 54%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that fluffy and size-reduced fibres were produced from GC pretreatment whereas EC pretreatment produced compact particles of reduced size. The maximal glucan digestibility and glucose yield of GC/glycerol systems were about 7% lower than those of EC/ethylene glycol (EG) systems. Replacing up to 50 wt% of GC with glycerol did not negatively affect glucan digestibility and glucose yield. The results from pretreatment of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) showed that (1) pretreatment with acidified alkylene glycol (AG) alone increased enzymatic digestibility compared to pretreatments with acidified alkylene carbonate (AC) alone and acidified mixtures of AC and AG, (2) pretreatment with acidified GC alone slightly increased, but with acidified EC alone significantly decreased, enzymatic digestibility compared to untreated MCC, and (3) there was a good positive linear correlation of enzymatic digestibility of treated and untreated MCC samples with congo red (CR) adsorption capacity. Conclusions Acidified GC alone was a more effective solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse than acidified EC alone. The higher glucose yield obtained

  12. Microbial conversion of glycerol into glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by a basidiomycete yeast, Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-07-01

    Microbial conversion of glycerol into functional bio-based materials was investigated, aiming to facilitate the utilization of waste glycerol. A basidiomycete yeast, Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317, efficiently produced mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) as glycolipid biosurfactants from glycerol. The amount of MEL yield reached 16.3 g l(-1) by intermittent feeding of glycerol.

  13. Sodahvede og glycerol til malkekøer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Torben; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2011-01-01

    Et fodringsforsøg på Kvægbrugets Forsøgscenter har vist, at glycerol kan anvendes som et alternativt fodermiddel til højtydende malkekøer. De anvendte mængder gav dog en lavere EKM ydelse end sodahvede, men øgede samtidigt mælkens proteinindhold.......Et fodringsforsøg på Kvægbrugets Forsøgscenter har vist, at glycerol kan anvendes som et alternativt fodermiddel til højtydende malkekøer. De anvendte mængder gav dog en lavere EKM ydelse end sodahvede, men øgede samtidigt mælkens proteinindhold....

  14. Modified silica-based heterogeneous catalysts for etherification of glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholami, Zahra, E-mail: zahra.gholami@petronas.com.my [Centralized Analytical Laboratory, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi, E-mail: chzuhairi@usm.my; Gholami, Fatemeh, E-mail: fgholami59@gmail.com [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus,14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Vakili, Mohammadtaghi, E-mail: farshid3601@gmail.com [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The advent of mesoporous silicas such as MCM-41 has provided new opportunities for research into supported metal catalysis. The loading of metals into framework structures and particularly into the pores of porous molecular sieves, has long been of interest because of their potential catalytic activity. Stable heterogeneous mesoporous basic catalysts were synthesized by wet impregnation of MCM-41 with calcium nitrate and lanthanum nitrate. The surface and structural properties of the prepared catalysts were characterized using BET surface analysis, SEM and TEM. MCM-41 and modified MCM-41 were used in the solventless etherification of glycerol to produce diglycerol as the desired product. The reaction was performed at 250 °C for 8 h, and catalyst activity was evaluated. Catalytic etherification over the 20%Ca{sub 1.6}La{sub 0.6}/MCM-41 catalyst resulted in the highest glycerol conversion of 91% and diglycerol yield of 43%.

  15. Gut Microbial Glycerol Metabolism as an Endogenous Acrolein Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acrolein is a highly reactive electrophile causing toxic effects, such as DNA and protein adduction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, immune dysfunction, and membrane damage. This Opinion/Hypothesis provides an overview of endogenous and exogenous acrolein sources, acrolein’s mode of action, and its metabolic fate. Recent reports underpin the finding that gut microbial glycerol metabolism leading to the formation of reuterin is an additional source of endogenous acrolein. Reuterin is an antimicrobial multicomponent system consisting of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, its dimer and hydrate, and also acrolein. The major conclusion is that gut microbes can metabolize glycerol to reuterin and that this transformation occurs in vivo. Given the known toxicity of acrolein, the observation that acrolein is formed in the gut necessitates further investigations on functional relevance for gut microbiota and the host.

  16. Subcloning, expression, purification, and characterization of Haemophilus influenzae glycerol kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlyk, A C; Pettigrew, D W

    2001-06-01

    Glycerol kinase (EC 2.7.1.30) is a bacterial sugar kinase and a member of the sugar kinase/actin/hsc-70 superfamily of enzymes. The enzyme from Escherichia coli is an allosteric regulatory enzyme whose activity is inhibited by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) and the glucose-specific phosphocarrier of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase system, IIA(Glc) (previously termed III(Glc)). Comparison of its primary structure with that of the highly similar Haemophilus influenzae glycerol kinase reveals that the amino acid sequence for the binding site for FBP is conserved while the amino acid sequence for the binding site for IIA(Glc) contains differences that are predicted to prevent its inhibition. To test this hypothesis, the H. influenzae glpK gene was assembled from DNA library fragments and subcloned into pUC18. The enzyme is expressed at high levels in E. coli. It was purified to greater than 90% homogeneity by taking advantage of its solubility behavior in a procedure that requires no column chromatography. The initial-velocity kinetic parameters of the purified enzyme are similar to those of the E. coli glycerol kinase. The H. influenzae glycerol kinase is inhibited by FBP but not by IIA(Glc), in agreement with the prediction based on sequence comparison. Sedimentation velocity experiments reveal that inhibition of HiGK by FBP is associated with oligomerization, behavior which is similar to EcGK. The possibility of utilizing mutagenesis studies to exploit the high degree of similarity of these two enzymes to elucidate the mechanism of allosteric regulation by IIA(Glc) is discussed. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  17. Gut Microbial Glycerol Metabolism as an Endogenous Acrolein Source

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jianbo; Sturla, Shana; Lacroix, Christophe; Schwab, Clarissa

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acrolein is a highly reactive electrophile causing toxic effects, such as DNA and protein adduction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, immune dysfunction, and membrane damage. This Opinion/Hypothesis provides an overview of endogenous and exogenous acrolein sources, acrolein’s mode of action, and its metabolic fate. Recent reports underpin the finding that gut microbial glycerol metabolism leading to the formation of reuterin is an additional source of endogenous acrole...

  18. Antibacterial effect of glycerol as preservative on donor skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baare, J.; Ligtvoet, E.E.J.; Middelkoop, E.

    1999-01-01

    Glycerolised cadavetic allografts have been used widely since 1984 in the treatment of bum wounds. Rejections reaction to glycerolised skin were reported to be attenuated. Structural integrity of the skin was maintained and antiviral and antibacterial effects were noted. The Euro Skin Bank has gathered approximately 2000 data since 1987 concerning bacteriology cultures of glycerolised skin. These data are presented. Bacteriological data from skin donors were examined from 1987 till 1995 (1927 data). Donor skin sent to the laboratory and found to be positive for bacteria was quarantined and another container with skin samples was sent to the laboratory at a later time point. This was repeated until all cultures were negative. In 1987, 25 donors were processed without using antibiotics. These results were compared with donor skin treated with antibiotics. The average day for first culture was 19.7 ? 17.2. The average percentage of contaminated skin was 10.1? 3.7%. Antibiotics reduced contamination of glycerolised skin from 80% to 10.1%. Glycerol treatment also showed an antibacterial effect as all contaminated skin eventually became negative. Of the contaminated skin Staphylococcus epidermidis was found most frequently: in 70.7 ? 10.8% of the cases. Not all bacteria are equally sensitive to glycerol: Staphylococcus epidennidis contaminated skin became sterile after 48?24 days, whereas for Bacillus species it took 195? 1 37.9 days. We show that glycerol preservation of donor skin has important advantages over conservative methods such as cryopreservation. Initial contamination of the skin is no longer a reason to discard the material. Prolonged storage in glycerol will eliminate bacterial contamination. This allows an increase in yield of at least 10%

  19. Bio-Propane from glycerol for biogas addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandin, Jan; Hulteberg, Christian; Liljegren Nilsson, Andreas (Biofuel-Solution AB, Malmoe (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    In this report, the technical and economical feasibility to produce higher alkanes from bioglycerol has been investigated. The main purpose of producing this kind of chemicals would be to replace the fossil LPG used in upgraded biogas production. When producing biogas and exporting it to the natural gas grid, the Wobbe index and heating value does not match the existing natural gas. Therefore, the upgraded biogas that is put into the natural gas grid in Sweden today contains 8-10 vol-% of LPG. The experimental work performed in association to this report has shown that it is possible to produce propane from glycerol. However, the production of ethane from glycerol may be even more advantageous. The experimental work has included developing and testing catalysts for several intermediate reactions. The work was performed using different micro-scale reactors with a liquid feed rate of 18 g/h. The first reaction, independent on if propane or ethane is to be produced, is dehydration of glycerol to acrolein. This was showed during 60 h on an acidic catalyst with a yield of 90%. The production of propanol, the second intermediate to producing propane, was shown as well. Propanol was produced both using acrolein as the starting material as well as glycerol (combining the first and second step) with yields of 70-80% in the first case and 65-70% in the second case. The propanol produced was investigated for its dehydration to propene, with a yield of 70-75%. By using a proprietary, purposely developed catalyst the propene was hydrogenated to propane, with a yield of 85% from propanol. The formation of propane from glycerol was finally investigated, with an overall yield of 55%. The second part of the experimental work performed investigated the possibilities of decarbonylating acrolein to form ethane. This was made possible by the development of a proprietary catalyst which combines decarbonylation and water-gas shift functionality. By combining these two functionalities, no

  20. Methanol-dependent production of dihydroxyacetone and glycerol by mutants of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha blocked in dihydroxyacetone kinase and glycerol kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, W. de; Weusthuis, R.A.; Harder, W.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    Various factors controlling dihydroxyacetone (DHA) and glycerol production from methanol by resting cell suspensions of a mutant of Hansenula polymorpha, blocked in DHA kinase and glycerol kinase, were investigated. The presence of methanol (250 mM) and an additional substrate (0.5%, w/v) to

  1. A thermodynamic study of 1-propanol-glycerol-H2O at 25 degrees C: Effect of glycerol on molecular organization of H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parsons, M.T.; Westh, Peter; Davies, J.V.

    2001-01-01

    The excess chemical potential, partial molar enthalpy, and volume of 1-propanol were determined in ternary mixtures of 1-propanol-glycerol-H2O at 25degreesC. The mole fraction dependence of all these thermodynamic functions was used to elucidate the effect of glycerol on the molecular organization...

  2. Enhanced hydrogen and 1,3-propanediol production from glycerol by fermentation using mixed cultures

    KAUST Repository

    Selembo, Priscilla A.

    2009-12-15

    The conversion of glycerol into high value products, such as hydrogen gas and 1,3-propanediol (PD), was examined using anaerobic fermentation with heat-treated mixed cultures. Glycerol fermentation produced 0.28 mol-H 2/mol-glycerol (72 mL-H2/g-COD) and 0.69 mol-PD/mol-glycerol. Glucose fermentation using the same mixed cultures produced more hydrogen gas (1.06 mol-H2/mol-glucose) but no PD. Changing the source of inoculum affected gas production likely due to prior acclimation of bacteria to this type of substrate. Fermentation of the glycerol produced from biodiesel fuel production (70% glycerol content) produced 0.31 mol-H 2/mol-glycerol (43 mL H2/g-COD) and 0.59 mol-PD/mol-glycerol. These are the highest yields yet reported for both hydrogen and 1,3-propanediol production from pure glycerol and the glycerol byproduct from biodiesel fuel production by fermentation using mixed cultures. These results demonstrate that production of biodiesel can be combined with production of hydrogen and 1,3-propanediol for maximum utilization of resources and minimization of waste. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Flavor impacts of glycerol in the processing of yeast fermented beverages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangdong; Procopio, Susanne; Becker, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Glycerol contributes to the beverage body and fullness. Moreover, it also influences the flavor intensity. As a major byproduct, glycerol not only serves critical roles in yeast osmoregulation and redox balancing, but also acts as the carbon competitor against ethanol in alcoholic fermentation. Therefore, increasing glycerol yield benefits both the flavor and ethanol reduction for the fermented beverages. Glycerol yield has been elevated either by fermentation optimization or by yeast genetic modification. The fermentation optimizations reached maximum 14 g/L glycerol through screening yeast strains and optimizing fermentation parameters. Meanwhile the yeast overexpressing GPD1 (encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) produced up to 6 folds more glycerol for beer and wine. Except for glycerol improvement, the genetically modified yeasts accumulated dramatically undesirable compounds such as acetaldehyde, acetate and acetoin which are detrimental for beverage flavor. In comparison, the natural high glycerol producers showed strain-specific manner on the yeast-derived aroma compounds like volatile acids, fusel alcohols, esters, and aldehydes. Temperature, sugar concentration, nitrogen composition, oxygen and pH-value, which influence glycerol biosynthesis, also obtained various effects on the production of aromatic compounds. In the current review, we firstly deliberate the organoleptic contributions of glycerol for fermented beverages. Furthermore, glycerol optimization strategies are discussed regarding to the yield improvement, the genes expressions, the overall flavor impacts and the feasibilities in beverage applications. Lastly, for improving beverage flavor by glycerol optimization, a high-throughput platform is proposed to increase the screening capacity of yeast strains and parameters in the processing of fermented beverages.

  4. A thermodynamic study of 1-propanol-glycerol-H2O at 25 degrees C: Effect of glycerol on molecular organization of H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parsons, M.T.; Westh, Peter; Davies, J.V.

    2001-01-01

    The excess chemical potential, partial molar enthalpy, and volume of 1-propanol were determined in ternary mixtures of 1-propanol-glycerol-H2O at 25degreesC. The mole fraction dependence of all these thermodynamic functions was used to elucidate the effect of glycerol on the molecular organization...... of H2O. The glycerol molecules do not exert a hydrophobic effect on H2O. Rather, the hydroxyl groups of glycerol, perhaps by forming clusters via its alkyl backbone with hydroxyl groups pointing outward, interact with H2O so as to reduce the characteristics of liquid H2O. The global hydrogen bond...... probability and, hence, the percolation nature of the hydrogen bond network is reduced. In addition, the degree of fluctuation inherent in liquid H2O is reduced by glycerol perhaps by participating in the hydrogen bond network via OH groups. At infinite dilution, the pair interaction coefficients in enthalpy...

  5. Value-added processing of crude glycerol into chemicals and polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaolan; Ge, Xumeng; Cui, Shaoqing; Li, Yebo

    2016-09-01

    Crude glycerol is a low-value byproduct which is primarily obtained from the biodiesel production process. Its composition is significantly different from that of pure glycerol. Crude glycerol usually contains various impurities, such as water, methanol, soap, fatty acids, and fatty acid methyl esters. Considerable efforts have been devoted to finding applications for converting crude glycerol into high-value products, such as biofuels, chemicals, polymers, and animal feed, to improve the economic viability of the biodiesel industry and overcome environmental challenges associated with crude glycerol disposal. This article reviews recent advances of biological and chemical technologies for value-added processing of crude glycerol into chemicals and polymers, and provides strategies for addressing production challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the addition of glycerol to Cupriavidus necator culture medium over Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production

    OpenAIRE

    Apati, Giannini Paszinick; Kelbert, Maikon; Sombrio, Bruna Regina; Schneider, Andrea Lima dos Santos; Garcia, Michele Cristina Formolo; Furigo Junior, Agenor; Pezzin, Ana Paula Testa

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glycerol was used as a source of additional carbon in the production of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB)). The inverted sugar and glycerol concentrations and the temperature of the Cupriavidus necator culture medium were evaluated using a Central Composite Rotational Design (CCRD). The results showed that the increase in temperature and sugar concentration led to an increase in production and P(3HB) accumulation and when 15 g L-1 of glycerol was added better results were obtained, how...

  7. Synthesis of Acrolein From Glycerol Using FePO4 Catalyst in Liquid Phase Dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Abidin, Akhmad Zainal; Afandi, Rani Guslianti; Graha, Hafis Pratama Rendra

    2016-01-01

    Acrolein is currently produced using propylene from crude oil while its price and scarcity are increasing. A renewable material such as glycerol is an attractive alternative for acrolein production. It can be obtained from crude palm oil (CPO) and is a byproduct of biodiesel production. Besides being able to compete economically, glycerol is an environmentally friendly material. The purpose of this study is to synthesize acrolein from glycerol using FePO4 catalyst in liquid phase dehydration....

  8. Quantitative analysis of glycerol accumulation, glycolysis and growth under hyper osmotic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Petelenz-Kurdziel

    Full Text Available We provide an integrated dynamic view on a eukaryotic osmolyte system, linking signaling with regulation of gene expression, metabolic control and growth. Adaptation to osmotic changes enables cells to adjust cellular activity and turgor pressure to an altered environment. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae adapts to hyperosmotic stress by activating the HOG signaling cascade, which controls glycerol accumulation. The Hog1 kinase stimulates transcription of genes encoding enzymes required for glycerol production (Gpd1, Gpp2 and glycerol import (Stl1 and activates a regulatory enzyme in glycolysis (Pfk26/27. In addition, glycerol outflow is prevented by closure of the Fps1 glycerol facilitator. In order to better understand the contributions to glycerol accumulation of these different mechanisms and how redox and energy metabolism as well as biomass production are maintained under such conditions we collected an extensive dataset. Over a period of 180 min after hyperosmotic shock we monitored in wild type and different mutant cells the concentrations of key metabolites and proteins relevant for osmoadaptation. The dataset was used to parameterize an ODE model that reproduces the generated data very well. A detailed computational analysis using time-dependent response coefficients showed that Pfk26/27 contributes to rerouting glycolytic flux towards lower glycolysis. The transient growth arrest following hyperosmotic shock further adds to redirecting almost all glycolytic flux from biomass towards glycerol production. Osmoadaptation is robust to loss of individual adaptation pathways because of the existence and upregulation of alternative routes of glycerol accumulation. For instance, the Stl1 glycerol importer contributes to glycerol accumulation in a mutant with diminished glycerol production capacity. In addition, our observations suggest a role for trehalose accumulation in osmoadaptation and that Hog1 probably directly contributes to the

  9. Effects of sorbitol and glycerol on the structure, dynamics, and stability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pyrazinamidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Khajehzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: It can be concluded that the native conformation of the enzyme was stabilized in the sorbitol and glycerol and tend to exclude from the PZase surface, forcing the enzyme to keep it in the compactly folded conformation. The glycerol molecules stabilized PZase by decreasing the loops flexibility and then compacting the enzyme structure. It appears that more stability of PZase in glycerol solution correlates with its amphiphilic orientation, which decreases the unfavorable interactions of hydrophobic regions.

  10. Expression and functional studies of genes involved in transport and metabolism of glycerol in Pachysolen tannophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Workman, Mhairi

    2013-01-01

    P. tannophilus has characteristics relevant for a microbial cell factory to be applied in a biorefinery setting, i.e. its ability to utilise the carbon sources such as xylose and glycerol. However, the strain is not currently amenable to genetic modification and transformation. Heterologous...... expression of the glycerol transporters from P. tannophilus, which has a relatively high growth rate on glycerol, could be used as an approach for improving the efficiency of glycerol assimilation in other well characterized and applied cell factories such as S. cerevisiae....

  11. Etherification of Glycerol with Propylene or 1-Butene for Fuel Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrapong Saengarun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The etherification of glycerol with propylene over acidic heterogeneous catalysts, Amberlyst-15, S100, and S200 resins, produced mono-propyl glycerol ethers (MPGEs, 1,3-di- and 1,2-di-propyl glycerol ethers (DPGEs, and tri-propyl glycerol ether (TPGE. The propylation of glycerol over Amberlyst-15 yielded only TPGE. The glycerol etherification with 1-butene over Amberlyst-15 and S200 resins produced 1-mono-, 2-mono-, 1,2-di-, and 1,3-di-butyl glycerol ethers (1-MBGE, 2-MBGE, 1,2-DBGE, and 1,3-DBGE. The use of Amberlyst-15 resulted in the propylation and butylation of glycerol with higher yields than those obtained from the S100 and S200 resins. The PGEs, TPGE, and BGEs were evaluated as cold flow improvers and octane boosters. These alkyl glycerol ethers can reduce the cloud point of blended palm biodiesels with diesel. They can increase the research octane number and the motor octane number of gasoline.

  12. Physical, Physicochemical, Mechanical, and Structural Characterization of Films Based on Gelatin/Glycerol and Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Israel Sifuentes-Nieves; Rodolfo Rendón-Villalobos; Antonio Jiménez-Aparicio; Brenda Hildeliza Camacho-Díaz; Gustavo Fidel Gutiérrez López; Javier Solorza-Feria

    2015-01-01

    A new method to prepare glycerol/gelatin based films, by doping the film with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), was proposed. SDS was used to disperse CNTs in gelatin/glycerol films as follows: gelatin/glycerol (GG) incubated with equal concentrations of CNT and SDS; GG with 0.001% w/w CNT/SDS; GG with 0.002% CNT/SDS and GG with 0.004% CNT/SDS. Diffractograms of CNT/SDS /glycerol films showed an amorphous structure, being consistent with thermograms involving temperatu...

  13. Gluconeogenesis from glycerol at rest and during exercise in normal, diabetic, and methylprednisolone-treated dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, W A; Issekutz, T B; Issekutz, B

    1976-03-01

    Glucose turnover, glycerol turnover, and the rate of incorporation of glycerol carbon into glucose were measured with the tracer technique (primed constant rate infusion) using 2-3H-glucose and 14C-glycerol, at rest and during exercise (treadmill run) in normal (N), alloxan-diabetic (D), and methylprednisolone treated diabetic (MPD) dogs. At rest only 2%-3% of the hepatic glucose output arose from glycerol. Exercise increased gluconeogenesis about ninefold in N dogs and about fourfold in D and MPD animals, yet less than 9% of the elevated glucose turnover was derived from glycerol. There was a direct linear correlation between the rates of glycerol turnover and gluconeogenesis from glycerol at rest and during exercise in all three groups. The slope constants were however significantly different: 0.45, 0.51, and 0.67 for N, D, and MPD dogs, respectively. In vivo the major factor controlling the rate of gluconeogenesis from glycerol seems to be the glycerol supply on which the specific effects of insulin deficiency and glucocorticoid treatment are superimposed. They appear to be of minor importance. A comparison of the glucose turnover measured by 2-3H-glucose with that measured by 6-3H-glucose showed that the activity of the glucose in equilibrium glucose-6-P cycle was threefold higher in D dogs and elevated by 15-fold in MPD animals.

  14. Effects of age and fasting on gluconeogenesis from glycerol in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S E; Hall, A J; Layberry, R A; Berman, M; Hetenyi, G

    1976-02-01

    The extent of gluconeogenesis from glycerol was examined in pups and adult dogs. With use of the SAAM-26 program, a four compartment model was formulated from tracer data to calculate the kinetics of the glycerol:glucose system. In the postabsorptive state gluconeogenesis from glycerol declines with age: 13.8% of glucose carbon originated from glycerol in 0- to 4-day-old pups, 6% in adults. Approximately 50% of glycerol carbon is converted to glucose carbon independent of age. During fasting, a) the percentage of glucose carbon arising from glycerol carbon increased to 13.3% and 10.3% in adult dogs and pups 5-19 days old, respectively, in younger pups it declined to 3.4%; b) glycerol production increased in adults, but decreased in the youngest pups; c) glucose production and utilization decreased at all ages, and a smaller percentage of glycerol carbon was converted to glucose carbon, especially in the youngest pups. Thus in neonates fasting decreases gluconeogenesis from glycerol.

  15. Separation of oily sludge and glycerol from biodiesel processing waste by coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao-guang Xie1,; Wirach Taweepreda 2,; Charongpun Musikavong1*; Chaisri Suksaroj 1*

    2011-01-01

    Raw waste glycerol is a by-product of biodiesel production from transesterification, which is high in salt, and has a highpH value (more than 9.6). The purpose of this research is to reduce the water pollution from waste glycerol by using acoagulation process and discussing the possibility of waste glycerol reuse. The commercial coagulant (2% by weight), whichwas composed by cationic polyamine (PA) 6% and poly-aluminium chloride (PACl) 94% (w/w), was used as coagulant totreat waste glycerol. ...

  16. Dynamic shear modulus of glycerol: Corrections due to instrument compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, K.; Hutcheson, S. A.; Shi, X.; Mandanici, A.; McKenna, G. B.

    2006-12-01

    A recent article by Shi et al. [J. Chem. Phys.123, 174507 (2005)] reports results from mechanical measurements on three simple inorganic glass formers: glycerol, m-toluidine, and sucrose benzoate. The experiments carried out were stress relaxation, aging, and dynamic (all in shear) using a torsional rheometer, an advanced rheometric expansion system (TA Instruments). The original force rebalance transducer (2KFRT) supplied with the system was replaced with a custom-made load cell (Sensotec) that had a capacity of 20000gcm in torque and 5000g in normal force. The replacement of the load cell was done due to the belief that the main source of compliance in this instrument was from the 2KFRT. With this assumption, the authors published their results for the three materials of interest and compared their results with the techniques of Schröter and Donth [J. Chem. Phys.113, 9101 (2000)] for the measurements on glycerol and reported important differences. These differences were disputed by one of the present authors (Schröter), and the present report shows that the results from Schröter and Donth are correct. We show that the reasons have to do with the instrument compliance being greater than originally thought by Shi et al. Here we examine the effects of platen diameter/geometry on the glycerol dynamic moduli, describe a means to correct dynamic data, present a revised comparison of the corrected data with that of Schröter and Donth, and provide a discussion of future work and conclusions.

  17. Some experience of trigeminal neuralgia treatment by glycerol rhizolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. В. Семенов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study was to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of trigeminal neuralgia treatment by Hakanson S. glycerol rhizolysis method. Methods. The results of glycerol rhizolysis treatment were retrospectively evaluated in 96 patients with trigeminal neuralgia, who had been operated at Neurosurgical Department of Irkutsk City Hospital over a period from 2009 to 2016. To study the prospective follow-up, 53 patients operated during 2009 – 2014 were surveyed over the phone. The comparison of our long-term results and the results of other authors from literature sources was then performed.Results. The median of follow-up period was 43 months. The pain recurrence (III-V rate of Barrow Neurological Institute score for trigeminal neuralgia was observed in 30.2 % of patients, with the mean rate of the visual analogue scale amounting to 1.96. Complications included aseptic meningitis in 3.1 % cases, intracerebral hematoma – 1.04 %, hyperesthesia in appropriate trigeminal region – 3.8%, labial herpes – 40.7 %, temporary anesthesia in appropriate trigeminal region – 30.2%, temporary decrease of corneal reflex sensitivity – 41.5 %. There was no postoperative mortality.Conclusion. Glycerol rhizolysis is an effective method of trigeminal neuralgia treatment and its results are comparable with those of other surgical methods. Strict adherence to all surgical steps and contrast cistenography is the key to success of intervention. The method is minimally invasive, applicable for anesthesia and particularly promising for patients over 70 years old.Received 25 May 2016. Accepted 14 September 2016.Funding: The study had no sponsorship. Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  18. Pre-exercise glycerol hydration improves cycling endurance time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montner, P.; Stark, D. M.; Riedesel, M. L.; Murata, G.; Robergs, R.; Timms, M.; Chick, T. W.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of glycerol ingestion (GEH) on hydration and subsequent cycle ergometer submaximal load exercise were examined in well conditioned subjects. We hypothesized that GEH would reduce physiologic strain and increase endurance. The purpose of Study I (n = 11) was to determine if pre-exercise GEH (1.2 gm/kg glycerol in 26 ml/kg solution) compared to pre-exercise placebo hydration (PH) (26 ml/kg of aspartame flavored water) lowered heart rate (HR), lowered rectal temperature (Tc), and prolonged endurance time (ET) during submaximal load cycle ergometry. The purpose of Study II (n = 7) was to determine if the same pre-exercise regimen followed by carbohydrate oral replacement solution (ORS) during exercise also lowered HR, Tc, and prolonged ET. Both studies were double-blind, randomized, crossover trials, performed at an ambient temperature of 23.5-24.5 degrees C, and humidity of 25-27%. Mean HR was lower by 2.8 +/- 0.4 beats/min (p = 0.05) after GEH in Study I and by 4.4 +/- 1.1 beats/min (p = 0.01) in Study II. Endurance time was prolonged after GEH in Study I (93.8 +/- 14 min vs. 77.4 +/- 9 min, p = 0.049) and in Study II (123.4 +/- 17 min vs. 99.0 +/- 11 min, p = 0.03). Rectal temperature did not differ between hydration regimens in both Study I and Study II. Thus, pre-exercise glycerol-enhanced hyperhydration lowers HR and prolongs ET even when combined with ORS during exercise. The regimens tested in this study could potentially be adapted for endurance activities.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated polyesters derived from glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiuza, R.A.; Jose, N.M.; Boaventura, J.S.; Fiuza, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this work were synthesized polyesters from glycerol and acid sulfonated phthalic previously. The materials were characterized by DSC, TGA, FTIR, SEM, XRD and XRF. The results showed effective sulfonation of phthalic acid. The presence of sulfonic groups promoted strong changes in the crystallinity of the new material makes the lens. The polyesters made from phthalic acid sulfonated combine characteristics such as heat resistance and groups that drivers potentiate the electrolyte for application in fuel cells proton exchange membrane and also for gas separation. (author)

  20. Improved glycerol utilization by a triacylglycerol-producing Rhodococcus opacus strain for renewable fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Kazuhiko; Radek, Andreas; Plassmeier, Jens K; Sinskey, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol generated during renewable fuel production processes is potentially an attractive substrate for the production of value-added materials by fermentation. An engineered strain MITXM-61 of the oleaginous bacterium Rhodococcus opacus produces large amounts of intracellular triacylglycerols (TAGs) for lipid-based biofuels on high concentrations of glucose and xylose. However, on glycerol medium, MITXM-61 does not produce TAGs and grows poorly. The aim of the present work was to construct a TAG-producing R. opacus strain capable of high-cell-density cultivation at high glycerol concentrations. An adaptive evolution strategy was applied to improve the conversion of glycerol to TAGs in R. opacus MITXM-61. An evolved strain, MITGM-173, grown on a defined medium with 16 g L(-1) glycerol, produced 2.3 g L(-1) of TAGs, corresponding to 40.4% of the cell dry weight (CDW) and 0.144 g g(-1) of TAG yield per glycerol consumed. MITGM-173 was able to grow on high concentrations (greater than 150 g L(-1)) of glycerol. Cultivated in a medium containing an initial concentration of 20 g L(-1) glycerol, 40 g L(-1) glucose, and 40 g L(-1) xylose, MITGM-173 was capable of simultaneously consuming the mixed substrates and yielding 13.6 g L(-1) of TAGs, representing 51.2% of the CDM. In addition, when 20 g L(-1) glycerol was pulse-loaded into the culture with 40 g L(-1) glucose and 40 g L(-1) xylose at the stationary growth phase, MITGM-173 produced 14.3 g L(-1) of TAGs corresponding to 51.1% of the CDW although residual glycerol in the culture was observed. The addition of 20 g L(-1) glycerol in the glucose/xylose mix resulted in a TAG yield per glycerol consumed of 0.170 g g(-1) on the initial addition and 0.279 g g(-1) on the pulse addition of glycerol. We have generated a TAG-producing R. opacus MITGM-173 strain that shows significantly improved glycerol utilization in comparison to the parental strain. The present study demonstrates that the

  1. Penggunaan H-Zeolit dan Tawas dalam Pemurnian Crude Glycerol dengan Proses Adsorpsi dan Koagulasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isalmi Aziz, M.T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Production of biodiesel from used cooking oil byproducts such as crude glycerol with low purity. The crude glycerol containing compounds impurities such as free fatty acids, alcohol, soap, catalyst and water. Compound adsorption of impurities can be done with the H-zeolite as adsorbent, but the resulting quality is still not good. To improve its quality, this research was added alum (coagulation process so that the adsorption of colloidal-sized compound impurities which can be separated from the glycerol. The purpose of this research is determine optimal condition of adsorption and coagulation impurity compounds of crude glycerol by using H-zeolite and  alum and  also determine quality of glycerol  was obtained. First, crude glycerol acidified by phosphoric acid 85% (pure analysis until desired pH ±2.5. It was obtained purity of glycerol 72.797%. The next process is adsorption with activated H-zeolite and it obtained purity of glycerol 77.079%. The last process in this research is adsorption and coagulation by using H-zeolite and alum. The highest purity glycerol 93.803% was obtained from condition of adsorption and coagulation for 75 minutes; alum’s concentration 80 ppm; and temperature 60 ºC. The glycerol discharged from adsorption and coagulation process by using H-zeolite and alum is qualify Indonesia National Standard number 06-1564-1995 with 3.512% water content; 2.438% ash content; 0.247% MONG content; has no sugar; 1.259 g/mL density of glycerol; 0.2356% potassium content and 0.0410% aluminium content; and brighter color.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/jkv.v0i0.5143

  2. Sustaining Biodiesel Production via Value-Added Applications of Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotola Babajide

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biofuels worldwide has been significant lately due to the shift from obtaining energy from nonrenewable energy (fossil fuels to renewable sources (biofuels. This energy shift arose as a result of the disturbing crude petroleum price fluctuations, uncertainties about fossil fuel reserves, and greenhouse gas (GHG concerns. With the production of biofuels increasing considerably and the current global biodiesel production from different feedstock, reaching about 6 billion liters per year, biodiesel production costs have been highly dependent on feedstock prices, ranging from 70 to 25; of total production costs, and in comparison with the conventional diesel fuel, the biodiesel is currently noncompetitive. An efficient production process is, therefore, crucial to lowering biodiesel production costs. The question of sustainability, however, arises, taking into account the African diverse conditions and how vital concerns need to be addressed. The major concern about biodiesel production costs can be reduced by finding value-added applications for its glycerol byproduct. This paper, thus, provides an overview of current research trends that could overcome the major hurdles towards profitable commercialization of biodiesel and also proposes areas of opportunity probable to capitalize the surplus glycerol obtained, for numerous applications.

  3. Polyhydroxyalkanoate production from crude glycerol by newly isolated Pandoraea sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Coutinho de Paula

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new bacterial strain was isolated from Atlantic rainforest in Brazil for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA production utilizing crude glycerol from biodiesel industry (CG and it was identified as Pandoraea sp. MA03. Shake flask experiments were performed at 10–50 g L−1 carbon source and showed the best values of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB production from CG cultivations compared to pure glycerol, with a polymer accumulation ranging from 49.0% to 63.6% cell dry weight (CDW. The results obtained from this study showed a positive effect of contaminant NaCl on P3HB synthesis up to 30 g L−1 CG. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate [P(3HB-co-3HV] production was obtained from CG plus propionic acid with up to 25.9 mol% 3HV. Since it is interesting the utilization of CG for obtaining added-value products along with biodiesel, this study reported a novel and promising PHA-producing bacterial strain as an additional effort to enhance the viability of a sustainable industry based on biofuels and biopolymers.

  4. Crystal structure of substrate free form of glycerol dehydratase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Der-Ing; Dotson, Garry; Turner, Jr., Ivan; Reiss, Lisa; Emptage, Mark (Du Pont)

    2010-03-08

    Glycerol dehydratase (GDH) and diol dehydratase (DDH) are highly homologous isofunctional enzymes that catalyze the elimination of water from glycerol and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) to the corresponding aldehyde via a coenzyme B{sub 12}-dependent radical mechanism. The crystal structure of substrate free form of GDH in complex with cobalamin and K{sup +} has been determined at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution. Its overall fold and the subunit assembly closely resemble those of DDH. Comparison of this structure and the DDH structure, available only in substrate bound form, shows the expected change of the coordination of the essential K{sup +} from hexacoordinate to heptacoordinate with the displacement of a single coordinated water by the substrate diol. In addition, there appears to be an increase in the rigidity of the K{sup +} coordination (as measured by lower B values) upon the binding of the substrate. Structural analysis of the locations of conserved residues among various GDH and DDH sequences has aided in identification of residues potentially important for substrate preference or specificity of protein-protein interactions.

  5. Glycerol Production and Transformation: A Critical Review with Particular Emphasis on Glycerol Reforming Reaction for Producing Hydrogen in Conventional and Membrane Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Giuseppe; Iulianelli, Adolfo; Sanna, Aimaro; Basile, Angelo

    2017-03-23

    Glycerol represents an emerging renewable bio-derived feedstock, which could be used as a source for producing hydrogen through steam reforming reaction. In this review, the state-of-the-art about glycerol production processes is reviewed, with particular focus on glycerol reforming reactions and on the main catalysts under development. Furthermore, the use of membrane catalytic reactors instead of conventional reactors for steam reforming is discussed. Finally, the review describes the utilization of the Pd-based membrane reactor technology, pointing out the ability of these alternative fuel processors to simultaneously extract high purity hydrogen and enhance the whole performances of the reaction system in terms of glycerol conversion and hydrogen yield.

  6. New recombinant bacterium comprises a heterologous gene encoding glycerol dehydrogenase and/or an up-regulated native gene encoding glycerol dehydrogenase, useful for producing ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    TECHNOLOGY FOCUS - BIOTECHNOLOGY - Preparation (claimed): Producing recombinant bacterium having enhanced ethanol production characteristics when cultivated in growth medium comprising glycerol comprises: (a) transforming a parental bacterium by (i) the insertion of a heterologous gene encoding...

  7. Metabolic engineering of a glycerol-oxidative pathway in Lactobacillus panis PM1 for utilization of bioethanol thin stillage: potential to produce platform chemicals from glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2014-12-01

    Lactobacillus panis PM1 has the ability to produce 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) from thin stillage (TS), which is the major waste material after bioethanol production, and is therefore of significance. However, the fact that L. panis PM1 cannot use glycerol as a sole carbon source presents a considerable problem in terms of utilization of this strain in a wide range of industrial applications. Accordingly, L. panis PM1 was genetically engineered to directly utilize TS as a fermentable substrate for the production of valuable platform chemicals without the need for exogenous nutrient supplementation (e.g., sugars and nitrogen sources). An artificial glycerol-oxidative pathway, comprised of glycerol facilitator, glycerol kinase, glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, and NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase genes of Escherichia coli, was introduced into L. panis PM1 in order to directly utilize glycerol for the production of energy for growth and value-added chemicals. A pH 6.5 culture converted glycerol to mainly lactic acid (85.43 mM), whereas a significant amount of 1,3-propanediol (59.96 mM) was formed at pH 7.5. Regardless of the pH, ethanol (82.16 to 83.22 mM) was produced from TS fermentations, confirming that the artificial pathway metabolized glycerol for energy production and converted it into lactic acid or 1,3-PDO and ethanol in a pH-dependent manner. This study demonstrates the cost-effective conversion of TS to value-added chemicals by the engineered PM1 strain cultured under industrial conditions. Thus, application of this strain or these research findings can contribute to reduced costs of bioethanol production. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Synthesis of biodiesel fuel additives from glycerol using green chemistry and supercritical fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    For every 3 moles of fatty acid esters produced, 1 mole of glycerol remains, ~11% of the biodiesel volume. One new method of glycerol use could be as a biodiesel fuel additive/extender using eco-friendly heterogeneous catalysts and supercritical fluids (SFs). SFs have advantages such as greater diff...

  9. Preliminary assessment of synthesis gas production via hybrid steam reforming of methane and glycerol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balegedde Ramachandran, P.; van Rossum, G.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this article, hybrid steam reforming (HSR) of desulphurized methane, together with crude glycerol, in existing commercial steam reformers to produce synthesis gas is proposed. The proposed concept consists of a gasifier to produce vapors, gases, and char from crude glycerol, which is coupled with

  10. Bench scale demonstration of the Supermethanol concept : The synthesis of methanol from glycerol derived syngas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bennekom, J. G.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Assink, D.; Lemmens, K. P. J.; Heeres, H. J.

    2012-01-01

    An integrated process for the synthesis of methanol from aqueous glycerol involving reforming of the feed to syngas followed by methanol synthesis is successfully demonstrated in a continuous bench scale unit. Glycerol reforming was carried out at pressures of 24-27 MPa and temperatures of 948-998 K

  11. Probing spatial heterogeneity in supercooled glycerol and temporal heterogeneity with single-molecule FRET in polyprolines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, Ted

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents two lines of research. On the one hand, we investigate heterogeneity in supercooled glycerol by means of rheometry, small-angle neutron scattering, and fluorescence imaging. We find from the rheological experiments that supercooled glycerol can behave like weak solids at

  12. Biodegradable Composites Based on Starch/EVOH/Glycerol Blends and Coconut Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unripe coconut fibers were used as fillers in a biodegradable polymer matrix of starch/Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH)/glycerol. The effects of fiber content on the mechanical, thermal and structural properties were evaluated. The addition of coconut fiber into starch/EVOH/glycerol blends reduced the ...

  13. Conversion of Glycerol to 3-Hydroxypropanoic Acid by Genetically Engineered Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalantari, Aida; Chen, Tao; Ji, Boyang

    2017-01-01

    of glycerol into 3-HP. Our recombinant B. subtilis strains overexpress the two-step heterologous pathway containing glycerol dehydratase and aldehyde dehydrogenase from K. pneumoniae. Genetic engineering, driven by in silico optimization, and optimization of cultivation conditions resulted in a 3-HP titer...

  14. Continuous production of glycerol by catalytic high pressure hydrogenolysis of sucrose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ling, Gerrit; Driessen, Alfons J.; Piet, Arie C.; Vlugter, Jozef C.

    1970-01-01

    Several continuous reactor systems have been discussed for the catalytic high pressure hydrogenolysis of sucrose to glycerol. Theoretically and actually, continuous reactors lead to lower glycerol yields than in a batch process. Two continuous stirred tank reactors in cascade constitute a reasonable

  15. Bacterial glycerol oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction at neutral and acidic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sidnei C; Liebensteiner, Martin G; van Gelder, Antonie H; Dimitrov, Mauricio R; Almeida, Paulo F; Quintella, Cristina M; Stams, Alfons J M; Sánchez-Andrea, Irene

    2018-03-27

    Glycerol is a main co-product of biodiesel production. Crude glycerol may serve as a cheap and attractive substrate in biotechnological applications, e.g. for the production of valuable chemicals or as an electron donor for reduction processes. In this work, sulfate reduction with glycerol was studied at neutral and acidic pH using bioreactor sludge samples and Tinto River sediments as a source of inoculum, respectively. Communities of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and fermentative bacteria were co-enriched at both pH values. Molecular analyses revealed that sequences belonging to Desulfomicrobium genus were dominant in the cultures enriched at pH 7, while Desulfosporosinus sequences dominated in the culture enriched at pH 4. Glycerol conversion was coupled to sulfate reduction, but the substrate was incompletely oxidized to acetate in the neutrophilic enrichments, and acetate, lactate, and 1,3-propanediol under low pH conditions. Two strains belonging to Desulfomicrobium and Proteiniphilum genera were isolated from the neutrophilic enrichments, but the first isolate was not able to use glycerol, which suggests a syntrophic relationship between glycerol-degrading fermentative bacteria and SRB. A Clostridium strain able to grow with glycerol was isolated from the low pH enrichment. Our data indicate that glycerol promotes the growth of sulfate-reducing communities to form sulfide, which can be used to precipitate and recover heavy metals.

  16. Green synthesis of noble nanometals (Au, Pt, Pd) using glycerol under microwave irradiation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A newer application of glycerol in the field of nanomaterials synthesis has been developed from both the economic and environmental points of view. Glycerol can act as a reducing agent for the fabrication of noble nanometals, such as Au, Pt, and Pd, under microwave irradiation. T...

  17. Degree of branching in hyperbranched poly(glycerol-co-diacid)s synthesized in toluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperbranched polymers were synthesized by using a Lewis acid (dibutyltin(IV)oxide) to catalyze the polycondensation of glycerol with either succinic acid (n (aliphatic chain length)=2), glutaric acid (n=3) or azelaic acid (n=7) in toluene. These are the first examples of diacid-glycerol hyperbranc...

  18. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... propylene glycol. 172.850 Section 172.850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... esters of glycerol and propylene glycol. The food additive lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The...

  19. Enhancing Biodiesel Production Using Green Glycerol-Enriched Calcium Oxide Catalyst : An Optimization Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avhad, Mangesh R.; Gangurde, L.S.; Sánchez, Marcos; Bouaid, Abderrahim; Aracil, José; Martínez, Mercedes; Marchetti, Jorge M.

    2018-01-01

    The present article demonstrates a superior catalytic performance of glycerol-enriched calcium oxide for biodiesel production than other calcium-based counterparts. The proficiency of glycerol-enriched calcium oxide in catalyzing the methanolysis of crude Jatropha curcas oil containing high free

  20. Co-digestion of sewage sludge with glycerol to boost biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, M S; Petousi, I; Manios, T

    2010-10-01

    The feasibility of adding crude glycerol from the biodiesel industry to the anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants was studied in both batch and continuous experiments at 35 degrees C. Glycerol addition can boost biogas yields, if it does not exceed a limiting 1% (v/v) concentration in the feed. Any further increase of glycerol causes a high imbalance in the anaerobic digestion process. The reactor treating the sewage sludge produced 1106+/-36 ml CH(4)/d before the addition of glycerol and 2353+/-94 ml CH(4)/d after the addition of glycerol (1% v/v in the feed). The extra glycerol-COD added to the feed did not have a negative effect on reactor performance, but seemed to increase the active biomass (volatile solids) concentration in the system. Batch kinetic experiments showed that the maximum specific utilization rate (mu(max)) and the saturation constant (K(S)) of glycerol were 0.149+/-0.015 h(-1) and 0.276+/-0.095 g/l, respectively. Comparing the estimated values with the kinetics constants for propionate reported in the literature, it can be concluded that glycerol uptake is not the rate-limiting step during the process. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhancing effect of glycerol on the tensile properties of Bombyx mori cocoon sericin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiping; Deng, Lianxia; Yang, Mingying; Min, Sijia; Yang, Lei; Zhu, Liangjun

    2011-01-01

    An environmental physical method described herein was developed to improve the tensile properties of Bombyx mori cocoon sericin films, by using the plasticizer of glycerol, which has a nontoxic effect compared with other chemical crosslinkers. The changes in the tensile characteristics and the structure of glycerolated (0-40 wt% of glycerol) sericin films were investigated. Sericin films, both in dry and wet states, showed enhanced tensile properties, which might be regulated by the addition of different concentrations of glycerol. The introduction of glycerol results in the higher amorphous structure in sericin films as evidenced by analysis of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra, thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observation revealed that glycerol was homogeneously blended with sericin molecules when its content was 10 wt%, while a small amount of redundant glycerol emerged on the surface of sericin films when its content was increased to 20 wt% or higher. Our results suggest that the introduction of glycerol is a novel nontoxic strategy which can improve the mechanical features of sericin-based materials and subsequently promote the feasibility of its application in tissue engineering.

  2. Enhancing Effect of Glycerol on the Tensile Properties of Bombyx mori Cocoon Sericin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangjun Zhu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An environmental physical method described herein was developed to improve the tensile properties of Bombyx mori cocoon sericin films, by using the plasticizer of glycerol, which has a nontoxic effect compared with other chemical crosslinkers. The changes in the tensile characteristics and the structure of glycerolated (0–40 wt% of glycerol sericin films were investigated. Sericin films, both in dry and wet states, showed enhanced tensile properties, which might be regulated by the addition of different concentrations of glycerol. The introduction of glycerol results in the higher amorphous structure in sericin films as evidenced by analysis of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectra, thermogravimetry (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC curves. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM observation revealed that glycerol was homogeneously blended with sericin molecules when its content was 10 wt%, while a small amount of redundant glycerol emerged on the surface of sericin films when its content was increased to 20 wt% or higher. Our results suggest that the introduction of glycerol is a novel nontoxic strategy which can improve the mechanical features of sericin-based materials and subsequently promote the feasibility of its application in tissue engineering.

