Sample records for glycerides

  1. Improved enzymatic production of phenolated glycerides through alkyl phenolate intermediate

    Yang, Zhiyong; Feddern, Vivian; Glasius, Marianne


    This work reported a novel approach for synthesis of dihydrocaffoylated glycerides, consisting of 2 steps: enzymatic synthesis of octyl dihydrocaffeate (as a synthetic intermediate) from octanol and dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA), and enzymatic interesterification of triglycerides with octyl dihydroc...

  2. Investigating the principles of recrystallization from glyceride melts.

    Windbergs, Maike; Strachan, Clare J; Kleinebudde, Peter


    Different lipids were melted and resolidified as model systems to gain deeper insight into the principles of recrystallization processes in lipid-based dosage forms. Solid-state characterization was performed on the samples with differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction. Several recrystallization processes could be identified during storage of the lipid layers. Pure triglycerides that generally crystallize to the metastable alpha-form from the melt followed by a recrystallization process to the stable beta-form with time showed a chain-length-dependent behavior during storage. With increasing chain length, the recrystallization to the stable beta-form was decelerated. Partial glycerides exhibited a more complex recrystallization behavior due to the fact that these substances are less homogenous. Mixtures of a long-chain triglyceride and a partial glyceride showed evidence of some interaction between the two components as the partial glyceride hindered the recrystallization of the triglyceride to the stable beta-form. In addition, the extent of this phenomenon depended on the amount of partial glyceride in the mixture. Based on these results, changes in solid dosage forms based on glycerides during processing and storage can be better understood.

  3. Uptake, transport and peroral absorption of fatty glyceride grafted chitosan copolymer-enoxaparin nanocomplexes: influence of glyceride chain length.

    Wang, Linlin; Sun, Yujiao; Shi, Chenjun; Li, Liang; Guan, Jian; Zhang, Xin; Ni, Rui; Duan, Xiaopin; Li, Yaping; Mao, Shirui


    The objective of this paper is to elucidate the influence of fatty glyceride chain length in chitosan copolymers on the peroral absorption of enoxaparin. First of all, a series of chitosan copolymers with glyceryl monocaprylate (GM8), glyceryl monolaurate (GM12) and glyceryl monostearate (GM18) as the hydrophobic part were synthesized. The structure of the copolymers was characterized using proton nuclear magnetic resonance. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay demonstrated that all the copolymers were non-toxic. Enoxaparin nanocomplexes were prepared by self-assembly. Mucoadhesion of the nanocomplexes was characterized using the mucin particle method. Nanocomplex uptake and transport were quantified in Caco-2 cells and cellular localization was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Enoxaparin uptake was enhanced by nanocomplex formation, and was dependent on incubation time, concentration, temperature and glyceride chain length. The GM8 grafted chitosan-enoxaparin nanocomplex exhibited the strongest bioadhesion and the best uptake and transport in both cell culture and in vivo absorption in rats. The uptake mechanism was assumed to be adsorptive endocytosis via clathrin- and caveolae-mediated processes. In conclusion, oral absorption of enoxaparin can be further enhanced by using GM8 grafted chitosan copolymer as the carrier to form nanocomplexes.

  4. Glycerides and phospholipids of the cambial zone of the Siberian larch

    Levin, E.D.; Rubchevskaya, L.P.; Vol, Ye.V.


    The composition is studied of glycerides and phospholipids of cambial zone of the Siberian larch and its annual dynamics. It is shown that monoglycerides, diglycerides and triglycerides are in the composition of the glycerides. The fatty acids of the glycerides are represented by a C12 to C24 series. The basic component of these compounds are unsaturated C18 acids. In the cambial zone there are phospholipids whose basic components are phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamines. Their share of the weight in March exceeds 80 percent and in August is 69 percent of the weight of the phospholipids.

  5. Effect of cholesterol on structural and dynamic properties of tripalmitoyl glyceride. A high-pressure infrared spectroscopic study.

    Wong, P T; Chagwedera, T E; Mantsch, H H


    The infrared spectra of tripalmitoyl glyceride confirm the tuning fork configuration previously attributed to trilauroyl glyceride (Small, D. M. 1986. Handbook of Lipid Research. Vol. 4). The acyl chains in solid tripalmitoyl glycerol, either within each molecule or between neighboring molecules, are oriented parallel to each other with the sn-3 acyl chains extended toward the opposite direction of the sn-1 and sn-2 chains. The presence of cholesterol increases the orientational disorder of the tripalmitoyl glyceride molecules in terms of increased reorientational fluctuations and twisting/torsion motions of the acyl chains. In the solid mixture, cholesterol is embedded in the tripalmitoyl glyceride lattice which results in a reorientation of the acyl chains within each molecule from a parallel packing to a nonparallel packing. No evidence was found for hydrogen bond formation between the OH group of cholesterol and any of the three C = O groups of tripalmitoyl glyceride.

  6. Lipase - Catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil to produce partial glycerides.

    Zaher, F. A.


    Full Text Available Partial glycerides were prepared by glycerolysis of sunflower oil in presence of lipase enzyme as catalyst. Six lipases of different origins were used and compared for their catalytic activity. These include Chromobacterium lipase, pancreatic lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus lipase, lyophilized lipase (plant lipase in addition to two lipase preparations derived from Rhizopus japonicas; Lilipase A-10 and Lilipase B-2. Chromobacterium lipase was found to be the most active as glycerolysis catalyst whereas lyophilized lipase; a plant preparation from wheat germ was the least active. The results have also shown that the lipase type affects also the product polarity and hence its field of application as a food emulsifier. Less polar products can be obtained using Chromobacterium lipase whereas the more polar ones using a fungal lipase preparation «Lipase A-10». The product polarity is also influenced by the process temperature but the mode of its effect is different for different lipases.

    Se prepararon glicéridos parciales mediante glicerolisis de aceite de girasol en presencia de lipasa como catalizador. Seis lipasas de orígenes diferentes se utilizaron y compararon en función de su actividad catalítica. Estas incluyeron lipasa de Chromobacterium, lipasa pancreática, lipasa de Rhizopus arrhizus, lipasa liofilizada (lipasa vegetal además de dos preparaciones de lipasa derivadas de Rhizopus japonicus: lilipase A-10 y lilipase B-2. Se encontró que la lipasa de Chromobacterium fue la más activa como catalizador en la glicerolisis mientras que la lipasa liofilizada, preparación vegetal a partir de germen de trigo, fue la menos activa. Los resultados mostraron que los tipos de lipasa afectan también a la polaridad de los productos y por tanto a los rendimientos en su aplicación como emulsificantes alimentarios. Los productos menos polares pueden obtenerse usando lipasa de

  7. Glyceride structure and sterol composition of SOS-7 halophyte oil

    El-Shami, S. M.


    Full Text Available Glyceride structure of SOS-7 halophyte oil was studied using the lipase hydrolysis technique. This halophyte sample was obtained from 1988 harvest planted in Ghardaka, on the border of the Red Sea, Egypt. The oilseed was ground and extracted for its oil using commercial hexane in Soxhlet extractor. The unsaturated fatty acids were found centralized in the 2-position of triglycerides, whereas oleic and linolenic acids showed more preference for this position. It was found that P3 was the major component of GS3, whereas P2L and PStL; PL2, POL and StL2 are predominating among GS2U and GSU3 respectively. L3 manifested itself as the principal constituent of GU3 type. Sterol composition of the halophyte oil was determined by GLC as TMS derivative. It was found that the oil contains campsterol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and 7-stigmasterol of which 7-stigmasterol is the major sterol and constitute 52.4%.

    Se ha estudiado usando la técnica de hidrólisis mediante lipasa la estructura glicerídica de aceite de halofito SOS-7. Esta muestra de halofito fue obtenida a partir de una cosecha de 1988 plantada en Ghardaka, en la orilla del Mar Rojo, Egipto. Para la extracción del aceite de la semilla molida se utilizó hexano comercial en extractor Soxhlet. Los ácidos grasos insaturados se encontraron centralizados en la posición 2 de los triglicéridos, siendo los ácidos oleico y linolénico los que mostraron mayor preferencia por esta posición. Se encontró que P3 fue el componente mayoritario de GS3, mientras que P2L y PStL; PL2 POL y StL2 son los predominantes para GS2U y GSU3 respectivamente. L3 se manifestó como el principal constituyente de los GU3. La composición esterólica del aceite de halofito se determinó por GLC como derivados del

  8. 21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.


    ... DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.736 Glycerides and... Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Library, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch... may be examined at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Library, 5100 Paint Branch...

  9. Butyric acid glycerides in the diet of broiler chickens: effects on gut histology and carcass composition

    Andrea Martini


    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to verify the effects of butyric acid glycerides, as a supplemental ingredient in the diet, on live performance of broiler chickens and on the morphology of their small intestine, since short chain fatty acids are known as selective protection factors against intestinal microbial parasites, potent growth promoters of the gut wall tissues, also in terms of immune modulation response. An experiment was carried out on 150 Ross 308 female chickens, allotted to 5 treatments, over a 35 d ays period: the control, with soybean oil as the energy supplement, and 4 treatments with increasing amounts (0.2, 0.35, 0.5, 1% mixed feed of a mixture of butyric acid glycerides (mono-, di- and tri- glycerides. Treated animals showed a higher live weight at slaughtering (P<0.05 with a better feed conversion rate. The carcase characteristics were not influenced, but the small intestine wall resulted slightly modified with shorter villi, longer microvilli (P<0.01 and larger crypts depth in jejunum (P<0.01, only with lowest concentration of the supplement (0.2%. It is concluded that butyric acid glycerides are an efficient supplement to broilers’ diets, deserving particular attention as a possible alternative to antimicrobial drugs, which have been banned in Europe.

  10. Continuous, packed-bed, enzymatic bioreactor production and stability of feruloyl soy glycerides

    The synthesis of feruloyl soy glycerides was demonstrated on a pilot-scale (1 metric ton/year) in a continuous, four-column series, packed-bed, enzymatic bioreactor. Ethyl ferulate and soybean oil were combined and converted at 3.5 kg/d over Candida antartica lipase B immobilized on an acrylic rein ...

  11. Pilot-scale bioreactor production and long term stability of feruloyl soy glycerides

    Soybean oil was transesterified with ethyl ferulate at 60 °C using the immobilized lipase Candida antartica lipase B (Novozym 435) to produce a mixture of feruloylated monoacylglycerols and feruloylated diacylglycerols homologues, collectively referred to as feruloylated soy glycerides (FSG). A 1-to...

  12. Effect of cholesterol on structural and dynamic properties of tripalmitoyl glyceride. A high-pressure infrared spectroscopic study.

    Wong, P T; Chagwedera, T E; Mantsch, H H


    The infrared spectra of tripalmitoyl glyceride confirm the tuning fork configuration previously attributed to trilauroyl glyceride (Small, D. M. 1986. Handbook of Lipid Research. Vol. 4). The acyl chains in solid tripalmitoyl glycerol, either within each molecule or between neighboring molecules, are oriented parallel to each other with the sn-3 acyl chains extended toward the opposite direction of the sn-1 and sn-2 chains. The presence of cholesterol increases the orientational disorder of t...

  13. Final report on the safety assessment of Hydrogenated Cottonseed Oil, Cottonseed (Gossypium) Oil, Cottonseed Acid, Cottonseed Glyceride, and Hydrogenated Cottonseed Glyceride.


    Hydrogenated Cottonseed Oil, Cottonseed (Gossypium) Oil, Cottonseed Acid, Cottonseed Glyceride, and Hydrogenated Cottonseed Glyceride are cosmetic ingredients derived from Cottonseed Oil and used as skin-conditioning agents and surfactants. Nonoils known to be toxic that may be found in cottonseed oils include gossypol, aflatoxin, and cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPFA). Toxic heavy metal and/or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) or other pesticide contamination is also possible. Cottonseed Oil was nontoxic in acute oral toxicity studies in rats. In a short-term study, rabbits that had been fed 2% Cottonseed Oil for 7 weeks had significantly lower blood chemistry parameters (compared to wheat bran controls) and significantly more stored hepatic vitamin A (compared to rabbits fed other fats). Cottonseed Oil controls used as vehicles in two parenteral studies produced negative results. Hydrogenated Cottonseed Oil tested in formulation did not produce dermal or ocular irritation in rabbits. An oral-dose reproductive study tested up to 30% Cottonseed Oil (with 1% CPFAs) and reported no adverse effects on sexual maturity and reproductive performance of the F0 generation; changes were noted in the F1 generation but reproductive capacity was not altered. Parenteral-dose reproductive studies reported no adverse effects. Cottonseed Oil was not mutagenic. Cottonseed Oil did not induce aberrant crypt foci when given orally to mice, but in other studies, it increased the incidence of spontaneous mammary tumors in rats and mice. Mice fed 20% Hydrogenated Cottonseed Oil during induction and promotion of photocarcinogenesis had significantly lower tumor incidence compared to mice fed 20% sunflower oil. Hydrogenated Cottonseed Oil in formulation (up to approximately 21%) was neither an irritant nor sensitizer in clinical studies. Limited clinical data indicated that Cottonseed Oil does not contain allergic protein. Based on the available data, it was concluded that these ingredients may

  14. Application of polyglycolized glycerides in protection of amorphous form of etoricoxib during compression.

    Shimpi, Shamkant; Mahadik, Kakasaheb; Takada, Kanji; Paradkar, Anant


    Polymorphic transition and stability problems during amorphous drug formulation are the major limiting factors in pharmaceutical technology. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the ability of polyglycolized glycerides (Gelucire) in protection of amorphous form of drug during compression and shelf life with lower proportion. Amorphous etoricoxib (AET) was prepared by spray drying technique. Tablets of AET and melt granules of AET (MG-AET) with Gelucire 50/13 were prepared. Tablets parameters like hardness, disintegration and content uniformity were evaluated. Tablets were evaluated immediately after compression and on storage for 3 months at ambient conditions to determine degree of transformation using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dissolution profiles. Spray drying yielded the amorphous etoricoxib. Content uniformity in the tablet was in between 95 to 105%. Other parameters like disintegration and hardness were well within the limits. The results showed significant difference in the degree of crystallinity between AET tablet and MG-AET tablet. MG-AET tablet showed absence of crystallinity after 3 months storage. The reason could be formation of hydrogen bonding between the Gelucire and AET. Also Gelucire can be tableted very easily under low pressure and showed elastic recovery. Gelucire yielded a soft embedding during tableting, which prevented the polymorphic transformation. Polyglycolized glycerides (Gelucire 50/13) are able to protect amorphous etoricoxib during compression. As excipient required is low, it became possible to prepare tablet formulation as compared to other excipient like polyvinylpyrrolidon (PVP).

  15. Optimization of reaction parameters for enzymatic glyceride synthesis from fish oil: Ethyl esters versus free fatty acids

    Ravn, Helle Christine; Damstrup, Marianne L.; Meyer, Anne S.


    Enzymatic conversion of fish oil free fatty acids (FFA) or fatty acid ethyl esters (FAE) into glycerides via esterification or transesterification was examined. The reactions catalyzed by Lipozyme™ 435, a Candida antarctica lipase, were optimized. Influence on conversion yields of fatty acid chain...

  16. Supercritical Phase Equilibria Modeling of Glyceride Mixtures and Carbon Dioxide Using the Group Contribution EoS

    Tiziana Fornari


    Experimental data was obtained in a countercurrent packed extraction column at pressures ranging from 16 to 25 MPa and temperatures from 313 to 368 K. The GC-EoS model was applied in a completely predictive manner to simulate the phase equilibria behavior of the multistage separation process. The chemical analysis of the glyceride mixture allowed a significant simplification of its complex composition and thus, a simple and satisfactory simulation of the supercritical extraction process was achieved.

  17. Mirabolides A and B; New Cytotoxic Glycerides from the Red Sea Sponge Theonella mirabilis

    Dina R. Abou-Hussein


    Full Text Available As a part of our continuing work to find out bioactive lead molecules from marine invertebrates, the CHCl3 fraction of the organic extract of the Red Sea sponge Theonella mirabilis showed cytotoxic activity in our primary screen. Bioassay-guided purification of the active fractions of the sponge’s extract resulted in the isolation of two new glycerides, mirabolides A and B (1 and 2, together with the reported 4-methylene sterols, conicasterol (3 and swinhosterol B (4. The structures of the compounds were assigned by interpretation of their 1D (1H, 13C, 2D (COSY, HSQC, HMBC, ROESY NMR spectral data and high-resolution mass determinations. Compounds 1–4 displayed marked cytotoxic activity against human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7 with IC50 values of 16.4, 5.18, 6.23 and 3.0 μg/mL, respectively, compared to 5.4 μg/mL observed by doxorubicin as reference drug.

  18. Mixtures of mono-, di- and tri-glycerides as energy supplements to broilers’ diets

    Sara Minieri


    Full Text Available Mixtures of mono-, di- and tri-glycerides from olive oil (MDT were added to: palm oil (PO, olive oil (OO, soybean oil (SO, free fatty acids from palm oil (PFA, free fatty acids from olive oil (OFA. The compound mixtures were used as energy supplements in the diets of broiler chickens in comparison with plain SO and plain animal fat (AF. Two hundred and ten birds were randomly allotted to 7 dietary treatments with the diverse oil sources: 6 birds per cage, 5 cages per treatment. The effects of the treatments on growth rates, feed/gain ratios and acidic composition of abdominal fat of hybrid Ross 308 female chickens were studied. The animals were slaughtered at the end of the trial, at day 35. The breast meat quality was then evaluated by a panel of 15 trained members and analysed for shelf life duration. The AF treat- ment gave the highest weight gain, but only in the first week. MDT + OO (50/50 resulted the best combination, with slight, non significant, better performances and a decidedly better quality in terms of acidic composition of abdominal fat, taste and juiciness of breast meat and shelf life.

  19. Use of random forest in FTIR analysis of LDL cholesterol and tri-glycerides for hyperlipidemia.

    Chen, Hua-Zhou; Tang, Guo-Qiang; Ai, Wu; Xu, Li-Li; Cai, Ken


    A quantitative determination method for the diagnosis of hyperlipidemia was developed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Random forest (RF) was demonstrated as a potential multivariate algorithm for the FTIR analysis of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and tri-glycerides (TG) in human serum samples. The informative wavebands for LDL-C and TG were selected based on the Gini importance. The selected wavebands were mainly within the fingerprint region. The RF modeling results were better than those derived using PLS in validation process, because the chance for over-fitting was possibly eliminated in RF algorithm. ARF also demonstrated favorable results in the test process. The prospective model exhibited a higher than 90% true prediction in negative/positive properties for male and female samples. These clinical statistical results indicated the optimization of RF algorithm performed accurately in the FTIR determination of LDL-C and TG. RF is evaluated as a promising tool for diagnosing and controlling hyperlipidemia in populations. The parameter optimization methodology is useful in the improving model accuracy using FTIR spectroscopic technology.

  20. Disc-shaped polyoxyethylene glycol glycerides gel nanoparticles as novel protein delivery vehicles.

    Codoni, Doroty; Cowan, Jonathan; Bradley, Jenna; McAuley, William J; O'Connell, Maria A; Qi, Sheng


    Disc-shaped nanoparticles with high aspect ratios have been reported to show preferential cellular uptake in vitro by mammalian cells. However, engineering and producing such disc-shaped nanoparticles are often complex. This study reports for the first time the use of a single, approved pharmaceutical excipient to prepare stable disc-shaped nanoparticles with a high aspect ratio via a simple, organic solvent free process. These disc-shaped nanoparticles were formed by fragmentation of stearoyl macrogol-32 glycerides (Gelucire 50/13) hydrogels. The nanoparticles showed good physical stability as a result of their outer coating of polyethylene glycol (PEG) that is a part of Gelucire composition. Using lysozyme as a model hydrophilic protein, these nanoparticles demonstrated a good loading capacity for hydrophilic macromolecules, mainly via surface adsorption. As a result of the higher hydrophobicity of the core of the nano-discs, the loading efficiency of hydrophobic model components, such as Coumarin-6, was significantly increased in comparison to the model hydrophilic compound. These Gelucire nano-discs exhibited no cytotoxicity at the tested level of 600μg/ml for Caco-2 cells. Rapid in vitro cellular uptake of the disc-shaped nanoparticles by Caco-2 cells was observed. This rapid internalisation was attributed to the high aspect ratio of the disc-shape nanoparticles which provides a high contact surface area between the particles and cells and may lower the strain energy required for membrane deformation during uptake. The results of this study demonstrate the promising potential of Gelucire nano-discs as effective nanocarriers for drug delivery and which can be manufactured using a simple solvent-free process.

