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Sample records for glycerides

  1. Effects of dietary probiotic, prebiotic and butyric acid glycerides on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primalac), prebiotic (Fermacto) and butyric acid glycerides (Baby C4) on broiler performance and serum composition. Seven hundred and four day-old broilers were randomly distributed in a 222 factorial arrangement with two levels of probiotic ...

  2. Improved enzymatic production of phenolated glycerides through alkyl phenolate intermediate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Feddern, Vivian; Glasius, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This work reported a novel approach for synthesis of dihydrocaffoylated glycerides, consisting of 2 steps: enzymatic synthesis of octyl dihydrocaffeate (as a synthetic intermediate) from octanol and dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA), and enzymatic interesterification of triglycerides with octyl dihydroc......This work reported a novel approach for synthesis of dihydrocaffoylated glycerides, consisting of 2 steps: enzymatic synthesis of octyl dihydrocaffeate (as a synthetic intermediate) from octanol and dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA), and enzymatic interesterification of triglycerides with octyl...

  3. Synthesis of glycerides and glycerophospholipides labelled with 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danan, J.-L.

    1977-01-01

    Glycerides and glycerophospholipides labelled with 14 C were chemically synthetized using isopropylidene-D-glycerol prepared from D mannitol. The acylation method by labelled fatty acid chlorides was utilized. An original synthesis method was developed for the phospholipides using cyclic enediol pyrophosphate [fr

  4. Antimicrobial phenolics and unusual glycerides from Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Pollastro, Federica; Chianese, Giuseppina; Minassi, Alberto; Gibbons, Simon; Arunotayanun, Warunya; Mabebie, Blessing; Ballero, Mauro; Appendino, Giovanni

    2013-03-22

    During a large-scale isolation campaign for the heterodimeric phloroglucinyl pyrone arzanol (1a) from Helichrysum italicum subsp. microphyllum, several new phenolics as well as an unusual class of lipids named santinols (5a-c, 6-8) have been characterized. Santinols are angeloylated glycerides characterized by the presence of branched acyl- or keto-acyl chains and represent a hitherto unreported class of plant lipids. The antibacterial activity of arzanol and of a selection of Helichrysum phenolics that includes coumarates, benzofurans, pyrones, and heterodimeric phloroglucinols was evaluated, showing that only the heterodimers showed potent antibacterial action against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. These observations validate the topical use of Helichrysum extracts to prevent wound infections, a practice firmly established in the traditional medicine of the Mediterranean area.

  5. Lipase - Catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil to produce partial glycerides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher, F. A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Partial glycerides were prepared by glycerolysis of sunflower oil in presence of lipase enzyme as catalyst. Six lipases of different origins were used and compared for their catalytic activity. These include Chromobacterium lipase, pancreatic lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus lipase, lyophilized lipase (plant lipase in addition to two lipase preparations derived from Rhizopus japonicas; Lilipase A-10 and Lilipase B-2. Chromobacterium lipase was found to be the most active as glycerolysis catalyst whereas lyophilized lipase; a plant preparation from wheat germ was the least active. The results have also shown that the lipase type affects also the product polarity and hence its field of application as a food emulsifier. Less polar products can be obtained using Chromobacterium lipase whereas the more polar ones using a fungal lipase preparation «Lipase A-10». The product polarity is also influenced by the process temperature but the mode of its effect is different for different lipases.

    Se prepararon glicéridos parciales mediante glicerolisis de aceite de girasol en presencia de lipasa como catalizador. Seis lipasas de orígenes diferentes se utilizaron y compararon en función de su actividad catalítica. Estas incluyeron lipasa de Chromobacterium, lipasa pancreática, lipasa de Rhizopus arrhizus, lipasa liofilizada (lipasa vegetal además de dos preparaciones de lipasa derivadas de Rhizopus japonicus: lilipase A-10 y lilipase B-2. Se encontró que la lipasa de Chromobacterium fue la más activa como catalizador en la glicerolisis mientras que la lipasa liofilizada, preparación vegetal a partir de germen de trigo, fue la menos activa. Los resultados mostraron que los tipos de lipasa afectan también a la polaridad de los productos y por tanto a los rendimientos en su aplicación como emulsificantes alimentarios. Los productos menos polares pueden obtenerse usando lipasa de

  6. Glyceride structure and sterol composition of SOS-7 halophyte oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shami, S. M.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Glyceride structure of SOS-7 halophyte oil was studied using the lipase hydrolysis technique. This halophyte sample was obtained from 1988 harvest planted in Ghardaka, on the border of the Red Sea, Egypt. The oilseed was ground and extracted for its oil using commercial hexane in Soxhlet extractor. The unsaturated fatty acids were found centralized in the 2-position of triglycerides, whereas oleic and linolenic acids showed more preference for this position. It was found that P3 was the major component of GS3, whereas P2L and PStL; PL2, POL and StL2 are predominating among GS2U and GSU3 respectively. L3 manifested itself as the principal constituent of GU3 type. Sterol composition of the halophyte oil was determined by GLC as TMS derivative. It was found that the oil contains campsterol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and 7-stigmasterol of which 7-stigmasterol is the major sterol and constitute 52.4%.

    Se ha estudiado usando la técnica de hidrólisis mediante lipasa la estructura glicerídica de aceite de halofito SOS-7. Esta muestra de halofito fue obtenida a partir de una cosecha de 1988 plantada en Ghardaka, en la orilla del Mar Rojo, Egipto. Para la extracción del aceite de la semilla molida se utilizó hexano comercial en extractor Soxhlet. Los ácidos grasos insaturados se encontraron centralizados en la posición 2 de los triglicéridos, siendo los ácidos oleico y linolénico los que mostraron mayor preferencia por esta posición. Se encontró que P3 fue el componente mayoritario de GS3, mientras que P2L y PStL; PL2 POL y StL2 son los predominantes para GS2U y GSU3 respectivamente. L3 se manifestó como el principal constituyente de los GU3. La composición esterólica del aceite de halofito se determinó por GLC como derivados del

  7. Pilot-scale bioreactor production and long term stability of feruloyl soy glycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean oil was transesterified with ethyl ferulate at 60 °C using the immobilized lipase Candida antartica lipase B (Novozym 435) to produce a mixture of feruloylated monoacylglycerols and feruloylated diacylglycerols homologues, collectively referred to as feruloylated soy glycerides (FSG). A 1-to...

  8. Lipase catalyzed synthesis of neutral glycerides rich in micronutrients from rice bran oil fatty acid distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sumit; Gangopadhyay, Sarbani; Ghosh, Santinath

    2008-01-01

    Neutral glycerides with micronutrients like sterols, tocopherols and squalene may be prepared from cheap raw material like rice bran oil fatty acid distillate (RBO FAD). RBO FAD is an important byproduct of vegetable oil refining industries in the physical refining process. Glycerides like triacylglycerols (TAG), diacylglycerols (DAG) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) containing significant amounts of unsaponifiable matter like sterols, tocopherols and hydrocarbons (mainly squalene) may certainly be considered as novel functional food ingredients. Fatty acids present in RBO FAD were esterified with glycerol of varying amount (1:0.33, 1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:1.5 of FAD : glycerol ratio) for 8 h using non-specific enzyme NS 40013 (Candida antartica). After esterification the product mixture containing mono, di- and triglycerides was purified by molecular distillation to remove excess free fatty acids and also other volatile undesirable components. The purified product containing sterols, tocopherols and squalene can be utilized in various food formulations.

  9. Optimization of reaction parameters for enzymatic glyceride synthesis from fish oil: Ethyl esters versus free fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Helle Christine; Damstrup, Marianne L.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Enzymatic conversion of fish oil free fatty acids (FFA) or fatty acid ethyl esters (FAE) into glycerides via esterification or transesterification was examined. The reactions catalyzed by Lipozyme™ 435, a Candida antarctica lipase, were optimized. Influence on conversion yields of fatty acid chain...... length, saturation degree, temperature, enzyme dosage, molar ratio glycerol:fatty acids, acyl source composition (w/w ratio FFA:FAE), and reaction time was evaluated collectively by multiple linear regression. All reaction variables influenced the conversion into glycerides. Transesterification of FAE...

  10. Influence of vegetable oils fatty acid composition on reaction temperature and glycerides conversion to biodiesel during transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzi, S; Gandía, L M; Arzamendi, G; Ruiz, J J; Dorado, M P

    2011-01-01

    Presence of unreacted glycerides in biodiesel may reduce drastically its quality. This is why conversion of raw material in biodiesel through transesterification needs to readjust reaction parameter values to complete. In the present work, monitoring of glycerides transformation in biodiesel during the transesterification of vegetable oils was carried out. To check the influence of the chemical composition on glycerides conversion, selected vegetable oils covered a wide range of fatty acid composition. Reactions were carried out under alkali-transesterification in the presence of methanol. In addition, a multiple regression model was proposed. Results showed that kinetics depends on chemical and physical properties of the oils. It was found that the optimal reaction temperature depends on both length and unsaturation degree of vegetable oils fatty acid chains. Vegetable oils with higher degree of unsaturation exhibit faster monoglycerides conversion to biodiesel. It can be concluded that fatty acid composition influences reaction parameters and glycerides conversion, hence biodiesel yield and economic viability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil glycerides: Theoretical and experimental studies of biodiesel reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neyda C. Om Tapanes; Donato A. Gomes Aranda; Jose W. de Mesquita Carneiro; Octavio A. Ceva Antunes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Laboratorio GREENTEC

    2008-08-15

    Vegetal oil, also known as triglycerides, is a mixture of fatty acid triesters of glycerol. In the triglycerides alkyl chains of Jatropha curcas oil, predominate the palmitic, oleic and linoleic fatty acids. The process usually used to convert these triglycerides to biodiesel is called transesterification. The overall process is a sequence of three equivalent, consecutive and reversible reactions, in which di- and monoglycerides are formed as intermediates. Semi-empirical AM1 molecular orbital calculations were used to investigate the reaction pathways of base-catalyzed transesterification of glycerides of palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid. The most probable pathway and the rate determining-step of the reactions were estimated from the molecular orbital calculations. Our results suggest the formation of only one tetrahedral intermediate, which in a subsequent step rearranges to form the products. The rate determining-step is the break of this tetrahedral intermediate. 27 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Kinetics of enzymatic trans-esterification of glycerides for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Vincenza; Ricca, Emanuele; De Paola, Maria Gabriela; Curcio, Stefano; Iorio, Gabriele

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, the reaction of enzymatic trans-esterification of glycerides with ethanol in a reaction medium containing hexane at a temperature of 37 degrees C has been studied. The enzyme was Lipase from Mucor miehei, immobilized on ionic exchange resin, aimed at achieving high catalytic specific surface and recovering, regenerating and reusing the biocatalyst. A kinetic analysis has been carried out to identify the reaction path; the rate equation and kinetic parameters have been also calculated. The kinetic model has been validated by comparison between predicted and experimental results. Mass transport resistances estimation was undertaken in order to verify that the kinetics found was intrinsic. Model potentialities in terms of reactors design and optimization are also shown.

  13. Polyoxylglycerides and glycerides: effects of manufacturing parameters on API stability, excipient functionality and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannin, Vincent; Rodier, Jean-David; Musakhanian, Jasmine

    2014-05-15

    Lipid-based formulations are a viable option to address modern drug delivery challenges such as increasing the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), or sustaining the drug release of molecules intended for chronic diseases. Esters of fatty acids and glycerol (glycerides) and polyethylene-glycols (polyoxylglycerides) are two main classes of lipid-based excipients used by oral, dermal, rectal, vaginal or parenteral routes. These lipid-based materials are more and more commonly used in pharmaceutical drug products but there is still a lack of understanding of how the manufacturing processes, processing aids, or additives can impact the chemical stability of APIs within the drug product. In that regard, this review summarizes the key parameters to look at when formulating with lipid-based excipients in order to anticipate a possible impact on drug stability or variation of excipient functionality. The introduction presents the chemistry of natural lipids, fatty acids and their properties in relation to the extraction and refinement processes. Then, the key parameters during the manufacturing process influencing the quality of lipid-based excipients are provided. Finally, their critical characteristics are discussed in relation with their intended functionality and ability to interact with APIs and others excipients within the formulation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Effect of Xanthan, Mono-di-Glyceride and Cultivar on Physical and Sensory Properties of Canned Rice During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nasirpour

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ready-to-eat or canned products have an important place in urban life style. Rice is consumed by half of world population. Problems related to production of canned rice are the coherences of rice kernel, retrogradation of rice starch and physico-chemical changes of rice during storage. Main factors affecting physico-chemical properties of canned rice are rice cultivar, amylose and amylopectin content of kernels, precooking conditions, kernel composition and added stabilizers. In this study, effect of three cultivars, Basmati and two local cultivars, Tarom Mazandaran and Tarom Hashemi, also two types of stabilizers, Xanthan, Mono-di-glyceride, on sensory and physical properties of canned rice were studied. Type and level of stabilizers, cultivars and time had significant effect on texture of cooked rice. Initially during storage, Basmati had the highest firmness and Tarom Mazandaran and Tarom Hashemi had lower firmness. The results of texture analysis indicated that both stabilizers reduced firmness of cooked rice during storage. Adding xhanthan as stabilizer had higher effect on reducing of cooked rice firmness comparing to mono-di-glyceride. Result of color analysis showed that Basmati cultivar was most yellowish and Tarom Mazandaran indicated maximum lightness. Sensory analysis of samples indicated that Basmati had the best score on texture, appearance and acceptability and Tarom Hashemi had the best score on taste and flavor. Type of stabilizer had significant effect on taste and flavor of cooked rice.

  15. An improved reference measurement procedure for triglycerides and total glycerides in human serum by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizhao; Liu, Qinde; Yong, Sharon; Teo, Hui Ling; Lee, Tong Kooi

    2014-01-20

    Triglycerides are widely tested in clinical laboratories using enzymatic methods for lipid profiling. As enzymatic methods can be affected by interferences from biological samples, this together with the non-specific nature of triglycerides measurement makes it necessary to verify the accuracy of the test results with a reference measurement procedure. Several such measurement procedures had been published. These procedures generally involved lengthy and laborious sample preparation steps. In this paper, an improved reference measurement procedure for triglycerides and total glycerides was reported which simplifies the sample preparation steps and greatly shortens the time taken. The procedure was based on isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (IDGC-MS)with tripalmitin as the calibration standard. Serum samples were first spiked with isotope-labeled tripalmitin. For the measurement of triglycerides, the serum samples were subjected to lipid extraction followed by separation of triglycerides from diglycerides and monoglycerides. Triglycerides were then hydrolyzed to glycerol, derivatized and injected into the GC–MS for quantification. For the measurement of total glycerides, the serum samples were hydrolyzed directly and derivatized before injection into the GC-MS for quantification. All measurement results showed good precision with CV triglycerides and total glycerides were well within the certified ranges of the CRM, with deviation triglycerides and total glycerides.

  16. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Regulation of Gene Expression for Lipid Catabolism in Young Broilers by Butyrate Glycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fugui; Yu, Hai; Lepp, Dion; Shi, Xuejiang; Yang, Xiaojian; Hu, Jielun; Leeson, Steve; Yang, Chengbo; Nie, Shaoping; Hou, Yongqing; Gong, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Butyrate has been shown to potently regulate energy expenditure and lipid metabolism in animals, yet the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of butyrate (in the form of butyrate glycerides, BG)-induced lipid metabolism at the level of gene expression in the jejunum and liver of broilers. Methodology/Principal Findings Two animal experiments were included in this study. In Experiment 1, two hundred and forty male broiler chickens were equally allocated into two groups: 1) basal diet (BD), 2) BG diets (BD + BG). Growth performance was compared between treatments for the 41-day trial. In Experiment 2, forty male broiler chickens were equally allocated into two groups. The general experimental design, group and management were the same as described in Experiment 1 except for reduced bird numbers and 21-day duration of the trial. Growth performance, abdominal fat deposition, serum lipid profiles as well as serum and tissue concentrations of key enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were compared between treatments. RNA-seq was employed to identify both differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and treatment specifically expressed genes (TSEGs). Functional clustering of DEGs and TSEGs and signaling pathways associated with lipid metabolism were identified using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) and DAVID Bioinformatics Resources 6.7 (DAVID-BR). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were subsequently conducted to further examine the expression of genes in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) signaling pathway identified by DAVID-BR. Dietary BG intervention significantly reduced abdominal fat ratio (abdominal fat weight/final body weight) in broilers. The decreased fat deposition in BG-fed chickens was in accordance with serum lipid profiles as well as the level of lipid metabolism-related enzymes in the serum, abdominal adipose, jejunum and liver. RNA-seq analysis

  17. Glycosyl glycerides from hydroponic Panax ginseng inhibited NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Ju Cha

    2015-04-01

    Results and conclusion: The glycosyl glycerides were identified to be (2S-1-O-7(Z,10(Z,13(Z-hexadecatrienoyl-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (1, (2S-1-O-linolenoyl-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (2, (2S-1-O-linolenoyl-2-O-linolenoyl-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (3, and 2(S-1-O-linoleoyl-2-O-linoleoyl-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (4. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate inhibition activity on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50: 63.8 ± 6.4μM and 59.4 ± 6.8μM, respectively] without cytotoxicity at concentrations < 100μM, whereas Compounds 3 and 4 showed good inhibition effect (IC50: 7.7 ± 0.6μM and 8.0 ± 0.9μM, respectively without cytotoxicity at concentrations < 20μM. All isolated compounds showed reduced messenger RNA (mRNA expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in LPS-induced macrophage cells with strong inhibition of mRNA activity observed for Compounds 3 and 4.

  18. Stabilizing effect of cetostearyl alcohol and glyceryl monostearate as co-emulsifiers on hydrocarbon-free O/W glyceride creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmann, C; Mueller, B W

    2008-01-01

    The structure of a stable O/W cream is characterized by a more or less pronounced mixed crystal bilayer. The addition of co-emulsifiers in order to achieve a soft formulation often leads to a mixed crystal bilayer network of high viscosity and even phase separation. In order to ovoid this components of different chemical identities are used which often are not inert or harmless if they are absorbed. For this reason it seems to be interesting to use only components from one chemical family, e.g. to use only glycerides and their derivatives because in the case of absorption they are metabolized. The disadvantages of glyceride creams are, however, their low viscosity. The aim of this investigation was to find the optimum amount of co-emulsifier as consistency excipient for the basic formulation of an O/W glyceride cream. This was achieved by using differential scanning calorimetry; thermogravimetry, oscillation rheology and various stress tests. The amount of co-emulsifier used should not be too high, as it would crystallize increasingly during storage which gives the preparation an optical inhomogenity and a lack in softness which is needed for a suitable cosmetic acceptance. A slightly higher concentration than is necessary for the mixed emulsifier system can be advantageous, as the formation of a separate crystalline lipophilic network in the preparation increases its viscosity which will lead to a higher physico-chemical stability of the formulation. These results were obtained with the co-emulsifiers glyceryl monostearate (Imwitor 900), cetylstearyl alcohol (Lanette O), and PEG-20-glycerolstearate (Tagat S2) as O/W emulsifier. As oil phase a mixture of Miglyol 812 (caprylic/capric triglyceride) and Avocado oil was used.

  19. Influence of fatty acid composition on the formation of polar glycerides and polar fatty acids in sunflower oils heated at frying temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge, N.

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Conventional and high oleic sunflower oils as well as 50% mixture of both of them were heated at different temperatures under well-controlled conditions. Total polar compounds, the main groups of polar glycerides, total polar fatty acids, the main groups of polar fatty acids and the loss of initial fatty acids were quantitated. The most outstanding results demonstrated the primacy of the formation of glyceridic polymerization compounds during heating at high temperatures. After transesterification of the samples dimeric fatty acids was the most significant group of compounds obtained. As expected, linoleic acid was preferentially involved in the formation of polar fatty acids, although the participation of oleic acid became very important at low concentration of linoleic acid. Finally good statistical figures were obtained for the regression of polar fatty acids on polar compounds.

    Aceites de girasol convencional y alto oleico así como una mezcla al 50% de ambos fueron calentados a diferentes temperaturas bajo condiciones controladas. Se cuantificaron los compuestos polares totales, los grupos principales de glicéridos, ácidos grasos polares totales, los grupos principales de ácidos grasos polares y la pérdida de ácidos grasos iniciales. Los resultados más relevantes demostraron la primacía de la formación de compuestos de polimerización glicerídicos durante el calentamiento a altas temperaturas. Después de la transesterificación de las muestras, los ácidos diméricos constituyeron el grupo más significativo de compuestos obtenidos. Como era esperado, el ácido linoleico contribuyó preferentemente en la formación de los ácidos grasos polares, si bien la participación del ácido oleico fue muy importante a bajas concentraciones de ácido linoleico. Finalmente, se obtuvieron buenos resultados estadísticos para la regresión entre ácidos grasos polares y compuestos polares.

  20. High-performance liquid chromatography - Ultraviolet method for the determination of total specific migration of nine ultraviolet absorbers in food simulants based on 1,1,3,3-Tetramethylguanidine and organic phase anion exchange solid phase extraction to remove glyceride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianling; Xiao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Tong; Liu, Tingfei; Tao, Huaming; He, Jun

    2016-06-17

    The glyceride in oil food simulant usually causes serious interferences to target analytes and leads to failure of the normal function of the RP-HPLC column. In this work, a convenient HPLC-UV method for the determination of the total specific migration of nine ultraviolet (UV) absorbers in food simulants was developed based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (TMG) and organic phase anion exchange (OPAE) SPE to efficiently remove glyceride in olive oil simulant. In contrast to the normal ion exchange carried out in an aqueous solution or aqueous phase environment, the OPAE SPE was performed in the organic phase environments, and the time-consuming and challenging extraction of the nine UV absorbers from vegetable oil with aqueous solution could be readily omitted. The method was proved to have good linearity (r≥0.99992), precision (intra-day RSD≤3.3%), and accuracy(91.0%≤recoveries≤107%); furthermore, the lower limit of quantifications (0.05-0.2mg/kg) in five types of food simulants(10% ethanol, 3% acetic acid, 20% ethanol, 50% ethanol and olive oil) was observed. The method was found to be well suited for quantitative determination of the total specific migration of the nine UV absorbers both in aqueous and vegetable oil simulant according to Commission Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011. Migration levels of the nine UV absorbers were determined in 31 plastic samples, and UV-24, UV-531, HHBP and UV-326 were frequently detected, especially in olive oil simulant for UV-326 in PE samples. In addition, the OPAE SPE procedure was also been applied to efficiently enrich or purify seven antioxidants in olive oil simulant. Results indicate that this procedure will have more extensive applications in the enriching or purification of the extremely weak acidic compounds with phenol hydroxyl group that are relatively stable in TMG n-hexane solution and that can be barely extracted from vegetable oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of dietary probiotic, prebiotic and butyric acid glycerides on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... triglyceride, HDL and VLDL cholesterol concentrations were not significantly different among ... cholesterol and cholesterol/HDL ratio in the serum of broiler chickens. .... The serum concentrations of total triglyceride, cholesterol, high- density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL),.

  2. Impact of residual glycerides on viscosity of biodiesel (waste and rapeseed oil blends)

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Jurac; L. Pomenić

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Biodiesel, mixture of fatty acid methyl esters is a biodegradable alternative fuel that is obtained from renewable sources as a vegetable oils or animal fats. Use of waste cooking oils reduce the cost of raw materials for biodiesel production and also reduces the environment pollution. Moreover, pure edible vegetable oils for biodiesel production have an ethical significance because food is used to produce fuel. The aim of this work is a presentation of effects that r...

  3. Factors Influencing the Digestibility of Solid Fats: Mammalian and Plant Lipases--Glyceride Structure and Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    such items. DESTRUCTION NOTICE For Classified Documents: Follow the procedures in DoD 5200.22-M, Industrial Security Manual , Section 11-19 or...has been reported by Apgar et al.2 On the other hand, normal unhydrogenated fats and oils are almost completely digested (97-99%) fcy rats. -1...determined. Pancreatic lipase digestion of cocoa butter and palmitoyloleovlstearin Contrary to the results obtained in vivo by Apgar et al.2, only 7% of

  4. Radiation-initiated free-radical fragmentation of biologically active glycerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhrem, A.A.; Kisel', M.A.; Shadyro, O.I.; Yurkova, I.L.

    1993-01-01

    Oxidation reactions of the free-radical type play a decisive role in the initial processes of radiation damage. The most suitable substrates for such reactions are lipids. Lipids are a basic structural element of biomembranes and are involved in the barrier function and biocatalytic activity of such membranes. Free-radical degradation of membrane lipids can lead to serious damage and ultimately to destruction of the living cell. A well-studied type of free-radical conversion of lipids is oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acid residues, so-called peroxide oxidation of lipids. In this paper, using as examples dimyristoylphosphatidyl glycerol (DMPG), monoglycerides, and glycerophosphate, the authors investigated the possibility of free-radical degradation in compounds of a lipid nature containing the α,β-bifunctional group

  5. Abiotic condensation synthesis of glyceride lipids and wax esters under simulated hydrothermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushdi, Ahmed I; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2006-04-01

    Precursor compounds for abiotic proto cellular membranes are necessary for the origin of life. Amphipathic compounds such as fatty acids and acyl glycerols are important candidates for micelle/bilayer/vesicle formation. Two sets of experiments were conducted to study dehydration reactions of model lipid precursors in aqueous media to form acyl polyols and wax esters, and to evaluate the stability and reactions of the products at elevated temperatures. In the first set, mixtures of n-nonadecanoic acid and ethylene glycol in water, with and without oxalic acid, were heated at discrete temperatures from 150 ( composite function)C to 300 ( composite function)C for 72 h. The products were typically alkyl alkanoates, ethylene glycolyl alkanoates, ethylene glycolyl bis-alkanoates and alkanols. The condensation products had maximum yields between 150 ( composite function)C and 250 ( composite function)C, and were detectable and thus stable under hydrothermal conditions to temperatures acid and glycerol were heated using the same experimental conditions, with and without oxalic acid, between 100 ( composite function)C and 250 ( composite function)C. The main condensation products were two isomers each of monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols at all temperatures, as well as minor amounts of the fatty acid anhydride and methyl ester. The yield of glyceryl monoheptanoates generally increased with increasing temperature and glyceryl diheptanoates decreased noticeably with increasing temperature. The results indicate that condensation reactions and abiotic synthesis of organic lipid compounds under hydrothermal conditions occur easily, provided precursor concentrations are sufficiently high.

  6. Medium chain glycerides of coconut oil for microwave-enhanced conversion of polycarbonate into polyols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, Hynek; Paruzel, Aleksandra; Trhlíková, Olga; Paruzel, Bartosz

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 86, January (2017), s. 173-187 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : medium chain triglycerides * coconut oil * polycarbonate Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.531, year: 2016

  7. MALDI imaging of enzymatic degradation of glycerides by lipase on textile surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall-Andersen, Jonatan; Kaasgaard, Svend G; Janfelt, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Most modern laundry detergents contain enzymes such as proteases, amylases, and lipases for more efficient removal of stains containing proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids during wash at low temperature. The function of the lipases is to hydrolyse the hydrophobic triglycerides from fats and oils...... stain and simulating washing cycles using well-defined detergents with lipase concentrations ranging between 0 and 0.5ppm. After washing, the textile swatches as well as cryo-sections of the swatches were imaged using MALDI imaging in positive ion mode at pixel sizes of 15-75μm. Similar samples were...... an inhomogeneous presence of diglycerides after lipase treatment both in planar images of the textile surface as well as in cross-sections suggesting a non-uniform enzyme effect or extraction of the lipase reaction products from the textile....