  3. Separation of oily sludge and glycerol from biodiesel processing waste by coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-guang Xie1,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Raw waste glycerol is a by-product of biodiesel production from transesterification, which is high in salt, and has a highpH value (more than 9.6. The purpose of this research is to reduce the water pollution from waste glycerol by using acoagulation process and discussing the possibility of waste glycerol reuse. The commercial coagulant (2% by weight, whichwas composed by cationic polyamine (PA 6% and poly-aluminium chloride (PACl 94% (w/w, was used as coagulant totreat waste glycerol. The results showed that after acidification and coagulation process, most of the chemical oxygen demand(COD, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, total suspended solids (TSS, and oily sludge (such as fatty acid, methyl ester,methanol and soap in raw waste glycerol were removed, except glycerol. The removal efficiencies of COD, BOD5, TSS, soapand methanol were 96.2%, 93.3%, 98.1%, 100%, and 85.8%, respectively, but the removal efficiency of glycerol was only65.4%. There was still a certain amount of glycerol (about 147.5g/L in the solution, which is separated from oily sludge.

  4. Optimization for microwave-assisted direct liquefaction of bamboo residue in glycerol/methanol mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Jinqiu Qi; Chungyun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2015-01-01

    Bamboo residues were liquefied in a mixture of glycerol and methanol in the presence of sulfuric acid using microwave energy. We investigated the effects of liquefaction conditions, including glycerol/methanol ratio, liquefaction temperature, and reaction time on the conversion yield. The optimal liquefaction conditions were under the temperature of 120

  5. Surface modification of thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane by glycerol assisted oxidation with sodium hypochlorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Hiren D.; Samnani, Mohit D.; Gauswami, Maulik V.

    2018-01-01

    Need for improvement in water flux of thin film composite (TFC) RO membrane has been appreciated by researchers world over and surface modification approach is found promising to achieve higher water flux and solute rejection. Thin film composite RO membrane was exposed to 2000 mg/l sodium hypochlorite solution with varying concentrations of glycerol ranging from 1 to 10%. It was found that there was a drop in concentration of sodium hypochlorite after the addition of glycerol because of a new compound resulted from the oxidation of glycerol with sodium hypochlorite. The water flux of the membrane treated with 1% glycerol with 2000 mg/l sodium hypochlorite for 1 h was about 22% more and salt rejection was 1.36% greater than that of only sodium hypochlorite treated membrane for the same concentration and time. There was an increase in salt rejection of membrane with increase in concentration of glycerol from 1% to 5%, however, increasing glycerol concentration further up to 10%, the salt rejection declined. The water flux was found declining from 1% glycerol solution to 10% glycerol solution. The membrane samples were characterized to understand the change in chemical structure and morphology of the membrane.

  6. Model studies on acrylamide generation from glucose/asparagine in aqueous glycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Granby, Kit

    2007-01-01

    Acrylamide formation from asparagine and glucose in different ratios in neutral glycerol/water mixtures was found to increase with decreasing water activity (0.33......Acrylamide formation from asparagine and glucose in different ratios in neutral glycerol/water mixtures was found to increase with decreasing water activity (0.33...

  7. Effect of Glycerol Pretreatment on Levoglucosan Production from Corncobs by Fast Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, glycerol was used in corncobs’ pretreatment to promote levoglucosan production by fast pyrolysis first and then was further utilized as raw material for chemicals production by microbial fermentation. The effects of glycerol pretreatment temperatures (220–240 °C, time (0.5–3 h and solid-to-liquid ratios (5–20% were investigated. Due to the accumulation of crystalline cellulose and the removal of minerals, the levoglucosan yield was as high as 35.8% from corncobs pretreated by glycerol at 240 for 3 h with a 5% solid-to-liquid ratio, which was obviously higher than that of the control (2.2%. After glycerol pretreatment, the fermentability of the recovered glycerol remaining in the liquid stream from glycerol pretreatment was evaluated by Klebsiella pneumoniae. The results showed that the recovered glycerol had no inhibitory effect on the growth and metabolism of the microbe, which was a promising substrate for fermentation. The value-added applications of glycerol could reduce the cost of biomass pretreatment. Correspondingly, this manuscript offers a green, sustainable, efficient and economic strategy for an integrated biorefinery process.

  8. Study of combined effects of glycerol and transglutaminase on properties of gelatin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelatin films plasticized with different glycerol contents (0-40%) were cross-linked using transglutaminase (TGase). Unmodified films were prepared as controls. Cross-linking degree of the films decreased linearly with increasing glycerol content, resulting in an increase in water solubility. Glycer...

  9. Propionic acid fermentation of glycerol and glucose by Propionibacterium acidipropionici and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmi, E H; Bories, A; Boussaid, A; Hassani, L

    2000-04-01

    A comparative study was carried out in anaerobic batch cultures on 20 g/l of either glycerol or glucose using two propionibacteria strains, Propionibacterium acidipropionici and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii. In all cases, fermentation end-products were the same and consisted of propionic acid as the major product, acetic acid as the main by-product and two minor metabolites, n-propanol and succinic acid. Evidence was provided that greater production of propionic acid by propionibacteria was obtained with glycerol as carbon and energy sources. P. acidipropionici showed higher efficiency in glycerol conversion to propionic acid with a faster substrate consumption (0.64 g l(-1) h(-1)) and a higher propionic acid production (0.42 g l(-1) h(-1) and 0.79 mol/mol). The almost exclusive production of propionic acid from glycerol by this bacterium suggested an homopropionic tendency of this fermentation. Acetic acid final concentration was two times lower on glycerol (2 g/l) than on glucose (4 g/l) for both micro-organisms. P. freudenreichii ssp. shermanii exhibited a glycerol fermentation pattern typical of non-associated glycerol-consumption-product formation. This could indicate a particular metabolism for P. freudenreichii ssp. shermanii oriented towards the production of other specific components. These results tend to show that glycerol could be an excellent alternative to conventional carbon sources such as carbohydrates for propionic acid production.

  10. Lipopolysaccharide Modifies Glycerol Permeability and Metabolism in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Durendale Chiadak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquaglyceroporins—aquaporin membrane channels (AQP that conduct glycerol and other small neutral solutes in addition to water—play major roles in obesity. In adipocytes, aquaglyceroporins mediate glycerol uptake and release across the plasma membrane, which are two key steps for triacylglycerols (TAGs synthesis (lipogenesis and hydrolysis (lipolysis. The aim of this study was to assess both glycerol permeability and metabolism in undifferentiated 3T3-L1 cells (UDCs as well as in untreated (CTL-DCs versus lipopolysaccharide (LPS-DCs-treated differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Glycerol release, TAGs content and whole membrane glycerol permeability were significantly increased in DCs as compared to UDCs. Moreover, in DCs, LPS treatment significantly increased TAGs content and decreased glycerol permeability. In addition, a significant reduction in whole membrane glycerol permeability was observed in LPS-DCs as compared to CTL-DCs. The relative contributions of AQP3, AQP7 and AQP9 (facilitated diffusion, as well as that of the phospholipid bilayer (simple diffusion, to the whole membrane glycerol permeability, were estimated biophysically in UDCs, CTL-DCs and LPS-DCs, using selective AQP inhibitors. Further studies will be required to determine if modifications in either subcellular localization and/or activity of aquaglyceroporins could account for the data herein. Nevertheless, our findings provide novel insights in understanding the LPS-induced adipocyte hypertrophy that accompanies obesity.

  11. Production of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol by engineered using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PD) has versatile applications in polymers, cosmetics, foods and medicines. In order to consolidate the functions of glycerol dehydratase gene dhaB and 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase gene dhaT and produce 1,3-PD from glycerol, the genes dhaB and dhaT from Klebsiella pneumoniae were inserted ...

  12. Palatability, digestibility, and metabolizable energy of dietary glycerol in adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, G S; Pezzali, J G; Marx, F R; Kessler, A M; Trevizan, L

    2017-02-01

    Glycerol is a humectant, which reduces water activity when added to the diet. This property seems to offer dietary benefits, specifically in high-moisture diets for cats, where some humectants cannot be used. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, glycerol is generally recognized as sustenance safe (GRAS). It is suggested that cats are able to metabolize glycerol and use it as an energy source without compromising health. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the following characteristics of glycerol in the diet for cats: 1) a preference test, 2) digestibility, ME, and fecal and urinary characteristics, and 3) postprandial plasma glycemia. Twelve healthy adult female cats were randomly distributed among 4 treatments consisting of a basal diet (4,090 kcal ME/kg DM, 32% CP, 11% fat, 2.3% crude fiber, and 7.0% ash) and 3 diets with varying percentages of glycerol, made by replacing the basal diet with 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0% purified glycerol (99.5%). The inclusion of glycerol proportionally reduced ( Cats did not show a preference for any diet in particular ( > 0.05). The digestibility assays showed that increasing dietary glycerol levels did not affect food intake or the apparent total tract digestibility of macronutrients and energy ( > 0.05). The inclusion of glycerol in the diets did not alter the stool moisture, fecal score, or urine volume. However, glycerol was detected in urine when it was incorporated into the diet at 10%. Glycemia increased up to 900 min following the first meal after the fasting period with no difference between treatments, even when the means were adjusted for food intake. The blood glucose area under the curve also showed no significant difference between treatments ( > 0.05). Cats accepted glycerol under the conditions of the study, and its nutritional value was determined as it has been done for other species. The ME of glycerol for adult cats was estimated to be 3,185 kcal/kg DM. Supplementing the diets of the cats

  13. Kinetic analysis of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain adapted for improved growth on glycerol: Implications for the development of yeast bioprocesses on glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Estopier, A; Lesage, J; Gorret, N; Guillouet, S E

    2011-01-01

    Glycerol is an agro-industrial residue generated in high amounts during the biodiesel production. The growing production of biodiesel is creating a worldwide glycerol surplus. Therefore, replacing sugar-based feedstock in bioprocesses by glycerol could be potentially attractive. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most commonly used microorganisms in the agri-food industry and therefore currently produced in large quantities from sugar-based feedstock. Unfortunately, growth of S. cerevisiae strains on glycerol is very low with reported μmax around 0.01 h(-1). This study demonstrates that successive growth of the S. cerevisiae CBS 8066, CEN.PK 113-7 D and Ethanol Red on glycerol as sole carbon source considerably improved the μmax from 0.01 up to 0.2 h(-1). The "adapted strain" CBS 8066-FL20 was kinetically characterized during aerobic and oxygen-limited cultivation in bioreactor and the results discussed in terms of their implication for developing glycerol-based S. cerevisiae bioprocesses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution of coenzyme B12-dependent diol dehydratase and glycerol dehydratase in selected genera of Enterobacteriaceae and Propionibacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraya, T; Kuno, S; Fukui, S

    1980-03-01

    The presence of diol dehydratase and glycerol dehydratase was shown in several bacteria of Enterobacteriaceae grown anaerobically on 1,2-propanediol and on glycerol, respectively. Diol dehydratases of Enterobacteriaceae were immunologically similar, but distinct from that of Propionibacterium freudenreichii.

  15. Glucose and glycerol concentrations and their tracer enrichment measurements using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornø, Andreas; Foged, Lene; van Hall, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes a new liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for high-throughput quantification of glucose and glycerol in human plasma using stable isotopically labeled internal standards and is suitable for simultaneous measurements of glucose and glycerol enrichments...... in connection to in vivo metabolic studies investigating glucose turnover and lipolytic rate. Moreover, in order to keep up with this new fast analysis, simple derivatization procedures have been developed. Prior to analysis, glucose and glycerol were derivatized using benzoyl chloride in order to form...... benzoylated derivatives via new simplified fast procedures. For glucose, two internal standards were evaluated, [U-(13) C(6)]glucose and [U-(13) C(6), D(7)]glucose, and for glycerol, [U-(13) C(3), D(8)]glycerol was used. The method was validated by means of calibration curves, quality control samples...

  16. In situ visualization and effect of glycerol in lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis of rapeseed oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yuan; Nordblad, Mathias; Nielsen, Per M.

    2011-01-01

    Immobilized lipases can be used in biodiesel production to overcome many disadvantages of the conventional base-catalyzed process. However, the glycerol by-product poses a potential problem for the biocatalytic process as it is known to inhibit immobilized lipases, most likely by clogging...... of the catalyst particles. In this paper, this negative effect was further investigated and confirmed in ethanolysis of rapeseed oil. A dyeing method was developed for in situ visualization of glycerol in order to study its partitioning and accumulation during the ethanolysis reaction. The method was used...... to illustrate the interaction of glycerol with immobilized lipases and thus provided an aid for screening supports for lipase immobilization according to their interaction with glycerol. Glycerol was found to have great affinity for silica, less for polystyrene and no affinity for supports made from...

  17. Human skeletal muscle fatty acid and glycerol metabolism during rest, exercise and recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Sacchetti, M; Rådegran, G

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) and glycerol kinetics and to determine the contribution of skeletal muscle to whole body FA and glycerol turnover during rest, 2 h of one-leg knee-extensor exercise at 65 % of maximal leg power output, and 3 h of recovery....... To this aim, the leg femoral arterial-venous difference technique was used in combination with a continuous infusion of [U-(13)C]palmitate and [(2)H(5)]glycerol in five post-absorptive healthy volunteers (22 +/- 3 years). The influence of contamination from non-skeletal muscle tissues, skin and subcutaneous...... adipose tissue, on FA and glycerol kinetics was studied by catheterization of the femoral vein in antegrade and retrograde directions. Substantially higher net leg FA and glycerol uptakes were observed with a retrograde compared to an antegrade catheter position, as a result of a much lower tracer...

  18. Performance of a direct glycerol fuel cell using KOH doped polybenzimidazole as electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Ana P.; Linares, Jose J., E-mail: joselinares@unb.br [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2014-03-15

    This paper studies the influence of the operating variables (glycerol concentration, temperature and feed rate) for a direct glycerol fuel cell fed with glycerol using polybenzimidazole (PBI) impregnated with KOH as electrolyte and Pt/C as catalyst. Temperature displays a beneficial effect up to 75 °C due to the enhanced conductivity and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions. The optimum cell feed corresponds to 1 mol L{sup -1} glycerol and 4 mol L{sup -1} KOH, supplying sufficient quantities of fuel and electrolyte without massive crossover nor mass transfer limitations. The feed rate increases the performance up to a limit of 2 mL min{sup -1}, high enough to guarantee the access of the glycerol and the exit of the products. Finally, the use of binary catalysts (PtRu/C and Pt{sub 3}Sn/C) is beneficial for increasing the cell performance. (author)

  19. Performance of a direct glycerol fuel cell using KOH doped polybenzimidazole as electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Ana P.; Linares, Jose J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the influence of the operating variables (glycerol concentration, temperature and feed rate) for a direct glycerol fuel cell fed with glycerol using polybenzimidazole (PBI) impregnated with KOH as electrolyte and Pt/C as catalyst. Temperature displays a beneficial effect up to 75 °C due to the enhanced conductivity and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions. The optimum cell feed corresponds to 1 mol L -1 glycerol and 4 mol L -1 KOH, supplying sufficient quantities of fuel and electrolyte without massive crossover nor mass transfer limitations. The feed rate increases the performance up to a limit of 2 mL min -1 , high enough to guarantee the access of the glycerol and the exit of the products. Finally, the use of binary catalysts (PtRu/C and Pt 3 Sn/C) is beneficial for increasing the cell performance. (author)

  20. Navigating Glycerol Conversion Roadmap and Heterogeneous Catalyst Selection Aided by Density Functional Theory: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol has been utilized in an extremely diversified manner throughout human civilization—ranging from food, to various consumer products, to pharmaceuticals, and even explosives. Large surplus in glycerol supply thanks to biodiesel production and biomass processing has created a demand to further boost its utility. One growing area is to expand the use of glycerol as an alternative feedstock to supplement fuels and chemicals production. Various catalytic processes have been developed. This review summarizes catalytic materials for glycerol reforming, hydrodeoxygenation, and oxidation. In particular, rationale for catalyst selection and new catalyst design will be discussed aided by the knowledge of reaction mechanisms. The role of theoretical density functional theory (DFT in elucidating complex glycerol conversion chemistries is particularly emphasized.

  1. Anaerobic and aerobic batch cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants impaired in glycerol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Torben Lauesgaard; Hamann, Claus Wendelboe; Kielland-Brandt, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    Glycerol is formed as a by-product in production of ethanol and baker's yeast during fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under anaerobic and aerobic growth conditions, respectively. One physiological role of glycerol formation by yeast is to reoxidize NADH, formed in synthesis of biomass...... and secondary fermentation products, to NAD(+). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether introduction of a new pathway for reoxidation of NADH, in a yeast strain where glycerol synthesis had been impaired, would result in elimination of glycerol production and lead to increased yields of ethanol...... and biomass under anaerobic and aerobic growth conditions, respectively. This was done by deletion of GPD1 and GPD2, encoding two isoenzymes of glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and expression of a cytoplasmic transhydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii, encoded by cth. In anaerobic batch fermentations...

  2. Rheological properties of purified illite clays in glycerol/water suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenkova, I.; Malers, J.; Berzina-Cimdina, L.

    2015-04-01

    There are many studies about rheological properties of clay-water suspensions, but no published investigations about clay-glycerol suspensions. In this work apparent viscosity of previously purified illite containing clay fraction acids and other non-clay minerals were almost totally removed by centrifugation. All obtained suspensions behaved as shear-thinning fluids with multiple times higher viscosity than pure glycerol/water solutions. Reduction of clay fraction concentration by 5% decreased the apparent viscosity of 50% glycerol/water suspensions approximately 5 times. There was basically no difference in apparent viscosity between all four 50% glycerol/water suspensions, but in 90% glycerol/water suspensions samples from Iecava deposit showed slightly higher apparent viscosity, which could be affected by the particle size distribution.

  3. Control of glycerol production by rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) to provide freeze resistance and allow foraging at low winter temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driedzic, William R; Ewart, K Vanya

    2004-11-01

    The rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) is a small anadromous fish that actively feeds under the ice at temperatures as low as the freeze point of seawater. Freezing is avoided through the production of both non-colligative antifreeze protein (AFP) and glycerol that acts in a colligative manner. Glycerol is constantly lost across the gills and skin, thus glycerol production must continue on a sustained basis at low winter temperatures. AFP begins to accumulate in early fall while water temperatures are still high. Glycerol production is triggered when water temperatures decrease to about 5 degrees C. Glycerol levels rapidly increase with carbon flow from dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) to glycerol. Glucose/glycogen serves as the initial carbon source for glycerol accumulation with amino acids contributing thereafter. The period of glycerol accumulation is associated with increases in GPDH mRNA and PEPCK mRNA followed by elevations in protein synthesis and enzyme activities. Plasma glycerol levels may reach in excess of 500 mM in winter. The high freeze resistance allows rainbow smelt to invade water of low temperature and forage for food. The lower the temperature, the higher the glycerol must be, and the higher the glycerol the greater the loss to the environment through diffusion. During the winter, rainbow smelt feed upon protein rich invertebrates with glycerol production being fueled in part by dietary amino acids via the gluconeogenic pathway. At winter temperatures, glycerol is quantitatively more important than AFP in providing freeze resistance of blood; however, the importance of AFPs to other tissues is yet to be assessed. Glycerol levels rapidly plummet in the spring when water temperature is still close to 0 degrees C. During this period, freeze resistance must be provided by AFP alone. Overall, the phenomenon of glycerol production by rainbow smelt reveals an elegant connection of biochemistry to ecology that allows this

  4. Preparation and characterization of zinc glycerolate: UV protection, biological activity and permeation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yee Cheong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc glycerolate, has been reported to be beneficial in the treatment of many medical ailments but its properties for skincare application are not explored. Zinc glycerolate has been successfully synthesized by heating zinc oxide and glycerol in 240 °C via microwave irradiation. The characterization and properties of zinc glycerolate were discussed including scanning electron microscopy (SEM, laser diffraction particle size analysis, in vitro irritancy potential, UV protection, antibacterial and permeation properties via Franz diffusion cell of the zinc glycerolate. Zinc glycerolate is classified as non-irritant when used in dermal application. It has SPF of 1.007 ± 0.004 and ultraviolet A to B (UVA/UVB ratio of 0.7 ± 0.019 which is considered good for UVA protection under Boot’s star rating. The antimicrobial properties of zinc glycerolate were expressed as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC; the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC and the time needed to eliminate 99.9% of the bacteria population (time-kill. Zinc glycerolate has better bactericidal properties than zinc oxide particularly towards Staphylococcus epidermis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Propionibacterium acnes while no effect was observed for Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The concentration of zinc ions that has diffused through polysulfone membrane installed in a vertical diffusion cell was determined through atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. The highest concentration of zinc ion diffused was found from incorporation of zinc glycerolate in oil-in-water (O/W cream-based excipient. The obtained results indicated that zinc glycerolate has a good potential for applications in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical products.

  5. Use of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol for producing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the fungus pythium irregulare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crude glycerol is a major byproduct for the biodiesel industry. Producing value-added products through microbial fermentation on crude glycerol provides opportunities to utilize a large quantity of this byproduct. The objective of this study is to explore the potential of using crude glycerol for ...

  6. Metabolic effects of glycerol supplementation and aerobic physical training on Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Eric Francelino; Lobato, Raquel Vieira; Araújo, Ticiana Vasques; Orlando, Débora Ribeiro; Gomes, Núbia Ferreira; Alvarenga, Renata Ribeiro; Rogatto, Gustavo Puggina; Zangeronimo, Márcio Gilberto; Pereira, Luciano José

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated the effects of oral glycerol supplementation on trained rats fed a normal diet. Wistar rats were distributed among 6 groups in a completely randomized 2 × 3 factorial design. The animals were subjected to 6 weeks of aerobic training. In the last 4 weeks, the animals' diet was supplemented with saline, glucose, or glycerol. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Student-Newmann-Keuls test, with values for P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. The change in body mass was lower in the trained groups, and their food and water consumption were higher. Glycerol supplementation resulted in an increase in the levels of triacylglycerol (TAG) and total cholesterol, as well as in the area and diameter of adipocytes. When associated with training, these parameters were similar to those of other trained groups. Levels of low-density lipoprotein + very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased in the trained animals that received glycerol compared with the non-trained ones. Glycerol consumption caused a reduction in food intake and increased the villous:crypt (V:C) ratio. No changes in glycemia, high density lipoproteins, or density of adipocytes were observed. Supplementation with glycerol together with aerobic physical training promoted beneficial metabolic effects. However, in non-trained rats glycerol increased the diameter and area of adipocytes, as well as the levels of TAG and total cholesterol.

  7. Physiologic Mechanisms Involved in Accumulation of 3-Hydroxypropionaldehyde during Fermentation of Glycerol by Enterobacter agglomerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbirato, F; Soucaille, P; Bories, A

    1996-12-01

    When grown in 700 mM glycerol within the pH range 6.0 to 7.5, anaerobic pH-regulated cultures of Enterobacter agglomerans exhibited an extracellular accumulation of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA). This phenomenon, which causes fermentation cessation, occurred earlier when pH was low. In contrast, substrate consumption was complete at pH 8. Levels of glycerol-catabolizing enzymes, i.e., glycerol dehydrogenase and dihydroxyacetone kinase for the oxidative route and glycerol dehydratase and 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase for the reductive route, as well as the nucleotide pools were determined periodically in the pH 7- and pH 8-regulated cultures. A NAD/NADH ratio of 1.7 was correlated with the beginning of the production of the inhibitory metabolite. Further accumulation was dependent on the ratio of glycerol dehydratase activity to 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase activity. For a ratio higher than 1, 3-HPA was produced until fermentation ceased, which occurred for the pH 7-regulated culture. At pH 8, a value below 1 was noticed and 3-HPA accumulation was transient, while the NAD/NADH ratio decreased. The low rate of glycerol dissimilation following the appearance of 3-HPA in the culture medium was attributed to the strong inhibitory effect exerted by 3-HPA on glycerol dehydrogenase activity.

  8. Synthesis and Thermal-Stability Study of Polybutylene Itaconate Modified with Divinyl Benzene and Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atmanto Heru Wibowo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Polybutylene itaconate (PBI for modification with divinyl benzene (DVB and glycerol has been synthesized at 180 °C for 3 h via polycondensation of itaconic acid (IA and butanediols using catalyst of Ti(OBu4. Modification on PBI was done with addition of 15%, 20% and 25% DVB (w/w using benzoyl peroxide. With glycerol, weight variations of glycerol:1,4-butanediol (BDO in the synthesis were 10%, 30%, and 50% (mole/mole. PBI and PBI modified with DVB and glycerol were characterized with FTIR and TG-DTA. PBI showed a wavenumber shift from 1703 cm-1 to 1728 cm-1 of the C=O functional group from acid to esther. The DVB modification on PBI also showed that the intensity decrease of C=C stretching was due to the formation of crosslinking on the double bond. In the modification with glycerol, three dimensional networking on the polyester occurred through bonding between hydroxyl of glycerol and acid group of IA. Constant intensity of C=C stretching on polyester was seen. The thermal stability of PBI modified with DVB increased, accompanied by rigidity change of the structure. The thermal stability of PBI modified with glycerol decreased, caused by the decrease of regularity degree and the elasticity increase of the three dimensional structure of polyester.

  9. Glycerol, trehalose and glycerol–trehalose mixture effects on thermal stabilization of OCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreca, D., E-mail: dbarreca@unime.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Messina, Viale F. Stagno d’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Laganà, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Messina, Viale F. Stagno d’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Magazù, S.; Migliardo, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Messina, Viale F. Stagno d’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Bellocco, E. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Messina, Viale F. Stagno d’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2013-10-16

    Highlights: • Trehalose influences both enzymatic activity and conformational changes of enzyme. • The results obtained by INS and QENS show a switching-off of the fast dynamics at very low glycerol content. • The diffusive dynamics is slowing down at very low glycerol concentration. • The mixtures of trehalose/glycerol lose the thermal stabilizing effects of pure compounds. - Abstract: The stabilization effects of trehalose, glycerol and their mixtures on ornithine carbamoyltransferase catalytic activity has been studied as a function of temperature by complementary techniques. The obtained results show that the kinematic viscosities of trehalose (1.0 M) and protein mixture are higher than the one of glycerol plus protein. Changing the trehalose/glycerol ratio, we notice a decrease of the kinematic viscosity values at almost all the analyzed ratio. In particular, the solution composed of 95% trehalose-5% glycerol shows a peculiar behavior. Moreover the trehalose (1.0 M) solution shows the higher OCT thermal stabilization at 343 K, while all the other solutions show minor effects. The smallest stabilizing effect is revealed for the solution that shows the maximum kinematic viscosity. These results support Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) and Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering (QENS) findings, which pointed out a slowing down of the relaxation and diffusive dynamics in some investigated samples.

  10. Glycerol as a chemical chaperone enhances radiation-induced apoptosis in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emoto Mie

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is one of the most aggressive, malignant tumors in humans, results in an extremely poor prognosis despite chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The present study was designed to evaluate therapeutic effects of radiation by glycerol on p53-mutant anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells (8305c cells. To examine the effectiveness of glycerol in radiation induced lethality for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma 8305c cells, we performed colony formation assay and apoptosis analysis. Results Apoptosis was analyzed with Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA ladder formation assay. 8305c cells became radiosensitive when glycerol was added to culture medium before X-ray irradiation. Apoptosis was induced by X-rays in the presence of glycerol. However, there was little apoptosis induced by X-ray irradiation or glycerol alone. The binding activity of whole cell extracts to bax promoter region was induced by X-rays in the presence of glycerol but not by X-rays alone. Conclusion These findings suggest that glycerol is effective against radiotherapy of p53-mutant thyroid carcinomas.

  11. Glycerol as a source of designer solvents: physicochemical properties of low melting mixtures containing glycerol ethers and ammonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Duaso, Alejandro; Pérez, Pascual; Mayoral, José A; Pires, Elisabet; García, José I

    2017-10-25

    In this work we report the preparation of mixtures of several alkyl glyceryl ethers, as hydrogen bond donor compounds, with two ammonium salts, choline chloride and N,N,N-triethyl-2,3-dihydroxypropan-1-aminium chloride. The stability of the mixtures at different molar ratios and temperatures has been evaluated in order to determine the formation of low melting mixtures. Liquid and stable mixtures have been characterized and their physico-chemical properties such as density, viscosity, refractive index, conductivity and surface tension have been measured in the temperature range of 293.15 K to 343.15 K. Comparison of the mixtures prepared herein with the ones containing glycerol and choline chloride evidences the possibility of tuning the physico-chemical properties by changing the substitution pattern in the hydrogen bond donor compound or in the ammonium salt, thus broadening the scope of application of these mixtures.

  12. Fermentative utilization of glycerol residue for the production of acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvan; Trisakti, B.; Hasibuan, R.; Joli, M.

    2018-02-01

    Glycerol residue, frequently known as pitch, is a waste produced from the downstream product of crude glycerine distillation. With the increasing need of pure glycerine in the world, the glycerol residue produced is also increasing. Glycerol residue is a solid waste at room temperature, highly alkaline (pH > 13), corrosive, and categorized as hazardous and poisonous waste. In this research, acetic acid was produced from glycerol residue through the anaerobic fermentation process by using purple non-sulphur photosynthetic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to find out the influence of concentration change of glycerol residue on time and to find out the possibility of glycerol residue to be utilized as acetic acid. In this research, at first 400 g of glycerol residue was diluted with 200 ml of distilled water to change the glycerine phase, from solid to liquid at room temperature, acidified by using hydrochloric acid until pH 2. The top layer formed was fatty acid and triglycerides that should be removed. Meanwhile, the bottom layer was diluted glycerol residue which was then neutralized with caustic soda. To produce acetic acid, glycerol residue with various concentrations, salt, and purple non-sulphur photosynthetic bacteria were put together into a 100 ml bottle which had been previously sterilized, then incubated for four weeks under the light of 40-watt bulb. The result showed that on the 28th day of fermentation, the produced acetic acid were 0.28, 1.85, and 0.2% (w/w) by using glycerine with the concentration of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% (w/w), respectively.

  13. Energy recovery from waste glycerol by utilizing thermal water vapor plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamošiūnas, Andrius; Valatkevičius, Pranas; Gimžauskaitė, Dovilė; Jeguirim, Mejdi; Mėčius, Vladas; Aikas, Mindaugas

    2017-04-01

    Glycerol, considered as a waste feedstock resulting from biodiesel production, has received much attention in recent years due to its properties, which offer to recover energy. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of a thermal water vapor plasma for waste (crude) glycerol conversion to synthesis gas, or syngas (H 2  + CO). In parallel of crude glycerol, a pure glycerol (99.5%) was used as a reference material in order to compare the concentrations of the formed product gas. A direct current (DC) arc plasma torch stabilized by a mixture of argon/water vapor was utilized for the effective glycerol conversion to hydrogen-rich synthesis gas. It was found that after waste glycerol treatment, the main reaction products were gases with corresponding concentrations of H 2 50.7%, CO 23.53%, CO 2 11.45%, and CH 4 3.82%, and traces of C 2 H 2 and C 2 H 6 , which concentrations were below 0.5%. The comparable concentrations of the formed gas products were obtained after pure glycerol conversion-H 2 46.4%, CO 26.25%, CO 2 11.3%, and CH 4 4.7%. The use of thermal water vapor plasma producing synthesis gas is an effective method to recover energy from both crude and pure glycerol. The performance of the glycerol conversion system was defined in terms of the produced gas yield, the carbon conversion efficiency, the cold gas efficiency, and the specific energy requirements.

  14. Anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge and glycerol, focusing on process kinetics, microbial dynamics and sludge dewaterability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, P D; Astals, S; Lu, Y; Devadas, M; Batstone, D J

    2014-12-15

    Anaerobic codigestion (AcoD) is a proven option to significantly boost biogas production while utilizing existing digesters and infrastructure. The aim of the present research was to conduct an exhaustive study regarding anaerobic codigestion of mixed sewage sludge and crude glycerol considering impacts on organic load, hydraulic load, process performance and microbial community. The methane potential of crude glycerol varied from 370 mL CH4·g(-1) VS to 483 mL CH4·g(-1) VS for different samples tested. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of crude glycerol was 1.01 g VS L(-1), and the primary mechanism of inhibition was through overload from rapid fermentation rather than the presence of toxic compounds in the crude glycerol. In continuous operation over 200 days, feeding glycerol at up to 2% v/v, increased organic load by up to 70% and resulted in a 50% increase in methane production. Glycerol dosing resulted in no change in apparent dewaterability, with both codigestion and control reactors returning values of 22%-24%. Members of the phylum Thermotogae emerged as a niche population during AcoD of sewage sludge and glycerol; however there was no gross change in microbial community structure and only minimal changes in diversity. AcoD did not result in synergisms between sewage sludge and crude glycerol. Actually, at dose rate up to 2% v/v glycerol dosing is still an effective strategy to increase the organic loading rate of continuous anaerobic digesters with minimal impact of the hydraulic retention time. Nonetheless, the dose rate must be managed to: (i) prevent process inhibition and (ii) ensure sufficient degradation time to produce a stable biosolids product. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimal Conditions for Biomass and Recombinant Glycerol Kinase Production Using the Yeast Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro R. Valentini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular glycerol kinase gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (GUT1 was cloned into the expression vector pPICZα A and integrated into the genome of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris X-33. The presence of the GUT1 insert was confirmed by PCR analysis. Four clones were selected and the functionality of the recombinant enzyme was assayed. Among the tested clones, one exhibited glycerol kinase activity of 0.32 U/mL, with specific activity of 0.025 U/mg of protein. A medium optimized for maximum biomass production by recombinant Pichia pastoris in shaker cultures was initially explored, using 2.31 % (by volume glycerol as the carbon source. Optimization was carried out by response surface methodology (RSM. In preliminary experiments, following a Plackett-Burman design, glycerol volume fraction (φ(Gly and growth time (t were selected as the most important factors in biomass production. Therefore, subsequent experiments, carried out to optimize biomass production, followed a central composite rotatable design as a function of φ(Gly and time. Glycerol volume fraction proved to have a significant positive linear effect on biomass production. Also, time was a significant factor (at linear positive and quadratic levels in biomass production. Experimental data were well fitted by a convex surface representing a second order polynomial model, in which biomass is a function of both factors (R²=0.946. Yield and specific activity of glycerol kinase were mainly affected by the additions of glycerol and methanol to the medium. The optimized medium composition for enzyme production was: 1 % yeast extract, 1 % peptone, 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer, pH=6.0, 1.34 % yeast nitrogen base (YNB, 4·10^–5 % biotin, 1 % methanol and 1 % glycerol, reaching 0.89 U/mL of glycerol kinase activity and 14.55 g/L of total protein in the medium after 48 h of growth.

  16. Reaction pathways for catalytic gas-phase oxidation of glycerol over mixed metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suprun, W.; Glaeser, R.; Papp, H. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2011-07-01

    Glycerol as a main by-product from bio-diesel manufacture is a cheap raw material with large potential for chemical or biochemical transformations to value-added C3-chemicals. One possible way of glycerol utilization involves its catalytic oxidation to acrylic acid as an alternative to petrochemical routes. However, this catalytic conversion exhibits various problems such as harsh reaction conditions, severe catalyst coking and large amounts of undesired by-products. In this study, the reaction pathways for gas-phase conversion of glycerol over transition metal oxides (Mo, V und W) supported on TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} were investigated by two methods: (i) steady state experiments of glycerol oxidation and possible reactions intermediates, i.e., acrolein, 3-hydroxy propionaldehyde and acetaldehyde, and (ii) temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) studies of glycerol conversion in the presence and in the absence of gas-phase oxygen. It is shown that the supported W-, V and Mo-oxides possess an ability to catalyze the oxidation of glycerol to acrylic acid. These investigations allowed us to gain a deeper insight into the reaction mechanism. Thus, based on the obtained results, three possible reactions pathways for the selective oxidation of glycerol to acrylic acid on the transition metal-containing catalysts are proposed. The major pathways in presence of molecular oxygen are a fast successive destructive oxidation of glycerol to CO{sub x} and the dehydration of glycerol to acrolein which is a rate-limiting step. (orig.)

  17. Ablation characteristics of carbon-doped glycerol irradiated by a 1064 nm nanosecond pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, QI; Siqi, ZHANG; Tian, LIANG; Ke, XIAO; Weichong, TANG; Zhiyuan, ZHENG

    2018-03-01

    The ablation characteristics of carbon-doped glycerol were investigated in laser plasma propulsion using a pulse laser with 10 ns pulse width and 1064 nm wavelength. The results showed that with the incident laser intensity increasing, the target momentum decreased. Results still indicated that the strong plasma shielded the consumption loss and resulted in a low coupling coefficient. Furthermore, the carbon-doping gave rise to variations in the laser focal position and laser intensity, which in turn reduced the glycerol splashing. Based on the glycerol viscosity and the carbon doping, a high specific impulse is anticipated.

  18. Microbial Conversion of Waste Glycerol from Biodiesel Production into Value-Added Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has gained a significant amount of attention over the past decade as an environmentally friendly fuel that is capable of being utilized by a conventional diesel engine. However, the biodiesel production process generates glycerol-containing waste streams which have become a disposal issue for biodiesel plants and generated a surplus of glycerol. A value-added opportunity is needed in order to compensate for disposal-associated costs. Microbial conversions from glycerol to valuable chemicals performed by various bacteria, yeast, fungi, and microalgae are discussed in this review paper, as well as the possibility of extending these conversions to microbial electrochemical technologies.

  19. Acrolein Production by Gas-Phase Glycerol Dehydration Using PO₄/Nb₂O5 Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Am; Ryoo, HeeKyoung; Ma, Byung Chol; Kim, Youngchul

    2018-02-01

    In this study, modified niobium oxide were prepared to study the addictive effects on the catalytic performance for gas-phase glycerol dehydration. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, XRD, NH3-TPD, FT-IR. The amount of phosphoric acid was up to 50 wt% in niobium. As a result, the highest glycerol conversion was achieved over 20 wt% PO4/Nb2O5. It indicates that the optimal amount of phosphoric acid leads the catalyst to have appropriate acidity which is an important factor for gas-phase glycerol dehydration.

  20. Preparation of polymer blends from glycerol, fumaric acid and of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) recycled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Marina A.O.; Guimaraes, Danilo H.; Brioude, Michel M.; Jose, Nadia M.; Prado, Luis A.S. de A.

    2011-01-01

    Polymer blends based on recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(glycerol fumarate) polyesters were prepared in different PET concentrations. The PET powder was dispersed during the poly(glycerol fumarate) synthesis at 260 deg C. The resulting blends were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability of the materials was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The morphology was studies by scanning electron microscopy. The blends were clearly immiscible. The possibility of (interfacial) compatibilization of the PET domains, caused by transesterification reactions between PET and glycerol were discussed. (author)

  1. Kinetic study of synthesis of bio-fuel additives from glycerol using a hetropolyacid

    OpenAIRE

    Sravanthi Veluturla; Archna Narula; Subba Rao D; Suniana P. Shetty

    2017-01-01

    Concerns about the ever increasing quantities of glycerol produced as a by-product of the process of manufacture of bio-diesel serve as a fuel for research about the alternative uses of glycerol. The esterification of glycerol with acetic acid over Cesium supported heteropolyacid (CsPWA) serving as the catalyst was carried out. The products obtained were mono, di and tri acetins which have wide application as biofuels. A series of experiments were carried out with CsPWA as catalyst and parame...

  2. A comparative evaluation of plasma glycerol and free fatty acids in patients with ischaemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh V

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma glycerol concentration was determined in 158 patients admitted to the hospital with acute chest pain. The patients were retrospectively divided into five groups according to their diagnosis, taking into account the presence or absence of myocardial infarc-tion and complicating arrythmias, The plasma glycerol concentra-tion was significantly higher in the group with complicating arrhythmias, irrespective of whether infarction was present or not. Therefore it is proposed that elevation of plasma glycerol may provide an important clue to determine those myocardial ischaemia cases who may develop cardiac arrythmias at a later stage.

  3. Conversion of the biodiesel by-product glycerol by the non-conventional yeast Pachysolen tannophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoying

    The focus on de veloping new renewable energy in the transportation sector by the EU has boosted the production of biodiesel from rapeseed and other vegetable oils in Europe. This has led to an immense increase in the production of glycerol, which is an inevitable byproduct from the biodiesel...... production process. Since the volume of the glycerol by-product has exceeded the current market need, biodiesel producers are looking for new methods for sustainable glycerol management and improving the competitiveness of the biodiesel industries. The EU Commission funded GLYFINERY project is one initiative...

  4. Synthesis and characterization of polyesters derived from glycerol and phthalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Hansen Guimarães

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of polyester via polycondensation between glycerol and phthalic acid using dibutyltin dilaurate is reported. Three glycerol:phthalic acid molar ratio used for the bulk polymerization were: 2:2; 2:3 and 2:4. FTIR confirmed the esterification of glycerol by the acid for all the polymers. DSC indicated no crystallinity, although the XRD plots indicate a very incipient crystallinity for the polymers containing higher amounts of phthalic anhydride. Scanning electron microscopy results indicates high homogeneity for all the polymers prepared.

  5. Potential application of glycerol in the production of plant beneficial microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, Nikolay; Malusa, Eligio; Requena, Antonia Reyes; Martos, Vanessa; López, Ana; Maksimovic, Ivana; Vassileva, Maria

    2017-05-01

    This review highlights the importance of research for development of biofertilizer and biocontrol products based on the use of glycerol for further process scale-up to industrial microbiology. Glycerol can be used successfully in all stages of production of plant beneficial microorganisms. It serves as an excellent substrate in both submerged and solid-state fermentation processes with free and immobilized microbial cells. Glycerol is also one of the most attractive formulation agents that ensures high cell density and viability including in harsh environmental conditions. Future research is discussed to make this inexpensive material a base for industrial production of plant beneficial microorganisms.

  6. 40 CFR 180.1250 - C8, C10, and C12 fatty acid monoesters of glycerol and propylene glycol; exemption from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of glycerol and propylene glycol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1250 Section 180..., C10, and C12 fatty acid monoesters of glycerol and propylene glycol; exemption from the requirement of... monocaprylate, glycerol monocaprate, and glycerol monolaurate) and propylene glycol (propylene glycol...

  7. Repeated biotransformation of glycerol to 1,3-dihydroxyacetone by immobilized cells of Gluconobacter oxydans with glycerol- and urea-feeding strategy in a bubble column bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhong-Ce; Tian, Sheng-Ying; Ruan, Li-Juan; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2017-06-01

    Some inorganic nitrogen sources and amino acids instead of yeast extract, which resulted in trouble of product purification, were introduced for 1,3-dihydroxyacetone (DHA) production by biotransformation with Gluconobacter oxydans. The results showed that urea is an optimal nitrogen source. Furthermore, the effects of glycerol- and urea-feeding strategies for DHA production by immobilized cells in a home-made bubble column bioreactor were optimized. Cells immobilization was prepared by cultivation in the bioreactor packed with porous ceramics, and then the broth was removed. Then, repeated biotransformation by continuous-feeding of glycerol and urea was developed. Up to 96.4±4.1g/L of average DHA concentration with 94.8±2.2% of average conversion rate of glycerol to DHA was achieved after 12 cycles of run. Near colorless DHA solution with few impurities was obtained and the production cost could be decreased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of a physiological GH pulse on interstitial glycerol in abdominal and femoral adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravhølt, C H; Schmitz, Ole; Simonsen, L

    1999-01-01

    Physiologically, growth hormone (GH) is secreted in pulses with episodic bursts shortly after the onset of sleep and postprandially. Such pulses increase circulating levels of free fatty acid and glycerol. We tested whether small GH pulses have detectable effects on intercellular glycerol...... washout method. Baseline of interstitial glycerol was higher in adipose tissue than in blood [220 +/- 12 (abdominal) vs. 38 +/- 2 (blood) micromol/l, P ....0005). Administration of GH induced an increase in interstitial glycerol in both abdominal and femoral adipose tissue (ANOVA: abdominal, P = 0. 04; femoral, P = 0.03). There was no overall difference in the response to GH in the two regions during the study period as a whole (ANOVA: P = 0.5), but during peak...

  9. Uncovering transcriptional regulation of glycerol metabolism in Aspergilli through genome-wide gene expression data anlysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salazar, Margarita Pena; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Panagiotou, Gianni

    2009-01-01

    Glycerol is catabolized by a wide range of microorganisms including Aspergillus species. To identify the transcriptional regulation of glycerol metabolism in Aspergillus, we analyzed data from triplicate batch fermentations of three different Aspergilli (Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus oryzae...... and Aspergillus niger) with glucose and glycerol as carbon sources. Protein comparisons and cross-analysis with gene expression data of all three species resulted in the identification of 88 genes having a conserved response across the three Aspergilli. A promoter analysis of the up-regulated genes led....... niger. Our transcriptome analysis indicated that genes involved in ethanol, glycerol, fatty acid, amino acids and formate utilization are putatively regulated by Adr1 in Aspergilli as in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and this transcription factor therefore is likely to be cross-species conserved among...

  10. Synthesis of high purity monoglycerides from crude glycerol and palm stearin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakamas Chetpattananondh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The optimum conditions for the glycerolysis of palm stearin and crude glycerol derived from biodiesel process werefound to be a reaction temperature of 200oC with a molar ratio of crude glycerol to palm stearin of 2.5:1, and a reaction timeof 20 minutes. The yield and purity of monoglycerides obtained under these conditions was satisfactory as compared withthe glycerolysis of pure glycerol. To increase the purity of monoglycerides a two-step process, removal of residual glyceroland crystallization, was proposed instead of either vacuum or molecular distillation. Residual glycerol was removed byadding hydrochloric acid followed by washing with hot water. Optimum conditions for crystallization were achieved byusing isooctane as a solvent and a turbine impeller speed of 200 rpm at a crystallization temperature of 35oC. A purity notexceeding 99 percent of monoglycerides was obtained with monopalmitin as the major product.

  11. A rapid method for an offline glycerol determination during microbial fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Kuhn

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: With this rapid assay, glycerol could be detected easily in microbial fermentation broth. It is reliable over a wide concentration range including advantages such as an easy assay set-up, a short assay time and no sample pretreatment.

  12. Potential lactic acid production from crude glycerol as the precursor of polylactic acid analog : literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastati, D. Y.; Hambali, E.; Syamsu, K.; Warsiki, E.

    2017-05-01

    Biodiesel has gained a significant amount of attention over the past decade as an environmentally friendly fuel. However, the biodiesel production process generates glycerol-containing waste streams which have become a disposal issue for biodiesel plants and generated an abundant of crude glycerol, a low-value byproduct of biodiesel manufacturing. Conversion crude glycerol to valuable chemical such as lactic acid, a precursor of polylactic acid (PLA), has a great potential to substitute traditional feedstocks of PLA, i.e., carbohydrate or sugar sources. Some of the process perspectives and the potential of glycerol to produce lactic acid by chemical transformation or microbial conversion are discussed in this paper, as well as the possibility of extending lactic acid to polylactic acid (PLA).

  13. Synthesis and characterization of unsatured polyesters from the reaction of glycerol with fumaric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Marina A.O.; Brioude, Michel M.; Agrela, Sara P.; Rosa, Leandro O.S.; Jose, Nadia M.; Prado, Luis A.S.A.