  1. An improved reference measurement procedure for triglycerides and total glycerides in human serum by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Chen, Yizhao; Liu, Qinde; Yong, Sharon; Teo, Hui Ling; Lee, Tong Kooi


    Triglycerides are widely tested in clinical laboratories using enzymatic methods for lipid profiling. As enzymatic methods can be affected by interferences from biological samples, this together with the non-specific nature of triglycerides measurement makes it necessary to verify the accuracy of the test results with a reference measurement procedure. Several such measurement procedures had been published. These procedures generally involved lengthy and laborious sample preparation steps. In this paper, an improved reference measurement procedure for triglycerides and total glycerides was reported which simplifies the sample preparation steps and greatly shortens the time taken. The procedure was based on isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (IDGC-MS)with tripalmitin as the calibration standard. Serum samples were first spiked with isotope-labeled tripalmitin. For the measurement of triglycerides, the serum samples were subjected to lipid extraction followed by separation of triglycerides from diglycerides and monoglycerides. Triglycerides were then hydrolyzed to glycerol, derivatized and injected into the GC–MS for quantification. For the measurement of total glycerides, the serum samples were hydrolyzed directly and derivatized before injection into the GC-MS for quantification. All measurement results showed good precision with CV triglycerides and total glycerides were well within the certified ranges of the CRM, with deviation triglycerides and total glycerides.

  2. [Effect of 1-O-alkyl-glyceride ethers isolated from lipids of the squid Berrytteuthis magister liver on lipid metabolism and hematological parameters of rats with experimental dislipidemia].

    Novgorodtseva, T P; Karaman, Iu K; Kas'ianov, S P; Vitkina, T I


    On the white Wistar rats with alimentary dyslipidemia investigated influence 1-O-alkyl-glycerides ethers (AGE), received by a method of hydrolysis 1-O-alkyl-diacylglycerides from lipids of the squid Berryteuthis magister liver, on a lipid metabolism, hepatobiliary functions of liver, antioxidant systems and parameters of blood. Are revealed antioxidant, antianemia and immunoactive properties of AGE. AGE raise a level of glucose and activity of enzymes hepatobiliary systems in blood, interfere the decrease of a cholesterol in blood.

  3. Glycosyl glycerides from hydroponic Panax ginseng inhibited NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells

    Byeong-Ju Cha


    Results and conclusion: The glycosyl glycerides were identified to be (2S-1-O-7(Z,10(Z,13(Z-hexadecatrienoyl-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (1, (2S-1-O-linolenoyl-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (2, (2S-1-O-linolenoyl-2-O-linolenoyl-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (3, and 2(S-1-O-linoleoyl-2-O-linoleoyl-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (4. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate inhibition activity on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50: 63.8 ± 6.4μM and 59.4 ± 6.8μM, respectively] without cytotoxicity at concentrations < 100μM, whereas Compounds 3 and 4 showed good inhibition effect (IC50: 7.7 ± 0.6μM and 8.0 ± 0.9μM, respectively without cytotoxicity at concentrations < 20μM. All isolated compounds showed reduced messenger RNA (mRNA expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in LPS-induced macrophage cells with strong inhibition of mRNA activity observed for Compounds 3 and 4.

  4. Crude palm oil from interspecific hybrid Elaeis oleifera×Elaeis guineensis: fatty acid regiodistribution and molecular species of glycerides.

    Mozzon, Massimo; Pacetti, Deborah; Lucci, Paolo; Balzano, Michele; Frega, Natale Giuseppe


    The composition and structure of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and partial glycerides of crude palm oil obtained from interspecific hybrid Elaeis oleifera×Elaeis guineensis, grown in Colombia, were fully characterised and compared to data obtained by analysing crude African palm oil. Hybridisation appears to substantially modify the biosynthesis of fatty acids (FAs) rather than their assembly in TAGs. In fact, total FAs analysis showed significant differences between these two types of oil, with hybrid palm oil having a higher percentage of oleic acid (54.6 ± 1.0 vs 41.4 ± 0.3), together with a lower saturated fatty acid content (33.5 ± 0.5 vs 47.3 ± 0.1), while the percentage of essential fatty acid, linoleic acid, does not undergo significant changes. Furthermore, 34 TAG types were identified, with no qualitative differences between African and E. guineensis×E. oleifera hybrid palm oil samples. Short and medium chain FAs (8:0, 10:0, 12:0, 14:0) were utilised, together, to build a restricted number of TAG molecular species. Oil samples from the E. guineensis×E. oleifera hybrid showed higher contents of monosaturated TAGs (47.5-51.0% vs 36.7-37.1%) and triunsaturated TAGs (15.5-15.6% vs 5.2-5.4%). The sn-2 position of TAGs in hybrid palm oil was shown to be predominantly esterified with oleic acid (64.7-66.0 mol% vs 55.1-58.2 mol% in African palm oil) with only 10-15% of total palmitic acid and 6-20% of stearic acid acylated in the secondary position. The total amount of diacylglycerols (DAGs) was in agreement with the values of free acidity; DAG types found were in agreement with the representativeness of different TAG species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stabilizing effect of cetostearyl alcohol and glyceryl monostearate as co-emulsifiers on hydrocarbon-free O/W glyceride creams.

    Ballmann, C; Mueller, B W


    The structure of a stable O/W cream is characterized by a more or less pronounced mixed crystal bilayer. The addition of co-emulsifiers in order to achieve a soft formulation often leads to a mixed crystal bilayer network of high viscosity and even phase separation. In order to ovoid this components of different chemical identities are used which often are not inert or harmless if they are absorbed. For this reason it seems to be interesting to use only components from one chemical family, e.g. to use only glycerides and their derivatives because in the case of absorption they are metabolized. The disadvantages of glyceride creams are, however, their low viscosity. The aim of this investigation was to find the optimum amount of co-emulsifier as consistency excipient for the basic formulation of an O/W glyceride cream. This was achieved by using differential scanning calorimetry; thermogravimetry, oscillation rheology and various stress tests. The amount of co-emulsifier used should not be too high, as it would crystallize increasingly during storage which gives the preparation an optical inhomogenity and a lack in softness which is needed for a suitable cosmetic acceptance. A slightly higher concentration than is necessary for the mixed emulsifier system can be advantageous, as the formation of a separate crystalline lipophilic network in the preparation increases its viscosity which will lead to a higher physico-chemical stability of the formulation. These results were obtained with the co-emulsifiers glyceryl monostearate (Imwitor 900), cetylstearyl alcohol (Lanette O), and PEG-20-glycerolstearate (Tagat S2) as O/W emulsifier. As oil phase a mixture of Miglyol 812 (caprylic/capric triglyceride) and Avocado oil was used.

  6. Influence of fatty acid composition on the formation of polar glycerides and polar fatty acids in sunflower oils heated at frying temperatures.

    Jorge, N.


    Full Text Available Conventional and high oleic sunflower oils as well as 50% mixture of both of them were heated at different temperatures under well-controlled conditions. Total polar compounds, the main groups of polar glycerides, total polar fatty acids, the main groups of polar fatty acids and the loss of initial fatty acids were quantitated. The most outstanding results demonstrated the primacy of the formation of glyceridic polymerization compounds during heating at high temperatures. After transesterification of the samples dimeric fatty acids was the most significant group of compounds obtained. As expected, linoleic acid was preferentially involved in the formation of polar fatty acids, although the participation of oleic acid became very important at low concentration of linoleic acid. Finally good statistical figures were obtained for the regression of polar fatty acids on polar compounds.

    Aceites de girasol convencional y alto oleico así como una mezcla al 50% de ambos fueron calentados a diferentes temperaturas bajo condiciones controladas. Se cuantificaron los compuestos polares totales, los grupos principales de glicéridos, ácidos grasos polares totales, los grupos principales de ácidos grasos polares y la pérdida de ácidos grasos iniciales. Los resultados más relevantes demostraron la primacía de la formación de compuestos de polimerización glicerídicos durante el calentamiento a altas temperaturas. Después de la transesterificación de las muestras, los ácidos diméricos constituyeron el grupo más significativo de compuestos obtenidos. Como era esperado, el ácido linoleico contribuyó preferentemente en la formación de los ácidos grasos polares, si bien la participación del ácido oleico fue muy importante a bajas concentraciones de ácido linoleico. Finalmente, se obtuvieron buenos resultados estadísticos para la regresión entre ácidos grasos polares y compuestos polares.

  7. Stereoselectivity of lipases in supercritical carbon dioxide. I. Dependence of the regio- and enantioselectivity of porcine pancreas lipase on the water content during the hydrolysis of triolein and its partial glycerides.

    Glowacz, G; Bariszlovich, M; Linke, M; Richter, P; Fuchs, C; Mörsel, J T


    The stereoselectivity of porcine pancreas lipase (PPL) was investigated during the enzymatic hydrolysis of triolein and its partial glycerides in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) as reaction medium. The water content of the immobilized lipases was varied. The partial glycerides were separated into mono- and diglycerides by TLC, converted to their 3,5-dinitrophenylurethane derivatives and subsequently resolved into sn-1,2 and sn-2,3 enantiomers (estimation of dioleins) or into sn-1 and sn-3 enantiomers (estimation of monooleins) by HPLC on a chiral stationary phase (Sumichiral OA-4100). In all reactions under the conditions employed, PPL revealed a distinct preference for the sn-3 position of the glycerol. However, the stereoselectivity depends on the reaction time, the substances initially used and the enzyme water content. It seems that the effect of the enzyme water content on the activity and selectivity of porcine pancreas lipase in SCCO2 is based on a modification of the "micro-environment' of the enzyme by the solution of CO2 in water, causing a decrease of the pH value.

  8. 共轭亚油酸甘油酯的储存稳定性研究%Storage stability of conjugated linoleic acid glyceride

    刘明; 徐维锋; 张显仁; 周丽平; 吴文忠


    通过测定共轭亚油酸甘油酯的气味、色度、过氧化值以及脂肪酸组成随时间的变化情况,考察了在温度(40±2)℃、相对湿度(75±5)%的实验条件下,储存180 d的过程中,100 mL塑料瓶和100 mL铝听两种包装形式对共轭亚油酸甘油酯储存稳定性的影响.结果表明,两种包装形式的共轭亚油酸甘油酯的色度都非常稳定;塑料瓶包装的共轭亚油酸甘油酯气味非常稳定,但铝听包装的共轭亚油酸甘油酯气味不稳定,60 d便产生哈喇味;两种包装形式的共轭亚油酸甘油酯的过氧化值呈现波动变化趋势,但其值均稳定在1.0 meq/kg以下;两种包装形式的共轭亚油酸甘油酯的脂肪酸组成略有波动,但与实验前的样品相比,含量基本无变化.%effects of storage time on the odor,color, peroxide value and fatty acid composition of conjugated linoleic acid glyceride (CLAG) were studied, and the effects of two kinds of package forms, plastic bottle of 100 mL and aluminium can of 100 mL, on the storage stability of CLAG were investigated under the condition of 180 d, (40 ±2) ℃ , (75 ±5)% relative humidity. The results indicated that the color was very stable both in plastic bottle and aluminium can; the odor was stable in plastic bottle but unstable in a-luminium can which produced rancid flavor after 60 d; the peroxide values of CLAG both in plastic bottle and aluminium can had a fluctuated trend, and were stable below 1. 0 meq/kg; the fatty acid compositions of CLAG both in plastic bottle and aluminium can had a minor fluctuation, but substantially unchanged compared with the CLAG before experiment.

  9. 酶法催化乙酯甘油酯酯交换制备富含EPA和DHA的甘油酯%Preparation of glycerides rich in EPA and DHA by lipase-catalyzed transesterification between ethyl esters and triglycerides

    郭正霞; 孙兆敏; 张芹; 王静凤; 薛长湖


    The immobilized Candida sp. lipase was used as the catalyst of transesterification to prepare glycerides which contained 45% DHA and EPA totally. Transesterification was carried out with fish oil ethyl esters and triglycerides as substrates. The effect on transesterification of temperature,reaction time,enzyme dosage,substrate weight ratio and water dosage were investigated with 5g glycerides as one of the substrates. The favorable conditions obtained were., reaction temperature 60℃, reaction time 24h,the substrate weight ratio 5:4,enzyme dosage 80U,without adding water to the reaction system. Under these conditions,the glycerides obtained contained 33.40% EPA and 13.10% DHA,and the immobilized enzyme could be used for seven times.%采用国产固定化假丝酵母脂肪酶,催化乙酯型和甘油酯型鱼油酯交换制备富舍EPA和DHA的甘油酯型鱼油,得到EPA和DHA总量超过45%的甘油酯。以5g甘油酯型鱼油为反应底物之一,考察了反应温度、时间、酶加量、底物质量比及加水量五个因素对酯交换反应的影响,利用正交实验优化,得到最佳反应条件为:反应温度60℃,反应时间24h,底物质量比为5:4,加酶量为80U,不向反应体系中加入水分。在该条件下得到的甘油酯中EPA和DHA的含量分别为33-40%和13.10%.并且脂肪酶重复利用7次仍能达到工艺目标。

  10. High-performance liquid chromatography - Ultraviolet method for the determination of total specific migration of nine ultraviolet absorbers in food simulants based on 1,1,3,3-Tetramethylguanidine and organic phase anion exchange solid phase extraction to remove glyceride.

    Wang, Jianling; Xiao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Tong; Liu, Tingfei; Tao, Huaming; He, Jun


    The glyceride in oil food simulant usually causes serious interferences to target analytes and leads to failure of the normal function of the RP-HPLC column. In this work, a convenient HPLC-UV method for the determination of the total specific migration of nine ultraviolet (UV) absorbers in food simulants was developed based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (TMG) and organic phase anion exchange (OPAE) SPE to efficiently remove glyceride in olive oil simulant. In contrast to the normal ion exchange carried out in an aqueous solution or aqueous phase environment, the OPAE SPE was performed in the organic phase environments, and the time-consuming and challenging extraction of the nine UV absorbers from vegetable oil with aqueous solution could be readily omitted. The method was proved to have good linearity (r≥0.99992), precision (intra-day RSD≤3.3%), and accuracy(91.0%≤recoveries≤107%); furthermore, the lower limit of quantifications (0.05-0.2mg/kg) in five types of food simulants(10% ethanol, 3% acetic acid, 20% ethanol, 50% ethanol and olive oil) was observed. The method was found to be well suited for quantitative determination of the total specific migration of the nine UV absorbers both in aqueous and vegetable oil simulant according to Commission Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011. Migration levels of the nine UV absorbers were determined in 31 plastic samples, and UV-24, UV-531, HHBP and UV-326 were frequently detected, especially in olive oil simulant for UV-326 in PE samples. In addition, the OPAE SPE procedure was also been applied to efficiently enrich or purify seven antioxidants in olive oil simulant. Results indicate that this procedure will have more extensive applications in the enriching or purification of the extremely weak acidic compounds with phenol hydroxyl group that are relatively stable in TMG n-hexane solution and that can be barely extracted from vegetable oil.

  11. 薄层色谱-热辅助水解甲基化-气相色谱法测定生物柴油中的甘油酯%Determination of Glycerides in Biodiesel by Thin Layer Chromatography-Thermally Assisted Hydrolysis and Methylation-gas Chromatography

    王鹏; 孙杨; 刘哲益; 傅宇飞; 潘再法; 王丽丽


    A method was developed for the determination of residual glycerides in biodiesel on the basis of thin layer chromatography-thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation-gas chromatography (TLC-THM-GC) using a pyrolysis-GC system. With the THM in the presence of an organic alkali, trimethylsulfonium hydroxide (TMSH), glycerides were converted into their corresponding fatty acid methyl esters. Thus, residual glycerides could be determined well by the total peak area of fatty acid methyl esters formed. Glycerides in samples were separated by TLC, and then were extracted. The results showed that by adding 3 μL TMSH (0. 1 mol/L) methanol solution to 3 μL extract of sample and methylating the mixture at 350 °C , the glycerides would be sensitively determined. The calibration curves of monoglyceride, diglyceride and triglyceride exhibited good linearity with the regression coefficients from 0. 9863 to 0. 9993 at the concentration ranged from 60 to 2000 mg/L. The reproduc-ibility was fairly good with the RSD (n = 5) from 3. 2% to 7. 2% for four kinds of diglycerides at 250 mg/L concentration level. The potential of the proposed method was assessed by applying it to the determination of residual glyceride in biodiesel. The results prove this TLC-THM-GC technique is an accurate and sensitive method for determining residual glyceride in biodiesel samples.%建立了薄层色谱-热辅助水解甲基化-气相色谱法测定生物柴油中残余甘油酯含量的方法.样品中的甘油酯经薄层色谱分离,萃取后与三甲基氢氧化硫(0.1 mol/L)各3 μL先后加入到样品杯中,在350℃下,于裂解器中进行衍生化反应,气相色谱测定生成的脂肪酸甲酯,确定甘油酯的含量.生物柴油中常见的甘油一酯、二酯、三酯在60~2000 mg/L浓度范围内线性关系良好,r2为0.9863~0.9993.对于浓度为250 mg/L的4种甘油二酯重复测定5次,相对标准偏差为3.2%~7.2%.本方法对实际样品中的甘油酯的测定结果表明,方法准确、灵敏.

  12. Optimization of enrichment process of DHA and EPA glycerides using neural network%神经网络优化富集EPA和DHA甘油酯的工艺研究

    黄万有; 李德涛; 刘书成; 郝记明; 张静


    以军曹鱼内脏油为原料,采用脂肪酶OF水解法富集鱼油中EPA和DHA甘油酯,应用神经网络优化其水解工艺参数.结果表明:在缓冲溶液pH 7.0反应体系中,水油质量比3∶1、反应温度40 ~ 45℃和脂肪酶用量1.5%,富集鱼油中DHA与EPA总含量可达32.10%,富集的鱼油色泽亮黄,澄清透明,具有淡的鱼腥味,理化指标达到了SC/T 3502-2000精制鱼油的二级标准.%EPA and DHA glycerides in fish oil from cobia viscera were enriched by lipase OF hydrolysis and the hydrolysis parameters were optimized using neural network.The results showed that when the mass ratio of water to oil was 3∶ 1,reaction temperature was 40-45 ℃ and dosage of lipase was 1.5 % in the reaction system of buffer solution (pH 7.0),the total content of DHA and EPA in the enriched fish oil was 32.10%.The enriched fish oil had the characteristics of brilliant yellow color,clear and transparent with slight fishy smell,and the physical and chemical indexes were accordance with the secondary standard of refined fish oil in SC/T 3502-2000.

  13. Synthesis of medium chain glycerides by jet loop reaction process%喷射式环路反应器制备中碳链三甘油酯的新工艺

    史修启; 孙永强; 杨卉艳; 张勇


    分别采用喷射式环路反应器工艺和搅拌釜式工艺,以辛葵酸和甘油为原料,在碱性催化剂作用下合成了中碳链三甘油酯,从反应进程、产品色泽、能源及氮气消耗、产品后处理、产品质量等方面对两种生产工艺进行了比较.实验结果表明,在反应温度250℃,n(辛葵酸)∶n(甘油)=3.2∶1,催化剂用量为辛葵酸质量的0.25%条件下,与搅拌釜式反应工艺相比,采用喷射式环路反应器反应工艺具有反应时间短、产品色泽好、能源及氮气消耗量低、反应过程对环境无污染、产品羟值低等优点,喷射式环路反应器工艺可完全替代搅拌釜式工艺用于制备中碳链三甘油酯.%Medium chain glyceride (MCT) is prepared separately in a jet loop reaction process and in a stirred tank reactor system by esterification of C8_10 fatty acid and glycerol with a base catalyst. The performances of esterification in the two reaction systems are compared in respect of reaction rate, product color arid quality, energy and nitrogen consumptions and post-treatment. At the following reaction conditions, 250t of reaction temperature, 3. 2: 1 of mole ratio of C8-10 fatty acid to glycerol and 0. 25 % of catalyst dosage ( based on mass of fatty acid) , Compared with the stirred tank reactor system,the jet loop reaction process to achieve MCT needed shorter time,less consumption of energy and nitrogen and has no pollution emission. The color of the obtained product is lighter and the hydroxyl value is lower. Therefore,the jet loop reaction process is preferred in producing MCT.

  14. TriGlycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio compared with homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance indexes in screening for metabolic syndrome in the chinese obese children: a cross section study.

    Liang, Jianfeng; Fu, Junfen; Jiang, Youyun; Dong, Guanping; Wang, Xiumin; Wu, Wei


    Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is prevalant in China, especially according to the pediatric obesity group. Based on the MS-CHN2012 definition for Chinese children and adolescents the need to explore and establish a convienent MS screening become imminent. This study aims to investigate the optimal cut-off values, compare the accuracy for the (TriGlycerides (TG) to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C)) (TG/HDL-C) ratio and Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) indexs to identify Metabolic Syndrome in obese pediatric population in China. A total sample of 976 children (female 286 male 690, BMI > = 95 percentile) aged from 6-16 years underwent a medical assessment including a physical examination and investigations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, insulin, glucose, and oral glucose tolerance test to identify the components of Metabolic Syndrome. The validity and accuracy between TG/HDL-C ratio and HOMA-IR were compared by Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis (ROC). TG/HDL-C ratio achieved a larger ROC Area under Curve (AUC = 0.843) than HOMA-IR indexes (0.640, 0.625 for HOMA1-IR, HOMA2-IR respectively) to screen for Metabolic Syndrome. The cut-off values for MS were: TG/HDL-C ratio > 1.25 (sensitivity: 80%; specificity: 75%), HOMA1-IR > 4.59 (sensitivity: 58.7%; specificity: 65.5%) and HOMA2-IR > 2.76 (sensitivity: 53.2%; specificity: 69.5%). The results kept robust after stratified by gender, age group and pubertal stage. TG/HDL-C ratio was a better indicator than the HOMA-IR to screen for a positive diagnosis for MS. Furthermore, the TG/HDL-C ratio was superior to the HOMA-IR indexes even after the control of possible confusions from the gender, age group and puberty stage. TG/HDL-C ratio proved a better index than HOMA-IR in screening for MS in obese children and adolescents. TG/HDL-C ratio has a discriminatory power in detecting potential MS in the Chinese obese pediatric

  15. Effects of dietary probiotic, prebiotic and butyric acid glycerides on ...



    May 18, 2009 ... chickens and there are a commercial varieties of these supplementation available and producers ..... of two commercial broiler strains fed diets contaning Lactobacillus cultures and oxytetracycline under heat stress conditions.