  8. Rigid polyurethane foam fabrication using medium chain glycerides of coconut oil and plastics from end-of-life vehicles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paruzel, Aleksandra; Michalowski, S.; Hodan, Jiří; Horák, Pavel; Prociak, A.; Beneš, Hynek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 7 (2017), s. 6237-6246 ISSN 2168-0485 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14PL021; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : chemical recycling * degradation * microwave irradiation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 5.951, year: 2016

  9. Screening of microbial lipases and evalutaion of their potential to produce glycerides with high gamma linolenic acid concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia B.L. Fregolente

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3, cis- 6,9,12-octadecatrienoic acid, an important compound in n-6 eicosanoid family biosynthesis, occurs in the lipids of a few plant and microbial sources. This study focused on the screening of microbial strains with suitable lipase activity for enrichment of GLA by selective hydrolysis of the borage oil (21.6 % of GLA/total fatty acids. Firstly, 352 microrganisms were tested for their lipolytic capacity using screening techniques on agar plates containing borage oil, strains were then selected and screened for their activity (U/mg using both submerged fermentation (SmF and solid state fermentation (SSF. The rate of hydrolysis and the selective preference of these hydrolytic enzymes towards fatty acids, with a special focus on enrichment of GLA were studied and compared with those obtained by two commercially-available lipases. Only one of the lipases tested during this study displayed selectivity, discriminating the GLA during the hydrolysis reaction. Using the enzymatic extract from Geotrichum candidum as a biocatalyst of the reaction, it was possible to obtain a percentage of 41.7% of GLA in acylglycerols fraction when the borage oil was treated in a fixed-bed reactor for 24 hours at 30ºC.

  10. Effects of lipid-borne compounds on the activity and stability of lipases in micro-aqueous systems for lipase-catalyzed reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Høy, Carl-Erik; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    1998-01-01

    , the content of above compounds in commercial edible oil level did not affect the initial activity except for partial glycerides and free fatty acids, but the stability was influenced by most of the compounds. Besides tocopherols and partial glycerides, all the other minor compounds in oils and fats discussed...

  11. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  12. Sam and Mensah (25)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    vol. 19, no. 2. THE CLASSIFICATION OF FATTY ACIDS OF LIPIDS FROM SEEDS OF Persea ... classify and to ascertain the suitability of these lipids for edible and industrial purposes. Lipids .... The study of the glyceride structure of shea butter.

  13. Effect of growth media modifications on cell biomass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are chemically present as esters, ethers, glycerides glycolipids, phospholipids, phosphonolipids, glycosphingolipids, sulpholipids and lipoproteins in storage oils and membranes lipids. Marine microorganisms such as Shewanella frigidimarina are important sources of polyunsaturated ...

  14. Molecular Species of the Enzymatically Synthesized Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Rich Triglyceride

    OpenAIRE

    長田, 恭一; 高橋, 是太郎; 羽田野, 六男; 細川, 雅史

    1991-01-01

    Enzymatic glyceride synthesis and acid interchange using icosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), γ-linolenic acid (GLA), and EPA and DHA concentrated saponified fatty acid mixture obtained from sardine oil were carried out through the use of four kinds of microbial lipases. Lipase TOYO (Chromobacterium viscosum) was the most effective enzyme for glyceride synthesis as well as acid interchange of triglyceride (TG) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was a general tendenc...

  15. Modeling systems relevant to the biodiesel production using the CPA equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Ali, Shahid; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this study, CPA parameters for heavy esters, glycerides, organic acids, and glycerol are presented, together with trends of these parameters against the van der Waals volume. Such trends allow the prediction of parameters for compounds for which data are not available. Pure fluid parameters we...

  16. 2018-04-17T18:44:22Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh Astaq Mohal Khan, G.R.M.; BCSIR Laboratories, Rajshahi-6206, Bangladesh Sarmina Yeasmin, Mst.; Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh Mesua ferrea, Seed oil, Glyceride compositions, Fatty ...

  17. Assessment of Potential Abatement provided by Annona Muricata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    glyceride, total bilirubin, total cholesterol and glucose levels (P<0.05). However, significant ... homeostasis at the level of iron regulatory proteins. Annona muricata Linn .... enhanced protein catabolism and accelerated amino acid deamination ..... (2005).”Diabetic nephropathy: diagnosis, prevention, and treatment”. Diabetes.

  18. Effect of the Various Solvents on the In Vitro Permeability of Vitamin B

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of different solvents on the in vitro skin permeability of vitamin B12. Method: Vitamin B12 (B12) permeability experiments through rat skin pretreated with various solvents namely, propylene glycol, oleoyl macrogol-6-glycerides, propylene glycol monocaprylate and oleic acid, were performed ...

  19. Oil content in seeds of the NPGS jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis, (Link) Schneider is a shrub native to warm and arid land regions of North and Latin America. Its seeds contain vegetable oil composed of long (C20-22), straight-chain liquid wax of non-glyceride esters. Minute amounts of triglycerides in its composition make the oil a l...

  20. SAPONIFICATION EQUIVALENT OF DASAMULA TAILA

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  1. Saponification equivalent of dasamula taila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R B

    1994-07-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  2. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corn endosperm oil. 73.315 Section 73.315 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.315 Corn endosperm oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive corn endosperm oil is a reddish-brown liquid composed chiefly of glycerides, fatty acids, sitosterols...

  3. Esterification of free fatty acids in biodiesel production with sulphonated pyrolysed carbohydrate catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    The pre-treatment of free fatty acids in oils and fats in biodiesel production is of pivotal importance, and esterification in acidic medium must be done prior to basic transesterification of glycerides. The free fatty acids may be converted over an acidic catalyst of sulphonated pyrolysed...

  4. Enzymatic pretreatment of low-grade oils for biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordblad, Mathias; Pedersen, Anders K.; Rancke-Madsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The alkaline process for making biodiesel (fatty acidmethyl esters, or FAME) is highly efficient at the transesterification of glycerides. However, its performance is poor when it comes to using oil that contain significant amounts of free fatty acids (FFA).The traditional approach to such feed...

  5. Fatty acid composition and physicochemical characteristics of Tartar (Sterculia Stigera) oil as Affected by the extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eljack, M.; Babiker, E. E.; El Tinay, A. H.

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acid content and physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from Tartar seeds, using two extraction methods, were studied. The results revealed that saturated fatty acid content varied from 0.2% to 33.4%, while unsaturated fatty acid content varied from 0.1% to 24.2%, with no significant difference between the extraction methods. Sterols content varied from 0.3% to 66.0%. Cyclopropenoid fatty acids ranged from 3.4% to 5.3% but were significantly reduced after refining. Glycerides content varied with maximum values of 78.03%, 4.58% and 2.82% for tri-, di-, and mono-glycerides, respectively. Physicochemical investigation of the oil showed that the colour, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, saponification value, relative viscosity, iodine value, and unsaponifiable matter were similar for both methods of extraction with minor exceptions.(Author)

  6. Biodiesel fuels from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical alcohol transesterifications and other methods: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2003-01-01

    Vegetable oil fuels have not been acceptable because they were more expensive than petroleum fuels. With recent increases in petroleum prices and uncertainties concerning petroleum availability, there is renewed interest in vegetable oil fuels for Diesel engines. Dilution of oils with solvents and microemulsions of vegetable oils lowers the viscosity, but some engine performance problems still exist. The purpose of the transesterification process is to lower the viscosity of the oil. Pyrolysis produces more biogasoline than biodiesel fuel. Soap pyrolysis products of vegetable oils can be used as alternative Diesel engine fuel. Methyl and ethyl esters of vegetable oils have several outstanding advantages among other new renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives. The main factors affecting transesterification are the molar ratio of glycerides to alcohol, catalyst, reaction temperature and pressure, reaction time and the contents of free fatty acids and water in oils. The commonly accepted molar ratios of alcohol to glycerides are 6:1-30:1

  7. Methods and catalysts for making biodiesel from the transesterification and esterification of unrefined oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuli [Detroit, MI; Salley, Steven O [Grosse Pointe Park, MI; Ng, K Y. Simon [West Bloomfield, MI

    2012-04-24

    A method of forming a biodiesel product and a heterogeneous catalyst system used to form said product that has a high tolerance for the presence of water and free fatty acids (FFA) in the oil feedstock is disclosed. This catalyst system may simultaneously catalyze both the esterification of FAA and the transesterification of triglycerides present in the oil feedstock. The catalyst system according to one aspect of the present disclosure represents a class of zinc and lanthanum oxide heterogeneous catalysts that include different ratios of zinc oxide to lanthanum oxides (Zn:La ratio) ranging from about 10:0 to 0:10. The Zn:La ratio in the catalyst is believed to have an effect on the number and reactivity of Lewis acid and base sites, as well as the transesterification of glycerides, the esterification of fatty acids, and the hydrolysis of glycerides and biodiesel.

  8. Radioisotopic method for the measurement of lipolysis in small samples of human adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibel, R.L.; Hirsch, J.; Berry, E.M.; Gruen, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    To facilitate the study of adrenoreceptor response in small needle biopsy samples of human subcutaneous adipose tissue, we developed a dual radioisotopic technique for measuring lipolysis rate. Aliquots (20-75 mg) of adipose tissue fragments were incubated in a buffered albumin medium containing [ 3 H]palmitate and [ 14 C]glucose, each of high specific activity. In neutral glycerides synthesized in this system, [ 14 C]glucose is incorporated exclusively into the glyceride-glycerol moiety and 3 H appears solely in the esterified fatty acid. Alpha-2 and beta-1 adrenoreceptor activation of tissue incubated in this system does not alter rates of 14 C-labeled glyceride accumulation, but does produce a respective increase or decrease in the specific activity of fatty acids esterified into newly synthesized glycerides. This alteration in esterified fatty acid specific activity is reflected in the ratio of 14 C: 3 H in newly synthesized triglycerides extracted from the incubated adipose tissue. There is a high correlation (r . 0.90) between the 14 C: 3 H ratio in triglycerides and the rate of lipolysis as reflected in glycerol release into the incubation medium. The degree of adrenoreceptor activation by various concentrations of lipolytic and anti-lipolytic substances can be assessed by comparing this ratio in stimulated tissue to that characterizing unstimulated tissue or the incubation medium. This technique permits the study of very small, unweighed tissue biopsy fragments, the only limitation on sensitivity being the specific activity of the medium glucose and palmitate. It is, therefore, useful for serial examinations of adipose tissue adrenoreceptor dose-response characteristics under a variety of clinical circumstances

  9. The specificity of Several Kinds Lipases on n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Elisabeth, T Yuliani, P M Tambunan, J M Purba

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Several lipases from microbial and plant, i.e Rhizomucor miehei, Pseudomonas sp., Candida antartica, rice bran, and Carica papaya latex (CPL were examined for synthesis of omega-3 (n-3 PUFA-rich glyceride by hydrolysis and acidolysis reaction. Tuna oil was used in hydrolysis reaction, whereas tuna and palm oils were used as source of triglyceride (TAG molecules and n-3 PUFA concentrate from tuna oil as source of EPA and DHA in acidolysis reaction.For hydrolysis reaction, the rice bran and CPL lipases showed the lowest hydrolytic activity of the tuna oil, whereas the R. miehei lipase showed the highest hydrolytic activity but was unable to hydrolyze EPA and DHA. On the contrary, the C. antartica and Pseudomonas sp. lipases acted stronger on hydrolysis of DHA ester bond than EPA.For acidolysis reaction, all the lipases showed ability to incorporate n-3 PUFA into tuna and palm oils. C. antartica lipase had the maximum DHA incorporation into tuna and palm oils, rice bran lipase had relatively similar ability with R. miehei lipase, and the CPL lipase had the lowest ability. This study proved that rice bran and CPL lipases also had transesterification activity and showed the feasibility of the rice bran lipase to be a biocatalyst for n-3 PUFA-rich glyceride production. Increasing the substrate ratio, of n-3 PUFA concentrate and tuna or palm oil, could increase the EPA and DHA incorporation. The R. miehei, rice bran, and CPL lipases unabled to incorporate DHA into DHA-containing glyceride molecule, whereas C. antartica lipase had the capability in high ratio of n-3 PUFA concentrate to oil. Therefore, the lipases were easier to incorporate n-3 PUFA into palm oil than tuna oil, since the TAG molecules of palm oil was not as complex as tuna oil. It could be suggested that the lipases did not only have acyl chain and positional specificity, but also the whole glyceride structure specificity.

  10. Fatty acid methyl esters from soapstocks with potential use as biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Li; Xiao-dong Zhang; Li Sun

    2010-01-01

    Refined vegetable oils are the main feedstocks for biodiesel production presently. However, the source and price of refined vegetable oils always restrict the development of biodiesel industry in many regions. Large amount of cheap soapstocks (SSs) are currently available in oil refining process, which may provide potential feedstocks reservoir. In this paper, one technical route involving acidification, separation of free fatty acids (FFAs) and glycerides through molecular distillation, followed by esterification and transesterification, respectively, was proposed for effective conversion of SSs. The acid oil obtained from acidification of SSs was distilled at 180 C to isolate FFAs and glycerides. Esterification was then catalyzed by solid superacid catalyst, SO 4 2- /ZrO 2 -TiO 2 /La 3+ , with a methanol to oil ratio of 15:1, catalyst amount of 5 wt.% and reaction time 4 h at 60 C. The conversion efficiency could reach 98.02%. Transesterification with glycerides was also carried out with methanol to oil molar ratio of 5:1 and catalyst (sodium methoxide) amount of 0.6% and reaction time 0.5 h at 55 C. The conversion efficiency could reach 97.25%. Purification of transesterification products was operated at the evaporating temperature of 120 C. The content of FAME in the distillate was above 95% analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). (author)

  11. Determination of Free Fatty Acids and Triglycerides by Gas Chromatography Using Selective Esterification Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kail, Brian W; Link, Dirk D; Morreale, Bryan D

    2012-11-01

    A method for selectively determining both free fatty acids (FFA) and triacylglycerides (TAGs) in biological oils was investigated and optimized using gas chromatography after esterification of the target species to their corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). The method used acid catalyzed esterification in methanolic solutions under conditions of varying severity to achieve complete conversion of more reactive FFAs while preserving the concentration of TAGs. Complete conversion of both free acids and glycerides to corresponding FAMEs was found to require more rigorous reaction conditions involving heating to 120°C for up to 2 h. Method validation was provided using gas chromatography–flame ionization detection, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. The method improves on existing methods because it allows the total esterified lipid to be broken down by FAMEs contributed by FFA compared to FAMEs from both FFA and TAGs. Single and mixed-component solutions of pure fatty acids and triglycerides, as well as a sesame oil sample to simulate a complex biological oil, were used to optimize the methodologies. Key parameters that were investigated included: HCl-to-oil ratio, temperature and reaction time. Pure free fatty acids were found to esterify under reasonably mild conditions (10 min at 50°C with a 2.1:1 HCl to fatty acid ratio) with 97.6 ± 2.3% recovery as FAMEs, while triglycerides were largely unaffected under these reaction conditions. The optimized protocol demonstrated that it is possible to use esterification reactions to selectively determine the free acid content, total lipid content, and hence, glyceride content in biological oils. This protocol also allows gas chromatography analysis of FAMEs as a more ideal analyte than glyceride species in their native state.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of triglyceride based thermosetting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Erde

    2005-07-01

    Plant oils, which are found in abundance in all parts of the world and are easily replenished annually, have the potential to replace petroleum as a chemical feedstock for making polymers. Within the past few years, there has been growing interest to use triglycerides as the basic constituent of thermosetting polymers with the necessary rigidity, strength and glass transition temperatures required for engineering applications. Plant oils are not polymerizable in their natural form, however various functional groups that can polymerize can easily be attached to the triglyceride structure making them ideal cross-linking monomers for thermosetting liquid molding resins. Through this research project a number of thermosetting liquid molding resins based on soybean and castor oil, which is a specialty oil with hydroxyls on its fatty acids, have been developed. The triglyceride based monomers were prepared via the malination of the alcoholysis products of soybean and castor oil with various polyols, such as pentaerythritol, glycerol, and Bisphenol A propoxylate. The malinated glycerides were then cured in the presence of a reactive diluent, such as styrene, to form rigid glassy materials with a wide range of properties. In addition to maleate half-esters, methacrylates were also introduced to the glyceride structure via methacrylation of the soybean oil glycerolysis product with methacrylic anhydride. This product, which contains methacrylic acid as by-product, and its blends with styrene also gave rigid materials when cured. The triglyceride based monomers were characterized via conventional spectroscopic techniques. Time resolved FTIR analysis was used to determine the curing kinetics and the final conversions of polymerization of the malinated glyceride-styrene blends. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was used to determine the thermomechanical behavior of these polymers and other mechanical properties were determined via standard mechanical tests. The use of lignin

  13. Evaluation of reaction mechanisms and the kinetic parameters for the transesterification of castor oil by liquid enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Thalles Allan; Errico, Massimiliano; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2017-01-01

    of the transesterification of castor oil with methanol using the enzyme Eversa® Transform as catalyst were investigated. Reactions were carried out for 8 hours at 35 °C with: an alcohol-to-oil molar ratio equal to 6:1, a 5 wt% of liquid enzyme solution and addition of 5 wt% of water by weight of castor oil. From...... methanolysis rates of glycerides obtained, indicated that transesterification dominates over hydrolysis. The mechanism among the four models proposed that gave the best fit could be simplified, eliminating the kinetic parameters with negligible effects on the reaction rates. This model was able to fit...

  14. Monobutyrine: a novel feed additive in the diet of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Rapaccini

    Full Text Available Purpose of the present work was to validate the monoglyceride of butyric acid (MB as an alternative to antibiotics as growth promoters in the diet of broiler chickens. The approach is a kind of prolongation of previous works, in which a blend of mono-, di- and tri-glycerides of butyric acid have been previously tested.The results indicated that MB was very efficient in limiting the mortality of birds challenged with Eimeria spp., but did not appreciably impair the performance of unchallenged birds. In conclusion, the metabolisable energy content of MB appeared comparable with that of soybean oil and MB a reliable coccidiostat.

  15. Phytoconstituents from Vitex agnus-castus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Nong; Friesen, J Brent; Webster, Donna; Nikolic, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B; Wang, Z Jim; Fong, Harry H S; Farnsworth, Norman R; Pauli, Guido F

    2011-06-01

    A new labdane-diterpene, viteagnusin I (1), together with 23 known phytoconstituents were isolated from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L, and their structures characterized by spectroscopic methods (NMR and MS). The known compounds include ten flavonoids, five terpenoids, three neolignans, and four phenolic compounds, as well as one glyceride. Biological evaluation identified apigenin, 3-methylkaempferol, luteolin, and casticin as weak ligands of delta and mu opioid receptors, exhibiting dose-dependent receptor binding. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [The role of structural heterogeneity of circulating lipids in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism in the plasma and lymph in hypercholesterolemia in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosukhin, A B; Akhmetova, B S

    1986-01-01

    Fatty acid spectrum of lipoproteins was studied in intestinal steam lymph and blood plasma of dogs with alimentary hypercholesterolemia. Mechanism of cholesterol accumulation in blood plasma appears to relate to increase in content of cholesterol palmitate which is secreted from intestine into lymph and hydrolyzed slowly in liver tissue. Alterations in composition of fatty acid acyls of cholesterol esters, of phosphatidyl cholines and triacyl glycerides as well as effect of these alterations on the lecithin-cholesterol acyl-transferase reaction and lipoprotein lipolysis are discussed.

  17. LIPID SYNTHESIS, INTRACELLULAR TRANSPORT, AND SECRETION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Olga; Stein, Yechezkiel

    1967-01-01

    In the mammary glands of lactating albino mice injected intravenously with 9, 10-oleic acid-3H or 9, 10-palmitic acid-3H, it has been shown that the labeled fatty acids are incorporated into mammary gland glycerides. The labeled lipid in the mammary gland 1 min after injection was in esterified form (> 95%), and the radioautographic reaction was seen over the rough endoplasmic reticulum and over lipid droplets, both intracellular and intraluminal. At 10–60 min after injection, the silver grains were concentrated predominantly over lipid droplets. There was no concentration of radioactivity over the granules in the Golgi apparatus, at any time interval studied. These findings were interpreted to indicate that after esterification of the fatty acid into glycerides in the rough endoplasmic reticulum an in situ aggregation of lipid occurs, with acquisition of droplet form. The release of the lipid into the lumen proceeds directly and not through the Golgi apparatus, in contradistinction to the mode of secretion of casein in the mammary gland or of lipoprotein in the liver. The presence of strands of endoplasmic reticulum attached to intraluminal lipid droplets provides a structural counterpart to the milk microsomes described in ruminant milk. PMID:6033535

  18. Chromatographic isolation and spectroscopic identification of phytoconstituents of jujuba seeds (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Manowwar Alam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The seeds of Zizyphus jujuba Mill. (Rhamnaceae are astringent, aphrodisiac, tonic; used to cure cough, asthma, vomiting, burning sensation, biliousness, leucorrhoea, and eye infections in traditional systems of medicine. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract of seeds of Z. jujuba was partitioned into petroleum ether and water soluble fractions. Isolation of compounds was performed by silica gel column chromatography. The structures of isolated compounds were established on the basis of spectral studies and chemical reactions. Results: Chromatographic separation of methanolic extract of seeds yielded three new phyto-constituents characterized as 3, 5, 7-trimethoxy-8, 3′, 4′, 5′-tetrahydroxy flavone-6-oxy hexahydrobisabolene ether (4, 1, 9-dihydroxy tetrahydrogeranyl-8-oxy-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (5 and terahydrogeranyl-8-oxy-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl (2a→1b-O-β-D-glucofuranosyl (2b→1c-O-β-D-glucofuranosyl (2c→1d-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (2d→1e-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (2c→f-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2f-benzoate (6 along with five known compounds, palmitoyl palmitoleoyl arachidoyl glyceride (1, tetratriacontenoic acid (2, palmitoyl oleoyl linolenoyl glyceride (3, hexanyl tetraglucoside (7 and pentasaccharide (8. Conclusion: This is the first report of saturated monoterpene and sesquiterpene derivatives from jujuba seeds.

  19. Fuel properties and precipitate formation at low temperature in soy-, cottonseed-, and poultry fat-based biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haiying Tang; Steven O. Salley; K.Y. Simon Ng [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    2008-10-15

    The formation of precipitates in biodiesel blends may have serious implications for diesel engine fuel delivery systems. Precipitates were observed in Soybean oil (SBO-), cottonseed oil (CSO-), and poultry fat (PF-) based biodiesel blends after storage at 4{sup o}C. CSO- and PF-based biodiesel had a lower mass of precipitates observed than the SBO-based. Moreover, different rates of precipitate formation were observed for the B20 versus the B100. These suggested that the formation of precipitate during cold temperature storage was dependent on the feedstock and blend concentration. The solvency effects of biodiesel blends were more pronounced at low temperature than at room temperature leading to a higher amount of precipitates formed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) chromatograms indicated that steryl glucosides are the major cause of precipitate formation in SBO-based biodiesel; while for PF-based biodiesel, the precipitates are due to mono-glycerides. However, the precipitates from CSO-based biodiesel are due to both steryl glucosides and mono-glycerides. 45 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Purification and substrate specificity of Staphylococcus hyicus lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oort, M G; Deveer, A M; Dijkman, R; Tjeenk, M L; Verheij, H M; de Haas, G H; Wenzig, E; Götz, F

    1989-11-28

    The Staphylococcus hyicus lipase gene has been cloned and expressed in Staphylococcus carnosus. From the latter organism the enzyme was secreted into the medium as a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 86 kDa. This protein was purified, and the amino-terminal sequence showed that the primary gene product was indeed cleaved at the proposed signal peptide cleavage site. The protein was purified from large-scale preparations after tryptic digestion. This limited proteolysis reduced the molecular mass to 46 kDa and increased the specific activity about 3-fold. Although the enzyme had a low specific activity in the absence of divalent cations, the activity increased about 40-fold in the presence of Sr2+ or Ca2+ ions. The purified lipase has a broad substrate specificity. The acyl chains were removed from the primary and secondary positions of natural neutral glycerides and from a variety of synthetic glyceride analogues. Thus triglycerides were fully hydrolyzed to free fatty acid and glycerol. The enzyme hydrolyzed naturally occurring phosphatidylcholines, their synthetic short-chain analogues, and lysophospholipids to free fatty acids and water-soluble products. The enzyme had a 2-fold higher activity on micelles of short-chain D-lecithins than on micelles composed of the L-isomers. Thus the enzyme from S. hyicus has lipase activity and also high phospholipase A and lysophospholipase activity.

  1. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of the performance of an indirubin derivative, formulated in four different self-emulsifying drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heshmati, Nasim; Cheng, Xinlai; Dapat, Else

    2014-01-01

    -chain or long-chain glycerides. METHODS: SEDDS E804 were developed. In-vitro lipolysis was carried out at pH 6.5 (37°C) by adding pancreatic lipase (800 U/ml) and controlling by CaCl2 and NaOH addition. E804 content was quantified in the aqueous micellar phase and precipitate using HPLC. Oral bioavailability...... was determined in rats. Plasma drug content was determined by liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry. KEY FINDINGS: All formulations reserved E804 in the aqueous micellar phase up to 60 min. Precipitation proceeded towards the end of lipolysis up to 45%. Lowest level of precipitation (21%) occurred...

  2. Novel simple process for tocopherols selective recovery from vegetable oils by adsorption and desorption with an anion-exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiromori, Kousuke; Shibasaki-Kitakawa, Naomi; Nakashima, Kazunori; Yonemoto, Toshikuni

    2016-03-01

    A novel and simple low-temperature process was used to recover tocopherols from a deodorizer distillate, which is a by-product of edible oil refining. The process consists of three operations: the esterification of free fatty acids with a cation-exchange resin catalyst, the adsorption of tocopherols onto an anion-exchange resin, and tocopherol desorption from the resin. No degradation of tocopherols occurred during these processes. In the tocopherol-rich fraction, no impurities such as sterols or glycerides were present. These impurities are commonly found in the product of the conventional process. This novel process improves the overall recovery ratio and the mass fraction of the product (75.9% and 51.0wt%) compared with those in the conventional process (50% and 35wt%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Separation of FFA from Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil Hydrolysate by Means of Membrane Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jala, Ram Chandra Reddy; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2011-01-01

    Different types of commercial porous and non-porous polymeric membranes have been investigated for their capabilities to separate free fatty acids (FFA) from hydrolysate of partially hydrogenated soybean oil. A regenerated cellulose (RC, PLAC) membrane exhibited the most prominent difference...... in rejection between FFA and glycerides and the highest flux (27 kg h−1 m−2) in hydrolysate ethanol solution. The results also showed that, besides the pore size of membrane, the membrane flux depended largely on the property matching between membrane and solvent, as observed (40 kg h−1 m−2) flux was achieved...... with methanol but no flux detected with hexane for PLAC. The polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, NTR-729 HF) and Polyamide (PA, NTR-759HR) membranes gave the second and third highest flux (10.1 and 5.7 kg h−1 m−2, respectively), where solute rejections for NTR-759HR were 95.9% for triacylglycerols (TG), 83...