    2009-01-01

    The biodiesel production from vegetable oils has been encouraged by the Brazilian Federal Government, since biodiesel is a renewable fuel. The utilization of glycerol (by-product of biodiesel production) has gained importance, since it corresponds to 30 wt-% of the produced biodiesel. In this context, the present work aims at preparing and characterizing polymers based on glycerol, which could have an application. In this way, the production of biodiesel could be further stimulated. Unsaturated polyesters were preparing by esterification of glycerol with fumaric acid. The reaction mixture was heated up to 240 deg C. After the polymerization was complete, the material was cast onto Teflon molds. The materials were characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. The thermal stability was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The materials showed thermal stability comparable to alkyd thermoset derived from maleic anhydride and glycerol. (author)

  14. Ultrafine ferromagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: Facile synthesis by low temperature decomposition of iron glycerolate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartůněk, Vilém, E-mail: vilem.bartunek@vscht.cz [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Průcha, David [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Švecová, Marie [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Ulbrich, Pavel [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 3, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Huber, Štěpán; Sedmidubský, David; Jankovský, Ondřej [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2016-09-01

    We synthesized dark colored ultrafine – sub 10 nm iron oxide nanoparticles by a facile and low temperature process based on thermal decomposition of an affordable precursor – iron glycerolate. Simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) was used to study the thermal behaviour during the decomposition. The iron glycerolate was thoroughly analysed by various methods. The size of the iron nanoparticles was determined from XRD patterns and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and their composition has been confirmed by XPS. Magnetic properties of the nanoparticles were studied by vibrating sample magnetometry. The prepared single phase material exhibiting ferromagnetic properties is usable in a wide range of applications and may be suitable even for large scale industrial applications. - Highlights: • Iron glycerolate prepared and characterised. • Iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by thermal decomposition of iron glycerolate. • STA used to study the decomposition. • Products characterised by XRD, XPS, FT-IR, SEM and TEM. • Magnetic behaviour of monophasic samples determined.

  15. Physical-Chemical Basis of the Protection of Slowly Frozen Human Erythrocytes by Glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, W. F.; Mazur, Peter; Souzu, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    One theory of freezing damage suggests that slowly cooled cells are killed by being exposed to increasing concentrations of electrolytes as the suspending medium freezes. A corollary to this view is that protective additives such as glycerol protect cells by acting colligatively to reduce the electrolyte concentration at any subzero temperature. Recently published phase-diagram data for the ternary system glycerol-NaCl-water by M. L. Shepard et al. (Cryobiology, 13:9-23, 1976), in combination with the data on human red cell survival vs. subzero temperature presented here and in the companion study of Souzu and Mazur (Biophys. J., 23:89-100), permit a precise test of this theory. Appropriate liquidus phase-diagram information for the solutions used in the red cell freezing experiments was obtained by interpolation of the liquidus data of Shepard and his co-workers. The results of phase-diagram analysis of red cell survival indicate that the correlation between the temperature that yields 50% hemolysis (LT50) and the electrolyte concentration attained at that temperature in various concentrations of glycerol is poor. With increasing concentrations of glycerol, the cells were killed at progressively lower concentrations of NaCl. For example, the LT50 for cells frozen in the absence of glycerol corresponds to a NaCl concentration of 12 weight percent (2.4 molal), while for cells frozen in 1.75 M glycerol in buffered saline the LT50 corresponds to 3.0 weight percent NaCl (1.3 molal). The data, in combination with other findings, lead to two conclusions: (a) The protection from glycerol is due to its colligative ability to reduce the concentration of sodium chloride in the external medium, but (b) the protection is less than that expected from colligative effects; apparently glycerol itself can also be a source of damage, probably because it renders the red cells susceptible to osmotic shock during thawing. PMID:667300

  16. Physical-chemical basis of the protection of slowly frozen human erythrocytes by glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rall, W.F.; Mazur, P.; Souzu, H.

    1978-07-01

    One theory of freezing damage suggests that slowly cooled cells are killed by being exposed to increasing concentrations of electrolytes as the suspending medium freezes. A corollary to this view is that protective additives such as glycerol protect cells by acting colligatively to reduce the electrolyte concentration at any subzero temperature. Recently published phase-diagram data for the ternary system glycerol-NaCl-water by M.L. Shepard et al. (Cryobiology, 13: 9-23, 1976), in combination with the data on human red cell survival vs. subzero temperature presented here and in the companion study of Souzu and Mazur (Biophys. J., 23: 89-100), permit a precise test of this theory. Appropriate liquidus phase-diagram information for the solutions used in the red cell freezing experiments was obtained by interpolation of liquidus data of Shepard and his co-workers. The results of phase-diagram analysis of red cell survival indicate that the correlation between the temperature that yields 50% hemolysis (LT/sub 50/) and the electrolyte concentration attained at that temperature in various concentrations of glycerol is poor. With increasing concentrations of glycerol, the cells were killed at progressively lower concentrations of NaCl. For example, the LT/sub 50/ for cells frozen in the absence of glycerol corresponds to a NaCl concentration of 12 weight percent (2.4 molal), while for cells frozen in 1.75 M glycerol in buffered saline the LT/sub 50/ corresponds to 3.0 weight percent NaCl (1.3 molal). The data, in combination with other findings, lead to two conclusions: (a) The protection from glycerol is due to its colligative ability to reduce the concentration of sodium chloride in the external medium, but (b) the protection is less than that expected from colligative effects; apparently glycerol itself can also be a source of damage, probably because it renders the red cells susceptible to osmotic shock during thawing.

  17. Citrate- and glycerol triesters as novel dual-functional dispersants and plasticisers for ceramic processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghmoes, S.; Klemensø, T.; Brodersen, K.

    2018-01-01

    Short chained triesters of glycerol and citric acid were systematically investigated as novel dual-functional dispersants and plasticisers for use in ceramic processing. Additional systematic studies on a series of diesters having structural similarities with the citrate and glycerol triesters we......, for triethyl citrate the dual-function was finally demonstrated by producing a dense piece of 8YSZ through tape casting and subsequent sintering....

  18. Effect of inulin and glycerol supplementation on physicochemical properties of probiotic frozen yogurt

    OpenAIRE

    Muzammil, Hafiz Shehzad; Rasco, Barbara; Sablani, Shyam

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study was designed to investigate the effects of inulin and glycerol supplementation on physicochemical properties of probiotic frozen yogurt. Frozen yogurt was prepared with different types of probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis) along with yogurt starter culture (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus). The frozen yogurt mixture was supplemented with inulin (2%, 4%, and 6%) and glycerol (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%). The results showe...

  19. "Bleaching" glycerol in a microfluidic fuel cell to produce high power density at minimal cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cauê A; Ibrahim, Omar A; Pei, Pei; Kjeang, Erik

    2018-01-07

    Glycerol/bleach flow-through microfluidic fuel cells are presented. Carbon paper-modified Pt/C nanoparticles were used as the anode and cathode. Glycerol oxidation in alkaline medium was tested against hypochlorite reduction in alkaline and acidic media. The mixed media system displayed a power density of 315 mW cm -2 and an open circuit voltage of 1.9-2.0 V.

  20. Regulation of the metabolism of methanol, dihydroxyacetone and glycerol in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha.

    OpenAIRE

    Koning, Willem de

    1989-01-01

    ln recent years there has been an increasing interest in the possible application of microorganisms for the production of fine chemicals. [...] This thesis reports the results of studies in which various physiological and biochemical aspects of dihydroryacetone (DHA) and glycerol synthesis and utilization by the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha were investigated. The results provide further iasight into the regulation of methanol, DHA, and glycerol metabolism in this yeast, and a fir...

  1. Separation of the Glycerol-Biodiesel Phases in an Ethyl Transesterification Synthetic Route Using Water

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Willian L. G. da; Souza,Patrícia T. de; Shimamoto,Gustavo G.; Tubino,Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is obtained by the transesterification of vegetable oil (or fat) and alcohol, with methanol being the most used alcohol. Methanol can be replaced by ethanol; however, this alcohol acts as a surfactant in the reaction mixture, promoting a stable dispersion of the glycerol in biodiesel, which hinders the separation of the glycerol-biodiesel phases. In this study, it was found that the addition of 1% v/v water relative to the total volume of the reaction mixture expedites the separatio...

  2. Peroxisomal biosynthesis of lipid from sn-glycerol-3-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, S.; Hajra, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Liver peroxisomes contain the enzymes of the acyl dihydroxyacetone-P (DHAP) pathway but not glycerol-3-P (GP) acyltransferase. However, when [ 32 P]GP was incubated with peroxisomes in the presence of NAD + and palmitoyl CoA, acyl [ 32 P]DHAP was formed. Apparently, in peroxisomes [ 32 PGP is oxidized by NAD + to [ 32 P]DHAP catalyzed by peroxisomal GP dehydrogenase. When NADPH was also included in the reaction mixture, 1-acyl-[ 32 P]GP was the main product. Using a mixture of peroxisomes and microsomes, it was shown that at low concentrations of GP the peroxisomal lipid synthesizing system is more efficient than the micosomal system. In this system, the apparent K/sub m/ value for DHAP acylation was 5 μM but for GP acylation it was 1 mM. These data and the fact that the concentration of GP is much higher than that of DHAP in the liver suggest that the conversion of GP to DHAP is an important reaction in the biosynthesis of phospholipid via the peroxisomal pathway. Fractionation studies showed that acyl DHAP formed was transported out and converted to 1-acyl GP on the outside of peroxismes and then converted to other phospholipids in endoplasmic reticulum (e.r.). Based on these findings the following biosynthetic pathway in hepatic peroxisomes is proposed: GP--->DHAP--->Acyl DHAP--->1-acyl GP--->glycerolipids in e.r

  3. Mutations and phenotype in isolated glycerol kinase deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, A.P.; Muscatelli, F.; Stafford, A.N.; Monaco, A.P. [Inst. of Molecular Medicine, Oxford (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    We demonstrate that isolated glycerol kinase (GK) deficiency in three families results from mutation of the Xp21 GK gene. GK mutations were detected in four patients with widely differing phenotypes. Patient 1 had a splice-site mutation causing premature termination. His general health was good despite absent GK activity, indicating that isolated GK deficiency can be silent. Patient 2 had GK deficiency and a severe phenotype involving psychomotor retardation and growth delay, bone dysplasia, and seizures, similar to the severe phenotype of one of the first described cases of GK deficiency. His younger brother, patient 3, also had GK deficiency, but so far his development has been normal. GK exon 17 was deleted in both brothers, implicating additional factors in causation of the severe phenotype of patient 2. Patient 4 had both GK deficiency with mental retardation and a GK missense mutation (D440V). Possible explanations for the phenotypic variation of these four patients include ascertainment bias; metabolic or environmental stress as a precipitating factor in revealing GK-related changes, as has previously been described in juvenile GK deficiency; and interactions with functional polymorphisms in other genes that alter the effect of GK deficiency on normal development. 36 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Effect of the initial glycerol concentration in the medium on the xanthan biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Zorana Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the effect of different initial glycerol concentrations in the medium on xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951. Xanthan biosynthesis was carried out in batch mode under aerobic conditions at a temperature of 30oC and agitation rate of 150 rpm for 7 days. The process efficiency was estimated based on the values of raw xanthan yield, average molecular weight of the polymer and residual content of glycerol, total nitrogen and phosphorus. Based on these results, the initial concentration of glycerol as a carbon source in the production medium was suggested. In the applied experimental conditions, high raw xanthan yield (12.15 g/l of good quality (Mw = 2.86•105 g/mol and the lowest amount of residual nutrients (glycerol 2.75 g/l, nitrogen 0.46 g/l and phosphorus 0.67 g/l was achieved in the medium with the initial glycerol content of 20 g/l. The obtained results are the basis for optimization of xanthan production on glycerol containing media in order to increase the product yield and quality.

  5. High hydrogen production from glycerol or glucose by electrohydrogenesis using microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Selembo, Priscilla A.

    2009-07-01

    The use of glycerol for hydrogen gas production was examined via electrohydrogenesis using microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). A hydrogen yield of 3.9 mol-H2/mol was obtained using glycerol, which is higher than that possible by fermentation, at relatively high rates of 2.0 ± 0.4 m3/m3 d (Eap = 0.9 V). Under the same conditions, hydrogen was produced from glucose at a yield of 7.2 mol-H2/mol and a rate of 1.9 ± 0.3 m3/m3 d. Glycerol was completely removed within 6 h, with 56% of the electrons in intermediates (primarily 1,3-propanediol), with the balance converted to current, intracellular storage products or biomass. Glucose was removed within 5 h, but intermediates (mainly propionate) accounted for only 19% of the electrons. Hydrogen was also produced using the glycerol byproduct of biodiesel fuel production at a rate of 0.41 ± 0.1 m3/m3 d. These results demonstrate that electrohydrogenesis is an effective method for producing hydrogen from either pure glycerol or glycerol byproducts of biodiesel fuel production. © 2009 International Association for Hydrogen Energy.

  6. Cryopreservation of cattle semen using coconut water extender with different glycerol concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Ibrahim El-Sheshtawy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of coconut water with a lone concentration and different concentrations of glycerol on chilled and cryopreserved cattle semen characteristics. Methods: Semen was collected from five mature cattle bulls, at weekly intervals for 5 weeks. The ejaculates were pooled and evaluated for dilution processing. Tris citrate egg yolk fructose was used as control treatment for semen, while 50% (V/V coconut water, 25% (V/V bidistilled water and 25% (V/V, 5% anhydrous monosodium citrate to 20 mL egg yolk and three different concentrations of glycerol (4%, 6% and 8% were used as coconut water (CW- glycerol-yolk extenders (CWCG-4, CWCG-6 and CWCG-8. Extended semen was cooled and cryopreserved. Sperm motility%, sperm membrane integrity%, normal acrosome%, live sperm% and total sperm abnormalities% were recorded after equilibrium and after freezethawing. Results: The addition of 4% glycerol to coconut water enriched media (CWCG-4 revealed the most effective addition of glycerol on all parameters after equilibrium and after freeze-thawing. Conclusions: Coconut water enriched media with 4% glycerol addition is safe to be used as an extender in bull semen preservation because it is a sterile liquid. So, it can be used without addition of antibiotics to the extender, as antibiotics have to some extent hazardous effect on spermatozoa.

  7. Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, João R M; Fávaro, Léia C L; Quirino, Betania F

    2012-07-18

    The considerable increase in biodiesel production worldwide in the last 5 years resulted in a stoichiometric increased coproduction of crude glycerol. As an excess of crude glycerol has been produced, its value on market was reduced and it is becoming a "waste-stream" instead of a valuable "coproduct". The development of biorefineries, i.e. production of chemicals and power integrated with conversion processes of biomass into biofuels, has been singled out as a way to achieve economically viable production chains, valorize residues and coproducts, and reduce industrial waste disposal. In this sense, several alternatives aimed at the use of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals by microbial fermentation have been evaluated. This review summarizes different strategies employed to produce biofuels and chemicals (1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, n-butanol, organic acids, polyols and others) by microbial fermentation of glycerol. Initially, the industrial use of each chemical is briefly presented; then we systematically summarize and discuss the different strategies to produce each chemical, including selection and genetic engineering of producers, and optimization of process conditions to improve yield and productivity. Finally, the impact of the developments obtained until now are placed in perspective and opportunities and challenges for using crude glycerol to the development of biodiesel-based biorefineries are considered. In conclusion, the microbial fermentation of glycerol represents a remarkable alternative to add value to the biodiesel production chain helping the development of biorefineries, which will allow this biofuel to be more competitive.

  8. Microbial utilization of crude glycerol for the production of value-added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Rosemary; Gray, Vincent; Rumbold, Karl

    2012-02-01

    Energy fuels for transportation and electricity generation are mainly derived from finite and declining reserves of fossil hydrocarbons. Fossil hydrocarbons are also used to produce a wide range of organic carbon-based chemical products. The current global dependency on fossil hydrocarbons will not be environmentally or economically sustainable in the long term. Given the future pessimistic prospects regarding the complete dependency on fossil fuels, political and economic incentives to develop carbon neutral and sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels have been increasing throughout the world. For example, interest in biodiesel has undergone a revival in recent times. However, the disposal of crude glycerol contaminated with methanol, salts, and free fatty acids as a by-product of biodiesel production presents an environmental and economic challenge. Although pure glycerol can be utilized in the cosmetics, tobacco, pharmaceutical, and food industries (among others), the industrial purification of crude glycerol is not economically viable. However, crude glycerol could be used as an organic carbon substrate for the production of high-value chemicals such as 1,3-propanediol, organic acids, or polyols. Microorganisms have been employed to produce such high-value chemicals and the objective of this article is to provide an overview of studies on the utilization of crude glycerol by microorganisms for the production of economically valuable products. Glycerol as a by-product of biodiesel production could be used a feedstock for the manufacture of many products that are currently produced by the petroleum-based chemical industry.

  9. Effective Removal of Heavy Metal Ions Using Glycerol and Starch Xanthate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Mohammed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol and insoluble starch xanthates were synthesised and effectively used in the removal of Pb, Cd and Cu from aqueous solutions. The insoluble metal complex formed between the sulphur atoms in the xanthates and the heavy metals were easily separated. Lower dosage of glycerol xanthate was required in each case, with the optimum molar ratio (M2+/GX of 2. Moreover, the use of glycerol xanthate required no pH adjustments to give a 100 % heavy metal removal within the range of the detection limit. As for the ISX, there was a remarkable metal scavenging activity when the ISX contained high amount of Sulphur per molecule (10.12% S and when the pH was adjusted to 6. Butyl xanthate was also synthesised to make a good comparison with the glycerol and insoluble starch xanthate. The xanthates from these two sustainable materials (Starch and glycerol are proven to be more effective in metal scavenging activity. FTIR and CHNS elemental analyses were used to prove the evidence of xanthation, in addition, 13C NMR was used to characterise the glycerol xanthate.

  10. Integral process of obtaining glycerol as a by-product of biodiesel production from castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Romero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The biodiesel is obtained from about 10 years ago in Europe, and now that it has taken hold as fuel for diesel engines, it is expected a clear increase in the production of this class of fuels in a the near future. The biodiesel is derived from the transesterification reaction of castor oil with methanol, which is the main by-product the glycerol with an approximate content of 10%. Besides catalyst residuals, soaps, methanol traces, mono and diglycerides in small percentages are presented. This study proposes the separation, purification and characterization of the glycerol obtained from the transesterificación reaction of the castor oil, in order to be able to market it in the national or international market, so that it fulfills the standards of quality, which means getting a pure glycerol and the appropriate physico-chemical characteristics and techniques. The glycerin-methyl esters separation is carried out by decantation being obtained a percentage of around 70% glycerol. This percentage is subsequently increased through the purification process, using hydrochloric acid. Glycerol characterization was carried out by physicochemical and organoleptic tests. The purification process allowed us to obtain a glycerol with a percentage of purity close to 98%. It was also tested by comparison with theoretical data that remnants influenced in the physiochemical properties

  11. Swelling and tensile properties of starch glycerol system with various crosslinking agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R.; Mohd, N.; Nurazzi, N.; Siti Aisyah, M. I.; Fauzi, F. Mohd

    2017-07-01

    Brittle properties of starch had been overcome by the modification process. In this work, sago starch is being modified with variable amount of plasticiser, namely glycerol at 20 and 40% and crosslinking agent had been added to the system. The film of the modification and characterizations of the starch glycerol system with various crosslinking systems were produced by casting method. The film properties of the starch glycerol system were then characterized by tensile strength (mechanical properties) and swelling (physical properties). The modification of the starch glycerol had improved that system by increasing the tensile strength, modulus however lowering its elongation. The increasing in percentage of the water absorption and also swelling are due to the intrinsic hydroxyl groups presence from the starch and glycerol itself that can attract more water to the system. Upon crosslinking, films casted with chemicals namely, glyoxal, malonic acid, borax, PEG were characterised. It was found that, all the film of sago starch crosslinked and undergoing easy film formation. From this modification, borax and malonic acid crosslinking agent had been determined as the best crosslinking agent to the starch glycerol system.

  12. Consolidating biofuel platforms through the fermentative bioconversion of crude glycerol to butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erin; Sarchami, Tahereh; Kießlich, Sascha; Munch, Garret; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-06-01

    Economic realities for the rising industrial biofuel production have changed substantially during the low oil price period starting in the mid 2010's. Increased competition requires the sector to increase productivity through the reduction of low-value by-products and full utilization of all value and energy stored in their respective feedstock. Biodiesel is produced commercially from substrates such as animal fat and vegetable oil, generating approximately 10 wt% crude glycerol as its main, currently underutilized, by-product. This crude glycerol is contaminated with catalyst, soap, free fatty acids, glycerides and methyl esters; hence only a small fraction enters the existing glycerol markets, while the purification costs for the majority of crude glycerol are simply too high. However, this presents a unique opportunity to generate additional value. One technical possibility is to use crude glycerol as a carbon source for butanol production, a compound of higher value and energy, a potential additive for gasoline and diesel fuels and bulk chemical commodity. Conversion facilities could be co-located with biodiesel plants, utilizing established infrastructure and adding significant value and productivity to the existing biodiesel industry. This review focuses on the current activities geared towards the bioconversion of crude glycerol to butanol.

  13. Delignification of sugarcane bagasse using glycerol-water mixtures to produce pulps for saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Lísias Pereira; Gurgel, Leandro Vinícius Alves; Marabezi, Karen; Curvelo, Antonio Aprigio da Silva

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes the organosolv delignification of depithed bagasse using glycerol-water mixtures without a catalyst. The experiments were performed using two separate experimental designs. In the first experiment, two temperatures (150 and 190°C), two time periods (60 and 240 min) and two glycerol contents (20% and 80%, v/v) were used. In the second experiment, which was a central composite design, the glycerol content was maintained at 80%, and a range of temperatures (141.7-198.3°C) and time (23-277 min) was used. The best result, obtained with a glycerol content of 80%, a reaction time of 150 min and a temperature of 198.3°C, produced pulps with 54.4% pulp yield, 7.75% residual lignin, 81.4% delignification and 13.7% polyose content. The results showed that high contents of glycerol tend to produce pulps with higher delignification and higher polyoses content in relation to the pulps obtained from low glycerol content reactions. In addition, the proposed method shows potential as a pretreatment for cellulose saccharification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Malic acid production by chemically induced Aspergillus niger MTCC 281 mutant from crude glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyappan, J; Bharathiraja, B; Baskar, G; Jayamuthunagai, J; Barathkumar, S; Anna Shiny, R

    2018-03-01

    In the present investigation, crude glycerol derived from transesterification process was utilized to produce the commercially-valuable malic acid. A combined resistant on methanol and malic acid strain of Aspergillus niger MTCC 281 mutant was generated in solid medium containing methanol (1-5%) and malic acid (40-80 g/L) by the adaptation process for 22 weeks. The ability of induced Aspergillus niger MTCC 281 mutant to utilize crude glycerol and pure glycerol to produce malic acid was studied. The yield of malic acid was increased with 4.45 folds compared with that of parent strain from crude glycerol. The highest concentration of malic acid from crude glycerol by using beneficial mutant was found to be 77.38 ± 0.51 g/L after 192 h at 25 °C. This present study specified that crude glycerol by-product from biodiesel production could be used for producing high amount of malic acid without any pretreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of CgHOG1 in Stress Responses and Glycerol Overproduction of Candida glycerinogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hao; Zhuge, Bin; Zong, Hong; Lu, Xinyao; Fang, Huiying; Zhuge, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Candida glycerinogenes, the glycerol producer with excellent multi-stress tolerances, is considered to be a potential biotechnological host used in the production of glycerol and its derivatives under extreme fermentation conditions. In this study, to evaluate the multiple roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase CgHOG1, we constructed a gene disruption system in the diploid C. glycerinogenes to obtain CgHOG1 null mutant. Pseudohyphae generation of the CgHOG1 mutant under non-inducing condition indicated a repressor role in morphological transitions. Disruption of CgHOG1 resulted in increased sensitivities to osmotic, acetic acid, and oxidative stress but not involved in thermotolerance. In the CgHOG1 mutant, NaCl shock failed to stimulate the accumulation of intracellular glycerol and was fatal. In addition, the CgHOG1 mutant displayed a significant prolonged growth lag phase in YPD medium with no decrease in glycerol production, whereas the mutant cannot grow under hyperosmotic condition with no detectable glycerol in broth. These results suggested that CgHOG1 plays important roles in morphogenesis and multi-stress tolerance. The growth and glycerol overproduction under osmotic stress are heavily dependent on CgHOG1 kinase.

  16. The effect of glycerol from biodiesel production waste as a plasticizer on physical character edible film of chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosyid, Fajar Abdul; Triastuti, Rr. Juni; Andriyono, Sapto

    2017-02-01

    Chitosan edible film is a thin layer of clear packaging made from chitosan edible and biodegradable. Edible chitosan films are stiffer and less elastic, so it should be added plasticizer glycerol. One source of glycerol is inexpensive and easily obtained is crude glycerol from biodiesel production. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of various concentrations of crude glycerol plasticizer on the physical characteristics of chitosan edible film and determine the best concentration of crude glycerol plasticizer. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments and four replications. The Edible film using the g chitosan and some plasticizers concentration of crude glycerol (0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1 mL) and a control treatment that used 0.4 mL of pure glycerol was made. The results showed that the use of crude glycerol plasticizer had effect to the physical character of chitosan edible film. Increasing concentrations of crude glycerol plasticizer exhibits the lowers value of the thickness and tensile strength, however, can increase the value of percent elongation. The best concentration of this research is the treatment of B (0.2 ml crude glycerol) which resulted in 0.55 mm thickness, the tensile strength of 95.38 kgf/cm2 and a percent elongation of 2.13%.

  17. Roles of Sugar Alcohols in Osmotic Stress Adaptation. Replacement of Glycerol by Mannitol and Sorbitol in Yeast1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Hohmann, Stefan; Jensen, Richard G.; Bohnert, and Hans J.

    1999-01-01

    For many organisms there is a correlation between increases of metabolites and osmotic stress tolerance, but the mechanisms that cause this protection are not clear. To understand the role of polyols, genes for bacterial mannitol-1-P dehydrogenase and apple sorbitol-6-P dehydrogenase were introduced into a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant deficient in glycerol synthesis. Sorbitol and mannitol provided some protection, but less than that generated by a similar concentration of glycerol generated by glycerol-3-P dehydrogenase (GPD1). Reduced protection by polyols suggested that glycerol had specific functions for which mannitol and sorbitol could not substitute, and that the absolute amount of the accumulating osmoticum might not be crucial. The retention of glycerol and mannitol/sorbitol, respectively, was a major difference. During salt stress, cells retained more of the six-carbon polyols than glycerol. We suggest that the loss of >98% of the glycerol synthesized could provide a safety valve that dissipates reducing power, while a similar high intracellular concentration of retained polyols would be less protective. To understand the role of glycerol in salt tolerance, salt-tolerant suppressor mutants were isolated from the glycerol-deficient strain. One mutant, sr13, partially suppressed the salt-sensitive phenotype of the glycerol-deficient line, probably due to a doubling of [K+] accumulating during stress. We compare these results to the “osmotic adjustment” concept typically applied to accumulating metabolites in plants. The accumulation of polyols may have dual functions: facilitating osmotic adjustment and supporting redox control. PMID:10482659

  18. The role of micronutrients and strategies for optimized continual glycerol production from carbon dioxide by Dunaliella tertiolecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Yvonne; Tu, Wang Yung; Wang, David; Ng, Daphne H P; Lee, Yuan Kun

    2015-10-01

    The microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta synthesizes intracellular glycerol as an osmoticum to counteract external osmotic pressure in high saline environments. The species has recently been found to release and accumulate extracellular glycerol, making it a suitable candidate for sustainable industrial glycerol production if a sufficiently high product titre yield can be achieved. While macronutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are essential and well understood, this study seeks to understand the influence of the micronutrient profile on glycerol production. The effects of metallic elements calcium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, cobalt, copper, and iron, as well as boron, on glycerol production as well as cell growth were quantified. The relationship between cell density and glycerol productivity was also determined. Statistically, manganese recorded the highest improvement in glycerol production as well as cell growth. Further experiments showed that manganese availability was associated with higher superoxide dismutase formation, thus suggesting that glycerol production is negatively affected by oxidative stress and the manganese bound form of this enzyme is required in order to counteract reactive oxygen species in the cells. A minimum concentration of 8.25 × 10(-5)  g L(-1) manganese was sufficient to overcome this problem and achieve 10 g L(-1) extracellular glycerol, compared to 4 g L(-1) without the addition of manganese. Unlike cell growth, extracellular glycerol production was found to be negatively affected by the amount of calcium present in the normal growth medium, most likely due to the lower cell permeability at high calcium concentrations. The inhibitory effects of iron also affected extracellular glycerol production more significantly than cell growth and several antagonistic interaction effects between various micronutrients were observed. This study indicates how the optimization of these small amounts of nutrients in a two

  19. Glycerol Monolaurate Antibacterial Activity in Broth and Biofilm Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlievert, Patrick M.; Peterson, Marnie L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is an antimicrobial agent that has potent activity against gram-positive bacteria. This study examines GML antibacterial activity in comparison to lauric acid, in broth cultures compared to biofilm cultures, and against a wide range of gram-positive, gram-negative, and non-gram staining bacteria. Methodology/Principal Findings GML is ≥200 times more effective than lauric acid in bactericidal activity, defined as a ≥3 log reduction in colony-forming units (CFU)/ml, against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes in broth cultures. Both molecules inhibit superantigen production by these organisms at concentrations that are not bactericidal. GML prevents biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae, as representative gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, tested in 96 well microtiter plates, and simultaneously is bactericidal for both organisms in mature biofilms. GML is bactericidal for a wide range of potential bacterial pathogens, except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. In the presence of acidic pH and the cation chelator ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, GML has greatly enhanced bactericidal activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. Solubilization of GML in a nonaqueous delivery vehicle (related to K-Y Warming®) enhances its bactericidal activity against S. aureus. Both R and S, and 1 and 2 position lauric acid derivatives of GML exhibit bactericidal activity. Despite year-long passage of Staphylococcus aureus on sub-growth inhibitory concentrations of GML (0.5 x minimum bactericidal concentration), resistance to GML did not develop. Conclusions/Significance GML may be useful as a broad-spectrum human or animal topical microbicide and may be useful as an environmental surface microbicide for management of bacterial infections and contamination. PMID:22808139

  20. Use of glycerol-preserved corneas for corneal transplants

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    Neeti Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was carried out to see the results of glycerol-preserved cornea (GPC in emergency situation when fresh corneal tissue was not available. The aim was to study the outcome of corneal transplantation using GPC. Methods: This was a retrospective study. The medical records of all the patients were reviewed, who underwent keratoplasty using “GPC” during the period from October 2011 to December 2015. The indication of keratoplasty, duration of preservation of the GPC, and its outcome were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were applied. Results: Out of the 222 penetrating keratoplasty (PKP performed over the study period, the GPC was used in 34 patients (males = 31, 91.2% aged 15–74 years. Therapeutic keratoplasty was performed in all cases in this cohort except one in which tectonic keratoplasty was done. The primary indication of PKP (91.2% was infectious keratitis. Of these, 20 (64.5% patients presented with perforated corneal ulcers. Post-PKP, ocular anatomy was preserved in 91.2%, and visual acuity of perception of light positive and accurate projection of rays in all the quadrants was obtained in 76.5% cases. Complications included glaucoma (n = 12, 35.1%, phthisis bulbi (n = 2, 5.9%, and graft reinfection and endophthalmitis after PKP (n = 1, 2.9%. The secondary procedure post-GPC and PKP were trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (n = 7, 58.3% in patients not controlled on topical antiglaucoma medication. Optical keratoplasty was performed in (n = 3 8.8% patients and triple procedure in (n = 2 5.8% patients with good visual acuity postprocedure. Conclusions: Acellular GPCs are useful in emergency keratoplasty to avoid loss of vision and can save the eye.

  1. Aquaglyceroporin-null trypanosomes display glycerol transport defects and respiratory-inhibitor sensitivity.

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    Laura Jeacock

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquaglyceroporins (AQPs transport water and glycerol and play important roles in drug-uptake in pathogenic trypanosomatids. For example, AQP2 in the human-infectious African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, is responsible for melarsoprol and pentamidine-uptake, and melarsoprol treatment-failure has been found to be due to AQP2-defects in these parasites. To further probe the roles of these transporters, we assembled a T. b. brucei strain lacking all three AQP-genes. Triple-null aqp1-2-3 T. b. brucei displayed only a very moderate growth defect in vitro, established infections in mice and recovered effectively from hypotonic-shock. The aqp1-2-3 trypanosomes did, however, display glycerol uptake and efflux defects. They failed to accumulate glycerol or to utilise glycerol as a carbon-source and displayed increased sensitivity to salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, octyl gallate or propyl gallate; these inhibitors of trypanosome alternative oxidase (TAO can increase intracellular glycerol to toxic levels. Notably, disruption of AQP2 alone generated cells with glycerol transport defects. Consistent with these findings, AQP2-defective, melarsoprol-resistant clinical isolates were sensitive to the TAO inhibitors, SHAM, propyl gallate and ascofuranone, relative to melarsoprol-sensitive reference strains. We conclude that African trypanosome AQPs are dispensable for viability and osmoregulation but they make important contributions to drug-uptake, glycerol-transport and respiratory-inhibitor sensitivity. We also discuss how the AQP-dependent inverse sensitivity to melarsoprol and respiratory inhibitors described here might be exploited.

  2. Application of glycerol for induced powdery mildew resistance in Triticum aestivum L

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    Yinghui Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has demonstrated that glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P and oleic acid (18:1 are two important signal molecules associated with plant resistance to fungi. In this article, we provide evidence that a 3% glycerol spray application 1-2 days before powdery mildew infection and subsequent applications once every 4 days was sufficient to stimulate the plant defense responses without causing any significant damage to wheat leaves. We found that G3P and oleic acid levels were markedly induced by powdery mildew infection. In addition, TaGLI1 (encoding a glycerol kinase and TaSSI2 (encoding a stearoylacyl carrier protein fatty acid desaturase, two genes associated with the glycerol and fatty acid (FA pathways, respectively, were induced by powdery mildew infection, and their promoter regions contain some fungal response elements. Moreover, exogenous application of glycerol increased the G3P level and decreased the level of oleic acid (18:1. Glycerol application induced the expression of pathogenesis-related (PR genes (TaPR-1, TaPR-2, TaPR-3, TaPR-4, and TaPR-5, induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS before powdery mildew infection, and induced salicylic acid (SA accumulation in wheat leaves. Further, we sprayed glycerol in a wheat field and found that it significantly (p value<0.05 reduced the severity of powdery mildew disease and lessened disease-associated kernel weight loss, all without causing any noticeable degradation in wheat seed quality.

  3. Structural Characterizations of Glycerol Kinase: Unraveling Phosphorylation-Induced Long-Range Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Joanne I.; Kettering, Regina; Saxl, Ruth; Bourand, Alexa; Darbon, Emmanuelle; Joly, Nathalie; Briozzo, Pierre; Deutscher, Josef; (Pitt); (CNRS-CRMD)

    2009-09-11

    Glycerol metabolism provides a central link between sugar and fatty acid catabolism. In most bacteria, glycerol kinase plays a crucial role in regulating channel/facilitator-dependent uptake of glycerol into the cell. In the firmicute Enterococcus casseliflavus, this enzyme's activity is enhanced by phosphorylation of the histidine residue (His232) located in its activation loop, approximately 25 A from its catalytic cleft. We reported earlier that some mutations of His232 altered enzyme activities; we present here the crystal structures of these mutant GlpK enzymes. The structure of a mutant enzyme with enhanced enzymatic activity, His232Arg, reveals that residues at the catalytic cleft are more optimally aligned to bind ATP and mediate phosphoryl transfer. Specifically, the position of Arg18 in His232Arg shifts by approximately 1 A when compared to its position in wild-type (WT), His232Ala, and His232Glu enzymes. This new conformation of Arg18 is more optimally positioned at the presumed gamma-phosphate location of ATP, close to the glycerol substrate. In addition to structural changes exhibited at the active site, the conformational stability of the activation loop is decreased, as reflected by an approximately 35% increase in B factors ('thermal factors') in a mutant enzyme displaying diminished activity, His232Glu. Correlating conformational changes to alteration of enzymatic activities in the mutant enzymes identifies distinct localized regions that can have profound effects on intramolecular signal transduction. Alterations in pairwise interactions across the dimer interface can communicate phosphorylation states over 25 A from the activation loop to the catalytic cleft, positioning Arg18 to form favorable interactions at the beta,gamma-bridging position with ATP. This would offset loss of the hydrogen bonds at the gamma-phosphate of ATP during phosphoryl transfer to glycerol, suggesting that appropriate alignment of the second substrate of

  4. Review on enzymatic synthesis of value added products of glycerol, a by-product derived from biodiesel production

    OpenAIRE

    J. Pradima; M. Rajeswari Kulkarni; Archna

    2017-01-01

    Crude glycerol is produced as a by-product from biodiesel production via trans-esterification with methanol and this process accounts for 10% (w/w) of the total biodiesel produced worldwide. The glycerol glut created can be utilized to increase biodiesel profitability since disposal can pose a threat to the environment. The need is to transform this surplus crude glycerol into added-value products. Biological based conversions are efficient in providing products that are drop-in replacements ...

  5. Human axillary skin condition is improved following incorporation of glycerol into the stratum corneum from an antiperspirant formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard L; Turner, Graham A; Bates, Susan; Robinson, Teresa; Arnold, David; Marriott, Robert E; Pudney, Paul D A; Bonnist, Eleanor Y M; Green, Darren

    2017-11-01

    The study objectives were to demonstrate that glycerol, when topically applied from a roll-on antiperspirant formulation, can be delivered directly to human skin ex vivo and the axillary stratum corneum (SC) in vivo, and to assess whether it improves the quality of the axillary skin barrier. Ex vivo human skin absorption of glycerol was measured following application of a roll-on antiperspirant formulation containing 4% 13 C 3 -glycerol. Skin distribution of 13 C 3 -glycerol over 24 h was assessed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In vivo axillary SC penetration was measured by confocal Raman spectroscopy and multivariate curve-resolution software 1 h after topical application of a roll-on antiperspirant formulation containing 8% deuterated glycerol (d 5 -glycerol). A clinical study was conducted to determine the efficacy of a roll-on antiperspirant formulation containing 4% glycerol in reducing shaving-induced visual irritation and in increasing axillary-skin hydration. Ex vivo skin absorption studies indicated that the formulation delivered 13 C 3 -glycerol into the SC at all timepoints over the 24-h period. In vivo Raman measurements (1 h after application) demonstrated that d 5 -glycerol was detectable to a depth of at least 10 μm in the axillary SC. Application of 4% glycerol from a roll-on antiperspirant formulation to the axilla was associated with significantly less visible irritation and greater skin hydration than observed with the control (glycerol-free) product. These studies demonstrate that glycerol, incorporated in a roll-on antiperspirant formulation, is delivered directly and rapidly to all depths of the axillary SC, and results in improvements in visible irritation and hydration in the axilla.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of aliphatic polyesters from glycerol, by-product of biodiesel production, and adipic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Michel de Meireles Brioude; Danilo Hansen Guimarães; Raigenis da Paz Fiúza; Luis Antônio Sanches de Almeida Prado; Jaime Soares Boaventura; Nadia Mamede José

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, polyesters were prepared from the polycondensation between glycerol and adipic acid using dibutyltin dilaurate as catalyst. Three glycerol: adipic acid molar ratio were used for the bulk polymerization namely: 2:2; 2:3 and 2:4. FTIR confirmed the esterification of glycerol by the acid for all the polymers. DSC and XRD indicated no crystallinity for all the polymers. The morphology of the materials are characterized by globular structure, which may suggest compositional fl...

  7. Effect of impurities in biodiesel-derived waste glycerol on the performance and feasibility of biotechnological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzifragkou, Afroditi; Papanikolaou, Seraphim [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece). Lab. of Food Microbiology and Biotechnology

    2012-07-15

    The rapid development of biodiesel production technology has led to the generation of tremendous quantities of glycerol wastes, as the main by-product of the process. Stoichiometrically, it has been calculated that for every 100 kg of biodiesel, 10 kg of glycerol are produced. Based on the technology imposed by various biodiesel plants, glycerol wastes may contain numerous kinds of impurities such as methanol, salts, soaps, heavy metals, and residual fatty acids. This fact often renders biodiesel-derived glycerol unprofitable for further purification. Therefore, the utilization of crude glycerol though biotechnological means represents a promising alternative for the effective management of this industrial waste. This review summarizes the effect of various impurities-contaminants that are found in biodiesel-derived crude glycerol upon its conversion by microbial strains in biotechnological processes. Insights are given concerning the technologies that are currently applied in biodiesel production, with emphasis to the impurities that are added in the composition of crude glycerol, through each step of the production process. Moreover, extensive discussion is made in relation with the impact of the nature of impurities upon the performances of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms, during crude glycerol bioconversions into a variety of high added-value metabolic products. Finally, aspects concerning ways of crude glycerol treatment for the removal of inhibitory contaminants as reported in the literature are given and comprehensively discussed. (orig.)

  8. Effect of Glycerol Levels on the Motility and Fertility of Kampung Chicken Spermatozoa Frozen in Liquid Nitrogen

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    DM Saleh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of various levels of glycerol as a cryoprotective agent for freezing kampung chicken semen was examined with respect to intravaginal insemination. There was a significant (P<0.05 effect of various levels of glycerol (4, 8, 12 and 16 % on motile spermatozoa, but there was no significant effect on fertility. It was concluded that the use of glycerol for preservation of kampung chicken semen in liquid nitrogen gave satisfactory cryopreservative results on motility of thawed kampung chicken spermatozoa, but failed to produce fertile eggs. (Animal Production 9(1: 45-48 (2007 Key Words: glycerol, kampung chicken, semen, fertility, motility, liquid nitrogen

  9. Kinetic enzymatic determination of glycerol in wine and beer using a sequential injection system with spectrophotometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Hugo M; Segundo, Marcela A; Lima, José L F C; Grassi, Viviane; Zagatto, Elias A G

    2006-06-14

    A sequential injection system for the automatic determination of glycerol in wine and beer was developed. The method is based on the rate of formation of NADH from the reaction of glycerol and NAD+ catalyzed by the enzyme glycerol dehydrogenase in solution. The determination of glycerol was performed between 0.3 and 3.0 mmol L(-1) (0.028 and 0.276 g L(-1)), and good repeatability was attained (rsd waste production was 2.12 mL per assay. Results obtained for samples were in agreement with those obtained with the batch enzymatic method.

  10. A poly(glycerol-sebacate-curcumin) polymer with potential use for brain gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi-Jie; Sun, Bo; Tao, Rong-Bin; Xie, Xin; Lu, Xi-Li; Dong, De-Li

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin has multiple biological and pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and antitumor activities. However, the clinical use of curcumin is limited because of its poor oral absorption and extremely poor bioavailability. In order to overcome these limitations, we conjugate curcumin chemically into the known biocompatible and biodegradable polymer, poly(glycerol-sebacate), and prepare the unitary poly(glycerol-sebacate-curcumin) polymer. The structure, the in vitro degradation, the drug release, and antitumor activity as well as the in vivo degradation and tissue biocompatibility of poly(glycerol-sebacate-curcumin) polymer are investigated. The in vitro degradation and drug release profile of poly(glycerol-sebacate-curcumin) are in a linear manner. The in vitro antitumor assay shows that poly(glycerol-sebacate-curcumin) polymer significantly inhibits human malignant glioma cells, U87 and T98 cells. In view of the cytotoxicity against brain gliomas, local use of this polymer would be a potential method for brain tumors. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Improved tensile strength of glycerol-plasticized gluten bioplastic containing hydrophobic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yihu; Zheng, Qiang

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the present work has been to study the influence of hydrophobic liquids on the morphology and the properties of thermo-molded plastics based on glycerol-plasticized wheat gluten (WG). While the total amount of castor oil and glycerol was remained constant at 30 wt%, castor oil with various proportions with respect to glycerol was incorporated with WG by mixing at room temperature and the resultant mixtures were thermo-molded at 120 degrees C to prepare sheet samples. Moisture absorption, morphology, dynamic mechanical properties, and tensile properties (Young's modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break) of the plastics were evaluated. Experimental results showed that the physical properties of WG plastic were closely related to glycerol to castor oil ratio. Increasing in castor oil content reduces the moisture absorption markedly, which is accompanied with a significant improvement in tensile strength and Young's modulus. These observations were further confirmed in 24 wt% glycerol-plasticized WG plastics containing 6 wt% silicone oil or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) liquid rubber.

  12. Glycerol-enriched heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste frying oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, Gabriel O.; Almeida, Manuel F.; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria C.M.; Dias, Joana M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An alkali metal-glyceroxide heterogeneous catalyst was improved aiming biodiesel production. • Optimized reaction conditions were comparable to homogeneous catalysis. • High yield and good product quality was obtained using refined and waste oil. • The catalyst could be reused four times and prepared using methanol or ethanol. - Abstract: In the present work, biodiesel production using a glycerol enriched heterogeneous catalyst was studied. For that purpose, the catalyst performance at different glycerol concentrations and reaction conditions (under ambient atmosphere) was evaluated and two triglyceride sources were used. The most active catalyst was produced using CaO, glycerol and methanol at a mass ratio of 1:1.6:13.4, respectively. By performing the transesterification reaction under ambient atmosphere during 2 h at 333 K, using 0.4 wt.% of catalyst and 7:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, a good quality product was obtained (EN 14214) using both soybean oil and waste frying oil. The catalyst could be re-used during four cycles and could also be prepared by using ethanol instead of methanol (with differences <4% on product conversion). The glycerol by-product, being rich in calcium soaps, might additionally be used for the enrichment of animal diets. The present process allowed the production of biodiesel from different triglyceride sources using a very active heterogeneous catalyst at competitive reaction conditions compared to the homogeneous process and also enabled a two-way recycling of the glycerol by-product

  13. Pharmacological investigations of Punica granatum in glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amrit Pal; Singh, Amteshwar Jaggi; Singh, Nirmal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential and possible mechanism of hydroalcoholic extract of flowers of P. granatum in glycerol-induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were subjected to rhabdomyolytic ARF by single intramuscular injection of hypertonic glycerol (50% v/v; 8 ml/kg) and the animals were sacrificed after 24 hours of glycerol injection. The plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine clearance, and histopathological studies were performed to assess the degree of renal injury. Results: Pretreatment with hydroalcoholic extract of flowers of P. granatum (125 and 250 mg/kg p.o. twice daily for 3 days) significantly attenuated hypertonic glycerol-induced renal dysfunction in a dose-dependent manner. BADGE (Bisphenol-A-diglycidyl ether) (30 mg/kg), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ antagonist, and N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg), nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, were employed to explore the mechanism of renoprotective effects of Punica granatum. Administration of BADGE (30 mg/kg) and L-NAME (40 mg/kg) abolished the beneficial effects of P. granatum in glycerol-induced renal dysfunction. Conclusion: Hydroalcoholic extract of flowers of P. granatum has ameliorative potential in attenuating myoglobinuric renal failure and its renoprotective effects involve activation of PPAR-γ and nitric oxide-dependent signaling pathway. PMID:22021999

  14. Comparison of glycerol, lactamide, acetamide and dimethylsulfoxide as cryoprotectants of Japanese white rabbit spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Okuda, Yasushi; Seita, Yasunari; Hisamatsu, Shin; Sonoki, Shigenori; Shino, Masao; Masaoka, Toshio; Inomata, Tomo

    2006-08-01

    The rabbit is considered to be a valuable laboratory animal. We compared glycerol, lactamide, acetamide, and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as cryoprotectants in egg-yolk diluent of ejaculated Japanese white rabbit spermatozoa for improvement of sperm cryopreservation methods. Rabbit semen was frozen with 1.0 M glycerol, lactamide, acetamide, or DMSO in plastic straws. Forward progressive motility and plasma membrane integrity of the post-thaw spermatozoa were examined. The rate of forward progressive motile spermatozoa in lactamide (37.8 +/- 3.0%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than in glycerol (17.0 +/- 3.3%). In addition, the rates of sperm plasma membrane integrity in lactamide and acetamide (35.9 +/- 3.3% and 30.2 +/- 3.0%, respectively) were significantly (P<0.05) higher than in glycerol (17.0 +/- 2.6%). The results indicate that 1.0 M lactamide and acetamide have higher cryoprotective effects than 1.0 M glycerol for cryopreservation of Japanese white rabbit spermatozoa.