  16. Ethanolysis of rapeseed oil - distribution of ethyl esters, glycerides and glycerol between ester and glycerol phases.

    Cernoch, Michal; Hájek, Martin; Skopal, Frantisek


    The distribution of ethyl esters, triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, and glycerol between the ester and glycerol phase was investigated after the ethanolysis of rapeseed oil at various reaction conditions. The determination of these substances in the ester and glycerol phases was carried out by the GC method. The amount of ethyl esters in the glycerol phase was unexpectedly high and therefore the possibility of the reduction of this amount was investigated. The distribution coefficients and the weight distributions of each investigated substance were calculated and compared mutually. The distribution coefficients between the ester and glycerol phase increase in this sequence: glycerol, monoglycerides, diglycerides, ethyl esters, and triglycerides. Soaps and monoglycerides in the reaction mixture cause a worse separation of ethyl esters from the reaction mixture. The existence of a non-separable reaction mixture was observed also, and its composition was determined.

  17. Partial conservation of the sn-2 position of dietary glycerides in fasting plasma lipids in humans.

    Zock, P.L.; Gerritsen, J.; Katan, M. B.


    The authors investigated the effect of the position of fatty acids within dietary triglycerides on the composition of plasma lipids. Sixty volunteers consumed two diets of equal fatty acid compositions for 3 weeks each. In the palm oil diet 82% of palmitic acid was attached to the sn-1 and sn-3, and 18% to the sn-2 position of glycerol. In the diet rich in a palm oil analogue, Betapol, these figures were 35% and 65% respectively. Oleic and linoleic acid in palm oil were mainly in the sn-2 pos...

  18. Partial conservation of the sn-2 position of dietary glycerides in fasting plasma lipids in humans.

    Zock, P.L.; Gerritsen, J.; Katan, M.B.


    The authors investigated the effect of the position of fatty acids within dietary triglycerides on the composition of plasma lipids. Sixty volunteers consumed two diets of equal fatty acid compositions for 3 weeks each. In the palm oil diet 82% of palmitic acid was attached to the sn-1 and sn-3, and

  19. Partial conservation of the sn-2 position of dietary glycerides in fasting plasma lipids in humans.

    Zock, P.L.; Gerritsen, J.; Katan, M.B.


    The authors investigated the effect of the position of fatty acids within dietary triglycerides on the composition of plasma lipids. Sixty volunteers consumed two diets of equal fatty acid compositions for 3 weeks each. In the palm oil diet 82% of palmitic acid was attached to the sn-1 and sn-3, and

  20. Synthesis of glycerides containing n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid by solvent-free acidolysis of fish oil.

    Garcia, H S; Arcos, J A; Ward, D J; Hill, C G


    Menhaden oil, a rich source of n-3 fatty acids, was interesterified with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in a reaction medium composed solely of substrates and either free or immobilized commercial lipase preparations. Of five lipases tested, an immobilized preparation from Mucor miehei provided the fastest rate of incorporation of CLA into fish oil acylglycerols; however, and as observed with most of the lipases utilized, a significant proportion of the n-3 fatty acid residues were liberated in the process. A soluble lipase from Candida rugosa converted free CLA to acylglycerol residues while leaving the n-3 fatty acid residues virtually untouched. Even though the reaction rate was slower for this enzyme than for the other four lipase preparations, the specificity of the free C. rugosa lipase gives it the greatest potential for commercial use in preparing fish oils enriched in CLA residues but still retaining their original n-3 fatty acid residues.

  1. Screening of microbial lipases and evalutaion of their potential to produce glycerides with high gamma linolenic acid concentration

    Patricia B.L. Fregolente


    Full Text Available Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3, cis- 6,9,12-octadecatrienoic acid, an important compound in n-6 eicosanoid family biosynthesis, occurs in the lipids of a few plant and microbial sources. This study focused on the screening of microbial strains with suitable lipase activity for enrichment of GLA by selective hydrolysis of the borage oil (21.6 % of GLA/total fatty acids. Firstly, 352 microrganisms were tested for their lipolytic capacity using screening techniques on agar plates containing borage oil, strains were then selected and screened for their activity (U/mg using both submerged fermentation (SmF and solid state fermentation (SSF. The rate of hydrolysis and the selective preference of these hydrolytic enzymes towards fatty acids, with a special focus on enrichment of GLA were studied and compared with those obtained by two commercially-available lipases. Only one of the lipases tested during this study displayed selectivity, discriminating the GLA during the hydrolysis reaction. Using the enzymatic extract from Geotrichum candidum as a biocatalyst of the reaction, it was possible to obtain a percentage of 41.7% of GLA in acylglycerols fraction when the borage oil was treated in a fixed-bed reactor for 24 hours at 30ºC.

  2. Screening of microbial lipases and evalutaion of their potential to produce glycerides with high gamma linolenic acid concentration.

    Fregolente, Patricia B L; Fregolente, Leonardo V; Maciel, Maria R W; Carvalho, Patricia O


    Gamma linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3, cis- 6,9,12- octadecatrienoic acid), an important compound in n- 6 eicosanoid family biosynthesis, occurs in the lipids of a few plant and microbial sources. This study focused on the screening of microbial strains with suitable lipase activity for enrichment of GLA by selective hydrolysis of the borage oil (21.6 % of GLA/total fatty acids). Firstly, 352 microrganisms were tested for their lipolytic capacity using screening techniques on agar plates containing borage oil, strains were then selected and screened for their activity (U/mg) using both submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid state fermentation (SSF). The rate of hydrolysis and the selective preference of these hydrolytic enzymes towards fatty acids, with a special focus on enrichment of GLA were studied and compared with those obtained by two commercially-available lipases. Only one of the lipases tested during this study displayed selectivity, discriminating the GLA during the hydrolysis reaction. Using the enzymatic extract from Geotrichum candidum as a biocatalyst of the reaction, it was possible to obtain a percentage of 41.7% of GLA in acylglycerols fraction when the borage oil was treated in a fixed-bed reactor for 24 hours at 30ºC.

  3. PPARgamma agonism increases rat adipose tissue lipolysis, expression of glyceride lipases, and the response of lipolysis to hormonal control.

    Festuccia, W T; Laplante, M; Berthiaume, M; Gélinas, Y; Deshaies, Y


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanisms of action of in vivo peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) activation on white adipose tissue (WAT) lipolysis and NEFA metabolism. Study rats were treated for 7 days with 15 mg/kg of rosiglitazone per day; control rats were not treated. After a 6-h fast, lipolysis and levels of mRNA for lipases were assessed in explants from various adipose depots. Rosiglitazone markedly increased basal and noradrenaline (norepinephrine)-stimulated glycerol and NEFA release from WAT explants, and amplified their inhibition by insulin. Primary adipocytes isolated from PPARgamma agonist-treated rats were also more responsive to noradrenaline stimulation expressed per cell, ruling out a contribution of an altered number of mature adipocytes in explants. Rosiglitazone concomitantly increased levels of mRNA transcripts for adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and monoglyceride lipase (MGL) in subcutaneous and visceral WAT, and mRNA for hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in subcutaneous WAT. Lipase expression increased within 12 h of in vitro exposure of naïve explants to rosiglitazone, suggesting direct transcriptional activation. In parallel, chronic in vivo treatment with rosiglitazone lowered plasma NEFAs and in WAT its expected stimulatory action on glycerol and NEFA recycling, and on the expression of genes involved in NEFA uptake and retention by WAT, such processes counteracting net NEFA export. These findings demonstrate that, in the face of its plasma NEFA-lowering action, PPARgamma agonism stimulates WAT lipolysis, an effect that is compensated by lipid-retaining pathways. The results further suggest that PPARgamma agonism stimulates lipolysis by increasing the lipolytic potential, including the expression levels of the genes encoding adipose triglyceride lipase and monoglyceride lipase.

  4. Adipose TriGlyceride Lipase (ATGL) and Hormone-Sensitive Lipase (HSL) protein expression is decreased in the obese insulin resistant state

    Jocken, J.W.; Langin, D.; Smit, E.; Saris, W.H.; Valle, C.; Hul, G.B.J.; Holm, C.; Arner, P.; Blaak, E.E.


    Aim/hypothesis: Obesity is associated with increased triacylglycerol (TAG) storage in adipose tissue and insulin resistance. The mobilization of stored TAG is mediated by HSL and the recently discovered ATGL. The aim of the present study was to examine whether ATGL and HSL mRNA and protein expressio

  5. Metabolic engineering of oilseed crops to produce high levels of novel acetyl glyceride oils with reduced viscosity, freezing point and calorific value.

    Liu, Jinjie; Rice, Adam; McGlew, Kathleen; Shaw, Vincent; Park, Hyunwoo; Clemente, Tom; Pollard, Mike; Ohlrogge, John; Durrett, Timothy P


    Seed oils have proved recalcitrant to modification for the production of industrially useful lipids. Here, we demonstrate the successful metabolic engineering and subsequent field production of an oilseed crop with the highest accumulation of unusual oil achieved so far in transgenic plants. Previously, expression of the Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) gene in wild-type Arabidopsis seeds resulted in the accumulation of 45 mol% of unusual 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols (acetyl-TAGs) in the seed oil (Durrett et al., 2010 PNAS 107:9464). Expression of EaDAcT in dgat1 mutants compromised in their ability to synthesize regular triacylglycerols increased acetyl-TAGs to 65 mol%. Camelina and soybean transformed with the EaDAcT gene accumulate acetyl-triacylglycerols (acetyl-TAGs) at up to 70 mol% of seed oil. A similar strategy of coexpression of EaDAcT together with RNAi suppression of DGAT1 increased acetyl-TAG levels to up to 85 mol% in field-grown transgenic Camelina. Additionally, total moles of triacylglycerol (TAG) per seed increased 20%. Analysis of the acetyl-TAG fraction revealed a twofold reduction in very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA), consistent with their displacement from the sn-3 position by acetate. Seed germination remained high, and seedlings were able to metabolize the stored acetyl-TAGs as rapidly as regular triacylglycerols. Viscosity, freezing point and caloric content of the Camelina acetyl-TAG oils were reduced, enabling use of this oil in several nonfood and food applications.

  6. Research on synthesizing carbonic acid glyceride by enzymatic catalyzation%酶催化合成碳酸甘油酯的研究

    胡婉男; 夏咏梅; 李薇



  7. Investigation of endogenous blood plasma phospholipids, cholesterol and glycerides that contribute to matrix effects in bioanalysis by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Ismaiel, Omnia A; Zhang, Tianyi; Jenkins, Rand G; Karnes, H Thomas


    Matrix effects caused by compounds endogenous to the biological sample are a primary challenge in quantitative LC/MS/MS bioanalysis. Many approaches have been developed to minimize matrix effects such as optimization of sample extraction procedures and use of isotopically labeled internal standards. Unexpected matrix components may still remain undetected, however, because of the selective mass transitions monitored during MS/MS analysis. Glycerophosphocholines are the major phospholipids in plasma that have been widely shown to cause significant matrix effects on electrospray ionization efficiencies for target analytes. The purpose of this work was to investigate potential matrix effects resulting from different endogenous lipid classes, including phospholipids, acylglycerols and cholesterols, in order to establish a library for the relative presence of these components in biological sample extracts obtained by commonly used sample preparation techniques. Thirteen compounds were selected which were representatives of eight phospholipids classes, mono, di, triacylglycerols, cholesterol and cholesterol esters. Post-column infusion experiments were carried out to compare relative ion suppression effects of these compounds. Chlorpheniramine and loratadine were selected as model test analytes. A Concentration Normalized Suppression Factor (%CNSF) was defined to allow comparison of ion suppression effects resulting from different endogenous lipids according to their typical concentrations in human plasma and erythrocytes. A simple LC/MS/MS method was developed to monitor these endogenous components in sample extracts and their extraction recoveries from a plasma pool were compared using protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, supported-liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and Hybrid SPE-precipitation methods. Endogenous lipid components other than GPChos, such as cholesterols and triacylglycerols, may result in significant matrix effects and should be monitored during method development. No single extraction procedure was efficient in removing all of the various lipid components. Use of the results presented here, along with a consideration of analyte chemical structure, the type of matrix and the type of sample preparation procedure, may help a bioanalytical scientist to better anticipate and minimize matrix effects in developing LC/MS/MS-based methods.

  8. Preparation of rosin-glyceride-coated fertilizer and study on its slow release property%松香甘油酯包膜肥料的制备及缓释性研究

    曹振恒; 王亚明; 郭会仙; 唐辉



  9. 液-质联机分析牛脂甘油酯组成及结构%Analysis of Structure and Composition of Glycerides of Tallow by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

    曾慧英; 公敬欣; 杨峥; 张玲; 都荣强; 谢建春; 孙宝国



  10. Comparison of degradation activities of glyceride and fatty acids of five separated yeast strains%五株分离酵母菌的甘油酯和脂肪酸降解活性比较

    韩云; 张昱; 杨清香; 杨敏; 吕文洲


    比较了5株从环境中筛选得到的酵母菌[博伊丁假丝酵母(Candida boidinii Ramirez热带假丝酵母(Candida tropicalis),深红酵母(Rhodotorula rubra),产朊假丝酵母(Candida utilis),皮状丝孢酵母(Trichosporon Cutaneum)]对甘油酯和脂肪酸的降解活性.其中皮状丝孢酵母对甘油酯具有较高的降解活性,在7d的时间里对以甘油酯为主要成分的豆油去除率为47%;所有菌株均具有较高的脂肪酸降解活性,在1d的时间里对以脂肪酸为主要成分的色拉油加工废水的油去除率达50%~90%.5株酵母菌混合培养后对色拉油加工废水的油比降解速率明显提高,是单株菌的4~8倍.色拉油加工废水油去除率的进一步提高在于强化复合微生物体系中的甘油酯降解.

  11. Enrichment of EPA and DHA Glyceride from Trash Fish Oil by Lipase-Catalyzed Hydrolysis%脂肪酶水解低值鱼油富集EPA和DHA甘油酯的研究

    刘书成; 章超桦; 谢燕; 洪鹏志; 吉宏武; 郝记明; 张静


    以从南海盛产低值鱼蛇鲻中提取的鱼油为原料,采用脂肪酶选择性水解法富集鱼油中EPA和DHA,研究结果表明在pH 7的缓冲溶液反应体系中,按照水油质量比4:1加入鱼油,脂肪酶OF添加量为1%,然后充氮气密封,在40℃的恒温水浴中震荡反应16 h后,鱼油中的EPA和DHA总含量达到了34.1%;水解后鱼油的组分主要以甘油二酯为主,含量为63.3%;其次是甘油三酯和甘油一酯,含量分别为34.3%和2.4%.

  12. 固定化脂肪酶选择性水解废弃鱼油富集DHA和EPA甘油酯%Enrichment of DHA and EPA glycerides by selective hydrolysis of waste fish oil with immobilized Geotrichum sp. lipase

    李丽帆; 唐乾利; 蒋满洲; 蒋神州


    以鱼油下脚料为原料,以固定化Geotrichum sp.脂肪酶为催化剂,选择性水解粗鱼油,使目标脂肪酸EPA和DHA富集于甘油骨架上,显著提高了甘油酯中EPA和DHA的质量分数.通过单因素试验和响应面分析得出最佳水解条件:2 g粗鱼油,2.5 g水,221.3 U脂肪酶,30 ℃,反应11.7 h.最佳条件下的水解度为42.1%.EPA和DHA质量分数分别为7.8%和41.1%.经过二次水解后,水解度提高到45.9%,EPA和DHA质量分数分别提高到8.5%和42%.与初始鱼油相比,分别提高了2倍和2.2倍.

  13. 脂肪酶催化水解法浓缩鱼油DHA甘油酯的研究%Study on concentration of docosahexenoic acid in glyceride by hydrolysis of fish oil withlipases

    石红旗; 缪锦来; 李光友; 刘发义; 刘澄凡


    研究了脂肪酶催化水解法制备DHA甘油酯产品的工艺条件.比较了6种脂肪酶选择性水解鱼油的效果,以国产解脂假丝酵母(Candida lipalytica Lipase)脂肪酶为最佳.在选定脂肪酶的情况下,试验了反应温度、反应时间、酶用量、油水比、乳化剂种类等影响水解反应的主要因素,提出了鱼油水解的适宜条件为:脂肪酶用量300u@g-1油,乳化剂为Ca(OH)2,油水比为0.4mL@g-1油,45 C下搅拌12h.用本工艺制得的富含DHA的甘油酯产品中,DHA和EPA含量分别为34.0%和13.9%,总含量为47.9%.DHA甘油酯产品经高效液相色谱分离、红外光谱分析确证为甘油酯混合物,包括单甘油酯(MG),二甘油酯(DG)和三甘油酯(TG)3种形态.

  14. Selective concentration of PUFAs in glyceride from fish oil with immobilized lipase%固定化脂肪酶选择性富集鱼油ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸甘油酯

    郑毅; 郑楠; 吴松刚


    采用吸附与交联相结合的方法固定化米曲霉脂肪酶.脂肪酶固定化的参数条件:载体为硅藻土、吸附温度为25℃、吸附时间为6 h、Ph值为7.0 KH2PO4-NaOH缓冲液、缓冲液离子强度为0.03 mol·L-1、给酶量为900 U·(g硅藻土)-1、交联剂为0.5%戊二醛、交联的时间为1.5 h,所得固定化酶酶活力为247 U·(g载体)-1,蛋白载量为25 mg·(g硅藻土)-1,水解鱼油操作半衰期为264 h.固定化脂肪酶富集鱼油中ω-3多不饱和脂肪酸甘油酯的最适条件是:温度38 ℃、油水比为1:1、加酶量为150U·(g油)-1、反应转速为200 r·min-1、最佳富集时间为24 h.在此工艺条件下鱼油中EPA由3.0%提高到7.0%,DHA由4.3%提高到14.5%,EPA+DHA由7.3%提高到21.5%.


    郑毅; 郑楠; 卓进锋; 马霖霖



  16. Antioxidantive Effect Study of Tea Polyphenols Extracted by Mixed Glyceride on Refined Rape Oil%混甘酯萃取茶多酚对精炼菜油的抗氧化作用

    李龙; 高荫榆; 奚长生; 叶立杨



  17. Preparation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Glyceride in the Presence of Subcritical Water%亚临界水状态下制备共轭亚油酸甘油酯

    王雪; 李万振; 宋鹏; 刘鑫; 于殿宇



  18. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil.


    ... corn endosperm oil is a reddish-brown liquid composed chiefly of glycerides, fatty acids, sitosterols.... (b) Specifications. Corn endosperm oil conforms to the following specifications: Total fatty...

  19. Solid lipid particles for oral delivery of peptide and protein drugs III - the effect of fed state conditions on the in vitro release and degradation of desmopressin

    Christophersen, Philip C; Vaghela, Dimple; Müllertz, Anette;


    of oleic acid glycerides accelerated the release of desmopressin significantly from all solid lipid particles both in the presence and absence of lipase. The presence of oleic acid glycerides also reduced the degradation rate of desmopressin, probably due to the interactions between the lipids...

  20. Method of making alkyl esters

    Elliott, Brian


    Methods of making alkyl esters are described herein. The methods are capable of using raw, unprocessed, low-cost feedstocks and waste grease. Generally, the method involves converting a glyceride source to a fatty acid composition and esterifying the fatty acid composition to make alkyl esters. In an embodiment, a method of making alkyl esters comprises providing a glyceride source. The method further comprises converting the glyceride source to a fatty acid composition comprising free fatty acids and less than about 1% glyceride by mass. Moreover, the method comprises esterifying the fatty acid composition in the presence of a solid acid catalyst at a temperature ranging firm about C. to about C. to produce alkyl esters, such that at least 85% of the free fatty acids are converted to alkyl esters. The method also incorporates the use of packed bed reactors for glyceride conversion and/or fatty acid esterification to make alkyl esters.