  4. Green coffee oil analysis by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, Nicola; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Navarini, Luciano; Schievano, Elisabetta; Mammi, Stefano

    2013-06-15

    In this work, we show how an extensive and fast quantification of the main components in green coffee oil can be achieved by NMR, with minimal sample manipulation and use of organic solvents. The approach is based on the integration of characteristic NMR signals, selected because of their similar relaxation properties and because they fall in similar spectral regions, which minimizes offset effects. Quantification of glycerides, together with their fatty acid components (oleic, linoleic, linolenic and saturated) and minor species (caffeine, cafestol, kahweol and 16-O-methylcafestol), is achieved in less than 1h making use of (1)H and (13)C spectroscopy. The compositional data obtained are in reasonable agreement with classical chromatographic analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of triiodothyronine and insulin on glucose metabolism in tissue explants and isolated adipocytes from lean and obese Zucker rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Glucose metabolism in adipocytes from 6 week old lean and obese Zucker rats were sensitive to direct and chronic treatment with insulin and triidothyronine (T 3 ). Insulin had a large stimulatory effect on glucose metabolism in acutely isolated adipocytes. This effect was greater in the lean than in the obese. Fatty acid, CO 2 , and glycerol-glyceride formation from radiolabeled glucose was elevated in the obese over the leans. Pretreatment of isolated adipocytes with pharmacological concentrations of T 3 for 30 minutes prior to the measurement of glucose metabolism had a greater effect on lean than obese adipocytes. The presence of insulin was required to observe the acute effects of T 3 . A 2-hour exposure to physiological levels of T 3 in the presence of insulin in both lean and obese adipocytes decreased lipogenesis. In the absence of insulin, a 2 hour pretreatment with physiological levels of T 3 in tissue from a euthyroid animal produced increased lipogenesis

  6. Studies on qualitative and quantitative chemical changes in gamma-irradiated fish and fishery products of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, C.

    1978-01-01

    There was an extension of shelf-life of irradiated mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) upto 28 days at ice temperature (0-2 0 C) without any adverse effect on organoleptic attributes. No changes were observed in total lipids and non--saponifiable matter of irradiated fish during storage at 0.2 0 C. The changes in chemical indices including iodine value, peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid value, free fatty acid and glyceride content of irradiated fish samples were similar to that unirradiated ones during storage at 0-2 0 C. Thin-layer and gas-chromatographic studies on lipids did not reveal any detectable new component in irradiated fish samples. A definite suppression in the levels of total volatile basic nitrogen and trimethyl amine nitrogen was observed in irradiated samples compared to that in controls during storage at 0-2 0 C. (author)

  7. [Influence of diets with a high content of qualitatively different carbohydrates on the metabolism of blood lipoproteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapkov, B G; Listratenkova, E F

    1977-01-01

    The feeding of rats for a space of 30 days on diets with elevated content of starch or saccharose (71 per cent of the total calorific value) was followed by an accelerated synthesis and secretion into the blood of pre-beta-lipoproteins. The ration with succharose, however, produced a much greater effect on the rate of synthesis of pre-beta-lipoproteins than did the one containing starch. The action of both carbohydrate-rich rations was noted to be attended by a growing rate of the apoproteids and glycerides exchange in the low-density lipoproteins. The feature distinguishing the effect produced by the ration with saccharose, as compared with that containing starch, was an accelerated etherification of cholesterol in the blood.

  8. Differences in [14C]glycerol utilization in normal and familial hypercholesterolemic fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shireman, R.B.; Durieux, J.

    1991-01-01

    It is known that cultured fibroblasts from familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients lack the normal cell receptor for low density lipoprotein (LDL) and that the absence of receptor-mediated transport of LDL cholesterol into these cells results in increased cellular synthesis of cholesterol. After 20 h perincubation in lipid-free medium, cultured FH fibroblasts incorporated significantly greater amounts of [ 14 C]glycerol into cellular lipids than did normal fibroblasts. Relative to the control medium which contained only bovine serum albumin (BSA), preincubation with 5% fetal bovine serum or 50 micrograms LDL/ml decreased [ 14 C]glycerol incorporation by both cell types. FH cells utilized more [ 14 C]glycerol for phospholipid synthesis and less for triglyceride synthesis than normal cells. This study indicates that LDL may be important in the transport of glycerides, as well as cholesterol, to cells

  9. Comparison of chromatographic methods for the determination of bound glycerol in biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foglia, T.A.; Jones, K.C.; Nunez, A.; Phillips, J.G. [U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, Wyndmoor, PA (United States); Mittelbach, M. [Inst. for Chemistry, Univ. of Graz, Graz (Austria)

    2004-09-01

    An important fuel criterion for biodiesel is bound glycerol, which is a function of the residual amount of triglycerides and partial glycerides in the biodiesel. Either high-temperature gas chromatography or high performance liquid chromatography can be used for determining these minor but important components in biodiesel. In this paper we have conducted a statistical study on the accuracy of the two methods for ascertaining the bound glycerol in biodiesel fuels obtained from different feedstocks. Analysis of variance showed that with one exception, namely diacylglycerols in some soy oil based biodiesel, there was no statistical difference in bound glycerol for the biodiesel samples analyzed or a difference between methods. Operationally, the high performance liquid chromatographic method is superior to the high temperature gas chromatographic method in that it requires no sample derivatization, has shorter analysis times, and is directly applicable to most biodiesel fuels. (orig.)

  10. Biodiesel Production from Acidified Oils via Supercritical Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In biodiesel production, the vegetable oil used as raw material for transesterification should be free of water and free fatty acids (FFAs, which may consume catalyst and reduce catalyst efficiency. In this work biodiesel was prepared from acidified oils (AO through a supercritical methanol route, in which the esterification of FFAs and transesterification of glyceride with methanol occurred simultaneously. The effects of the mass ratio of methanol to AO, the operation temperature as well as the water content on the FFAs conversion and glycerol yield were investigated. The results indicated that the FFAs conversion for esterification under the condition of 1:1 methanol/oil ratio, 310 °C and 15 min reaction time reached 98.7%, and the glycerol yield for transesterification under 0.25:1 methanol/oil ratio, 290 °C and 20 min reaction time reached 63.5% respectively.

  11. Formulation of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems containing monoacyl phosphatidylcholine and Kolliphor® RH40 using experimental design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy; Rades, Thomas; Müllertz, Anette

    2018-01-01

    40 hydrogenated castor oil (Kolliphor® RH40). Monoacyl phosphatidylcholine was used in the form of Lipoid S LPC 80 (LPC, containing approximately 80% monoacyl phosphatidylcholine, 13% phosphatidylcholine and 4% concomitant components). The investigated SNEDDS comprised of long-chain or medium...... on the emulsion droplet size formed when dispersing the SNEDDS in an aqueous environment. The current study investigates the emulsion droplet sizes formed from SNEDDS containing different levels of the natural surfactant monoacyl phosphatidylcholine to reduce the concentration of the synthetic surfactant polyoxyl...... on the resulting droplet size of the dispersed SNEDDS measured by dynamic light scattering. All investigated formulations formed nano-emulsions with droplet sizes from about 20 to 200 nm. The use of medium-chain glycerides was more likely to result in smaller and more monodisperse droplet sizes compared to the use...

  12. Enzymatic transesterification of waste vegetable oil to produce biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresto, C G; Naccarato, S; Albo, L; De Paola, M G; Chakraborty, S; Curcio, S; Calabrò, V

    2015-11-01

    An experimental study on enzymatic transesterification was performed to produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was covalently immobilized on a epoxy-acrylic resin support. The immobilized enzyme exhibited high catalytic specific surface and allowed an easy recovery, regeneration and reutilisation of biocatalyst. Waste vegetable oils - such as frying oils, considered not competitive with food applications and wastes to be treated - were used as a source of glycerides. Ethanol was used as a short chain alcohol and was added in three steps with the aim to reduce its inhibitory effect on lipase activity. The effect of biocatalyst/substrate feed mass ratios and the waste oil quality have been investigated in order to estimate the process performances. Biocatalyst recovery and reuse have been also studied with the aim to verify the stability of the biocatalyst for its application in industrial scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neural and hybrid modeling: an alternative route to efficiently predict the behavior of biotechnological processes aimed at biofuels obtainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Stefano; Saraceno, Alessandra; Calabrò, Vincenza; Iorio, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The present paper was aimed at showing that advanced modeling techniques, based either on artificial neural networks or on hybrid systems, might efficiently predict the behavior of two biotechnological processes designed for the obtainment of second-generation biofuels from waste biomasses. In particular, the enzymatic transesterification of waste-oil glycerides, the key step for the obtainment of biodiesel, and the anaerobic digestion of agroindustry wastes to produce biogas were modeled. It was proved that the proposed modeling approaches provided very accurate predictions of systems behavior. Both neural network and hybrid modeling definitely represented a valid alternative to traditional theoretical models, especially when comprehensive knowledge of the metabolic pathways, of the true kinetic mechanisms, and of the transport phenomena involved in biotechnological processes was difficult to be achieved.

  14. Neural and Hybrid Modeling: An Alternative Route to Efficiently Predict the Behavior of Biotechnological Processes Aimed at Biofuels Obtainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Curcio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper was aimed at showing that advanced modeling techniques, based either on artificial neural networks or on hybrid systems, might efficiently predict the behavior of two biotechnological processes designed for the obtainment of second-generation biofuels from waste biomasses. In particular, the enzymatic transesterification of waste-oil glycerides, the key step for the obtainment of biodiesel, and the anaerobic digestion of agroindustry wastes to produce biogas were modeled. It was proved that the proposed modeling approaches provided very accurate predictions of systems behavior. Both neural network and hybrid modeling definitely represented a valid alternative to traditional theoretical models, especially when comprehensive knowledge of the metabolic pathways, of the true kinetic mechanisms, and of the transport phenomena involved in biotechnological processes was difficult to be achieved.

  15. In vitro and in vivo performance of monoacyl phospholipid-based self-emulsifying drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy; Siqueira, Scheyla D V S; Amenitsch, Heinz

    2017-01-01

    to investigate the impact of LPC on the emulsion droplet size, extent of digestion, colloidal structure evolution and drug precipitation during in vitro lipolysis simulating human conditions and drug bioavailability in a rat model. The four investigated SEDDS containing long-chain glycerides, polyoxyl 35 castor...... and polydispersity of the dispersed SEDDS. The two LPC-free SEDDS generated lamellar phase structures (Lα) with d-spacing=4.76nm during digestion. Incorporating LPC into these systems inhibited the formation of lamellar phase structures. The amount of precipitated crystalline FF from the four SEDDS was similar......This study investigates the effect of monoacyl phospholipid incorporation on the in vitro and in vivo performance of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS). Monoacyl phosphatidylcholine (Lipoid S LPC 80 (LPC)) was incorporated into four different fenofibrate (FF)-loaded long-chain SEDDS...

  16. Monoacyl phosphatidylcholine inhibits the formation of lipid multilamellar structures during in vitro lipolysis of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thuy; Siqueira, Scheyla D V S; Amenitsch, Heinz; Rades, Thomas; Müllertz, Anette

    2017-10-15

    The colloidal structures formed during lipolysis of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) might affect the solubilisation and possibly the absorption of drugs. The aim of the current study is to elucidate the structures formed during the in vitro lipolysis of four SEDDS containing medium-chain glycerides and caprylocaproyl polyoxyl-8 glycerides (Labrasol), with or without monoacyl phosphatidylcholine (MAPC). In situ synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was combined with ex situ cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to elucidate the generated structures. The SAXS scattering curves obtained during the lipolysis of MAPC-free SEDDS containing 43-60% w/w Labrasol displayed a lamellar phase peak at q=2.13nm -1 that increased with Labrasol concentration, suggesting the presence of multilamellar structures (MLS) with a d-spacing of 2.95nm. However, SEDDS containing 20-30% w/w MAPC did not form MLS during the lipolysis. The cryo-TEM and DLS studies showed that MAPC-free SEDDS formed coarse emulsions while MAPC-containing SEDDS formed nanoemulsions during the dispersion in digestion medium. From the first minute and during the entire lipolysis process, SEDDS both with and without MAPC generated uni-, bi-, and oligo-lamellar vesicles. The lipolysis kinetics in the first minutes of the four SEDDS correlated with an increased intensity of the SAXS curves and the rapid transformation from lipid droplets to vesicles observed by cryo-TEM. In conclusion, the study elucidates the structures formed during in vitro lipolysis of SEDDS and the inhibitory effect of MAPC on the formation of MLS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF approach for the determination of fatty acids and acylglycerols in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Nasa, Jacopo; Degano, Ilaria; Brandolini, Leonardo; Modugno, Francesca; Bonaduce, Ilaria

    2018-07-12

    We propose a new analytical method using reverse phase High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled through an electrospray source with a tandem quadrupole-time-of-flight (ESI-Q-ToF) mass spectrometric detector for the full characterization and quantitation of the different classes of fatty acids and acylglycerols in lipid samples in a single chromatographic run. In this work, we optimized the derivatization reaction for free fatty acids with 2-hydrazinoquinoline, which is a low-cost approach, using a full factorial design. This reaction does not involve transesterification, thus enabling the free fatty acids to be separated and successfully quantified in the presence of mono-, di- and triacylglycerols without altering the whole glyceride profile. This new analytical method provides a full profile of fatty acids, mono-, di- and triglycerides within a relatively short chromatographic run (less than 40 min), with low operating back-pressure (less than 110 bar). The derivatization of the free fatty acids allows their detection in positive mode, with limits of detection in the range of 0.2-1.9 ng/g, and a dynamic range of two orders of magnitude. The figures of merit of the procedure are competitive with respect to the literature. The method was validated by characterizing two different types of olive oils. Free fatty acid content was quantified, and the results are consistent with literature data. The method was applied to the characterization of cow milk and an infant formula, after the precipitation of proteins and phospholipids, and proved suitable for the detection of short chain fatty acids, free fatty acids and glycerides highlighting differences in the composition of the two milks. The proposed procedure improves the current methods for the analysis of acylglyceride based materials, such as olive oil, and proved promising for the characterization of lipids in complex matrices, such as milk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Lipophilic fractions from the marine sponge Halichondria sitiens decrease secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells and decrease their ability to induce a Th1 type response by allogeneic CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xiaxia; Oskarsson, Jon T; Omarsdottir, Sesselja; Freysdottir, Jona; Hardardottir, Ingibjorg

    2017-12-01

    Halichondria (Halichondriidae) marine sponges contain components possessing various biological activities, but immunomodulation is not among the ones reported. This study evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of fractions/compounds from Halichondria sitiens Schmidt. Crude dichloromethane/methanol extracts of H. sitiens were subjected to various chromatographic techniques to obtain fractions/compounds with immunomodulatory activity, using bioassay-guided isolation. The effects of the fractions/compounds were determined by measuring secretion of cytokines and expression of surface molecules by dendritic cells (DCs) and their ability to stimulate and modify cytokine secretion by allogeneic CD4 + T cells. The bioactive fractions were chemically analyzed to identify the immunomodulatory constituents by 1D, 2D NMR, and HRMS data. Several lipophilic fractions from H. sitiens at 10 μg/mL decreased secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12p40 and IL-6 by the DCs, with maximum inhibition being 64% and 25%, respectively. In addition, fractions B3b3F and B3b3J decreased the ability of DCs to induce T cell secretion of IFN-γ. Fraction B3b3 induced morphological changes in DCs, characterized by extreme elongation of dendrites and cell clustering. Chemical screening revealed the presence of glycerides and some minor unknown constituents in the biologically active fractions. One new glyceride, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl 2-methylhexadecanoate (1), was isolated from one fraction and two known compounds, 3-[(1-methoxyhexadecyl)oxy]propane-1,2-diol (2) and monoheptadecanoin (3), were identified in another, but none of them had immunomodulatory activity. These results demonstrate that several lipophilic fractions from H. sitiens have anti-inflammatory effects on DCs and decrease their ability to induce a Th1 type immune response.

  19. INTERESTERIFIKASI ENZIMATIS MINYAK IKAN DENGAN ASAM LAURAT UNTUK SINTESIS LIPID TERSTRUKTUR [Enzymatic Interesterification of Fish Oil with Lauric Acid for the Synthesis of Structured Lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Subroto1

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Structured lipid (SL containing of medium chain fatty acid (MCFA at outer position and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA at sn-2 position has superior dietary and absorption characteristics. The most methods for the enzymatic synthesis of SL were through two steps process, so that it was inefficient. Caprilic acid was usually used as a source of MCFA. In this research, SL was synthesized by enzymatic interesterification between fish oil and lauric acid. The specific lipase from Mucor miehei was used as catalyzed. Factors, such as the incubation time, substrate mole ratio, and reaction temperature were evaluated. The incorporation and the position of lauric acid on glycerol backbone and glyceride profile were determined. The results showed that SL containing of lauric acid at the outer position and PUFA at sn-2 was successfully synthesized, and it was done through one step process. From regiospecific determination, it showed that the position of lauric acid incorporation was only at the sn-1 and sn-3. Only 0.87% of lauric acid was incorporated at the sn-2. The optimum time and temperature of the reaction, and the substrate mole ratio were 12 h, 50C and 1:10, respectively, in which the incorporation of lauric acid was 62.8% (mol. Glyceride profile was affected by incubation time, substrate mole ratio and reaction temperature. Triglyceride concentration decreased with an increase in the incubation time (> 12 h. In contrast, the diglyceride concentration increased at longer incubation time (> 12 h. Beside, triglyceride concentration increased with an increase in substrate mole ratio to 1:10, but it decreased when mole ratio of substrate was 1:15. At higher temperature (50C, triglyceride decreased with an increase in the reaction temperature. In summary, the SL was successfully synthesized by the interesterification of fish oil and lauric acid using specific lipase of Mucor miehei.

  20. Influencia de un pienso con castañas y pulpa de remolacha azucarera en la composición lipídica del lacón gallego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz, Olga

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the inclusion of chestnuts and sugar beet pulp in pigs’ diets on the lipid composition of the external and internal muscles of dry-cured pork forelegs. This inclusion did not modify the lipid content and the glycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acid proportions of the internal and external muscles of dry-cured pork forelegs; however, it caused a significant decrease in the values of oxidation index TBA. No important changes were observed in fatty acid composition of glycerides. The dry-cured pork forelegs from pigs who received a diet with chestnuts and sugar beet pulp showed higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipid and free fatty acid fractions than dry-cured pork forelegs from pigs fed a conventional diet; this could be due to a decrease in the oxidation levels.El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la inclusión de castañas y pulpa de remolacha en la alimentación del cerdo sobre diferentes aspectos lipídicos de los músculos externos e internos de los lacones gallegos. Dicha inclusión no modificó el contenido de lípidos, ni la proporción de glicéridos, fosfolípidos y ácidos grasos libres; sin embargo, sí causó un descenso de los valores del índice de oxidación TBA. No se observaron cambios importantes en la composición de ácidos grasos de los glicéridos. Los lacones de cerdos alimentados con castaña y pulpa de remolacha presentaron un significativo mayor contenido de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados en las fracciones de fosfolípidos y, sobre todo, en la de ácidos grasos libres, lo cual podría atribuirse a un descenso de los niveles de oxidación.

  1. Solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems for oral delivery of polypeptide-k: Formulation, optimization, in-vitro and in-vivo antidiabetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Varun; Kaur, Puneet; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Kumar, Bimlesh; Bawa, Palak; Gulati, Monica; Yadav, Ankit Kumar

    2017-11-15

    Development of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of polypeptide-k (PPK) is reported with the aim to achieve its oral delivery. Box-Behnken design (BBD) was adopted to develop and optimize the composition of SNEDDS. Oleoyl polyoxyl-6 glycerides (A), Tween 80 (B), and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (C) were used as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively as independent variables. The effect of variation in their composition was observed on the mean droplet size (y1), polydispersity index (PDI) (y2), % drug loading (y3) and zeta potential (y4). As per the optimal design, seventeen SNEDDS prototypes were prepared. The optimized composition of SNEDDS formulation was 25% v/v Oleoyl polyoxyl-6 glycerides, 37% v/v Tween 80, 38% v/v diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, and 3% w/v PPK. The optimized formulation revealed values of y1, y2, y3, and y4 as 31.89nm, 0.16, 73.15%, and -15.65mV, respectively. Further the optimized liquid SNEDDS were solidified through spray drying using various hydrophilic and hydrophobic carriers. Among the various carriers, Aerosil 200 was found to provide desirable flow, compression, disintegration and dissolution properties. Both, liquid and solid-SNEDDS have shown release of >90% within 10min. The formulation was found stable with change in pH, dilution, temperature variation and freeze thaw cycles in terms of droplet size, zeta potential, drug precipitation and phase separation. Crystalline PPK was observed in amorphous state in solid SNEDDS when characterized through DSC and PXRD studies. The biochemical, hematological and histopathological results of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats shown promising antidiabetic potential of PPK loaded in SNEDDS at its both the doses (i.e. 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg) as compared to its naïve form at both the doses. The study revealed successful formulation of SNEDDS for oral delivery of PPK. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of medium-chain fatty acids in the emulsification mechanistics of self-micro-emulsifying lipid formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Naser M Y

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to design and develop stable o/w microemulsions comprising Miglyol 812, Imwitor 988 and Tagat TO as a non ionic surfactant. This was based on particle size measurements and phase behavior studies. The empirical role of incorporating medium-chain mono/di-glycerides in the lipid matrix in the mechanistic processes of emulsification was also established in various simulating physiological conditions. The efficiency of self-emulsification was evaluated under conditions of varying key compositions in the lipid mixtures; oil, cosurfactant and surfactant. Droplet diameter was measured using laser diffraction and light scattering techniques. Equilibrium phase studies were performed and phase boundaries were determined for the lipid-water systems. Microemulsion systems were produced from blends of Miglyol 812, Imwitor 988 and Tagat TO. An optimized formulation consisted of {Miglyol 812/Imwitor 988} and Tagat TO spontaneously self-emulsified in water producing dispersions with droplet diameters of ∼50 nm. Phase equilibrium diagrams have revealed significant enhancement in the water-solubilized region (L2) without any presence of liquid crystalline materials. Potential SMEDDS formulations for the bioavailability enhancement of poorly water-soluble compounds were developed by mixing blends of {Miglyol 812/Imwitor 988} and Tagat TO as a non-ionic surfactant. 'Diffusion and stranding' appears to be the dominant mechanism of emulsification.

  3. Characterization of Leucaena (Leucaena leucephala) oil by direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source and gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.; Alandis, N.M.; Sharmin, E.; Ahmad, N.; Alrayes, B.F.; Ali, D.

    2017-01-01

    For the first time, we report the characterization of triacylglycerols and fatty acids in Leucaena (Leucaena leucephala) oil [LUCO], an unexplored nontraditional non-medicinal plant belonging to the family Fabaceae. LUCO was converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). We analyzed the triacylglycerols (TAGs) of pure LUCO and their FAMEs by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) followed by multivariate analysis for discrimination among the FAMEs. Our investigations for the analysis of LUCO samples represent noble features of glycerides. A new type of ion source, coupled with high-resolution TOF-MS was applied for the comprehensive analysis of triacylglycerols. The composition of fatty acid based LUCO oil was studied using Gas Chromatography (GC-FID). The major fatty acid components of LUCO oil are linoleic acid (52.08%) oleic acid (21.26%), palmitic acid (7.91%) and stearic acid (6.01%). A metal analysis in LUCO was done by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The structural elucidation and thermal stability of LUCO were studied by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques and TGA-DSC, respectively. We also measured the cytotoxicity of LUCO [es

  4. Incorporation of glucose carbons into rat lung lipids after exposure to 0.6 ppm ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, D.J.; Rabinowitz, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Continuous exposure to low concentrations of ozone has previously been associated with proliferation of lung alveolar type II epithelial cells. In this study, 14 C incorporation into tissue lipids was determined in isolated rat lungs by perfusion with [U- 14 C]glucose, at a time of maximal hyperplasia brought about by 3 days continuous exposure to 0.6 ppm ozone. Ozone exposed lungs exhibited increased rates of glycolytic energy production, indicated by an 89% increase in 3 H 2 O generation on perfusion with [5-3H]glucose. Ozone exposure resulted in enhanced 14 C incorporations into glyceride-glycerol and fatty acid moieties of lung lipids of 95 and 180%, respectively, with a greater proportion of label being recovered in shorter chain fatty acids. Although increased labeling was observed in both neutral and phospholipids, the pattern of 14 C recovery suggested a relative increased glucose carbon incorporation into lung free fatty acids, phosphatidic acid, and such membrane associated lipids as phosphatidylinositol and those containing sphingosine. These results are consistent with the needs of a dividing cell population for enhanced energy production and synthesis of new lipids

  5. Bio-Based Nano Composites from Plant Oil and Nano Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jue; Hong, Chang K.; Wool, Richard P.

    2003-03-01

    We explored the combination of nanoclay with new chemically functionalized, amphiphilic, plant oil resins to form bio-based nanocomposites with improved physical and mechanical properties. These can be used in many new applications, including the development of self-healing nanocomposites through controlled reversible exfoliation/intercalation, and self-assembled nano-structures. Several chemically modified triglyceride monomers of varying polarity, combined with styrene (ca 30include acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO), maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO) and soybean oil pentaerythritol glyceride maleates (SOPERMA), containing either hydroxyl group or acid functionality or both. The clay used is a natural montmorillonite modified with methyl tallow bis-2-hydroxyethyl quaternary ammonium chloride, which has hydroxyl groups. Both XRD and TEM showed a completely exfoliated structure at 3 wtwhen the clay content is above 5 wtconsidered a mix of intercalated and partially exfoliated structure. The controlled polarity of the monomer has a major effect on the reversible dispersion of clay in the polymer matrix. The bio-based nanocomposites showed a significant increase in flexural modulus and strength. Supported by EPA and DoE

  6. Epoxidation of linseed oil-Alkyd resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motawie, A.M.; Ismail, E.A.; Mazroua, A.M.; Abd EI Aziem, M.S.; Ramadan, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Three types of different linseed oil-alkyd resin ( Alk (I), Alk (II), and Alk (III) ) were prepared with the calculated amounts of mono glycerides and adipic acid (1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 Eq.Wt) respectively via monoglyceride method. The obtained alkyd resins were epoxidized via reaction with the calculated quantities of peracetic acid, which was prepared by the reaction of acetic anhydride with H 2 O 2 . Epoxidation occurred with the ratio (1: 1, 1 :3, and 1:6 Eq. Wt) of alkyd to peracetic acid. The effect of reaction time on the epoxy group content was measured during the epoxidation process. The prepared alkyd resins were analyzed by IR and H 1 NMR. The metal coated film properties of epoxidized alkyd resins were compared with those of unmodified alkyd resins. It was observed that the coating films of epoxidized alkyd resins have better in drying properties, hardness, adhesion, impact and flexibility than those of un epoxidized alkyd resins. The flammability properties of the paper coated films for the prepared brominated epoxidized alkyd resins were found to be fire retardant

  7. Hydrocarbons and energy from plants: Final report, 1984-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, M.; Otvos, J.; Taylor, S.E.; Nemethy, E.K.; Skrukrud, C.L.; Hawkins, D.R.; Lago, R.