  15. Glycerol and urea can be used to increase skin permeability in reduced hydration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Sebastian; Engblom, Johan; Thuresson, Krister; Sparr, Emma

    2013-12-18

    The natural moisturizing factor (NMF) is a group of hygroscopic molecules that is naturally present in skin and protects from severe drying. Glycerol and urea are two examples of NMF components that are also used in skin care applications. In the present study, we investigate the influence of glycerol and urea on the permeability of a model drug (metronidazole, Mz) across excised pig skin membranes at different hydrating conditions. The degree of skin hydration is regulated by the gradient in water activity across the membrane, which in turn depends on the water activity of the formulation in contact with the skin membrane. Here, we determine the water activity of all formulations employed using an isothermal calorimetric method. Thus, the gradient in water activity is controlled by a novel experimental set-up with well-defined boundary conditions on both sides of the skin membrane. The results demonstrate that glycerol and urea can retain high steady state flux of Mz across skin membranes at dehydrating conditions, which otherwise would decrease the permeability due to dehydration. X-ray diffraction measurements are performed to give insight into the effects of glycerol and urea on SC molecular organization. The novel steady state flux results can be related to the observation that water, glycerol, and urea all affect the structural features of the SC molecular components in a similar manner. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biotechnological conversion of glycerol from biofuels to 1,3-propanediol using Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przystałowska, Hanna; Lipiński, Daniel; Słomski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    In the face of shortage of fossil fuel supplies and climate warming triggered by excessive carbon dioxide emission, alternative resources for chemical industry have gained considerable attention. Renewable resources and their derivatives are of particular interest. Glycerol, which constitutes one of the by-products during biodiesel production, is such a substrate. Thus, generated excess glycerol may become an environmental problem, since it cannot be disposed of in the environment. The most promising products obtained from glycerol are polyols, including 1,3-propanediol, an important substrate in the production of synthetic materials, e.g. polyurethanes, unsaturated polyesters, and epoxy resins. Glycerol can be used as a carbon and energy source for microbial growth in industrial microbiology to produce 1,3-propanediol. This paper is a review of metabolic pathways of native producers and E. coli with the acquired ability to produce the diol via genetic manipulations. Culture conditions during 1,3-PDO production and genetic modifications of E. coli used in order to increase efficiency of glycerol bioconversion are also described in this paper.

  17. Purification of crude glycerol from transesterification reaction of palm oil using direct method and multistep method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, N. F.; Mirus, M. F.; Ismail, M.

    2017-09-01

    Crude glycerol which produced from transesterification reaction has limited usage if it does not undergo purification process. It also contains excess methanol, catalyst and soap. Conventionally, purification method of the crude glycerol involves high cost and complex processes. This study aimed to determine the effects of using different purification methods which are direct method (comprises of ion exchange and methanol removal steps) and multistep method (comprises of neutralization, filtration, ion exchange and methanol removal steps). Two crude glycerol samples were investigated; the self-produced sample through the transesterification process of palm oil and the sample obtained from biodiesel plant. Samples were analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The results of this study for both samples after purification have showed that the pure glycerol was successfully produced and fatty acid salts were eliminated. Also, the results indicated the absence of methanol in both samples after purification process. In short, the combination of 4 purification steps has contributed to a higher quality of glycerol. Multistep purification method gave a better result compared to the direct method as neutralization and filtration steps helped in removing most excess salt, fatty acid and catalyst.

  18. Improvement of skin optical clearing efficacy by topical treatment of glycerol at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Zijian; Liu Caihua; Tao Wei; Zhu Dan, E-mail: dawnzh@mail.hust.edu.cn [Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2011-01-01

    In the past decades, laser has been widely used in clinical diagnosis and cosmetic therapy. However, there is limitation for further usage in deeper tissue for high scattering property. Skin optical clearing technique, by introducing optical clearing agents (OCAs) into tissue, will have a potential impact on optical diagnosis and therapy. In this work, anhydrous glycerol at different temperatures of 4, 25, 32 and 45 deg. C were applied respectively to in vitro porcine skin, and reflectance and transmittance spectra were then measured dynamically using a spectrometry combined with integrating sphere system. Further, reduced scattering coefficient and penetration depth were obtained. Results showed that, glycerol at different temperatures could induce the reduced scattering coefficient of in vitro skin to decrease and the penetration depth to increase. 4 and 25 deg. C glycerol had similar effect, decreasing the scattering by 48.2% and 49.7%, and increasing penetration depth by 37.9% and 39.5%, respectively. However, 32 and 45 deg. C glycerol treatment could decrease scattering by 61.6% and 76.6%, and increase penetration depth by 53.3% and 84.1%, respectively. In conclusion, glycerol at higher temperature can induce greater and faster skin optical clearing efficacy.

  19. Anaerobic pathways of glycerol dissimilation by Enterobacter agglomerans CNCM 1210: limitations and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbirato, F; Astruc, S; Soucaille, P; Camarasa, C; Salmon, J M; Bories, A

    1997-07-01

    Continuous cultures of Enterobacter agglomerans CNCM 1210 were performed under regulated pH conditions (pH 7.0) with glycerol or glucose (20 g l-1) as carbon source. Cultures grown on glucose produced mainly acetate, ethanol and formate. In contrast, 1,3-propanediol (PPD) was the main product with glycerol. The carbon flow distribution at branching metabolic points was investigated. Higher PPD yields with increased dilution rate were correlated with an important increase in the relative ratio of glycerol dehydratase to glycerol dehydrogenase. Determination of intracellular triose-phosphate and fructose 1,6-biphosphate concentrations demonstrated that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is the limiting step in glycerol dissimilation. At the pyruvate branching point, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity was systematically detected. The pyruvate flow shifted to PDH is suspected to represent up to 22% of the acetyl-CoA formed. In addition, this enzyme pattern combined with the enhanced in vivo lactate dehydrogenase activity at high growth rates, was correlated with a decrease in the pyruvate formate-lyase activity. A regulation of this latter enzyme by the accumulation of triose-phosphate is suspected.

  20. Exploration of Brazilian biodiversity and selection of a new oleaginous yeast strain cultivated in raw glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Susan Hartwig; de Andrade, Cristiane Conte Paim; Ghiselli, Gislaine; Maugeri, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to use glycerol generated from the synthesis of biodiesel to study the oleaginous potential of wild yeasts. An initial selection was performed via a rapid and qualitative technique by staining with Sudan Black B. Initially 129 yeasts were present, from which 5 were selected and cultivated in liquid medium containing pure or raw glycerol. The yeast LEB-M3, isolated from the Pantanal, presented lipid content of 20.46% and 56.58% for cultivation in pure and raw glycerol, respectively. This strain was genotypically identified as Candida sp. The fatty acid profile showed predominance of oleic acid (C18:1), 57.35% for cultivation in pure glycerol, and in raw glycerol linoleic acid (C18:2) was predominant (46.0%). It was possible to select a yeast with high lipid concentrations 9.14 g/L and fatty acid profile similar to vegetable oils commonly used in the synthesis of biodiesel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of replacing corn with glycerol on ruminal bacteria in continuous culture fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuGhazaleh, A A; Abo El-Nor, S; Ibrahim, S A

    2011-06-01

    The effects of substituting corn with glycerol on DNA concentration of selected ruminal bacteria were investigated using continuous fermenters. Four continuous culture fermenters were used in a 4 × 4 Latin Square design with four 10 days consecutive periods. Treatment diets (60:40 forage to concentrate) were fed at 45 g/day dry matter (DM) in three equal portions. Glycerol (0.995 g/g glycerol) was used to replace corn in a grain mix at proportions of 0% (T0; control), 15% (T15), 30% (T30) and 45% (T45). On day 10 of each period, samples were collected from each fermenter 3 h after the morning feeding and analysed for volatile fatty acid and bacterial DNA concentration. Glycerol substitution was related to significantly higher butyrate, valerate and isovalerate concentrations. Compared with the T0 diet, acetate concentration was significantly lower with the T30 and T45 diets whilst propionate concentration was higher only with the T45 diet. The DNA concentrations for Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Selenomonas ruminantium decreased with the T30 and T45 diets compared with the T0 diet. No differences in the DNA concentrations for Ruminococcus albus and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens amongst diets were observed. The findings show that substituting 15% of the dietary corn with glycerol had no substantive effects on fermentation processing or ruminal bacteria. Higher substitution levels, however, may adversely affect ruminal bacteria and negatively impact acetate production. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Determination of esters in glycerol phase after transesterification of vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hájek, Martin; Skopal, Frantisek; Kwiecien, Jirí; Cernoch, Michal

    2010-06-30

    In biodiesel production, glycerol is formed as a side product and it is contained in the glycerol phase. This phase contains (besides glycerol): water, soaps, alcohol, traces of catalyst and glycerides and the remaining esters. In this paper, a new method for the determination of esters in the glycerol phase is introduced. The determination enables the minimization of the losses of biodiesel within the production process. It is based on the gradient RP-LC method (water and acetonitrile) with refractometric detection. The analysis is easy and the samples do not need any treatment (only dilution by water) and has a low detection limit. The results of this method were compared with the results of two other published methods: isocratic HPLC and GC. The disadvantage of these two methods is that they need extensive treatment of the sample, which takes many hours, and they are able to determine only the sum of esters. The new method is reliable, much faster and able to differentiate esters of almost each higher fatty acid (e.g. linoleic, linolenic, strearic alkyl ester) in the glycerol phase. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Glycerol transesterification with ethyl acetate to synthesize acetins using ethyl acetate as reactant and entrainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Shafiei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Transesterification of glycerol with ethyl acetate was performed over acidic catalysts in the batch and semi-batch systems. Ethyl acetate was used as reactant and entrainer to remove the produced ethanol during the reaction, through azeotrope formation. Since the azeotrope of ethyl acetate and ethanol forms at 70 oC, all the experiments were performed at this temperature. Para-toluene sulfonic acid, sulfuric acid, and Amberlyst 36 were used as catalyst. The effect of process parameters including ethyl acetate to glycerol molar ratio (6-12, reaction time (3-9 h, and the catalyst to glycerol weight (2.5-9.0%, on the conversion and products selectivities were investigated. Under reflux conditions, 100% glycerol conversion was obtained with 45%, 44%, and 11% selectivity to monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin, respectively. Azeotropic reactive distillation led to 100% conversion of glycerol with selectivities of 3%, 48% and 49% for monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin. During the azeotropic reactive distillation, it was possible to remove ethanol to shift the equilibrium towards diacetin and triacetin. Therefore, the total selectivity to diacetin and triacetin was increased from 55% to 97% through azeotropic distillation.

  4. Efficient production of succinic acid in immobilized fermentation with crude glycerol from Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nor Aziati, A.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the price of commercial succinic acid has necessitated the need for its synthesis from waste materials such as glycerol. Glycerol residue is a waste product of Oleochemical production which is cheaply available and a very good source of carbon. The use of immobilized cells can further reduce the overall cost of the production process. This study primarily aims to produce succinic acid from glycerol residue through the use of immobilized Escherichia coli in a batch fermentation process. The parameters which affect bacterial fermentation process such as the mass substrate, temperature, inoculum size and duration of fermentation were screened using One-Factor-At-a-Time (OFAT method. The result of the screening process shows that a substrate (glycerol concentration of 30 g, inoculum size 20% v/v, and time 4 h produced the maximum succinic acid concentration of 117.99 g/L. The immobilized cells were found to be stable as well as retain their fermentative ability up to the 6th cycle of recycling, thereby presenting as an advantage over the free cell system. Therefore, conclude that using immobilized cells can contribute immensely to the cost-effective production of succinic acid from glycerol residue.

  5. Interruption of glycerol pathway in industrial alcoholic yeasts to improve the ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Zhong-peng; Zhang, Liang; Ding, Zhong-yang; Shi, Gui-Yang [Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China). Key Lab. of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education; Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China). Lab. of Biomass Refinery and Processing, School of Biotechnology; Wang, Zheng-Xiang [Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China). Key Lab. of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education

    2009-02-15

    The two homologous genes GPD1 and GPD2, encoding two isoenzymes of NAD{sup +}-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CICIMY0086, had been deleted. The obtained two kinds of mutants gpd1{delta} and gpd2{delta} were studied under alcoholic fermentation conditions. gpd1{delta} mutants exhibited a 4.29% (relative to the amount of substrate consumed) decrease in glycerol production and 6.83% (relative to the amount of substrate consumed) increased ethanol yield while gpd2{delta} mutants exhibited a 7.95% (relative to the amount of substrate consumed) decrease in glycerol production and 7.41% (relative to the amount of substrate consumed) increased ethanol yield compared with the parental strain. The growth rate of the two mutants were slightly lower than that of the wild type under the exponential phase whereas ANG1 (gpd1{delta}) and the decrease in glycerol production was not accompanied by any decline in the protein content of the strain ANG1 (gpd1{delta}) but a slight decrease in the strain ANG2 (gpd2{delta}). Meanwhile, dramatic decrease of acetate acid formation was observed in strain ANG1 (gpd1{delta}) and ANG2 (gpd2{delta}) compared to the parental strain. Therefore, it is possible to improve the ethanol yield by interruption of glycerol pathway in industrial alcoholic yeast. (orig.)

  6. Effect of Glycerol, as Cryoprotectant in the Encapsulation and Freeze Drying of Microspheres Containing Probiotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Lelia Pop

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is reported that probiotics provide several health benefits as they help in maintaining a good balance and composition of intestinal flora, and increase the resistance against invasion of pathogens. Ensuring adequate dosages of probiotics at the time of consumption is a challenge, because several factors during processing and storage affect the viability of probiotic organisms. Major emphasis has been given to protect the microorganisms with the help of encapsulation technique, by addition of different protectants. In this study, probiotic cells (Bifidobacterium lactis 300B were entrapped in alginate/pullulan microspheres. In the encapsulation formula glycerol was used as cryoprotectant in the freeze drying process for long time storage. It was observed that the survival of Bifidobacterium lactis 300B when encapsulated without cryoprotectant was higher than the formula with glycerol in the fresh obtained microspheres. The addition of glycerol was in order to reduce the deep freezing and freeze drying damages. In the chosen formulations, glycerol did not proved protection for the entrapped probiotic cells in the freeze drying process, for which the use of glycerol as cryoprotectant for alginate/pullulan Bifidobacterium lactis 300B entrapment is not recommended.

  7. Hydrogen Gas Production From Glycerol via Steam Reforming Using Nickel Loaded Zeolite Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazureen Azaman; Hafizan Juahir; Azman Azid

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main by-product of bio diesel production that produces from transesterification process. In this research, focused was on hydrogen production via glycerol steam reforming using nickel loaded HZSM-5 catalyst. The catalysts were prepared by using different loading amount of nickel (0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 15 wt %) on HZSM-5 catalyst through the wet impregnation method at temperature 500 degree Celsius and atmospheric pressure. The catalyst was characterized by using XRD, FTIR and SEM. Then, only 15 wt % Ni loading has been chosen based on the parameter which is different range of catalyst weight (0.3-0.5 g) at different range of glycerol flow rate (0.2-0.4mL/ min) at temperature 600 degree Celsius and atmospheric pressure. The products were analyzed by using gas-chromatography with thermal conductivity detector (GC-TCD) where it is used to identify the yield of hydrogen. The data of the experiment were analyzed by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in order to study the relationship of catalyst weight and glycerol flow rate. The results showed that the optimum condition to produce a maximum hydrogen yield with 15 wt % Ni/ HZSM-5 catalyst was 78.10004 % at glycerol flow rate of 0.356484 mL/ min and catalyst weight of 0.429267 g. (author)

  8. Elimination of glycerol and replacement with alternative products in ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishist K; Divol, Benoit; Prior, Bernard A; Bauer, Florian F

    2011-09-01

    Glycerol is a major by-product of ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and typically 2-3% of the sugar fermented is converted to glycerol. Replacing the NAD(+)-regenerating glycerol pathway in S. cerevisiae with alternative NADH reoxidation pathways may be useful to produce metabolites of biotechnological relevance. Under fermentative conditions yeast reoxidizes excess NADH through glycerol production which involves NADH-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (Gpd1p and Gpd2p). Deletion of these two genes limits fermentative activity under anaerobic conditions due to accumulation of NADH. We investigated the possibility of converting this excess NADH to NAD(+) by transforming a double mutant (gpd1∆gpd2∆) with alternative oxidoreductase genes that might restore the redox balance and produce either sorbitol or propane-1,2-diol. All of the modifications improved fermentative ability and/or growth of the double mutant strain in a self-generated anaerobic high sugar medium. However, these strain properties were not restored to the level of the parental wild-type strain. The results indicate an apparent partial NAD(+) regeneration ability and formation of significant amounts of the commodity chemicals like sorbitol or propane-1,2-diol. The ethanol yields were maintained between 46 and 48% of the sugar mixture. Other factors apart from the maintenance of the redox balance appeared to influence the growth and production of the alternative products by the genetically manipulated strains.

  9. Propionic acid production in glycerol/glucose co-fermentation by Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongqiang; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-06-01

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii can ferment glucose and glycerol to propionic acid with acetic and succinic acids as two by-products. Propionic acid production from glucose was relatively fast (0.19 g/Lh) but gave low product yield (~0.39 g/g) and selectivity (P/A: ~2.6; P/S: ~4.8). In contrast, glycerol with a more reduced state gave a high propionic acid yield (~0.65 g/g) and selectivity (P/A: ~31; P/S: ~11) but low productivity (0.11 g/L h). On the other hand, co-fermentation of glycerol and glucose at an appropriate mass ratio gave both a high yield (0.54-0.65 g/g) and productivity (0.18-0.23 g/L h) with high product selectivity (P/A: ~14; P/S: ~10). The carbon flux distributions in the co-fermentation as affected by the ratio of glycerol/glucose were investigated. Finally, co-fermentation with cassava bagasse hydrolysate and crude glycerol in a fibrous-bed bioreactor was demonstrated, providing an efficient way for economic production of bio-based propionic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adsorption of glycerol, monoglycerides and diglycerides present in biodiesel produced from soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasques, Erika de Castro; Tavares, Célia R Granhen; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; Mafra, Marcos Rogério; Igarashi-Mafra, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    The most common methods currently used for the removal of waste glycerol, monoglycerides and diglycerides remaining after phase separation during biodiesel production involve wet processes. These procedures are not environmentally viable because they require large volumes of water and thus generate significant quantities of effluent. In this study, adsorption was employed to replace this purification step. Some commercial activated carbons were tested along with adsorbents chemically modified with HNO3. A kinetics study was conducted at 30 degrees C and adsorption isotherms were obtained at 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C. The results indicated that the adsorption of glycerol increased with the use of chemically-modified activated carbon, showing that pH has a strong influence on glycerol adsorption. The pseudo-first-order kinetic model provided the best fit with the experimental data for the monoglycerides while the pseudo-second-order model showed a better fit for the glycerol and diglycerides. The Freundlich model had the best fit with experimental data on the adsorption equilibrium for all temperatures. The thermodynamic study indicated that the adsorption process is endothermic and thus adsorption is favoured by increasing the temperature. The adsorption process using chemically-modified activated carbon was therefore very effective for the removal of waste glycerol resulting from biodiesel production, which is of considerable significance given the legal limits imposed.

  11. Nanoflowers of PdRu on PEDOT for Electrooxidation of Glycerol and Its Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, Sthitaprajna; Munichandraiah, N.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) supported PdRu catalysts with various Pd:Ru atomic ratios are prepared by one step electrodeposition method. The catalysts are characterised by several physicochemical techniques. The morphology depends on Pd:Ru ratio. The nanoflowers of Pd 5 Ru catalyst are deposited on PEDOT surface in an alloy form. Cyclic voltammetry experiments indicate that Ru improves the catalytic activity of Pd for glycerol oxidation significantly. However, the oxidation of glycerol is not observed on Ru-PEDOT/C electrode. Amongst all compositions, Pd 5 Ru nanoflowers on PEDOT exhibit the highest electrocatalytic activity and stability. Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry experiments are performed for the analysis of glycerol. Pd 5 Ru-PEDOT/C electrode is highly sensitive towards glycerol detection with sensitivity of 99.8 μA cm −2 μM −1 and low detection limit of 0.1 μM. Thus, electrochemically deposited nanoflowers Pd 5 Ru on PEDOT are efficient catalysts for direct glycerol oxidation as well as for analysis in alkaline media.

  12. Pharmacological investigations of Punica granatum in glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amrit Pal; Singh, Amteshwar Jaggi; Singh, Nirmal

    2011-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential and possible mechanism of hydroalcoholic extract of flowers of P. granatum in glycerol-induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats. The rats were subjected to rhabdomyolytic ARF by single intramuscular injection of hypertonic glycerol (50% v/v; 8 ml/kg) and the animals were sacrificed after 24 hours of glycerol injection. The plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine clearance, and histopathological studies were performed to assess the degree of renal injury. Pretreatment with hydroalcoholic extract of flowers of P. granatum (125 and 250 mg/kg p.o. twice daily for 3 days) significantly attenuated hypertonic glycerol-induced renal dysfunction in a dose-dependent manner. BADGE (Bisphenol-A-diglycidyl ether) (30 mg/kg), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ antagonist, and N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg), nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, were employed to explore the mechanism of renoprotective effects of Punica granatum. Administration of BADGE (30 mg/kg) and L-NAME (40 mg/kg) abolished the beneficial effects of P. granatum in glycerol-induced renal dysfunction. Hydroalcoholic extract of flowers of P. granatum has ameliorative potential in attenuating myoglobinuric renal failure and its renoprotective effects involve activation of PPAR-γ and nitric oxide-dependent signaling pathway.

  13. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, William L

    2012-10-31

    The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of glycerol (in both a refined and unrefined form) were to be investigated, with emphasis of the development of a system capable of reliably and repeatedly combusting glycerol as well as an analysis of the emissions produced during glycerol combustion. Focus was placed on quantifying common emissions in comparison to more traditional fuels and this work showed that the burner developed was able to completely combust glycerol within a relatively wide range of operating conditions. Additionally, focus was placed on examining specific emissions in more detail, namely interesting NOx emissions observed in initial trials, acrolein and other volatile organic emissions, and particulate and ash emissions. This work showed that the combustion of crude glycerol could result in significantly reduced NOx emissions as a function of the high fuel bound oxygen content within the glycerol fuel. It also showed that when burned properly, the combustion of crude glycerol did not result in excessive emissions of acrolein or any other VOC compared to the combustion from more traditional fuels. Lastly however, this work has shown that in any practical application in which glycerol is being burned, it will be necessary to explore ash mitigation techniques due to the very high particulate matter concentrations produced during glycerol combustion. These emissions are comparable to unfiltered coal combustion and are directly tied to the biodiesel production method. The second focus of this work was directed to developing a commercialization strategy for the use of glycerol as a fuel replacement. This strategy has identified a 30 month plan for the scaling up of the laboratory scale burner into a pre-pilot scale system. Additionally, financing options were explored and an assessment was made of the economics of replacing a traditional fuel (namely natural gas) with crude

  14. L-Lactic acid production from glycerol coupled with acetic acid metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis without carbon loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Nao; Oba, Mana; Iwamoto, Mariko; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Noguchi, Takuya; Bonkohara, Kaori; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Zendo, Takeshi; Shimoda, Mitsuya; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol is a by-product in the biodiesel production process and considered as one of the prospective carbon sources for microbial fermentation including lactic acid fermentation, which has received considerable interest due to its potential application. Enterococcus faecalis isolated in our laboratory produced optically pure L-lactic acid from glycerol in the presence of acetic acid. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis using [1, 2-(13)C2] acetic acid proved that the E. faecalis strain QU 11 was capable of converting acetic acid to ethanol during lactic acid fermentation of glycerol. This indicated that strain QU 11 restored the redox balance by oxidizing excess NADH though acetic acid metabolism, during ethanol production, which resulted in lactic acid production from glycerol. The effects of pH control and substrate concentration on lactic acid fermentation were also investigated. Glycerol and acetic acid concentrations of 30 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively, were expected to be appropriate for lactic acid fermentation of glycerol by strain QU 11 at a pH of 6.5. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation with 30 g/L glycerol and 10 g/L acetic acid wholly exhibited the best performance including lactic acid production (55.3 g/L), lactic acid yield (0.991 mol-lactic acid/mol-glycerol), total yield [1.08 mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)]/mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)], and total carbon yield [1.06 C-mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)/C-mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)] of lactic acid and ethanol. In summary, the strain QU 11 successfully produced lactic acid from glycerol with acetic acid metabolism, and an efficient fermentation system was established without carbon loss. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The direct effect of incretin hormones on glucose and glycerol metabolism and hemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; P. Mortensen, Stefan; H. Knudsen, Sine

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the insulin-independent effects of incretin hormones on glucose and glycerol metabolism and hemodynamics under eu- and hyperglycemic conditions. Young, healthy males (n=10) underwent three trials in a randomized, controlled, cross-over study. Each trial...... consisted of a 2-stage (eu- and hyperglycemia) pancreatic clamp (using somatostatin to prevent endogenous insulin secretion). Glucose and lipid metabolism were measured via infusion of stable glucose and glycerol isotopic tracers. Hemodynamic variables (femoral, brachial and common carotid artery blood flow...... or glycerol kinetics were seen during euglycemia, whereas hyperglycemia resulted in increased GIR and glucose rate of disappearance (Rd) during GLP-1 compared to CON and GIP (P

  16. Bioprocessing of glycerol into glyceric Acid for use in bioplastic monomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Habe, Hiroshi; Kitamoto, Dai; Sakaki, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of excess glycerol supplies derived from the burgeoning biodiesel industry has recently become very important. Glyceric acid (GA) is one of the most promising glycerol derivatives, and it is abundantly obtained from glycerol by a bioprocess using acetic acid bacteria. In this study, a novel branched-type poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was synthesized by polycondensation of lactide in the presence of GA. The resulting branched PLA had lower crystallinity and glass transition temperatures than the conventional linear PLA, and the peak associated with the melting point of the branched PLA disappeared. Moreover, in a blend of the branched polymer, the crystallization of the linear PLA occurred at a lower temperature. Thus, the branched PLA containing GA synthesized in this study could potentially be used as a novel bio-based modifier for PLA.

  17. Modelling of pyrolysis and combustion of gluten-glycerol-based bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martínez, D; Barneto, A G; Martínez, I; Partal, P

    2011-05-01

    Non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis, under nitrogen and air atmospheres, has been applied to study the thermal degradation of wheat gluten and gluten-glycerol-based bioplastics. In order to explain experimental data, thermal degradation has been simulated using the so-called pseudo-components, which are related to protein fraction (mainly gliadin and glutenin), residual starch and plasticiser. Thus, the proposed models have been used to shed some light on the thermal decomposition of these materials, which have been found affected by their compositions and microstructures. Modelling confirms the experimental bioplastic and gluten isolate compositions, e.g. bioplastic moisture content, starch concentration and the expected gliadin/glutenin ratio. According to the simulation, the glycerol volatilisation is affected by bioplastic moisture content and hindered by the protein matrix. A fact pointing out that glycerol/water blend plays relevant plasticizing roles in the protein matrix through diverse physicochemical interactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Differences in [14C]glycerol utilization in normal and familial hypercholesterolemic fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shireman, R.B.; Durieux, J.

    1991-01-01

    It is known that cultured fibroblasts from familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients lack the normal cell receptor for low density lipoprotein (LDL) and that the absence of receptor-mediated transport of LDL cholesterol into these cells results in increased cellular synthesis of cholesterol. After 20 h perincubation in lipid-free medium, cultured FH fibroblasts incorporated significantly greater amounts of [ 14 C]glycerol into cellular lipids than did normal fibroblasts. Relative to the control medium which contained only bovine serum albumin (BSA), preincubation with 5% fetal bovine serum or 50 micrograms LDL/ml decreased [ 14 C]glycerol incorporation by both cell types. FH cells utilized more [ 14 C]glycerol for phospholipid synthesis and less for triglyceride synthesis than normal cells. This study indicates that LDL may be important in the transport of glycerides, as well as cholesterol, to cells

  19. Supply Chain Optimization of Integrated Glycerol Biorefinery: GlyThink Model Development and Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Carvalho, Ana; Gernaey, Krist

    2017-01-01

    To further advance the development and implementation of glycerol-based biorefinery concepts, it is critical to analyze the glycerol conversion into high value-added products in a holistic manner, considering both production as well as the logistics aspects related to the supply chain structure....... To address the optimal design and planning of the glycerol-based biorefinery supply chain, in this work, we propose a multiperiod, multistage, and multiproduct Mixed Integer Linear Programming optimization model, called GlyThink, based upon the maximization of the net present value (NPV). The proposed model...... to high value-added products. Existing countries with major production and consumption of biodiesel in Europe are considered as candidates for the facility sites and demand markets, and their spatial distribution is also carefully studied. The results showed that (i) the optimal solution that provides...

  20. Soothing Properties of Glycerol in Cough Syrups for Acute Cough Due to Common Cold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Eccles

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment and management of acute cough due to common cold costs billions of dollars of healthcare expenditure and there is a growing opinion that a simple linctus containing glycerol with flavourings such as honey and lemon is a safe and effective treatment for acute cough in children and adults. Glycerol is a component of most cough syrups, and although it is often thought of only as a solvent or thickening agent in cough syrups, it may be a major component for the efficacy of cough syrups due to its special properties of lubrication, demulcency, sweetness, and acting as a humectant. The major benefit of cough syrups in soothing cough is likely due to the properties of the syrup rather than the active ingredients and this review discusses the special properties of glycerol in relation to the treatment of acute cough.

  1. High-pressure cloud point data for the system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Bender

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports high-pressure cloud point data for the quaternary system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT surfactant. The static synthetic method, using a variable-volume view cell, was employed for obtaining the experimental data at pressures up to 27 MPa. The effects of glycerol/olive oil concentration and surfactant addition on the pressure transition values were evaluated in the temperature range from 303 K to 343 K. For the system investigated, vapor-liquid (VLE, liquid-liquid (LLE and vapor-liquid-liquid (VLLE equilibrium were recorded. It was experimentally observed that, at a given temperature and surfactant content, an increase in the concentration of glycerol/oil ratio led to a pronounced increase in the slope of the liquid-liquid coexistence curve. A comparison with results reported for the same system but using propane as solvent showed that much lower pressure transition values are obtained when using n-butane.

  2. Potential of Diverse Prokaryotic Organisms for Glycerol-based Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Koller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential and performance of various Gram-negative, Gram-positive and archaeal wild type microorganisms, and bacterial mixed cultures, as well as the application of genetically engineered strains as whole-cell biocatalysts for glycerol-based polyhydroxyalkanoate production are analyzed and assessed. This encompasses the comparison of growth and polyhydroxyalkanoate accumulation kinetics, thermo-mechanical properties of isolated glycerol-based polyhydroxyalkanoate of different composition on the monomeric level, and the presentation of mathematical models developed to describe glycerol-based polyhydroxyalkanoate production processes. For all these aspects, the article provides a detailed compilation of the contemporary state of knowledge, and gives an outlook to expected future developments.

  3. The effect of haematin and catalase on Streptococcus faecalis var. zymogenes growing on glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D J; Knowles, C J

    1980-12-01

    Streptococcus faecalis var. zymogenes was grown aerobically on a complex medium containing glycerol as the carbon source. Addition of hematin or bovine liver catalase to the growth medium resulted in a small increment in growth yield. Suspensions of bacteria that had been grown in the presence of haematin or catalase, respectively, translocated 0.83 to 1.98 and 1.33 to 2.53 protons per oxygen atom consumed in glycerol oxidation. Bacterial grown without haematin or catalase had nil or little respiratory-induced proton translocation during glycerol oxidation. Inclusion of haematin in the growth medium caused the bacterium to form a cyanide- and azide-sensitive catalase. Superoxide dismutase activity was similar whether or not haematin was added to the growth medium.

  4. Catalytic Technologies for Biodiesel Fuel Production and Utilization of Glycerol: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki Maeda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 10 million tons of biodiesel fuel (BDF have been produced in the world from the transesterification of vegetable oil with methanol by using acid catalysts (sulfuric acid, H2SO4, alkaline catalysts (sodium hydroxide, NaOH or potassium hydroxide, KOH, solid catalysts and enzymes. Unfortunately, the price of BDF is still more expensive than that of petro diesel fuel due to the lack of a suitable raw material oil. Here, we review the best selection of BDF production systems including raw materials, catalysts and production technologies. In addition, glycerol formed as a by-product needs to be converted to useful chemicals to reduce the amount of glycerol waste. With this in mind, we have also reviewed some recent studies on the utilization of glycerol.

  5. Biodiesel Reactor Design with Glycerol Separation to Increase Biodiesel Production Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budy Rahmat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study consisted of reactor design used for transesterification process, effect of glycerol separation ontransesterification reaction, determination of biodiesel quality, and mass balance analysis. The reactor was designed byintegrating circulated pump/stirrer, static mixer, and sprayer that intensify the reaction in the outer tank reactor. The objective was to reduce the use of methanol in excess and to shorten the processing time. The results showed that thereactor that applied the glycerol separation was able to compensate for the decreased use of the reactant methanol from 6:1 to 5:1 molar ratio, and changed the mass balance in the product, including: (i the increase of biodiesel productionfrom 42.37% to 49.34%, and (ii the reduction of methanol in excess from 42.37% to 32.89%. The results suggested that the efficiency of biodiesel production could be increased with the glycerol separation engineering.

  6. Techno-economic risk analysis of glycerol biorefinery concepts against market price fluctuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gargalo, Carina L.; Cheali, Peam; Gernaey, Krist

    . The high-value added bio-products boost profitability, the high-volume fuel helps meet national energy targets, and the power production cuts costs and dodges greenhouse-gas emissions [1] [2] [3]. The increasing amount of biodiesel production worldwide (e.g. from vegetable oils, palm oil, animal fats...... glycerol prices. Therefore, in order to increase the economic competitiveness of the biodiesel industry, there is an increasing interest in adding value using the glycerol waste stream as feedstock for the synthesis of bio-derived building block compounds and polymers [5] [6] [7] [8] [4] [9]. Moreover...... earlier [11][12][13][14][15] and compare them in terms of techno-economic performance including minimum selling price calculation for potential high-value added products. In particular, we address the challenge of price volatility (both glycerol as feedstock and high-value added chemicals...

  7. The effects of peroral glycerol on plasma osmolarity in diabetic patients and healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornit, Dorte Nellemann; Sander, Birgit; la Cour, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Glycerol is used as a peroral treatment of increased intraocular and intracranial pressure due to its osmotic effect despite the potential increase in blood pressure and blood glucose. We examined the effects of peroral glycerol in diabetic patients and healthy individuals on blood pressure......, capillary glucose, and plasma osmolarity. On two separate days, 15 diabetic patients ingested glycerol in doses of 855 and 1710 mg/kg body weight in a randomised, unmasked sequence. Five healthy individuals ingested a dose of 1710 mg/kg body weight. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), capillary glucose (CG......, non-significant increase occurred in blood pressure. Maximal DeltaCG was approximately 1 mM irrespective of the dose and presence of diabetes (p > 0.1). The pOSM response was analysed with a kinetic model and found independent of the presence of diabetes (p = 0.6). The maximal fitted DeltapOSM was 12...

  8. Continuous biodiesel production using in situ glycerol separation by membrane bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Myung Joo; Park, Hyun June; Hong, So Yeon; Yoo, Young Je

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel is one of the most promising renewable fuel sources. Candida antarctica lipase B (CalB) has been used for biodiesel production because of its high activity and stability. However, CalB can only be utilized in industrial biodiesel production if the enzyme deactivation by methanol and the negative effects of glycerol can be mitigated. Methanol inhibition can be avoided by utilizing a stepwise addition of methanol, but there is no suitable method to reduce the glycerol effect. This study aims to use a membrane bioreactor system to remove glycerol during biodiesel production. In addition, methanol inhibition can be reduced by continuously feeding methanol through the membrane system. This continuous membrane bioreactor system can be used for efficient biodiesel production.

  9. Effect of pressure on the α relaxation in glycerol and xylitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluch, M.; Casalini, R.; Hensel-Bielowka, S.; Roland, C. M.

    2002-06-01

    The effect of pressure on the dielectric relaxation of two polyhydroxy alcohols is examined by analysis of existing data on glycerol, together with new measurements on xylitol. The fragility, or Tg-normalized temperature dependence, changes with pressure for low pressures, but becomes invariant above 1 GPa. When compared at temperatures for which the α-relaxation times are equal, there is no effect of pressure (xylitol show an excess intensity at higher frequencies. For xylitol, unlike for glycerol, at lower temperatures this wing disjoins to form a separate peak. For both glass formers, elevated pressure causes the excess wing to become more separated from the peak maximum; that is, the properties of the primary and excess intensities are not correlated. This implies that the excess wing in glycerol is also a distinct secondary process, although it cannot be resolved from the primary peak.

  10. Design and Control of Glycerol-tert-Butyl Alcohol Etherification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vlad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Design, economics, and plantwide control of a glycerol-tert-butyl alcohol (TBA etherification plant are presented. The reaction takes place in liquid phase, in a plug flow reactor, using Amberlyst 15 as a catalyst. The products' separation is achieved by two distillation columns where high-purity ethers are obtained and a section involving extractive distillation with 1,4-butanediol as solvent, which separates TBA from the TBA/water azeotrope. Details of design performed in AspenPlus and an economic evaluation of the process are given. Three plantwide control structures are examined using a mass balance model of the plant. The preferred control structure fixes the fresh glycerol flow rate and the ratio glycerol + monoether : TBA at reactor-inlet. The stability and robustness in the operation are checked by rigorous dynamic simulation in AspenDynamics.

  11. Production of eicosapentaenoic acid by Nannochloropsis oculata: Effects of carbon dioxide and glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shene, Carolina; Chisti, Yusuf; Vergara, Daniela; Burgos-Díaz, César; Rubilar, Mónica; Bustamante, Mariela

    2016-12-10

    The marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata is a potential source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) and carotenoids for use in functional foods and nutraceuticals. Mixotrophic culture of N. oculata using glycerol was examined as a possible way of increasing the biomass and metabolite productivity relative to a pure photoautotrophic culture in modified f/2 medium. The effect of CO 2 supply was also tested. EPA production in semi-continuous culture with and without glycerol and CO 2 was evaluated. The effects of glycerol supplementation and light/dark cycling on the production of the biomass and EPA are reported for cultures conducted at a constant pH controlled using CO 2 . Consumption of glycerol was small, but its effects were significant. Glycerol enhanced the lipid content of the biomass but reduced the chlorophyll a content. Mixotrophic cultivation favored the production of lipids with a high percentage of saturated fatty acids that are generally desired in oils for making biodiesel. EPA concentration (5.3±0.6 to 27.5±1.6mg EPA/L) in N. oculata cultures depended strongly on growth conditions. The highest EPA concentration occurred in non-aerated mixotrophic culture with intermittent CO 2 supply without pH control. This EPA concentration (=27.5±1.6mg/L) was comparable to that obtained in semi-continuous culture without glycerol and pH control, and aerated with CO 2 enriched air during the light period (=23.6±1.1mg/L). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of Glycerol Dehydrogenase from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum DSM 571 and GGG Motif Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liangliang; Wang, Jiajun; Shi, Hao; Gu, Huaxiang; Zhang, Yu; Li, Xun; Wang, Fei

    2016-06-28

    Glycerol dehydrogenases (GlyDHs) are essential for glycerol metabolism in vivo, catalyzing its reversible reduction to 1,3-dihydroxypropranone (DHA). The gldA gene encoding a putative GlyDH was cloned from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum DSM 571 (TtGlyDH) and expressed in Escherichia coli. The presence of Mn(2+) enhanced its enzymatic activity by 79.5%. Three highly conserved residues (Asp(171), His(254), and His(271)) in TtGlyDH were associated with metal ion binding. Based on an investigation of glycerol oxidation and DHA reduction, TtGlyDH showed maximum activity towards glycerol at 60°C and pH 8.0 and towards DHA at 60°C and pH 6.0. DHA reduction was the dominant reaction, with a lower Km(DHA) of 1.08 ± 0.13 mM and Vmax of 0.0053 ± 0.0001 mM/s, compared with glycerol oxidation, with a Km(glycerol) of 30.29 ± 3.42 mM and Vmax of 0.042 ± 0.002 mM/s. TtGlyDH had an apparent activation energy of 312.94 kJ/mol. The recombinant TtGlyDH was thermostable, maintaining 65% of its activity after a 2-h incubation at 60°C. Molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis analyses demonstrated that TtGlyDH had an atypical dinucleotide binding motif (GGG motif) and a basic residue Arg(43), both related to dinucleotide binding.

  13. Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida João R M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The considerable increase in biodiesel production worldwide in the last 5 years resulted in a stoichiometric increased coproduction of crude glycerol. As an excess of crude glycerol has been produced, its value on market was reduced and it is becoming a “waste-stream” instead of a valuable “coproduct”. The development of biorefineries, i.e. production of chemicals and power integrated with conversion processes of biomass into biofuels, has been singled out as a way to achieve economically viable production chains, valorize residues and coproducts, and reduce industrial waste disposal. In this sense, several alternatives aimed at the use of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals by microbial fermentation have been evaluated. This review summarizes different strategies employed to produce biofuels and chemicals (1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, n-butanol, organic acids, polyols and others by microbial fermentation of glycerol. Initially, the industrial use of each chemical is briefly presented; then we systematically summarize and discuss the different strategies to produce each chemical, including selection and genetic engineering of producers, and optimization of process conditions to improve yield and productivity. Finally, the impact of the developments obtained until now are placed in perspective and opportunities and challenges for using crude glycerol to the development of biodiesel-based biorefineries are considered. In conclusion, the microbial fermentation of glycerol represents a remarkable alternative to add value to the biodiesel production chain helping the development of biorefineries, which will allow this biofuel to be more competitive.

  14. Biohydrogen production by dark fermentation of glycerol using Enterobacter and Citrobacter Sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, Biniam T; Constanti, Magda; Stchigel, Alberto M; Medina, Francesc; Sueiras, Jesus E

    2013-01-01

    Glycerol is an attractive substrate for biohydrogen production because, in theory, it can produce 3 mol of hydrogen per mol of glycerol. Moreover, glycerol is produced in substantial amounts as a byproduct of producing biodiesel, the demand for which has increased in recent years. Therefore, hydrogen production from glycerol was studied by dark fermentation using three strains of bacteria: namely, Enterobacter spH1, Enterobacter spH2, and Citrobacter freundii H3 and a mixture thereof (1:1:1). It was found that, when an initial concentration of 20 g/L of glycerol was used, all three strains and their mixture produced substantial amounts of hydrogen ranging from 2400 to 3500 mL/L, being highest for C. freundii H3 (3547 mL/L) and Enterobacter spH1 (3506 mL/L). The main nongaseous fermentation products were ethanol and acetate, albeit in different ratios. For Enterobacter spH1, Enterobacter spH2, C. freundii H3, and the mixture (1:1:1), the ethanol yields (in mol EtOH/mol glycerol consumed) were 0.96, 0.67, 0.31, and 0.66, respectively. Compared to the individual strains, the mixture (1:1:1) did not show a significantly higher hydrogen level, indicating that there was no synergistic effect. Enterobacter spH1 was selected for further investigation because of its higher yield of hydrogen and ethanol. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  15. Improved 1,3-Propanediol Synthesis from Glycerol by the Robust Lactobacillus reuteri Strain DSM 20016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Maria Antonietta; Russo, Annamaria; Pisano, Isabella; Palmieri, Luigi; de Angelis, Maria; Agrimi, Gennaro

    2015-06-01

    Various Lactobacillus reuteri strains were screened for the ability to convert glycerol to 1,3- propanediol (1,3-PDO) in a glycerol-glucose co-fermentation. Only L. reuteri DSM 20016, a well-known probiotic, was able to efficiently carry out this bioconversion. Several process strategies were employed to improve this process. CO(2+) addition to the fermentation medium, led to a high product titer (46 g/l) of 1,3-PDO and to improved biomass synthesis. L. reuteri DSM 20016 produced also ca. 3 μg/g of cell dry weight of vitamin B12, conferring an economic value to the biomass produced in the process. Incidentally, we found that L. reuteri displays the highest resistance to CO(2+) ions ever reported for a microorganism. Two waste materials (crude glycerol from biodiesel industry and spruce hydrolysate from paper industry) alone or in combination were used as feedstocks for the production of 1,3-PDO by L. reuteri DSM 20016. Crude glycerol was efficiently converted into 1,3-PDO although with a lower titer than pure glycerol (-18%). Compared with the fermentation carried out with pure substrates, the 1,3- PDO produced was significantly lower (40.7 vs. 24.2 g/l) using cellulosic hydrolysate and crude glycerol, but strong increases of the maximal biomass produced (+27%) and of the glucose consumption rate (+46%) were found. The results of this study lay the foundation for further investigations to exploit the biotechnological potential of L. reuteri DSM 20016 to produce 1,3-PDO and vitamin B12 using industry byproducts.

  16. Glycerol Salicylate-based Pulp-Capping Material Containing Portland Cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, Fernando Freitas; Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo; Santos, Paula Dapper; Sartori, Cláudia; Wegner, Everton; Leitune, Vicente Castelo Branco; Samuel, Susana Maria Werner

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the water sorption, solubility, pH and ability to diffuse into dentin of a glycerol salicylate-based, pulp-capping cement in comparison to a conventional calcium hydroxide-based pulp capping material (Hydcal). An experimental cement was developed containing 60% glycerol salicylate resin, 10% methyl salicylate, 25% calcium hydroxide and 5% Portland cement. Water sorption and solubility were determined based on mass changes in the samples before and after the immersion in distilled water for 7 days. Material discs were stored in distilled water for 24 h, 7 days and 28 days, and a digital pHmeter was used to measure the pH of water. The cement's ability to diffuse into bovine dentin was assessed by Raman spectroscopy. The glycerol salicylate-based cement presented higher water sorption and lower solubility than Hydcal. The pH of water used to store the samples increased for both cements, reaching 12.59 ± 0.06 and 12.54 ± 0.05 after 7 days, for Hydcal and glycerol salicylate-based cements, respectively. Both cements were able to turn alkaline the medium at 24 h and sustain its alkalinity after 28 days. Hydcal exhibited an intense diffusion into dentin up to 40 µm deep, and the glycerol salicylate-based cement penetrated 20 µm. The experimental glycerol salicylate-based cement presents good sorption, solubility, ability to alkalize the surrounding tissues and diffusion into dentin to be used as pulp capping material.

  17. Ultraviolet stimulated melanogenesis by human melanocytes is augmented by di-acyl glycerol but not TPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, P.S.; Wren, F.E.; Matthews, J.N.

    1990-01-01

    Epidermal melanocytes (MC) synthesize melanin in response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The mechanisms mediating the UV-induced activation of melanogenesis are unknown but since UVR induces turnover of membrane phospholipids generating prostaglandins (PGs) and other products, it is possible that one of these might provide the activating signal. We have examined the effects of prostaglandins (PGs) E1, E2, D2, F2 alpha, and di-acyl glycerol upon the UV-induced responses of cultured human MC and the Cloudman S91 melanoma cell line. The PGs had little effect on unirradiated cells and did not alter the response to UVR in either human MC or S91 melanoma cells. However, a synthetic analogue of di-acyl glycerol, 1-oleyl 2-acetyl glycerol (OAG), caused a significant (P less than 0.0001), dose-related augmentation of melanin content both in human MC (seven-fold) and S91 cells (three-fold). UVR caused a significant augmentation of the OAG-induced melanogenesis of both human MC and S91 cells. Since OAG is known to activate protein kinase C, it was possible that the observed modulation of the UVR signal could be via that pathway. Di-octanoyl glycerol, another di-acyl glycerol, which activates kinase C, caused a small (70%) increase in melanogenesis in MC which was not altered by UVR. However, 12-0 tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a potent activator of protein kinase C, had no significant effect on either basal or UV-induced melanin synthesis in either cell type. These data suggest that the UV-induced signal activating melanogenesis could be mediated by di-acyl glycerol. Furthermore, they imply that the signal is transduced via an alternative, pathway that might be independent of protein kinase C

  18. Partition and metabolic fate of dietary glycerol in muscles and liver of juvenile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Diego Vicente; Dias, Jorge; Colen, Rita; Rosa, Priscila Vieira; Engrola, Sofia

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary glycerol on the metabolism of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and to determine its metabolic fate. The experimental diets contained 0% (Group CON), 5% (Group G5) and 15% glycerol (Group G15) and were fed for 40 d to apparent satiation, three times a day. For the metabolism trials, six fish from each treatment were randomly chosen and tube-fed with five pellets labelled with 14 C-glycerol [ 14 C(U)] in order to evaluate the absorption, catabolism, retention and partition of glycerol in muscle and liver. Group G5 presented the highest 14 C-glycerol retention and the lowest catabolism, with no significant differences between Groups CON and G15. In Group CON, the highest percentage of 14 C was incorporated in muscle lipids; with no significant differences between Groups G5 and G15. Furthermore, no treatment effects were found for hepatic 14 C-lipid and for 14 C in hepatic and muscle non-lipid extract. In the non-lipid and non-protein fraction, the highest radioactivity was measured in livers of Group G5, however no significant differences were found for this fraction between Groups CON and G15 in liver and for all treatments in muscle. The results of the present study can have practical implications in diet formulations for tilapia and for other aquaculture species with similar feeding pattern since juvenile tilapia are able to metabolise dietary glycerol into lipids, protein and/or carbohydrates and to use it as energy source.