  1. HPLC Fingerprint Comparison of Fatty Acid Glycerides between Ganoderma Lucidum Spore Oil Soft Capsule and Common Vegetable Oil%赤芝孢子油软胶囊与常见植物油所含植物脂肪酸甘油酯HPLC指纹图谱比较

    董昕; 王腾华; 褚晨亮; 李斯达; 高幼衡


    目的 建立赤芝孢子油软胶囊中植物脂肪酸甘油酯的HPLC-ELSD指纹图谱,并与植物油HPLC色谱图进行比较.方法 采用高效液相色谱-蒸发光散射检测法(HPLC-ELSD)测定14批赤芝孢子油软胶囊与7种植物油样品.色谱柱为Diamonsil C18柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm),流动相为乙腈-异丙醇(体积比为51∶49),流速:1.0mL·min-1,ELSD漂移管温度:47℃,载气流速:3.2 L·min-1.结果 建立了赤芝孢子油软胶囊中植物脂肪酸甘油酯的HPLC-ELSD指纹图谱,标定了10个共有色谱峰,采用对照品指认了其中4个峰.赤芝孢子油软胶囊HPLC-ELSD指纹图谱与植物油的液相色谱图存在明显的差异.结论 该方法简便、特异、重现性好,可为赤芝孢子油软胶囊的质量控制提供参考.

  2. Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids, phospholipid and glyce-ride on the anti-cancer activities and toxicities of 5-fluorouracil%精制鱼油、磷脂和脂肪酸甘油酯对5-氟尿嘧啶抗癌活性及毒性的影响

    曾红; 鲁晔; 袁继峰; 苏德森


    用精制鱼油、磷脂、脂肪酸甘油酯分别与5-氟尿嘧啶制成3种口服制剂:5-FU-PUFA、5-FU-P、5-FU-G,以小鼠肉瘤180(Sarcoma 180,S180)、艾氏实体瘤(Ehrlich carcinoma,ESC)为模型,进行抗癌活性研究,实验结果表明的抑瘤率较市售5-FU片剂提高10%,毒性显著降低(5-FU-PUFA和5-FU片刺的LD50分别为231.26mg@kg-1和104.29mg@kg-1);5-FU-P、5 FU-G的抑瘤率及毒性与5-FU片剂无显著差别.

  3. Role of membrane-bound enzymes in an early response of aleurone tissue to gibberellic acid

    Varner, J.E. (Washington Univ., St. Louis); Ben-Tal, Y.

    Treatment of aleurone layers of barley seed with gibberellic acid increases the observable phosphorylcholine glyceride transferase activity in a membrane fraction prepared from extracts of the aleurone cells. This gibberellic acid-dependent increase in glyceride transferase activity requires neither RNA synthesis nor protein synthesis. Membrane fractions prepared from mixtures of extracts of gibberellic acid-treated layers and control layers have a specific activity of glyceride transferase higher than expected on the basis of simple addition of the activities from the two sources. Therefore, some kind of activation is occurring. (auth)

  4. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  5. 21 CFR 310.545 - Drug products containing certain active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for certain uses.


    ...), anticholinergic, antihistamine, oral antitussive, or stimulant active ingredient. (7) Dandruff/seborrheic... Mono- and di-glycerides Niacinamide Organic vegetables Pancreatin Pantothenic acid Papain Papaya... blue Natural estrogenic hormone Niacinamide Nutmeg oil (oil of nutmeg) Oil of erigeron...

  6. Download this PDF file

    Dr. Parker


    Feb 12, 2014 ... Effects of some anti-diabetic plants on the hepatic marker enzymes ... During diabetes mellitus, the unstored fatty acids, abnormal storage of glycerides, together with increased lipolysis in insulin sensitive tissues, such as the.

  7. Methods of making alkyl esters

    Elliott, Brian


    A method comprising contacting an alcohol, a feed comprising one or more glycerides and equal to or greater than 2 wt % of one or more free fatty acids, and a solid acid catalyst, a nanostructured polymer catalyst, or a sulfated zirconia catalyst in one or more reactors, and recovering from the one or more reactors an effluent comprising equal to or greater than about 75 wt % alkyl ester and equal to or less than about 5 wt % glyceride.

  8. The studies of phase equilibria and efficiency assessment for self-emulsifying lipid-based formulations.

    Shahba, Ahmad Abdul-Wahhab; Mohsin, Kazi; Alanazi, Fars Kaed


    The study was designed to build up a database for the evaluation of the self-emulsifying lipid formulations performance. A standard assessment method was constructed to evaluate the self-emulsifying efficiency of the formulations based on five parameters including excipients miscibility, spontaneity, dispersibility, homogeneity, and physical appearance. Equilibrium phase studies were conducted to investigate the phase changes of the anhydrous formulation in response to aqueous dilution. Droplet size studies were carried out to assess the influence of lipid and surfactant portions on the resulted droplet size upon aqueous dilution. Formulations containing mixed glycerides showed enhanced self-emulsification with both lipophilic and hydrophilic surfactants. Increasing the polarity of the lipid portion in the formulation leaded to progressive water solubilization capacity. In addition, formulations containing medium chain mixed glycerides and hydrophilic surfactants showed lower droplet size compared with their long chain and lipophilic counterparts. The inclusion of mixed glycerides in the lipid formulations enormously enhances the formulation efficiency.

  9. A new approach to determine the stereospecificity in lipase catalysed hydrolysis using circular dichroism (CD): lipases produce optically active diglycerides from achiral triglycerides.

    Uzawa, H; Nishida, Y; Ohrui, H; Meguro, H


    We describe a sensitive CD method for determining the stereospecificity in lipase (E.C. catalysed hydrolysis of triacyl glycerols into diacyl glycerols. The diglycerols were converted to chiral tert-butyldimethylsilylated 1,2- or 2,3-di-O-benzoyl-sn-glycerol (5 or 5'), and their CD was measured. This approach showed for the first time that lipases produce optically active diacyl glycerides from achiral tripalmitin and tribenzoyl glyceride with a variable extent of enantioselectivity depending on the acyl groups and the enzymes.

  10. Formulation and characterization of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems containing monoacyl phosphatidylcholine

    Tran, Thuy; Xi, Xi; Rades, Thomas


    The study investigated the use of monoacyl phosphatidylcholine (MAPC) in self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS). A D-optimal design was used to generate two sets of formulations containing long-chain (LC) or medium-chain (MC) glycerides, caprylocaproyl macrogol-8 glycerides (Labrasol......Pas (35% LPC) at 25°C, however, this did not considerably prolong the formulation dispersion time. In conclusion, MC SNEDDS containing LPC are promising formulations when desiring to reduce the amount of synthetic surfactants and possibly modify the digestion rate....

  11. Modeling systems relevant to the biodiesel production using the CPA equation of state

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Ali, Shahid; Kontogeorgis, Georgios


    estimated by adjusting model predictions to recent DIPPR correlations and carefully selected literature data. Then, the performance of CPA was evaluated in correlating the vapor – liquid and liquid – liquid equilibrium of binary systems containing fatty acids and their esters, glycerides, water, alcohols...... and/or glycerol. Satisfactory correlation results were obtained using one (water-acids, alcohols/water - glycerol) or two (systems containing fatty acid esters with water, alcohols or glycerol and mixtures containing glycerides and alcohols) interaction parameters. Moreover, the interaction parameters...

  12. Oil content in seeds of the NPGS jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) germplasm collection

    Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis, (Link) Schneider is a shrub native to warm and arid land regions of North and Latin America. Its seeds contain vegetable oil composed of long (C20-22), straight-chain liquid wax of non-glyceride esters. Minute amounts of triglycerides in its composition make the oil a l...

  13. Antimicrobial lipids from the hemolymph of brachyuran crabs

    Ravichandran, S.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Rameshkumar, G.

    is due to the presence of lipids. This observation is further supported by the ESI-MS of the methanolic extract of hemolymph of H. araneus. ESI-MS shows cluster of peaks in the region m/z 445 to m/z 491 due to lysoglycerolipids/glycerides and cluster...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1415 - Animal lipase.


    ... defined in § 170.3(o)(9) of this chapter to hydrolyze fatty acid glycerides. (2) The ingredient is used in... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1415 Animal lipase. (a) Animal lipase (CAS Reg. No. 9001-62-1) is an enzyme... tissue. The enzyme preparation may be produced as a tissue preparation or as an aqueous extract. Its...

  15. Enzymatic pretreatment of low-grade oils for biodiesel production

    Nordblad, Mathias; Pedersen, Anders K.; Rancke-Madsen, Anders


    The alkaline process for making biodiesel (fatty acidmethyl esters, or FAME) is highly efficient at the transesterification of glycerides. However, its performance is poor when it comes to using oil that contain significant amounts of free fatty acids (FFA).The traditional approach to such feed s...

  16. Importance of release location on the mode of action of butyrate derivatives in the avian gastrointestinal tract

    Moquet, P.C.A.; Onrust, L.; Immerseel, Van F.; Ducatelle, R.; Hendriks, W.H.; Kwakkel, R.P.


    In the field of animal nutrition, butyrate is used as a zootechnical ingredient and can be used as an unprotected salt or in the form of protected derivatives such as butyrate glycerides or butyrate-loaded matrices. Dietary butyrate supplementation has been shown to improve growth performance and

  17. Comparison of the effect of monolaurin on the growth and survival of Enterococcus and Salmonella

    The effect of monolaurin, a glyceride ester derivative of lauric acid, on the growth of Enterococcus sp. and Salmonella sp. was determined. Salmonella is considered one of the main pathogens in poultry industry, and Enterococcus is an important indicator of fecal contamination and an important cause...

  18. Lipase specificity towards eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid depends on substrate structure.

    Lyberg, Ann-Marie; Adlercreutz, Patrick


    The fatty acid specificity of five lipases towards eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was evaluated in the hydrolysis of fish oil, squid oil and a model system. The model system contained methyl esters of EPA, DHA and palmitic acid. All the investigated lipases discriminated against both EPA and DHA more in the model system than in the natural oils. Thus both EPA and DHA were more easily hydrolysed from a glyceride than from a methyl ester. In the model system, the lipase from Candida rugosa showed the highest discrimination against DHA, while the lipases from Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas cepacia discriminated against EPA the most. In a glyceride, the fatty acid specificity of lipases towards EPA and DHA was affected by the positional distribution of the fatty acids and the glyceride structure due to the regiospecificity and triglyceride specificity of the lipase. In the oils, the Pseudomonas lipases also discriminated against EPA the most, while DHA was initially discriminated the most by the lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus. However, after longer reaction times the enrichment of DHA in the glyceride fraction of the oils was greatest for the lipase from C. rugosa.

  19. Biochemical characterization of a thermoactive and thermostable ...


    ... fatty acids; TAG, triacylglycerol; TC2, triacetin; TC3, tripropionin; TC4, tributyrin; GA, Gum Arabic ... In tanning, the skins are cleaned of an outer coating hair and dirt is removed; ..... monomolecular films of synthetic glycerides. J. Biochim. ... Activity and stability of a crude lipase from Penicilliumaurantiogriseum in aqueous.

  20. Enhanced Controlled Transdermal Delivery of Torasemide Using ...


    Purpose: To develop an ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) matrix system containing ... Methods: The solubility of torasemide was studied at various volume fraction of polyethylene glycol ... matrix across the skin, enhancers (propylene glycol derivatives, fatty acids, glycerides, pyrrolidones and ..... penetration enhancer is feasible.

  1. Effects of lipid-borne compounds on the activity and stability of lipases in micro-aqueous systems for lipase-catalyzed reaction

    Xu, Xuebing; Høy, Carl-Erik; Adler-Nissen, Jens


    In this paper, the effects of lipid-borne compounds such as lipid hydroperoxides, lipid polymers, phospholipids and emulsifiers, chlorophyll and carotenoids, tocopherols, citric acid, partial glycerides and free fatty acids on the activity and stability of lipases are discussed. Generally...

  2. Process for producing biodiesel, lubricants, and fuel and lubricant additives in a critical fluid medium

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Fox, Robert V.


    A process for producing alkyl esters useful in biofuels and lubricants by transesterifying glyceride- or esterifying free fatty acid-containing substances in a single critical phase medium is disclosed. The critical phase medium provides increased reaction rates, decreases the loss of catalyst or catalyst activity and improves the overall yield of desired product. The process involves the steps of dissolving an input glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substance with an alcohol or water into a critical fluid medium; reacting the glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substance with the alcohol or water input over either a solid or liquid acidic or basic catalyst and sequentially separating the products from each other and from the critical fluid medium, which critical fluid medium can then be recycled back in the process. The process significantly reduces the cost of producing additives or alternatives to automotive fuels and lubricants utilizing inexpensive glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substances, such as animal fats, vegetable oils, rendered fats, and restaurant grease.

  3. 21 CFR 172.818 - Oxystearin.


    ... additive is a mixture of the glycerides of partially oxidized stearic and other fatty acids obtained by... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION... specifications: Acid number: Maximum 15. Iodine number: Maximum 15. Saponification number: 225-240....



    (1.46-1.50 g %), total protein (6.99-7.19 g %), water soluble protein (2.98-3.11 g %), starch (5.51-. 5.85 g %) ... physico-chemical properties of rice bran oils and the nutritional compositions of rice brans ... was based on total glyceride applied.

  5. Saponification equivalent of dasamula taila.

    Saxena, R B


    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  6. Importance of release location on the mode of action of butyrate derivatives in the avian gastrointestinal tract

    Moquet, P.C.A.; Onrust, L.; Immerseel, Van F.; Ducatelle, R.; Hendriks, W.H.; Kwakkel, R.P.


    In the field of animal nutrition, butyrate is used as a zootechnical ingredient and can be used as an unprotected salt or in the form of protected derivatives such as butyrate glycerides or butyrate-loaded matrices. Dietary butyrate supplementation has been shown to improve growth performance and

  7. NMR analysis of oils from pine nuts ( Pinus sibirica) and seeds of common pine ( Pinus silvestris L.)

    Skakovskii, E. D.; Tychinskaya, L. Yu.; Gaidukevich, O. A.; Klyuev, A. Yu.; Kulakova, A. N.; Petlitskaya, N. M.; Rykove, S. V.


    We studied the fatty-acid composition of oils from pine nuts and seeds of common pine using PMR and 13C NMR and gas chromatography. We found that the main components of the glycerides are palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, γ-linolenic, pinolenic, and cis-9-eicosenoic acids. The oils contain about 2% sn-1,2-diacylglycerides in addition to triglycerides.

  8. Changes in intramuscular lipids during ripening of Iberian dry-cured ham.

    Martín, L; Córdoba, J J; Ventanas, J; Antequera, T


    Thirty-one thighs were obtained from Iberian pigs fattened with acorns and were processed during 22 months in the traditional dry-curing process. Lipolysis affecting intramuscular fat during the processing of Iberian dry-cured ham has been analyzed by studying the changes of glycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids in lipids from Biceps femoris muscle. Little change affected the fatty acid composition of glycerides during processing. A double-phased increase in the acidity values and a decrease in the quantity of fatty acids of phospholipids during the processing were observed. There seems to be a relationship between the extension of the lipolysis taking place during the maturing and the processing conditions and raw material used.

  9. Methods and catalysts for making biodiesel from the transesterification and esterification of unrefined oils

    Yan, Shuli [Detroit, MI; Salley, Steven O [Grosse Pointe Park, MI; Ng, K Y. Simon [West Bloomfield, MI


    A method of forming a biodiesel product and a heterogeneous catalyst system used to form said product that has a high tolerance for the presence of water and free fatty acids (FFA) in the oil feedstock is disclosed. This catalyst system may simultaneously catalyze both the esterification of FAA and the transesterification of triglycerides present in the oil feedstock. The catalyst system according to one aspect of the present disclosure represents a class of zinc and lanthanum oxide heterogeneous catalysts that include different ratios of zinc oxide to lanthanum oxides (Zn:La ratio) ranging from about 10:0 to 0:10. The Zn:La ratio in the catalyst is believed to have an effect on the number and reactivity of Lewis acid and base sites, as well as the transesterification of glycerides, the esterification of fatty acids, and the hydrolysis of glycerides and biodiesel.

  10. Characterization of crude glycerol from biodiesel plants.

    Hu, Shengjun; Luo, Xiaolan; Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo


    Characterization of crude glycerol is very important to its value-added conversion. In this study, the physical and chemical properties of five biodiesel-derived crude glycerol samples were determined. Three methods, including iodometric-periodic acid method, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography (GC), were shown to be suitable for the determination of glycerol content in crude glycerol. The compositional analysis of crude glycerol was successfully achieved by crude glycerol fractionation and characterization of the obtained fractions (aqueous and organic) using titrimetric, HPLC, and GC analyses. The aqueous fraction consisted mainly of glycerol, methanol, and water, while the organic fraction contained fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), free fatty acids (FFAs), and glycerides. Despite the wide variations in the proportion of their components, all raw crude glycerol samples were shown to contain glycerol, soap, methanol, FAMEs, water, glycerides, FFAs, and ash.

  11. The specificity of Several Kinds Lipases on n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Jenny Elisabeth, T Yuliani, P M Tambunan, J M Purba


    Full Text Available Several lipases from microbial and plant, i.e Rhizomucor miehei, Pseudomonas sp., Candida antartica, rice bran, and Carica papaya latex (CPL were examined for synthesis of omega-3 (n-3 PUFA-rich glyceride by hydrolysis and acidolysis reaction. Tuna oil was used in hydrolysis reaction, whereas tuna and palm oils were used as source of triglyceride (TAG molecules and n-3 PUFA concentrate from tuna oil as source of EPA and DHA in acidolysis reaction.For hydrolysis reaction, the rice bran and CPL lipases showed the lowest hydrolytic activity of the tuna oil, whereas the R. miehei lipase showed the highest hydrolytic activity but was unable to hydrolyze EPA and DHA. On the contrary, the C. antartica and Pseudomonas sp. lipases acted stronger on hydrolysis of DHA ester bond than EPA.For acidolysis reaction, all the lipases showed ability to incorporate n-3 PUFA into tuna and palm oils. C. antartica lipase had the maximum DHA incorporation into tuna and palm oils, rice bran lipase had relatively similar ability with R. miehei lipase, and the CPL lipase had the lowest ability. This study proved that rice bran and CPL lipases also had transesterification activity and showed the feasibility of the rice bran lipase to be a biocatalyst for n-3 PUFA-rich glyceride production. Increasing the substrate ratio, of n-3 PUFA concentrate and tuna or palm oil, could increase the EPA and DHA incorporation. The R. miehei, rice bran, and CPL lipases unabled to incorporate DHA into DHA-containing glyceride molecule, whereas C. antartica lipase had the capability in high ratio of n-3 PUFA concentrate to oil. Therefore, the lipases were easier to incorporate n-3 PUFA into palm oil than tuna oil, since the TAG molecules of palm oil was not as complex as tuna oil. It could be suggested that the lipases did not only have acyl chain and positional specificity, but also the whole glyceride structure specificity.

  12. Phytoconstituents from Vitex agnus-castus fruits

    Chen, Shao-Nong; Friesen, J. Brent; Webster, Donna; Nikolic, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B.; Wang, Z. Jim; Fong, Harry H.S.; Farnsworth, Norman R.; Pauli, Guido F.


    A new labdane-diterpene, viteagnusin I (1), together with 23 known phytoconstituents were isolated from the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L, and their structures characterized by spectroscopic method (NMR and MS). The known compounds include ten flavonoids, five terpenoids, three neolignans, and four phenolic compounds, as well as one glyceride. Biological evaluation identified apigenin, 3-methylkaempferol, luteolin, and casticin as weak ligands of delta and mu opioid receptors, exhibiting dose-dependent receptor binding. PMID:21163339

  13. Surface Polar Lipids Differ in Male and Female Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae)


    range pheromones involved in courtship, and they will be further analyzed in future behavioral bioassays. KEY WORDS high resolution mass spectrometry...ARS, Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory (Kerrville, TX). The colony was estab- lished using pupae from a long-established...2012), and also as O-acetylated fatty acyl chains of glycerides in the oviposition pheromone of Culex mosquitos (Starratt and Osgood 1972, 1973). Several

  14. Effect of methanolic leaf extract of Talinum triangulare (Jacq. willd. on biochemical parameters in diet induced dyslipidemia wistar rats

    Olubukola Sinbad Olorunnisola


    Abbreviation used: Lipid peroxidation (MDA, (catalase (CAT, glutathione–S-transferase (GST, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione (GSH, Thrombocytes indices (PLT, Red blood cell (RBC, Packed cell volume (PVC, Mean corpuscular hemoglobin(MCH, Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, Total glyceride (TG, Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, Total cholesterol (TC, Low density lipoprotein (LDL, High density lipoprotein (HDL and 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase(HMG-CoA.

  15. Preparation of a crosslinked bioimprinted lipase for enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish processing waste.

    Yan, Jinyong; Li, Lifan; Tang, Qianli; Jiang, Manzhou; Jiang, Shenzhou


    Geotrichum sp. lipase modified with a combined method composed of crosslinking and bioimprinting was employed to selectively hydrolyze waste fish oil for enrichment of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in glycerides. Crosslinked polymerization by monomer (polyethylene glycol 400 dimethyl acrylate), crosslinker (trimethylolpropane trimethylacrylate), and photoinitiator (benzoin methyl ether) coupled to bioimprinting using palmitic acid as imprint molecule, resulted in much more effective enzyme preparation used in aqueous hydrolysis reaction. Since the crosslinked polymerization modification maintained bioimprinted property and gave good dispersion of enzyme in reaction mixture, the crosslinked bioimprinted enzyme exhibited higher hydrolysis temperature, enhanced specific activity, shorter hydrolysis time, and better operational stability compared to free lipase. Crude fish oil was treated at 45 degrees C with this crosslinked bioimprinted lipase for 8 h, and 46% hydrolysis degree resulted in the production of glycerides containing 41% of EPA and DHA (EPA+DHA), achieving 85.7% recovery of initial EPA and DHA. The results suggested that bioimprinted enzymes did not lose their induced property in aqueous environment when prepared according to the described crosslinking-bioimprinting method. It could also be seen that the crosslinked bioimprinted lipase was effective in producing glycerides that contained a higher concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acid with better yield.