    1988-08-01

    Plant hydrocarbon (isoprenoid) production was investigated as an alternative source to fossil fuels. Because of their high triterpenoid (hydrocarbon) content of 4--8%, Euphorbia lathyris plants were used as a model system for this study. The structure of the E. lathyris triterpenoids was determined, and triterpenoid biosynthesis studied to better understand the metabolic regulation of isoprenoid production. Triterpenoid biosynthesis occurs in two distinct tissue types in E. lathyris plants: in the latex of the laticifer cells; and in the mesophyll cells of the leaf and stem. The latex has been fractionated by centrifugation, and it has been determined that the later steps of isoprenoid biosynthesis, the conversion of mevalonic acid to the triterpenes, are compartmentized within a vacuole. Also identified was the conversion of hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA to mevalonic acid, catalyzed by the enzyme Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase, as a key rate limiting step in isoprenoid biosynthesis. At least two isozymes of this enzyme, one in the latex and another in the leaf plastids, have been identified. Environmental stress has been applied to plants to study changes in carbon allocation. Salinity stress caused a large decrease in growth, smaller decreases in photosynthesis, resulting in a larger allocation of carbon to both hydrocarbon and sugar production. An increase in Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase activity was also observed when isoprenoid production increased. Other species where also screened for the production of hydrogen rich products such as isoprenoids and glycerides, and their hydrocarbon composition was determined.

  8. Changes in rat liver and adipose tissue lipogenesis after single lethal X-irradiation: modification by the restricted food intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlakova, A.; Ahlers, I.; Praslicka, M.

    1981-01-01

    Male rats of Wistar strain were adapted during a 4-week period to the nutritional regimes of meal feeding (MF) and ad libitum (AL) and were irradiated with the single whole-body lethal X-ray dose 14.35 Gy after 22 h of fasting. Within the intervals 1, 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation lipogenesis changes in the liver were studied by measuring 1- 14 C-acetate incorporation (74 KBq) in the total lipids, fatty acids and cholesterol, and in the white adipose tissue pieces by measuring U- 14 C-glucose incorporation (74 KBq) in the total lipids, fatty acids and glyceride glycerol. Lipogenesis increased in the liver of the irradiated rats as compared with sham irradiated rats and reached the maximal values at 72 h after irradiation in AL animals and at 48 h after irradiation in MF animals. Lipogenesis in the adipose tissue decreased in the irradiated rats as compared with the sham irradiated ones and continued to decrease with the post-irradiation period. The adaptation to the nutritional regime of meal feeding markedly modified lipogenesis in the liver and the adipose tissue of the irradiated rats. Long-term fasting (before and after irradiation) was supposed to be another modifying factor in the lipogenesis changes. Lipogenesis changes in the liver depended on the MF nutritional regime. (author)

  9. Comparative analyses of glycerotoxin expression unveil a novel structural organization of the bloodworm venom system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Sandy; Helm, Conrad; Meunier, Frederic A; Hering, Lars; Campbell, Lahcen I; Drukewitz, Stephan H; Undheim, Eivind A B; Jenner, Ronald A; Schiavo, Giampietro; Bleidorn, Christoph

    2017-03-04

    We present the first molecular characterization of glycerotoxin (GLTx), a potent neurotoxin found in the venom of the bloodworm Glycera tridactyla (Glyceridae, Annelida). Within the animal kingdom, GLTx shows a unique mode of action as it can specifically up-regulate the activity of Ca v 2.2 channels (N-type) in a reversible manner. The lack of sequence information has so far hampered a detailed understanding of its mode of action. Our analyses reveal three ~3.8 kb GLTx full-length transcripts, show that GLTx represents a multigene family, and suggest it functions as a dimer. An integrative approach using transcriptomics, quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunocytochemistry shows that GLTx is highly expressed exclusively in four pharyngeal lobes, a previously unrecognized part of the venom apparatus. Our results overturn a century old textbook view on the glycerid venom system, suggesting that it is anatomically and functionally much more complex than previously thought. The herein presented GLTx sequence information constitutes an important step towards the establishment of GLTx as a versatile tool to understand the mechanism of synaptic function, as well as the mode of action of this novel neurotoxin.

  10. Improved oral absorption of tacrolimus by a solid dispersion with hypromellose and sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyuck Jun; Ahn, Hye In; Park, Ji Yeon; Ho, Myoung Jin; Lee, Dae Ro; Cho, Ha Ra; Park, Jun Seo; Choi, Yong Seok; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-02-01

    A novel surfactant-incorporated hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) solid dispersion (SD) system was constructed in order to facilitate the release rate and oral absorption of tacrolimus (FK506), a poorly water-soluble immunosuppressant. Several emulsifiers including sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), as drug release promotors, were employed with HPMC to fabricate SD using the solvent wetting method. The solid state characteristics using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction, revealed that FK506 was molecularly distributed within all dispersions in amorphous form. The dissolution rates of FK506 in SLS-incorporated SDs were much higher than those in SDs prepared with HPMC alone, and even with stearoyl polyoxyl-32 glycerides or tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate. In particular, the greatest dissolution enhancement was obtained from the SD consisting of the drug, HPMC, and SLS in a weight ratio of 1:1:3, providing a 50-fold higher drug concentration within 15 min, compared with HPMC SD. In vivo absorption study in rats demonstrates that the optimized formula remarkably increased the oral absorption of FK506, providing about 4.0-fold greater bioavailability (p<0.05) compared with the marketed product (Prograf®, Astellas Pharma). These data suggest that a novel SLS/HPMC SD may be an advantageous dosage form of FK506, boosting the dissolution and absorption in gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Improvement of Medium Chain Fatty Acid Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil via Solid-State Fermentation Using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Khoramnia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO, respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Study of Blood Leptin Levels before and After Treatment with Metformin in Diabetes Type Ii Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Didehdar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leptin is a fat tissue hormone that has 176 amino acids with a molecular weight of 16 KD . Leptin has effects on the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues resulting in decreased food absorption and increased energy consumption that finally reduces the body weight and BMI. The aim of this research was to investigate the blood levels of leptin before and after treatment with Metformin in type II diabetic patients. Methods: 25 type II diabetic patients without any previous drug treatment history were investigated. This study was a clinical trail before and after treatment with Metformin. Results: There was no particular difference in BMI, average body weight, fat mass and free fat mass before and after treatment. Similarly, the difference in concentration levels of blood glucose, cholesterol, tri-glycerides and LDL-cholesterol before and after treatment was not statistically significant. Also, there was no difference in the average concentration of leptin and insulin before and after treatment Conclusion: This result showed that although metformin decreased glucose and lipid levels during the treatment period, (1 month it did not have an effect on leptin, Insulin and other related factors during treatment.;

  13. Low-Cost Bio-Based Phase Change Materials as an Energy Storage Medium in Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Abhari, Mr. Ramin [Renewable Energy Group, Inc.; Shukla, Dr. Nitin [Fraunhofer USA, Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston; Kosny, Dr. Jan [Fraunhofer USA, Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston

    2015-01-01

    A promising approach to increasing the energy efficiency of buildings is the implementation of phase change material (PCM) in building envelope systems. Several studies have reported the energy saving potential of PCM in building envelopes. However, wide application of PCMs in building applications has been inhibited, in part, by their high cost. This article describes a novel paraffin product made of naturally occurring fatty acids/glycerides trapped into high density polyethylene (HDPE) pellets and its performance in a building envelope application, with the ultimate goal of commercializing a low-cost PCM platform. The low-cost PCM pellets were mixed with cellulose insulation, installed in external walls and field-tested under natural weatherization conditions for a period of several months. In addition, several PCM samples and PCM-cellulose samples were prepared under controlled conditions for laboratory-scale testing. The laboratory tests were performed to determine the phase change properties of PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation both at microscopic and macroscopic levels. This article presents the data and analysis from the exterior test wall and the laboratory-scale test data. PCM behavior is influenced by the weather and interior conditions, PCM phase change temperature and PCM distribution within the wall cavity, among other factors. Under optimal conditions, the field data showed up to 20% reduction in weekly heat transfer through an external wall due to the PCM compared to cellulose-only insulation.

  14. Aceites de oliva vírgenes y refinados: Diferencias en componentes menores glicerídicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Camino, M. C.

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the main differences in glyceridic minor compounds between virgin and refined olive oils. Modifications during the steps of the refining process are studied and compared with differences found in two series of virgin and refined oils and those during storage. The results demonstrate that the absence of polymerized compounds is the most useful parameter for the characterization of virgin oils while the presence of dimeric triglycerides and a high ratio diglycerides/fatty acids are those for refined oils.

    En el presente trabajo se definen las principales diferencias en componentes menores glicerídicos entre aceites de oliva vírgenes y refinados. Para ello, se estudian las modificaciones que tienen lugar durante las distintas etapas del proceso de refinación, se comprueban las diferencias encontradas en dos series de aceites vírgenes y refinados y, finalmente, se analizan las modificaciones originadas durante el almacenamiento. Los resultados demuestran que la ausencia de compuestos de polimerización es de gran valor para la caracterización de los aceites de oliva vírgenes, mientras que, la presencia de dímeros de triglicéridos y la elevada relación diglicéridos/ácidos grasos son las características principales de los aceites refinados.

  15. Nootropic activity of lipid-based extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. compared with traditional preparation and extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohidasan, Sathiyanarayanan; Paradkar, Anant R; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R

    2009-11-01

    The aim was to design an alternative solvent-free extraction method using the hydrophilic lipid Gelucire (polyethylene glycol glycerides) for herbal extraction and to confirm the efficacy of extraction using biological screening. Bacopa monniera Linn. (BM) was selected for the study. Conventional methanolic extract (MEBM), Ayurvedic ghrita (AGBM) and lipid extracts (LEBM) were prepared and standardised by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Nootropic activity in rats was evaluated using the two-trial Y-maze test and the anterograde amnesia induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.) determined by the conditioned avoidance response. The extracts were administered daily at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg orally. At the end of the conditioned avoidance response test, brain monoamine levels were estimated by HPLC. The LEBM, MEBM and AGBM contained 3.56%, 4.10% and 0.005% bacoside A, respectively. Significantly greater spatial recognition was observed with LEBM (P nootropic activity to the MEBM.

  16. Toward the establishment of standardized in vitro tests for lipid-based formulations, part 4: proposing a new lipid formulation performance classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Hywel D; Sassene, Philip; Kleberg, Karen; Calderone, Marilyn; Igonin, Annabel; Jule, Eduardo; Vertommen, Jan; Blundell, Ross; Benameur, Hassan; Müllertz, Anette; Porter, Christopher J H; Pouton, Colin W

    2014-08-01

    The Lipid Formulation Classification System Consortium looks to develop standardized in vitro tests and to generate much-needed performance criteria for lipid-based formulations (LBFs). This article highlights the value of performing a second, more stressful digestion test to identify LBFs near a performance threshold and to facilitate lead formulation selection in instances where several LBF prototypes perform adequately under standard digestion conditions (but where further discrimination is necessary). Stressed digestion tests can be designed based on an understanding of the factors that affect LBF performance, including the degree of supersaturation generated on dispersion/digestion. Stresses evaluated included decreasing LBF concentration (↓LBF), increasing bile salt, and decreasing pH. Their capacity to stress LBFs was dependent on LBF composition and drug type: ↓LBF was a stressor to medium-chain glyceride-rich LBFs, but not more hydrophilic surfactant-rich LBFs, whereas decreasing pH stressed tolfenamic acid LBFs, but not fenofibrate LBFs. Lastly, a new Performance Classification System, that is, LBF composition independent, is proposed to promote standardized LBF comparisons, encourage robust LBF development, and facilitate dialogue with the regulatory authorities. This classification system is based on the concept that performance evaluations across three in vitro tests, designed to subject a LBF to progressively more challenging conditions, will enable effective LBF discrimination and performance grading. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  17. Conversion of polar and non-polar algae oil lipids to fatty acid methyl esters with solid acid catalysts--A model compound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikainen, Martta; Munter, Tony; Linnekoski, Juha

    2015-09-01

    Bio-based fuels are becoming more and more important due to the depleting fossil resources. The production of biodiesel from algae oil is challenging compared to terrestrial vegetable oils, as algae oil consists of polar fatty acids, such as phospholipids and glycolipids, as well as non-polar triglycerides and free fatty acids common in vegetable oils. It is shown that a single sulphonated solid acid catalyst can perform the esterification and transesterification reactions of both polar and non-polar lipids. In mild reaction conditions (60-70 °C) Nafion NR50 catalyst produces methyl palmitate (FAME) from the palmitic acid derivatives of di-, and tri-glyceride, free fatty acid, and phospholipid with over 80% yields, with the glycolipid derivative giving nearly 40% yields of FAME. These results demonstrate how the polar and non-polar lipid derivatives of algal oil can be utilised as feedstocks for biodiesel production with a single catalyst in one reaction step. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Low temperature storage test phase 2 : identification of problem species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    The use of renewable fuels such as biodiesel, in motor vehicle fuels is expected to grow rapidly in North America as a result of governmental mandates. Biodiesel is a fuel component made from plant and animal feedstocks via a transesterification process. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) of biodiesel have cloud points that range from 5 degrees C to -15 degrees C. The poor low temperature performance of blends containing FAME must be understood in order to avoid operability issues. This paper presented the results of several testing programs conducted by researchers to investigate filter plugging in biodiesel fuels caused by high levels of saturated monoglycerides. The low temperature storage stability of 57 biodiesel fuels comprised of B5 and B20 made with canola methyl ester (CME), soybean methyl ester (SME), tallow methyl ester (TME) and palm methyl ester (PME) was investigated. Filter blocking tests were conducted to assess storage stability. Deposits from the blends were analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to identify the problem species. Results of the study confirmed the deleterious impact of saturated mono-glycerides in FAME on the low temperature operability of filters in fuel handling systems. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 5 figs. 9 appendices.

  19. Improvement in biodiesel production from soapstock oil by one-stage lipase catalyzed methanolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Erzheng; Wei, Dongzhi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Soapstock is a less expensive feedstock reservoir for biodiesel production. • Addition of tert-alcohol can enhance the yield of fatty acid methyl ester significantly. • One-stage lipase catalyzed methanolysis of soapstock oil was successfully developed. • FAME yield of 95.2% was obtained with low lipase loading in a shorter reaction time. - Abstract: A major obstacle in the commercialization of biodiesel is its cost of manufacturing, primarily the raw material cost. In order to decrease the cost of biodiesel, soapstock oil was investigated as the feedstock for biodiesel production. Because the soapstock oil containing large amounts of free fatty acids (FFAs) cannot be effectively converted to biodiesel, complicated two-stage process (esterification followed by transesterification) was generally adopted. In this study, simple one-stage lipase catalyzed methanolysis of soapstock oil was developed via one-pot esterification and transesterification. Water produced by lipase catalyzed esterification of FFAs affected the lipase catalyzed transesterification of glycerides in the soapstock oil severely. Addition of tert-alcohol could overcome this problem and enhance the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield from 42.8% to 76.4%. The FAME yield was further elevated to 95.2% by optimizing the methanol/oil molar ratio, lipase amount, and water absorbent. The developed process enables the simple, efficient, and green production of biodiesel from soapstock oil, providing with a potential industrial application

  20. Continuous esterification for biodiesel production from palm fatty acid distillate using economical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chongkhong, S.; Tongurai, C.; Chetpattananondh, P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat-Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand)

    2009-04-15

    An overflow system for continuous esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) using an economical process was developed using a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Continuous production compared to batch production at the same condition had higher product purity. The optimum condition for the esterification process was a 8.8:1:0.05 molar ratio of methanol to PFAD to sulfuric acid catalyst, 60 min of residence time at 75 C under its own pressure. The free fatty acid (FFA) content in the PFAD was reduced from 93 to less than 1.5%wt by optimum esterification. The esterified product had to be neutralized with 10.24%wt of 3 M sodium hydroxide in water solution at a reaction temperature of 80 C for 20 min to reduce the residual FFA and glycerides. The components and properties of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) could meet the standard requirements for biodiesel fuel. Eventually the production costs were calculated to disclose its commercialization. (author)

  1. The Role of Lipid Metabolism in T Lymphocyte Differentiation and Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Howie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The differentiation and effector functions of both the innate and adaptive immune system are inextricably linked to cellular metabolism. The features of metabolism which affect both arms of the immune system include metabolic substrate availability, expression of enzymes, transport proteins, and transcription factors which control catabolism of these substrates, and the ability to perform anabolic metabolism. The control of lipid metabolism is central to the appropriate differentiation and functions of T lymphocytes, and ultimately to the maintenance of immune tolerance. This review will focus on the role of fatty acid (FA metabolism in T cell differentiation, effector function, and survival. FAs are important sources of cellular energy, stored as triglycerides. They are also used as precursors to produce complex lipids such as cholesterol and membrane phospholipids. FA residues also become incorporated into hormones and signaling moieties. FAs signal via nuclear receptors and their channeling, between storage as triacyl glycerides or oxidation as fuel, may play a role in survival or death of the cell. In recent years, progress in the field of immunometabolism has highlighted diverse roles for FA metabolism in CD4 and CD8 T cell differentiation and function. This review will firstly describe the sensing and modulation of the environmental FAs and lipid intracellular signaling and will then explore the key role of lipid metabolism in regulating the balance between potentially damaging pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory regulatory responses. Finally the complex role of extracellular FAs in determining cell survival will be discussed.

  2. Preparation and characterization of a self-emulsifying pellet formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Ahmed; Mäder, Karsten

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the feasibility of producing solid self-emulsifying pellets using the extrusion/spheronization technique. Pellets were made from a mixture of C18 partial glycerides, Solutol HS15 and microcrystalline cellulose. Pellets with good physical properties (size, shape, friability) and self-emulsifying properties were produced. The pellets were, in contrast to pellets lacking Solutol, able to transfer a lipophilic dye and a spin probe into the aqueous media. The release kinetics and the microenvironment of the pellets during the release process were assessed using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The ESR results showed that the hydrophobic spin probe was localized mainly in the lipid environment all over the release time. Furthermore, the formulation was capable of accelerating the release of the drug diazepam and achieving a diazepam concentration above its saturation solubility. In conclusion, spherical pellets with low friability and self-emulsifying properties can be produced by the standard extrusion/spheronization technique. The pellets are capable of transfering lipophilic compounds into the aqueous phase and have a high potential to increase the bioavailability of lipophilic drugs.

  3. Computational Models of the Gastrointestinal Environment. 2. Phase Behavior and Drug Solubilization Capacity of a Type I Lipid-Based Drug Formulation after Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birru, Woldeamanuel A; Warren, Dallas B; Han, Sifei; Benameur, Hassan; Porter, Christopher J H; Pouton, Colin W; Chalmers, David K

    2017-03-06

    Lipid-based drug formulations can greatly enhance the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Following the oral administration of formulations containing tri- or diglycerides, the digestive processes occurring within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract hydrolyze the glycerides to mixtures of free fatty acids and monoglycerides that are, in turn, solubilized by bile. The behavior of drugs within the resulting colloidal mixtures is currently not well characterized. This work presents matched in vitro experimental and molecular dynamics (MD) theoretical models of the GI microenvironment containing a digested triglyceride-based (Type I) drug formulation. Both the experimental and theoretical models consist of molecular species representing bile (glycodeoxycholic acid), digested triglyceride (1:2 glyceryl-1-monooleate and oleic acid), and water. We have characterized the phase behavior of the physical system using nephelometry, dynamic light scattering, and polarizing light microscopy and compared these measurements to phase behavior observed in multiple MD simulations. Using this model microenvironment, we have investigated the dissolution of the poorly water-soluble drug danazol experimentally using LC-MS and theoretically by MD simulation. The results show how the formulation lipids alter the environment of the GI tract and improve the solubility of danazol. The MD simulations successfully reproduce the experimental results showing the utility of MD in modeling the fate of drugs after digestion of lipid-based formulations within the intestinal lumen.

  4. Penetration enhancer-containing vesicles (PEVs) as carriers for cutaneous delivery of minoxidil: in vitro evaluation of drug permeation by infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Simona; Manconi, Maria; Fadda, Anna Maria; Sala, Maria Chiara; Perricci, Jacopo; Pini, Elena; Sinico, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we carried out a research on new liposomal systems prepared by using in their composition a few penetration enhancers which differ for chemical structure and physicochemical properties. The penetration enhancer-containing vesicles (PEVs) were prepared by using soy lecithin and different amounts of three penetration enhancers, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy) ethanol (Transcutol(®)), capryl-caproyl macrogol 8-glyceride (Labrasol(®)), and cineole.To study the influence of the PEVs on (trans)dermal delivery of minoxidil, in vitro diffusion experiments were performed through new born pig skin and the results were compared with that obtained applying the vesicular system without enhancer (control) after pretreatment of the skin with the various enhancers. In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), attenuated total reflectance FTIR (ATR-FTIR) and FTIR imaging were used to evaluate the effective penetration of minoxidil in the skin layers and to discover the influence of the enhancer on the drug topical delivery. These analytical studies allowed us to characterize the drug formulations and to evaluate the vesicle distribution into the skin. Recorded spectra confirmed that the vesicle formulations with penetration enhancers promoted drug deposition into the skin.

  5. Optimization of minoxidil microemulsions using fractional factorial design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaipakdee, Napaphak; Limpongsa, Ekapol; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to apply fractional factorial and multi-response optimization designs using desirability function approach for developing topical microemulsions. Minoxidil (MX) was used as a model drug. Limonene was used as an oil phase. Based on solubility, Tween 20 and caprylocaproyl polyoxyl-8 glycerides were selected as surfactants, propylene glycol and ethanol were selected as co-solvent in aqueous phase. Experiments were performed according to a two-level fractional factorial design to evaluate the effects of independent variables: Tween 20 concentration in surfactant system (X1), surfactant concentration (X2), ethanol concentration in co-solvent system (X3), limonene concentration (X4) on MX solubility (Y1), permeation flux (Y2), lag time (Y3), deposition (Y4) of MX microemulsions. It was found that Y1 increased with increasing X3 and decreasing X2, X4; whereas Y2 increased with decreasing X1, X2 and increasing X3. While Y3 was not affected by these variables, Y4 increased with decreasing X1, X2. Three regression equations were obtained and calculated for predicted values of responses Y1, Y2 and Y4. The predicted values matched experimental values reasonably well with high determination coefficient. By using optimal desirability function, optimized microemulsion demonstrating the highest MX solubility, permeation flux and skin deposition was confirmed as low level of X1, X2 and X4 but high level of X3.

  6. The freshwater alga Chroothece richteriana (Rhodophyta) as a potential source of lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboal, Marina; González-Silvera, Daniel; Roldán, Mónica; Hernández-Mariné, Mariona; López-Jiménez, José Ángel; Whitton, Brian A

    2014-11-01

    During an ecological study of Chroothece (Rhodophyta) in a small river in a semi-arid region of south-east Spain it became clear that most of these cells had a high lipid content. This suggested potential uses in biotechnology, which has been investigated further. The colonies, which occur in full sunlight, are typically orange-brown. Most, perhaps all, the yellow-orange colour is associated with their high carotenoid content, with the carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio up to 2.7. The polyunsaturated fatty acyl composition of the glycerides was 35.3% of the dry weight. This consisted mainly of omega-3 (5.9%) and omega-6 (29.4%) fats. The relatively high proportion of docosahexaenoyl (1.78%), eicosapentaenoyl (14.15%), arachidonoyl (0.92%) and γ-linolenoyl (0.78%) suggests use for medical and dietary purposes. All cells have a high phycocyanin content whilst phycoerythrin is absent. The alga has a wide distribution globally and hence provides scope for selecting strains with optimum properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETE's) by adrenal glomerulosa cells and incorporation into cellular lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W.B.; Richards, C.F.; Brady, M.T.; Falck, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The role of lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) in the regulation of aldosterone secretion was studied in isolated rat adrenal glomerulosa cells. Cells were incubated with 14 C-AA in the presence of angiotensin (AII). The media was extracted, metabolites isolated by HPLC, and structures of the metabolites determined by UV absorbance and mass spectrometry. The major products were 12- and 15-HETE with lesser amounts of 11- and 5-HETE. When adrenal cells were incubated with 15-, 12- or 5-HPETE or their respective HETE's (0.03-300nM), there was no significant change in basal or AII-stimulated aldosterone release. Cells were incubated with [ 3 H]-AA, -5-HETE, -15-HETE, -12-HETE or -LTB. The cellular lipids were extracted and analyzed by TLC. AA was incorporated into phospholipids (22%), cholesterol esters (50%) and triglycerides (21%). Neither the HETE's or LTB 4 were incorporated into phospholipids. 5-HETE was taken up into di- and mono-glycerides. The rates of incorporation of AA and 5-HETE were similar (+ 1/2 = 10 min). The incorporation of 5-HETE into glycerol esters did not modify the release of aldosterone by the cells. Thus, while adrenal cells synthesize HETE's, these eicosanoids do not appear to alter the synthesis of aldosterone

  8. Studies into the phenolic patterns of different tissues of pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) infructescence by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS (n) and GC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingass, Christof B; Glock, Mona P; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Carle, Reinhold

    2015-08-01

    In a comprehensive study, more than 60 phenolic compounds were detected in methanolic extracts from different tissues of pineapple infructescence by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionisation multiple-stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS (n) ) as well as by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analytical workflow combining both methods revealed numerous compounds assigned for the first time as pineapple constituents by their mass fragmentations. Pineapple crown tissue was characterised by depsides of p-coumaric and ferulic acid. In contrast, major phenolic compounds in pineapple pulp extracts were assigned to diverse S-p-coumaryl, S-coniferyl and S-sinapyl derivatives of glutathione, N-L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteine and L-cysteine, which were also identified in the peel. The latter was additionally characterised by elevated concentrations of p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acid depsides and glycerides, respectively. Two peel-specific cyanidin hexosides were found. Elevated concentrations of isomeric N,N'-diferuloylspermidines may be a useful tool for the detection of fraudulent peel usage for pineapple juice production. Mass fragmentation pathways of characteristic pineapple constituents are proposed, and their putative biological functions are discussed.

  9. An Effective Ostrich Oil Bleaching Technique Using Peroxide Value as an Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Seng Chiew

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ostrich oil has been used extensively in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. However, rancidity causes undesirable chemical changes in flavour, colour, odour and nutritional value. Bleaching is an important process in refining ostrich oil. Bleaching refers to the removal of certain minor constituents (colour pigments, free fatty acid, peroxides, odour and non-fatty materials from crude fats and oils to yield purified glycerides. There is a need to optimize the bleaching process of crude ostrich oil prior to its use for therapeutic purposes. The objective of our study was to establish an effective method to bleach ostrich oil using peroxide value as an indicator of refinement. In our study, we showed that natural earth clay was better than bentonite and acid-activated clay to bleach ostrich oil. It was also found that 1 hour incubation at a 150 °C was suitable to lower peroxide value by 90%. In addition, the nitrogen trap technique in the bleaching process was as effective as the continuous nitrogen flow technique and as such would be the recommended technique due to its cost effectiveness.