  19. CH···π interactions do not contribute to hydrogen transfer catalysis by glycerol dehydratase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuemin; Gallo, August A; Xu, Wu; Bajpai, Rakesh; Florián, Jan

    2011-10-20

    The role of the nonbonded CH···π interaction in the hydrogen abstraction from glycerol by the coenzyme B(12)-independent glycerol dehydratase (GDH) was examined using the QM/MM (ONIOM), MP2, and CCSD(T) methods. The studied CH···π interaction included the hydrogen atom of the -C(2)H(OH)- group of the glycerol substrate and the tyrosine-339 residue of the dehydratase. A contribution of this interaction to the stabilization of the transition state for the transfer of a hydrogen atom from the adjacent terminal C(1)H(2)(OH) group to cysteine 433 was determined by ab initio HF, MP2, and CCSD(T) calculations with the aug-cc-pvDZ basis set for the corresponding methane/benzene, methanol/phenol, and glycerol radical/phenol subsystems. The calculated CH···π distance, defined as the distance between the H atom and the center of the phenol ring, shortened from 2.62 to 2.52 Å upon going from the ground- to the transition-state of the GDH-catalyzed reaction. However, this shortening was not accompanied by the expected lowering of the CH···π interaction free energy. Instead, this interaction remained weak (about -1 kcal/mol) along the entire reaction coordinate. Additionally, the mutual orientation of the CH group and the phenol ring did not change significantly during the reaction. These results suggest that the phenol group of the tyrosine-339 does not contribute to lowering the activation barrier in the enzyme, but do not exclude the possibility that tyrosine 339 facilitates proper orientation of glycerol for the electrostatic catalysis, or inhibits side-reactions of the reactive glycerol radical intermediate.

  20. Minimization of glycerol synthesis in industrial ethanol yeast without influencing its fermentation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhong-peng; Zhang, Liang; Ding, Zhong-yang; Shi, Gui-yang

    2011-01-01

    To synthesize glycerol, a major by-product during anaerobic production of ethanol, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae would consume up to 4% of the sugar feedstock in typical industrial ethanol processes. The present study was dedicated to decreasing the glycerol production mostly in industrial ethanol producing yeast without affecting its desirable fermentation properties including high osmotic and ethanol tolerance, natural robustness in industrial processes. In the present study, the GPD1 gene, encoding NAD+-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in an industrial ethanol producing strain of S. cerevisiae, was deleted. Simultaneously, a non-phosphorylating NADP+-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPN) from Bacillus cereus was expressed in the mutant deletion of GPD1. Although the resultant strain AG1A (gpd1△ P(PGK)-gapN) exhibited a 48.7±0.3% (relative to the amount of substrate consumed) lower glycerol yield and a 7.6±0.1% (relative to the amount of substrate consumed) higher ethanol yield compared to the wild-type strain, it was sensitive to osmotic stress and failed to ferment on 25% glucose. However, when trehalose synthesis genes TPS1 and TPS2 were over-expressed in the above recombinant strain AG1A, its high osmotic stress tolerance was not only restored but also improved. In addition, this new recombinant yeast strain displayed further reduced glycerol yield, indistinguishable maximum specific growth rate (μ(max)) and fermentation ability compared to the wild type in anaerobic batch fermentations. This study provides a promising strategy to improve ethanol yields by minimization of glycerol production. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data of (methanol + water), (water + glycerol) and (methanol + glycerol) systems at atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soujanya, J.; Satyavathi, B.; Vittal Prasad, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental (vapour + liquid) equilibrium results for the binary systems, (methanol + water) at the local atmospheric pressure of 95.3 kPa and at sub-atmospheric pressures of (15.19, 29.38, 42.66, 56.03, and 67.38) kPa, (water + glycerol) system at pressures (14.19, 29.38, 41.54, 54.72, 63.84, and 95.3) kPa and the (methanol + glycerol) system at pressures (32.02 and 45.3) kPa were obtained over the entire composition range using a Sweitoslwasky-type ebulliometer. The relationship of the liquid composition (x 1 ) as a function of temperature (T) was found to be well represented by the Wilson model. Computed vapour phase mole fractions, activity coefficients and the measured values along with optimum Wilson parameters are presented.

  2. Blood-retinal barrier glycerol permeability in diabetic macular edema and healthy eyes: estimations from macular volume changes after peroral glycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornit, Dorte Nellemann; Vinten, Carl Martin; Sander, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the changes in macular volume (MV) between healthy subjects and patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) after an osmotic load and to determine the glycerol permeability (P(gly)) of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). METHODS: In this unmasked study, 13 patients with DME and 5...... model of glycerol and osmotic water movements across the BRB was constructed to estimate P(gly). RESULTS: Median MV decreased from 7.30 mm(3) (range, 6.68-7.35) to the maximum median DeltaMV of -0.30 mm(3) (25%-75% quartile: -0.34 to -0.25) in the healthy volunteers and from 7.97 mm(3) (range, 6...

  3. Glycerol Containing Triacetylborate Mediated Syntheses of Novel 2-Heterostyryl Benzimidazole Derivatives: A Green Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Taduri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A very simple, mild, efficient, and novel green methodology has been developed for the syntheses of some 2-hetero/styryl-benzimidazoles. Title compounds were synthesized by the condensation of o-phenylenediamine with cinnamic acids at 150–180°C for 5-6 h using glycerol containing triacetylborate (10–20 mol% as the reaction medium. In an alternative approach, condensation of 2-methylbenzimidazole derivatives with aromatic aldehydes was done using glycerol containing triacetylborate (10–20 mol% as the reaction medium.

  4. Synergetic hydrothermal co-liquefaction of crude glycerol and aspen wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Jasiunas, Lukas; Casamassima, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Crude glycerol-assisted hydrothermal co-liquefaction of aspen wood was studied in batch micro-reactors. An experimental matrix of 14 experiments was defined to investigate the effects of three different process parameters on the yields of biocrude and char, and on biocrude quality. Co-processing ......Crude glycerol-assisted hydrothermal co-liquefaction of aspen wood was studied in batch micro-reactors. An experimental matrix of 14 experiments was defined to investigate the effects of three different process parameters on the yields of biocrude and char, and on biocrude quality. Co...

  5. A Simple and Efficient Process for Large Scale Glycerol Oligomerization by Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Herein, an optimized method for 100 g scale synthesis of glycerol oligomers using a microwave multimode source and the low priced K2CO3 as catalyst is reported. This method allows the complete conversion of glycerol to its oligomers in only 30 min, yielding molecular weights up to 1000 g mol−1. Furthermore, a simple iterative purification process, involving the precipitation of the crude product in acetone and methanol, affords a final product composed of larger oligomers with a narrow dispersity (D < 1.5.

  6. Thermal Reshaping of Gold Nanorods in Micellar Solution of Water/Glycerol Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Sayed A. Al-Sherbini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanorods (Nds with aspect ratios of 4, 3.5, and 2.8 were prepared by the electrochemical method. The nanorods were thermally studied in binary solvents of aqueous glycerol at different ratios (25%–75%. The results illustrated that the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (SPL is strongly dependent on the dielectric constant. The maximum absorption is red shifted with increasing the glycerol/water ratio. This was attributed to the decreasing value of the dielectric constant of the binary solvents. Moreover, by increasing the temperatures, the results showed relative instability of the gold nanorods. This attributed to the relative instability of the micelle capping the nanorods.

  7. High-pressure cloud point data for the system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT

    OpenAIRE

    Bender,J. P.; Junges,A.; Franceschi,E.; Corazza,F. C.; Dariva,C.; Oliveira,J. Vladimir; Corazza,M. L.

    2008-01-01

    This work reports high-pressure cloud point data for the quaternary system glycerol + olive oil + n-butane + AOT surfactant. The static synthetic method, using a variable-volume view cell, was employed for obtaining the experimental data at pressures up to 27 MPa. The effects of glycerol/olive oil concentration and surfactant addition on the pressure transition values were evaluated in the temperature range from 303 K to 343 K. For the system investigated, vapor-liquid (VLE), liquid-liquid (L...

  8. Chemoselective Oxidation of Bio-Glycerol with Nano-Sized Metal Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hu; Kotni, Ramakrishna; Zhang, Qiuyun

    2015-01-01

    to selectively oxidize glycerol and yield products with good selectivity is the use of nano-sized metal particles as heterogeneous catalysts. In this short review, recent developments in chemoselective oxidation of glycerol to specific products over nano-sized metal catalysts are described. Attention is drawn...... to various reaction parameters such as the type of the support, the size of the metal particles, and the acid/base properties of the reaction medium which were illustrated to largely influence the activity of the nanocatalyst and selectivity to the target product. - See more at: http...

  9. Osmotolerance of Dekkera bruxellensis and the role of two Stl glycerol-proton symporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemancíková, Jana; Dušková, Michala; Elicharová, Hana; Papoušková, Klára; Sychrová, Hana

    2018-03-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is important for lambic beer fermentation but is considered a spoilage yeast in wine fermentation. We compared two D. bruxellensis strains isolated from wine and found that they differ in some basic properties, including osmotolerance. The genomes of both strains contain two highly similar copies of genes encoding putative glycerol-proton symporters from the STL family that are important for yeast osmotolerance. Cloning of the two DbSTL genes and their expression in suitable osmosensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants revealed that both identified genes encode functional glycerol uptake systems, but only DbStl2 has the capacity to improve the osmotolerance of S. cerevisiae cells.

  10. Selective Oxidation of Raw Glycerol Using Supported AuPd Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine E. Chan-Thaw

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bimetallic AuPd supported on different carbonaceous materials and TiO2 was tested in the liquid phase oxidation of commercial grade and raw glycerol. The latter was directly obtained from the base-catalyzed transesterification of edible rapeseed oil using KOH. The best catalytic results were obtained using activated carbon and nitrogen-functionalized carbon nanofibers as supports. In fact, the catalysts were more active using pure glycerol instead of the one obtained from rapeseed, where strong deactivation phenomena were present. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and TEM were utilized to investigate the possible reasons for the observed loss of activity.

  11. A physicochemical study of sugar palm (Arenga Pinnata) starch films plasticized by glycerol and sorbitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeloengasih, Crescentiana D.; Pranoto, Yudi; Hayati, Septi Nur; Hernawan, Rosyida, Vita T.; Prasetyo, Dwi J.; Jatmiko, Tri H.; Apriyana, Wuri; Suwanto, Andri

    2016-02-01

    The present work explores the physicochemical characteristics of sugar palm starch film for a potential hard capsule purpose. Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch films were plasticized with glycerol or sorbitol in various concentrations (30% up to 50% w/w starch). Their effects on physicochemical properties of the films were investigated. The results showed that sugar palm starch was successfully developed as the main material of film using casting method. Incorporation of both glycerol or sorbitol affected the properties of films in different ways. It was found that thickness and solubility increased as plasticizer concentration increased, whereas retraction ratio, swelling degree and swelling thickness decreased with the increased plasticizer concentration.

  12. Effect of pressure on hydrogen bonding in glycerol: A molecular dynamics investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Leslie J.; Berne, B. J.

    1997-09-01

    We report results of a molecular dynamics study of liquid glycerol at the experimental density and at a series of elevated densities corresponding in our model to pressures of up to 0.7 GPa. We find that the degree of hydrogen bonding increases with increasing pressure over the range studied, and that the width of the hydrogen bond angle distribution increases with increasing pressure. The relevance to the experimental finding by Cook et al. [R. L. Cook, H. E. King, C. A. Herbst, and D. R. Herschbach, J. Chem. Phys. 100, 5178 (1994)] that the fragility of glycerol increases with increasing pressure is discussed.

  13. Flow within an evaporating glycerol-water binary droplet: Segregation by gravitational effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaxing; Lv, Pengyu; Diddens, Christian; Wijshoff, Herman; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef

    2017-11-01

    The flow within an evaporating glycerol-water binary droplet with Bond number Bo PIV for both sessile and pendant droplets during evaporation process, which surprisingly show opposite radial flow directions - inward and outward, respectively. This observation clearly reveals that gravitational effects play a crucial role in controlling flow fields within the evaporating droplets. We theoretically analyse that this gravity-driven effect is caused by density gradients due to the local concentration difference of glycerol within the droplet triggered by different volatilities of the two components during evaporation. Finally, for confirmation, we numerically simulate the process, revealing a good agreement with experimental results.

  14. Effect of fermentation parameters on bio-alcohols production from glycerol using immobilized Clostridium pasteurianum: an optimization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Swati; Goyal, Arun; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of effect of fermentation parameters for conversion of glycerol (in both pure and crude form) into three value-added products, namely, ethanol, butanol, and 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO), by immobilized Clostridium pasteurianum and thereby addresses the statistical optimization of this process. The analysis of effect of different process parameters such as agitation rate, fermentation temperature, medium pH, and initial glycerol concentration indicated that medium pH was the most critical factor for total alcohols production in case of pure glycerol as fermentation substrate. On the other hand, initial glycerol concentration was the most significant factor for fermentation with crude glycerol. An interesting observation was that the optimized set of fermentation parameters was found to be independent of the type of glycerol (either pure or crude) used. At optimum conditions of agitation rate (200 rpm), initial glycerol concentration (25 g/L), fermentation temperature (30°C), and medium pH (7.0), the total alcohols production was almost equal in anaerobic shake flasks and 2-L bioreactor. This essentially means that at optimum process parameters, the scale of operation does not affect the output of the process. The immobilized cells could be reused for multiple cycles for both pure and crude glycerol fermentation.

  15. Synthesis of bio-additives: transesterification of ethyl acetate with glycerol using homogeneous or heterogeneous acid catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meireles, Bruno A.; Pereira, Vera Lucia P., E-mail: patrocinio@nppn.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais

    2013-01-15

    A new catalytic route with potential practical interest to sustainable production of bioadditives from glycerol is described. Ethyl acetate was transesterified with glycerol, in the ratio glycerol:EtOAc 1:10, at 25 or 90 deg C using 0.1 equiv.of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or TsOH, as homogeneous catalysts. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} led to the total glycerol consumption in 2 h. In the equilibrium, attained in 9 h, 100% yield of a diacetin:triacetin (55:45) mixture was formed. Using Amberlyst Registered-Sign 15 dry and Amberlyst Registered-Sign 16 wet in 1:30 glycerol:EtOAc ratio and reflux at 90 Degree-Sign C the total glycerol consumption was achieved in 2 and 10h, respectively. The lower reactivity of Amberlyst-16 wet was explained in terms of deactivation of acid sites and decrease in glycerol diffusion to the inner resin pores, both factors caused by adsorbed water. The kinetics of glycerol transformation and product distribution in the equilibrium in relation to the H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Amberlyst-15 (dry) and Amberlyst-16 (wet) catalyzed reactions were measured. (author)

  16. A new continuous-flow process for catalytic conversion of glycerol to oxygenated fuel additive: Catalyst screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Malaya R.; Yuan, Zhongshun; Qin, Wensheng; Ghaziaskar, Hassan S.; Poirier, Marc-Andre; Xu, Chunbao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A continuous-flow process for catalytic synthesis of solketal from glycerol. • Six different heterogeneous acid catalysts were studied in the process. • Glycerol conversion and solketal yield of 90% and 88% respectively were achieved. • The process has the potential to be scaled-up for industrial applications. - Abstract: A new continuous-flow reactor was designed for the conversion of glycerol to solketal, an oxygenated fuel additive, through ketalization with acetone. Six heterogeneous catalysts were investigated with respect to their catalytic activity and stability in a flow reactor. The acidity of the catalysts positively influences the catalyst’s activity. Among all the solid acid catalysts tested, the maximum solketal yield from experiments at 40 °C, 600 psi and WHSV of 4 h −1 attained 73% and 88% at the acetone/glycerol molar ratio of 2.0 and 6.0, respectively, with Amberlyst Wet. Based on the solketal yield and glycerol conversion results, the activity of all catalysts tested follows the following order of sequence: Amberlyst Wet ≈ Zeolite ≈ Amberlyst Dry > Zirconium Sulfate > Montmorillonite > Polymax. An increase in acetone/glycerol molar ratio or a decrease in WHSV enhanced the glycerol conversion as expected. This process offers an attractive route for converting glycerol, the main by-product of biodiesel, to solketal – a value-added green product with potential industrial applications as a valuable fuel additive or combustion promoter for gasoline engines

  17. Effects of transforming growth factor-β1 treatment on muscle regeneration and adipogenesis in glycerol-injured muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Mohamed A A; Warita, Katsuhiko; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z

    2017-11-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is associated with fibrosis in many organs. Recent studies demonstrated that delivery of TGF-β1 into chemically injured muscle enhances fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous TGF-β1 on muscle regeneration and adipogenesis in glycerol-injured muscle of normal mice. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were injured by glycerol injection. TGF-β1 was either co-injected with glycerol, as an 'early treatment' group, or injected at day 4 after glycerol, as a 'late treatment' group and the TA muscles were collected at day 7 after initial injury. Myotube density was significantly lower in the early treatment group than in the glycerol-injured group (without TGF-β1 treatment). Moreover, the Oil red O-positive area was significantly smaller in the early treatment group than in the late treatment group and glycerol-injured group. Furthermore, TGF-β1 treatment increased endomysial fibrosis and induced immunostaining of α-smooth muscle actin. The greater inhibitory effects of early TGF-β1 treatment than that of late TGF-β1 treatment during regeneration in glycerol-injured muscle suggest a more potent effect of TGF-β1 on the initial stage of muscle regeneration and adipogenesis. Combination of TGF-β1 with glycerol might be an alternative to enhance muscle fibrosis for future studies. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Application of glycerol as a foliar spray activates the defence response and enhances disease resistance of Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Smith, Philip; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has implicated glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) as a mobile inducer of systemic immunity in plants. We tested the hypothesis that the exogenous application of glycerol as a foliar spray might enhance the disease resistance of Theobroma cacao through the modulation of endogenous G3P levels. We found that exogenous application of glycerol to cacao leaves over a period of 4 days increased the endogenous level of G3P and decreased the level of oleic acid (18:1). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were produced (a marker of defence activation) and the expression of many pathogenesis-related genes was induced. Notably, the effects of glycerol application on G3P and 18:1 fatty acid content, and gene expression levels, in cacao leaves were dosage dependent. A 100 mm glycerol spray application was sufficient to stimulate the defence response without causing any observable damage, and resulted in a significantly decreased lesion formation by the cacao pathogen Phytophthora capsici; however, a 500 mm glycerol treatment led to chlorosis and cell death. The effects of glycerol treatment on the level of 18:1 and ROS were constrained to the locally treated leaves without affecting distal tissues. The mechanism of the glycerol-mediated defence response in cacao and its potential use as part of a sustainable farming system are discussed. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  19. Denitration of glycerol trinitrate by resting cells and cell extracts of Bacillus thuringiensis/cereus and Enterobacter agglomerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, M; Sun, W Q; Geelhaar, L A; Kumar, G; Patel, A R; Payne, G F; Speedie, M K; Stacy, J R

    1995-07-01

    A number of microorganisms were selected from soil and sediment samples which were known to have been previously exposed to nitrate ester contaminants. The two most effective bacteria for transforming glycerol trinitrate (GTN) were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis/cereus and Enterobacter agglomerans. For both isolates, denitration activities were expressed constitutively and GTN was not required for induction. Dialysis of cell extracts from both isolates did not affect denitration, which indicates that dissociable and depletable cofactors are not required for denitration. With thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, the denitration pathway for both isolates was shown to be a sequential denitration of GTN to glycerol dinitrate isomers, glycerol mononitrate isomers, and ultimately to glycerol. GTN was observed to be completely converted to glycerol during a long-term incubation of cell extracts.

  20. Upgrading of glycerol from biodiesel synthesis with dimethyl carbonate on reusable Sr–Al mixed oxide catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algoufi, Y.T.; Akpan, U.G.; Kabir, G.; Asif, M.; Hameed, B.H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Catalytic transesterification with dimethyl carbonate (DMC) converts glycerol into glycerol carbonate (GLC). • DMC and Sr x –Al catalysts affect the reaction mechanisms that convert glycerol into GLC. • The morphology and textural structure of Sr x –Al catalysts perpetuate catalytic activity. • The atomic ratio of Sr/Al has a unique effect on Sr–Al catalytic activity. • Sr 0.5 –Al catalyst exhibits limited leaching after five reaction cycles. - Abstract: The high demand for renewable energy has led to the upsurge of methanol-assisted biodiesel synthesis. Therefore, glycerol as a byproduct entered the waste stream given the oversupply of biodiesel to the market. The dimethyl carbonate (DMC)-assisted transesterification of glycerol on a catalyst has been a popular approach for converting glycerol into valuable glycerol carbonate (GLC). The synthesis of GLC from the DMC-assisted transesterification of glycerol on mixed oxide catalysts (Sr x –Al) with different Sr/Al ratios was examined in this study. A glycerol conversion of 99.4% and a GLC yield of 100% were achieved in a catalyst with Sr/Al = 0.5 (Sr 0.5 –Al). Both values are higher than those in catalysts synthesized with Sr/Al = 0.25 and 0.75. The Sr 0.5 –Al catalyst withstood five transesterification reaction cycles without a serious deactivation induced by the leaching of active SrO. Therefore, the Sr 0.5 –Al catalyst is suitable for consecutive uses in the DMC-assisted transesterification of glycerol with DMC into GLC.

  1. Edible Film from the Pectin of Papaya Skin (The Study of Cassava Starch and Glycerol Addition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosida; Sudaryati; Yahya, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    The production of edible cooking made from the pectin of papaya skin with cassava starch and glycerol adition had been studied. The usage of pectin of papaya skin was one way to use papaya skin waste in order to raise its economic value. The aim of this study was to study the effect of cassava starch and glycerol concentration on the product qualities and to determine the the best treatment in making a good quality adible film and acceptable by the consumer. This research used completely randomized design in factorial patern with two factors. The first factor was cassava starch concentration (25%, 35% and 45%) and the second factor was glycerol concentration (20 %, 15% and 10). The data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (Anova) and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test to detect the difference between the treatment. The best treatment was 25% cassava starch addition and 10% glycerol concentration which produced edible film which had moisture content of 21.16%, thickness of 0.023 mm, tensile strength of 1.900 N, elasticity of 14.223%, and vapor transmission rate of 116.963 g/m2/24 hours. So the production of edible film from papaya skin pectin was potential to be developed.

  2. Monitoring the catalytic synthesis of glycerol carbonate by real-time attenuated total reflection FTIR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvino-Casilda, V.; Mul, Guido; Fernandez, J.F.; Rubio-Marcos, F.; Banares, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    In situ Attenuated Total Reflectance FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the carbonylation of glycerol with urea. Cobalt oxide nanoparticles, Co3O4, hierarchically dispersed on zinc oxide microparticles, ZnO, were used as catalysts. The present work demonstrates that in situ real-time attenuated

  3. New mono-ether of glycerol and triterpenes with DPPH radical scavenging activity from Cameroonian propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talla, Emmanuel; Tamfu, Alfred Ngenge; Gade, Isaac Sylvère; Yanda, Lambert; Mbafor, Joseph Tanyi; Laurent, Sophie; Elst, Luce Vander; Popova, Milena; Bankova, Vassya

    2017-06-01

    The extracts of some propolis samples were analysed by GC-MS and then purified by column chromatography. The latter led to the isolation of a new mono-ether of glycerol, 1'-O-eicosanyl glycerol and a new triterpene, methyl-3β,27-dihydroxycycloart-24-en-26-oate together with known triterpenoids namely betulin, 3β-hydroxylanostan-9,24-dien-21-oic acid, mangiferonic acid, a mixture of ambolic acid and β-sitosterol, 3β-hydroxycycloartan-12,24(25)-diene and 27-hydroxymangiferonic acid. The DPPH radical scavenging potential of some extracts and compounds were measured. The radical scavenging activity varied from Hexane extract of Foumban propolis (IC 50  = 5.6 mg/mL) to Methanol extract of Foumban propolis (IC 50  = 1.07 mg/mL) for the extracts and from 3β-hydroxylanostan-9,24-dien-21-oic acid (IC 50  = 1.22 mg/mL) to 1'-O-eicosanyl glycerol (IC 50  = 0.93 mg/mL) for the compounds. Activities of samples were moderate as they remained closer to those of the standard antioxidants Gallic acid (IC 50  = 0.30 mg/mL) and vitamin C (IC 50  = 0.80 mg/mL), especially 1'-O-eicosanyl glycerol, the most active compound.

  4. Techno-economic analysis of biomethanol production via hybrid steam reforming of glycerol with natural gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balegedde Ramachandran, P.; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van Rossum, G.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The present article deals with the techno-economic assessment of the hybrid steam reforming (HSR) process of glycerol (obtained via transesterification) together with natural gas to produce biomethanol via the synthesis gas route. In this techno-economic assessment, a model is developed in the

  5. Inhibition of mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by alpha-tocopheryl succinate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rauchová, Hana; Vokurková, Martina; Drahota, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, AUG (2014), s. 409-413 ISSN 1357-2725 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : brown adipose tissue mitochondria * oxygen consumption * glycerol-3-phosphate * succinate * reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.046, year: 2014

  6. Metabolic and regulatory rearrangements underlying glycerol metabolism in Pseudomonas putida KT2440.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikel, Pablo I; Kim, Juhyun; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    While the natural niches of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida are unlikely to include significant amounts of free glycerol as a growth substrate, this bacterium is genetically equipped with the functions required for its metabolism. We have resorted to deep sequencing of the transcripts in glycerol-grown P. putida KT2440 cells to gain an insight into the biochemical and regulatory components involved in the shift between customary C sources (e.g. glucose or succinate) to the polyol. Transcriptomic results were contrasted with key enzymatic activities under the same culture conditions. Cognate expression profiles revealed that genes encoding enzymes of the Entner-Doudoroff route and other catabolic pathways, e.g. the gluconate and 2-ketogluconate loops, were significantly downregulated on glycerol. Yet, the compound simultaneously elicited a gluconeogenic response that indicated an efficient channelling of C skeletons back to biomass build-up through the glyoxylate shunt rather than energization of the cells through downwards pathways, i.e. tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. The simultaneous glycolytic and gluconeogenic metabolic regimes on glycerol, paradoxical as they seem, make sense from an ecological point of view by favouring prevalence versus exploration. This metabolic situation was accompanied by a considerably low expression of stress markers as compared with other C sources. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Bacterial Cellulose From Rice Waste Water With Addition Chitosan, Glycerol, And Silver Nanoparticle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Rohaeti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to prepare silver nanoparticles chemically, deposite silver nanoparticles on bacterial cellulose-chitosan-glycerol composite based rice waste water, as well as test the antibacterial activity of bacterial cellulose and its composite. Preparation of silver nanoparticles was conducted by chemical reduction of silver nitrate solution, as well as trisodium citrate as the reductor. Bacterial cellulose from rice waste water is fermented by the bacteria Acetobacter xylinum for 7 days. The dried bacterial cellulose was composited with chitosan and glycerol by immersion method on 2% of chitosan solution and 0.5% of glycerol solution. UV-Vis spectroscopy is used to determine the formation of silvernanoparticles and Particle Size Analyzer to test the size and particle size distribution. Characterization was conducted to bacterial cellulose and its composite included functional groups by FTIR, the mechanical properties by Tensile Tester, crystallinity by XRD, surface photograph by SEM, and antibacterial test against S. aureus and E. coli by the shake flask turbidimetry method. Silver nanoparticle characterization indicated that silver nanoparticles are formed at a wavelength of 421.80 nm, yellow, diameter particle size of 61.8 nm. SEM images showed that the surface of bacterial cellulose had deposited silver nanoparticles and antibacterial test showed an inhibitory effect of bacterial cellulose, bacterial cellulose-chitosan composite, and bacterial cellulose-chitosan-glycerol composite which are deposited silver nanoparticles against the growth of S. aureus and E. coli bacteria.

  8. Comparison between biodegradable polymers from cassava starch and glycerol as additives to biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo André Cremonez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we compared cassava starch-based biodegradable polymers (PBMs and glycerol (G as additives used to increase biogas production from the co-digestion of swine wastewater (ARS. We chose to work with an inoculum comprising 40% (v/v of the total volume of the reactor; this inoculum was obtained from a Canadian model digester for treating swine waste. In the anaerobic digestion process, batch reactors were used on a laboratory scale with a total volume of approximately 4 L and a working volume of 3.2 L. Three treatments were conducted to compare the efficiency of solid removal, the chemical oxygen demand (COD, and the production of biogas. The first treatment contained only swine waste; the second included the addition of glycerol at 1, 3, and 5% (w/v; and the third treatment included the addition of 1, 3, and 5% (w/v of PBM residue in relation to the swine wastewater. From the results, it can be concluded that higher yields were obtained for the treatment with 3% PBM and 1% glycerol. Most treatments showed high removal rates of total solids and total volatile solids. Reductions lower than 70% were obtained only for treatments with PBM and glycerol at a ratio of 5%.

  9. Synthesis of the Fatty Esters of Solketal and Glycerol-Formal: Biobased Specialty Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvise Perosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The caprylic, lauric, palmitic and stearic esters of solketal and glycerol formal were synthesized with high selectivity and in good yields by a solvent-free acid catalyzed procedure. No acetal hydrolysis was observed, notwithstanding the acidic reaction conditions.

  10. Effect of Support Materials on Catalytic Activity of Nano Ruthenium Catalyst in Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noraini Hamzah; Mohd Ambar Yarmo

    2016-01-01

    A series of heterogenous catalysts based on supported ruthenium were prepared from RuCl 3 precursor by impregnation method. The effect of support materials (bentonite, TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 ) on catalytic activity of Ru catalyst for hydrogenolysis of glycerol were investigated under mild reaction condition of 150 degree Celsius and 20 bar initial hydrogen pressure for 7 hours reaction time and glycerol concentration was 20 % (wt). It was found that the type of support material have significant effects on the activity and selectivity of glycerol hydrogenolysis. The order of Ru catalyst activity was Ru/ bentonite > Ru /Al 2 O 3 ≅ Ru/ TiO 2 > Ru/ SiO 2 . This study showed that bentonite supported Ru catalyst was the most active with glycerol conversion reaching 62.5 % compared to other supports. All the tested catalyst exhibited high selectivity to 1,2-propanediol with more than 80 %. Characterization of the catalysts was carried out using BET, XPS, FESEM-EDX and TEM to obtain the physicochemical properties of the catalysts. (author)

  11. Catalytic and Non-catalytic Supercritical Water Gasification of Microalgae and Glycerol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakinala, Anand G.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present the gasification of microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) and glycerol in supercritical water (SCW) using batch (quartz capillaries) and continuous flow reactors. Preliminary tests of algae gasification were done with quartz capillaries at varying operating conditions such as

  12. Dietary Tools To Modulate Glycogen Storage in Gilthead Seabream Muscle: Glycerol Supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Tomé S.; Matos, Elisabete; Cordeiro, Odete D.

    2012-01-01

    seabream. Two diets were tested in duplicate (n = 42/tank). Results show 5% inclusion of crude glycerol in gilthead seabream diets induces increased muscle glycogen, ATP levels and firmness, with no deleterious effects in terms of growth, proximate composition, fatty acid profile, oxidative state...

  13. Simultaneous production of hydrogen and ethanol from waste glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes KKU-S1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reungsang, Alissara; Sittijunda, Sureewan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production from waste glycerol by a newly isolated bacterium Enterobacter aerogenes KKU-S1 were investigated employing response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design (CCD). The Plackett-Burman design was first used to screen...

  14. Glycerol valorization: dehydration to acrolein over silica-supported niobia catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shiju, N.R.; Brown, D.R.; Wilson, K.; Rothenberg, G.

    2010-01-01

    The catalytic dehydration of glycerol to acrolein is investigated over silica-supported niobia catalysts in a continuous fixed-bed gas-phase reactor. Various supported niobia catalysts are prepared and characterized using surface analysis and spectroscopic methods (XRD, UV-Vis, XPS, N2 adsorption),

  15. Synthesis of Acrolein from Glycerol Using FePO4 Catalyst in Liquid Phase Dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Zainal Abidin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Acrolein is currently produced using propylene from crude oil while its price and scarcity are increasing. A renewable material such as glycerol is an attractive alternative for acrolein production. It can be obtained from crude palm oil (CPO and is a byproduct of biodiesel production. Besides being able to compete economically, glycerol is an environmentally friendly material. The purpose of this study is to synthesize acrolein from glycerol using FePO4 catalyst in liquid phase dehydration. The catalyst was prepared by three different methods: hydrothermal (catalyst A, deposition at Fe/P = 1.15 (catalyst B, and deposition at Fe/P = 1.20 (catalyst C. The experimental reaction temperature was varied at 220, 240 and 260 °C under constant atmospheric pressure. The results showed that catalyst C provided the best yield (91%, followed by catalyst A (90% and catalyst B (82%. The increasing reaction temperature showed a tendency to increase the yield of acrolein, while the presence of oxygen reduced the yield of acrolein and allowed the reaction to produce more side products such as glycerol propanal, acetaldehyde, and propionate. Catalyst reuse without any regeneration resulted in a yield profile of acrolein that continued to decline.

  16. Glycerol dehydrogenase, encoded by gldB is essential to osmotolerance in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.P.; Flitter, S.J.; Vondervoort, van de P.J.I.; Chaveroche, M.K.; Fontaine, T.; Fillinger, S.; Ruijter, G.J.G.; Enfert, d' C.; Visser, J.

    2003-01-01

    We have characterized the Aspergillus nidulans gldB gene encoding a NADP(+) -dependent glycerol dehydrogenase. A basal expression level was observed for gldB , which increased significantly under conditions of hyper-osmotic shock (1 M NaCl). Growth of strains in which gldB was disrupted was severely

  17. Catalytic reforming of glycerol in supercritical water over bimetallic Pt-Ni catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakinala, A.G.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; de Vlieger, Dennis; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic reforming of pure glycerol for the production of hydrogen at low temperature and short residence times in supercritical water was investigated using a bimetallic Pt–Ni catalyst supported on alumina. Initial tests were carried out to study the reforming activity of bimetallic Pt–Ni

  18. Chiral gas chromatography for the determination of 1,2-O-isopropylidene-sn-glycerol stereoisomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dröge, M.J; Bos, R.; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Quax, Wim; Droge, MJ

    2003-01-01

    A stereospecific gas chromatography (GC) method using a (6-O-tButyldimethylsilyl-2,3-di-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin as the chiral stationary phase has been developed and validated for the determination of the enantiomers of 1,2-O-isopropylidene-sn-glycerol (IPG), an important chiral synthon, in

  19. Effect of inulin and glycerol supplementation on physicochemical properties of probiotic frozen yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzammil, Hafiz Shehzad; Rasco, Barbara; Sablani, Shyam

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of inulin and glycerol supplementation on physicochemical properties of probiotic frozen yogurt. Frozen yogurt was prepared with different types of probiotic ( Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis ) along with yogurt starter culture ( Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus ). The frozen yogurt mixture was supplemented with inulin (2%, 4%, and 6%) and glycerol (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%). The results showed that inulin 4% and 6% supplementation increased the overrun by 3% and 5% and the glass transition temperature by 3.3% and 2.8%, and decreased the hardness by 7% and 11%, respectively. Inulin supplementation did not have a significant effect on ice crystal size ( p  > 0.05). Glycerol supplementation increased the stickiness from 2.4% to 18.7%, and decreased the hardness from 8.0% to 14.5% and the glass transition temperature from 2.4% to 34.5%, respectively. Glycerol supplementation did not have a significant effect on overrun or melting rate ( p  > 0.05).

  20. Biodiesel-derived crude glycerol bioconversion to animal feed: a sustainable option for a biodiesel refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitayavardhana, Saoharit; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2011-05-01

    This study examined the potential of producing an edible fungus, Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus, on biodiesel-derived crude glycerol. Prolific fungal growth was observed with a fungal biomass yield of 0.83 ± 0.02 (g biomass increase/ginitial biomass) under optimal cultivation conditions (e.g. nonsterile crude glycerol at a concentration of 75% (w/v) with nutrient supplementation and without pH control). The potential of utilizing front-end processed banagrass (Pennisetum purpureum) juice as a source of nutrients for crude glycerol fermentation was evaluated with a 2.3-fold improvement in the fungal biomass yield. The glycerol-derived fungal biomass showed high amounts of threonine, one of the main limiting amino acids in non-ruminant feeds. An inexpensive fungal protein has the potential to reduce meat product prices by lowering the production costs of animal feeds. The application of fungal technology thus provides a unique sustainable option for biodiesel refineries by providing an additional source of revenue from fungal products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Regulation of the metabolism of methanol, dihydroxyacetone and glycerol in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Willem de

    1989-01-01

    ln recent years there has been an increasing interest in the possible application of microorganisms for the production of fine chemicals. [...] This thesis reports the results of studies in which various physiological and biochemical aspects of dihydroryacetone (DHA) and glycerol synthesis and

  2. Glycerol enhances fungal germination at the water-activity limit for life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, Andrew; Hamill, Philip G; Medina, Ángel; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Timson, David J; Magan, Naresh; Leong, Su-Lin L; Hallsworth, John E

    2017-01-01

    For the most-extreme fungal xerophiles, metabolic activity and cell division typically halts between 0.700 and 0.640 water activity (approximately 70.0-64.0% relative humidity). Here, we investigate whether glycerol can enhance xerophile germination under acute water-activity regimes, using an

  3. Superlubricity mechanism of diamond-like carbon with glycerol. Coupling of experimental and simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, M I De Barros; Matta, C; Le-Mogne, Th; Martin, J Michel; Zhang, Q; III, W Goddard; Kano, M; Mabuchi, Y; Ye, J

    2007-01-01

    We report a unique tribological system that produces superlubricity under boundary lubrication conditions with extremely little wear. This system is a thin coating of hydrogen-free amorphous Diamond-Like-Carbon (denoted as ta-C) at 353 K in a ta-C/ta-C friction pair lubricated with pure glycerol. To understand the mechanism of friction vanishing we performed ToF-SIMS experiments using deuterated glycerol and 13 C glycerol. This was complemented by first-principles-based computer simulations using the ReaxFF reactive force field to create an atomistic model of ta-C. These simulations show that DLC with the experimental density of 3.24 g/cc leads to an atomistic structure consisting of a 3D percolating network of tetrahedral (sp 3 ) carbons accounting for 71.5% of the total, in excellent agreement with the 70% deduced from our Auger spectroscopy and XANES experiments. The simulations show that the remaining carbons (with sp 2 and sp 1 character) attach in short chains of length 1 to 7. In sliding simulations including glycerol molecules, the surface atoms react readily to form a very smooth carbon surface containing OH-terminated groups. This agrees with our SIMS experiments. The simulations find that the OH atoms are mostly bound to surface sp 1 atoms leading to very flexible elastic response to sliding. Both simulations and experiments suggest that the origin of the superlubricity arises from the formation of this OH-terminated surface

  4. The absorption and distribution of 1- 14 C-glycerol and D-5 3 H ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The absorption and distribution of 1-14C-glycerol and D-53H-glucose from the reproductive tracts of female mice. W.J. Neville. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  5. Green silicone elastomer obtained from a counterintuitively stable mixture of glycerol and PDMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, P.; Hvilsted, S.; Skov, A. L.

    2016-01-01

    and scanning electron microscopy. The materials were proven additionally to exhibit a strong affinity to water, which was investigated by simple water absorption tests. Incorporating glycerol into PDMS decreased the Young's modulus of the composites yet the ultimate strain of the elastomer was not compromised...

  6. Small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors enable freezing of human red blood cells with reduced glycerol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capicciotti, Chantelle J; Kurach, Jayme D R; Turner, Tracey R; Mancini, Ross S; Acker, Jason P; Ben, Robert N

    2015-04-08

    In North America, red blood cells (RBCs) are cryopreserved in a clinical setting using high glycerol concentrations (40% w/v) with slow cooling rates (~1°C/min) prior to storage at -80°C, while European protocols use reduced glycerol concentrations with rapid freezing rates. After thawing and prior to transfusion, glycerol must be removed to avoid intravascular hemolysis. This is a time consuming process requiring specialized equipment. Small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) such as β-PMP-Glc and β-pBrPh-Glc have the ability to prevent ice recrystallization, a process that contributes to cellular injury and decreased cell viability after cryopreservation. Herein, we report that addition of 110 mM β-PMP-Glc or 30 mM β-pBrPh-Glc to a 15% glycerol solution increases post-thaw RBC integrity by 30-50% using slow cooling rates and emphasize the potential of small molecule IRIs for the preservation of cells.

  7. Improvement in solvent tolerance by exogenous glycerol in Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H J; Lim, B R; Park, Y J; Joo, W H

    2017-08-01

    Solvent hypertolerant Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106 still has some underlying growth limitation in solvents. Therefore, efficient mass cultivation methods are needed to pursue its applications in biotechnology. Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106 was cultured in a medium supplemented with 0·05 mol l -1 glycerol and cell survival was monitored during its cultivation in the presence of 1% (v/v) toluene. Exogenously supplemented glycerol provided more protection against damage caused by toluene stress and conferred higher solvent tolerance of Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106 to toluene compared to control Pseudomonas sp. BCNU 106 without the supplementation of glycerol. This low-cost mass cultivation method can be used to efficiently apply solvent-tolerant bacteria in biotransformation and biodegradation. Protection against toluene and improvement in bacterial cell growth by supplementation of glycerol in the presence of toluene are demonstrated in this study. This result can be used to solve growth-related hindrances of solvent-tolerant bacteria and establish their low-cost mass cultivation, thereby broadening their industrial and environmental applications. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Economic Risk Assessment of Early Stage Designs for Glycerol2Valorization in Biorefinery Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Cheali, Peam; Posada, John A.

    2016-01-01

    (failure to achieve a positive NPV times the consequential profit loss). It was found that the best potential options for glycerol valorization is through the production of either (i) lactic acid (9 MM$ with 63% probability of failure to achieve a positive NPV); (ii) succinic acid (14 MM$ with 76...

  9. Oxidation of Glycerol and Propanediols in Methanol over Heterogeneous Gold Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarning, Esben; Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Marchetti, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Aerobic oxidation of glycerol over metal oxide supported gold nanoparticles in methanol results in the formation of dimethyl mesoxalate in selectivities up to 89% at full conversion. The oxidative esterification takes place in methanol, acting both as solvent and reactant, and in the presence...

  10. Preparation and properties of water and glycerol-plasticized sugar beet pulp plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP), the residue from sugar extraction, was compounded and turned into thermoplastic composite materials. The compounding was performed using a common twin screw compounding extruder and water and glycerol were used as plasticizers. The plasticization of SBP utilized the water-solu...

  11. Liquefaction behaviors of bamboo residues in a glycerol-based solvent using microwave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe; Jinqiu Qi; Hui Pan

    2014-01-01

    Liquefaction of bamboo was performed in glycerol–methanol as co-solvent using microwave energy and was evaluated by characterizing the liquefied residues. High efficiency conversion of bamboo was achieved under mild reaction conditions. Liquefaction temperature and time interacted to affect the liquefaction reaction. Fourier transform infrared analyzes of the residues...

  12. Acetylation of glycerol to biofuel additives over sulfated activated carbon catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayoon, M S; Hameed, B H

    2011-10-01

    Oxygenated fuel additives can be produced by acetylation of glycerol. A 91% glycerol conversion with a selectivity of 38%, 28% and 34% for mono-, di- and triacetyl glyceride, respectively, was achieved at 120 °C and 3 h of reaction time in the presence of a catalyst derived from activated carbon (AC) treated with sulfuric acid at 85 °C for 4h to introduce acidic functionalities to its surface. The unique catalytic activity of the catalyst, AC-SA5, was attributed to the presence of sulfur containing functional groups on the AC surface, which enhanced the surface interaction between the glycerol molecule and acyl group of the acetic acid. The catalyst was reused in up to four consecutive batch runs and no significant decline of its initial activity was observed. The conversion and selectivity variation during the acetylation is attributed to the reaction time, reaction temperature, catalyst loading and glycerol to acetic acid molar ratio. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Catalytic etherification of glycerol to produce biofuels over novel spherical silica supported Hyflon® catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frusteri, Francesco; Frusteri, Leone; Cannilla, Catia; Bonura, Giuseppe

    2012-08-01

    Etherification of glycerol (GLY) with isobutylene (IB) to produce biofuels was investigated in liquid phase using spherical silica supported Hyflon® catalysts (SSHC). As reference catalyst, Amberlyst® 15 (A-15) acid ion-exchange resin was used. Experiments were carried out in batch mode at a reaction temperature ranging from 323 to 343 K. SSHC were found to be very effective systems in etherification of glycerol with IB, providing cumulative di- and tri-ethers yields higher than that obtained by using A-15 catalyst. Furthermore, such catalysts were stable and easily reusable; no leaching of active phase was observed. The formation of poly-substituted ethers, suitable additives for conventional fuels, was favored by operating at an isobutylene/glycerol molar ratio >3 and low reaction time (catalyst was used. Turnover frequency of glycerol (TOF(GLY)) highlighted that SSHC systems were much more active than A-15 catalyst: the accessibility and nature of active sites and the surface properties of catalysts were indicated as the main factors affecting the catalytic behavior. A lower acid site density of SSHC than that of A-15 catalyst was decisive in preventing the occurrence of oligomerization reaction which leads to the formation of di-isobutylene (DIB), precursors of gummy products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Two glycerol uptake systems contribute to the high osmotolerance of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušková, Michala; Ferreira, C.; Lucas, C.; Sychrová, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 3 (2015), s. 541-559 ISSN 0950-382X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/0307 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : osmotolerance * glycerol * non-conventional yeast Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.761, year: 2015

  15. The role of glycerol transporters in yeast cells in various physiological and stress conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušková, Michala; Borovikova, D.; Herynková, Pavla; Rapoport, A.; Sychrová, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 362, č. 3 (2015), s. 1-8 ISSN 0378-1097 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/0307 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Saccharomyces cerevisiae * glycerol transport * desiccation * osmotic stress Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.858, year: 2015

  16. ETHANOL DEHYDRATION IN PACKED DISTILLATION COLUMN USING GLYCEROL AS ENTRAINER: EXPERIMENTS AND HETP EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. R. Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract The ethanol-water separation is very important because ethanol is widely applied in the chemical industry and its use as a fuel can reduce the pollution emitted to the air. However, anhydrous ethanol production using conventional distillation is impossible, at atmospheric pressure, due to the presence of an azeotrope. In the present work, experimental tests were carried out in order to evaluate the use of glycerol as an entrainer, in substitution of ethylene glycol in an extractive distillation. The use of glycerol is motivated by the biodiesel production units, due to the fact that it is the main byproduct and a new market is necessary to consume its overproduction. The experiments were carried out in a distillation column packed with Raschig rings, varying the glycerol/feed (ethanol and water ratio, S/F, from 0.5 to 0.9. The samples were analyzed using a digital densimeter. The results showed that glycerol was effective to promote ethanol dehydration and the presence of an azeotrope was not observed using a solvent to feed ratio (S/F equal to 0.9. Some empirical correlations were investigated to evaluate the HETP (Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate, and the results provided a useful tool for designing a packed bed column for ethanol-water separation.