    Rajesh Pandey et al


    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the impacts of high dietary fat on serum Total cholesterol and fatty liver syndrome in rats. Rats are fed on diets containing cholesterol; they develop fatty livers which are characterized by the presence in the liver of excessive amounts of cholesteryl esters, and glyceride. Increasement of glyceride content depend on a number of factors, such as the dietary contents of choline, While the nature of the "cholesterol" fatty liver and the effects on its composition of a number of dietary and other factors. In the present paper, we investigated the quantitative changes which occur in the "cholesterol" fatty liver, as a result of variations in the fat content of the diet, with particular reference to the deposition of cholesterol and of glyceride on diets of constant cholesterol content. Investigation was conducted on 90 day old Wister rats. It was observed that the serum TC values in rats of groups B and C were higher than control group. Furthermore, the serum TC and TG value was higher in rats of group C than group B. Grossly, the livers of rats of groups B and C were enlarged, pale in colour, soft in consistency and were having petechial haemorrhages with fat and fibrin deposits. Histopathologically, livers of groups B and C showed fatty infiltration, haemorrhages and mass of eosinophilic materials. The vacuoles coalesced to create clear space that displaced the nucleus to the periphery of the cell. The results suggested that addition of dietary fat from animal and vegetable sources in the diet of rats not only resulted in increase in serum TC and TG but also in marked macroscopic and microscopic changes in vital organ liver.

  17. Determination of free fatty acids and triglycerides by gas chromatography using selective esterification reactions.

    Kail, Brian W; Link, Dirk D; Morreale, Bryan D


    A method for selectively determining both free fatty acids (FFA) and triacylglycerides (TAGs) in biological oils was investigated and optimized using gas chromatography after esterification of the target species to their corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). The method used acid catalyzed esterification in methanolic solutions under conditions of varying severity to achieve complete conversion of more reactive FFAs while preserving the concentration of TAGs. Complete conversion of both free acids and glycerides to corresponding FAMEs was found to require more rigorous reaction conditions involving heating to 120°C for up to 2 h. Method validation was provided using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method improves on existing methods because it allows the total esterified lipid to be broken down by FAMEs contributed by FFA compared to FAMEs from both FFA and TAGs. Single and mixed-component solutions of pure fatty acids and triglycerides, as well as a sesame oil sample to simulate a complex biological oil, were used to optimize the methodologies. Key parameters that were investigated included: HCl-to-oil ratio, temperature and reaction time. Pure free fatty acids were found to esterify under reasonably mild conditions (10 min at 50°C with a 2.1:1 HCl to fatty acid ratio) with 97.6 ± 2.3% recovery as FAMEs, while triglycerides were largely unaffected under these reaction conditions. The optimized protocol demonstrated that it is possible to use esterification reactions to selectively determine the free acid content, total lipid content, and hence, glyceride content in biological oils. This protocol also allows gas chromatography analysis of FAMEs as a more ideal analyte than glyceride species in their native state.

  18. Colorimetric measurement of triglycerides cannot provide an accurate measure of stored fat content in Drosophila.

    Bader Al-Anzi

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster has recently emerged as a useful model system in which to study the genetic basis of regulation of fat storage. One of the most frequently used methods for evaluating the levels of stored fat (triglycerides in flies is a coupled colorimetric assay available as a kit from several manufacturers. This is an aqueous-based enzymatic assay that is normally used for measurement of mammalian serum triglycerides, which are present in soluble lipoprotein complexes. In this short communication, we show that coupled colorimetric assay kits cannot accurately measure stored triglycerides in Drosophila. First, they fail to give accurate readings when tested on insoluble triglyceride mixtures with compositions like that of stored fat, or on fat extracted from flies with organic solvents. This is probably due to an inability of the lipase used in the kits to efficiently cleave off the glycerol head group from fat molecules in insoluble samples. Second, the measured final products of the kits are quinoneimines, which absorb visible light in the same wavelength range as Drosophila eye pigments. Thus, when extracts from crushed flies are assayed, much of the measured signal is actually due to eye pigments. Finally, the lipoprotein lipases used in colorimetric assays also cleave non-fat glycerides. The glycerol backbones liberated from all classes of glycerides are measured through the remaining reactions in the assay. As a consequence, when these assay kits are used to evaluate tissue extracts, the observed signal actually represents the amount of free glycerols together with all types of glycerides. For these reasons, findings obtained through use of coupled colorimetric assays on Drosophila samples must be interpreted with caution. We also show here that using thin-layer chromatography to measure stored triglycerides in flies eliminates all of these problems.

  19. Determination of Free Fatty Acids and Triglycerides by Gas Chromatography Using Selective Esterification Reactions

    Kail, Brian W; Link, Dirk D; Morreale, Bryan D


    A method for selectively determining both free fatty acids (FFA) and triacylglycerides (TAGs) in biological oils was investigated and optimized using gas chromatography after esterification of the target species to their corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). The method used acid catalyzed esterification in methanolic solutions under conditions of varying severity to achieve complete conversion of more reactive FFAs while preserving the concentration of TAGs. Complete conversion of both free acids and glycerides to corresponding FAMEs was found to require more rigorous reaction conditions involving heating to 120°C for up to 2 h. Method validation was provided using gas chromatography–flame ionization detection, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. The method improves on existing methods because it allows the total esterified lipid to be broken down by FAMEs contributed by FFA compared to FAMEs from both FFA and TAGs. Single and mixed-component solutions of pure fatty acids and triglycerides, as well as a sesame oil sample to simulate a complex biological oil, were used to optimize the methodologies. Key parameters that were investigated included: HCl-to-oil ratio, temperature and reaction time. Pure free fatty acids were found to esterify under reasonably mild conditions (10 min at 50°C with a 2.1:1 HCl to fatty acid ratio) with 97.6 ± 2.3% recovery as FAMEs, while triglycerides were largely unaffected under these reaction conditions. The optimized protocol demonstrated that it is possible to use esterification reactions to selectively determine the free acid content, total lipid content, and hence, glyceride content in biological oils. This protocol also allows gas chromatography analysis of FAMEs as a more ideal analyte than glyceride species in their native state.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of triglyceride based thermosetting polymers

    Can, Erde


    Plant oils, which are found in abundance in all parts of the world and are easily replenished annually, have the potential to replace petroleum as a chemical feedstock for making polymers. Within the past few years, there has been growing interest to use triglycerides as the basic constituent of thermosetting polymers with the necessary rigidity, strength and glass transition temperatures required for engineering applications. Plant oils are not polymerizable in their natural form, however various functional groups that can polymerize can easily be attached to the triglyceride structure making them ideal cross-linking monomers for thermosetting liquid molding resins. Through this research project a number of thermosetting liquid molding resins based on soybean and castor oil, which is a specialty oil with hydroxyls on its fatty acids, have been developed. The triglyceride based monomers were prepared via the malination of the alcoholysis products of soybean and castor oil with various polyols, such as pentaerythritol, glycerol, and Bisphenol A propoxylate. The malinated glycerides were then cured in the presence of a reactive diluent, such as styrene, to form rigid glassy materials with a wide range of properties. In addition to maleate half-esters, methacrylates were also introduced to the glyceride structure via methacrylation of the soybean oil glycerolysis product with methacrylic anhydride. This product, which contains methacrylic acid as by-product, and its blends with styrene also gave rigid materials when cured. The triglyceride based monomers were characterized via conventional spectroscopic techniques. Time resolved FTIR analysis was used to determine the curing kinetics and the final conversions of polymerization of the malinated glyceride-styrene blends. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was used to determine the thermomechanical behavior of these polymers and other mechanical properties were determined via standard mechanical tests. The use of lignin

  1. Study on the lubrication properties of biodiesel as fuel lubricity enhancers

    Jianbo Hu; Zexue Du; Changxiu Li; Enze Min [Research Institute of Petroleum Processing, SINOPEC, Beijing (China)


    Unrefined biodiesels containing small quantities of monoglycerides, diglycerides, and triglycerides, and refined biodiesels not containing these glycerides were added to diesel fuel and the resulting lubricity was measured using the High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) method. The unrefined biodiesels showed higher lubricity properties than refined biodiesels. The chemical factors influencing the lubricity properties of biodiesels were investigated. Methyl esters and monoglycerides are the main compositions that determine the lubricity of biodiesels that meet international standards. Free fatty acids and diglycerides can also affect the lubricity of biodiesel, but not so much as monoglycerides. Triglycerides almost have no effects on the lubricity of biodiesel. 18 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.


    Zh. V. Kadolich


    Full Text Available The method of thermally activated current spectroscopy was used for identification of two popular types of palm oils. The spectrum of thermally stimulated currents represents sufficiently intensive (up to 10-11 А current peaks conditioned by differences in fatty-acid composition of oils. Introduction of representation on unstable associates, in which coordination bonds connect molecules of fat acid’s glycerides, allow interpret the experimental data about the current response at oil specimens heating. The current’s peaks location in a certain temperature range of TSC spectrum can be considered as an identify feature of investigated vegetable oils. 

  3. Safety Assessment of PEGylated oils as used in cosmetics.

    Burnett, Christina L; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan


    PEGylated oil is a terminology used to describe cosmetic ingredients that are the etherification and esterification products of glycerides and fatty acids with ethylene oxide. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) considered the safety of PEGylated oils, which function primarily as surfactants in cosmetic products. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data provided in this safety assessment and concluded that the 130 chemically related PEGylated oils were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating.

  4. Phenylpropanoid Glycosides from the Leaves of Ananas comosus.

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Huang, Xiao-Juan; Shu, Huo-Ming; Hui, Yang; Guo, Fei-Yan; Song, Xiao-Ping; Ji, Ming-Hui; Chen, Guang-Ying


    Two new phenylpropanoid glycosides, named β-D-(1-O-acetyl-3,6-O-diferuloyl) fructofuranosyl β-D-6'-O-acetylglucopyranoside (1) and β-D-(1-O-acetyl-3,6-O-diferuloyl) fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside (2), along with two known analogues (3-4) and four glycerides (5-8), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the leaves of Ananas comosus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses, as well as HR-ESI-MS experiments. Compounds 1-4 showed significant antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

  5. Monobutyrine: a novel feed additive in the diet of broiler chickens

    Stefano Rapaccini

    Full Text Available Purpose of the present work was to validate the monoglyceride of butyric acid (MB as an alternative to antibiotics as growth promoters in the diet of broiler chickens. The approach is a kind of prolongation of previous works, in which a blend of mono-, di- and tri-glycerides of butyric acid have been previously tested.The results indicated that MB was very efficient in limiting the mortality of birds challenged with Eimeria spp., but did not appreciably impair the performance of unchallenged birds. In conclusion, the metabolisable energy content of MB appeared comparable with that of soybean oil and MB a reliable coccidiostat.

  6. Chromatographic isolation and spectroscopic identification of phytoconstituents of jujuba seeds (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.

    Md Manowwar Alam


    Full Text Available Background: The seeds of Zizyphus jujuba Mill. (Rhamnaceae are astringent, aphrodisiac, tonic; used to cure cough, asthma, vomiting, burning sensation, biliousness, leucorrhoea, and eye infections in traditional systems of medicine. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract of seeds of Z. jujuba was partitioned into petroleum ether and water soluble fractions. Isolation of compounds was performed by silica gel column chromatography. The structures of isolated compounds were established on the basis of spectral studies and chemical reactions. Results: Chromatographic separation of methanolic extract of seeds yielded three new phyto-constituents characterized as 3, 5, 7-trimethoxy-8, 3′, 4′, 5′-tetrahydroxy flavone-6-oxy hexahydrobisabolene ether (4, 1, 9-dihydroxy tetrahydrogeranyl-8-oxy-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (5 and terahydrogeranyl-8-oxy-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl (2a→1b-O-β-D-glucofuranosyl (2b→1c-O-β-D-glucofuranosyl (2c→1d-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (2d→1e-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (2c→f-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2f-benzoate (6 along with five known compounds, palmitoyl palmitoleoyl arachidoyl glyceride (1, tetratriacontenoic acid (2, palmitoyl oleoyl linolenoyl glyceride (3, hexanyl tetraglucoside (7 and pentasaccharide (8. Conclusion: This is the first report of saturated monoterpene and sesquiterpene derivatives from jujuba seeds.

  7. Fuel properties and precipitate formation at low temperature in soy-, cottonseed-, and poultry fat-based biodiesel blends

    Haiying Tang; Steven O. Salley; K.Y. Simon Ng [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science


    The formation of precipitates in biodiesel blends may have serious implications for diesel engine fuel delivery systems. Precipitates were observed in Soybean oil (SBO-), cottonseed oil (CSO-), and poultry fat (PF-) based biodiesel blends after storage at 4{sup o}C. CSO- and PF-based biodiesel had a lower mass of precipitates observed than the SBO-based. Moreover, different rates of precipitate formation were observed for the B20 versus the B100. These suggested that the formation of precipitate during cold temperature storage was dependent on the feedstock and blend concentration. The solvency effects of biodiesel blends were more pronounced at low temperature than at room temperature leading to a higher amount of precipitates formed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) chromatograms indicated that steryl glucosides are the major cause of precipitate formation in SBO-based biodiesel; while for PF-based biodiesel, the precipitates are due to mono-glycerides. However, the precipitates from CSO-based biodiesel are due to both steryl glucosides and mono-glycerides. 45 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Terminalia belerica Roxb. seed oil: a potential biodiesel resource.

    Sarin, Rakesh; Sharma, Meeta; Khan, Arif Ali


    Terminalia belerica seeds, collected from Indian forests, were explored as an alternate bioresource for biodiesel synthesis. The oil yield of T. belerica seed is about 31% (dry weight basis). The fatty acid profile of T. belerica seed oil shows predominance of oleic acid (C(18:1)) glycerides (61.5%) along with linoleic (18.5%) and palmitic (11.6%) glycerides. Oil was extracted and evaluated for physico-chemical properties vis-a-vis jatropha, sunflower, soybean and rapeseed oil. T. belerica oil was transesterified with methanol in the presence of sodium methoxide catalyst. The physico-chemical properties of synthesized methyl ester were compared to jatropha, sunflower, soybean and rapeseed methyl esters as per ASTM D-6751 specification of biodiesel. Synthesized T. belerica methyl ester was also blended in diesel at 5-20% ratios and evaluated for key physico-chemical properties as per IS 1460 specification and found to meet in properties evaluated as per specific standards. The study revealed the possibility of T. belerica seed oil as potential resource of biodiesel.

  9. Wax-matrix tablet for time-dependent colon-specific delivery system of sophora flavescens Aiton: preparation and in vivo evaluation.

    Zou, Meijuan; Wang, Yue; Xu, Caihong; Cheng, Gang; Ren, Jungang; Wu, Gaolei


    A wax-matrix time-dependent colon-specific tablet (WM-TDCS) was studied. Wax-matrix tablet core consisting of semi-synthetic glycerides, as a wax polymeric expanding agent, carboxymethyl starch sodium (CMS-Na), and NaCl was prepared, and Sophora flavescens Aiton (ASF, extracts of traditional Chinese medicine) was used as model drug. The wax-matrix ASF tablets core was coated with Eudragit NE 30 D as the inner coating materials and with Opadry OY-P-7171 as the outer coating materials. The in vitro release behaviors of the coated tablets were examined and then in vivo absorption kinetics of the coated tablets in dogs was further investigated. The volume of the tablet core was markedly increased at 37 degrees C because of the expand effect of polymer semi-synthetic glycerides and CMS-Na. The drug release from WM-TDCS was more stable than TDCS in vitro and in vivo. The lag time of ASF release was also controlled by the thickness of the inner coating layer. In vivo evaluation demonstrated that in vivo lag time of absorption was in a good agreement with in vitro lag time of release. ASF wax-matrix tablets coated with Eudragit NE 30 D and Opadry OY-P-7171 using the regular coating technique could be designed to achieve a lag time of 3 h in the small intestinal tract.

  10. Algae Biofuels Collaborative Project: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-371

    French, R. J.


    The goal of this project is to advance biofuels research on algal feedstocks and NREL's role in the project is to explore novel liquid extraction methods, gasification and pyrolysis as means to produce fuels from algae. To that end several different extraction methods were evaluated and numerous gasification and pyrolysis conditions were explored. It was found that mild hydrothermal treatment is a promising means to improve the extraction and conversion of lipids from algae over those produced by standard extraction methods. The algae were essentially found to gasify completely at a fairly low temperature of 750 degrees C in the presence of oxygen. Pyrolysis from 300-550 degrees C showed sequential release of phytene hydrocarbons, glycerides, and aromatics as temperature was increased. It appears that this has potential to release the glycerides from the non-fatty acid groups present in the polar lipids to produce a cleaner lipid. Further research is needed to quantify the pyrolysis and gasification yields, analyze the liquids produced and to test strategies for removing organic-nitrogen byproducts produced because of the high protein content of the feed. Possible strategies include use of high-lipid/low-protein algae or the use of catalytic pyrolysis.

  11. Transport of lipid nano-droplets through MDCK epithelial cell monolayer.

    Khatri, Pulkit; Shao, Jun


    This study aims to investigate the transport of lipid nano-droplets through MDCK epithelial cell monolayer. Nanoemulsions of self-nano-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) labeled with radioactive C18 triglyceride were developed. The effect of droplet size and lipid composition on the transport was investigated. The results showed that the lipid nano-droplet transport through MDCK cell monolayer was as high as 2.5%. The transport of lipid nano-droplets was higher for nanoemulsions of medium chain glycerides than the long chain glycerides. The transport was reduced by more than half when the average lipid nano-droplet size increased from 38nm to 261nm. The droplet size measurement verified the existence of lipid nano-droplets in the receiver chamber only when the nanoemulsions were added to the donor chamber but not when the surfactant or saline solution was added. Cryo-TEM images confirmed the presence of lipid nano-droplets in both donor and receiver chamber at the end of transport study. In conclusion, lipid nano-droplets can be transported through the cell monolayer. This finding may help to further explore the oral and other non-invasive delivery of macromolecules loaded inside SNEDDS.

  12. Composition of biologically active lipids of lamiaceae seed oils

    Antova, G. A.


    Full Text Available The content of glyceride oil, phospholipid, sterol and tocopherol composition of 7 species of fam. Lamiaceae seeds were investigated. 8.7-28.6 % of glyceride oil in the seeds were determined. The content of phospholipids in the oils was found to be 1.0-1.6 %. Phosphatidylcholine (35.5-63.1 %, phosphatidylinositol (19.1-30.2 % and phosphatidyl ethanolamine (5.8-21.6 % were the main components in the phospholipid fraction. In the sterol fraction (0.1-0.3 % total sterols in the oils 64.8-86.3 % are in free form and 13.7-35.2 % as sterol esters. β -Sitosterol predominates in all glyceride oils (48.8-87.9 %, followed by campesterol (1.5-22.5 % and stigmasterol (1.1-12.8 %. 6.3-649.7 mg/kg tocopherols were found, mainly α -tocopherol (48.5-99.9%.Se estudia el contenido en aceite, fosfolípidos, esteroles y tocoferol de semillas pertenecientes a 7 especies de la Familia Lamiaceae. Se encontraron valores comprendidos entre 8.7-28.6 % para los aceites en las semillas. El contenido en fosfolípidos para los aceites fue del 1.0-1.6 %. Los principales componentes de la fracción fosfolípido fueron: fosfatidilcolina (35.5-63.1 %, fosfatidilinositol (19.1-30.2 % y fosfatidiletanolamina (5.8-21.6 %. En la fracción de esteroles (0.1-0.3 % de esteroles totales en las muestras de aceites, 64.8-86.3 % estaban presentes en forma libre y 13.7-35.2 % como esteres de esteroles. El β -Sitosterol es el que predomina (48.8-87.9 %, seguido de campesterol (1.5-22.5 % y stigmasterol (1.1-12.8 %. Se encontró un contenido en tocoferoles de 6.3-649.7 mg/kg, principalmente α -tocopherol (48.5-99.9 %.

  13. Determination of the triglyceride composition of avocado oil by high-performance liquid chromatography using a light-scattering detector.

    Hierro, M T; Tomás, M C; Fernández-Martín, F; Santa-María, G


    The triglyceride composition of avocado oil was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography using a light-scattering detector. Two avocado varieties, Fuerte and Hass, were analysed, and the qualitative composition of each was found to be similar, though quantitative differences were detected. The triglyceride composition was predicted using a system of equations based on the relationship between log k' and the molecular variables equivalent carbon number, chain length and number of double bonds for each of the fatty acids in the glycerides. A total of 24 molecular species of triglycerides were identified. The chromatographic system used successfully separated the critical pairs OOO-LOS, PaPaO-LnPP and PaOO-LOP (O = olein; L = linolein; S = stearin; Pa = palmitolein; Ln = linolenin; P = palmitin). Detector response was found to have a linear relationship with the amount of sample injected over the injection range 10-70 micrograms.