  10. Effect of chloroquine on intestinal lipid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansbach, C.M. II; Arnold, A.; Garrett, M.

    1987-01-01

    Most studies that have quantitated recovery of infused lipid in the intestinal mucosa and mesenteric lymph have only been able to recapture 50-75%. One possibility is that the missing lipid enters a triacylglycerol (TG) storage pool in the enterocyte and is hydrolyzed by lysosomal lipase, and the free fatty acid released is transported by the portal vein. This postulate was tested by comparing glyceryl trioleate (TO)-infused rats pretreated with the lysosomotropic drug, chloroquine (6.3 mg.kg-1.h-1) with saline controls. Chloroquine increased mucosal TG from 94 +/- 6 to 128 +/- 8 mumol. Additionally, the specific activity of the mucosal TG relative to the infused [ 3 H]TO was reduced in the treated rats. The mucosal TG increase was not due to impaired TG output, which remained the same as controls. We conclude that the TG in the acid lipase-sensitive pool derives most of its glyceride-glycerol from endogenous sources. Furthermore, the increment in mucosal TG caused by chloroquine is not enough to explain the majority of the acyl groups unaccounted for in the mucosa and lymph after a TG infusion. For these a direct passage of acyl groups through the enterocyte is postulated

  11. Process engineering and optimization of glycerol separation in a packed-bed reactor for enzymatic biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Shinji; Tamalampudi, Sriappareddy; Yoshida, Ayumi; Tamadani, Naoki; Kuratani, Nobuyuki; Noda, Hideo; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2011-11-01

    A process model for efficient glycerol separation during methanolysis in an enzymatic packed-bed reactor (PBR) was developed. A theoretical glycerol removal efficiency from the reaction mixture containing over 30% methyl esters was achieved at a high flow rate of 540 ml/h. To facilitate a stable operation of the PBR system, a batch reaction prior to continuous methanolysis was conducted using oils with different acid values and immobilized lipases pretreated with methyl esters. The reaction system successfully attained the methyl ester content of over 30% along with reduced viscosity and water content. Furthermore, to obtain a high methyl ester content above 96% continuously, long-term lipase stability was confirmed by operating a bench-scale PBR system for 550 h, in which the intermediates containing methyl esters and residual glycerides were fed into the enzyme-packed columns connected in series. Therefore, the developed process model is considered useful for industrial biodiesel production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Improvement of medium chain fatty acid content and antimicrobial activity of coconut oil via solid-state fermentation using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoramnia, Anahita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ajdari, Zahra; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER) method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs) considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion) and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO), respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  13. Replacement of eggs with soybean protein isolates and polysaccharides to prepare yellow cakes suitable for vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Muyang; Tay, Siang Hong; Yang, Hongshun; Yang, Bao; Li, Hongliang

    2017-08-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of substituting eggs in yellow cake by a mixture of soybean proteins, plant polysaccharides, and emulsifiers, the batter properties, including specific gravity and viscosity; cake properties, including specific volume, texture, colour, moisture, microstructures, and structural properties of starch and glutens of the replaced cake and traditional cake containing egg, were evaluated. Replacing eggs with a soy protein isolate and 1% mono-, di-glycerides yielded a similar specific volume, specific gravity, firmness and moisture content (1.92 vs. 2.08cm 3 /g, 0.95 vs. 1.03, 319.8 vs. 376.1g, and 28.03% vs. 29.01%, respectively) compared with the traditional cakes baked with eggs. Structurally, this formulation comprised dominant gliadin aggregates in the size range of 100-200nm and glutenin networking structures containing fewer but larger porosities. The results suggest that a mixture of soybean proteins and emulsifier is a promising substitute for eggs in cakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Jojoba oil and derivates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniak, T

    1977-01-01

    Jojoba oil differs from all known seed oils by its almost complete absence of glycerides, making it more a liquid wax than a fat. It has become important as a possible substitute for sperm-whale oil to produce lubricants, lubricant additives and other products. The plant occurs naturally in southern Arizona and N.W. Mexico and its oil has long been used by Indians for medicinal, culinary, ritual and other purposes. It tolerates extreme daily fluctuations of temperature and grows well under the difficult soil and moisture conditions of the region. In the first part of this review the plant and its uses are described, including its floral, fruit and seed anatomy and the use of liquid wax during germination. Stored coryledon wax is used up by the embryo as a linear function of time during the first 30 days of germination and growth. Before germination, seeds weight about 0.59 mg and contain about 54% wax. The second and greater part of the review deals with jojoba oil (its extraction, properties, molecular description, toxicity and composition), jojoba meal, which remains after the oil has been extracted, and the chemical modification of the oil.

  15. The incorporation of [1-14C] acetate into the methyl ketones that occur in steam-distillates of bovine milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R C; Hawke, J C

    1966-01-01

    1. The (14)C-labelling of the fatty acids and the methyl ketones in steam-distillates of milk fat from a lactating cow that had been injected intravenously with [1-(14)C]acetate was determined. 2. The labelling patterns of the C(6)-C(16) fatty acids and the corresponding methyl ketones with one fewer carbon atoms were similar, particularly so for the C(5)-C(10) compounds at 9 and 22hr. after the injection of [1-(14)C]acetate. The isolation of (14)C-labelled methyl ketones in the range C(3)-C(15) is evidence that the beta-oxo acid precursors, which are glyceride-bound in the milk fat, are synthesized in the mammary gland from acetate. The absence of heptadecan-2-one in steam-distillates and the extremely low specific radioactivity of stearic acid are further evidence for this biosynthetic pathway. 3. The specific radioactivities of the C(5)-C(15) methyl ketones were higher (with the exception of C(9) methyl ketone in the second milking) than the specific activities of the corresponding fatty acids with one more carbon atom. This is consistent with the methyl ketone precursors' being formed during the biosynthesis of fatty acids rather than being products of beta-oxidation of fatty acids.

  16. Lipidomic fingerprint of almonds (Prunus dulcis L. cv Nonpareil) using TiO₂ nanoparticle based matrix solid-phase dispersion and MALDI-TOF/MS and its potential in geographical origin verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Dong, Wei; Yang, Mei; Li, Linqiu; Cheung, Hon-Yeung; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2013-08-14

    A matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) procedure with titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NP) as sorbent was developed for the selective extraction of phospholipids from almond samples, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) was employed for analysis. A remarkable increase in the signals of phospholipid accompanied by a decrease in those of triacylglycerols and diacylglycerols was observed in the relevant mass spectra. The proposed method was applied to five batches of almonds originating from four geographical areas, whereas principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to normalize the relative amounts of the identified phospholipid species. The results indicated that the lipidomic fingerprint of almonds was successfully established by the negative ion mode spectrum, and the ratio of m/z 833.6 to 835.6 as well as m/z 821.6 could be introduced as potential markers for the differentiation of the tested almonds with different geographical origins. The whole method is of great promise for selective separation of phospholipids from nonphospholipids, especially the glycerides, and superior in fast screening and characterization of phospholipids in almond samples.

  17. Changes in rat liver and adipose tissue lipogenesis after single lethal X-irradiation: modification by the restricted food intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlakova, A; Ahlers, I; Praslicka, M [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie

    1981-01-01

    Male rats of Wistar strain were adapted during a 4-week period to the nutritional regimes of meal feeding (MF) and ad libitum (AL) and were irradiated with the single whole-body lethal X-ray dose 14.35 Gy after 22 h of fasting. Within the intervals 1, 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation lipogenesis changes in the liver were studied by measuring 1-/sup 14/C-acetate incorporation (74 KBq) in the total lipids, fatty acids and cholesterol, and in the white adipose tissue pieces by measuring U-/sup 14/C-glucose incorporation (74 KBq) in the total lipids, fatty acids and glyceride glycerol. Lipogenesis increased in the liver of the irradiated rats as compared with sham irradiated rats and reached the maximal values at 72 h after irradiation in AL animals and at 48 h after irradiation in MF animals. Lipogenesis in the adipose tissue decreased in the irradiated rats as compared with the sham irradiated ones and continued to decrease with the post-irradiation period. The adaptation to the nutritional regime of meal feeding markedly modified lipogenesis in the liver and the adipose tissue of the irradiated rats. Long-term fasting (before and after irradiation) was supposed to be another modifying factor in the lipogenesis changes. Lipogenesis changes in the liver depended on the MF nutritional regime.

  18. Performance evaluation of a diesel engine using biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, E.M.; Jamal, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This article is a comparative study of use of mineral diesel and biodiesel derived from cotton seed oil of Pakistani origin. The main problems associated with biodiesel are, its very high viscosity and specific gravity, which are due to long chain triglyceride esters with free fatty acids. The esters are converted into simple structure mono-glycerides esters via transesterification process. The experiments were carried out using blends of diesel and biodiesel with different ratios, to investigate the performance characteristics of engine and exhaust emissions. The experimental results show that the engine using B100 resulting in about 10% higher brake specific fuel consumption and about 10% lower brake thermal efficiency as compared to the use of B0. The engine emissions were almost free from SO/sub x/, having reduced amount of CO, CO/sub 2/0, and THC, but having higher amount of NOx, when B100 was used as fuel. The fuel is becoming more popular due to the reduction in nasty pollutant emissions. (author)

  19. Comprehension of direct extraction of hydrophilic antioxidants using vegetable oils by polar paradox theory and small angle X-ray scattering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne Sylvie; Ruiz, Karine; Rossignol Castera, Anne; Bauduin, Pierre; Diat, Olivier; Chemat, Farid

    2015-04-15

    Since the polar paradox theory rationalised the fact that polar antioxidants are more effective in nonpolar media, extractions of phenolic compounds in vegetable oils were inspired and achieved in this study for obtaining oils enriched in phenolic compounds. Moreover, the influence of surfactants on the extractability of phenolic compounds was experimentally studied first, followed by the small angle X-ray scattering analysis for the oil structural observation before and after extraction so as to better understand the dissolving mechanism underpinning the extraction. The results showed a significant difference on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds among oils, which was mainly dependent on their composition instead of the unsaturation of fatty acids. Appropriate surfactant additions could significantly improve extraction yield for refined sunflower oils, which 1% w/w addition of glyceryl oleate was determined as the optimal. Besides, 5% w/w addition of lecithin performed the best in oil enrichments compared with mono- and di-glycerides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose, oligomycin and theophylline on in vitro glycerol metabolism in rat adipose tissue: response to insulin and epinephrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, M C; Herrera, E [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Catedra de Fisiologia General

    1976-01-01

    The effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), oligomycin and theophylline on the in vitro production and metabolism of glycerol and its response to insulin and epinephrine were studied in epididymal fat pads from fed rats. 2-DG failed to affect basic or epinephrine-stimulated glycerol production but decreased the uptake of 1-/sup 14/C-glycerol by the tissue and its conversion to glyceride-glycerol. Oligomycin also failed to affect the basic production of glycerol, but it inhibited the affect of epinephrine on this parameter as well as the uptake and utilization of 1-/sup 14/C-glycerol. Theophylline enhanced the production of glycerol by the tissue, and this effect was not further augmented by epinephrine. Theophylline also inhibited the uptake and utilization of 1-/sup 14/C-glycerol; the most pronounced effect of theophylline was observed in the formation of /sup 14/C-fatty acids from 1-/sup 14/C-glycerol in the presence of glucose. Insulin, but not epinephrine, decreased the inhibitory effect of theophylline on glycerol utilization. It is concluded that these compounds affect the ability of adipose tissue to metabolize glycerol more intensely than the ability to release it through lipolysis. The pathway for glycerol utilization in adipose tissue appears to be more sensitive to changes in the availability of ATP than the mechanisms for the release of glycerol from the tissue.

  1. The effect of different emulsifiers on the eggless cake properties containing WPC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilian Movahhed, Mohammad; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Koocheki, Arash; Milani, Elnaz

    2016-11-01

    The possibility of complete replacement of egg proteins with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and improvement in quality by different emulsifiers was evaluated. Three emulsifiers, including polyglycerol ester (PGE), distilled mono glyceride (DMG) and lecithin were used to bake eggless cakes, containing 8% (w/w) WPC. The response surface analysis was applied to study the effect of emulsifiers on the eggless cake properties. The emulsifiers, individually and interactively, improved the properties of the eggless cakes significantly. The PGE and DMG decreased the batter density, however lecithin increased it. All emulsifiers increased the porosity and volume of the eggless cakes, but decreased the hardness and gumminess of crumb and improved the sensory acceptance. The indices used for optimization of formulation were water activity, moisture content, hardness, gumminess, volume, porosity and total acceptance. The optimum quality of the eggless cake can be achieved from a combination of 0.5 PGE, 0.25 DMG and 0.5% lecithin. The experimental and predicted responses of the optimized eggless cake had a good resemblance.

  2. Time of erythema onset after application of methyl nicotinate ointments as response parameter: influence of penetration kinetics and enhancing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remane, Y; Leopold, C S

    2006-01-01

    The time of erythema onset may be used as a response parameter for quantification of the cutaneous erythema response induced by methyl nicotinate. The vehicles light mineral oil (LMO; test) and medium chain triglycerides (MCT; standard) were compared with regard to the pharmacodynamic response. Moreover, the influence of penetration enhancers on the time of erythema onset was investigated under zero order penetration kinetics. The enhancers dimethyl sulfoxide, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether and three different glycerides in different concentrations were added to MCT as a standard vehicle. All preparations were applied to the forearms of volunteers under infinite dose conditions at different thermodynamic drug activity levels (0.2-3.2% of the saturation level) and different drug concentrations (0.051-0.816%), respectively. Different penetration kinetics do not influence data of erythema onset, as these data are comparable to those obtained under finite dose conditions (first order penetration kinetics). With regard to the penetration enhancers, a significantly enhanced penetration of methyl nicotinate could be observed only for diethylene glycol monoethyl ether and dimethyl sulfoxide. However, no significant difference between light mineral oil and MCT could be found with regard to penetration enhancement. The time of erythema onset is an easy and efficient parameter for quantification of the pharmacodynamic response caused by nicotinates.

  3. Development and evaluation of a microemulsion formulation for transdermal delivery of terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baboota, S; Al-Azaki, A; Kohli, K; Ali, J; Dixit, N; Shakeel, F

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to develop and evaluate microemulsion formulations for Terbinafine (TB) with a view to enhance its permeability through the skin and provide release for 24 h. Various o/w microemulsions were prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method. Oleic acid was chosen as the oil phase, Caprylo caproyl macrogol-8- glyceride (Labrasol S) and purified diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (Transcutol P) were used as surfactant and cosurfactant, respectively, on the basis of solubility studies. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to obtain the concentration range of oil, surfactant, cosurfactant, and water for microemulsion formulation. The optimized microemulsion consisted of 2% w/w TB, 8% w/w oleic acid, 31% w/w labrasol S, 31% w/w transcutol P, and 30% w/w distilled water. Permeability parameters like Jss and Kp were found to be significantly higher for formulation F4 as compared to other formulations (P activity against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus as compared to marketed product (P < 0.05).

  4. The Next Generation Feedstock of Biofuel: Jatropha or Chlorella as Assessed by Their Life-Cycle Inventories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Peng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Promising energy crops such as Jatropha curcas Linnaeus (JCL, which are planted on marginal lands, or microalgae such as Chlorella, which are cultivated in ponds located on mudflats or deserts, have been regarded with high hopes to solve the shortage of food crops and increase the amount of biodiesel (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, FAME production. However, the annual yields of biomass and transport fuels (t/ha of both are still unclear and often exaggerated in the literature. Large portions of JCL biomass, including tree trunks and leaves, can also be used to generate electricity along with FAME, which is produced from seed lipids. Meanwhile, lipid extracted algae (LEA are composed of proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids other than glycerides which are unable to be esterified to form FAME and much more abundant in the microalgae than oil cake in the oil crops. Therefore, it has been strongly suggested that not only transesterification or esterification but also Fischer-Tropsch (FT process and bio-electricity generation should be considered as routes to produce biofuels. Otherwise, the yield of biofuel would be extremely low using either JCL or Chlorella as feedstock. The Life-Cycle Inventories (LCI of the biofuel processes with whole biomass of JCL and Chlorella were compared based on their net energy ratio (NER and CO2 emission saving (CES. It was shown that the technological improvement of irrigation, cultivation, and processing for either economic-crops or microalgae were all necessary to meet the requirements of commercial biofuel production.

  5. Minor components in oils obtained from Amazonian palm fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, M. F.G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the characterization of minor compounds in oils obtained from the mesocarp of fruits of the main palm species from the State of Amapá, Brazil, i.e. bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, inajá (Maximiliana maripa, pupunha (Bactris gasipaes and tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare. The concentration of minor glyceridic compounds, i.e. dimeric triacylglycerols (TAG, the oxidized TAG and diacylglycerols (DAG related to oil quality, and the compounds of unsaponifiable matter, i.e. hydrocarbons, aliphatic alcohols, sterols and tocopherols have been determined. The results indicate that the extracted oils had good initial quality, with DAG as the major glyceridic compound. The contents of hydrocarbons (50-734 mg·kg–1 and aliphatic alcohols (80-490 mg·kg–1 were highly variable with inajá oil containing the highest contents. In the case of tocopherols, buriti (1567 mg·kg–1 and tucumã (483 mg·kg–1 oils had the highest contents and the presence of significant amounts of tocotrienols was only detected in inajá oil. Finally, high concentrations of sterols were found in all the samples, particularly in the oils from pupunha (4456 mg·kg–1 and tucumã (2708 mg·kg–1, with β-sitosterol being the major sterol in all the samples with percentages between 65 and 83%.El objetivo de este estudio fue la caracterización de los componentes menores presentes en los aceites obtenidos del mesocarpio de frutos de especies de bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, inajá (Maximiliana maripa, pupuña (Bactris gasipaes y tucumá (Astrocaryum vulgare, de importante producción en el Estado de Amapá, Brasil. Se determinaron las dos principales fracciones presentes en los aceites. Por una parte, los compuestos menores derivados de los componentes mayoritarios o triglicéridos (TAG: dímeros de TAG, TAG oxidados y diglicéridos (DAG relacionados con la calidad de los aceites y, por otra, los principales grupos

  6. Lecithin-linker formulations for self-emulsifying delivery of nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jacquelene; Cheng, Yu-Ling; Rao, A Venketeshwer; Nouraei, Mehdi; Zarate-Muñoz, Silvia; Acosta, Edgar J

    2014-08-25

    Lecithin-linker microemulsions are formulations produced with soybean lecithin in combination with a highly lipophilic (lipophilic linker) and highly hydrophilic (hydrophilic linkers) surfactant-like additives. In this work, lecithin-linker systems were formulated to produce self-emulsifying delivery systems for β-carotene and β-sitosterol. The concentration of the lipophilic linker, sorbitan monooleate, was adjusted to minimize the formation of liquid crystals. The concentration of hydrophilic linkers, decaglyceryl caprylate/caprate and PEG-6-caprylic/capric glycerides, was gradually increased (scanned) until single phase clear microemulsions were obtained. For these scans, the oil (ethyl caprate) to water ratio was set to 1. The single phase, clear microemulsions were diluted with fed-state simulated intestinal fluid (FeSSIF) and produced stable emulsions, with drop sizes close to 200 nm. Using pseudo-ternary phase diagrams to evaluate the process of dilution of microemulsion preconcentrates (mixtures of oil, lecithin and linkers with little or no water) with FeSSIF, it was determined that self-emulsifying systems are obtained when the early stages of the dilution produce single phase microemulsions. If liquid crystals or multiple phase systems are obtained during those early stages, then the emulsification yields unstable emulsions with large drop sizes. An in vitro permeability study conducted using a Flow-Thru Dialyzer revealed that stable emulsions with drop sizes of 150-300 nm produce large and irreversible permeation of β-carotene to sheep intestine. On the other hand, unstable emulsions produced without the linker combination separated in the dialyzer chamber. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Polychaete’s Powerful Punch: Venom Gland Transcriptomics of Glycera Reveals a Complex Cocktail of Toxin Homologs

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reumont, Björn M.; Richter, Sandy; Hering, Lars; Sykes, Dan; Hetmank, Jörg; Jenner, Ronald A.; Bleidorn, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Glycerids are marine annelids commonly known as bloodworms. Bloodworms have an eversible proboscis adorned with jaws connected to venom glands. Bloodworms prey on invertebrates, and it is known that the venom glands produce compounds that can induce toxic effects in animals. Yet, none of these putative toxins has been characterized on a molecular basis. Here we present the transcriptomic profiles of the venom glands of three species of bloodworm, Glycera dibranchiata, Glycera fallax and Glycera tridactyla, as well as the body tissue of G. tridactyla. The venom glands express a complex mixture of transcripts coding for putative toxin precursors. These transcripts represent 20 known toxin classes that have been convergently recruited into animal venoms, as well as transcripts potentially coding for Glycera-specific toxins. The toxins represent five functional categories: Pore-forming and membrane-disrupting toxins, neurotoxins, protease inhibitors, other enzymes, and CAP domain toxins. Many of the transcripts coding for putative Glycera toxins belong to classes that have been widely recruited into venoms, but some are homologs of toxins previously only known from the venoms of scorpaeniform fish and monotremes (stonustoxin-like toxin), turrid gastropods (turripeptide-like peptides), and sea anemones (gigantoxin I-like neurotoxin). This complex mixture of toxin homologs suggests that bloodworms employ venom while predating on macroscopic prey, casting doubt on the previously widespread opinion that G. dibranchiata is a detritivore. Our results further show that researchers should be aware that different assembly methods, as well as different methods of homology prediction, can influence the transcriptomic profiling of venom glands. PMID:25193302

  8. A Polychaete's powerful punch: venom gland transcriptomics of Glycera reveals a complex cocktail of toxin homologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reumont, Björn M; Campbell, Lahcen I; Richter, Sandy; Hering, Lars; Sykes, Dan; Hetmank, Jörg; Jenner, Ronald A; Bleidorn, Christoph

    2014-09-05

    Glycerids are marine annelids commonly known as bloodworms. Bloodworms have an eversible proboscis adorned with jaws connected to venom glands. Bloodworms prey on invertebrates, and it is known that the venom glands produce compounds that can induce toxic effects in animals. Yet, none of these putative toxins has been characterized on a molecular basis. Here we present the transcriptomic profiles of the venom glands of three species of bloodworm, Glycera dibranchiata, Glycera fallax and Glycera tridactyla, as well as the body tissue of G. tridactyla. The venom glands express a complex mixture of transcripts coding for putative toxin precursors. These transcripts represent 20 known toxin classes that have been convergently recruited into animal venoms, as well as transcripts potentially coding for Glycera-specific toxins. The toxins represent five functional categories: Pore-forming and membrane-disrupting toxins, neurotoxins, protease inhibitors, other enzymes, and CAP domain toxins. Many of the transcripts coding for putative Glycera toxins belong to classes that have been widely recruited into venoms, but some are homologs of toxins previously only known from the venoms of scorpaeniform fish and monotremes (stonustoxin-like toxin), turrid gastropods (turripeptide-like peptides), and sea anemones (gigantoxin I-like neurotoxin). This complex mixture of toxin homologs suggests that bloodworms employ venom while predating on macroscopic prey, casting doubt on the previously widespread opinion that G. dibranchiata is a detritivore. Our results further show that researchers should be aware that different assembly methods, as well as different methods of homology prediction, can influence the transcriptomic profiling of venom glands. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Cellular and biochemical responses of the oyster Crassostrea gigas to controlled exposures to metals and Alexandrium minutum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberkorn, Hansy; Lambert, Christophe; Le Goïc, Nelly [Laboratoire des Sciences de l‘Environnement Marin, UMR 6539, Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Place Copernic, Technopôle Brest-Iroise, 29280 Plouzané (France); Quéré, Claudie [IFREMER Centre de Brest, Laboratoire de Physiologie des Invertébrés, Unité Physiologie Fonctionnelle des Organismes Marins, BP 70, 29280 Plouzané (France); Bruneau, Audrey; Riso, Ricardo; Auffret, Michel [Laboratoire des Sciences de l‘Environnement Marin, UMR 6539, Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Place Copernic, Technopôle Brest-Iroise, 29280 Plouzané (France); Soudant, Philippe, E-mail: Philippe.Soudant@univ-brest.fr [Laboratoire des Sciences de l‘Environnement Marin, UMR 6539, Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Place Copernic, Technopôle Brest-Iroise, 29280 Plouzané (France)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: •Oysters, C. gigas, were exposed to both metals and PST-producer A. minutum. •Oysters exposed to metals accumulated about thirty-six times less PSTs. •Exposure to both metals and A. minutum induced antagonistic or synergetic effects. -- Abstract: Effects of simultaneous exposure of Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, to both a harmful dinoflagellate that produces Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST), Alexandrium minutum, and cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu), were assessed. Oysters were exposed to a mix of Cd–Cu with two different diets (i.e. A. minutum or Tisochrysis lutea) and compared to control oysters fed A. minutum or T. lutea, respectively, without metal addition. Metals and PST accumulations, digestive gland lipid composition, and cellular and biochemical hemolymph variables were measured after 4 days of exposure. Oysters exposed to Cd–Cu accumulated about thirty-six times less PSTs than oysters exposed to A. minutum alone. Exposure to Cd–Cu induced significant changes in neutral lipids (increase in diacylglycerol – DAG – and decrease in sterols) and phospholipids (decreases in phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, cardiolipin and ceramide aminoethylphosphonate) of digestive gland suggesting that lipid metabolism disruptions and/or lipid peroxidation have occurred. Simultaneously, concentrations, percentages of dead cells and phenoloxidase activity of hemocytes increased in oysters exposed to metals while reactive oxygen species production of hemocytes decreased. Feeding on the harmful dinoflagellate A. minutum resulted in significant decreases in monoacylglycerol (MAG) and DAG and ether glycerides (EG), as well as significant increases in hemocyte concentration and phagocytic activity as compared to oysters fed T. lutea. Finally, the present study revealed that short-term, simultaneous exposure to Cd–Cu and A. minutum may induce antagonistic (i.e. hemocyte concentration and phagocytosis) or synergic (i.e. DAG content in

  10. Lipogenic potential of liver from morbidly obese patients with and without non-insulin-dependent diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, H.A.; McLendon, V.D.; Carpenter, J.W.; Marks, R.H.; Legett, N.; O'Brien, K.; Caro, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Intra-abdominal liver biopsies were obtained during surgery from fasted obese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), obese normoglycemic controls, and lean controls. Lipid synthesis was studied in freshly isolated hepatocytes and liver homogenates from the three groups of subjects. Incorporation of 3H2O into the lipids of hepatocytes was determined in the absence and presence of insulin (0.1 mumol/L). The activities of five enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis, and the incorporation of 14C-glycerol-3-phosphate into lipids were determined in liver homogenates. Basal lipid synthesis by hepatocytes was not different in the three groups of patients. Insulin stimulated lipogenesis by 8% +/- 30% in the lean controls, 33% +/- 8% in the obese controls and 17% +/- 6% in the NIDDM patients. No significant differences in the activities of the five enzymes that are involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis among the three groups of patients were observed. Similarly, incorporation of 14C-glycerol-3-phosphate by liver homogenates, in the presence of saturating or submaximal concentrations of fatty acids, did not differ among the three groups. These results show that under the experimental conditions of this study, including the fasted state of the patients, the basal capacity of liver of NIDDM patients to synthesize fatty acids or glycerides is the same as that of liver from obese and lean controls. Thus, it is likely that an increase in fatty acid flux into a liver with normal lipogenic potential may contribute to the increased synthesis of triglycerides by the liver of these patients in vivo