  17. Glycerol as an Efficient Medium for the Petasis Borono–Mannich Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosholm, Tomi; Gois, Pedro M P; Franzen, Robert; Candeias, Nuno R

    2015-01-01

    The multicomponent Petasis borono–Mannich (PBM) reaction is a useful tool for the preparation of complex molecules in a single step from boronic acids, aldehydes/ketones, and amines. Here, we describe the use of glycerol in the PBM reaction of salicylaldehydes or 2-pyridinecarbaldehyde with several boronic acids and secondary amines. From these readily available starting materials, alkylaminophenols, 2-substituted pyridines, and 2H-chromenes were prepared in reasonable to good yields. Glycerol was compared with other solvents, and in some cases, it provided the reaction product in higher yield. Crude glycerol, as generated by the biodiesel industry, was evaluated and found to be a suitable solvent for the PBM reaction, successfully expanding the potential use of this industry by-product. Based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations and the obtained experimental results, the involvement of glycerol-derived boronic esters in the reaction mechanism is suggested to be competitive with the free boronic acid pathway. Similar Gibbs free energies for the aryl migration from the boronate species to the iminium were determined for both mechanisms. PMID:25861569

  18. Glycerol as an efficient medium for the petasis borono-mannich reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosholm, Tomi; Gois, Pedro M P; Franzen, Robert; Candeias, Nuno R

    2015-02-01

    The multicomponent Petasis borono-Mannich (PBM) reaction is a useful tool for the preparation of complex molecules in a single step from boronic acids, aldehydes/ketones, and amines. Here, we describe the use of glycerol in the PBM reaction of salicylaldehydes or 2-pyridinecarbaldehyde with several boronic acids and secondary amines. From these readily available starting materials, alkylaminophenols, 2-substituted pyridines, and 2H-chromenes were prepared in reasonable to good yields. Glycerol was compared with other solvents, and in some cases, it provided the reaction product in higher yield. Crude glycerol, as generated by the biodiesel industry, was evaluated and found to be a suitable solvent for the PBM reaction, successfully expanding the potential use of this industry by-product. Based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations and the obtained experimental results, the involvement of glycerol-derived boronic esters in the reaction mechanism is suggested to be competitive with the free boronic acid pathway. Similar Gibbs free energies for the aryl migration from the boronate species to the iminium were determined for both mechanisms.

  19. Alternative Glycerol Balance Strategies among Saccharomyces Species in Response to Winemaking Stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pérez-Torrado, R.; Oliveira, B. M.; Zemančíková, Jana; Sychrová, Hana; Querol, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, Mar 31 (2016), s. 435 ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03708S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 264717 - CORNUCOPIA Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Saccharomyces * stress tolerance * glycerol * gene expression Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  20. The effect of glycerol on regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masatsune; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Nagata, Izumi; Yamagata, Sen; Taki, Waro; Kobayashi, Akira; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Nishizawa, Sadahiko.

    1989-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography with 15 O-labelled CO 2 , O 2 and CO gases, the effects of glycerol on regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume (CBV) and oxygen metabolism (CMRO 2 ) were investigated in 6 patients with meningioma accompanying peritumoral brain edema. The same study was done in 5 normal volunteers. The changes of blood gases, hematocrit and hemoglobin were also examined. After a drip infusion of glycerol, the regional CBF increased not only in the peritumoral cortex and white matter but also in the intact cortex and white matter on the contralateral side. The increase of CBF was extensive and substantially there were no regional differences. In contrast, the changes of CMRO 2 were not significant. This was derived from the increase in oxygen extraction fraction throughout extensive areas including the peritumoral area. There were no changes in CBV. Hematocrit and hemoglobin decreased to a small degree. In the normal volunteers, the same findings were noted. Thus, glycerol increases the functional reserve for cerebral oxygen metabolism, not only in the peritumoral regions but also in the intact regions. The effects of glycerol on hemodynamics and metabolism were discussed with reference to some differences from mannitol. (author)

  1. Theoretical study on the role of surface basicity and Lewis acidity on the etherification of glycerol over alkaline earth metal oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calatayud, M.; Ruppert, A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314003398; Weckhuysen, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2009-01-01

    Alkaline earth metal oxides (MO) are catalytically active in the etherification of glycerol. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations have been used to examine the reactivity of glycerol with MO surfaces with M=Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba. More specifically, the optimum glycerol adsorption mode and the

  2. Mathematical modeling and experimental validation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum microalgae growth rate with glycerol addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Keli Cristiane Correia; Ribeiro, Robert Luis Lara; Santos, Kassiana Ribeiro dos; Mariano, Andre Bellin [Mariano Center for Research and Development of Sustainable Energy (NPDEAS), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho [Departament of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Parana (UFPR) Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Brazilian National Program for Bio fuel Production has been encouraging diversification of feedstock for biofuel production. One of the most promising alternatives is the use of microalgae biomass for biofuel production. The cultivation of microalgae is conducted in aquatic systems, therefore microalgae oil production does not compete with agricultural land. Microalgae have greater photosynthetic efficiency than higher plants and are efficient fixing CO{sub 2}. The challenge is to reduce production costs, which can be minimized by increasing productivity and oil biomass. Aiming to increase the production of microalgae biomass, mixotrophic cultivation, with the addition of glycerol has been shown to be very promising. During the production of biodiesel from microalgae there is availability of glycerol as a side product of the transesterification reaction, which could be used as organic carbon source for microalgae mixotrophic growth, resulting in increased biomass productivity. In this paper, to study the effect of glycerol in experimental conditions, the batch culture of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was performed in a 2-liter flask in a temperature and light intensity controlled room. During 16 days of cultivation, the number of cells per ml was counted periodically in a Neubauer chamber. The calculation of dry biomass in the control experiment (without glycerol) was performed every two days by vacuum filtration. In the dry biomass mixotrophic experiment with glycerol concentration of 1.5 M, the number of cells was assessed similarly in the 10{sup th} and 14{sup th} days of cultivation. Through a volume element methodology, a mathematical model was written to calculate the microalgae growth rate. It was used an equation that describes the influence of irradiation and concentration of nutrients in the growth of microalgae. A simulation time of 16 days was used in the computations, with initial concentration of 0.1 g l{sup -1}. In order to compare

  3. Production of Microbial Transglutaminase on Media Made from Sugar Cane Molasses and Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Vázquez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Transglutaminase is an enzyme that catalyses an acyl transfer reaction between γ-carboxamide groups of glutaminyl residues and lysine residues in proteins. Due to this property, this enzyme is used for enhancing textural properties of protein-rich food. The transglutaminase used as food additive is obtained by microorganisms, mainly by Streptoverticillium ladakanum. On the other hand, sugar cane molasses is a viscous liquid rich in noncrystallized carbohydrates (saccharose, glucose and fructose. In this work, the feasibility of using sugar cane molasses as a carbon source for the production of microbial transglutaminase by Streptoverticillium ladakanum NRRL 3191 has been studied. Carbon sources including sugar cane molasses (60 g of total sugars per L, glycerol (60 g/L and their mixture in a ratio of 1:1 (30 g/L of each were evaluated. Time course of microbial growth, transglutaminase activity and carbon source consumption were determined every 24 h during 120 h of fermentations at three agitation speeds (200, 300 or 400 rpm. The results showed that with the increase in agitation speed, the biomass concentration increased up to 8.39 g/L in the medium containing sugar cane molasses alone or the mixture of molasses and glycerol. The highest transglutaminase activity was obtained at 400 rpm in the medium containing a mixture of molasses and glycerol, reaching 0.460 U/mL, while in the medium containing sugar cane molasses alone, the activity was 0.240 U/mL, and using glycerol alone it was 0.250 U/mL. These results show that sugar cane molasses is a suitable medium for transglutaminase production when it is combined with glycerol.

  4. The influence of using sonicator type to produce alcohol in the glycerol degradation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalla, Ruslan; Sumarno, S.; Mahfud., M.

    2017-05-01

    The last few years the energy crisis happens everywhere, not least in Indonesia. One reason is the need for fossil energy is increasing with the increasing population, in addition to the depletion of oil reserves on the Earth Indonesia. Therefore it takes a plant-based alternative energy, one of which is biodiesel. The transesterification process will produce primary products such as methyl ester and byproducts / waste in the form of about 10-15 % glycerol so that glycerol is quite abundant. This research aims to study the effect of the sonicator type (vibrating horn and cleaning bath) as well as the effect of γ-Al2O3 catalyst on the degradation of glycerol. The production process was conducted in a batch reactor equipped with an ultrasonic wave generator. Operating conditions of this study was the atmospheric pressure with mass ratio of glycerol water 1:10. The research variables were sonication temperature of 30 and 40 ° C, sonication time of 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90 minutes with and without the catalyst. Products of degradation were analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC). The results showed that, the products of degradation product (methanol and allyl alcohol) using a sonicator vibrating horn type were greater compared to using cleaning bath type sonicator. The glycerol conversion was 63.21 % at sonication time of 90 minutes, a temperature of 40 °C using γ-Al2O3 catalyst. While the greatest product yield was 18.17 % methanol at sonication time of 90 minutes, a temperature of 40 °C with the use of vibrating horn sonicator type, with the addition of γ-Al2O3 catalyst.

  5. Structure of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, an essential monotopic membrane enzyme involved in respiration and metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Joanne I.; Chinte, Unmesh; Du, Shoucheng (Pitt)

    2008-04-02

    Sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GlpD) is an essential membrane enzyme, functioning at the central junction of respiration, glycolysis, and phospholipid biosynthesis. Its critical role is indicated by the multitiered regulatory mechanisms that stringently controls its expression and function. Once expressed, GlpD activity is regulated through lipid-enzyme interactions in Escherichia coli. Here, we report seven previously undescribed structures of the fully active E. coli GlpD, up to 1.75 {angstrom} resolution. In addition to elucidating the structure of the native enzyme, we have determined the structures of GlpD complexed with substrate analogues phosphoenolpyruvate, glyceric acid 2-phosphate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, and product, dihydroxyacetone phosphate. These structural results reveal conformational states of the enzyme, delineating the residues involved in substrate binding and catalysis at the glycerol-3-phosphate site. Two probable mechanisms for catalyzing the dehydrogenation of glycerol-3-phosphate are envisioned, based on the conformational states of the complexes. To further correlate catalytic dehydrogenation to respiration, we have additionally determined the structures of GlpD bound with ubiquinone analogues menadione and 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, identifying a hydrophobic plateau that is likely the ubiquinone-binding site. These structures illuminate probable mechanisms of catalysis and suggest how GlpD shuttles electrons into the respiratory pathway. Glycerol metabolism has been implicated in insulin signaling and perturbations in glycerol uptake and catabolism are linked to obesity in humans. Homologs of GlpD are found in practically all organisms, from prokaryotes to humans, with >45% consensus protein sequences, signifying that these structural results on the prokaryotic enzyme may be readily applied to the eukaryotic GlpD enzymes.

  6. Criteria for Quick and Consistent Synthesis of Poly(glycerol sebacate) for Tailored Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinda; Hong, Albert T-L; Naskar, Nilanjon; Chung, Hyun-Joong

    2015-05-11

    Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) and its derivatives make up an attractive class of biomaterial owing to their tunable mechanical properties with programmable biodegradability. In practice, however, the application of PGS is often hampered by frequent inconsistency in reproducing process conditions. The inconsistency stems from the volatile nature of glycerol during the esterification process. In this study, we suggest that the degree of esterification (DE) can be used to predict precisely the physical status, the mechanical properties, and the degradation of the PGS materials. Young's modulus is shown to linearly increase with DE, which is in agreement with an entropic spring theory of rubbers. To provide a processing guideline for researchers, we also provide a physical status map as a function of curing temperature and time. The amount of glycerol loss, obtainable by monitoring the evolution of the total mass loss and the DE during synthesis, is shown to make the predictions even more precise. We expect that these strategies can be applicable to different categories of polymers that involve condensation polymerization with the volatility of the reactants. In addition, we demonstrate that microwave-assisted prepolymerization is a time- and energy-efficient pathway to obtain PGS. For example, 15 min of microwave time is shown to be as efficient as prepolymerization in nitrogen atmosphere for 6 h at 130 °C. The quick synthesis method, however, causes a severe evaporation of glycerol, resulting in a large distortion in the monomer ratio between glycerol and sebacic acid. Consequently, more rigid PGS is produced under a similar curing condition compared to the conventional prepolymerization method. Finally, we demonstrate that the addition of molecularly rigid cross-linking agents and network-structured inorganic nanoparticles are also effective in enhancing the mechanical properties of the PGS-derived materials.

  7. Glycerol as a carbon source for xantan production by Xanthomonas campestris isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Bojana Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of xanthan biosynthesis depends on several factors, most importantly the genetic potential of the production microorganism and cultivation media composition. Cultivation media composition affects the yield and quality of the desired product as well as production costs. This is why many studies focus on finding cheap alternative raw materials, especially carbon sources, to replace commercially used glucose and sucrose. In addition to the Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951 which is the primary industrial production microorganism, other Xanthomonas strains can produce xanthan as well. Under the same conditions, different strains produce different amounts of the biopolymer of varying quality. The aim of this paper is to compare producibility of phytopathogenic X. campestris strains, isolated from the environment with the reference X. campestris ATCC 13951 strain and to estimate the possibility of xanthan production using alternative glycerol-based media than the synthetic glucose-based media. Submerged cultivation on the medium based on glucose or glycerol (2.0 %w/v was performed using the reference strain and eight isolated X. campestris strains. In order to assess the success of biosynthesis, xanthan yield and rheological properties were determined. Strains isolated from the environment produced yields between 2.98 g/L and 12.17 g/L on the glucose-based medium and 1.68 g/L and 6.31 g/L on the glycerol-based medium. Additionally, X. campestris ATCC 13951 provided the highest yield when using glucose (13.24 g/L, as well as glycerol-based medium (7.44 g/L. The obtained results indicate that in the applied experimental conditions and using all tested strains, glycerol is viable as a carbon source for the production of xanthan.

  8. Life cycle assessment of hydrogen and power production by supercritical water reforming of glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galera, S.; Gutiérrez Ortiz, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The environmental performance of the supercritical water reforming (SCWR) of glycerol was assessed. • Biogenic CO 2 emissions allowed quantifying a realistic GHG inventory of 3.8 kg CO 2 -eq/kg H 2 . • The environmental profile of SCWR process was compared to those of other technologies. • A good environmental performance of H 2 and power production by SCWR of glycerol was obtained. - Abstract: The environmental performance of hydrogen and electricity production by supercritical water reforming (SCWR) of glycerol was evaluated following a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The heat-integrated process was designed to be energy self-sufficient. Mass and energy balances needed for the study were performed using Aspen Plus 8.4, and the environmental assessment was carried out through SimaPro 8.0. CML 2000 was selected as the life cycle impact assessment method, considering as impact categories the global warming, ozone layer depletion, abiotic depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication, acidification, and cumulative energy demand. A distinction between biogenic and fossil CO 2 emissions was done to quantify a more realistic GHG inventory of 3.77 kg CO 2 -eq per kg H 2 produced. Additionally, the environmental profile of SCWR process was compared to other H 2 production technologies such as steam methane reforming, carbon gasification, water electrolysis and dark fermentation among others. This way, it is shown that SCWR of glycerol allows reducing greenhouse gas emissions and obtaining a favorable positive life cycle energy balance, achieving a good environmental performance of H 2 and power production by SCWR of glycerol

  9. Halophilic biohydrogen and 1,3-propanediol production from raw glycerol: A genomic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivisto, A.

    2013-11-01

    Glycerol is produced in large amounts as a by-product in biodiesel industry (10 kg per 100 kg biodiesel). By-products and waste materials are typically economical substrates for bioprocesses. Furthermore, microorganisms are able to combine the degradation of organic material with production of a wide range of metabolites and other cellular products. The current biotechnological interest of industrial glycerol lies on bioprocesses yielding environmentally friendly energy carrier molecules (hydrogen, methane, ethanol, butanol) and reduced chemicals (1,3-propanediol, dihydroxyacetone). Industrial glycerol also called as raw or crude glycerol, however, is a challenging substrate for microorganisms due to its impurities including alcohol, soaps, salts and metals. Halophiles (the salt-loving microorganisms) require salt for growth and heavy metal resistances have been characterized for numerous halophiles. Therefore, halophiles are potentially useful for the utilization of raw glycerol from biodiesel waste streams without pre-processing. Another challenge for large-scale microbial bioprocesses is a potential contamination with unfavorable microorganisms. For example, H{sub 2}-producing systems tend to get contaminated with H{sub 2}-consuming microorganisms. Extremophiles are organisms that have been adapted for life under extreme conditions, such as high salinity, high or low temperature, asidic or basic pH, dryness or high pressure. For extremophilic pure cultures contamination and thus the need to ensure a sterile environment might not be a problem due to the extreme process conditions that efficiently prevent the growth of most other bacteria. In addition, hypersaline environments (above 12 % NaCl) do not support the growth of H{sub 2} utilizing methanogens due to bioenergetic reasons. Halophilic fermentative H{sub 2} producers, on the other hand, have been shown to be active up to near salt saturation. The aims of the present study can be divided into two categories

  10. Preliminary Evaluation of Glyceric Acid-producing Ability of Acidomonas methanolica NBRC104435 from Glycerol Containing Methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shun; Kitamoto, Dai; Habe, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    Some acetic acid bacteria produce large amounts of glyceric acid (GA) from glycerol in culture broth. However, methanol, which is a major contaminant of raw glycerol derived from the biodiesel fuel industry, sharply decreases cell growth and GA production [AMB Express, 3, 20, 2013]. Thus, we evaluated the methylotrophic acetic acid bacterium Acidomonas methanolica NBRC104435 for its ability to produce GA from glycerol containing methanol. This strain accumulated GA in its culture broth when 1-3 wt% glycerol was available as a carbon source. We observed improved cell growth and GA accumulation when 1 vol% methanol was added to the 3-5 wt% glycerol medium. The maximum concentration of GA was 12.8 g/L in medium containing 3 wt% glycerol plus 1 vol% methanol. In addition, the enantiomeric excess (ee) of the GA produced was revealed to be 44%, indicating that this strain converted glycerol to d-GA with a lower enantioselectivity than other acetic acid bacteria, which had 70-99% ee.

  11. Design and development of low cost polyurethane biopolymer based on castor oil and glycerol for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, A C W; Polo-Cambronell, B J; Provaggi, E; Ardila-Suárez, C; Ramirez-Caballero, G E; Baldovino-Medrano, V G; Kalaskar, D M

    2018-02-01

    In the current study, we present the synthesis of novel low cost bio-polyurethane compositions with variable mechanical properties based on castor oil and glycerol for biomedical applications. A detailed investigation of the physicochemical properties of the polymer was carried out by using mechanical testing, ATR-FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Polymers were also tested in short term in-vitro cell culture with human mesenchymal stem cells to evaluate their biocompatibility for potential applications as biomaterial. FTIR analysis confirmed the synthesis of castor oil and glycerol based PU polymers. FTIR also showed that the addition of glycerol as co-polyol increases crosslinking within the polymer backbone hence enhancing the bulk mechanical properties of the polymer. XPS data showed that glycerol incorporation leads to an enrichment of oxidized organic species on the surface of the polymers. Preliminary investigation into in vitro biocompatibility showed that serum protein adsorption can be controlled by varying the glycerol content with polymer backbone. An alamar blue assay looking at the metabolic activity of the cells indicated that castor oil based PU and its variants containing glycerol are non-toxic to the cells. This study opens an avenue for using low cost bio-polyurethane based on castor oil and glycerol for biomedical applications. © 2017 The Authors Biopolymers Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Physiological and genetic differences amongst Rhodococcus species for using glycerol as a source for growth and triacylglycerol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, O Marisa; Moncalián, Gabriel; Alvarez, Héctor M

    2016-02-01

    We analysed the ability of five different rhodococcal species to grow and produce triacylglycerols (TAGs) from glycerol, the main byproduct of biodiesel production. Rhodococcus fascians and Rhodococcus erythropolis grew fast on glycerol, whereas Rhodococcus opacus and Rhodococcus jostii exhibited a prolonged lag phase of several days before growing. Rhodococcus equi only exhibited poor growth on glycerol. R. erythropolis DSMZ 43060 and R. fascians F7 produced 3.9-4.3 g cell biomass l(-1) and 28.4-44.6% cellular dry weight (CDW) of TAGs after 6 days of incubation; whereas R. opacus PD630 and R. jostii RHA1 produced 2.5-3.8 g cell biomass l(-1) and 28.3-38.4% CDW of TAGs after 17 days of growth on glycerol. Genomic analyses revealed two different sets of genes for glycerol uptake and degradation (here named clusters 1 and 2) amongst rhodococci. Those species that possessed cluster 1 (glpFK1D1) (R. fascians and R. erythropolis) exhibited fast growth and lipid accumulation, whereas those that possessed cluster 2 (glpK2D2) (R. opacus, R. jostii and R. equi) exhibited delayed growth and lipid accumulation during cultivation on glycerol. Three glycerol-negative strains were complemented for their ability to grow and produce TAGs by heterologous expression of glpK2 from R. opacus PD630. In addition, we significantly reduced the extension of the lag phase and improved glycerol assimilation and oil production of R. opacus PD630 when expressing glpK1D1 from R. fascians. The results demonstrated that rhodococci are a flexible and amenable biological system for further biotechnological applications based on the reutilization of glycerol.

  13. Inhibition Effect of Glycerol on the Corrosion of Copper in NaCl Solutions at Different pH Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Lorenzo Chi-Ucán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effect of glycerol on copper corrosion in aerated NaCl (0.5 M solutions at three pH values (4, 7, and 10 was evaluated. Inhibition efficiency was assessed with conventional electrochemical techniques: open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance analysis. Glycerol reduced the corrosion rate of copper in NaCl solutions. The best inhibition effect (η≈83% was produced in alkaline (pH 10 chloride media. This effect can be ascribed to increased viscosity and the presence of copper-glycerol complexes.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of aliphatic polyesters from glycerol, by-product of biodiesel production, and adipic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel de Meireles Brioude

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, polyesters were prepared from the polycondensation between glycerol and adipic acid using dibutyltin dilaurate as catalyst. Three glycerol: adipic acid molar ratio were used for the bulk polymerization namely: 2:2; 2:3 and 2:4. FTIR confirmed the esterification of glycerol by the acid for all the polymers. DSC and XRD indicated no crystallinity for all the polymers. The morphology of the materials are characterized by globular structure, which may suggest compositional fluctuations throughout the samples.

  15. Glycerol: a brief history and their application in stereoselective syntheses; Glicerol: um breve historico e aplicacao em sinteses estereosseletivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatriz, Adilson; Araujo, Yara J.K.; Lima, Denis Pires de, E-mail: adilson.beatriz@ufms.b [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (DQ/UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    Presently glycerol is considered a co-product of biodiesel industry. As the biodiesel production is exponentially increasing, glycerol generated from the transesterification of vegetable oils and fats is also being produced on a large scale, and turned out to be essential seeking for novel alternatives to the consumption of the extra volume, in crude and/or as derivatives high added value. This review mainly deals with chemical and enzymatic transformations of glycerol to obtain chiral building blocks for synthesis of pharmaceuticals and natural products. (author)

  16. NaCl and KCl effect on (vapour + liquid) equilibrium of binary, ternary and quaternary systems involving water, ethanol and glycerol at low pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faggion, Heron; Gaschi, Paola S.; Corazza, Marcos L.; Cardozo-Filho, Lucio; Igarashi-Mafra, Luciana; Mafra, Marcos R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Salt effects on VLE data of systems present on biodiesel production, mainly in glycerol purification, are shown. • NaCl effect was not observed in the system {ethanol + NaCl + glycerol}. • Salting-out and salting-in effects were simultaneously observed in ternary systems. • VLE were also obtained for the quaternary system {water + ethanol + NaCl + glycerol}. - Abstract: Isobaric (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data at pressures of (14.0 to 91.2) kPa over the whole composition range were measured for binary systems of (ethanol + glycerol), (water + NaCl) and (water + KCl). Moreover, ternary systems (glycerol + ethanol + NaCl), (glycerol + water + NaCl) and (glycerol + water + KCl) and quaternary system of (water + ethanol + NaCl + glycerol) were measured at 91.2 kPa. All data were obtained using a Othmer-type ebulliometer. Due to the low solubility of NaCl in ethanol, it was not observed the salt effect on the VLE for the system (ethanol + NaCl + glycerol). The presence of salt (NaCl or KCl) increased the boiling point of water, and this effect was less pronounced at lower pressures, probably due to the low resistance to volatilization at such pressures. Simultaneous salting-in and salting-out effect were observed in the systems (water + NaCl + glycerol) and (water + KCl + glycerol), which is characterized in literature as a anomalous behaviour.

  17. Hydrogen Production via Glycerol Dry Reforming over La-Ni/Al2O3 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kah Weng Siew

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol (a bio-waste generated from biodiesel production has been touted as a promising bio-syngas precursor via reforming route. Previous studies have indicated that carbon deposition is the major performance-limiting factor for nickel (Ni catalyst during glycerol steam reforming. In the current paper, dry (CO2-reforming of glycerol, a new reforming route was carried out over alumina (Al2O3-supported non-promoted and lanthanum-promoted Ni catalysts. Both sets of catalysts were synthesized via wet co-impregnation procedure. The physicochemical characterization of the catalyst showed that the promoted catalyst possessed smaller metal crystallite size, hence higher metal dispersion compared to the virgin Ni/Al2O3 catalyst. This was also corroborated by the surface images captured by the FESEM analysis. In addition, BET surface area measurement gave 92.05m²/g for non-promoted Ni catalyst whilst promoted catalysts showed an average of 1 to 6% improvement depending on the La loading. Reaction studies at 873 K showed that glycerol dry reforming successfully produced H2 with glycerol conversion and H2 yield that peaked at 9.7% and 25% respectively over 2wt% La content. The optimum catalytic performance by 2%La-Ni/Al2O3 can be attributed to the larger BET surface area and smaller crystallite size that ensured accessibility of active catalytic sites.  © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 12nd May 2013; Revised: 7th October 2013; Accepted: 16th October 2013[How to Cite: Siew, K.W., Lee, H.C., Gimbun, J., Cheng, C.K. (2013. Hydrogen Production via Glycerol Dry Reforming over La-Ni/Al2O3 Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (2: 160-166. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.2.4874.160-166][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.2.4874.160-166

  18. Selective Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol and Crude Glycerol (a By-Product or Waste Stream from the Biodiesel Industry to 1,2-Propanediol over B2O3 Promoted Cu/Al2O3 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaya R. Nanda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of boron oxide (B2O3-promoted Cu/Al2O3 catalyst in the selective hydrogenolysis of glycerol and crude glycerol (a by-product or waste stream from the biodiesel industry to produce 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO was investigated. The catalysts were characterized using N2-adsorption-desorption isotherm, Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES, X-ray diffraction (XRD, ammonia temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, temperature programmed reduction (TPR, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Incorporation of B2O3 to Cu/Al2O3 was found to enhance the catalytic activity. At the optimum condition (250 °C, 6 MPa H2 pressure, 0.1 h−1 WHSV (weight hourly space velocity, and 5Cu-B/Al2O3 catalyst, 10 wt% aqueous solution of glycerol was converted into 1,2-PDO at 98 ± 2% glycerol conversion and 98 ± 2% selectivity. The effects of temperature, pressure, boron addition amount, and liquid hourly space velocity were studied. Different grades of glycerol (pharmaceutical, technical, or crude glycerol were used in the process to investigate the stability and resistance to deactivation of the selected 5Cu-B/Al2O3 catalyst.

  19. Effect of glycerol treatment on the calcium current of frog skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri, L N; Sánchez, J A; Stefani, E

    1980-08-01

    1. Current and voltage clamp experiments were carried out on frog skeletal muscle fibres. For voltage clamp, the three micro-electrode technique near the fibre end was used. 2. Calcium spikes and currents were recorded in TEA sulphate saline. The addition of 400 mM-glycerol did not appreciably modify them. 3. Muscle fibers were detubulated with the glycerol method. They showed sodium propagating action potentials, with sodium and potassium currents of expected amplitudes. 4. Calcium spikes and currents were reduced or abolished in detubulated muscle fibres. 5. An analysis of fibre capacitance showed a linear correlation between the remaining ICa and the degree of electric discontinuity between the transverse tubular system and the surface membrane. 6. These results indicate that ICa is mainly located in the transverse tubular system. This localization is compatible with some role during mechanical activation.

  20. A Biodegradable Thermoset Polymer Made by Esterification of Citric Acid and Glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Jeffrey M.; Urbanski, Richard; Weinstock, Allison K.; Iwig, David F.; Mathers, Robert T.; von Recum, Horst

    2014-01-01

    A new biomaterial, a degradable thermoset polymer, was made from simple, economical, biocompatable monomers without the need for a catalyst. Glycerol and citric acid, non-toxic and renewable reagents, were crosslinked by a melt polymerization reaction at temperatures from 90-150°C. Consistent with a condensation reaction, water was determined to be the primary byproduct. The amount of crosslinking was controlled by the reaction conditions, including temperature, reaction time, and ratio between glycerol and citric acid. Also, the amount of crosslinking was inversely proportional to the rate of degradation. As a proof-of-principle for drug delivery applications, gentamicin, an antibiotic, was incorporated into the polymer with preliminary evaluations of antimicrobial activity. The polymers incorporating gentamicin had significantly better bacteria clearing of Staphylococcus aureus compared to non-gentamicin gels for up to nine days. PMID:23737239

  1. Enhanced enzymatic saccharification of pretreated biomass using glycerol thermal processing (GTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Barone, Justin R; Renneckar, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Biomass was heated (200-240°C) in the presence of glycerol, for 4-12 min, under shear to disrupt the native cell wall architecture. The impact of this method, named glycerol thermal processing (GTP), on saccharification efficiency of the hardwood Liquidambar styraciflua, and a control cellulose sample was studied as a function of treatment severity. Furthermore, the enzymatic conversion of samples with varying compositions was studied after extraction of the structural polymers. Interestingly, the sweet gum processed materials crystallinity index increased by 10% of the initial value. The experiments revealed that the residual lignin was not a barrier to limiting the digestibility of cellulose after pretreatment yielding up to 70% glucose based on the starting wood material. Further xylan removal greatly improved the cellulose hydrolysis rate, converting nearly 70% of the cellulose into glucose within 24h, and reaching 78% of ultimate glucan digestibility after 72 h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oxidative dehydration of glycerol to acrylic acid over vanadium-impregnated zeolite beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, Carolina F.M.; Guerra, Antonio C.O.; Turci, Cassia C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Glaucio B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Mota, Claudio J.A., E-mail: cmota@iq.ufrj.br [INCT Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    The oxidative dehydration of glycerol to acrylic acid was studied over vanadium-impregnated zeolite Beta. Catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation of ammonium metavanadate over ammonium-exchanged zeolite Beta, followed by air calcination at 823 K. Impregnation reduced the specific surface area, but did not significantly affected the acidity (Bronsted and Lewis) of the zeolites. The catalytic evaluation was carried out in a fixed bed flow reactor using air as the carrier and injecting glycerol by means of a syringe pump. Acrolein was the main product, with acetaldehyde and hydroxy-acetone (acetol) being also formed. Acrylic acid was formed with approximately 25% selectivity at 548 K over the impregnated zeolites. The result can be explained by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) measurements, which indicated a good dispersion of the vanadium inside the pores. (author)

  3. Coupling of glycerol processing with Fischer-Tropsch synthesis for production of liquid fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonetti, D.A.; Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Kunkes, E.L.

    2007-01-01

    Liquid alkanes can be produced directly from glycerol by an integrated process involving catalytic conversion to H-2/CO gas mixtures (synthesis gas) combined with Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Synthesis gas can be produced at high rates and selectivities suitable for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (H-2/CO......, acetone, and acetol. Fischer -Tropsch synthesis experiments at 548 K and 5 bar over a Ru-based catalyst reveal that water, ethanol, and acetone in the synthesis gas feed have only small effects, whereas acetol can participate in Fischer -Tropsch chain growth, forming pentanones, hexanones, and heptanones...... in the liquid organic effluent stream and increasing the selectivity to C5+ alkanes by a factor of 2 ( from 0.30 to 0.60). Catalytic conversion of glycerol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were coupled in a two-bed reactor system consisting of a Pt-Re/C catalyst bed followed by a Ru/TiO2 catalyst bed...

  4. Data on glycerol/tartaric acid-based copolymer containing ciprofloxacin for wound healing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. De Giglio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This data article is related to our recently published research paper “Exploiting a new glycerol-based copolymer as a route to wound healing: synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility assessment", De Giglio et al. (Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 136 (2015 600–611 [1]. The latter described a new copolymer derived from glycerol and tartaric acid (PGT. Herein, an investigation about the PGT-ciprofloxacin (CIP interactions by means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR acquired in Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR mode and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC was reported. Moreover, CIP release experiments on CIP-PGT patches were performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC at different pH values.

  5. Monitoring of monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, ethanol and glycerol during wort fermentation by biosensors, HPLC and spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monošík, Rastislav; Magdolen, Peter; Stredanský, Miroslav; Šturdík, Ernest

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze sugar levels (namely maltose, maltotriose, glucose and fructose) and alcohols (ethanol and glycerol) during the fermentation process in wort samples by amperometric enzymatic biosensors developed by our research group for industrial application, HPLC and spectrophotometry, and to compare the suitability of the presented methods for determination of individual analytes. We can conclude that for the specific monitoring of maltose or maltotriose only the HPLC method was suitable. On the other hand, biosensors and spectrophotometry reflected a decrease in total sugar concentration better and were able to detect both glucose and fructose in the later stages of fermentation, while HPLC was not. This can be attributed to the low detection limits and good sensitivity of the proposed methods. For the ethanol and glycerol analysis all methods proved to be suitable. However, concerning the cost expenses and time analysis, biosensors represented the best option. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Crude glycerol from biodiesel industry as substrate for biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylane de Sousa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol, a co-product of the biodiesel industry, may be a suitable raw material for the production of high added-value compounds by the microorganisms. This study aimed to use the glycerol obtained from the biodiesel production process as the main carbon source for biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. Results indicated that the strain lowered the surface tension of the cell-free fermented broth to 31.5 ± 1.6 mN/m, indicating the production of biosurfactant. The critical micelle concentration (CMC = 33.6 mN/m obtained was similar to the previously reported for biossurfactants isolated from other Bacillus. The produced biosurfactant was able to emulsify n-hexadecane and soybean oil.

  7. Exploring the behaviour of water in glycerol solutions by using delayed luminescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Grasso

    Full Text Available The crucial role of water in the engine of life have encouraged many researchers in studying, both theoretically and experimentally, the possible "structure" of water. Many properties of water have been related to the interplay between two distinct and interconverting structural species, namely the low-density water (LDW and the high-density water (HDW. Supported by the results obtained with other aqueous solutions, this paper deals with the possibility of using the ultra-weak delayed luminescence (DL to investigate water structuring in a mixture with glycerol, characterized only by hydrogen bonds between the various molecules. Spectral and temporal characteristics of DL decays give information on the two components of the mixture, by evidencing the contribution of water at glycerol concentrations close to the values used in cryopreservation. DL results have shown a correlation with LDW clusters size as determined by other researchers on the basis of neutron diffraction experiments and computational modelling, as reported in Literature.

  8. Oxidative dehydration of glycerol to acrylic acid over vanadium-impregnated zeolite beta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestana, Carolina F.M.; Guerra, Antonio C.O.; Turci, Cassia C.

    2013-01-01

    The oxidative dehydration of glycerol to acrylic acid was studied over vanadium-impregnated zeolite Beta. Catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation of ammonium metavanadate over ammonium-exchanged zeolite Beta, followed by air calcination at 823 K. Impregnation reduced the specific surface area, but did not significantly affected the acidity (Bronsted and Lewis) of the zeolites. The catalytic evaluation was carried out in a fixed bed flow reactor using air as the carrier and injecting glycerol by means of a syringe pump. Acrolein was the main product, with acetaldehyde and hydroxy-acetone (acetol) being also formed. Acrylic acid was formed with approximately 25% selectivity at 548 K over the impregnated zeolites. The result can be explained by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) measurements, which indicated a good dispersion of the vanadium inside the pores. (author)

  9. An Effective Method of Continuous Production of Erythritol from Glycerol by Yarrowia lipolytica MK1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rakicka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the potential applicability of the UV mutant Yarrowia lipolytica MK1 for the valorisation of glycerol and erythritol production in a chemostat culture. The aim of this research is to investigate the optimal C:N ratio in the feeding medium in order to enhance erythritol production. The highest erythritol concentration, at 113.1 g/L with a volumetric erythritol production rate of 1.1 g/(L·h and a yield of 0.57 g/g, was obtained in the feeding medium with a C:N ratio of 80:1. Moreover, no residual glycerol was observed in the culture broth during cultivation. The chemical composition of the biomass was analysed. The contents of lysine and threonine in the biomass protein amino acid profile were higher than those required by the FAO/WHO for fodder yeast.

  10. Valorisation of crude glycerol through biological conversion into bioplastics and biofuels in the frame of an FP7 project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varrone, Cristiano; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    for 2011 was over 8.6 million metric tons, but to date an effective use for the glycerol derived from biodiesel production does not exist on the market. In fact, even though high purity glycerol can be used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry, crude glycerol derived from biodiesel production has...... is the valorisation of glycerol streams generated during the biodiesel production process, using microbial mixed culture (MMC) technology. The use of bioconversion into high-value products represents a promising route to achieve economic viability in the biofuel industry. Until now there have been several studies...... will be tested and kinetics of the process will be studied. Moreover, scale-up to a larger bioreactor will be performed using an Applikon 20 L pilot plant bioreactor. The milestone is to reach an ethanol concentration of at least 40g/L and a hydrogen production of at least 3.5 L H2/L/d. European dimension...

  11. Prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria for the alcohol + glycerol systems using UNIFAC and modified UNIFAC (Dortmund)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanto, Dhoni; Mustain, Asalil; Nugroho, Febry Dwi

    2017-03-01

    The vapor-liquid equilibria for eight systems of alcohols + glycerol at 101.325 kPa have been predicted in this study using UNIFAC and Modified UNIFAC (Dortmund) group contribution methods. The investigated alcohols were methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol. In order to study the accuracy of both contribution methods, the predicted data obtained from both approaches were compared to the experimental data from the literature. The prediction accuracy using modified UNIFAC (Dortmund) give better results compared to the UNIFAC method for (ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol) + glycerol but UNIFAC method show better accuracy for methanol + glycerol system. In addition, the influences of carbon chain length on the phase behaviours of alcohol + glycerol systems were also discussed as well.

  12. Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol to Propylene Glycol on Nanosized Cu-Zn-Al Catalysts Prepared Using Microwave Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Won; Ha, Sang Ho; Moon, Myung Jun; Lim, Kwon Taek; Ryu, Young Bok; Lee, Sun Do; Lee, Man Sig; Hong, Seong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Cu-Zn-Al catalysts were prepared using microwave-assisted process and co-precipitation methods. The prepared catalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, XPS and TPD of ammonia and their catalytic activity for the hydrogenolysis of glycerol to propylene glycol was also examined. The XRD patterns of Cu/Zn/Al mixed catalysts show CuO and ZnO crystalline phase regardless of preparation method. The highest glycerol hydrogenolysis conversion is obtained with the catalyst having a Cu/Zn/Al ratio of 2:2:1. Hydrogen pre-reduction of catalysts significantly enhanced both glycerol conversions and selectivity to propylene glycol. The glycerol conversion increased with an increase of reaction temperature. However, the selectivity to propylene glycol increased with an increase of temperature, and then declined to 30.5% at 523 K.

  13. Seasonal shifts in accumulation of glycerol biosynthetic gene transcripts in mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordie D. Fraser

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Winter mortality is a major factor regulating population size of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. Glycerol is the major cryoprotectant in this freeze intolerant insect. We report findings from a gene expression study on an overwintering mountain pine beetle population over the course of 35 weeks. mRNA transcript levels suggest glycerol production in the mountain pine beetle occurs through glycogenolytic, gluconeogenic and potentially glyceroneogenic pathways, but not from metabolism of lipids. A two-week lag period between fall glycogen phosphorylase transcript and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase transcript up-regulation suggests that gluconeogenesis serves as a secondary glycerol-production process, subsequent to exhaustion of the primary glycogenolytic source. These results provide a first look at the details of seasonal gene expression related to the production of glycerol in the mountain pine beetle.

  14. [Synthesis of surfactants acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5070 in the medium with glycerol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirog, T P; Shevchuk, T A; Konon, A D; Shuliakova, M A; Iutinskaia, G A

    2012-01-01

    It was established that glycerol, a byproduct of biodiesel production, may be used as substrate for synthesis of surfactants Rhodococcus erythropolis IMV Ac-5017 and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus IMV B-7241. Maximum indices of surfactants synthesis by the strain IMV B-7241 have been fixed, when the medium with glycerol included yeast autolysate and trace elements. It was shown that the surfactants synthesis could be intensified when cultivating A. calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 and R. erythropolis IMV Ac-5017 on the mixture of hexadecane and glycerol in concentration of 0.5-1.0% (in volume). When using inoculate grown on hexadecane, the conditional concentration of the surfactant A.calcoaceticus IMV B-7241 on the mixed substrate was higher by 56-100, and that of R. erythropolis IMVAc-5017 by 260-320 % than on the monosubstrate glycerol. The paper is presented in Russian.

  15. High quality potassium phosphate production through step-by-step glycerol purification: a strategy to economize biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javani, Azita; Hasheminejad, Meisam; Tahvildari, Kambiz; Tabatabaei, Meisam

    2012-01-01

    The cost of biodiesel production can be reduced by a number of strategies such as utilization of waste cooking oils and non-edible plant oils as well as implementation of improved separation technologies. In addition, processes dealing with the glycerol by-product can have economic benefits. In the present study, acidification of crude glycerol with phosphoric acid to pH 9.67 followed by acidification to 4.67 was implemented to produce high quality potassium phosphate during glycerol purification. KH(2)PO(4), K(2)HPO(4), glycerol and free fatty acids (FFAs) with a purity of 98%, 98.05%, 96.08% and 99.58% were obtained, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Locally Applied Glycerol and Xylitol on the Hydration, Barrier Function and Morphological Parameters of the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korponyai, Csilla; Szél, Edit; Behány, Zoltán; Varga, Erika; Mohos, Gábor; Dura, Ágnes; Dikstein, Shabtay; Kemény, Lajos; Erős, Gábor

    2017-02-08

    Glycerol and xylitol hydrate the skin and improve its barrier function over a short period. We studied the effects of glycerol and xylitol on the physiological properties and morphology of the skin after longer-term application. Twelve volunteers with dry skin were examined. Three areas on the arms were determined. Area 1 served as untreated control. The vehicle was applied to area 2, while area 3 was treated twice daily with a formulation containing glycerol (5%) and xylitol (5%) for 14 days. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), hydration and biomechanical properties of the skin were monitored. Biopsies were taken for routine histology and immunohistochemistry for filaggrin and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). The polyols increased the skin hydration and protein quantity of filaggrin, elevated the interdigitation index, decreased the TEWL and improved the biomechanical properties of the skin, but did not change the protein expression of MMP-1. A combination of glycerol and xylitol can be useful additional therapy for dry skin.

  17. Comparison of the effect of glycerol and triamcinolone acetonide on cumulative skin irritation in a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: So-called anti-irritants are added to cosmetic formulations because of their alleged beneficial effect on irritated skin. Documentation for these claims is often limited. However, glycerol has shown anti-irritant properties in experimentally induced irritation from sodium lauryl sulfate...... and nonanoic acid (NON). This study was designed to further substantiate that glycerol added to cosmetic formulations has an anti-irritant effect on experimentally induced skin irritation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare glycerol with triamcinolone acetonide as treatments for cutaneous irritation in human....... The treatments (including vehicle and no treatment) were randomized to sites using a Latin square design. The reactions were evaluated clinically and instrumentally. LIMITATIONS: Study was designed to only detect potent anti-irritants. CONCLUSION: Glycerol reduced the irritant effect of both sodium lauryl...

  18. New insights into Escherichia coli metabolism: carbon scavenging, acetate metabolism and carbon recycling responses during growth on glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Gómez Karla

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycerol has enhanced its biotechnological importance since it is a byproduct of biodiesel synthesis. A study of Escherichia coli physiology during growth on glycerol was performed combining transcriptional-proteomic analysis as well as kinetic and stoichiometric evaluations in the strain JM101 and certain derivatives with important inactivated genes. Results Transcriptional and proteomic analysis of metabolic central genes of strain JM101 growing on glycerol, revealed important changes not only in the synthesis of MglB, LamB and MalE proteins, but also in the overexpression of carbon scavenging genes: lamB, malE, mglB, mglC, galP and glk and some members of the RpoS regulon (pfkA, pfkB, fbaA, fbaB, pgi, poxB, acs, actP and acnA. Inactivation of rpoS had an important effect on stoichiometric parameters and growth adaptation on glycerol. The observed overexpression of poxB, pta, acs genes, glyoxylate shunt genes (aceA, aceB, glcB and glcC and actP, suggested a possible carbon flux deviation into the PoxB, Acs and glyoxylate shunt. In this scenario acetate synthesized from pyruvate with PoxB was apparently reutilized via Acs and the glyoxylate shunt enzymes. In agreement, no acetate was detected when growing on glycerol, this strain was also capable of glycerol and acetate coutilization when growing in mineral media and derivatives carrying inactivated poxB or pckA genes, accumulated acetate. Tryptophanase A (TnaA was synthesized at high levels and indole was produced by this enzyme, in strain JM101 growing on glycerol. Additionally, in the isogenic derivative with the inactivated tnaA gene, no indole was detected and acetate and lactate were accumulated. A high efficiency aromatic compounds production capability was detected in JM101 carrying pJLBaroGfbrtktA, when growing on glycerol, as compared to glucose. Conclusions The overexpression of several carbon scavenging, acetate metabolism genes and the absence of acetate

  19. Meta-analysis of studies comparing adjuvant dexamethasone to glycerol to improve clinical outcome of bacterial meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Vaziri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurological complications are a problematic factor in acute bacterial meningitis; hence, its prevention is the key to ensure the success of meningitis treatment. Glycerol and dexamethasone are both applied in this regard. Oral glycerol is an appropriate alternative instead of intravenous dexamethasone because it does not have problems related to intravenous injection, the high cost, and drug complications. The main objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of adjuvant dexamethasone versus glycerol in order to improve the clinical outcome of bacterial meningitis. Materials and Methods: We conducted a search on the available resources including PubMed, Ovid, Elsevier, Cochrane, and another search engines such as Google till 2014. All clinical trials that were performed in the field of comparing the effectiveness of the two drugs and met the inclusion criteria were gathered and after extraction the relative risk (RR values, the pooled RR was calculated. The main outcome was neurological complications. Meta-analysis of the data was performed in Stata version 11.2 using both fixed and random effect models, weighting each study by inverse of variance. Results: In 5 comparative studies (1,340 patients, the rate of neurological complications of glycerol compared to that of dexamethasone was 1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI, 0.98 compared to 1.12]. The rate of neurological complications of dexamethasone compared to dexamethasone + glycerol was 1 (95% CI, 0.97 compared to 1.03, dexamethasone compared to placebo was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.97 compared to 1.03, glycerol compared to glycerol + dexamethasone was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.94 compared to 1.02, and glycerol compared to placebo was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.94 compared to 1.01. In these studies, no difference was reported between dexamethasone and glycerol in terms of reducing neurological complications. Conclusion: Although there were some weak evidences for the nonstatistical significant effect of

  20. A comparative study on glycerol metabolism to erythritol and citric acid in Yarrowia lipolytica yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Ludwika; Rakicka, Magdalena; Rymowicz, Waldemar; Rywińska, Anita

    2014-09-01

    Citric acid and erythritol biosynthesis from pure and crude glycerol by three acetate-negative mutants of Yarrowia lipolytica yeast was investigated in batch cultures in a wide pH range (3.0-6.5). Citric acid biosynthesis was the most effective at pH 5.0-5.5 in the case of Wratislavia 1.31 and Wratislavia AWG7. With a decreasing pH value, the direction of biosynthesis changed into erythritol synthesis accompanied by low production of citric acid. Pathways of glycerol conversion into erythritol and citric acid were investigated in Wratislavia K1 cells. Enzymatic activity was compared in cultures run at pH 3.0 and 4.5, that is, under conditions promoting the production of erythritol and citric acid, respectively. The effect of pH value (3.0 and 4.5) and NaCl presence on the extracellular production and intracellular accumulation of citric acid and erythritol was compared as well. Low pH and NaCl resulted in diminished activity of glycerol kinase, whereas such conditions stimulated the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The presence of NaCl strongly influenced enzymes activity - the effective erythritol production was correlated with a high activity of transketolase and erythrose reductase. Therefore, presented results confirmed that transketolase and erythrose reductase are involved in the overproduction of erythritol in the cells of Y. lipolytica yeast. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synergistic Effect of Gelatin and Glycerol on Electrodeposition of Zn-Ni Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vaishaka R.; Hegde, Ampar Chitharanjan

    2013-10-01

    The use of organic compounds which improves corrosion resistance has attracted growing interest in electroplating technology. In this direction, this article presents the experimental results of electrodeposition of Zn-Ni alloy on mild steel (MS) from acid chloride bath using gelatin and glycerol as additives. The bath composition and operating parameters have been optimized by the conventional Hull cell method. The effect of gelatin and glycerol, individually and in combination on the deposition process, was identified by a cyclic voltammetry (CV) study at different scan rates. Bright deposition of Zn-Ni alloy was found at optimal current density (c.d.) due to the preferential deposition of gelatin and glycerol by controlling the Ni content of the alloy. The CV study demonstrated that alloy deposition is diffusion controlled when additives were used individually and is adsorption controlled when used in combination. Corrosion behaviors at different current densities (c.d.s) were evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance (EIS) methods. The surface morphology and phase structure of the coatings were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The experimental results revealed that both gelatin and glycerol have synergistic effects in improving the electrocrystallization process and, hence, the corrosion stability of the coatings. At an optimal c.d. (3.0 A dm-2), the Zn-Ni alloy coating showed peak performance against corrosion with the least corrosion rate. Better corrosion protection at optimal c.d., which was attributed to specific Zn(101), γ-(411,330), and Zn(103) reflections, is evidenced by the XRD study.