  14. Conversion of polar and non-polar algae oil lipids to fatty acid methyl esters with solid acid catalysts--A model compound study.

    Asikainen, Martta; Munter, Tony; Linnekoski, Juha


    Bio-based fuels are becoming more and more important due to the depleting fossil resources. The production of biodiesel from algae oil is challenging compared to terrestrial vegetable oils, as algae oil consists of polar fatty acids, such as phospholipids and glycolipids, as well as non-polar triglycerides and free fatty acids common in vegetable oils. It is shown that a single sulphonated solid acid catalyst can perform the esterification and transesterification reactions of both polar and non-polar lipids. In mild reaction conditions (60-70 °C) Nafion NR50 catalyst produces methyl palmitate (FAME) from the palmitic acid derivatives of di-, and tri-glyceride, free fatty acid, and phospholipid with over 80% yields, with the glycolipid derivative giving nearly 40% yields of FAME. These results demonstrate how the polar and non-polar lipid derivatives of algal oil can be utilised as feedstocks for biodiesel production with a single catalyst in one reaction step.

  15. Biodiesel Production from Acidified Oils via Supercritical Methanol

    Jianxin Li


    Full Text Available In biodiesel production, the vegetable oil used as raw material for transesterification should be free of water and free fatty acids (FFAs, which may consume catalyst and reduce catalyst efficiency. In this work biodiesel was prepared from acidified oils (AO through a supercritical methanol route, in which the esterification of FFAs and transesterification of glyceride with methanol occurred simultaneously. The effects of the mass ratio of methanol to AO, the operation temperature as well as the water content on the FFAs conversion and glycerol yield were investigated. The results indicated that the FFAs conversion for esterification under the condition of 1:1 methanol/oil ratio, 310 °C and 15 min reaction time reached 98.7%, and the glycerol yield for transesterification under 0.25:1 methanol/oil ratio, 290 °C and 20 min reaction time reached 63.5% respectively.

  16. Secondary metabolites and insecticidal activity of Anemone pavonina.

    Varitimidis, Christos; Petrakis, Panos V; Vagias, Constantinos; Roussis, Vassilios


    The insecticidal properties of the crude extracts of the leaves and flowers of Anemone pavonina were evaluated on Pheidole pallidula ants and showed significant levels of activity. Bioassay-guided fractionations led to the isolation of the butenolide ranunculin (1) as the active principle. Chemical investigations of the extracts showed them to contain as major components the sitosterol glycopyranoside lipids 2-5 and the glycerides 6-8. The structures of the metabolites were elucidated, following acetylation and hydrolysis of the natural products, by interpretation of their NMR and mass spectral data. The uncommon lipid metabolites 2-8 were isolated for the first time from the genus Anemone and this is the first report of insecticidal activity of the Anemone metabolite ranunculin against ants.

  17. Cocoa pod husk: A new source of CLEA-lipase for preparation of low-cost biodiesel: An optimized process.

    Khanahmadi, Soofia; Yusof, Faridah; Chyuan Ong, Hwai; Amid, Azura; Shah, Harmen


    Enzymatic reactions involving lipases as catalyst in transesterification can be an excellent alternative to produce environmental-friendly biodiesel. In this study, lipase extracted from Cocoa Pod Husk (CPH) and immobilized through cross linked enzyme aggregate (CLEA) technology catalysed the transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil successfully. Face centered central composite design (FCCCD) under response surface methodology (RSM) was used to get the optimal conditions of 3% (w/w) enzyme loading, 4h reaction time and 1:6 oil/ethanol ratio to achieve the highest conversion of free fatty acid and glycerides into biodiesel (93%). The reusability of CLEA-lipase was tested and after seven cycles, the conversion percentage reduced to 58%. The results revealed that CLEA lipase from CPH is a potential catalyst for biodiesel production.

  18. A supercritical fluid-based coating technology. 2: solubility considerations.

    Ribeiro Dos Santos, I; Thies, C; Richard, J; Le Meurlay, D; Gajan, V; VandeVelde, V; Benoit, J-P


    Solubility measurements of candidate coating materials have been performed in supercritical (SC) CO(2) so as to select appropriate coating materials for implementation of a solvent-free coating process previously described. Solubility of lipidic compounds such as waxes (paraffin, beeswax, Carnauba wax), pure triglycerides (tricaprin, trimyristin, tripalmitin, tristearin) and mixture of glycerides and fatty acid esters (Gelucire) in SC CO(2) were evaluated in a static mode under different temperature and pressure conditions, ranging from 13-52 degrees C and from 50-220 bar, whether the CO(2)was in its liquid or SC state. It was shown that the compounds which are mixtures of various components give rise to a selective extraction of the lower melting point components, as evidenced from thermal analysis of soluble and insoluble fractions of the coating materials.

  19. Attractancy toOryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), saw-toothed grain beetle, of extracts of carobs, some triglycerides, and related compounds.

    O'Donnell, M J; Chambers, J; McFarland, S M


    A laboratory method has been devised for testing the attractancy of vapors to adultOryzaephilus surinamensis (L.). Of four solvent extracts prepared from pods of the carob tree [Ceratonia siliqua (L.)], all attractedO. surinamensis, but the least polar extract was the most active. Subdivision of extracts yielded a series of fractions, the most attractive of which contained a mixture of triglycerides with three or more double bonds per molecule. Twelve authentic triglycerides, either synthesized or purchased, elicited responses ranging from high to very low attractancy in a way which appeared to be related to the number, position, and geometrical shape of the double bonds in the molecules. By studying the response of the insects to five glyceride acids, three aldehydes, and three volatile fatty acids, it has been shown that it may be possible to explain the attractancy attributed to the triglycerides, which are involatile, in terms of the response to their volatile breakdown products.

  20. 布洛芬固体脂质微颗粒的制备及其晶体构型研究%Preparation and Crystal Modification of Ibuprofen-Loaded Solid Lipid Microparticles

    龙春霞; 章莉娟; 钱宇


    An emulsion-congealing technique is used to prepare solid lipid microparticles (SLM) containing ibuprofen with glyceryl behenate, tripalmitin and beewax as excipients. The difference of the solubility parameters between the excipients and ibuprofen are used to analyze their compatibility. Both the solubility parameter analysis and the experimental results show that glyceryl behenate is the best among the three excipients. The solid particles disperse well in aqueous phase when the drug loading reaches 10% (relative to lipid only). Glycerides exhibit marked polymorphism and their rapid rates of crystallization accelerate the formation of metastable crystal modification. The metastable crystal modification characterizes high drug loading capacity but less stability. Increasing the content of lipophilic drug in a lipid matrix facilitates the transformation of excipients to more stable polymorphic forms.

  1. Enzymatic transesterification of waste vegetable oil to produce biodiesel.

    Lopresto, C G; Naccarato, S; Albo, L; De Paola, M G; Chakraborty, S; Curcio, S; Calabrò, V


    An experimental study on enzymatic transesterification was performed to produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was covalently immobilized on a epoxy-acrylic resin support. The immobilized enzyme exhibited high catalytic specific surface and allowed an easy recovery, regeneration and reutilisation of biocatalyst. Waste vegetable oils - such as frying oils, considered not competitive with food applications and wastes to be treated - were used as a source of glycerides. Ethanol was used as a short chain alcohol and was added in three steps with the aim to reduce its inhibitory effect on lipase activity. The effect of biocatalyst/substrate feed mass ratios and the waste oil quality have been investigated in order to estimate the process performances. Biocatalyst recovery and reuse have been also studied with the aim to verify the stability of the biocatalyst for its application in industrial scale.

  2. A novel process for low-sulfur biodiesel production from scum waste.

    Ma, Huan; Addy, Min M; Anderson, Erik; Liu, Weiwei; Liu, Yuhuan; Nie, Yong; Chen, Paul; Cheng, Beijiu; Lei, Hanwu; Ruan, Roger


    Scum is an oil-rich waste from the wastewater treatment plants with a high-sulfur level. In this work, a novel process was developed to convert scum to high quality and low sulfur content biodiesel. A combination of solvent extraction and acid washing as pretreatment was developed to lower the sulfur content in the scum feedstock and hence improve biodiesel conversion yield and quality. Glycerin esterification was then employed to convert free fatty acids to glycerides. Moreover, a new distillation process integrating the traditional reflux distillation and adsorptive desulfurization was developed to further remove sulfur from the crude biodiesel. As a result, 70% of the filtered and dried scum was converted to biodiesel with sulfur content lower than 15ppm. The fatty acid methyl ester profiles showed that the refined biodiesel from the new process exhibited a higher quality and better properties than that from traditional process reported in previous studies.

  3. Nutritive Evaluation of Edible Trash Fish. III: Medicinal and Commercial Use of Lipids of Trash Fish

    Yasmeen Akhter


    Full Text Available The trash fish has great economic importance with reference to lipids. The total lipids was extracted by soxhelet extraction method and is further analyzed for cholesterol phospholipid and glyceride. Recent research shows the utilization of lipids (fatty acids obtained from trash in different medicinal and commercial purposes. Results were explained in relation with utilization of trash fish oil, which caught during fishing. It was observed that lipids contain vitamin A, C, D and E which depend upon the fish species. Fatty acids from the fish also used in manufacturing of soap, fungicides and insecticides. Pharmaceuticals for coronary diseases and heat resistant paints. This investigation may be beneficial in utilization of trash.

  4. Biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalysts.

    Semwal, Surbhi; Arora, Ajay K; Badoni, Rajendra P; Tuli, Deepak K


    The production and use of biodiesel has seen a quantum jump in the recent past due to benefits associated with its ability to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG). There are large number of commercial plants producing biodiesel by transesterification of vegetable oils and fats based on base catalyzed (caustic) homogeneous transesterification of oils. However, homogeneous process needs steps of glycerol separation, washings, very stringent and extremely low limits of Na, K, glycerides and moisture limits in biodiesel. Heterogeneous catalyzed production of biodiesel has emerged as a preferred route as it is environmentally benign needs no water washing and product separation is much easier. The present report is review of the progress made in development of heterogeneous catalysts suitable for biodiesel production. This review shall help in selection of suitable catalysts and the optimum conditions for biodiesel production.

  5. Effects of Perilla Seed on Blood Lipid Regulation and Lipid Peroxidation of Coturnix coturnix with Hyperlipidemia%紫苏籽对高血脂鹌鹑血脂调节及脂质过氧化的影响

    谭健民; 陈眷华


    [Objective] Study on the effect of perilla seed on blood lipid regulation and psroxidation of Coturnix with hyperlipidemia.[Method] The high-lipid diet was fed to establish the high lipid model of Coturnix coturnix. The normal control group, high lipid model group, high dose of perilla seed group(2.5 g/kg), low dose of periUa seed group(0.83 g/kg) were designed to measure the contents of total cholesterol (TC), three acids glyceride (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprctein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutnse (SOD) activity. [Result] All the test groups could decrease TC,TG,LDL-C and MDA content and significantly increase the HDL-C content (p <0.01) and SOD activity(p <0.01) in serum. [Conclusion] Pcrilla seed has the blood lipid regulation and peroxidation function.

  6. Oxidative Stress Correlates (OSC) in Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    Gillani, Syed Wasif; Azeem, Eman; Siddiqui, Ammar; Mian, Rashid Iqbal; Poh, Vinci; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Baig, Mirza Rafiullah


    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a considerable systemic metabolic disorder to exhibit various metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, mainly hyperglycemia. Our study aims to evaluate oxidative stress markers in DM patients and to determine the clinical correlates affecting the investigational parameters. To evaluate oxidative stress, the following parameters were included: tri-glycerides(TG), total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL), oxidized LDL cholesterol(Ox LDL), superoxide dismutase(SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px) and plasminogen activator inhibitor(PAI) which were measured at single observation point. Patient clinical and demographic data were taken from registered medication profiles from the Outpatient Department. The diabetic subjects have significantly high measured values of endocrine(pdiabetic subjects. Elevated Ox-LDL, SOD and GSH-Px are associated with the diabetic patients. However, oxidative stress threshold values also showed high oxidative activity markers among controls. Clinical variables showed predictive information on oxidative activity among diabetes patients.

  7. Identification and characterization of phenolic compounds in hydromethanolic extracts of sorghum wholegrains by LC-ESI-MS(n).

    Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Ashton, John; Tapsell, Linda C; Johnson, Stuart


    Hydromethanolic extracts of brown, red, and white sorghum whole grains were analysed by LC-MS(n) in negative ESI mode within the range m/z 150-550amu. Besides the flavonoids already reported in sorghum, a number of flavonoids were also identified in the sorghum grain for the first time, including flavanones, flavonols and flavanonols, and flavan-3-ol derivatives. Various phenylpropane glycerides were also found in the sorghum grain, the majority of them are reported here for the first time, and a few of them were detected with abundant peaks in the extracts, indicating they are another important class of phenolic compounds in sorghum. In addition, phenolamides were also found in sorghum grain, which have not been reported before, and dicaffeoyl spermidine was detected in high abundance in the extracts of all three type sorghum grains. These results confirmed that sorghum is a rich source of various phenolic compounds.

  8. Evaluation of reaction mechanisms and the kinetic parameters for the transesterification of castor oil by liquid enzymes

    Andrade, Thalles Allan; Errico, Massimiliano; Christensen, Knud Villy


    The use of liquid enzymes for the production of biodiesel as an alternative to chemical catalysts requires significant investigation due to the lack of experimental data for the various feedstock and catalyst combinations. In this paper, reaction rates and kinetic modeling...... of the transesterification of castor oil with methanol using the enzyme Eversa® Transform as catalyst were investigated. Reactions were carried out for 8 hours at 35 °C with: an alcohol-to-oil molar ratio equal to 6:1, a 5 wt% of liquid enzyme solution and addition of 5 wt% of water by weight of castor oil. From...... methanolysis rates of glycerides obtained, indicated that transesterification dominates over hydrolysis. The mechanism among the four models proposed that gave the best fit could be simplified, eliminating the kinetic parameters with negligible effects on the reaction rates. This model was able to fit...

  9. Neural and Hybrid Modeling: An Alternative Route to Efficiently Predict the Behavior of Biotechnological Processes Aimed at Biofuels Obtainment

    Saraceno, Alessandra; Calabrò, Vincenza; Iorio, Gabriele


    The present paper was aimed at showing that advanced modeling techniques, based either on artificial neural networks or on hybrid systems, might efficiently predict the behavior of two biotechnological processes designed for the obtainment of second-generation biofuels from waste biomasses. In particular, the enzymatic transesterification of waste-oil glycerides, the key step for the obtainment of biodiesel, and the anaerobic digestion of agroindustry wastes to produce biogas were modeled. It was proved that the proposed modeling approaches provided very accurate predictions of systems behavior. Both neural network and hybrid modeling definitely represented a valid alternative to traditional theoretical models, especially when comprehensive knowledge of the metabolic pathways, of the true kinetic mechanisms, and of the transport phenomena involved in biotechnological processes was difficult to be achieved. PMID:24516363

  10. Neural and hybrid modeling: an alternative route to efficiently predict the behavior of biotechnological processes aimed at biofuels obtainment.

    Curcio, Stefano; Saraceno, Alessandra; Calabrò, Vincenza; Iorio, Gabriele


    The present paper was aimed at showing that advanced modeling techniques, based either on artificial neural networks or on hybrid systems, might efficiently predict the behavior of two biotechnological processes designed for the obtainment of second-generation biofuels from waste biomasses. In particular, the enzymatic transesterification of waste-oil glycerides, the key step for the obtainment of biodiesel, and the anaerobic digestion of agroindustry wastes to produce biogas were modeled. It was proved that the proposed modeling approaches provided very accurate predictions of systems behavior. Both neural network and hybrid modeling definitely represented a valid alternative to traditional theoretical models, especially when comprehensive knowledge of the metabolic pathways, of the true kinetic mechanisms, and of the transport phenomena involved in biotechnological processes was difficult to be achieved.

  11. Verification of chemical composition of commercially available propolis extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.

    Czyżewska, Urszula; Konończuk, Joanna; Teul, Joanna; Drągowski, Paweł; Pawlak-Morka, Renata; Surażyński, Arkadiusz; Miltyk, Wojciech


    Propolis is a resin that is collected by honeybees from various plant sources. Due to its pharmacological properties, it is used in commercial production of nutritional supplements in pharmaceutical industry. In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied for quality control analysis of the three commercial specimens containing aqueous-alcoholic extracts of bee propolis. More than 230 constituents were detected in analyzed products, including flavonoids, chalcones, cinnamic acids and their esters, phenylpropenoid glycerides, and phenylpropenoid sesquiterpenoids. An allergenic benzyl cinnamate ester was also identified in all tested samples. This analytical method allows to evaluate biological activity and potential allergenic components of bee glue simultaneously. Studies on chemical composition of propolis samples may provide new approach to quality and safety control analysis in production of propolis supplementary specimens.

  12. Metabolomics study of Populus type propolis.

    Anđelković, Boban; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Vučković, Ivan; Tešević, Vele; Vajs, Vlatka; Gođevac, Dejan


    Herein, we propose rapid and simple spectroscopic methods to determine the chemical composition of propolis derived from various Populus species using a metabolomics approach. In order to correlate variability in Populus type propolis composition with the altitude of its collection, NMR, IR, and UV spectroscopy followed by OPLS was conducted. The botanical origin of propolis was established by comparing propolis spectral data to those of buds of various Populus species. An O2PLS method was utilized to integrate two blocks of data. According to OPLS and O2PLS, the major compounds in propolis samples, collected from temperate continental climate above 500m, were phenolic glycerides originating from P. tremula buds. Flavonoids were predominant in propolis samples collected below 400m, originating from P. nigra and P. x euramericana buds. Samples collected at 400-500m were of mixed origin, with variable amounts of all detected metabolites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Green coffee oil analysis by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    D'Amelio, Nicola; De Angelis, Elisabetta; Navarini, Luciano; Schievano, Elisabetta; Mammi, Stefano


    In this work, we show how an extensive and fast quantification of the main components in green coffee oil can be achieved by NMR, with minimal sample manipulation and use of organic solvents. The approach is based on the integration of characteristic NMR signals, selected because of their similar relaxation properties and because they fall in similar spectral regions, which minimizes offset effects. Quantification of glycerides, together with their fatty acid components (oleic, linoleic, linolenic and saturated) and minor species (caffeine, cafestol, kahweol and 16-O-methylcafestol), is achieved in less than 1h making use of (1)H and (13)C spectroscopy. The compositional data obtained are in reasonable agreement with classical chromatographic analyses.

  14. In vitro anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of extracts from the stem barks of Berlinia confusa (C. Hoyle and identification of its active constituents

    Adebayo Lasisi


    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of EtOAc extract from the stem bark of Berlinia confusa yielded a new and two known polysaturated monoacylglycerides characterised as 1-O-docosanoyl-sn-glyceride (3, 1-O-(13-methyltetradecanoyl-sn-glycerol (4 and 1-O-pentadecacanoyl-sn-glycerol (5; along with the known compounds betulinic acid (1 and sitosteryl-β-d-glucoside (2. The structures of these compounds were elucidated using analytical methods, including 1D and 2D-NMR together with MS spectroscopy. The extracts and isolated compounds demonstrated concentration-dependent anthelmintic activities against Fusciola gigantica (liver flukes and Taenia solium (tapeworm at 10–100 mg/ml. The extracts and isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against a small panel of three human tumour cell lines.

  15. Chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of fatty compounds – Focus on processes involving a lipase-catalyzed perhydrolysis step

    Tiran Céline


    Full Text Available At the industrial scale, the chemical Prileshajev reaction is currently the only method applied to produce epoxidized plant oils. Using enzymes could be an alternative way allowing an environmentally benign and more selective epoxidation reaction. P450 monooxygenases, diiron-center oxygenases, lipoxygenases, peroxygenases, and hydrolases performing perhydrolysis are enzyme classes involved in free fatty acid and glyceride epoxidation. After a brief description of these biocatalysts, this review focuses on the chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of unsaturated fatty acyd chains, where a lipase-catalyzed peroxy acid formation is followed by an uncatalyzed “self-epoxidation”. The molecular bases of lipase-catalyzed perhydrolysis as well as the different parameters influencing the epoxidation reaction are reviewed and described in details.

  16. Differences in ( sup 14 C)glycerol utilization in normal and familial hypercholesterolemic fibroblasts

    Shireman, R.B.; Durieux, J. (Univ. of Florida Gainesville (USA))


    It is known that cultured fibroblasts from familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients lack the normal cell receptor for low density lipoprotein (LDL) and that the absence of receptor-mediated transport of LDL cholesterol into these cells results in increased cellular synthesis of cholesterol. After 20 h perincubation in lipid-free medium, cultured FH fibroblasts incorporated significantly greater amounts of ({sup 14}C)glycerol into cellular lipids than did normal fibroblasts. Relative to the control medium which contained only bovine serum albumin (BSA), preincubation with 5% fetal bovine serum or 50 micrograms LDL/ml decreased ({sup 14}C)glycerol incorporation by both cell types. FH cells utilized more ({sup 14}C)glycerol for phospholipid synthesis and less for triglyceride synthesis than normal cells. This study indicates that LDL may be important in the transport of glycerides, as well as cholesterol, to cells.