  11. Imaging and chemical surface analysis of biomolecular functionalization of monolithically integrated on silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometric immunosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajos, Katarzyna; Angelopoulou, Michailia; Petrou, Panagiota; Awsiuk, Kamil; Kakabakos, Sotirios; Haasnoot, Willem; Bernasik, Andrzej; Rysz, Jakub; Marzec, Mateusz M.; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis; Budkowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of probe immobilization with robotic spotter printing overlapping spots. • In-situ inspection of microstructured surfaces of biosensors integrated on silicon. • Imaging and chemical analysis of immobilization, surface blocking and immunoreaction. • Insight with molecular discrimination into step-by-step sensor surface modifications. • Optimized biofunctionalization improves sensor sensitivity and response repeatability. - Abstract: Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (imaging, micro-analysis) has been employed to evaluate biofunctionalization of the sensing arm areas of Mach-Zehnder interferometers monolithically integrated on silicon chips for the immunochemical (competitive) detection of bovine κ-casein in goat milk. Biosensor surfaces are examined after: modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, application of multiple overlapping spots of κ-casein solutions, blocking with 100-times diluted goat milk, and reaction with monoclonal mouse anti-κ-casein antibodies in blocking solution. The areas spotted with κ-casein solutions of different concentrations are examined and optimum concentration providing homogeneous coverage is determined. Coverage of biosensor surfaces with biomolecules after each of the sequential steps employed in immunodetection is also evaluated with TOF-SIMS, supplemented by Atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Uniform molecular distributions are observed on the sensing arm areas after spotting with optimum κ-casein concentration, blocking and immunoreaction. The corresponding biomolecular compositions are determined with a Principal Component Analysis that distinguished between protein amino acids and milk glycerides, as well as between amino acids characteristic for Mabs and κ-casein, respectively. Use of the optimum conditions (κ-casein concentration) for functionalization of chips with arrays of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers provided on-chips assays

  12. Zeolites shape up to modern catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.M.; Ramdas, S.; Millward, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    Small molecules, like methanol (CH/sub 3/OH) and ethanol (C/sub 2/H/sub 3/OH), as well as large ones, like hexadecane (C/sub 16/H/sub 34/), the glycerides that make up corn oil (average formula C/sub 57/H/sub 104/O/sub 6/) and jojoba oil, composed of linear esters of C/sub 20/ and C/sub 22/ unsaturated alcohols and acids (average formula C/sub 41/H/sub 78/O/sub 2/) and obtained from Simmondsia chinensis, are each converted by a catalyst known as ZSM-5 to essentially the same relatively narrow spectrum of intermediate-sized hydrocarbons. It so happens that this spectrum of hydrocarbons - containing aliphatics peaking at C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ and aromatics in the C/sub 6/ to C/sub 10/ range - corresponds closely to that which makes up petrol (gasoline). ZSM-5 thus enables good quality petrol, and many valuable raw materials such as benzene and toluene, to be produced from a number of non-petroleum raw materials, notable coal and biomass. Many other chemical conversions are also catalysed by this synthetic, silica-rich material ZSM-5, the efficacy of which depends partly upon its property of permitting only those reactants of appropriate size and flexibility to enter into, and to diffuse within, its network of crystal pores. Its efficacy also depends partly upon the fact that the only products formed are those small enough to be accommodated within, and capable of diffusing out of, the intracrystalline pores. The precise magnitude of the pores of molecular dimension, and especially of the cavities generated by intersecting pores, also imposes restrictions upon the size of the transition states through which reactant species must pass, thereby introducing a further constraint upon the otherwise numerous pathways of chemical change open, in principle, to the intermediates generated from the reactants inside the catalyst.

  13. Solid-state NMR Reveals the Carbon-based Molecular Architecture of Cryptococcus neoformans Fungal Eumelanins in the Cell Wall*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Subhasish; Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Itin, Boris; Casadevall, Arturo; Stark, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Melanin pigments protect against both ionizing radiation and free radicals and have potential soil remediation capabilities. Eumelanins produced by pathogenic Cryptococcus neoformans fungi are virulence factors that render the fungal cells resistant to host defenses and certain antifungal drugs. Because of their insoluble and amorphous characteristics, neither the pigment bonding framework nor the cellular interactions underlying melanization of C. neoformans have yielded to comprehensive molecular-scale investigation. This study used the C. neoformans requirement of exogenous obligatory catecholamine precursors for melanization to produce isotopically enriched pigment “ghosts” and applied 2D 13C-13C correlation solid-state NMR to reveal the carbon-based architecture of intact natural eumelanin assemblies in fungal cells. We demonstrated that the aliphatic moieties of solid C. neoformans melanin ghosts include cell-wall components derived from polysaccharides and/or chitin that are associated proximally with lipid membrane constituents. Prior to development of the mature aromatic fungal pigment, these aliphatic moieties form a chemically resistant framework that could serve as the scaffold for melanin synthesis. The indole-based core aromatic moieties show interconnections that are consistent with proposed melanin structures consisting of stacked planar assemblies, which are associated spatially with the aliphatic scaffold. The pyrrole aromatic carbons of the pigments bind covalently to the aliphatic framework via glycoside or glyceride functional groups. These findings establish that the structure of the pigment assembly changes with time and provide the first biophysical information on the mechanism by which melanin is assembled in the fungal cell wall, offering vital insights that can advance the design of bioinspired conductive nanomaterials and novel therapeutics. PMID:25825492

  14. Solid-state NMR Reveals the Carbon-based Molecular Architecture of Cryptococcus neoformans Fungal Eumelanins in the Cell Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Subhasish; Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Itin, Boris; Casadevall, Arturo; Stark, Ruth E

    2015-05-29

    Melanin pigments protect against both ionizing radiation and free radicals and have potential soil remediation capabilities. Eumelanins produced by pathogenic Cryptococcus neoformans fungi are virulence factors that render the fungal cells resistant to host defenses and certain antifungal drugs. Because of their insoluble and amorphous characteristics, neither the pigment bonding framework nor the cellular interactions underlying melanization of C. neoformans have yielded to comprehensive molecular-scale investigation. This study used the C. neoformans requirement of exogenous obligatory catecholamine precursors for melanization to produce isotopically enriched pigment "ghosts" and applied 2D (13)C-(13)C correlation solid-state NMR to reveal the carbon-based architecture of intact natural eumelanin assemblies in fungal cells. We demonstrated that the aliphatic moieties of solid C. neoformans melanin ghosts include cell-wall components derived from polysaccharides and/or chitin that are associated proximally with lipid membrane constituents. Prior to development of the mature aromatic fungal pigment, these aliphatic moieties form a chemically resistant framework that could serve as the scaffold for melanin synthesis. The indole-based core aromatic moieties show interconnections that are consistent with proposed melanin structures consisting of stacked planar assemblies, which are associated spatially with the aliphatic scaffold. The pyrrole aromatic carbons of the pigments bind covalently to the aliphatic framework via glycoside or glyceride functional groups. These findings establish that the structure of the pigment assembly changes with time and provide the first biophysical information on the mechanism by which melanin is assembled in the fungal cell wall, offering vital insights that can advance the design of bioinspired conductive nanomaterials and novel therapeutics. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Studies on qualitative and quantitative chemical changes in gamma irradiated fish and fishery products in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, C.; Rao, B.Y.K.

    1981-01-01

    Studies on qualitative and quantitative changes in lipids and allied constituents of fresh as well as salted dehydrated Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) during storage after gamma-irradiation have been carried out. The samples were evaluated subjectively as well by determining various physico-chemical parameters such as moisture content, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), trimethyl amine nitrogen (TMAN), lipid content, iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, glyceride and free fatty acid (FFA) content. Shelf life extension of radurized fresh (150 Krad) as well as salted dehydrated (200 Krad) Indian mackerel during ice-temperature (0-2 0 C) and ambient temperature (25-30 0 C) storage, respectively, was observed without detectable rancidity and off-flavours. However, the extended storage life was dependent upon storage temperature in the case of fresh fish and upon moisture content in the case of salted dehydrated fish. Besides a suppression in TVBN and TMAN values, the changes in the physico-chemical parameters including the lipid composition of the irradiated samples in both cases were parallel to those in the unirradiated controls. No new compounds were detected in any of the lipid samples of the irradiated fish by thin-layer gas-liquid chromatography. Pasteurization dose of irradiation (200 Krad) did not influence the yield or the composition of the total volatiles of salted dehydrated fish. The commercial sun-dried products gave rise to two-fold increases in the yield of total volatiles, which showed composition comparable to that of the laboratory processed irradiated samples

  16. Cytotoxicity, Intestinal Transport, and Bioavailability of Dispersible Iron and Zinc Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Min Oh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron or zinc deficiency is one of the most important nutritional disorders which causes health problem. However, food fortification with minerals often induces unacceptable organoleptic changes during preparation process and storage, has low bioavailability and solubility, and is expensive. Nanotechnology surface modification to obtain novel characteristics can be a useful tool to overcome these problems. In this study, the efficacy and potential toxicity of dispersible Fe or Zn supplement coated in dextrin and glycerides (SunActive FeTM and SunActive ZnTM were evaluated in terms of cytotoxicity, intestinal transport, and bioavailability, as compared with each counterpart without coating, ferric pyrophosphate (FePP and zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles (NPs, respectively. The results demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of FePP was not significantly affected by surface modification (SunActive FeTM, while SunActive ZnTM was more cytotoxic than ZnO-NPs. Cellular uptake and intestinal transport efficiency of SunActive FeTM were significantly higher than those of its counterpart material, which was in good agreement with enhanced oral absorption efficacy after a single-dose oral administration to rats. These results seem to be related to dissolution, particle dispersibility, and coating stability of materials depending on suspending media. Both SunActiveTM products and their counterpart materials were determined to be primarily transported by microfold (M cells through the intestinal epithelium. It was, therefore, concluded that surface modification of food fortification will be a useful strategy to enhance oral absorption efficiency at safe levels.

  17. Penetration enhancer-containing vesicles (PEVs) as carriers for cutaneous delivery of minoxidil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Simona; Manconi, Maria; Sinico, Chiara; Valenti, Donatella; Fadda, Anna Maria

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of a few different penetration enhancers to produce elastic vesicles with soy lecithin and the influence of the obtained vesicles on in vitro (trans)dermal delivery of minoxidil. To this purpose, so-called Penetration Enhancer-containing Vesicles (PEVs) were prepared as dehydrated-rehydrated vesicles by using soy lecithin and different amounts of three penetration enhancers, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethanol (Transcutol), capryl-caproyl macrogol 8-glyceride (Labrasol), and cineole. Soy lecithin liposomes, without penetration enhancers, were used as control. Prepared formulations were characterized in terms of size distribution, morphology, zeta potential, and vesicle deformability. The influence of PEVs on (trans)dermal delivery of minoxidil was studied by in vitro diffusion experiments through newborn pig skin in comparison with traditional liposomes and ethanolic solutions of the drug also containing each penetration enhancer. A skin pre-treatment study using empty PEVs and conventional liposomes was also carried out. Results showed that all the used penetration enhancers were able to give more deformable vesicles than conventional liposomes with a good drug entrapment efficiency and stability. In vitro skin penetration data showed that PEVs were able to give a statistically significant improvement of minoxidil deposition in the skin in comparison with classic liposomes and penetration enhancer-containing drug ethanolic solutions without any transdermal delivery. Moreover, the most deformable PEVs, prepared with Labrasol and cineole, were also able to deliver to the skin a higher total amount of minoxidil than the PE alcoholic solutions thus suggesting that minoxidil delivery to the skin was strictly correlated to vesicle deformability, and therefore to vesicle composition.

  18. Simultaneous microwave extraction and synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuck, Christopher J.; Lou-Hing, Daniel; Dean, Rebecca; Sargeant, Lisa A.; Scott, Rod J.; Jenkins, Rhodri W.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial lipids have the potential to substantially reduce the use of liquid fossil fuels, though one obstacle is the energy costs associated with the extraction and subsequent conversion into a biofuel. Here we report a one-step method to produce FAME (fatty acid methyl esters) from Rhodotorula glutinis by combining lipid extraction in a microwave reactor with acid-catalysed transesterification. The microwave did not alter the FAME profile and over 99% of the lipid was esterified when using 25 wt% H 2 SO 4 over 20 min at 120 °C. On using higher loadings of catalyst, similar yields were achieved over 30 s. Equivalent amounts of FAME were recovered in 30 s using this method as with a 4 h Soxhlet extraction, run with the same solvent system. When water was present at less than a 1:1 ratio with methanol, the main product was FAME, above this the major products were FFA (free fatty acids). Under the best conditions, the energy required for the microwave was less than 20% of the energy content of the biodiesel produced. Increasing the temperature did not change the EROI (energy return on investment) substantially; however, longer reaction times used an equivalent amount of energy to the total energy content of the biodiesel. - Highlights: • The extraction and transesterification of yeast lipid were achieved using a microwave reactor. • The lipid was extracted from Rhodotorula glutinis within 30 s under all conditions. • Addition of 25 wt% H 2 SO 4 catalyst converted 95% glycerides to FAME over 5 min. • Water could be tolerated up to 25 wt% without high FFA production. • The temperature of the microwave had less impact on EROI than the length of extraction

  19. Low-cost phase change material as an energy storage medium in building envelopes: Experimental and numerical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Kaushik; Abhari, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Testing of a low-cost bio-PCM in an exterior wall under varying weather conditions. • Numerical model validation and annual simulations of PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation. • Reduced wall-generated cooling electricity consumption due to the application of PCM. • PCM performance was sensitive to its location and distribution within the wall. - Abstract: A promising approach to increasing the energy efficiency of buildings is the implementation of a phase change material (PCM) in the building envelope. Numerous studies over the last two decades have reported the energy saving potential of PCMs in building envelopes, but their wide application has been inhibited, in part, by their high cost. This article describes a novel PCM made of naturally occurring fatty acids/glycerides trapped into high density polyethylene (HDPE) pellets and its performance in a building envelope application. The PCM–HDPE pellets were mixed with cellulose insulation and then added to an exterior wall of a test building in a hot and humid climate, and tested over a period of several months. To demonstrate the efficacy of the PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation in reducing the building envelope heat gains and losses, a side-by-side comparison was performed with another wall section filled with cellulose-only insulation. Further, numerical modeling of the test wall was performed to determine the actual impact of the PCM–HDPE pellets on wall-generated heating and cooling loads and the associated electricity consumption. The model was first validated using experimental data and then used for annual simulations using typical meteorological year (TMY3) weather data. This article presents the experimental data and numerical analyses showing the energy-saving potential of the new PCM

  20. 1,8-Bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene/9-aminoacridine: A new binary matrix for lipid fingerprinting of intact bacteria by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvano, C.D., E-mail: cosimadamiana.calvano@uniba.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Monopoli, A.; Ditaranto, N. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Palmisano, F. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca S.M.A.R.T., Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2013-10-10

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •New binary matrix for less ionizable lipid analysis with no interfering peaks. •Combined MALDI and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. •Fast lipid fingerprint on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by MALDI MS. •Mapping of phospholipids by XPS imaging. •Very fast membrane lipid extraction procedure. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of a novel binary matrix composed of 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (DMAN; proton sponge) and 9-aminoacridine (9AA) for the direct lipid analysis of whole bacterial cells by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) is demonstrated. Deprotonated analyte signals nearly free of matrix-related ions were observed in negative ion mode. The effect of the most important factors (laser energy, pulse voltage, DMAN/9AA ratio, analyte/matrix ratio) was investigated using a Box–Behnken response surface design followed by multi-response optimization in order to simultaneously maximize signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and resolution. The chemical surface composition of single or mixed matrices was explored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, XPS imaging was used to map the spatial distribution of a model phospholipid in single or binary matrices. The DMAN/9AA binary matrix was then successfully applied to the analysis of intact Gram positive (Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis) or Gram negative (Escherichia coli) microorganisms. About fifty major membrane components (free fatty acids, mono-, di- and tri-glycerides, phospholipids, glycolipids and cardiolipins) were quickly and easily detected over a mass range spanning from ca. 200 to ca. 1600 m/z. Moreover, mass spectra with improved S/N ratio (compared to single matrices), reduced chemical noise and no formation of matrix-clusters were invariably obtained demonstrating the potential of this binary matrix to improve sensitivity.

  1. Imaging and chemical surface analysis of biomolecular functionalization of monolithically integrated on silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometric immunosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajos, Katarzyna, E-mail: kasia.fornal@uj.edu.pl [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Angelopoulou, Michailia; Petrou, Panagiota [Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Awsiuk, Kamil [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Kakabakos, Sotirios [Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Haasnoot, Willem [RIKILT Wageningen UR, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen (Netherlands); Bernasik, Andrzej [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Rysz, Jakub [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Marzec, Mateusz M. [Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis [Department of Microelectronics, Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Budkowski, Andrzej [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of probe immobilization with robotic spotter printing overlapping spots. • In-situ inspection of microstructured surfaces of biosensors integrated on silicon. • Imaging and chemical analysis of immobilization, surface blocking and immunoreaction. • Insight with molecular discrimination into step-by-step sensor surface modifications. • Optimized biofunctionalization improves sensor sensitivity and response repeatability. - Abstract: Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (imaging, micro-analysis) has been employed to evaluate biofunctionalization of the sensing arm areas of Mach-Zehnder interferometers monolithically integrated on silicon chips for the immunochemical (competitive) detection of bovine κ-casein in goat milk. Biosensor surfaces are examined after: modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, application of multiple overlapping spots of κ-casein solutions, blocking with 100-times diluted goat milk, and reaction with monoclonal mouse anti-κ-casein antibodies in blocking solution. The areas spotted with κ-casein solutions of different concentrations are examined and optimum concentration providing homogeneous coverage is determined. Coverage of biosensor surfaces with biomolecules after each of the sequential steps employed in immunodetection is also evaluated with TOF-SIMS, supplemented by Atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Uniform molecular distributions are observed on the sensing arm areas after spotting with optimum κ-casein concentration, blocking and immunoreaction. The corresponding biomolecular compositions are determined with a Principal Component Analysis that distinguished between protein amino acids and milk glycerides, as well as between amino acids characteristic for Mabs and κ-casein, respectively. Use of the optimum conditions (κ-casein concentration) for functionalization of chips with arrays of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers provided on-chips assays

  2. Fat digestion in the stomach: stability of lingual lipase in the gastric environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, C S; Hamosh, P; Hamosh, M

    1984-03-01

    Digestion of dietary fat starts in the stomach, where lingual lipase hydrolyzes triglycerides to free fatty acids and partial glycerides at pH 3.0-6.0. Lingual lipase is secreted continuously from lingual serous glands and accumulates in the stomach between meals, when gastric pH is less than 3.0. We have, therefore, examined the resistance of lingual lipase to low pH and its possible protection by dietary components present in the stomach contents. Partially purified rat lingual lipase (7-15 micrograms enzyme protein) was preincubated at 37 degrees C for 10-60 min at pH 1.0-6.0 before incubation for assay of lipolytic activity, hydrolysis of tri-[3H]olein at pH 5.4. The data show that partially purified rat lingual lipase preparations are stable at 37 degrees C in the pH range of 2.5-6.0. Enzyme activity, however, is rapidly and irreversibly lost during preincubation at pH 1.0-2.4 for 10-30 min. Protein (gelatin 1% or albumin 1% or 2.5%) cannot prevent the inactivation of lingual lipase at low pH. The large molecular species (molecular weight greater than 500,000) of lingual lipase (thought to be an aggregate of enzyme with lipids) is slightly more resistant to inactivation than the 46,000 dalton preparation, suggesting that lipids might protect the enzyme from inactivation. Indeed, about 60% of the initial lipase activity is preserved during incubation at pH 2.0 in the presence of 50 mM lecithin or 10 mM triolein. The data indicate that triglycerides which are hydrolyzed by this enzyme as well as phospholipids that are not hydrolyzed can prevent the inactivation of the enzyme.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Lymphatic absorption of hypolipidemic compound, 1-O-[p-(myristyloxy)-alpha-methylcinnamoyl] glycerol (LK-903).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, J; Furuuchi, S

    1988-02-01

    The intestinal absorption process of 1-O-[p-(myristyloxy)-alpha-methylcinnamoyl] glycerol (LK-903), a new hypolipidemic compound, was studied in rats. When 3H-LK-903 or 3H-LKA [3H-p- (myristyloxy)-alpha-methyl cinnamic acid], labeled at the cinnamic acid moiety, or 14C-LK-903, labeled at the glycerol moiety, were administered orally to thoracic duct-cannulated rats at a dose of 0.233 mmol/kg, 31.1, 6.7 and 18.1% of the dose, respectively, appeared in the lymph within 24 h. In this case, radioactive compounds in the lymph lipids consisted of LKA (radioactivity was not detected in the fraction of LKA with 14C-LK-903), LK-903, diglyceride analogues and triglyceride analogues. The percentages of the triglyceride analogues were the highest, followed by the diglyceride analogues. On the other hand, when doubly labeled LK-903 (3H/14C = 1, corrected ratio) was administered orally, the values of 3H/14C for the monoglyceride, diglyceride and triglyceride analogues in the lymph were 1.2-1.5, 1.7-1.9 and 1.9-2.7, respectively. The lymphatic absorption of LK-903 was stimulated by the presence of lecithin but inhibited by a high dose of triolein. The results indicated that (1) LK-903 formed micelles in the intestine, (2) a large part of LK-903 was absorbed as such, (3) a part of LK-903 was hydrolyzed in the intestinal mucosa, and (4) a part of LKA formed by hydrolysis was again utilized to synthesize the higher glycerides and absorbed via the lymphatic absorption route for lipids.

  4. PRODUCTION OF MEDIUM-CHAIN ACYLGLYCEROLS BY LIPASE ESTERIFICATION IN PACKED BED REACTOR: PROCESS OPTIMIZATION BY RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZANARIAH MOHD DOM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Medium-chain acylglycerols (or glycerides are formed of mono-, di- and triacylglycerol classes. In this study, an alternative method to produce MCA from esterifying palm oil fatty acid distillate (PFAD with the presence of oil palm mesocarp lipase (OPML which is a plant-sourced lipase and PFAD is also cheap by-product is developed in a packed bed reactor. The production of medium-chain acylglycerols (MCA by lipase-catalysed esterification of palm oil fatty acid distillate with glycerol are optimize in order to determine the factors that have significant effects on the reaction condition and high yield of MCA. Response surface methodology (RSM was applied to optimize the reaction conditions. The reaction conditions, namely, the reaction time (30-240 min, enzyme load (0.5-1.5 kg, silica gel load (0.2-1.0 kg, and solvent amount (200-600 vol/wt. Reaction time, enzyme loading and solvent amount strongly effect MCA synthesis (p0.05 influence on MCA yield. Best-fitting models were successfully established for MCA yield (R 2 =0.9133. The optimum MCA yield were 75% from the predicted value and 75.4% from the experimental data for 6 kg enzyme loading, a reaction time of 135min and a solvent amount of 350 vol/wt at 65ºC reaction temperature. Verification of experimental results under optimized reaction conditions were conducted, and the results agreed well with the predicted range. Esterification products (mono-, di- and triacylglycerol from the PBR were identified using Thin Layer Chromatography method. The chromatograms showed the successful fractionation of esterified products in this alternative method of process esterification.

  5. Effects of exogenous fatty acids and inhibition of de novo fatty acid synthesis on disaturated phosphatidylcholine production by fetal lung cells and adult type II cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, W M; Finkelstein, J N; Parkhurst, A B

    1989-05-01

    De novo fatty acid synthesis may be an important source of saturated fatty acids for fetal lung disaturated phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) production. To investigate the roles of de novo fatty acid synthesis and exogenous fatty acids, we incubated dispersed fetal lung cells and freshly isolated adult type II cells with exogenous palmitate and oleate and measured DSPC synthesis. Unlike adult type II cells, fetal lung cells did not increase DSPC synthesis when exogenous palmitate was available; adult type II cells increased DSPC synthesis by 70% in the presence of palmitate. Exogenous oleate decreased DSPC synthesis by 48% in fetal cells but not in adult type II cells. Incubation of fetal lung cells with TOFA [2-furancarboxylate, 5-(tetradecyloxy)-sodium], a metabolic inhibitor of fatty acid synthesis, decreased fatty acid synthesis by 65%. There was a simultaneous 56% inhibition of DSPC production, but no effect on protein, DNA, or glyceride-glycerol production, measured by precursor incorporation. The inhibition of DSPC synthesis associated with TOFA was partially prevented by exogenous palmitate but not oleate. Fetal cells prepared from explants that had been cultured in dexamethasone also had TOFA-associated inhibition of DSPC synthesis that was similar to non-dexamethasone-exposed cells. These studies suggest that under baseline conditions of low fatty acid availability, such as in the fetus, de novo fatty acid synthesis in fetal cells, but not in adult type II cells, provides sufficient saturated fatty acids to support maximal DSPC production. Inhibition of de novo fatty acid synthesis resulting in decreased DSPC production in fetal lung cells in conditions of low fatty acid availability suggests that fatty acid synthesis may be central to maintain DSPC synthesis in the fetus.