  2. ROS generation and multiple forms of mammalian mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mráček, Tomáš; Holzerová, Eliška; Drahota, Zdeněk; Kovářová, Nikola; Vrbacký, Marek; Ješina, Pavel; Houštěk, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1837, č. 1 (2014), s. 98-111 ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP303/10/P227; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 750213 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase * ROS production * supercomplex * in-gel ROS detection Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.353, year: 2014

  3. Variants of glycerol dehydrogenase having D-lactate dehydrogenase activity and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingzhao; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal

    2017-08-29

    The present invention provides methods of designing and generating glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH) variants that have altered function as compared to a parent polypeptide. The present invention further provides nucleic acids encoding GlyDH polypeptide variants having altered function as compared to the parent polypeptide. Host cells comprising polynucleotides encoding GlyDH variants and methods of producing lactic acids are also provided in various aspects of the invention.

  4. Application of Cement Clinker as Ni-Catalyst Support for Glycerol Dry Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Chyn Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in biodiesel production inevitably yield plethora of glycerol. Therefore, glycerol has been touted as the most promising source for bio-syngas (mixture of H2 and CO production. Significantly, coking on nickel-based catalysts has been identified as a major deactivation factor in reforming technology. Indeed, coke-resistant catalyst development is essential to enhance syngas production. The current work develops cement clinker (comprised of 62.0% calcium oxide-supported nickel catalyst (with metal loadings of 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt% for glycerol dry reforming (CO2. Physicochemical characterization of the catalysts was performed using XRD, XRF, BET, TGA and FESEM-EDS techniques. Subsequently, reaction studies were conducted in a 7-mm ID fixed-bed stainless steel reactor at 1023 K with various CO2 partial pressures at constant weight-hourly space velocity (WHSV of 7.2×104 ml gcat-1 h-1. Gas compositions were determined using Agilent 3000 micro-gas chromatography (GC and Lancom III gas analyzer. Results obtained showed an increment of BET surface area up to 32-fold with Ni loading which was corroborated by FESEM images. Syngas (H2 and CO ratios of less than 2 were being produced at 1023 K. A closer scrutiny to the transient profile revealed that the presence of CO2 higher or lower than CGR 1:1 promotes the Boudouard reaction. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 30th May 2013; Revised: 27th August 2013; Accepted: 11st September 2013[How to Cite: Lee, H.C., Siew, W.K., Cheng, C.K. (2013. Preparation Application of Cement Clinker as Ni-Catalyst Support for Glycerol Dry Reforming. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (2: 137-144. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.2.5023.137-144][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.2.5023.137-144

  5. Glucose turnover, gluconeogenesis from glycerol, and estimation of net glucose cycling in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundholm, K.; Edstroem, S.; Karlberg, I.; Ekman, L.; Schersten, T.

    1982-01-01

    A double isotope method was used in patients with progressive malignancy and in control patients to measure: glucose turnover, conversion rate of carbon skeleton of glycerol into glucose, and the interorgan cycling of glucose carbons (Cori-cycle plus alanine-glucose cycle). [U- 14 C]glycerol and [6- 3 H]glucose were given intravenously as a single dose injection. The time course of the specific radioactivities of [6- 3 H] and [U- 14 C]glucose was followed in blood. The pool size and the turnover rate of glucose were increased in the cancer group as compared with the control patients. The net recycling of glucose carbons was not increased in the cancer group, despite the increased turnover of glucose. The alterations in the metabolism of glucose did not correlate with the plasma levels of insulin or thyroid hormones (T4, T3, rT3) neither in the entire cancer group nor in those cancer patients who were repeatedly investigated at different intervals of time. The turnover rate of glucose in the cancer patients correlated inversely to their body weight index. The gluconeogenesis rate, given as the fractional conversion rate of the injected radioactive dose of [ 14 C]glycerol, or as mol glucose . kg body weight-1 . day-1, was increased in the cancer group, but still contributed only 3% of the glucose turnover rate in both cancer and control patients. We conclude that an increased gluconeogenesis from glycerol is not significant in terms of energy expenditure in patients with progressive malignancy, as has previously been concluded for the gluconeogenesis from alanine. It seems that increased turnover of glucose may contribute to inappropriately high energy expenditure in cancer patients

  6. Production and characterization of polyhydroxybutyrate from Vibrio harveyi MCCB 284 utilizing glycerol as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandas, S P; Balan, L; Lekshmi, N; Cubelio, S S; Philip, R; Bright Singh, I S

    2017-03-01

    Production and characterization of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from moderately halophilic bacterium Vibrio harveyi MCCB 284 isolated from tunicate Phallusia nigra. Twenty-five bacterial isolates were obtained from tunicate samples and three among them exhibited an orange fluorescence in Nile red staining indicating the presence of PHB. One of the isolates, MCCB 284, which showed rapid growth and good polymer yield, was identified as V. harveyi. The optimum conditions of the isolate for the PHB production were pH 8·0, sodium chloride concentration 20 g l -1 , inoculum size 0·5% (v/v), glycerol 20 g l -1 and 72 h of incubation at 30°C. Cell dry weight (CDW) of 3·2 g l -1 , PHB content of 2·3 g l -1 and final PHB yield of 1·2 g l -1 were achieved. The extracted PHB was characterized by FTIR, NMR and DSC-TGA techniques. An isolate of V. harveyi that could effectively utilize glycerol for growth and PHB accumulation was obtained from tunicate P. nigra. PHB produced was up to 72% based on CDW. This is the first report of an isolate of V. harveyi which utilizes glycerol as the sole carbon source for PHB production with high biomass yield. This isolate could be of use as candidate species for commercial PHB production using glycerol as the feed stock or as source of genes for recombinant PHB production or for synthetic biology. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Effect of the Glycerol and Lignin Extracted from Piassava Fiber in Cassava and Corn Starch Films

    OpenAIRE

    Souza de Miranda,Cleidiene; Ferreira,Marina Santos; Magalhães,Mariana Tibo; Gonçalves,Ana Paula Bispo; Carneiro de Oliveira,Jamerson; Guimarães,Danilo Hansen; José,Nadia Mamede

    2015-01-01

    Several alternatives have been considered to minimize the environmental impact caused by conventional polymers. This study aims to evaluate the chemical, mechanical and morphological properties of flexible thermoplastic films of cassava and corn starch, using glycerol and lignin as plasticizers and reinforcement. The films were produced through casting. It was observed that the presence of lignin effectively increased the maximum stress and the elastic modulus by about of 840% and 4200%, resp...

  8. Sources of deactivation during glycerol conversion on Ni/γ-Al 2 O 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chimenton, Ricardo J.; Chimentao, Ricardo J.; Miranda, Barbara C.; Szanyi, Janos; Sepulveda, C.; Santos, Joao Batista O.; Correa, J. V.; Llorca, Jordi; Medina, Francesc

    2017-07-01

    Hydrogenolysis of glycerol was studied using a diluted aqueous solution of glycerol in gas phase and atmospheric pressure on Ni/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. The catalytic transformation of glycerol generates products derived from dehydration, dehydrogenation, hydrogenolysis and condensation reactions. Deep hydrogenolysis route to produce CH4 prevails in the first few hours of reaction. As the reaction time progress, dehydration-dehydrogenation products start to appear. Here, a description of the deactivation sources and its effects on the catalytic performance of Ni catalyst was proposed. The catalyst was characterized before and after the catalytic reaction by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and by employing Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of adsorbed CO. A source of deactivation was due to carbonaceous deposition. FTIR at low CO dosing pressure reveal bands assignments species essentially due to linear and bridge carbonyls, whereas high pressure CO dosing produces a complex spectra due to polycarbonyls. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis was employed to reveal the initial degree of reduction of the fresh catalyst. The oxidation of metallic Ni in the course of reaction may also be considered as a source of deactivation. Ni oxide species promote dehydration routes. Alumina support facilitates nickel species to be more active toward interacting with glycerol. Dehydration, which takes place on the acid sites, is the mainly route related to the generation of carbon deposition and to the observed catalyst deactivation. Another source of deactivation was due to carbiding of Ni to form Ni3C. The regeneration of used Ni catalyst was achieved by oxidation-reduction steps at 723 K.

  9. Biodiesel Reactor Design with Glycerol Separation to Increase Biodiesel Production Yield

    OpenAIRE

    Budy Rahmat; Imas Siti Setiasih; Roni Kastaman

    2013-01-01

    The study consisted of reactor design used for transesterification process, effect of glycerol separation ontransesterification reaction, determination of biodiesel quality, and mass balance analysis. The reactor was designed byintegrating circulated pump/stirrer, static mixer, and sprayer that intensify the reaction in the outer tank reactor. The objective was to reduce the use of methanol in excess and to shorten the processing time. The results showed that thereactor that applied the glyce...

  10. Human platelets frozen with glycerol in liquid nitrogen: biological and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herve, P; Potron, G; Droule, C; Beduchaud, M P; Masse, M; Coffe, C; Bosset, J F; Peters, A

    1981-01-01

    Platelets were frozen using glycerol (3% in plasma) as a cryoprotective agent, a rapid cooling rate, and liquid nitrogen for storage. The cryopreserved platelets were thawed at 42 C and infused without washing. The results indicate that the quality of the thawed platelets is equivalent to platelets stored for 24 to 48 hours at room temperature. The availability of HLA phenotyped leukocyte poor platelets can reduce the frequency of sensitization to strong antigens and provide clinically effective platelets for alloimmunized patients.

  11. Effects of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) on the glycerol-induced acute renal failure in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun Joong; Moon, Myoung E; Park, Haeng Soon; Kim, Hyun Woo; Im, Shun Young; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Young Ho

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of chitosanoligosaccharide (COS) on the change of inflammatory response, renal function factor, and renal oxidative stress in glycerol-induced ARF in vitro and in vivo. The molecular weight of COS was approximately below 10 kDa with 90% degree of deacetylation. Renal proximal tubular cells were treated with only COS (0, 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1%) or COS in the presence of glycerol (4mM). And rats were administered with glycerol (50%, 8 ml/kg) by intramuscular injection for the induction of ARF. For identification the protection effect of COS in the glycerol-induced ARF, rats were administered by COS (0.05 and 0.1%) using P.O. injection. The enzymatic activity of the released RDPase was assayed by the fluorometric method. The level of TNF-alpha in kidney or the culture medium was quantified using ELISA kit (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, USA) and, nitrite concentration was determined by the Griess reaction. We showed that COS stimulated the production of TNF-alpha, NO and the released RDPase. Glycerol increased the concentration of RDPase in kidney and decreased the released RDPase in proximal tubular cells. And, glycerol increased the production of NO, TNF-alpha, creatinine, and MDA, and decreased SOD. However, COS recovered the glycerol-induced inflammatory response, renal function factor, and antioxidant effect in kidney. COS had the antioxidant activity and the anti-inflammatory effect. And maybe that characteristics could help recover the glycerol-induced ARF.

  12. Tartronate semialdehyde reductase defines a novel rate-limiting step in assimilation and bioconversion of glycerol in Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glycerol is a by-product of biodiesel production. Currently, it has limited applications with low bioconversion efficiency to most metabolites reported. This is partly attributed to the poor knowledge on the glycerol metabolic pathway in bacteria and fungi. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have established a fast screening method for identification of genes that improve glycerol utilization in Ustilago maydis. This was done by comparing the growth rates of T-DNA tagged mutant colonies on solid medium using glycerol as the sole carbon source. We present a detailed characterization of one of the mutants, GUM1, which contains a T-DNA element inserted into the promoter region of UM02592 locus (MIPS Ustilago maydis database, MUMDB, leading to enhanced and constitutive expression of its mRNA. We have demonstrated that um02592 encodes a functional tartronate semialdehyde reductase (Tsr1, which showed dual specificity to cofactors NAD(+ and NADP(+ and strong substrate specificity and enantioselectivity for D-glycerate. Improved glycerol assimilation in GUM1 was associated with elevated expression of tsr1 mRNA and this could be phenocopied by over-expression of the gene. Glycolipid accumulation was reduced by 45.2% in the knockout mutant whereas introduction of an extra copy of tsr1 driven by the glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase promoter increased it by 40.4%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that tartronate semialdehyde reductase (TSR plays an important role in glycerol assimilation in U. maydis and defines a novel target in genetic engineering for improved conversion of glycerol to higher value products. Our results add significant depth to the understanding of the glycerol metabolic pathway in fungi. We have demonstrated, for the first time, a biological role of a eukaryotic TSR.

  13. Hydrolysis and transesterification of parabens in an aqueous solution in the presence of glycerol and boric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Oldrich Farsa; Jan Subert; Marie Marečkova

    2011-01-01

    In a solution containing 0.067% methylparaben, 0.033% propylparaben, 3.4% glycerol and 2.0% boric acid, concentrations of both parabens, 4 hydroxybenzoic acid and 2,3-dihydroxypropyl 4-hydroxybenzoate were monitored for up to 68 months storage. 4-hydroxybenzoic acid is the main hydrolysis product of parabens, while 2,3-dihydroxypropyl 4 hydroxybenzoate was proposed as the main product of transesterification of parabens with glycerol. Results of an HPLC evaluation of parabens, 4-hydroxybenzoic...

  14. Combined effects of sulfites, temperature, and agitation time on production of glycerol in grape juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, N; Rodrigue, N; Champagne, C P

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the simultaneous effects of strain, incubation temperature (15 to 25 degrees C), agitation time (0 to 24 h), and initial sulfite concentration (100 to 300 ppm) on glycerol production in grape juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fourteen strains were studied to determine their growth patterns in the presence of sulfites and ethanol. Baker's yeast strains were more sensitive to sulfite than wine strains, and little growth occurred at initial sulfite levels greater than 150 ppm. Sensitivity to sulfite increased with increasing levels of ethanol. Three strains exhibiting the best growth in the presence of sulfites and ethanol were selected for interaction studies. Fermentations were carried out until the solids content had decreased to less than 6 degrees Brix, which was the point that glycerol content became stable. For the three strains used, the greatest level of glycerol production was observed in the presence of 300 ppm of sulfite for most incubation temperatures and agitation times. There was significant interaction between the strain, incubation temperature, and agitation time parameters for glycerol synthesis, and a response surface method was used to predict the optimal conditions for glycerol production. Under static conditions, the highest level of glycerol production was observed at 20 degrees C, while incubation at 25 degrees C gave the best results when the cultures were agitated for 24 h. Response surface equations were used to predict that the optimum conditions for glycerol production by S. cerevisiae Y11 were a temperature of 22 degrees C, an initial sulfite concentration of 300 ppm, and no agitation, which yielded 0.68 g of glycerol per 100 ml. PMID:8357243

  15. Slow dynamics in glycerol: collective de Gennes narrowing and independent angstrom motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Makina, E-mail: msaito@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Masuda, Ryo; Kurokuzu, Masayuki; Kitao, Shinji [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute (Japan); Yoda, Yoshitaka [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (Japan); Seto, Makoto [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    The slow dynamics of microscopic density correlations in supercooled glycerol was studied by time-domain interferometry using {sup 57}Fe-nuclear resonant scattering gamma rays of synchrotron radiation. The dependence of the relaxation time at 250 K on the momentum transfer q is maximum near the first peak of the static structure factor S(q) at q ∼ 15 nm {sup −1}. The q-dependent behavior of the relaxation time known as de Gennes narrowing was confirmed in glycerol. Conversely, de Gennes narrowing around the second and third peaks of S(q) at q ∼ 26 nm {sup −1} and 54 nm {sup −1} was not detected. The q dependence of the relaxation time was found to follow a power-law equation with power-law index of 1.9(2) in the q region well above the first peak of S(q) up to ∼ 60 nm {sup −1}, which corresponds to angstrom scale, within experimental error. This suggests that in the angstrom-scale dynamics of supercooled glycerol, independent motions dominate over collective motion.

  16. Assessment of Tree Leaves Flakes Mixed with Crude Glycerol as a Bioenergy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hilal-AlNaqbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The gasification and combustion of dry tree leaves and the cogasification of dry tree leaves soaking crude glycerol were studied experimentally. An updraft fixed bed gasification and combustion system was built. The operation was conducted at different air to fuel ratios. Results show more stable combustion and more effective heat transfer to furnace walls for the cases when tree leaves flakes are mixed with 20 percent (on mass basis of crude glycerol, as compared with the case when only dry tree leaves are used as fuel. TGA analysis was also conducted for the two fuels used under both air and nitrogen environments. For the crude glycerol, four phases of pyrolysis and gasification were noticed under either of the two surrounding gaseous media (air or nitrogen. For the dry tree leaves, the pyrolysis under nitrogen shows only a simple smooth pyrolysis and gasification curve without showing the different distinct phases that were otherwise identified when the pyrolysis is conducted under air environment. Moreover, the air TGA results lead to more gasification due to the char oxidation at high temperatures. DTG results are also presented and discussed.

  17. Assessment of Tree Leaves Flakes Mixed with Crude Glycerol as a Bioenergy Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal-AlNaqbi, Ali; Al-Omari, Salah B; Selim, Mohamed Y E

    2016-01-01

    The gasification and combustion of dry tree leaves and the cogasification of dry tree leaves soaking crude glycerol were studied experimentally. An updraft fixed bed gasification and combustion system was built. The operation was conducted at different air to fuel ratios. Results show more stable combustion and more effective heat transfer to furnace walls for the cases when tree leaves flakes are mixed with 20 percent (on mass basis) of crude glycerol, as compared with the case when only dry tree leaves are used as fuel. TGA analysis was also conducted for the two fuels used under both air and nitrogen environments. For the crude glycerol, four phases of pyrolysis and gasification were noticed under either of the two surrounding gaseous media (air or nitrogen). For the dry tree leaves, the pyrolysis under nitrogen shows only a simple smooth pyrolysis and gasification curve without showing the different distinct phases that were otherwise identified when the pyrolysis is conducted under air environment. Moreover, the air TGA results lead to more gasification due to the char oxidation at high temperatures. DTG results are also presented and discussed.

  18. Enhancement of transdermal delivery of glycerol by micro-needling method combined with sonophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jinhee; Park, Donghee; Son, Taeyoon; Seo, Jongbum; Jung, Byungjo

    2009-02-01

    The light does not penetrate deeply into the skin tissue because of tissue turbidity. Light penetration depth in skin tissue can be increased by using optical clearing agents such as glycerol, glucose and dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO). The stratum corneum prevents most optical skin clearing agent from diffusing into the tissue. Previous studies demonstrated the optical tissue clearing effect using optical clearing agents and presented several physical methods to improve transdermal delivery of optical clearing agents. In previous study, we introduced a micro-needling method to enhance optical clearing efficacy against skin barrier and suggested quantitative analysis method to evaluate the optical tissue clearing efficacy. In this study, we present a new physical micro-needling method combined with sonophoresis to further enhance the optical tissue clearing efficacy. The optical tissue clearing effect was quantitatively evaluated with a modulation transfer function target placed under ex-vivo porcine skin samples. To improve transdermal delivery of glycerol, 70% glycerol solution as optimal concentration was topically applied. In conclusion, the samples treated with micro-needling method and sonophoresis resulted in noticeable optical tissue clearing effect.

  19. Biopolymer production using fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius and glycerol as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaíssa Rodrigues Araújo

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated extracellular production of biopolymer using fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius and glycerol as a carbon source. Initially employing conical flasks of 500 mL containing 100 mL of cultive medium with 0.18 ± 0.03 g.L–1 of microorganisms, the results showed that the best conditions of the variables studied were: initial concentration of glycerol 50 g.L–1, fermentation time of 96 h, inoculum cultivation time of 120 h, and aeration in two stages–the first 24 hours without aeration and 72 hours fermentation with aeration of 2 vvm and 2 g.L–1 of yeast extract. The experiments conducted in a Biostat B fermenter with a 2.0 L capacity that contained 1.0 L of medium showed production of 16.35 g.L–1 gum formed and 75% glycerol consumption. These conditions produced a biopolymer with the molecular weight and total sugar content of 4.607×106 g.mol–1 (Da and 89.5%, respectively.

  20. Designation of highly efficient catalysts for one pot conversion of glycerol to lactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Meilin; Dan Zhang; Guan, Hongyu; Huang, Guohui; Wang, Xiaohong

    2016-07-01

    Production of lactic acid from glycerol is a cascade catalytic procedure using multifunctional catalysts combined with oxidative and acidic catalytic sites. Therefore, a series of silver-exchanged phosphomolybdic acid catalysts (AgxH3-xPMo12O40, x = 1 ~ 3, abbreviated as AgxPMo) was designed and applied in glycerol oxidation with O2 as an oxidant to produce lactic acid (LA) without adding any base. Among all, total silver exchanged phosphomolybdic acid (Ag3PMo) was found to be the most active one with LA selectivity of 93% at 99% conversion under mild conditions of 5 h at 60 °C. The exceptionally high efficiency was contributed to the generation of strong Lewis acid sites, enhanced redox potentials and water-tolerance. More importantly, Ag3PMo was tolerant in crude glycerol from biodiesel production. And the reaction mechanism was also discussed. Meanwhile, Ag3PMo acted as a heterogeneous catalyst for 12 recycles without loss of activity.

  1. Long-term monodigestion of crude glycerol in a UASB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutňan, Miroslav; Kolesárová, Nina; Bodík, Igor; Czölderová, Marianna

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss the experience from long-term operation of a laboratory UASB reactor inoculated with suspended or granulated biomass for the treatment of different kinds of crude glycerol in undiluted or diluted state. The UASB reactor was operated under mesophilic conditions. It was demonstrated that the anaerobic treatment of crude glycerol as the only substrate in the UASB reactor is feasible, although the specific inhibition effects and requirements resulting from the nature and composition of the g-phase have to be considered. Deficient concentrations of nutrients had to be compensated by their supplementation into the digester. Long-term microbiological treatment of undiluted crude glycerol led to the process inhibition due to the accumulation of dissolved inorganic salts. When dosing diluted g-phase previously treated by acidulation, very good removal efficiency of COD, stable biogas production and high share of methane in the biogas were observed at the organic loading rates of up to 12kg/(m(3)d). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Peculiarities of glucose and glycerol metabolism in Nocardia vaccinii IMB B-7405

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Pirog

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that in cells of Nocardia vaccinii IMB B-7405 (surfactant producer glucose catabolism is performed through pentose phosphate cycle as well as through gluconate (activi­ty of NAD+-dependent glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase and FAD+-dependent glucose dehydrogenase 835 ± 41 and 698 ± 35 nmol∙min-1∙mg-1 of protein respectively. 6-Phosphogluconate formed in the gluconokinase reaction is involved in the pentose phosphate cycle (activity of constitutive NADP+-dependent 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase 357 ± 17 nmol∙min-1∙mg-1 of protein. Glyce­rol catabolism to dihydroxyacetonephosphate (the intermediate of glycolysis may be performed in two ways: through glycerol-3-phosphate (glycerol kinase activity 244 ± 12 nmol∙min-1∙mg-1 of protein and through dihydroxyacetone. Replenishment of the C4-dicarboxylic acids pool in N. vaccinii IMV B-7405 grown on glucose and glycerol occurs in the phosphoenolpyruvate(PEPcarboxylase reaction (714–803 nmol∙min-1∙mg-1 of protein. 2-Oxoglutara­te was involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle by alternate pathway with the participation of 2-oxoglutarate synthase. The observed activity of both key enzymes of gluconeogenesis (PEP- carboxykinase and PEP-synthase, trehalose phosphate synthase and NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase confirmed the ability of IMV B-7405 strain to the synthesis of surface active glyco- and aminolipids, respectively.

  3. Impact of glycerol and nitrogen concentration on Enterobacter A47 growth and exopolysaccharide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Cristiana A V; Marques, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Ana R V; Antunes, Sílvia; Grandfils, Christian; Freitas, Filomena; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-11-01

    Enterobacter A47 produces a fucose-containing exopolysaccharide (EPS) by cultivation in mineral medium supplemented with glycerol. EPS synthesis by Enterobacter A47 was shown to be influenced by both the initial glycerol and nitrogen concentrations and by the nutrients' feeding rate during the fed-batch phase. Initial nitrogen concentrations above 1.05g/L were detrimental for EPS synthesis: the productivity was reduced to 0.35-0.62g/Ld (compared to 1.89-2.04g/Ld under lower nitrogen concentrations) and the polymer had lower fucose content (14-17%mol, compared to 36-38%mol under lower nitrogen concentrations). On the other hand, EPS productivity was improved to 5.66g/Ld by increasing the glycerol and nitrogen feeding rates during the fed-batch phase. However, the EPS thus obtained had lower fucose (26%mol) and higher galactose (34%mol) contents, as well as lower average molecular weight (7.2×10(5)). The ability of Enterobacter A47 to synthesize EPS with different physico-chemical characteristics may be useful for the generation of biopolymers with distinct functional properties suitable for different applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Tribological Properties of Aluminum Nanoparticles as Additives in an Aqueous Glycerol Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Nguyen-Anh Le

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this research is to investigate the tribological properties of glycerol lubricant with aluminum nanoparticles as an additive and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS as the dispersive medium for iron to iron friction using a thrust collar tribotester. Meanwhile, the effects of different concentrations of aluminum nanoparticles, SDS, and deionized water in glycerol on tribology properties of iron to iron friction were studied. The experimental parameters were set up according to the Taguchi technique, their influence on the coefficient of friction (COF and wear rate were examined by response surface methodology (RSM and analysis of variance (ANOVA methods. The analysis results were employed to optimize the parameters to obtain the best lubricant effects. The optimal combination of the parameters for both minimum COF and wear rate was found to be 0.6667 weight percent (wt % of aluminum nanoparticles, 2 wt % of SDS, and 10 wt % of deionized water content of glycerol. The wear surface topography and the average roughness of the surface were also examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM and a Mitutoyo Surftest SJ-400 instrument. The results show that aluminum nanoparticles used as an additive in lubricant reduce the surface roughness of a collar remarkably. The energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS was utilized to confirm the deposition of aluminum nanoparticles on the collar surface leading to decreased friction and wear.

  5. Optimization of catalytic glycerol steam reforming to light olefins using Cu/ZSM-5 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, Z.Y.; Amin, N.A.S.; Linnekoski, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Glycerol steam reforming to light olefin using Cu/ZSM-5 process was optimized. • Response surface methodology and multi-objective genetic algorithm were employed. • Second order polynomial model produced adequately fitted experimental data. • Thermodynamic study inferred high temperature requirement for ethylene formation. • Turn-over-frequency at optimized responses is higher than the non-optimized process. - Abstract: Response surface methodology (RSM) and multi-objective genetic algorithm was employed to optimize the process parameters for catalytic conversion of glycerol, a byproduct from biodiesel production, to light olefins using Cu/ZSM-5 catalyst. The effects of operating temperature, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) and glycerol concentration on light olefins selectivity and yield were observed. Experimental results revealed the data adequately fitted into a second-order polynomial model. The linear temperature and quadratic WHSV terms gave significant effect on both responses. Optimization of both the responses indicated that temperature favouring high light olefin formation lied beyond the experimental design range. The trend in the temperature profile concurred commensurately with the thermodynamic analysis. Multi-objective genetic algorithm was performed to attain a single set of processing parameters that could produce both the highest light olefin selectivity and yield. The turn-over-frequency (TOF) of the optimized responses demonstrated a slightly higher value than the one which was not optimized. Combination of RSM, multi-objective response and thermodynamic is useful to determine the process optimal operating conditions for industrial applications

  6. 1-Monoglyceride production from lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol and fatty acid in reverse micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, D G; Gulari, E

    1991-08-20

    Glycerol-fatty acid esterification has been conducted with lipase from R. delemar in water/AOT/isooctane reverse micellar media, with the major product being 1-monoglyceride, a useful food-emulsifier. 1,3-diglyceride was also synthesized, but to a much lesser extent. For a given set of initial conditions, the reaction productivity, measured in terms of the initial product formation rate, V(0), and the final or equilibrium concentration of product, is optimal for a particular concentration of each surfactant, fatty acid, glycerol, and water. Many of these optimal values correlate well with a "critical" region on the phase diagram. Also, results indicate lipase-catalyzed esterification stops due to the achievement of kinetic equilibrium expect for a few cases where enzyme deactivation is severe. Dynamic light scattering was employed to examine the influence of water, glycerol, and fatty acid on micellar and interfacial structure. Results from this technique indicate enzyme kinetic are linked to interfacial phenomena and the presence of substrates at the interfacial region.

  7. Biosurfactants production by yeasts using soybean oil and glycerol as low cost substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Raphael Accorsini

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are bioactive agents that can be produced by many different microorganisms. Among those, special attention is given to yeasts, since they can produce many types of biosurfactants in large scale, using several kinds of substrates, justifying its use for industrial production of those products. For this production to be economically viable, the use of residual carbon sources is recommended. The present study isolated yeasts from soil contaminated with petroleum oil hydrocarbons and assessed their capacity for producing biosurfactants in low cost substrates. From a microbial consortium enriched, seven yeasts were isolated, all showing potential for producing biosurfactants in soybean oil. The isolate LBPF 3, characterized as Candida antarctica, obtained the highest levels of production - with a final production of 13.86 g/L. The isolate LBPF 9, using glycerol carbon source, obtained the highest reduction in surface tension in the growth medium: approximately 43% of reduction after 24 hours of incubation. The products obtained by the isolates presented surfactant activity, which reduced water surface tension to values that varied from 34 mN/m, obtained from the product of isolates LBPF 3 and 16 LBPF 7 (respectively characterized as Candida antarctica and Candida albicans to 43 mN/m from the isolate LPPF 9, using glycerol as substrate. The assessed isolates all showed potential for the production of biosurfactants in conventional sources of carbon as well as in agroindustrial residue, especially in glycerol.

  8. Glycerol salicylate-based containing α-tricalcium phosphate as a bioactive root canal sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, Fernando F; Collares, Fabrício M; Dos Santos, Luís A; dos Santos, Bruno P; Camassola, Melissa; Leitune, Vicente C B; Samuel, Susana M W

    2015-11-01

    The use of bioactive materials instead of inert materials to fill the root canal space could be an effective approach to achieve a hermetic seal and stimulate the healing of periapical tissues. The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize an endodontic sealer based on a glycerol salicylate resin and α-tricalcium phosphate (αTCP) at physical and chemical properties. Different sealers were formulated using 70% of a glycerol salicylate resin and 30% of a mixture of calcium hydroxide and αTCP (0, 5, 10, or 15%, in weight). Sealers formulated were characterized based on setting time, in vitro degradation over time, pH, cytotoxicity, and mineral deposition. Sealers presented setting time ranging from 240 to 405 min, and basic pH over 8.21 after 28 days. Higher αTCP concentration leads to sealers with low solubility. Cell viability after 48 h in direct contact with sealers was similar to a commercial sealer used as reference. The 10% and 15% αTCP sealers exhibited a calcium-phosphate layer on the surface after immersion in water and SBF for 7 days. Glycerol salicylate sealers with 10% and 15% α-tricalcium phosphate showed reliable physical-chemical properties and apatite-forming ability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Biosurfactants production by yeasts using soybean oil and glycerol as low cost substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accorsini, Fábio Raphael; Mutton, Márcia Justino Rossini; Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes Macedo; Benincasa, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Biosurfactants are bioactive agents that can be produced by many different microorganisms. Among those, special attention is given to yeasts, since they can produce many types of biosurfactants in large scale, using several kinds of substrates, justifying its use for industrial production of those products. For this production to be economically viable, the use of residual carbon sources is recommended. The present study isolated yeasts from soil contaminated with petroleum oil hydrocarbons and assessed their capacity for producing biosurfactants in low cost substrates. From a microbial consortium enriched, seven yeasts were isolated, all showing potential for producing biosurfactants in soybean oil. The isolate LBPF 3, characterized as Candida antarctica, obtained the highest levels of production - with a final production of 13.86 g/L. The isolate LBPF 9, using glycerol carbon source, obtained the highest reduction in surface tension in the growth medium: approximately 43% of reduction after 24 hours of incubation. The products obtained by the isolates presented surfactant activity, which reduced water surface tension to values that varied from 34 mN/m, obtained from the product of isolates LBPF 3 and 16 LBPF 7 (respectively characterized as Candida antarctica and Candida albicans) to 43 mN/m from the isolate LPPF 9, using glycerol as substrate. The assessed isolates all showed potential for the production of biosurfactants in conventional sources of carbon as well as in agroindustrial residue, especially in glycerol.

  10. Modeling and Robustness Analysis of Biochemical Networks of Glycerol Metabolism by Klebsiella Pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianxiong; Feng, Enmin; Wang, Lei; Xiu, Zhilong; Sun, Yaqin

    Glycerol bioconversion to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) by Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) can be characterized by an intricate network of interactions among biochemical fluxes, metabolic compounds, key enzymes and genetic regulatory. To date, there still exist some uncertain factors in this complex network because of the limitation in bio-techniques, especially in measuring techniques for intracellular substances. In this paper, among these uncertain factors, we aim to infer the transport mechanisms of glycerol and 1,3-PD across the cell membrane, which have received intensive interest in recent years. On the basis of different inferences of the transport mechanisms, we reconstruct various metabolic networks correspondingly and subsequently develop their dynamical systems (S-systems). To determine the most reasonable metabolic network from all possible ones, we establish a quantitative definition of biological robustness and undertake parameter identification and robustness analysis for each system. Numerical results show that it is most possible that both glycerol and 1,3-PD pass the cell membrane by active transport and passive diffusion.

  11. Producing fuel alcohol by extractive distillation: Simulating the process with glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Uyazán

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Downstream separation processes in biotechnology form part of the stages having most impact on a product’s final cost. The tendency throughout the world today is to replace fossil fuels with those having a renewable origin such as ethanol; this, in turn, produces a demand for the same and the need for optimising fermentation, treating vinazas and dehydration processes. The present work approaches the problem of dehydration through simulating azeotropic ethanol extractive distillation using glycerol as separation agent. Simulations were done on an Aspen Plus process simulator (Aspen Tech version 11.1. The simulated process involves two distillation columns, a dehydrator and a glycerol recuperation column. Simulation restrictions were ethanol’s molar composition in dehydrator column distillate and the process’s energy consumption. The effect of molar reflux ratio, solvent-feed ratio, solvent entry and feed stage and solvent entry temperature were evaluated on the chosen restrictions. The results showed that the ethanol-water mixture dehydration with glycerol as separation agent is efficient from the energy point of view.

  12. A one-pot glycerol-based additive-blended ethyl biodiesel production: a green process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Fabio G; Macedo, Alexandra; Archilha, Marcos Vinicios L R; Wendler, Edison P; Dos Santos, Alcindo A

    2013-09-01

    N-methyl-2-pyrrolidonium methyl sulfonate, a Brønsted acid ionic liquid, promoted the transesterification of soybean oil with ethanol giving a high quality fatty acid ethyl ester. At the end of the reaction, after distillation of excess of ethanol, spontaneous phase separation took place. While the clear upper phase corresponded to the ethyl ester, the lower phase was composed of a mixture of glycerol byproduct and the catalyst. By addition of a stoichiometric amount of appropriated reagents to the resulting mixture, a new ionic liquid-catalyzed process allows the conversion of the glycerol into less polar derivatives, and consequent migration to the ethyl esters phase. This work demonstrated that emulsion, phase separation and contamination problems were completely avoided and the glycerol could be incorporated into the biodiesel as additives in a single step. The whole process involves two renewable starting materials, ethanol and vegetable oil, allowing a total green additive-blended biodiesel production process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reexamination of the evolution of the dynamic susceptibility of the glass former glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adichtchev, S; Blochowicz, T; Tschirwitz, C; Novikov, V N; Rössler, E A

    2003-07-01

    The dielectric data of glycerol compiled by Lunkenheimer et al. [Contemp. Phys. 41, 15 (2000)] are reanalyzed within a phenomenological approach on the one hand, and within mode coupling theory (MCT), on the other. We present a complete interpolation of the dielectric data covering 17 decades in frequencies. The crossover temperature extracted from the phenomenological analysis of the slow response at low temperatures and defined by the emergence of the excess wing upon cooling agrees well with the critical temperature extracted from a MCT analysis of the dynamics at high temperatures including data that were not used in the first MCT analysis of glycerol by Lunkenheimer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 318 (1996)]. The crossover temperature is found to be T(c)=288+/-3 K, which is significantly higher than previously reported. Extracting the nonergodicity parameter f, the characteristic anomaly is only found when 1-f is inspected, since f is very close to 1. No difference for the evolution of the dynamic susceptibility is observed for the nonfragile system glycerol with respect to fragile glass formers provided that the evolution of the dynamics is studied as a function of the correlation time tau(alpha).

  14. Non-Catalytic and MgSO4 - Catalyst based Degradation of Glycerol in Subcritical and Supercritical Water Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfud Mahfud

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the glycerol degradation reaction in subcritical and supercritical water media. The degradation of glycerol into other products was performed both with sulphate salt catalysts and without catalyst. The reactant was made from glycerol and water with the mass ratio of 1:10. The experiments were carried out using a batch reactor at a constant pressure of 250 kgf/cm2, with the temperature range of 200-400oC, reaction time of 30 minutes, and catalyst mol ratio in glycerol of 1:10 and 1:8. The products of the non-catalytic glycerol degradation were acetaldehyde, methanol, and ethanol. The use of sulphate salt as catalyst has high selectivity to acetaldehyde and still allows the formation alcohol product in small quantities. The mechanism of ionic reaction and free radical reaction can occur at lower temperature in hydrothermal area or subcritical water. Conversion of glycerol on catalytic reaction showed a higher yield when compared with the reaction performed without catalyst

  15. Conversion of 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerols to platelet activating factor and related phospholipids by rabbit platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, M.L.; Lee, T.; Cress, E.A.; Malone, B.; Fitzgerald, V.; Snyder, F.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolic pathway for 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerols, a recently discovered biologically active neutral lipid class, was elucidated in experiments conducted with rabbit platelets. The total lipid extract obtained from platelets incubated with 1-[1-,2- 3 H]alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerols or 1-alkyl-2-[ 3 H]acetyl-sn-glycerols contained at least six metabolic products. The six metabolites, identified on the basis of chemical and enzymatic reactions combined with thin-layer or high-performance liquid chromatographic analyses, corresponded to 1-alkyl-sn-glycerols, 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphates, 1-alkyl-2-acyl(long-chain)-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamines, 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamines, 1-alkyl-2-acyl(long-chain)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholines, and 1-alkyl-2-actyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholines (platelet activating factor). These results indicate that the metabolic pathway for alkylacetylglycerols involves reaction steps catalyzed by the following enzymatic activities: choline- and ethanolamine- phosphotransferases, acetyl-hydrolase, an acyltransferase, and a phosphotransferase. The step responsible for the biosynthesis of platelet activating factor would appear to be the most important reaction in this pathway and this product could explain the hypotensive activities previously described for alkylacetyl-(or propionyl)-glycerols. Of particular interest was the preference exhibited for the utilization of the 1-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol species in the formation of platelet activating factor

  16. Value-adding conversion and volume reduction of sewage sludge by anaerobic co-digestion with crude glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Kensuke; Kimura, Chie; Fujimoto, You; Tokumoto, Hayato

    2017-05-01

    In this study, conversion of sewage sludge to biogas by anaerobic co-digestion with crude glycerol was examined. When 0.126g/L crude glycerol was added to the reactor, only methane was produced. Upon addition of 5.04g/L crude glycerol, hydrogen production occurred, and a significant amount of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) was generated in the liquid phase. On day 6, the dry weight was largely composed of organic acids (48%) and 1,3-PDO (17%), which are water-soluble. Degradation of 1,3-PDO was very slow, which is advantageous for recovery. Crude glycerol, which contains alkaline substances, promoted organic matter degradation by microorganisms, which possibly affected biogas and 1,3-PDO production. Addition of 0.630-2.52g/L glycerol initially led to hydrogen production, followed by methane production a few days later, which stabilized within 1week. In conclusion, adjustment of the crude glycerol concentration allows controllable conversion to value-added products for co-digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of crude and pure glycerol on biomass production and trehalose accumulation by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlicka-Kaczorowska, Joanna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    The dairy propionibacteria, which are traditionally used for the production of Swiss cheeses, are able to synthesize valuable biomolecules, e.g. B group vitamins, propionic acid, and trehalose with unique chemical and physical properties. Both, dairy propionibacteria cells and trehalose, have found many applications as attractive and effective components in food, beauty and health care products. This study confirmed the ability of several strains from the Propionibacterium genus to create trehalose from glycerol. The research aimed to investigate the effect of crude and pure glycerol on biomass production and on trehalose accumulation by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii 1. The results indicated that the capacity for trehalose accumulation by Propionibacterium spp. was strain dependent. Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii 1 was able to grow on crude glycerol. For both, pure and crude glycerol, the highest amount of dry biomass leveled off at about 4 g/L. While the use of crude glycerol had no effect on the final concentration of biomass, it reduced the accumulation of trehalose in the cells. An increase in the concentration of carbon source (2-8%) resulted in more than a 5-fold rise in trehalose production. The highest trehalose concentration of 195.04 mg/L was obtained with cultures of the said strain supplemented to 8% with pure glycerol.

  18. Investigation of the kinetics and mechanism of the glycerol chlorination reaction using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUN WANG

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a primary by-product in biodiesel production, glycerol can be used to prepare an important fine chemical, epichlorohydrin, by the glycerol chlorination reaction. Although this process has been applied in industrial production, unfortunately, less attention has been paid to the analysis and separation of the compounds in the glycerol chlorination products. In this study, a convenient and accurate method to determine the products in glycerol chlorination reaction was established and based on the results the kinetic mechanism of the reaction was investigated. The structure of main products, including 1,3--dichloropropan-2-ol, 2,3-dichloropropan-1-ol, 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol, 2-chloro-1,3-propanediol and glycerol was ascertained by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and the isomers of the products were distinguished. Apidic acid was considered as the best catalyst because of its excellent catalytic effect and high boiling point. The mechanism of the glycerol chlorination reaction was proposed and a new kinetic model was developed. Kinetic equations of the process in the experimental range were obtained by data fitting and the activation energies of each tandem reaction were 30.7, 41.8, 29.4 and 49.5 kJ mol-1, respectively. This study revealed the process and mechanism of the kinetics and provides the theoretical basis for engineering problems.

  19. Enhanced methane and hydrogen production from municipal solid waste and agro-industrial by-products co-digested with crude glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, M S; Manios, T

    2009-06-01

    The effects of crude glycerol on the performance of single-stage anaerobic reactors treating different types of organic waste were examined. A reactor treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste produced 1400 mL CH(4)/d before the addition of glycerol and 2094 mL CH(4)/d after the addition of glycerol. An enhanced methane production rate was also observed when a 1:4 mixture of olive mill wastewater and slaughterhouse wastewater was supplemented with crude glycerol. Specifically, by adding 1% v/v crude glycerol to the feed, the methane production rate increased from 479 mL/d to 1210 mL/d. The extra glycerol-COD added to the feed did not have a negative effect on the reactor performance in either case. Supplementation of the feed with crude glycerol also had a significant positive effect on anaerobic fermentation reactors. Hydrogen yield was 26 mmole H(2)/g VS added and 15 mmole H(2)/g VS added in a reactor treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and a 1:4 mixture of olive mill and slaughterhouse wastewater. The addition of crude glycerol to the feed enhanced hydrogen yield at 2.9 mmole H(2)/g glycerol added and 0.7 mmole H(2)/g glycerol added.