  17. The Effect of Substrat Ratio Fish Oil and Milk Fat on Synthesis of Structured Lipid by Enzimatic Transesterification

    Edy Subroto


    Full Text Available Structured lipid with saturated fatty acid (SFA at outer position and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA at sn-2 position has good dietary and stabilized characteristics. In this research structured lipids was synthesized by enzymatic transesterification between fish oil and milk fat. The reaction was catalyzed by lipase from Candida antartica that has randomized specificity to inter esterification. The factor substrat ratio of fish oil and milk fat were studied. Reaction operated at 40 oC for 4 hours, and the enzim concentration was 10 % by substrat. Composition of fatty acid, regiospecificity position of fatty acid, and glyceride profile were determinate. The results showed that the substrat ratio of fish oil: milk fat affect the composition of structured lipid. The more of milk fat added showed that composition saturated fatty acids on structured lipid was increased but the unsaturated fatty acids wasdecreased. The regiospecificity of structured lipid showed that saturated fatty acid has tendency at outer position and unsaturatedfatty acid at sn-2 position and optimum at ratio fish oil: milk fat was 1 : 3 (w/w. In the ratio fish-oil: milk fat 1:3 produced structured lipids in which the sn-2 incorporated by unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic, EPA, and DHA was 22.9; 3.3, and 2.2% respectively. While in position sn-1, 3 incorporated mostly medium chain and saturated fatty acids such as capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, and stearic acid 5.0; 7.0; 16.6; 31.7, and 9.9 % respectively. The ratio substrate did not affect the profil of glyceride on structured lipid. Triglyceride tend to decreased, and the diglyceride and monogliceride was increased with an increase of milk fat on substrate but not significantly. Structured lipid showed the characteristic like milk fat but high nutrition because rich of PUFA at sn-2 position, so this product may can applied on milk fortification.

  18. INTERESTERIFIKASI ENZIMATIS MINYAK IKAN DENGAN ASAM LAURAT UNTUK SINTESIS LIPID TERSTRUKTUR [Enzymatic Interesterification of Fish Oil with Lauric Acid for the Synthesis of Structured Lipid

    Edy Subroto1


    Full Text Available Structured lipid (SL containing of medium chain fatty acid (MCFA at outer position and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA at sn-2 position has superior dietary and absorption characteristics. The most methods for the enzymatic synthesis of SL were through two steps process, so that it was inefficient. Caprilic acid was usually used as a source of MCFA. In this research, SL was synthesized by enzymatic interesterification between fish oil and lauric acid. The specific lipase from Mucor miehei was used as catalyzed. Factors, such as the incubation time, substrate mole ratio, and reaction temperature were evaluated. The incorporation and the position of lauric acid on glycerol backbone and glyceride profile were determined. The results showed that SL containing of lauric acid at the outer position and PUFA at sn-2 was successfully synthesized, and it was done through one step process. From regiospecific determination, it showed that the position of lauric acid incorporation was only at the sn-1 and sn-3. Only 0.87% of lauric acid was incorporated at the sn-2. The optimum time and temperature of the reaction, and the substrate mole ratio were 12 h, 50C and 1:10, respectively, in which the incorporation of lauric acid was 62.8% (mol. Glyceride profile was affected by incubation time, substrate mole ratio and reaction temperature. Triglyceride concentration decreased with an increase in the incubation time (> 12 h. In contrast, the diglyceride concentration increased at longer incubation time (> 12 h. Beside, triglyceride concentration increased with an increase in substrate mole ratio to 1:10, but it decreased when mole ratio of substrate was 1:15. At higher temperature (50C, triglyceride decreased with an increase in the reaction temperature. In summary, the SL was successfully synthesized by the interesterification of fish oil and lauric acid using specific lipase of Mucor miehei.

  19. Enzymatic pretreatment of low-grade oils for biodiesel production.

    Nordblad, Mathias; Pedersen, Anders K; Rancke-Madsen, Anders; Woodley, John M


    The alkaline process for making biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, or FAME) is highly efficient at the transesterification of glycerides. However, its performance is poor when it comes to using oil that contain significant amounts of free fatty acids (FFA). The traditional approach to such feedstocks is to employ acid catalysis, which is slow and requires a large excess of methanol, or to evaporate FFA and convert that in a separate process. An attractive option would be to convert the FFA in oil feedstocks to FAME, before introducing it into the alkaline process. The high selectivity of enzyme catalysis makes it a suitable basis for such a pretreatment process. In this work, we present a characterization of the pretreatment of high-FFA rapeseed oil using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435), focused on the impact of initial FFA and methanol concentration. Based on experimental results, we have identified limitations for the process in terms of FFA concentration in the feedstock and make suggestions for process operation. It was found that, using 5% catalyst and 4% methanol at 35°C, the FFA concentration could be reduced to 0.5% within an hour for feedstock containing up to 15% FFA. Further, the reaction was observed to be under kinetic control, in that the biocatalyst converts FFA (and FAME) at a much higher rate than glyceride substrates. There is thus, both a minimum and a maximum reaction time for the process to achieve the desired concentration of FFA. Finally, an assessment of process stability in a continuous packed bed system indicates that as much as 15 m(3) oil could potentially be pretreated by 1 kg of biocatalyst at the given process conditions.

  20. Nanostructural analysis of water distribution in hydrated multicomponent gels using thermal analysis and NMR relaxometry.

    Codoni, Doroty; Belton, Peter; Qi, Sheng


    Highly complex, multicomponent gels and water-containing soft materials have varied applications in biomedical, pharmaceutical, and food sciences, but the characterization of these nanostructured materials is extremely challenging. The aim of this study was to use stearoyl macrogol-32 glycerides (Gelucire 50/13) gels containing seven different species of glycerides, PEG, and PEG-esters, as model, complex, multicomponent gels, to investigate the effect of water content on the micro- and nanoarchitecture of the gel interior. Thermal analysis and NMR relaxometry were used to probe the thermal and diffusional behavior of water molecules within the gel network. For the highly concentrated gels (low water content), the water activity was significantly lowered due to entrapment in the dense gel network. For the gels with intermediate water content, multiple populations of water molecules with different thermal responses and diffusion behavior were detected, indicating the presence of water in different microenvironments. This correlated with the network architecture of the freeze-dried gels observed using SEM. For the gels with high water content, increased quantities of water with similar diffusion characteristics as free water could be detected, indicating the presence of large water pockets in these gels. The results of this study provide new insights into structure of Gelucire gels, which have not been reported before because of the complexity of the material. They also demonstrate that the combination of thermal analysis and NMR relaxometry offers insights into the structure of soft materials not available by the use of each technique alone. However, we also note that in some instances the results of these measurements are overinterpreted and we suggest limitations of the methods that must be considered when using them.

  1. In vitro and in vivo performance of monoacyl phospholipid-based self-emulsifying drug delivery systems.

    Tran, Thuy; Siqueira, Scheyla D V S; Amenitsch, Heinz; Müllertz, Anette; Rades, Thomas


    This study investigates the effect of monoacyl phospholipid incorporation on the in vitro and in vivo performance of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS). Monoacyl phosphatidylcholine (Lipoid S LPC 80 (LPC)) was incorporated into four different fenofibrate (FF)-loaded long-chain SEDDS to investigate the impact of LPC on the emulsion droplet size, extent of digestion, colloidal structure evolution and drug precipitation during in vitro lipolysis simulating human conditions and drug bioavailability in a rat model. The four investigated SEDDS containing long-chain glycerides, polyoxyl 35 castor oil or polyoxyl 8 caprylocaproyl glycerides with or without LPC. In situ synchrotron small/wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) was used to simultaneously real-time monitor the kinetics of lamellar phase structure development and FF crystalline precipitation. Adding LPC increased the particle size and polydispersity of the dispersed SEDDS. The two LPC-free SEDDS generated lamellar phase structures (Lα) with d-spacing=4.76nm during digestion. Incorporating LPC into these systems inhibited the formation of lamellar phase structures. The amount of precipitated crystalline FF from the four SEDDS was similar during the first 15min but differed during the last 45min of in vitro digestion. The kinetics of colloidal structure development and FF precipitation was related to the digestion kinetics. The in vivo bioavailability data showed no significant differences between the four SEDDS, which correlates with the in vitro FF precipitation during the first 15min of lipolysis. Thus, the presence of LPC, different emulsion droplet sizes and concentration of lamellar phase structures observed in vitro did not correlate with the FF absorption in rats. The study suggests that later time points of the in vitro lipolysis overestimated FF precipitation in rats because of the high enzyme activity, the lack of gastric and absorption steps, and the low bile salts and phospholipid


    罗礼智; 李克斌; 江幸福; 胡毅


    JHM-treated males, however, was not weaker than that of the control throughout the test period. Comparison of the levels of energy substances in the JHMtreated adults and the controls showed that JHM may directly acted on metabolism of glyceride, which in turn affected flight capacity. Furthermore, higher levels of glyceride in the treated male adults raised their flight capacity to a stronger levels than the control in most of the days of tethered-flight test period. Contents of glycogen, however, were insignificantly affected by JHM in both male and female adults. In might therefore be concluded that levels of JH is a critical factor regulationg migratory behavior in the army worm moth. In addition to affect metabolism of glyceride, other possible physiological roles that JH played in determining migrattory behavior are also discussed.

  3. Influencia de un pienso con castañas y pulpa de remolacha azucarera en la composición lipídica del lacón gallego

    Díaz, Olga


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the inclusion of chestnuts and sugar beet pulp in pigs’ diets on the lipid composition of the external and internal muscles of dry-cured pork forelegs. This inclusion did not modify the lipid content and the glycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acid proportions of the internal and external muscles of dry-cured pork forelegs; however, it caused a significant decrease in the values of oxidation index TBA. No important changes were observed in fatty acid composition of glycerides. The dry-cured pork forelegs from pigs who received a diet with chestnuts and sugar beet pulp showed higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipid and free fatty acid fractions than dry-cured pork forelegs from pigs fed a conventional diet; this could be due to a decrease in the oxidation levels.El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la inclusión de castañas y pulpa de remolacha en la alimentación del cerdo sobre diferentes aspectos lipídicos de los músculos externos e internos de los lacones gallegos. Dicha inclusión no modificó el contenido de lípidos, ni la proporción de glicéridos, fosfolípidos y ácidos grasos libres; sin embargo, sí causó un descenso de los valores del índice de oxidación TBA. No se observaron cambios importantes en la composición de ácidos grasos de los glicéridos. Los lacones de cerdos alimentados con castaña y pulpa de remolacha presentaron un significativo mayor contenido de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados en las fracciones de fosfolípidos y, sobre todo, en la de ácidos grasos libres, lo cual podría atribuirse a un descenso de los niveles de oxidación.

  4. Patent literature on mosquito repellent inventions which contain plant essential oils--a review.

    Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gama, Renata Antonaci; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade


    Bites Bites of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles Meigen, Aedes Meigen, Culex L. and Haemagogus L. are a general nuisance and are responsible for the transmission of important tropical diseases such as malaria, hemorrhagic dengue and yellow fevers and filariasis (elephantiasis). Plants are traditional sources of mosquito repelling essential oils (EOs), glyceridic oils and repellent and synergistic chemicals. A Chemical Abstracts search on mosquito repellent inventions containing plant-derived EOs revealed 144 active patents mostly from Asia. Chinese, Japanese and Korean language patents and those of India (in English) accounted for roughly 3/4 of all patents. Since 1998 patents on EO-containing mosquito repellent inventions have almost doubled about every 4 years. In general, these patents describe repellent compositions for use in topical agents, cosmetic products, incense, fumigants, indoor and outdoor sprays, fibers, textiles among other applications. 67 EOs and 9 glyceridic oils were individually cited in at least 2 patents. Over 1/2 of all patents named just one EO. Citronella [Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, C.winterianus Jowitt ex Bor] and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus LʼHér. spp.) EOs were each cited in approximately 1/3 of all patents. Camphor [Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl], cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume), clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry], geranium (Pelargonium graveolens LʼHér.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), lemon [Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] and peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) EOs were each cited in > 10% of patents. Repellent chemicals present in EO compositions or added as pure “natural” ingredients such as geraniol, limonene, p-menthane-3,8-diol, nepetalactone and vanillin were described in approximately 40% of all patents. About 25% of EO-containing inventions included or were made to be used with synthetic insect control agents having mosquito

  5. 肥胖与更年期女性乳腺癌的危险因素分析%Analysis on the relationship between obesity and risk factors of breast cancer in menopausal women



    Objective; To explore obesity and risk factors of breast cancer in menopausal women. Methods; The clinical data of 58 female patients with breast cancer from the hospital were analyzed, then the results were compared with those of 106 healthy women who received physical examination during the same period in the hospital, a control study was performed. Results; Non - conditional multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that there was statistically significant difference in body mass index (BMI) and triglyceride level between the two groups; when the grade of BMI increased by one, the OR value of risk factors of breast cancer increased by 4. 78 - 10. 63 ; when the grade of triglyceride level increased by one, the OR value of risk factors of breast cancer increased by 5. 66 - 8. 67; the risk of breast cancer showed an increasing trend with the increases of BMI and glyceride level. Conclusion; The onset of breast cancer in menopausal women is positively correlated with obesity and high glyceride level; controlling the intake of high calorie diet and the increase of body weight, enhancing physical exercises play important roles in preventing breast cancer.%目的:探讨肥胖与更年期女性乳腺癌的发病危险因素.方法:对58例女性乳腺癌患者临床资料进行分析,并与同期进行常规体检的106例健康女性做对比性分析.结果:非条件多元Logistic回归分析中,体重指数及甘油三酯组P值存在显著差异,体重增加1个等级乳腺癌危险性增加OR4.78 ~ 10.63;甘油三酯增加1个等级乳腺癌危险性增加OR5.66 ~8.67,随着体重指数及甘油三酯增加,随之乳腺癌危险性也呈增加趋势.结论:更年期女性乳腺癌的发病与肥胖、高甘油三酯存在正相关关系,控制高热量饮食及体重的增加,加强体育锻炼对预防乳腺癌具有重要作用.

  6. [The unity of pathogenesis of insulin resistance syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty disease of liver. The metabolic disorder of fatty acids and triglycerides].

    Titov, V N; Ivanova, K V; Malyshev, P P; Kaba, S I; Shiriaeva, Iu K


    The pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty disease of liver (steatosis) is still as unclear as a loss of hepatocytes similar to apoptosis, development of biological reaction of inflammation, its transformation into steatohepatitis with subsequent fibrosis and formation of atrophic cirrhosis. The article suggests that steatosis is developed due to higher concentration of palmitic saturated fatty acid (C 16:0) in food, intensification of its endogenic synthesis from food carbohydrates and glucose and development of insulin resistance. It is displayed in in hormone ability to activate both oxidation in cells of glucose and synthesis of oleic monoene fatty acid from palmitic saturated fatty acid (C 18:1). The insulin resistance initiates pathologic process on the level of paracrine associations of cells resulting in permanent increase of concentration of non-etherified fatty acids in intercellular medium and intensification of their passive absorption by cells. The phylogenetically ancient mitochondrions will not to oxidize glucose until non-etherified fatty acids are present in cytosol and hence there is an opportunity to oxidize them. To eliminate undesirable action of polar saturated palmitic fatty acid, the cells etherify it by spirit glyceride into triglycerides to deposit in cytosol or to secrete into blood in a form of lipoproteins of very low density. Under insulin resistance, saturated palmitic fatty acid synthesized by hepatocytes from glucose, does not further transform into oleic monoenic fatty acid. The cells are to etherify endogenic (exogenic) palmnitic saturated fatty acid into composition of aphysiologic palmitic triglycerides (saturated palmitic fatty acid in position sn-2 of spirit glyceride). At that, triglycerides of palmitat-palmitat-oleat and even tripalmitat type are formed. The melting temperature of tripalmitat is 48 degrees C and melting temperature of physiologic trioletat is 13 degrees C. The intracellular lipases factually can't hydrolyze

  7. Fatty acid derivatives and dammarane triterpenes from the glandular trichome exudates of Ibicella lutea and Proboscidea louisiana.

    Asai, Teigo; Hara, Noriyuki; Fujimoto, Yoshinori


    Ibicellalutea and Proboscidea louisiana, both of the Martyniaceae family, are known for rich glandular trichomes on their leaves and stems. Chemical investigations of the glandular trichome exudates on leaves of the two plants furnished three types of secondary metabolites, glycosylated fatty acids, glycerides (2-O-(3,6-diacetyloxyfattyacyl)glycerols and 2-O-(3-acetyloxyfattyacyl)glycerols) and dammarane triterpenes. The glycosylated fatty acids from I. lutea were determined to be 6(S)-(6-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-octadecanoic acid (1A), -eicosanoic acid (1B) and -docosanoic acid (1C), as well as their respective deacetyl congeners (2A, 2B and 2C), whereas P. louisiana furnished 8(S)-(6-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-eicosanoic acid (3A) and -docosanoic acid (3B) and their respective deacetyl congeners (4A and 4B), together with 2B. Both plants contained 12 identical 2-O-[(3R,6S)-3,6-diacetyloxyfattyacyl]glycerols (5A-L), in which the fatty acyl moieties contained between 17 and 21 carbon atoms. The corresponding mono-acetyloxy compounds, 2-O-[(3R)-3-acetyloxyfattyacyl]glycerols (6A-L) were detected in both plants. Among these glycerides, ten compounds (5A, 5C, 5F, 5H, 5K, 6A, 6C, 6F, 6H and 6K) had iso-fattyacyl structures and four (5E, 5J, 6E and 6J) had anteiso-fattyacyl structures. A previously unknown dammarane triterpene, betulatriterpene C 3-acetate (7), was isolated together with three known dammarane triterpenes, 24-epi-polacandrin 1,3-diacetate (8), betulatriterpene C (9) and 24-epi-polacandrin 3-acetate (10) from I. lutea, whereas 12 dammarane triterpenes, named probosciderols A-L (12-23), and the known compound betulafolienetriol (11) were isolated from P. louisiana. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 2D-NMR techniques and chemical transformations. The 6-O-acetylglucosyloxy-fatty acids 1A-C (42%) and the dammarane triterpenes 7-10 (31%) were the two most abundant constituents in the

  8. Time of erythema onset after application of methyl nicotinate ointments as response parameter: influence of penetration kinetics and enhancing agents.

    Remane, Y; Leopold, C S


    The time of erythema onset may be used as a response parameter for quantification of the cutaneous erythema response induced by methyl nicotinate. The vehicles light mineral oil (LMO; test) and medium chain triglycerides (MCT; standard) were compared with regard to the pharmacodynamic response. Moreover, the influence of penetration enhancers on the time of erythema onset was investigated under zero order penetration kinetics. The enhancers dimethyl sulfoxide, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether and three different glycerides in different concentrations were added to MCT as a standard vehicle. All preparations were applied to the forearms of volunteers under infinite dose conditions at different thermodynamic drug activity levels (0.2-3.2% of the saturation level) and different drug concentrations (0.051-0.816%), respectively. Different penetration kinetics do not influence data of erythema onset, as these data are comparable to those obtained under finite dose conditions (first order penetration kinetics). With regard to the penetration enhancers, a significantly enhanced penetration of methyl nicotinate could be observed only for diethylene glycol monoethyl ether and dimethyl sulfoxide. However, no significant difference between light mineral oil and MCT could be found with regard to penetration enhancement. The time of erythema onset is an easy and efficient parameter for quantification of the pharmacodynamic response caused by nicotinates.

  9. Formulation of Propolis Phenolic Acids Containing Microemulsions and Their Biopharmaceutical Characterization

    Modestas Žilius


    Full Text Available Microemulsions (MEs were formulated using PEG-8 caprylic/capric glycerides and ethanolic propolis extracts. Characterization of MEs was performed by determining mean droplet size, polydispersity index, stability under varying external factors, and formulation effect on delivery of phenolic compounds into the skin ex vivo. Essential oils were included into the formulations of MEs and their influence on physical characteristics of the nanostructured systems as well as penetration into epidermis and dermis were evaluated. The droplet size, their distribution, and stability of the formulated MEs were not affected. Presence of essential oils in the formulation increased penetration of phenolic compounds in general, but only the amount of ferulic acid increased significantly. Mean droplet size increased with increase of oily phase amount, suggesting that phenolic compounds and components of essential oils were not modifying the formation of the interphase film composition and/or structure. Phenolic compounds were predominantly located in the lipid phase of the MEs thus minimizing their availability at the surface of the skin.

  10. The formation and continuous turnover of a fraction of phosphatidic acid on stimulation of NaC1 secretion by acetylcholine in the salt gland.