  6. Assessment of boundary lubrication in biodiesels by nanotribological tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maru, Marcia M.; Almeida, Clara M.; Silva, Rui F.; Achete, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale measurements using atomic force microscopy are performed in order to scrutinize the friction phenomena observed in microscale ball-on-disc tribological tests under (boundary lubrication) BL regime. Two reference biodiesels, one derived from a vegetable source (soybean) and the other from animal fat, are compared. A linear dependence of the friction coefficient (μ) with the Stribeck parameter (S = viscosity × velocity/load) is observed: μ = 0.11 − 26.54 × S for the animal fat and μ = 0.12 − 51.56 × S for the soybean biodiesel. The nanotribological tests allowed highlighting the cohesion component of friction force in the BL regime that is associated to the intrinsic characteristics of the biodiesels, the respective friction coefficients being μ = 0.0206 for the animal fat and μ = 0.0233 for the soybean biodiesel. The better lubricity of the animal fat biodiesel compared to the soybean observed in microscale is attributed to the presence of sulfur and to the higher amount of mono- and di-glycerides contaminants in it. The polarity and/or chemical affinity of the respective sulfur and OH groups facilitate them to reacting with the steel surfaces during the rubbing action. At nanoscale level, the same ranking in friction is observed among the biodiesels, being that here the friction phenomena are attributed to the cohesive forces other than those related to viscosity. - Highlights: • The frictional behavior of standard reference biodiesels is studied. • Nanotribology tests help scrutinizing microscale friction in boundary lubrication. • AFM tests allowed highlighting the cohesion component of friction in the BL regime. • Animal fat biodiesel promotes lower and more stable friction than soybean biodiesel

  7. Biotechnology of curd product with vegetable origin components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Dolmatova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors proposed the use of an extract from the roots of a dandelion in the curd product manufacture technology. Dandelion roots are the strongest and most valuable part of the plant. Pectin substances contained in plants possess a wide range of physiological activity. The roots of dandelion have antiviral, analgesic, diaphoretic action and are recommended to patients with diabetes. They contain inulin up to 40%. In autumn, roots contain up to 18% of sugars (fructose, sucrose and glucose. Triterpene compounds, sterols (taraxerol, taraxol, taraxasterol, b-sitosterol and stigmasterol, a fatty oil containing glycerides of palmitic, oleic, linoleic, melissa and cerotinic acids were found in their roots. The biotechnological scheme of the curd product includes the following operations: acceptance and preparation of raw materials; heating and separation; milk normalization, mixture preparation; mixture pasteurization and cooling; starter introduction into the mixture and its fermentation; clot cutting, whey separation and clot filling; self-pressing and pressing of the clot; curd cooling, introduction of the prepared component (extract of dandelion root, granulated sugar; mixing; packing and marking; storage; selling. The amount of the flavor component influences the organoleptic characteristics of the product. Its dosage was varied from 0.5 to 5%. Curd products with a mass fraction of the extract of dandelion root of 2-3% were characterized by high organoleptic characteristics. Curd product is characterized by a soft consistency, white with a cream color shade, pleasant sour-milk taste. In order to smooth the specific taste of the dandelion root extract, it is recommended to add sugar or sweetener. Quality indicators of the curd product were studied. Its shelf-life life was determined.

  8. ESR studies on the influence of physiological dissolution and digestion media on the lipid phase characteristics of SEDDS and SEDDS pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Ahmed; Mäder, Karsten

    2009-02-09

    The aim of the current study is the evaluation of a recently optimized SEDDS, composed of Solutol HS15 and medium chain glycerides, and self-emulsifying pellets by means of ESR. Tempol-benzoate (TB)-loaded SEDDS were produced and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was used to evaluate the diluted self-emulsifying mixtures. Moreover, ESR in vitro digestion experiments were carried out to have an insight on the characteristics of the different phases formed during the digestion process and to evaluate the distribution and the localization of TB in these phases. In addition, self-emulsifying pellets were produced using nitroxide-loaded SEDDS and the microenvironment within the pellets during release process was monitored in an online process using ESR spectroscopy. After dilution of nitroxide-loaded SEDDS, the percent of TB localized in the lipophilic compartment was decreasing with increasing the surfactant fraction in the mixture. Moreover, it was found that different phases with variable viscosity and polarity were produced as a result of the enzymatic digestion of SEDDS in physiologically relevant media. This change in lipid composition has largely affected the distribution and the localization of the spin probe during the digestion process. A rapid increase in the mobility of the spin probe inside the pellets was noticed after exposure to the release media. Additionally, TB was localized within the self-emulsifying mixture environment for the time of the experiment. ESR is considered a powerful non-invasive tool to assess the microenvironment of the diluted SEDDS and to monitor in vitro digestion process. Digestion induces a change in lipid composition which can affect the solubilization capacity of the administered drug. Therefore, monitoring in vitro digestion process using ESR spectroscopy will help in providing greater understanding of the interaction between the administered drug and the digested lipid vehicles.

  9. Chemical Characterization of Lipophilic Constituents in the Skin of Migratory Adult Sea Lamprey from the Great Lakes Region.

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    Amila A Dissanayake

    Full Text Available The sea lamprey (Petromzons marinus is an invasive ectoparasite of large-bodied fishes that adversely affects the fishing industry and ecology of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Lipid content in the whole sea lamprey and muscles, liver and kidney of metamorphosing larval stages has been reported. Similarly, the fatty acid profile of the rope tissues of sexually-mature male sea lampreys has also been reported. The average body weight of a sub-adult migratory sea lamprey is 250 g, which includes 14.4% skin (36 g. Our preliminary extraction data of an adult sea lamprey skin revealed that it contained approximately 8.5% of lipophilic compounds. Lamprey skin is home to a naturally aversive compound (an alarm cue that is being developed into a repellent for use in pest management. As part of an ongoing investigation to identify the chemical structure of the sea lamprey alarm cue, we extracted the skin with water and methanol, respectively. The methanolic extract (1.55% contained exclusively lipophilic compounds and did not include the alarm cue. We chemically characterized all compounds present in the methanolic extract as cholesterol esters (CE, tri- and di-glycerides (TG and DG, cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFA and minor amounts of plasticizers. The free fatty acids fraction was composed of saturated (41.8%, monounsaturated (40.7% and polyunsaturated (17.4% fatty acids, respectively. The plasticizers characterized were phthalate and benzoate and found to be 0.95 mg and 2.54 mg, respectively, per adult sea lamprey skin. This is the first report of the chemical characterization of all the lipophilic constituents in the skin of sub-adult migratory sea lamprey. The CEs isolated and characterized from sea lamprey skin are also for the first time.

  10. 1,8-Bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene/9-aminoacridine: A new binary matrix for lipid fingerprinting of intact bacteria by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvano, C.D.; Monopoli, A.; Ditaranto, N.; Palmisano, F.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •New binary matrix for less ionizable lipid analysis with no interfering peaks. •Combined MALDI and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. •Fast lipid fingerprint on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by MALDI MS. •Mapping of phospholipids by XPS imaging. •Very fast membrane lipid extraction procedure. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of a novel binary matrix composed of 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (DMAN; proton sponge) and 9-aminoacridine (9AA) for the direct lipid analysis of whole bacterial cells by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) is demonstrated. Deprotonated analyte signals nearly free of matrix-related ions were observed in negative ion mode. The effect of the most important factors (laser energy, pulse voltage, DMAN/9AA ratio, analyte/matrix ratio) was investigated using a Box–Behnken response surface design followed by multi-response optimization in order to simultaneously maximize signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and resolution. The chemical surface composition of single or mixed matrices was explored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, XPS imaging was used to map the spatial distribution of a model phospholipid in single or binary matrices. The DMAN/9AA binary matrix was then successfully applied to the analysis of intact Gram positive (Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis) or Gram negative (Escherichia coli) microorganisms. About fifty major membrane components (free fatty acids, mono-, di- and tri-glycerides, phospholipids, glycolipids and cardiolipins) were quickly and easily detected over a mass range spanning from ca. 200 to ca. 1600 m/z. Moreover, mass spectra with improved S/N ratio (compared to single matrices), reduced chemical noise and no formation of matrix-clusters were invariably obtained demonstrating the potential of this binary matrix to improve sensitivity

  11. Molecular simulation of the water-triolein-oleic acid mixture: Local structure and thermodynamic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couallier, E.; Riaublanc, A.; David Briand, E.; Rousseau, B.

    2018-05-01

    An artificial oil-in-water emulsion analogous to those found in bioresources or food matrices is simulated and studied experimentally. It is composed of one of the major natural free fatty acids (the oleic acid, OA) and the corresponding triacylglyceride (trioleic glyceride, or triolein, GTO). Because of the large time and length scales involved, the molecular simulations are done with the Martini force field, a coarse-grained model. This allowed us to study the water-OA-GTO system at different compositions with more than 20 000 molecules and up to 2 μs. Interfacial tension was measured using the pendant drop method and compared with molecular simulation results. We observe very good agreement at high OA concentrations and deviations up to 15% at low OA concentrations. The water solubility in the lipid phase is in fair agreement with experiments, between 0.03 and 0.32 mol/l, rising with the OA content. The area occupied by OA and GTO at the interface between water and the pure product fitted with experimental data (AOA = 36.6 Å2 and AGTO = 152.1 Å2). The consistency between simulation and experimental results allowed a structural analysis of the interface. A bilayer structure of the lipids at the water/oil interface is proposed, containing preferentially oleic acid but also triolein. Through all these results, the usefulness of coarse-grained simulation for the description of water-oil interfacial organization is demonstrated. This method will be used later to bring local information on the organization of target compounds, necessary in biomass fractionation processes or food additive formulations, for example.

  12. Structure Annotation and Quantification of Wheat Seed Oxidized Lipids by High-Resolution LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewe, David; Wiebach, Janine; Altmann, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Lipid oxidation is a process ubiquitous in life, but the direct and comprehensive analysis of oxidized lipids has been limited by available analytical methods. We applied high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to quantify oxidized lipids (glycerides, fatty acids, phospholipids, lysophospholipids, and galactolipids) and implemented a platform-independent high-throughput-amenable analysis pipeline for the high-confidence annotation and acyl composition analysis of oxidized lipids. Lipid contents of 90 different naturally aged wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) seed stocks were quantified in an untargeted high-resolution LC-MS experiment, resulting in 18,556 quantitative mass-to-charge ratio features. In a posthoc liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry experiment, high-resolution MS/MS spectra (5 mD accuracy) were recorded for 8,957 out of 12,080 putatively monoisotopic features of the LC-MS data set. A total of 353 nonoxidized and 559 oxidized lipids with up to four additional oxygen atoms were annotated based on the accurate mass recordings (1.5 ppm tolerance) of the LC-MS data set and filtering procedures. MS/MS spectra available for 828 of these annotations were analyzed by translating experimentally known fragmentation rules of lipids into the fragmentation of oxidized lipids. This led to the identification of 259 nonoxidized and 365 oxidized lipids by both accurate mass and MS/MS spectra and to the determination of acyl compositions for 221 nonoxidized and 295 oxidized lipids. Analysis of 15-year aged wheat seeds revealed increased lipid oxidation and hydrolysis in seeds stored in ambient versus cold conditions. © 2017 The author(s). All Rights Reserved.

  13. Self-Assembled Core-Shell-Type Lipid-Polymer Hybrid Nanoparticles: Intracellular Trafficking and Relevance for Oral Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuxia; Xia, Dengning; Tao, Jinsong; Shen, Aijun; He, Yuan; Gan, Yong; Wang, Chi

    2017-10-01

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) are advantageous for drug delivery. However, their intracellular trafficking mechanism and relevance for oral drug absorption are poorly understood. In this study, self-assembled core-shell lipid-polymer hybrid NPs made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and various lipids were developed to study their differing intracellular trafficking in intestinal epithelial cells and their relevance for oral absorption of a model drug saquinavir (SQV). Our results demonstrated that the endocytosis and exocytosis of hybrid NPs could be changed by varying the kind of lipid. A glyceride mixture (hybrid NPs-1) decreased endocytosis but increased exocytosis in Caco-2 cells, whereas the phospholipid (E200) (hybrid NPs-2) decreased endocytosis but exocytosis was unaffected as compared with PLGA nanoparticles. The transport of hybrid NPs-1 in cells involved various pathways, including caveolae/lipid raft-dependent endocytosis, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis, which was different from the other groups of NPs that involved only caveolae/lipid raft-dependent endocytosis. Compared with that of the reference formulation (nanoemulsion), the oral absorption of SQV-loaded hybrid NPs in rats was poor, probably due to the limited drug release and transcytosis of NPs across the intestinal epithelium. In conclusion, the intracellular processing of hybrid NPs in intestinal epithelia can be altered by adding lipids to the NP. However, it appears unfavorable to use PLGA-based NPs to improve oral absorption of SQV compared with nanoemulsion. Our findings will be essential in the development of polymer-based NPs for the oral delivery of drugs with the purpose of improving their oral absorption. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimations of cholesterol, triglycerides and fractionation of lipoproteins in serum samples of some Nigerian female subjects

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    E.I. Adeyeye

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples (serum were collected to determine some biochemical parameters: total glycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C in 53 female subjects in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria using the Reflotron® (an auto analyser, supported with the use of questionnaire to get information on age and sex. Age range of the subjects was 18–80 years. The TG levels in all the subjects were < 200 mg/dL; only one subject (1.89% had TC < 200 mg/dL; nine subjects (17.0% had HDL-C ≤ 35 mg/dL; for LDL-C only one subject (1.89% had a desirable level of < 130 mg/dL; for VLDL-C 29 subjects (54.7% had values 17.2 mg/dL and above. For therapeutic decision-making, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C, were calculated. In TC/HDL-C, three subjects (5.66% had values < 4.4 and in LDL-C/HDL-C, 41 subjects (77.4% had values < 4.5. Hence, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TC/HDL-C and slightly LDL-C/HDL-C and VLDL-C in the subjects could lead to increase coronary heart diseases. Results were matched for the age and sex of subjects.

  15. Solid dispersions enhance solubility, dissolution, and permeability of thalidomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barea, Silvana A; Mattos, Cristiane B; Cruz, Ariadne C C; Chaves, Vitor C; Pereira, Rafael N; Simões, Claudia M O; Kratz, Jadel M; Koester, Letícia S

    2017-03-01

    Thalidomide (THD) is a BCS class II drug with renewed and growing therapeutic applicability. Along with the low aqueous solubility, additional poor biopharmaceutical properties of the drug, i.e. chemical instability, high crystallinity, and polymorphism, lead to a slow and variable oral absorption. In this view, we developed solid dispersions (SDs) containing THD dispersed in different self-emulsifying carriers aiming at an enhanced absorption profile for the drug. THD was dispersed in lauroyl macrogol-32 glycerides (Gelucire ® 44/14) and α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate (Kolliphor ® TPGS), in the presence or absence of the precipitation inhibitor polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30), by means of the solvent method. Physicochemical analysis revealed the formation of semicrystalline SDs. X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy analyses suggest that the remaining crystalline fraction of the drug in the SDs did not undergo polymorphic transition. The impact of the solubility-enhancing formulations on the THD biopharmaceutical properties was evaluated by several in vitro techniques. The developed SDs were able to increase the apparent solubility of the drug (up to 2-3x the equilibrium solubility) for a least 4 h. Dissolution experiments (paddle method, 75 rpm) in different pHs showed that around 80% of drug dissolved after 120 min (versus 40% of pure crystalline drug). Additionally, we demonstrated the enhanced solubility obtained via SDs could be translated into increased flux in a parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA). In summary, the results demonstrate that SDs could be considered an interesting and unexplored strategy to improve the biopharmaceutical properties of THD, since SDs of this important drug have yet to be reported.

  16. 直接实时分析质谱超速分析在药品监管中的应用%Ultra Speed Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry(DART-MS)for Drug Administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铁松; 张喆; 赵明; 车宝泉; 高青; 王威

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立直接实时分析质谱(DART-MS)超速分析方法应用于药品监管检验工作.方法 DART-MS将实时直接分析离子源(DART)与离子阱质谱联用,离子源放电电压为4kV,载气为氦气,流速为6L· min(-1),温度为400℃.在不进行样品色谱分离的前提下,直接分析被测物质或其溶液.结果 DART-MS与液质联用相比检定效率提高近50倍,对西地那非、米诺地尔等已知物质可在20s内检测出,对未知衍生物可在4 min内完成其多级质谱研究,对传统液相色谱法难以分析的辅料如混合脂肪酸甘油酯等也能准确分析.结论 DART-MS样品处理简单,方法准确速度快,能广泛应用于非法添加、药物污染、制剂辅料成分的快速检定,开创了药品监管的新方法,能有效提高对突发安全事件的反应能力.%OBJECTIVE To establish an ultra speed direct analysis in real time (DART)-ion trap mass spectrometry method for screening of shampoo and herbal remedies for the presence of illegal additives. METHODS The DART temperature was 400 ℃, the helium flow rate was 6 L · min-1 and the mass cone voltage was 4 kV. The solution was directly screened using a 12-DIP sampler. RESULTS The speed of DART-MS was 50 times faster than that of LC-MS for identifying the additives including minoxidil,sildenafil,and mixed glycerides. CONCLUSION Each additive studied was rapidly identified within 20 seconds by DART-MS/MS, sugggesting this technique can be used for drug administration. However,its sensitivity and quantitation still requires further study and improvement.

  17. Lactase persistence and lipid pathway selection in the Maasai.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitij Wagh

    Full Text Available The Maasai are a pastoral people in Kenya and Tanzania, whose traditional diet of milk, blood and meat is rich in lactose, fat and cholesterol. In spite of this, they have low levels of blood cholesterol, and seldom suffer from gallstones or cardiac diseases. Field studies in the 1970s suggested that the Maasai have a genetic adaptation for cholesterol homeostasis. Analysis of HapMap 3 data using Fixation Index (Fst and two metrics of haplotype diversity: the integrated Haplotype Score (iHS and the Cross Population Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (XP-EHH, identified genomic regions and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs as strong candidates for recent selection for lactase persistence and cholesterol regulation in 143-156 founder individuals from the Maasai population in Kinyawa, Kenya (MKK. The non-synonmous SNP with the highest genome-wide Fst was the TC polymorphism at rs2241883 in Fatty Acid Binding Protein 1(FABP1, known to reduce low density lipoprotein and tri-glyceride levels in Europeans. The strongest signal identified by all three metrics was a 1.7 Mb region on Chr2q21. This region contains the genes LCT (Lactase and MCM6 (Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component involved in lactase persistence, and the gene Rab3GAP1 (Rab3 GTPase-activating Protein Catalytic Subunit, which contains polymorphisms associated with total cholesterol levels in a genome-wide association study of >100,000 individuals of European ancestry. Sanger sequencing of DNA from six MKK samples showed that the GC-14010 polymorphism in the MCM6 gene, known to be associated with lactase persistence in Africans, is segregating in MKK at high frequency (∼58%. The Cytochrome P450 Family 3 Subfamily A (CYP3A cluster of genes, involved in cholesterol metabolism, was identified by Fst and iHS as candidate loci under selection. Overall, our study identified several specific genomic regions under selection in the Maasai which contain polymorphisms in genes associated

  18. An experimental evaluation of the antidiabetic and antilipidemic properties of a standardized Momordica charantia fruit extract

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    Naik Suresh R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MCE, Momordica charantia fruit extract Linn. (Cucurbitaceae have been documented to elicit hypoglycemic activity on various occasions. However, due to lack of standardization of these extracts, their efficacy remains questionable. The present study was undertaken by selecting a well standardised MCE. This study reports hypoglycemic and antilipidemic activities of MCE employing relevant animal models and in vitro methods. Methods Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by a s.c., subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg in acetate buffer (pH 4.5. MCE and glibenclamide were administered orally to alloxan diabetic rats at doses of 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg & 600 mg/kg, and 4 mg/kg respectively for 30 days, blood was withdrawn for glucose determination on 0, 7, 14, 21 and 30th days. On the 31st day, overnight fasted rats were sacrificed and blood was collected for various biochemical estimations including glycosylated haemoglobin, mean blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, triglcerides, protein and glycogen content of liver. The hemidiaphragms and livers were also isolated, carefully excised and placed immediately in ice cooled perfusion solution and processed to study the glucose uptake/transfer processes. Hypolipidemic activity in old obese rats was evaluated by treating two groups with MCE (150 mg/kg & 300 mg/kg orally for 30 days and determining total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-CH, LDL-CH and VLDL-CH levels from serum samples. Results Subchronic study of MCE in alloxan induced diabetic rats showed significant antihyperglycemic activity by lowering blood glucose and GHb%, percent glycosylated haemoglobin. Pattern of glucose tolerance curve was also altered significantly. MCE treatment enhanced uptake of glucose by hemidiaphragm and inhibited glycogenolysis in liver slices in vitro. A significant reduction in the serum cholesterol and glyceride levels of obese rats following MCE treatment was also

  19. Topical azithromycin and oral doxycycline therapy of meibomian gland dysfunction: a comparative clinical and spectroscopic pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulks, Gary N; Borchman, Douglas; Yappert, Marta; Kakar, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a common clinical problem that is often associated with evaporative dry eye disease. Alterations of the lipids of the meibomian glands have been identified in several studies of MGD. This prospective, observational, open-label clinical trial documents the improvement in both clinical signs and symptoms of disease as well as spectroscopic characteristics of the meibomian gland lipids after therapy with topical azithromycin ophthalmic solution and oral doxycycline treatment. Subjects with symptomatic MGD were recruited. Signs of MGD were evaluated with a slit lamp. Symptoms of MGD were measured by the response of subjects to a questionnaire. Meibum lipid-lipid interaction strength, conformation, and phase transition parameters, and meibum protein content were measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and principal component analysis. Terpenoids, short-chain CH3 moieties, lipid oxidation, wax, cholesterylesters and glycerides were measured with a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR) spectrometer. Topical therapy with azithromycin and oral therapy with doxycycline relieved signs and symptoms and restored the lipid properties of the meibomian gland secretion toward normal. Compared with 4 weeks of azithromycin treatment reported in our previous study, oral doxycycline treatment was slightly less effective in improving foreign body sensation and the signs of plugging and secretion. In subjects with clinical evidence of MGD, changes in ordering of the lipids and phase transition temperature were brought closer to normal with azithromycin treatment than doxycycline treatment. Treatment with doxycycline but not azithromycin restored the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-principal component analysis scores and relative area of the H-NMR resonance at 1.26 ppm. Both doxycycline and azithromycin treatment restored the levels of the relative areas of the H-NMR resonance at 5.2 and 7.9 ppm to normal levels. The levels

  20. Optimization of the ethanolysis of Raphanus sativus (L. Var.) crude oil applying the response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Anderson Kurunczi; Saad, Emir Bolzani; Wilhelm, Helena Maria; Ramos, Luiz Pereira

    2008-04-01

    final product with less unreacted glycerides.

  1. X-ray diffraction studies on single and mixed confectionery fats using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMillan, S.C.; Roberts, K.J.; Wells, M.; Polgreen, M.; Smith, I.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Understanding and refining the molecular-scale processes involved in the manufacture of structured materials such as long-chain hydrocarbon compounds is important in many commercial areas such as the petrochemical, biochemical, food, pharmaceutical and soap industries. In such processes crystallisation is an important separation, purification and preparation technique. Despite this our knowledge of the crystallisation process itself is surprisingly limited. In order to improve the crystallisation of confectionery fats, the crystallisation of it's main component, cocoa butter fat, must be properly understood. Cocoa butter fat can exhibit up to 6 polymorphic forms of different crystallographic structures with melting points varying from 17.3 deg C to 36.3 deg C. During the production of chocolate it is essential to control the polymorphic form of fats present, in order to produce a final product with the correct physical and rheological properties. Both shear rate and temperature are thought to play a crucial role in this process. The most widely used method for studying polymorphism is X-ray diffraction. Typical X-ray diffraction patterns of fats exhibit two groups of diffraction lines corresponding to the long and short spacings. The long spacings correspond to the planes formed by the methyl end groups and are dependent on the chain length and the angle of tilt of the component fatty acids of the glyceride molecules. The short spacings refer to the cross sectional packing of the hydrocarbon chain and are independent of the chain length. The relationship between crystallisation rate, polymorphic form, shear and the fat composition has for the first time been quantified, which will enable more accurate control of the polymorhic form in chocolate production. This has been achieved by developing an improved in-situ cell for X-ray studies. The X-ray studies are necessary for the examination of on-line studies under well controlled conditions of temperature

  2. Aproximación al estudio de la morfología setígera en algunas especies ibéricas de los géneros Glycera Savigny, 1818 y Glycerella Arwidsson, 1899 (Polychaeta, Glyceridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira, J.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The spiniger chaetae of several Iberian species of the polychaete genera Glycera Savigny, 1818 and Glycerella Arwidsson, 1899, namely Glycera alba Rathke, 1843, Glycera fallax Quatrefages, 1850, Glycera tesselata Grube, 1863, Glycera aff. tridactyla Schmarda, 1861, Glycera unicornis Savigny, 1818 and Glycerella magellanica (McIntosh, 1885, were compared and studied under the SEM, with particular attention to the joint between blade and shaft. This study showed differences in the number, size and shape of the teeth present at the joint; this fact points out the potential taxonomic value of the chaetal microstructure at the subgeneric level within the Glyceridae Grube, 1850, also representing a starting point for more detailed forthcoming studies. In addition, those differences might not be useful for operational taxonomic identification because of the need of the SEM but may represent an additional tool for studies on the systematics and phylogeny of glycerids.A partir del estudio al Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido (MEB de las sedas espinígeras de varias especies del género Glycera Savigny, 1818 (Glycera alba Rathke, 1843; Glycera fallax Quatrefages, 1850; Glycera tesselata Grube, 1863; Glycera aff. tridactyla Schmarda, 1861 y Glycera unicornis Savigny, 1818 y Glycerella Arwidsson, 1899 (Glycerella magellanica (McIntosh, 1885, recogidas en la península Ibérica, se aborda un estudio comparado preliminar de la morfología setígera a nivel de la zona de articulación entre el mango y el artejo. Como resultado de este estudio se han revelado diferencias en el número, tamaño y forma de los dientes que componen esta zona, lo cual apunta a un potencial valor de la microestructura setígera como carácter taxonómico a nivel subgenérico en la familia Glyceridae Grube, 1850, abriendo la posibilidad de su empleo en futuros estudios de revisión del grupo. Estas diferencias, si bien no serían susceptibles de ser empleadas en la identificaci

  3. Análisis estereoespecífico de los triacil-sn-gliceroles de las grasas naturales por métodos enzimáticos y cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia

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    Ruiz Gutiérrez, V.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review in which difficulties for the determination of the fatty acid stereospecific positions in the triacyl-sn-glycerol molecules of natural fats are discussed. For determining the stereospecific composition of the triacylglycerols, theoretical models for positional distribution of fatty acids in natural fats can be a useful estimation. Also, the principal methods for the stereospecific analysis by means of enzymatic analysis and high performance liquid chromatography are included. In both methods, the isolated sn-glyceridic fractions are later analysed by gas chromatography in order to know their fatty acid composition. In conclusion, combinations of several different analytical techniques such as enzymatic methods, high performance liquid chromatography, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography can furnish valuable information to determine the stereospecific composition of the triacyl-sn-glycerols.