  20. A novel route to synthesis of glycerol dimethyl ether from epichlorohydrin with high selectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Xiaoshu; Liu, Hao; Yang, Qiusheng; Li, Naihua; Dong, Xiangmo; Wang, Shufang; Zhao, Xinqiang; Wang, Yanji

    2014-01-01

    The effective utilization of glycerol, a by-product in the production of biodiesel, into useful chemicals is desirable from the viewpoint of green chemistry. With this in mind, a novel and highly selective route to synthesizing glycerol dimethyl ether (2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol), a potential fuel additive, from glycerol was proposed. This route uses both glycerol and methanol as starting materials, takes epichlorohydrin as an intermediate product, and utilizes HCl as a recycling agent. Hereinto, the key step of this route is the reaction between epichlorohydrin and methanol to produce 2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol which is identified by GC–MS, ESI-MS, IR and NMR. The thermodynamics of this reaction was analyzed and the result showed that the thermodynamics of a reaction was favorable and a high product yield was expected. The effect of various parameters such as kind of acid catalyst, molar ratio of epichlorohydrin to methanol, reaction temperature and reaction time was studied. Among various acid catalysts investigated, the acidic ionic liquid [HSO 3 -b-N(CH 3 ) 3 ]HSO 4 exhibited the highest activity and selectivity: conversion of epichlorohydrin of 100% and selectivity of 2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol of 99% at 393 K, 10 h, an initial pressure of 0.1 MPa and a molar ratio of catalyst:ECH:CH 3 OH of 0.01:1:5. After the reaction, [HSO 3 -b-N(CH 3 ) 3 ]HSO 4 was separated by vacuum distillation and then reused for the next cycle directly. The results showed that the product selectivity remained at about 94% but the conversion of epichlorohydrin dropped to 75% after being used five times. Subsequently, a reaction mechanism for the synthesis of 2,3-dimethoxy-1-propanol from epichlorohydrin and methanol was proposed. - Highlights: • Epichlorohydrin was converted effectively into glycerol dimethyl ether used as potential fuel additive. • The selectivity of 99% and the conversion of 100% under the mild reaction condition. • The reaction was high product selectivity and

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Phenylpropanoid Glycerol Glucosides in Different Organs of Easter Lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafo, John P; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2015-05-20

    The Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) is esteemed worldwide as an attractive ornamental plant, and the flower buds and bulbs are used for both culinary and medicinal purposes in many parts of the world. L. longiflorum contains significant amounts of phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides, a group of compounds that may contribute to plant pathogen defense, ultraviolet/high-intensity visible light (UV/high light) protection, and the purported medicinal uses of lilies. To define the natural distribution of these compounds within the plant, a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method performed in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was employed for the quantitative analysis of five phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides, namely, (2S)-1-O-caffeoyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosylglycerol, 1; (2R)-1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2-O-p-coumaroylglycerol, 2; (2S)-1-O-p-coumaroyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosylglycerol, 3; (2S)-1-O-caffeoyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-acetylglycerol, 4; and (2S)-1-O-p-coumaroyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-acetylglycerol, 5, in the different organs of L. longiflorum. The p-coumaroyl-based 3 and its acetylated derivative 5 were determined to be the most abundant of the phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides found in Easter lily bulbs, at 776.3 ± 8.4 and 650.7 ± 32.6 μg/g dry weight, respectively. The acetylated p-coumaroyl- and caffeoyl-based derivatives, 5 and 4, accumulated to the highest concentration in the closed flower buds, at 4925.2 ± 512.8 and 3216.8 ± 406.4 μg/g dry weight, respectively. Compound 4, followed by 5 and 1, proved to be the most abundant in the mature flowers, occurring at 6006.2 ± 625.8, 2160.3 ± 556.5, and 1535.8 ± 174.1 μg/g dry weight, respectively. Total concentrations of the phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides were 10-100-fold higher in the above-ground plant organs as compared to the bulbs and fleshy roots. Two of the five compounds, 1 and 2, were identified in L. longiflorum for the first time. The quantitative

  2. Novel drug delivery carrier from alginate-carrageenan and glycerol as plasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmokoesoemo, Handoko; Pudjiastuti, Pratiwi; Rahmatullah, Bagus; Kusuma, Heri Septya

    Drug delivery carriers are materials that can be used to administer drugs into the human body. Alginate and carrageenan are natural polymers that have potential as drug delivery material. Therefore in this study conducted a new innovation using carrageenan and alginates from extract of red seaweed and brown seaweed as base materials of capsule. This is expected to improve the quality of the used materials so it's easier to obtain the capsule with base material from carrageenan-alginate that has good quality as drug delivery carrier. Moreover, in the manufacture of capsules from carrageenan and alginates also added plasticizers in order to maintain the elasticity and the swelling degree of the capsules are made so that the capsules are not brittle. In addition, in this study used glycerol because it is a useful plasticizer to increase the plasticity of a material by filling the cavities between monomers. The capsules were prepared with four variations of glycerol concentration are A, B, C and D. In these capsule was analyzed of surface morphology with SEM, test of swelling degree and test of dissolution kinetics for some acidity level. Analysis of surface morphology with SEM shows that the capsule shell has very small pores. The average of swelling degree for capsules A, B, C and D are 452.4%, 599.0%, 730.66% and 731.25%, respectively. FTIR analysis shows that the presence of glycerol can increase the number of hydrogen bonds that are formed. The acidity level affects the dissolution profile of each capsules. In general with an increasingly alkaline environment causes all the capsules will be easier to release. This is because the increasing of acidic groups in the copolymer causes the capsule to be more easily occur neutralization reaction in a more alkaline environment so that the disintegration of capsules can occur more quickly. In addition from this study also can be seen that the increasing concentration of glycerol can cause the rate of capsule dissolution

  3. THE DEPENDENCE OF GLYCEROL ACCUMULATION AND STARCH HYDROLYZATES FERMENTATION FROM WORT CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оliynichuk S. Т.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to study the dependence of ethanol accumulation by-products and secondary products (glycerol and propionic acid during the fermentation in the case of increasing the wort concentration from 12 to 21% by weight of sugar as an example of commonly used in the alcohol industry the commercial dry yeast company “Danisco” and experimental osmophilic strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae DS-02-E, isolated from a concentrated (80% DM of rye malt wort which spontaneously fermented. The enzyme preparations “AMYLEX 4T”, “ALPHALASE AFP” and “DIAZYME SSF” were used for the liquefaction and saccharification of starch wort. The finished industrial of both yeast strains were added to the fermentation flasks in an amount of 10% by volume of the primary wort. In the mature brew the unfermented carbohydrates content was determined by colorimetric method with anthrone reagent, alcohol — by glass areometer-alcoholometer, acidity — potentiometrically, the concentration of dry matter — by areometer, glycerol content — by photocolorimetry method. In the brew distillate a volatile impurities content, namely propionic acid, was determined using gas chromatography. Statistical processing of the results of three series of experiments were carried out by calculating the arithmetical mean value of 5 measurements, their standard deviations and errors. To determine the probable differences between the mean values were used Student’s t test. Differences were considered statistically significant at P < 0.05. Reduction for accumulation of glycerol (between 38 till 53% at higher concentrations of nutrient medium in the case of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae DS-02-E as compared with commercial dry yeast, reduction the formation of unwanted by-product of fermentation — propionic acid (up to 34%, a better ability of the experimental strain to accumulate sugar of wort and to accumulate ethanol (up to 0.1–0.25% vol. were shown. It

  4. Uncoupled glycerol distribution as the origin of the accumulation of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde during the fermentation of glycerol by enterobacter agglomerans CNCM 1210

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbirato; Soucaille; Camarasa; Bories

    1998-04-05

    Batch fermentation of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (1,3PPD) by Enterobacter agglomerans CNCM 1210 showed the lethal accumulation of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) when performed under initial substrate content higher than 40 g/L. Assigned to the inhibition by the NAD/NADH ratio of the 3-HPA converting enzyme: 1,3PPD dehydrogenase, intracellular assays were conducted in an attempt to identify the metabolic mechanisms involved in the increase of that ratio. An overflow metabolism through the 1,3PPD formation pathway was established, while a catabolic limitation in the oxidative branch at the level of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase occurred. Uncoupled activities of synthesis and consumption of reducing equivalents are thus suspected to provoke the increase of the NAD/NADH ratio and the subsequent accumulation of 3-HPA. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Covalent immobilization of lipase, glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase & horseradish peroxidase onto plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC strip & its application in serum triglyceride determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives:Reusable biostrip consisting enzymes immobilized onto alkylamine glass beads affixed on plasticized PVC strip for determination of triglyceride (TG suffers from high cost of beads and their detachments during washings for reuse, leading to loss of activity. The purpose of this study was to develop a cheaper and stable biostrip for investigation of TG levels in serum. Methods: A reusable enzyme-strip was prepared for TG determination by co-immobilizing lipase, glycerol kinase (GK, glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GPO and peroxidase (HRP directly onto plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC strip through glutaraldehyde coupling. The method was evaluated by studying its recovery, precision and reusability. Results: The enzyme-strip showed optimum activity at pH 7.0, 35 o C and a linear relationship between its activity and triolein concentration in the range 0.1 to 15 mM. The strip was used for determination of serum TG. The detection limit of the method was 0.1 mM. Analytical recovery of added triolein was 96 per cent. Within and between batch coefficients of variation (CV were 2.2 and 3.7 per cent, respectively. A good correlation (r=0.99 was found between TG values by standard enzymic colrimetric method employing free enzymes and the present method. The strip lost 50 per cent of its initial activity after its 200 uses during the span of 100 days, when stored at 4 o C. Interpretation & conclusions: The nitrating acidic treatment of plasticized PVC strip led to glutaraldehyde coupling of four enzymes used for enzymic colourimetric determination of serum TG. The strip provided 200 reuses of enzymes with only 50 per cent loss of its initial activity. The method could be used for preparation of other enzyme strips also.

  6. An improved amperometric triglyceride biosensor based on co-immobilization of nanoparticles of lipase, glycerol kinase and glycerol 3-phosphate oxidase onto pencil graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, Vinay; Pundir, C S

    2017-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) of commercial lipase from Candida rugosa, of glycerol kinase (GK) from Cellulomonas species, of glycerol-3- phosphate oxidase (GPO) from Aerococcus viridans were prepared, characterized and co-immobilized onto a pencil graphite (PG) electrode. The morphological and electrochemical characterization of PG electrode was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) before and after co-immobilization of enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs). An improved amperometric triglyceride (TG) biosensor was fabricated using Lipase NPs/GKNPs/GPONPs/PG electrode as the working electrode, Ag/AgCl as the standard electrode and Pt wire as auxiliary electrode. The biosensor showed optimum response within 2.5s at a pH 7.0 and temperature of 35°C. The biosensor measured current due to electrons generated at 0.1V against Ag/AgCl, from H 2 O 2 , which is produced from triolein by co-immobilized ENPs. A linear relationship was obtained over between a wide triolein concentration range (0.1mM-45mM) and current (mA) under optimal conditions. The Lipase NPs/GKNPs/GPONPs/PG electrode showed high sensitivity (1241±20mAcm -2 mM -1 ); a lower detection limit (0.1nM) and good correlation coeficient (R 2 =0.99) with a standard enzymic colorimetric method. Analytical recovery of added triolein in serum was 98.01%, within and between batch coefficients of variation (CV) were 0.05% and 0.06% respectively. The biosensor was evaluated and employed for determination of TG in the serum of apparently healthy subject and persons suffering from hypertriglyceridemia. The biosensor lost 20% of its initial activity after its continued uses over a period of 240days, while being stored at 4°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol for producing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the fungus Pythium irregulare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athalye, Sneha K; Garcia, Rafael A; Wen, Zhiyou

    2009-04-08

    Crude glycerol is a major byproduct for the biodiesel industry. Producing value-added products through microbial fermentation on crude glycerol provides opportunities to utilize a large quantity of this byproduct. The objective of this study is to explore the potential of using crude glycerol for producing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) by the fungus Pythium irregulare . When P. irregulare was grown in medium containing 30 g/L crude glycerol and 10 g/L yeast extract, EPA yield and productivity reached 90 mg/L and 14.9 mg/L x day, respectively. Adding pure vegetable oils (flaxseed oil and soybean oil) to the culture greatly enhanced the biomass and the EPA production. This enhancement was due to the oil absorption by the fungal cells and elongation of shorter chain fatty acids (e.g., linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid) into longer chain fatty acid (e.g., EPA). The major impurities contained in crude glycerol, soap and methanol, were inhibitory to fungal growth. Soap can be precipitated from the liquid medium through pH adjustment, whereas methanol can be evaporated from the medium during autoclaving. The glycerol-derived fungal biomass contained about 15% lipid, 36% protein, and 40% carbohydrate, with 9% ash. In addition to EPA, the fungal biomass was also rich in the essential amino acids lysine, arginine, and leucine, relative to many common feedstuffs. Elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma showed that aluminum, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, sodium, sulfur, and zinc were present in the biomass, whereas no heavy metals (such as mercury and lead) were detected. The results show that it is feasible to use crude glycerol for producing fungal biomass that can serve as EPA-fortified food or feed.

  8. Anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory effects of glycerol and xylitol in sodium lauryl sulphate-induced acute irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szél, E; Polyánka, H; Szabó, K; Hartmann, P; Degovics, D; Balázs, B; Németh, I B; Korponyai, C; Csányi, E; Kaszaki, J; Dikstein, S; Nagy, K; Kemény, L; Erős, G

    2015-12-01

    Glycerol is known to possess anti-irritant and hydrating properties and previous studies suggested that xylitol may also have similar effects. Our aim was to study whether different concentrations of these polyols restore skin barrier function and soothe inflammation in sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS)-induced acute irritation. The experiments were performed on male SKH-1 hairless mice. The skin of the dorsal region was exposed to SLS (5%) for 3 h alone or together with 5% or 10% of glycerol respectively. Further two groups received xylitol solutions (8.26% and 16.52% respectively) using the same osmolarities, which were equivalent to those of the glycerol treatments. The control group was treated with purified water. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin hydration were determined. Microcirculatory parameters of inflammation were observed by means of intravital videomicroscopy (IVM). Furthermore, accumulation of neutrophil granulocytes and lymphocytes, the expression of inflammatory cytokines and SLS penetration were assessed, as well. Treatment with the 10% of glycerol and both concentrations of xylitol inhibited the SLS-induced elevation of TEWL and moderated the irritant-induced increase in dermal blood flow and in the number of leucocyte-endothelial interactions. All concentrations of the applied polyols improved hydration and prevented the accumulation of lymphocytes near the treatment site. At the mRNA level, neither glycerol nor xylitol influenced the expression of interleukin-1 alpha. However, expression of interleukin-1 beta was significantly decreased by the 10% glycerol treatment, while expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha decreased upon the same treatment, as well as in response to xylitol. Higher polyol treatments decreased the SLS penetration to the deeper layers of the stratum corneum. Both of the analysed polyols exert considerable anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory properties, but the effective concentration of xylitol is lower than that of

  9. Glycerol Production from Glucose and Fructose by 3T3-L1 Cells: A Mechanism of Adipocyte Defense from Excess Substrate.

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    María del Mar Romero

    Full Text Available Cultured adipocytes (3T3-L1 produce large amounts of 3C fragments; largely lactate, depending on medium glucose levels. Increased glycolysis has been observed also in vivo in different sites of rat white adipose tissue. We investigated whether fructose can substitute glucose as source of lactate, and, especially whether the glycerol released to the medium was of lipolytic or glycolytic origin. Fructose conversion to lactate and glycerol was lower than that of glucose. The fast exhaustion of medium glucose was unrelated to significant changes in lipid storage. Fructose inhibited to a higher degree than glucose the expression of lipogenic enzymes. When both hexoses were present, the effects of fructose on gene expression prevailed over those of glucose. Adipocytes expressed fructokinase, but not aldolase b. Substantive release of glycerol accompanied lactate when fructose was the substrate. The mass of cell triacylglycerol (and its lack of change could not justify the comparatively higher amount of glycerol released. Consequently, most of this glycerol should be derived from the glycolytic pathway, since its lipolytic origin could not be (quantitatively sustained. Proportionally (with respect to lactate plus glycerol, more glycerol was produced from fructose than from glucose, which suggests that part of fructose was catabolized by the alternate (hepatic fructose pathway. Earlier described adipose glycerophophatase activity may help explain the glycolytic origin of most of the glycerol. However, no gene is known for this enzyme in mammals, which suggests that this function may be carried out by one of the known phosphatases in the tissue. Break up of glycerol-3P to yield glycerol, may be a limiting factor for the synthesis of triacylglycerols through control of glycerol-3P availability. A phosphatase pathway such as that described may have a potential regulatory function, and explain the production of glycerol by adipocytes in the absence of

  10. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafilzadeh, F.; Piri, V.; Karami-Shabankareh, H.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30) were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5). Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01) in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively). While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09). The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001). Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01) for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period. (Author)

  11. Synthesis and characterization of a glycerol salicylate resin for bioactive root canal sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, F F; Santos, P D; Lima, G B; Leitune, V C B; Petzhold, C L; Collares, F M; Samuel, S M W

    2014-04-01

    To develop and characterize a salicylate resin with potential use in bioactive endodontic sealers. Methyl salicylate, glycerol and titanium isopropoxide were added in a closed system for the transesterification reaction. The resin obtained was characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). To verify the applicability of the resin to the development of endodontic sealers, experimental cements were prepared by mixing glycerol salicylate resin, calcium hydroxide and methyl salicylate in the ratios of 2 : 1 : 1, 1 : 2 : 1, 1 : 1 : 2, 1 : 1 : 1, 4 : 1 : 1, 1 : 4 : 1 and 1 : 1 : 4. Setting times were measured according to ISO 6876. Features of the hardening reaction were described by micro-RAMAN spectroscopy. The transesterification reaction had a 72% efficiency. The (1) H NMR analysis revealed the presence of the expected functional groups (hydroxyls and aromatic rings), and the SEC confirmed the molar mass of the resin produced. The setting times of experimental sealers ranged from 70 min (ratio 1 : 1 : 1) to 490 min (ratio 1 : 1 : 4). The conversion of the salicylic groups (1 613 cm(-1) ) to salicylate salt (1 543 cm(-1) ) and the reduction in calcium hydroxide peaks (1084 and 682 cm(-1) ) were confirmed by micro-RAMAN spectroscopy, which showed the calcium chelation by the resin. The new glycerol salicylate resin was successfully synthesized and revealed a potential application in the development of endodontic sealers. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Mechanical properties and total hydroxycinnamic derivative release of starch/glycerol/Melissa officinalis extract films

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    Letícia Mello Rechia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of starch/glycerol/Melissa officinalis, a topical drug delivery system for labial herpes treatment. Four films were prepared with different concentrations of starch, glycerol, and Melissa officinalis extract. The results revealed that increasing the glycerol concentration in the film reduced elasticity modulus and tensile strength, exhibiting a plasticizing effect. The increase in free volume resulted in increased release of hydroxycinnamic derivatives expressed as rosmarinic acid.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as propriedades mecânicas e o mecanismo de liberação de um sistema tópico de liberação prolongada para o tratamento do Herpes labial a partir de filmes de amido/glicerol/extrato de Melissa officinalis, planta com comprovada atividade antiviral. Foram obtidos quatro filmes poliméricos com diferentes concentrações de amido, glicerol e extrato de Melissa officinalis os quais foram caracterizados mecanicamente e determinado o perfil de liberação de derivados hidroxicinâmicos. Os resultados demonstraram que o aumento da concentração de glicerol no filme produz uma redução no módulo de elasticidade e na tensão de deformação como conseqüência do efeito plastificante. O aumento no volume livre do polímero resultou em aumento da liberação dos derivados hidroxicinâmicos expressos como ácido rosmarínico.

  13. Evaluation of additive effects of hydrolyzed jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) esters and glycerol: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jaimi; Marshall, Brooke; Gacula, Maximo; Rheins, Lawrence

    2008-12-01

    Glycerol has long served the topical prescriptive and personal care industry as a versatile and functional active and inactive ingredient. In skin care products, it acts primarily as an emollient, softening the skin through robust humectant hydration action. Hydrolyzed Jojoba Esters K-20W (K-20W) have been shown to increase skin hydration and improve sensory skin "feel" when included in a variety of skin, hair, and nail care cosmetic/personal care formulations. The addition of glycerol and hydrolyzed jojoba esters provides a substantial long-acting 24 h (moisturizing) skin hydration effect for topical products. A small pilot study was conducted to support the "proof of concept" that an enhanced, additive role exists between these two ingredients resulting in a long-term (24 h) skin moisturization effect. Topical treatments were applied to the skin (lower leg) of subjects, and evaluations were made at baseline and 8- to 24-h post-application. Skin hydration data were obtained via bio-instrumental transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements and expert clinical skin grading, including standardized digital clinical photography. Clinical skin grading evaluations and TEWL measurements found that significantly lower evaporative (P skin care lotion at 8 and 24 h posttreatment. This preliminary data "proof of concept" supports the position that glycerol and hydrolyzed jojoba esters work in tandem to enhance skin moisturization for at least 24 h. This unique moisturizing potential may prove valuable in the future development of cosmetic and over-the-counter/prescriptive topical products, including new medicaments containing botanicals. This fact is further reinforced with the recent greater commercial use and demand for defined safe botanicals in cosmetic as well as pharmaceutical topical formulations. Additional mechanistic studies are underway.

  14. Predict the glass transition temperature of glycerol-water binary cryoprotectant by molecular dynamic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dai-Xi; Liu, Bao-Lin; Liu, Yi-shu; Chen, Cheng-lung

    2008-04-01

    Vitrification is proposed to be the best way for the cryopreservation of organs. The glass transition temperature (T(g)) of vitrification solutions is a critical parameter of fundamental importance for cryopreservation by vitrification. The instruments that can detect the thermodynamic, mechanical and dielectric changes of a substance may be used to determine the glass transition temperature. T(g) is usually measured by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In this study, the T(g) of the glycerol-aqueous solution (60%, wt/%) was determined by isothermal-isobaric molecular dynamic simulation (NPT-MD). The software package Discover in Material Studio with the Polymer Consortium Force Field (PCFF) was used for the simulation. The state parameters of heat capacity at constant pressure (C(p)), density (rho), amorphous cell volume (V(cell)) and specific volume (V(specific)) and radial distribution function (rdf) were obtained by NPT-MD in the temperature range of 90-270K. These parameters showed a discontinuity at a specific temperature in the plot of state parameter versus temperature. The temperature at the discontinuity is taken as the simulated T(g) value for glycerol-water binary solution. The T(g) values determined by simulation method were compared with the values in the literatures. The simulation values of T(g) (160.06-167.51K) agree well with the DSC results (163.60-167.10K) and the DMA results (159.00K). We drew the conclusion that molecular dynamic simulation (MDS) is a potential method for investigating the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of glycerol-water binary cryoprotectants and may be used for other vitrification solutions.

  15. Catalytic Glycerol Hydrodeoxygenation under Inert Atmosphere: Ethanol as a Hydrogen Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efterpi S. Vasiliadou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol hydrodeoxygenation to 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO is a reaction of high interest. However, the need for hydrogen supply is a main drawback of the process. According to the concept investigated here, 1,2-propanediol is efficiently formed using bio-glycerol feedstock with H2 formed in situ via ethanol aqueous phase reforming. Ethanol is thought to be a promising H2 source, as it is alcohol that can be used instead of methanol for transesterification of oils and fats. The H2 generated is consumed in the tandem reaction of glycerol hydrodeoxygenation. The reaction cycle proceeds in liquid phase at 220–250 °C and 1.5–3.5 MPa initial N2 pressure for a 2 and 4-h reaction time. Pt-, Ni- and Cu-based catalysts have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated in the reaction. Among the materials tested, Pt/Fe2O3-Al2O3 exhibited the most promising performance in terms of 1,2-propanediol productivity, while reusability tests showed a stable behavior. Structural integrity and no formation of carbonaceous deposits were verified via Temperature Programmed Desorption of hydrogen (TPD-H2 and thermogravimetric analysis of the fresh and used Pt/FeAl catalyst. A study on the effect of various operating conditions (reaction time, temperature and pressure indicated that in order to maximize 1,2-propanediol productivity and yield, milder reaction conditions should be applied. The highest 1,2-propanediol yield, 53% (1.1 g1,2-PDO gcat−1·h−1, was achieved at a lower reaction temperature of 220 °C.

  16. Effects of Time-Release Caffeine Containing Supplement on Metabolic Rate, Glycerol Concentration and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Gonzalez, Jay R. Hoffman, Adam J. Wells, Gerald T. Mangine, Jeremy R. Townsend, Adam R. Jajtner, Ran Wang, Amelia A. Miramonti, Gabriel J. Pruna, Michael B. LaMonica, Jonathan D. Bohner, Mattan W. Hoffman, Leonardo P. Oliveira, David H. Fukuda, Maren S. Fragala, Jeffrey R. Stout

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared caffeine pharmacokinetics, glycerol concentrations, metabolic rate, and performance measures following ingestion of a time-release caffeine containing supplement (TR-CAF versus a regular caffeine capsule (CAF and a placebo (PL. Following a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over design, ten males (25.9 ± 3.2 y who regularly consume caffeine ingested capsules containing either TR-CAF, CAF, or PL. Blood draws and performance measures occurred at every hour over an 8-hour period. Plasma caffeine concentrations were significantly greater (p < 0.05 in CAF compared to TR-CAF during hours 2-5 and significantly greater (p = 0.042 in TR-CAF compared to CAF at hour 8. There were no significant differences between trials in glycerol concentrations (p = 0.86 or metabolic measures (p = 0.17-0.91. Physical reaction time was significantly improved for CAF at hour 5 (p=0.01 compared to PL. Average upper body reaction time was significantly improved for CAF and TR-CAF during hours 1-4 (p = 0.04 and p = 0.01, respectively and over the 8-hour period (p = 0.04 and p = 0.001, respectively compared to PL. Average upper body reaction time was also significantly improved for TR-CAF compared to PL during hours 5-8 (p = 0.004. TR-CAF and CAF showed distinct pharmacokinetics yielding modest effects on reaction time, yet did not alter glycerol concentration, metabolic measures, or other performance measures.

  17. Collagen-chitosan-glycerol bio-composite as artificial tympanic membrane for ruptured inner ear organ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiyanti, Prihartini; Setya Angtika, Rara; Githanadi, Brillyana; Hanif Kharisma, Ditya; Asyraf, Tarikh Omar; Wardani, Adita

    2017-05-01

    WHO data in 2012 shows that 5.3% of world population highly suffers from hearing loss and deafness. One of the deafness causes is rupture of tympanic membrane. Tympanic membrane damage which occurs often is perforated tympanic membrane, and it is also commonly known in medical term as tympanic membrane perforation. The causes, for instance, are high frequency of using earphones, traumatic accidents, noise, bacteria, viruses, and infectious microorganism. Tympanoplasty becomes the only treatment that can be widely accepted despite of deficiencies in postoperative complications. Therefore, this research aims to create artificial tympanic membrane made of natural materials such as type I collagen composited with chitosan and made of addition of glycerol to improve its mechanical strength and biodegradability. The method included the process of dissolving acetic acid in distilled water and mixation with chitosan. The solution is next added with glycerol and stirred to be homogeneous. After that, it was minted in petri dish and aerated before characterized. The sample characterization included tensile strength of which tensile test results showed that the value of the elasticity modulus tended to decrease with an increase in collagen concentration. The elasticity modulus values in a row for the variations of 7: 3, 8: 2, and 9: 1 were 35.10 MPa, 54,52MPa, and 47,45MPa respectively. The morphological test with 1000x, 2500x, and 5000x magnification showed their interaction in the formation of pores. Cytotoxicity results, moreover, showed that those samples were non-toxic and safe for the body due to the percentage of living cells. The sound absorption coefficient was between 1000 Hz - 2000 Hz which means that it could use as sound absorbing material. The antibacterial test results showed that all the sample variations were anti-bacterial due to the diameter of the clear zone. In conclusion, collagen and chitosan composite with addition of glycerol could be used for

  18. Glycerol Monolaurate Inhibits Lipase Production by Clinical Ocular Isolates Without Affecting Bacterial Cell Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Judith Louise; Khandekar, Neeta; Zhu, Hua; Watanabe, Keizo; Markoulli, Maria; Flanagan, John Terence; Papas, Eric

    2016-02-01

    We sought to determine the relative lipase production of a range of ocular bacterial isolates and to assess the efficacy of glycerol monolaurate (GML) in inhibiting this lipase production in high lipase-producing bacteria without affecting bacterial cell growth. Staphylococcus aureus,Staphylococcus epidermidis,Propionibacterium acnes, and Corynebacterium spp. were inoculated at a density of 10(6)/mL in varying concentrations of GML up to 25 μg/mL for 24 hours at 37 °C with constant shaking. Bacterial suspensions were centrifuged, bacterial cell density was determined, and production of bacterial lipase was quantified using a commercial lipase assay kit. Staphylococcus spp. produced high levels of lipase activity compared with P. acnes and Corynebacterium spp. GML inhibited lipase production by Staphylococcal spp. in a dose-dependent manner, with S. epidermidis lipase production consistently more sensitive to GML than S. aureus. Glycerol monolaurate showed significant (P lipase inhibition above concentrations of 15 μg/mL in S. aureus and was not cytotoxic up to 25 μg/mL. For S. epidermidis, GML showed significant (P lipase inhibition above 7.5 μg/mL. Lipase activity varied between species and between strains. Staphylococcal spp. produced higher lipase activity compared with P. acnes and Corynebacterium spp. Glycerol monolaurate inhibited lipase production by S. aureus and S. epidermidis at concentrations that did not adversely affect bacterial cell growth. GML can be used to inhibit ocular bacterial lipase production without proving detrimental to commensal bacteria viability.

  19. Xylitol production by genetically modified industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using glycerol as co-substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogje, Anushree B; Ghosalkar, Anand

    2017-06-01

    Xylitol is commercially used in chewing gum and dental care products as a low calorie sweetener having medicinal properties. Industrial yeast strain of S. cerevisiae was genetically modified to overexpress an endogenous aldose reductase gene GRE3 and a xylose transporter gene SUT1 for the production of xylitol. The recombinant strain (XP-RTK) carried the expression cassettes of both the genes and the G418 resistance marker cassette KanMX integrated into the genome of S. cerevisiae. Short segments from the 5' and 3' delta regions of the Ty1 retrotransposons were used as homology regions for integration of the cassettes. Xylitol production by the industrial recombinant strain was evaluated using hemicellulosic hydrolysate of the corn cob with glucose as the cosubstrate. The recombinant strain XP-RTK showed significantly higher xylitol productivity (212 mg L -1  h -1 ) over the control strain XP (81 mg L -1  h -1 ). Glucose was successfully replaced by glycerol as a co-substrate for xylitol production by S. cerevisiae. Strain XP-RTK showed the highest xylitol productivity of 318.6 mg L -1  h -1 and titre of 47 g L -1 of xylitol at 12 g L -1 initial DCW using glycerol as cosubstrate. The amount of glycerol consumed per amount of xylitol produced (0.47 mol mol -1 ) was significantly lower than glucose (23.7 mol mol -1 ). Fermentation strategies such as cell recycle and use of the industrial nitrogen sources were demonstrated using hemicellulosic hydrolysate for xylitol production.

  20. Tensile and Water Absorption Properties of Biodegradable Composites Derived from Cassava Skin/ Polyvinyl Alcohol with Glycerol as Plasticizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayangku Intan Munthoub; Wan Aizan Wan Abdul Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Natural organic and abundant resources biopolymers received more attention due to their low cost, availability and degradability after usage. Cassava skin was used as natural fillers to the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Cassava skin/ poly vinyl alcohol blends were compounded using melt extrusion twin screw extruder and test samples were prepared using the compression method. Various ratios of cassava skin and glycerol were investigated to identify suitable composition based on the water absorption and tensile properties. The water absorption of the cassava skins/ PVA samples increased at higher composition of cassava skin due to their hydrophilic properties but decrease with glycerol content. The strength of the cassava skins/ PVA samples increased with the higher composition of cassava skin up to 70 wt % while gradually decreased with the increasing composition of glycerol. The Young modulus increased with glycerol content but decreased with fibre loading up to 70 wt %. Elongation at break decreased with fibre loading and glycerol up to 70 wt % and 30 phr, respectively. (author)

  1. Relationship between the physiology of Enterobacter agglomerans CNCM 1210 grown anaerobically on glycerol and the culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbirato, F; Bories, A

    1997-01-01

    In a preliminary study, levels of activity of enzymes involved in anaerobic glycerol catabolism by Enterobacter agglomerans grown in batch cultures regulated in a pH range of 6.5-8.0 were monitored. That study showed that activities of key enzymes of the downstream metabolism of glycerol--glyceradehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP-DH), lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate formate lyase--were strongly dependent on the culture pH. To investigate the influence of pH on the physiology of the strain, E. agglomerans was grown anaerobically in a continuous culture supplied with glycerol as the sole carbon source and regulated at pH 8. A complete biochemical analysis was performed and was compared with that previously described for the continuous culture regulated at pH 7. A limitation of the glycolytic flux at the level of GAP-DH was demonstrated at high dilution rate, resulting in an overflow metabolism through the 1,3-propanediol formation pathway. Increasing the specific rate of glycerol consumption also resulted in enhanced lactate production due to limitation by the pyruvate decarboxylation step. Finally, changing the culture pH significantly modified the enzymatic profile of E. agglomerans, and it enabled the stability of the culture to be increased by preventing the accumulation in the fermentation broth of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, an inhibitory metabolite, when the glycerol supply was suddenly increased.

  2. Increasing biogas production from sewage sludge anaerobic co-digestion process by adding crude glycerol from biodiesel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nartker, Steven; Ammerman, Michelle; Aurandt, Jennifer; Stogsdil, Michael; Hayden, Olivia; Antle, Chad

    2014-12-01

    In an effort to convert waste streams to energy in a green process, glycerol from biodiesel manufacturing has been used to increase the gas production and methane content of biogas within a mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion process using primary sewage sludge. Glycerol was systematically added to the primary digester from 0% to 60% of the organic loading rate (OLR). The optimum glycerol loading range was from 25% to 60% OLR. This resulted in an 82-280% improvement in specific gas production. Following the feeding schedule described, the digesters remained balanced and healthy until inhibition was achieved at 70% glycerol OLR. This suggests that high glycerol loadings are possible if slow additions are upheld in order to allow the bacterial community to adjust properly. Waste water treatment plant operators with anaerobic digesters can use the data to increase loadings and boost biogas production to enhance energy conversion. This process provides a safe, environmentally friendly method to convert a typical waste stream to an energy stream of biogas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biosynthesis of Citric Acid from Glycerol by Acetate Mutants of Yarrowia lipolytica in Fed-Batch Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Rywińska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure and crude glycerol from biodiesel production have been used as substrates for citric acid production by acetate-negative mutants of Yarrowia lipolytica in fed-batch fermentation. Both the final concentration and the yield of the product were the highest when Y. lipolytica Wratislavia AWG7 strain was used in the culture with pure or crude glycerol. With a medium containing 200 g/L of glycerol, production reached a maximum of citric acid of 139 g/L after 120 h. This high yield of the product (up to 0.69 g of citric acid per gram of glycerol consumed was achieved with both pure and crude glycerol. Lower yield of citric acid in the culture with Y. lipolytica Wratislavia K1 strain (about 0.45 g/g resulted from increased erythritol concentrations (up to 40 g/L, accumulated simultaneously with the citric acid. The concentration of isocitric acid, a by-product in this fermentation, was very low, in the range from 2.6 to 4.6 g/L.

  4. Efficient conversion of crude glycerol from various industrial wastes into single cell oil by yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Adam; Mituła, Paweł; Rymowicz, Waldemar; Mirończuk, Aleksandra M

    2016-05-01

    In this study, crude glycerol from various industries was used to produce lipids via wild type Yarrowia lipolytica A101. We tested samples without any prior purification from five different waste products; each contained various concentrations of glycerol (42-87%) as the sole carbon source. The best results for lipid production were obtained for medium containing glycerol from fat saponification. This reached 1.69gL(-1) (25% of total cell dry weight) with a biomass yield of 0.17gg(-1) in the flasks experiment. The batch cultivation in a bioreactor resulted in enhanced lipid production-it achieved 4.72gL(-1) with a biomass yield 0.21gg(-1). Moreover, the properly selected batch of crude glycerol provides a defined fatty acid composition. In summary, this paper shows that crude glycerol from soap production could be efficiently converted to single cell oil without any prior purification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of carbon dioxide on cell growth and propionic acid production from glycerol and glucose by Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An; Sun, Jianxin; Wang, Zhongqiang; Yang, Shang-Tian; Zhou, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    The effects of CO2 on propionic acid production and cell growth in glycerol or glucose fermentation were investigated in this study. In glycerol fermentation, the volumetric productivity of propionic acid with CO2 supplementation reached 2.94g/L/day, compared to 1.56g/L/day without CO2. The cell growth using glycerol was also significantly enhanced with CO2. In addition, the yield and productivity of succinate, the main intermediate in Wood-Werkman cycle, increased 81% and 280%, respectively; consistent with the increased activities of pyruvate carboxylase and propionyl CoA transferase, two key enzymes in the Wood-Werkman cycle. However, in glucose fermentation CO2 had minimal effect on propionic acid production and cell growth. The carbon flux distributions using glycerol or glucose were also analyzed using a stoichiometric metabolic model. The calculated maintenance coefficient (mATP) increased 100%, which may explain the increase in the productivity of propionic acid in glycerol fermentation with CO2 supplement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Glycerol as a Cheaper Carbon Source in Bacterial Cellulose (BC) Production by Gluconacetobacter Xylinus DSM46604 in Batch Fermentation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azila Adnan; Nair, G.R.; Roslan Umar; Roslan Umar

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a polymer of glucose monomers, which has unique properties including high crystallinity and high strength. It has potential to be used in biomedical applications such as making artificial blood vessel, wound dressings, and in the paper making industry. Extensive study on BC aimed to improve BC production such as by using glycerol as a cheaper carbon source. BC was produced in shake flask culture using five different concentrations of glycerol (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g/ L). Using concentration of glycerol above 20 g/ L inhibited culture growth and BC production. Further experiments were performed in batch culture (3-L bioreactor) using 20 g/ L glycerol. It produced yield and productivity of 0.15 g/ g and 0.29 g/ L/ day BC, respectively. This is compared with the control medium, 50 g/ L glucose, which only gave yield and productivity of 0.05 g/ g and 0.23 g/ L/ day, respectively. Twenty g/ L of glycerol enhanced BC production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM46604 in batch fermentation system. (author)

  7. Equivalence of Lauric Acid and Glycerol Monolaurate as Inhibitors of Signal Transduction in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzin, Alexey; Novick, Richard P.

    2000-01-01

    Glycerol monolaurate (GML) inhibits the expression of virulence factors in Staphylococus aureus and the induction of vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis, presumably by blocking signal transduction. Although GML is rapidly hydrolyzed by bacteria, one of the products, lauric acid, has identical inhibitory activity and is metabolized much more slowly. At least four distinct GML-hydrolyzing activities are identified in S. aureus: the secreted Geh lipase, residual supernatant activity in a geh-null mutant strain, a novel membrane-bound esterase, and a cytoplasmic activity. PMID:10762277

  8. Apposite of pig skin preserved in glycerol; Apositos de piel de cerdo preservados en glicerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Gonzalez V, C.; Salinas A, M. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) of the ININ apposite of pig skin are processed and preserved to low temperature (-80 C), which are sterilized by irradiation and transported to the hospitals in dry ice to avoid its unfreezing. With the purpose of making more simple the manipulation of the apposite it was carried out this work that consisted on developing the processing of the pig skin using glycerol like preservation medium, since this way the irradiation, the storage and transport of the apposite is carried out at refrigeration temperature, that makes its manage more simple. (Author)

  9. EXPLORATORY STUDY ON INTERNAL RECYCLING OF CRUDE GLYCEROL FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION: CATALYST REPLACEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Dias; Leite, P; Conceição Alvim Ferraz; Manuel Fonseca Almeida

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the recycling of crude glycerol as source of catalyst for biodiesel production. For that purpose, two sets of experiments were conducted. In the first set (A), biodiesel was synthesized by conventional methanolysis of sunflower oil using NaOH as catalyst at 65°C during 1 h and varying catalyst concentration (0.4 - 1.2 wt.%) or methanol to oil molar ratio (6:1-12:1). The second set (B) was performed by replicating the conditions o...

  10. Effects of Paljeongsan-gamibang on the damage of Rat Kidney induced by Glycerol

    OpenAIRE

    Wang-Su Yun; Kyung-Son Soh; Chan-Gil Jeong

    2007-01-01

    Objective : We performed this study in order to investigate the effects of Paljeongsan-gamibang(八正散加味方) on the renal failure. Methods : We injected 8ml/kg of 50% glycerol on the rats. And then administered Paljeongsan-gamibang extract ; 209mg/200g/day to sample group during 3 days and observed the body temperature, urine volume, stool volume and the levels of creatinine, glucose, inorganic phosphorus, Na+, K+, Cl-, threonine, tyrosine in blood and creatinine, glucose, threonine, tyrosine i...

  11. Overexpression of the truncated version of ILV2 enhances glycerol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashchenko, Lidiia; Abbas, Charles; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn; Sibirny, Andriy

    2016-08-01

    Acetolactate synthase is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyses the conversion of two pyruvate molecules to an acetolactate molecule with release of carbon dioxide. The overexpression of the truncated version of the corresponding gene, ILV2, that codes for presumably cytosolic acetolactate synthase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, led to a decrease in intracellular pyruvate concentration. This recombinant strain was also characterized by a four-fold increase in glycerol production, with a concomitant 1.8-fold reduction in ethanol production, when compared to that of the wild-type strain under anaerobic conditions in a glucose alcoholic fermentation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Rheological and thermal characteristics of wheat gluten biopolymers plasticized with glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Pires Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective this work was to obtain bioplastics from mixtures of wheat gluten and glycerol by two different processes and evaluate their respective rheological properties. The mixtures and their respective bioplastics were obtained through direct batch mixing under approximately adiabatic and isothermal conditions. The bioplastics showed high values for the storage (G' and loss (G" moduli, suggesting a stronger protein network formed in both processes. The temperature onset and the percentage of weight loss to be estimated were found to be near in both bioplastics. The bioplastics have demonstrated to be materials of interesting potential of use as biodegradable barrier materials.

  13. The influence of glycerol on γ-induced mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basha, S.G.; Krasavin, E.A.; Kozubek, S.; Amirtaev, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    A study was made of the modifying effect of glycerol on the survival rate and γ-radiation-induced mutagenesis of Salmonella typhimurium cells TA98, TA100 and TA102. The DMF value, with respect to the survival rate, was 2.05-0.20. The dependence of the yield of γ-radiation-induced mutants on radiation dose was described by the curve with a maximum; the mutation frequency M(D) was well described by a gradual function M(D)=kD x . DMF values of the induced mutagenesis amounted to 2 for strains TA100 and TA102, and 1.5 for strain TA98

  14. Investigations with tritium-labelled glycerol of the triglyceride metabolism in patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, W.; Julius, U.; Koch, R.; Schulze, J.

    1980-01-01

    Triglycerides, being components of lipoproteins, are secreted by the liver into the blood and climinated from the blood by adipose and muscle tissue. The kinetics of this metabolic pathway were studied after injection of tritium-labelled glycerol which is incorporated into triglycerides by the liver. The serum triglyceride radioactivity-time curve was analysed with a computer. 99 examinations showed a decrease of the fractional turnover rate and an increase of the turnover rate with the triglyceride level. The test enables to decide whether an increased triglyceride concentration is caued by overproduction or by disturbed climination. (author)

  15. Hormone-sensitive lipase serine phosphorylation and glycerol exchange across skeletal muscle in lean and obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jocken, Johan We; Roepstorff, Carsten; Goossens, Gijs H.

    2008-01-01

    : Forearm skeletal muscle (SM) lipolysis was investigated in thirteen lean and ten obese men using [(2)H(5)]-glycerol combined with the measurement of arterio-venous differences before and during beta-adrenergic stimulation using the non-selective beta-agonist isoprenaline (ISO). Muscle biopsies were taken...... from the vastus lateralis muscle before and during ISO to investigate hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein expression and serine phosphorylation. Results: Baseline total glycerol release across the forearm was significantly blunted in obese compared with lean subjects (P=0.045). This was accompanied...... by lower HSL protein expression (P=0.004), and HSL phosphorylation on PKA sites Ser(563) (P=0.041) and Ser(659) (P=0.09) and on the AMPK site Ser(565) (P=0.007), suggesting a blunted skeletal muscle lipolysis in obesity. Total forearm glycerol uptake during baseline did not differ significantly between...

  16. Requirements of glycerol and fatty acid for triglyceride synthesis and ketogenesis by hepatocytes from normal and triiodothyronine-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olubadewo, J.O.; Heimberg, M.

    1985-11-15

    Hepatocytes from T3-treated rats synthesized less triglyceride and more ketone bodies from (1-/sup 14/C)oleate at all concentrations from 0-2 mM, than did hepatocytes from euthyroid animals; addition of 1.0 mM glycerol increased triglyceride synthesis and reduced ketogenesis in hepatocytes from T3-treated rats to the rates observed in euthyroid hepatocytes in the absence of added glycerol. Glycerol did not alter triglyceride synthesis, but reduced ketogenesis genesis by euthyroid hepatocytes. It is probable from these and other data that, in the hyperthyroid rat, glycero-3-P, and not fatty acid, is rate limiting for synthesis of triglyceride, and, secondarily for reducing rates of ketogenesis in the hepatocyte.

  17. Enterobacter sp. LU1 as a novel succinic acid producer - co-utilization of glycerol and lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podleśny, Marcin; Jarocki, Piotr; Wyrostek, Jakub; Czernecki, Tomasz; Kucharska, Jagoda; Nowak, Anna; Targoński, Zdzisław

    2017-03-01

    Succinic acid is an important C4-building chemical platform for many applications. A novel succinic acid-producing bacterial strain was isolated from goat rumen. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequence and physiological analysis indicated that the strain belongs to the genus Enterobacter. This is the first report of a wild bacterial strain from the genus Enterobacter that is capable of efficient succinic acid production. Co-fermentation of glycerol and lactose significantly improved glycerol utilization under anaerobic conditions, debottlenecking the utilization pathway of this valuable biodiesel waste product. Succinic acid production reached 35 g l -1 when Enterobacter sp. LU1 was cultured in medium containing 50 g l -1 of glycerol and 25 g l -1 of lactose as carbon sources. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Effect of natamycin, nisin and glycerol on the physicochemical properties, roughness and hydrophobicity of tapioca starch edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollé Resa, Carolina P; Jagus, Rosa J; Gerschenson, Lía N

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, films based on tapioca starch and containing nisin, natamycin and glycerol were characterized in relation to their physicochemical properties, roughness and hydrophobicity. The content of glycerol affected the mechanical properties of the films studied and the roughness and it was observed an increase in WVP with the increase in glycerol content. The addition of antimicrobials affected the mechanical properties, being nisin the one that produced the greater decrease in the Young modulus. The color was highly affected by the joint presence of natamycin and nisin, which increased the yellow index. The contact angle increased with antimicrobial addition indicating a decrease in hydrophilicity. Nisin also affected the roughness of the films. Water vapor permeability was slightly reduced by the presence of natamycin. It was observed that water vapor permeability and contact angle were correlated with the roughness of the films. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. CO2 Absorption from Biogas by Glycerol: Conducted in Semi-Batch Bubble Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    puji lestari, Pratiwi; Mindaryani, Aswati; Wirawan, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    Biogas is a renewable energy source that has been developed recently. The main contents of Biogas itself are Methane and carbon dioxide (CO2) where Methane is the main component of biogas with CO2 as the highest impurities. The quality of biogas depends on the CO2 content, the lower CO2 levels, the higher biogas quality. Absorption is one of the methods to reduce CO2 level. The selections of absorbent and appropriate operating parameters are important factors in the CO2 absorption from biogas. This study aimed to find out the design parameters for CO2 absorption using glycerol that represented by the overall mass transfer coefficient (KLa) and Henry’s constant (H). This study was conducted in semi-batch bubble column. Mixed gas was contacted with glycerol in a bubble column. The concentration of CO2 in the feed gas inlet and outlet columns were analysed by Gas Chromatograph. The variables observed in this study were superficial gas velocity and temperatures. The results showed that higher superficial gas velocity and lower temperature increased the rate of absorption process and the amount of CO2 absorbed.

  20. Biodegradable blends of starch/polyvinyl alcohol/glycerol: multivariate analysis of the mechanical properties

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    Juliano Zanela

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the work was to study the mechanical properties of extruded starch/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/glycerol biodegradable blends using multivariate analysis. The blends were produced as cylindrical strands by extrusion using PVAs with different hydrolysis degrees and viscosities, at two extrusion temperature profiles (90/170/170/170/170 °C and 90/170/200/200/200 °C and three conditioning relative humidities of the samples (33, 53, and 75%. The mechanical properties showed a great variability according to PVA type, as well as the extrusion temperature profile and the conditioning relative humidity; the tensile strength ranged from 0.42 to 5.40 MPa, elongation at break ranged from 10 to 404% and Young’s modulus ranged from 0.93 to 13.81 MPa. The multivariate analysis was a useful methodology to study the mechanical properties behavior of starch/PVA/glycerol blends, and it can be used as an exploratory technique to select of the more suitable PVA type and extrusion temperature to produce biodegradable materials.