    Este artículo es una revisión bibliográfica en la que se discute la complejidad que presenta la determinación de la composición estereoespecífica de los triacil-sn-gliceroles de las grasas naturales. Los modelos teóricos de distribución de los ácidos grasos en las grasas naturales pueden ser una estimación útil para la determinación de la composición estereoespecífica de sus triacil-sn-gliceroles. Además, se recogen los principales métodos de análisis enzimático y cromatografía liquida de alta eficacia para el análisis estereoespecífico. En ambos métodos, se aislan distintas fracciones sn-glicerídicas que son posteriormente analizadas por cromatografía de gases para conocer su composición en ácidos grasos. Como conclusión, puede señalarse que la información más valiosa para determinar la composición estereoespecífica de los triacil-sn-gliceroles resulta de la combinación de diferentes técnicas de análisis como son los análisis enzim

  4. Chlorella vulgaris as a lipid source: Cultivation on air and seawater-simulating medium in a helicoidal photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumento, Davide; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Casazza, Alessandro Alberto; Converti, Attilio; Al Arni, Saleh; da Silva, Milena Fernandes

    2016-03-01

    The freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris was cultured batchwise on the seawater-simulating Schlösser medium either in a 1.1-L-working volume helicoidal photobioreactor (HeP) or Erlenmeyer flask (EF) as control and continuously supplying air as CO2 source. In these systems, maximum biomass concentration reached 1.65 ± 0.17 g L(-1) and 1.25 ± 0.06 g L(-1) , and maximum cell productivity 197.6 ± 20.4 mg L(-1)  day(-1) and 160.8 ± 12.2 mg L(-1)  day(-1) , respectively. Compared to the Bold's Basal medium, commonly employed to cultivate this microorganism on a bench-scale, the Schlösser medium ensured significant increases in all the growth parameters, namely maximum cell concentration (268% in EF and 126% in HeP), maximum biomass productivity (554% in EF and 72% in HeP), average specific growth rate (67% in EF and 42% in HeP), and maximum specific growth rate (233% in EF and 22% in HeP). The lipid fraction of biomass collected at the end of runs was analyzed in terms of both lipid content and fatty acid profile. It was found that the seawater-simulating medium, despite of a 56-63% reduction of the overall biomass lipid content compared to the Bold's Basal one, led in HeP to significant increases in both the glycerides-to-total lipid ratio and polyunsaturated fatty acid content compared to the other conditions taken as an average. These results as a whole suggest that the HeP configuration could be a successful alternative to the present means to cultivate C. vulgaris as a lipid source. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:279-284, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. X-ray diffraction studies on single and mixed confectionery fats using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMillan, S.C.; Roberts, K.J.; Wells, M.; Polgreen, M.; Smith, I. [Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, (United Kingdom). Department of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, Centre for Molecular and Interface Engineering

    1999-12-01

    Full text: Understanding and refining the molecular-scale processes involved in the manufacture of structured materials such as long-chain hydrocarbon compounds is important in many commercial areas such as the petrochemical, biochemical, food, pharmaceutical and soap industries. In such processes crystallisation is an important separation, purification and preparation technique. Despite this our knowledge of the crystallisation process itself is surprisingly limited. In order to improve the crystallisation of confectionery fats, the crystallisation of it`s main component, cocoa butter fat, must be properly understood. Cocoa butter fat can exhibit up to 6 polymorphic forms of different crystallographic structures with melting points varying from 17.3 deg C to 36.3 deg C. During the production of chocolate it is essential to control the polymorphic form of fats present, in order to produce a final product with the correct physical and rheological properties. Both shear rate and temperature are thought to play a crucial role in this process. The most widely used method for studying polymorphism is X-ray diffraction. Typical X-ray diffraction patterns of fats exhibit two groups of diffraction lines corresponding to the long and short spacings. The long spacings correspond to the planes formed by the methyl end groups and are dependent on the chain length and the angle of tilt of the component fatty acids of the glyceride molecules. The short spacings refer to the cross sectional packing of the hydrocarbon chain and are independent of the chain length. The relationship between crystallisation rate, polymorphic form, shear and the fat composition has for the first time been quantified, which will enable more accurate control of the polymorhic form in chocolate production. This has been achieved by developing an improved in-situ cell for X-ray studies. The X-ray studies are necessary for the examination of on-line studies under well controlled conditions of temperature

  6. An experimental evaluation of the antidiabetic and antilipidemic properties of a standardized Momordica charantia fruit extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Nafisa PC; Lagishetty, Chakradhar V; Panda, Vandana S; Naik, Suresh R

    2007-01-01

    Background The MCE, Momordica charantia fruit extract Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) have been documented to elicit hypoglycemic activity on various occasions. However, due to lack of standardization of these extracts, their efficacy remains questionable. The present study was undertaken by selecting a well standardised MCE. This study reports hypoglycemic and antilipidemic activities of MCE employing relevant animal models and in vitro methods. Methods Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by a s.c., subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg) in acetate buffer (pH 4.5). MCE and glibenclamide were administered orally to alloxan diabetic rats at doses of 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg & 600 mg/kg, and 4 mg/kg respectively for 30 days, blood was withdrawn for glucose determination on 0, 7, 14, 21 and 30th days. On the 31st day, overnight fasted rats were sacrificed and blood was collected for various biochemical estimations including glycosylated haemoglobin, mean blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, triglcerides, protein and glycogen content of liver. The hemidiaphragms and livers were also isolated, carefully excised and placed immediately in ice cooled perfusion solution and processed to study the glucose uptake/transfer processes. Hypolipidemic activity in old obese rats was evaluated by treating two groups with MCE (150 mg/kg & 300 mg/kg) orally for 30 days and determining total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-CH, LDL-CH and VLDL-CH levels from serum samples. Results Subchronic study of MCE in alloxan induced diabetic rats showed significant antihyperglycemic activity by lowering blood glucose and GHb%, percent glycosylated haemoglobin. Pattern of glucose tolerance curve was also altered significantly. MCE treatment enhanced uptake of glucose by hemidiaphragm and inhibited glycogenolysis in liver slices in vitro. A significant reduction in the serum cholesterol and glyceride levels of obese rats following MCE treatment was also observed. Conclusion Our

  7. Scientific basis of fat requirement for Indians and recent trends in CVD

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    S Ahamed Ibrahim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fats have several roles such as provision of metabolic energy, fat soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids (linoleic, LA and α-linolenic, ALNA. Fats improve texture and palatability and have a satiety role. LA and ALNA and their long-chain polyunstaturated fatty acids (LC n-6 PUFA and LC n-3 PUFA respectively are important structural membrane components and therefore essential for formation of new tissues. LC n-3 PUFA have specific role in vision and nervous system. Both n-6 and n-3 PUFA are essential for fetal and early infant growth and development and nervous tissue development.  The absolute levels and ratio of n-6 and n-3 PUFA in membrane affect a wide range of physiological processes either directly or through eicosanoids. The individual components of fats affect the risk of diet - related chronic diseases through the atherogenic effects of plasma lipids, insulin resistance, thrombosis, endothelial dysfunction as well as pathways of inflammation. The chain length/geometric configuration of double bonds and position of saturated (SFA, mono unsaturated (MUFA or PUFA on glycerol backbone (triglyceride structure modify the nutritional and metabolic effects of dietary fats. The non-glyceride components present in the vegetable oils have hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects. Several lines of evidence have documented that restrictions in SFA and cholesterol, negligible intake of trans fatty acids (TFA on the one hand and preference for more than one type of vegetable oil (to ensure adequate absolute intakes of LA, ALNA and their ratio, adding n-3 PUFA from fish or plant sources, and ensuring moderate intake of  total fat in  the diet  substantially reduces the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. Studies were done at National Institute of Nutrition  on intake of individual  fatty acids, the pro/anti-athero-thrombogenic effects of different types of visible fats in Indian adults, insulin sensitivity and the antioxidant

  8. Scientific basis of fat requirement for Indians and recent trends in CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ahamed Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fats have several roles such as provision of metabolic energy, fat soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids (linoleic, LA and α-linolenic, ALNA. Fats improve texture and palatability and have a satiety role. LA and ALNA and their long-chain polyunstaturated fatty acids (LC n-6 PUFA and LC n-3 PUFA respectively are important structural membrane components and therefore essential for formation of new tissues. LC n-3 PUFA have specific role in vision and nervous system. Both n-6 and n-3 PUFA are essential for fetal and early infant growth and development and nervous tissue development.  The absolute levels and ratio of n-6 and n-3 PUFA in membrane affect a wide range of physiological processes either directly or through eicosanoids. The individual components of fats affect the risk of diet - related chronic diseases through the atherogenic effects of plasma lipids, insulin resistance, thrombosis, endothelial dysfunction as well as pathways of inflammation. The chain length/geometric configuration of double bonds and position of saturated (SFA, mono unsaturated (MUFA or PUFA on glycerol backbone (triglyceride structure modify the nutritional and metabolic effects of dietary fats. The non-glyceride components present in the vegetable oils have hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects. Several lines of evidence have documented that restrictions in SFA and cholesterol, negligible intake of trans fatty acids (TFA on the one hand and preference for more than one type of vegetable oil (to ensure adequate absolute intakes of LA, ALNA and their ratio, adding n-3 PUFA from fish or plant sources, and ensuring moderate intake of  total fat in  the diet  substantially reduces the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. Studies were done at National Institute of Nutrition  on intake of individual  fatty acids, the pro/anti-athero-thrombogenic effects of different types of visible fats in Indian adults, insulin sensitivity and the antioxidant

  9. Diabetes subdiagnosticado e necrose miocárdica: preditores de hiperglicemia no infarto do miocárdio Unrecognized diabetes and myocardial necrosis: predictors of hyperglycemia in myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Teixeira Ladeira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Hiperglicemia na fase aguda do infarto do miocárdio é importante fator prognóstico. Entretanto, sua fisiopatologia não está completamente elucidada. OBJETIVO: Analisar simultaneamente correlação entre hiperglicemia e marcadores bioquímicos relacionados ao estresse,metabolismo glicídico e lipídico, coagulação, inflamação e necrose miocárdica. MÉTODOS: Oitenta pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio foram incluídos prospectivamente. Os parâmetros analisados foram: glicose, hormônios do estresse (cortisol e norepinefrina, fatores do metabolismo glicídico [hemoglobina glicada (HbA1c, insulina], lipoproteínas (colesterol total, LDL, HDL, LDL eletronegativa minimamente modificada e adiponectina, glicerídeos (triglicérides, VLDL e ácido graxo, fatores da coagulação (fator VII, fibrinogênio,inibidor do ativador do plasminogênio-1, inflamação (proteína C reativa ultrassensível e necrose miocárdica (CK-MB e troponina. Variáveis contínuas foram convertidas em graus de pertinência por intermédio de lógica fuzzy. RESULTADOS: Houve correlação significativa entre hiperglicemia e metabolismo glicídico (p BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia in the acute phase of myocardial infarction is an important prognostic factor. However, its pathophysiology is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To analyze simultaneously the correlation between hyperglycemia and biochemical markers related to stress, glucose and lipid metabolism, coagulation, inflammation, and myocardial necrosis. METHODS Eighty patients with acute myocardial infarction were prospectively included. The following parameters were analyzed: blood glucose; stress hormones (cortisol and norepinephrine; glucose metabolism factors [glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; insulin]; lipoproteins (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, minimally modified electronegative LDL, and adiponectin; glycerides (triglycerides, VLDL and fatty acids; coagulation factors (factor VII, fibrinogen, plasminogen

  10. Avaliação da produção de lipases por diferentes cepas de microrganismos isolados em efluentes de laticínios por fermentação submersa Evaluation of lipase production using different strains of microorganisms isolated from dairy effluent through submerged fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Roveda

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A produção enzimática é um dos campos mais promissores dentro das tecnologias para a síntese de compostos de alto valor agregado, estando em constante crescimento pela grande capacidade dos microrganismos de realizarem transformações químicas. As enzimas produzidas por processos fermentativos têm sido utilizadas para o controle ambiental. Muitas destas enzimas podem ser produzidas a partir de resíduos industriais, diminuindo os custos de produção. As lipases são enzimas que catalisam a hidrólise de triglicerídeos em glicerídeos e ácidos graxos. As lipases vêm sendo utilizadas na redução da concentração dos lipídios contidos nos efluentes, promovendo a hidrólise dos óleos e gorduras presentes. Objetivou-se avaliar a produção de lipases por fungos isolados a partir de efluentes de laticínios. Foram isolados 21 fungos, pertencentes aos gêneros Penicillium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma e Fusarium. Na etapa de seleção, 9 fungos foram selecionados devido à capacidade de crescimento em meio contendo azeite de oliva como substrato. Na fermentação submersa, os fungos E9 (Aspergillus, E21 (Aspergillus e E20 (Penicillium foram os que apresentaram as maiores atividades enzimáticas, de 1,250 a 2,250 U, utilizando-se como meio de cultivo o efluente coletado na saída do equalizador do sistema de tratamento de efluente.Enzymatic production is one of the most promising fields within technologies for the synthesis of high added value compounds, given their constant growth due to the great capacity of microorganisms to carry out chemical transformations. The enzymes produced from fermentation processes have been used for environmental control. Many of these enzymes can be produced from industrial residues, reducing the production cost. Lipases are a group of enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis of triglycerides to glycerides and fatty acids. Lipases have been used to reduce the concentration of lipids contained in effluent, promoting

  11. Population biology and diet of the southern kingcroaker Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Perciformes: Sciaenidae in Caraguatatuba Bay, southeastern Brazil

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    Alexander Turra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the spatio-temporal distribution, population biology and diet of Menticirrhus americanus in Caraguatatuba Bay. Samples were taken monthly between August 2003 and October 2004, by trawling in two previously selected areas. The northern area is more exposed to wave activity and is influenced by a river, functioning as a small estuary. In contrast, the southern area is relatively sheltered from wave energy and influenced to a lesser degree by smaller rivers. The fishes' length was measured, and the sex and gonadal stage macroscopically identified. The abundance of this species was compared between areas and among months. The diet was identified and quantified. M. americanus occurred in equal proportions in the two study areas, being most abundant in April 2004, followed by December 2003 and January 2004. The population was dominated by small immature individuals. The few individuals in maturation or mature that were captured showed no seasonal pattern of distribution. This species had a varied diet, feeding on worms (nemerteans, sipunculans and echiurans, mollusks (bivalves and cephalopods, polychaetes, crustaceans and fish. The presence of intact nematodes in the intestine suggests that these are parasites. The results demonstrated that M. americanus has a homogeneous spatial and temporal distribution in Caraguatatuba Bay, being uniformly distributed between the south and north areas as well as across the months. This species can be considered a carnivorous predator, showing a preference for consuming benthic sandy-beach species such as glycerids and other polychaetes, crustaceans, and bivalve siphons.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a distribuição espaço-temporal, biologia populacional e dieta de Menticirrhus americanus da baía de Caraguatatuba. Foram realizadas coletas mensais entre agosto de 2003 a outubro de 2004, utilizando redes de arrasto em duas áreas previamente selecionadas. A área norte é mais expostas

  12. Investigation of surfactant/cosurfactant synergism impact on ibuprofen solubilization capacity and drug release characteristics of nonionic microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djekic, Ljiljana; Primorac, Marija; Filipic, Slavica; Agbaba, Danica

    2012-08-20

    The current study investigates the performances of the multicomponent mixtures of nonionic surfactants regarding the microemulsion stabilisation, drug solubilization and in vitro drug release kinetic. The primary surfactant was PEG-8 caprylic/capric glycerides (Labrasol). The cosurfactants were commercially available mixtures of octoxynol-12 and polysorbate 20 without or with the addition of PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil (Solubilisant gamma 2421 and Solubilisant gamma 2429, respectively). The oil phase of microemulsions was isopropyl myristate. Phase behaviour study of the pseudo-ternary systems Labrasol/cosurfactant/oil/water at surfactant-to-cosurfactant weight ratios (K(m)) 40:60, 50:50 and 60:40, revealed a strong synergism in the investigated tensides mixtures for stabilisation of microemulsions containing up to 80% (w/w) of water phase at surfactant +cosurfactant-to-oil weight ratio (SCoS/O) 90:10. Solubilization of a model drug ibuprofen in concentration common for topical application (5%, w/w) was achieved at the water contents below 50% (w/w). Drug free and ibuprofen-loaded microemulsions M1-M6, containing 45% (w/w) of water phase, were prepared and characterized by polarized light microscopy, conductivity, pH, rheological and droplet size measurements. In vitro ibuprofen release kinetics from the microemulsions was investigated using paddle-over-enhancer cell method and compared with the commercial 5% (w/w) ibuprofen hydrogel product (Deep Relief, Mentholatum Company Ltd., USA). The investigated microemulsions were isotropic, low viscous Bingham-type liquids with the pH value (4.70-6.61) suitable for topical application. The different efficiency of the tensides mixtures for microemulsion stabilisation was observed, depending on the cosurfactant type and K(m) value. Solubilisant gamma 2429 as well as higher K(m) (i.e., lower relative content of the cosurfactant) provided higher surfactant/cosurfactant synergism. The drug molecules were predominantly

  13. Fatty acid composition of Tilia spp. seed oils

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    Dowd, M. K.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of a study of the seed oil fatty acid composition of Malvaceae plants, the seeds of seven Tilia species (lime or linden trees were evaluated for their fatty acid profiles. Seeds were obtained from the Germplasm Research Information Network and from various commercial sources. After extraction of the seed oil with hexane, the glycerides were trans-methylated and analyzed by gas chromatography on two polar stationary phases. All of the seed oils analyzed were composed primarily of linoleic acid (49-60% with lesser amounts of oleic (16-22% and palmitic (8-10% acids. The usual secondary components were also found. In addition, cyclopropenoid acids (i.e., sterculic and malvalic acids were present at levels between 6 and 17%. In all samples, the level of malvalic acid was approximately twice the level of sterculic acid, indicating that considerable a-oxidation of sterculic acid had occurred in these seeds. Two additional a-oxidation products, 8-heptadecenoic acid and 8,11-heptadecadienoic acid were also detected. Combined, the level of these fatty acids was between 1.3 and 2.3%, roughly comparable to the levels of these acids recently reported in the seed oil of Thespesia populnea.Como parte de un estudio sobre la composición de aceites derivados de semillas de plantas Malvaceae, las semillas de siete especies de Tilia (árboles de tilia o lima fueron evaluadas con respecto a sus perfiles de ácidos grasos. Las semillas fueron obtenidas de Germplasm Research Information Network así como de varias fuentes comerciales. Tras la extracción del aceite con hexano, los glicéridos fueron trans-metilados y analizados por cromatografía de gases con dos fases polares estacionarias. Todos los aceites extraidos de las semillas analizados estaban compuestos principalmente de ácido linoleico (49-60% y, en cantidades más bajas de ácido oleico (16-22% y palmítico (8-10%. Otros componentes secundarios típicos también fueron encontrados. Además, los

  14. Characterization of Leucaena (Leucaena leucephala) oil by direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source and gas chromatography; Caracterización del aceite de Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) por análisis directo en tiempo real (DART) y cromatografía de gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M.; Alandis, N.M.; Sharmin, E.; Ahmad, N.; Alrayes, B.F.; Ali, D.

    2017-07-01

    For the first time, we report the characterization of triacylglycerols and fatty acids in Leucaena (Leucaena leucephala) oil [LUCO], an unexplored nontraditional non-medicinal plant belonging to the family Fabaceae. LUCO was converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). We analyzed the triacylglycerols (TAGs) of pure LUCO and their FAMEs by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) followed by multivariate analysis for discrimination among the FAMEs. Our investigations for the analysis of LUCO samples represent noble features of glycerides. A new type of ion source, coupled with high-resolution TOF-MS was applied for the comprehensive analysis of triacylglycerols. The composition of fatty acid based LUCO oil was studied using Gas Chromatography (GC-FID). The major fatty acid components of LUCO oil are linoleic acid (52.08%) oleic acid (21.26%), palmitic acid (7.91%) and stearic acid (6.01%). A metal analysis in LUCO was done by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The structural elucidation and thermal stability of LUCO were studied by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques and TGA-DSC, respectively. We also measured the cytotoxicity of LUCO [Spanish] Se presenta por primera vez la caracterización de triacilgliceroles y ácidos grasos del aceite de Leucaena (Leucaena leucephala) [LUCO], una planta no medicinal, no tradicional y no explorada, perteneciente a la familia Fabaceae. Se analizaron triacilgliceroles (TAGs) de LUCO y sus FAMEs por espectrometría de masas de tiempo de vuelo (TOF-MS) seguido de análisis multivariante para discriminación entre los FAME. Nuestras investigaciones para el análisis de muestras de LUCO presentaron características propias de los glicéridos. Un nuevo tipo de fuente de iones, junto con alta resolución TOF-MS se aplicó para el análisis exhaustivo de triacilgliceroles. La composición de aceite de LUCO basado en ácidos grasos se estudió usando Cromatografía de Gas (GC-FID). Los principales

  15. Cemaran Kapang pada Pakan Sapi dan Uji In Vitro Sirih terhadap Pertumbuhan Kapang Aspergillus flavus (MOLD CONTAMINATION IN CATTLE FEED AND IN VITRO ASSAY OF PIPER BETEL AGAINTS GROWTH OF MOLD CONTAMINANT ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Zainuddin Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of mold in feed and Ingridients of feed is important because pathogenic and toxigenic mold will contaminate and cause mycotic and mycotoxicosis on livestock especially cattle. Information regarding the data is required in an attempt to controll of mold contaminant. Base on the previous study piper betel leaf (Piper betle showed high activity as antimold. The aim of this study were to obtain data of mold contamination in cattle feed and ingredients of feed from the provinces of Banten, Lampung, Jakarta and West Java, and to test piper betel as an antimold herbal from traditional medicinal plants originated from Indonesia. Isolation and identification of fungi were conducted on the flour, glycerides, onggok, corn, peanut, coconut, coffee, concentrates, lamtoro, pineapple, rice, grass, palm, cassava, tofu lees, fish meal, bone meal from the provinces of Banten, Lampung, Jakarta and West Java. Isolation was done by plating the samples on agar medium, The mold have grown on media was identified. Feed that has been mixed with the extracts and powders plus mold inoculum was incubated. After 3=7 days incubation, colony forming unit (CFU of the mixtures were counted. The results showed that the majority of feed contaminated with mold, but still below the threshold. The mold contamination in wheat flour, corn, concentrates and tofu lees exceeds from the threshold. Aspergillus sp, A. amstelodami, A. clavatus, A. Candidus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. glaucus, A. niger, Cladosporium sp., Curvularia sp., Fusarium sp., Hyphomycetes sp., Mycelia sterilata, Mucor sp., Paecilomyces sp., Penicillium sp., and Rhizopus sp. Penicillium sp were most commonly found in the feed as much as 2.56 x 107 CFU. At a concentration of 10%. in vitro test showed that the piper betel leaf in powder form is more effective than extract form to inhibit the growth of A.flavus The conclusion of this study was flour, corn, concentrates and tofu lees contaminated by molds

  16. Pyrolysis Strategies for Effective Utilization of Lignocellulosic and Algal Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddi, Balakrishna

    protein degradation). Algal bio-char also had a significantly higher N-content. Overall, our results suggest that it is feasible to convert algal cultures deficient in lipids, such as nuisance algae obtained from natural blooms, into liquid fuels by thermochemical methods. Next, pyrolysis characteristics of each of the major components present in lignocellulosic as well as algal biomass were studied independently in a thermo-gravimetric analyzer, using model compounds. From those studies, we have established that, with algae and oil seed feed stocks, triglycerides degrade at distinctly higher temperatures (T>350 C) compared to both protein and carbohydrate fractions (T ~ 250-350 C). Similar trend was not seen for lignocellulosic biomass, where degradation temperature interval of lignin overlapped with that of carbohydrates. This unique trend observed for algal biomass (and oil seeds) can be exploited in multiple ways. First, it permits to separately collect high value triglyceride degradation products not contaminated with N-compounds from protein and oxygenates from carbohydrates; this observation formed the basis of a novel "pyrolytic fractionation technique" developed in this thesis. Second, it led to the development of a new and simple analytical method for rapid estimation of the triglyceride content of oleaginous feed stocks. Pyrolytic fractionation is a two-step pyrolysis approach that can be implemented for oleaginous feed stocks (algae and oil-seeds) to separately recover triglyceride degradation products as a "high-quality" bio-oil fraction. The first step is a low-temperature pyrolysis (T ~ 300-320 C) to produce bio-oils from degradation of protein and carbohydrate fractions. Solid residues left behind can subsequently be subjected to a second higher temperature pyrolysis (T ~ 420-430 C) to volatilize and/or degrade triglycerides to produce fatty acids and their derivatives (such as mono-, di- and tri-glycerides) and long chain hydrocarbons. Proof

  17. Glycerin-Based Hydrogel for Infection Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Edward I; McKessor, Angie

    2012-02-01

    area upon dressing removal. Because of the thickness, the product provides excellent cushion and padding support. It has been also proven to be bacteriostatic/fungistatic. (Bacteriostatic is the ability to restrain the development or reproduction of bacteria. 3 ). Glycerin is a huamectant by definition and has been recognized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Humectants attract, bind, and hold moisture to the site of application. The actual concentration of glycerin in a wound dressing is indicative of the ability to absorb excess moisture. Exudate management is an important function of topical treatment. The ability to absorb drainage and prevent pooling of exudate in the wound or on the surrounding skin are attributes specific to high glycerin content. Perhaps, the most significant advantage of the glycerin-based hydrogel sheet is its impact on wound bioburden and pathogenic organisms. 4 Glycerin is a simple three-carbon tri-alcohol and is a natural humectant. It is used as a carrier in many medicines and as plasticizer in gelatin gel capsules. Glycerin is a component of cosmetics, conditioners, soaps, foods, and other common products. It is a component of mono-, di-, and triglycerides naturally occurring in the body. These glycerides and glycerin are constantly reacted with each other by the natural enzymes and reversed with the natural metabolic processes already present in the body. Any glycerin that may be absorbed into the body fluid is rapidly diluted in these fluids and is no longer toxic but is metabolized as another component of the food chain. It is well known that glycerin in high concentration will exhibit dehydrating effect on many systems including living cells by the commonly known process of osmosis. (Osmosis: the flow or diffusion that takes place through a semipermable membrane, as of living cell, typically separating a solvent such as water, thus bringing about equilibrium conditions. 5 ) It has been shown that glycerin at high

  18. Irradiation of Tropical Fruits and Vegetables; Irradiation de Fruits et Legumes Tropicaux; Obluchenie tropicheskikh fruktov i ovoshchej; Irradiacion de Frutas y Verduras Tropicales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharkar, S. D.; Sreenivasan, A. [Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1966-11-15

    Experiments have been carried out on delayed ripening, through the use of cobalt-60 gamma radiation of mangoes, showing a delay of up to six days by an optimum dose of 25 krad when irradiated in air, carbon dioxide or, preferably, nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of radiation on the skin of the fruit is more prominent in terms of inhibition in chlorophyll disappearance and carotenoid formation than in ripening changes in the meat of the fruit. These studies have been extended to mangoes skin-coated with an emulsion made of an acetylated mono-glyceride preparation. Skin-coated fruits show physiological damage due to the excessive inhibition of respiration, which is offset by a spurt in respiratory activity when irradiated in air or nitrogen. An added delay of six days in ripening is achieved by combined skin-coating and irradiation. Other fruits studied include guavas, sapotas (sapodillas) and tomatoes, with all of which a delay in ripening of about five days could be effected with a dose of 20-25 krad. Fruit like chillies, bananas and oranges do not show any delay in ripening on exposure to radiation, there being slight enhanced ripening with oranges. Semi-dried bananas (40% moisture), irradiated by 0.5 Mrad, keep well for at least three months, compared with the dehydrated (10% moisture) product which, besides being highly susceptible to mould infection, possesses poor attributes of colour, flavour, retention of nutrients and reconstitutability. Suitable combinations of heat treatment and irradiation have been successfully employed for the sterilization of mangoes, guavas, sapotas and apples where, usually, canned products with better texture, flavour and retention of nutritive qualities, could be obtained with treatment at 70 Degree-Sign C for 10 min and 400 krad. Likewise, excellent-quality canned peas are obtainable with the combined use of 800 krad and 100 Degree-Sign C for 5 min. Orange juice could be radiation-sterilized by a combination of 400 krad and