    Hokin, M R; Hokin, L E


    Acetylcholine, which stimulates NaCl secretion in the avian salt gland, causes the rapid formation of a fraction of phosphatidic acid, as measured by (32)P incorporation, which amounts maximally to about 0.18 micromoles per g of fresh tissue. This does not appear to involve synthesis of the diglyceride moiety of phosphatidic acid, as measured by glycerol-1-(14)C incorporation. It presumably involves formation of phosphatidic acid by the diglyceride kinase pathway from preformed diglyceride and ATP. The specific activity of the AT(32)P of the tissue is not increased in the presence of acetylcholine. At time intervals after addition of acetylcholine during which a full response, measured as increased O(2) uptake, may be observed, phosphatidic acid appears to be the only phosphatide which shows any increase either in total (32)P radioactivity or in net specific acitvity. This responsive fraction of phosphatidic acid undergoes continuous turnover of its phosphate moiety. There is no evidence that this turnover is due to the phosphatidic acid acting as a pool of intermediate for the synthesis of other phospholipids or glycerides. The responsive fraction amounts to not more than 20% of the total phosphatidic acid of the tissue; it does not mix with the other (non-responsive) phosphatidic acid of the tissue. The observations suggest that this phosphatidic acid plays some role in the over-all secretory process.

  11. A radioisotopic technique for analysis of free fatty acid reesterification in human adipose tissue.

    Leibel, R L; Hirsch, J


    Reesterification rates of free fatty acids (FFA) formed by intracellular triglyceride hydrolysis in small fragments of human adipose tissue were measured. Subcutaneous gluteal adipose tissue, obtained by needle biopsy, was incubated in a buffered albumin medium containing [3H]palmitate and [14C]glucose, each of high specific activity. In triglycerides (TG) and diglycerides (DG) synthesized by the tissue, [14C]glucose is incorporated exclusively into the glyceride-glycerol moiety, and 3H appears solely in the esterified fatty acids. Since rates of TG and DG synthesis can be determined from 14C accumulation rates in these molecules, the total amounts of FFA esterified can also be calculated. The difference between this estimate of total FFA esterification and the moles of [3H]palmitate esterified to these molecules represents the amount of unlabeled FFA from ongoing TG hydrolysis that was reesterified during the incubation. FFA recycling by the reesterification pathway is an important mechanism for the control of the quantity and proportions of FFA and glycerol leaving the human adipocyte. Fasting and beta-adrenergic stimulation reduce the fraction of endogenously released FFA that are reesterified from resting values of 30-40% to 8-21%, thereby increasing the molar ratio of FFA to glycerol leaving the adipocyte. The technique described can be employed to monitor sequential changes in this important metabolic cycle in humans under a wide range of nutritional and clinical circumstances.

  12. Seasonal Variation of Lipids and Fatty Acids of the Microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata Grown in Outdoor Large-Scale Photobioreactors

    Catherine Legrand


    Full Text Available While focus in oil-producing microalgae is normally on nutrient deficiency, we addressed the seasonal variations of lipid content and composition in large-scale cultivation. Lipid content, fatty acid profiles and mono- di- and triglycerides (MAGs, DAGs, and TAGs were analyzed during May 2007–May 2009 in Nannochloropsis oculata grown outdoors in closed vertical flat panels photobioreactors. Total lipids (TL ranged from 11% of dry weight (DW in winter to 30% of DW in autumn. 50% of the variation in TL could be explained by light and temperature. As the highest lipid content was recorded during autumn indicating an optimal, non-linear, response to light and temperature we hypothesize that enhanced thylakoid stacking under reduced light conditions resulted in more structural lipids, concomitantly with the increase in glycerides due to released photo-oxidative stress. The relative amount of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA increased during autumn. This suggested a synthesis, either of structural fatty acids as MUFA, or a relative increase of C16:1 incorporated into TAGs and DAGs. Our results emphasize the significant role of environmental conditions governing lipid content and composition in microalgae that have to be considered for correct estimation of algal oil yields in biodiesel production.

  13. Replacement of eggs with soybean protein isolates and polysaccharides to prepare yellow cakes suitable for vegetarians.

    Lin, Muyang; Tay, Siang Hong; Yang, Hongshun; Yang, Bao; Li, Hongliang


    To evaluate the feasibility of substituting eggs in yellow cake by a mixture of soybean proteins, plant polysaccharides, and emulsifiers, the batter properties, including specific gravity and viscosity; cake properties, including specific volume, texture, colour, moisture, microstructures, and structural properties of starch and glutens of the replaced cake and traditional cake containing egg, were evaluated. Replacing eggs with a soy protein isolate and 1% mono-, di-glycerides yielded a similar specific volume, specific gravity, firmness and moisture content (1.92 vs. 2.08cm(3)/g, 0.95 vs. 1.03, 319.8 vs. 376.1g, and 28.03% vs. 29.01%, respectively) compared with the traditional cakes baked with eggs. Structurally, this formulation comprised dominant gliadin aggregates in the size range of 100-200nm and glutenin networking structures containing fewer but larger porosities. The results suggest that a mixture of soybean proteins and emulsifier is a promising substitute for eggs in cakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of different emulsifiers on the eggless cake properties containing WPC.

    Khalilian Movahhed, Mohammad; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Koocheki, Arash; Milani, Elnaz


    The possibility of complete replacement of egg proteins with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and improvement in quality by different emulsifiers was evaluated. Three emulsifiers, including polyglycerol ester (PGE), distilled mono glyceride (DMG) and lecithin were used to bake eggless cakes, containing 8% (w/w) WPC. The response surface analysis was applied to study the effect of emulsifiers on the eggless cake properties. The emulsifiers, individually and interactively, improved the properties of the eggless cakes significantly. The PGE and DMG decreased the batter density, however lecithin increased it. All emulsifiers increased the porosity and volume of the eggless cakes, but decreased the hardness and gumminess of crumb and improved the sensory acceptance. The indices used for optimization of formulation were water activity, moisture content, hardness, gumminess, volume, porosity and total acceptance. The optimum quality of the eggless cake can be achieved from a combination of 0.5 PGE, 0.25 DMG and 0.5% lecithin. The experimental and predicted responses of the optimized eggless cake had a good resemblance.

  15. Lipase cocktail for efficient conversion of oils containing phospholipids to biodiesel.

    Amoah, Jerome; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Hama, Shinji; Yoshida, Ayumi; Nakanishi, Akihito; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko


    The presence of phospholipid has been a challenge in liquid enzymatic biodiesel production. Among six lipases that were screened, lipase AY had the highest hydrolysis activity and a competitive transesterification activity. However, it yielded only 21.1% FAME from oil containing phospholipids. By replacing portions of these lipases with a more robust bioFAME lipase, CalT, the combination of lipase AY-CalT gave the highest FAME yield with the least amounts of free fatty acids and partial glycerides. A higher methanol addition rate reduced FAME yields for lipase DF-CalT and A10D-CalT combinations while that of lipase AY-CalT combination improved. Optimizing the methanol addition rate for lipase AY-CalT resulted in a FAME yield of 88.1% at 2h and more than 95% at 6h. This effective use of lipases could be applied for the rapid and economic conversion of unrefined oils to biodiesel.

  16. Efficient hydrolysis of tuna oil by a surfactant-coated lipase in a two-phase system.

    Ko, Wen-Ching; Wang, Hsiu-Ju; Hwang, Jyh-Sheng; Hsieh, Chang-Wei


    A surfactant-coated lipase (SCL) prepared by mixing Candida rugosa lipase with emulsifier in ethanol was used to hydrolyze tuna oil in a two-phase aqueous-organic system. Both enzyme (SCL) and substrate (tuna oil) were soluble in the organic phase, and the hydrolysis could occur with water molecules from the aqueous phase. This hydrolysis could promptly proceed compared to that catalyzed by native lipases which only occurred at the interface between the two phases. Michaelis-Menten kinetics in the two-phase reactions showed that the K(m) value of the SCL was half that of the native lipase, while the maximum velocity (V(max)) was 11.5 times higher. The hydrolysis method resulted in enrichment of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) content in glyceride mixtures from 26.4% to 49.8% and DHA from 19.1% to 38.9%. The SCL acted as an efficient hydrolytic catalyst for tuna oil.

  17. Improving stability and activity of cross-linked enzyme aggregates based on polyethylenimine in hydrolysis of fish oil for enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Yan, Jinyong; Gui, Xiaohua; Wang, Guilong; Yan, Yunjun


    Cross-linking of enzyme aggregates from recombinant Geotrichum sp. lipase based on polyethylenimine (PEI) was applied to hydrolyze fish oil for enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids successfully. Through acetone precipitation and cross-linking of physical aggregates using glutaraldehyde in the presence of PEI, firmly cross-linked enzyme aggregates (PEI-CLEAs) were prepared. They could maintain more than 65% of relative hydrolysis degree after incubation in the range of 50-55 °C for 4 h and maintain more than 85% of relative hydrolysis degree after being treated by acetone, tert-butyl alcohol and octane for 4 h. PEI-CLEAs increased hydrolysis degree to 42% from 12% by free lipase. After five batch reactions, PEI-CLEAs still maintained 72% of relative hydrolysis degree. Hydrolysis of fish oil by PEI-CLEAs produced glycerides containing concentrated EPA and DHA in good yield. PEI-CLEAs had advantages over general CLEAs and free lipase in initial reaction rate, hydrolysis degree, thermostability, organic solvent tolerance and reusability.

  18. Investigation of natural lipid-phenolic interactions on biological properties of virgin olive oil.

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Ereifej, Khalil; Gammoh, Sana; Alhamad, Mohammad N; Mhaidat, Nizar; Kubow, Stan; Johargy, Ayman; Alnaiemi, Ola J


    There is limited knowledge regarding the impact of naturally occurring lipid-phenolic interactions on the biological properties of phenolics in virgin olive oil. Free and bound phenolics were isolated via sequential methanolic extraction at 30 and 60 °C, and were identified and quantified using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and gas chromatography. Decreased oleic acid concentrations and increased concentrations of palmitoleic acid, stearic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were observed in virgin olive oil after removal of free and bound lipid phenolic compounds. The presence of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and tyrosol bound to glycerides was determined via LC-MS/MS, which indicates natural lipid-phenolic interactions in virgin olive oil. Both free and lipid bound phenolic extracts exerted antiproliferative activities against the CRC1 and CRC5 colorectal cancer cell lines. The present work indicates that naturally occurring lipid-phenolic interactions can affect the biological properties of phenolics in virgin olive oil.

  19. Les lipases immobilisées et leurs applications

    Thonart P.


    Full Text Available Immobilized lipases and their applications. Lipases are able to catalyse the hydrolysis of glyceridic esters in aqueous media and the synthesis of esters in non-aqueous media. They are thus able to catalyse numerous reactions of industrial interest. Whether it is by inclusion, by adsorption or by covalent link, the immobilisation of lipases aims at conferring them a good stability that enables a reuse of the enzymes after a reaction and the development of continuous processes. The reactions of triglycerides hydrolysis constitute main applications for immobilised lipases, however their use in different types of esterification reactions has also arose: there exist processes involving reactions of transesterification, of interesterification or of esters synthesis. The production of structured lipids by interesterification is one example. Although the reaction conditions dissent from those of hydrolysis, the same lipases have been used in both cases. A lipase specifically adapted for esterification though would be a highly capable tool: a series of strategies is in progress in order to reach this goal.

  20. An Effective Ostrich Oil Bleaching Technique Using Peroxide Value as an Indicator

    Gan Seng Chiew


    Full Text Available Ostrich oil has been used extensively in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. However, rancidity causes undesirable chemical changes in flavour, colour, odour and nutritional value. Bleaching is an important process in refining ostrich oil. Bleaching refers to the removal of certain minor constituents (colour pigments, free fatty acid, peroxides, odour and non-fatty materials from crude fats and oils to yield purified glycerides. There is a need to optimize the bleaching process of crude ostrich oil prior to its use for therapeutic purposes. The objective of our study was to establish an effective method to bleach ostrich oil using peroxide value as an indicator of refinement. In our study, we showed that natural earth clay was better than bentonite and acid-activated clay to bleach ostrich oil. It was also found that 1 hour incubation at a 150 °C was suitable to lower peroxide value by 90%. In addition, the nitrogen trap technique in the bleaching process was as effective as the continuous nitrogen flow technique and as such would be the recommended technique due to its cost effectiveness.

  1. Development of the ambroxol gels for enhanced transdermal delivery.

    Cho, Cheong-Weon; Choi, Jun-Shik; Shin, Sang-Chul


    Ambroxol is an expectoration improver and mucolytic agent that has been used to treat acute and chronic disorders. However, ambroxol needs to be administered percutaneously in order to avoid systemic adverse effects, such as headache, drowsiness, dizziness, and insomnia, which can occur after oral administration. The aim of this study was to develop a gel preparation containing a permeation enhancer to enhance the delivery of ambroxol. The ambroxol gels were prepared using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and poloxamer 407. The release characteristics of the drug from the gels were examined according to the receptor medium, drug concentration, and temperature. The rate of drug permeation into the skin was enhanced by incorporating various enhancers such as the ethylene glycols, the propylene glycols, the glycerides, the non-ionic surfactants, and the fatty acids into the gels. The permeation study through mouse skin was examined at 37 C. The rate of drug release increased with increasing drug concentration and temperature. Among the enhancers used, propylene glycol mono caprylate showed the best enhancing effects. The estimated activation energy of release (Ea), which was calculated from the slope of a log P versus 1000/T plot, was 14.80, 14.22, 13.91, and 12.46 kcal/mol for ambroxol loading doses of 2, 3, 4, and 5%, respectively. The results of this study show that the gel preparation of ambroxol containing a permeation enhancer could be developed for the enhanced transdermal delivery of ambroxol.

  2. Self-emulsifying excipient platform for improving technological properties of alginate-hydroxypropylcellulose pellets.

    Mannina, Paolo; Segale, Lorena; Giovannelli, Lorella; Bonda, Andrea Foglio; Pattarino, Franco


    In this work, alginate, alginate-pectin and alginate-hydroxypropylcellulose pellets were produced by ionotropic gelation and characterized. Ibuprofen was selected as model drug; it was suspended in the polymeric solution in crystalline form or dissolved in a self-emulsifying phase and then dispersed into the polymeric solution. The self-emulsifying excipient platform composed of Labrasol (PEG-8 caprylic/capric glycerides) and d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), able to solubilize the drug was used to improve the technological and biopharmaceutical properties of the alginate pellets. The pellets had diameters between 1317 and 2026 μm and a high drug content (>51%). DSC analysis showed the amorphous state of drug in the pellets containing the self-emulsifying phase. All the systems restricted drug release in conditions simulating the gastric environment and made the drug completely available at a pH value typical for the intestine. Only alginate-HPC systems containing the drug solubilized into the self-emulsifying phase showed the ability to partially control the release of ibuprofen at neutral pH. The self-emulsifying excipient platform is a useful tool to improve technological and biopharmaceutical properties of alginate-HPC pellets.

  3. Safety evaluation of lipase produced from Rhizopus oryzae: summary of toxicological data.

    Flood, Michael T; Kondo, Mitsuru


    The toxicity of Lipase D, an enzyme preparation, was evaluated in a series of studies. Lipase D selectively hydrolyzes triglycerides of fatty acids. It also catalyzes the interesterification of edible fats and oils. In a 13-week gavage study, Sprague-Dawley rats received Lipase D at levels of 0, 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg body wt./day. A dose dependent decrease in urinary pH was observed, but there were no effects on electrolyte balance, kidney weight, or histology of the kidney. The no-observed-adverse-effect level in rats was 1000 mg/kg body wt./day. In common with other enzyme preparations, Lipase D was not genotoxic. Lipase D was tested in the Ames assay, the mouse lymphoma forward mutation assay, and the chromosome aberration assay. Finally, the particular strain of Rhizopus oryzae used to prepare Lipase D was shown to have low to moderate pathogenicity when injected into the tail vein of mice at doses up to 1.3 x 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU) per animal. No effects were observed when mice received up to 2.2 x 10(5) CFU by gavage or in their diets daily for 28 days. The results indicate that this particular strain can be handled using ordinary safety practices current in the fermentation industry. These studies support a conclusion that Lipase D is safe when used as described in the processing of dietary fatty acids and glycerides of fatty acids.

  4. Influence of glucosamine on the bioactivity of insulin delivered subcutaneously and in an oral nanodelivery system.

    Al-Kurdi, Zakieh I; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Leharne, Stephen A; Qinna, Nidal A; Al Omari, Mahmoud M H; Badwan, Adnan A


    The aim of the work reported herein was to study the effect of glucosamine HCl (GlcN·HCl) on the bioactivity (BA) of insulin, administered via subcutaneous (SC) and oral routes, in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. The oral insulin delivery system (insulin-chitosan reverse micelle [IC-RM]) was prepared by solubilizing insulin-chitosan (13 kDa) polyelectrolyte complex in a RM system consisting of oleic acid, PEG-8 caprylic/capric glycerides, and polyglycerol-6-dioleate. The BA of insulin in vivo was evaluated by measuring blood glucose level using a blood glucose meter; the results revealed that the extent of hypoglycemic activity of SC insulin was GlcN·HCl dose dependent when they were administered simultaneously. A significant reduction in blood glucose levels (Poral administration of GlcN·HCl for 5 consecutive days prior to insulin injection (Poral insulin administration via the IC-RM system, the presence of GlcN·HCl increased the hypoglycemic activity of insulin (Poral insulin delivery systems in order to enhance a reduction in blood glucose levels.

  5. The Next Generation Feedstock of Biofuel: Jatropha or Chlorella as Assessed by Their Life-Cycle Inventories

    Pu Peng


    Full Text Available Promising energy crops such as Jatropha curcas Linnaeus (JCL, which are planted on marginal lands, or microalgae such as Chlorella, which are cultivated in ponds located on mudflats or deserts, have been regarded with high hopes to solve the shortage of food crops and increase the amount of biodiesel (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, FAME production. However, the annual yields of biomass and transport fuels (t/ha of both are still unclear and often exaggerated in the literature. Large portions of JCL biomass, including tree trunks and leaves, can also be used to generate electricity along with FAME, which is produced from seed lipids. Meanwhile, lipid extracted algae (LEA are composed of proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids other than glycerides which are unable to be esterified to form FAME and much more abundant in the microalgae than oil cake in the oil crops. Therefore, it has been strongly suggested that not only transesterification or esterification but also Fischer-Tropsch (FT process and bio-electricity generation should be considered as routes to produce biofuels. Otherwise, the yield of biofuel would be extremely low using either JCL or Chlorella as feedstock. The Life-Cycle Inventories (LCI of the biofuel processes with whole biomass of JCL and Chlorella were compared based on their net energy ratio (NER and CO2 emission saving (CES. It was shown that the technological improvement of irrigation, cultivation, and processing for either economic-crops or microalgae were all necessary to meet the requirements of commercial biofuel production.

  6. QSAR study and the hydrolysis activity prediction of three alkaline lipases from different lipase-producing microorganisms.

    Wang, Haikuan; Wang, Xiaojie; Li, Xiaolu; Zhang, Yehong; Dai, Yujie; Guo, Changlu; Zheng, Heng


    The hydrolysis activities of three alkaline lipases, L-A1, L-A2 and L-A3 secreted by different lipase-producing microorganisms isolated from the Bay of Bohai, P. R. China were characterized with 16 kinds of esters. It was found that all the lipases have the ability to catalyze the hydrolysis of the glycerides, methyl esters, ethyl esters, especially for triglycerides, which shows that they have broad substrate spectra, and this property is very important for them to be used in detergent industry. Three QSAR models were built for L-A1, L-A2 and L-A3 respectively with GFA using Discovery studio 2.1. The models equations 1, 2 and 3 can explain 95.80%, 97.45% and 97.09% of the variances (R(2)(adj)) respectively while they could predict 95.44%, 89.61% and 93.41% of the variances (R(2)(cv)) respectively. With these models the hydrolysis activities of these lipases to mixed esters were predicted and the result showed that the predicted values are in good agreement with the measured values, which indicates that this method can be used as a simple tool to predict the lipase activities for single or mixed esters.

  7. QSAR study and the hydrolysis activity prediction of three alkaline lipases from different lipase-producing microorganisms

    Wang Haikuan


    Full Text Available Abstract The hydrolysis activities of three alkaline lipases, L-A1, L-A2 and L-A3 secreted by different lipase-producing microorganisms isolated from the Bay of Bohai, P. R. China were characterized with 16 kinds of esters. It was found that all the lipases have the ability to catalyze the hydrolysis of the glycerides, methyl esters, ethyl esters, especially for triglycerides, which shows that they have broad substrate spectra, and this property is very important for them to be used in detergent industry. Three QSAR models were built for L-A1, L-A2 and L-A3 respectively with GFA using Discovery studio 2.1. The models equations 1, 2 and 3 can explain 95.80%, 97.45% and 97.09% of the variances (R2adj respectively while they could predict 95.44%, 89.61% and 93.41% of the variances (R2cv respectively. With these models the hydrolysis activities of these lipases to mixed esters were predicted and the result showed that the predicted values are in good agreement with the measured values, which indicates that this method can be used as a simple tool to predict the lipase activities for single or mixed esters.

  8. Consolidating biofuel platforms through the fermentative bioconversion of crude glycerol to butanol.

    Johnson, Erin; Sarchami, Tahereh; Kießlich, Sascha; Munch, Garret; Rehmann, Lars


    Economic realities for the rising industrial biofuel production have changed substantially during the low oil price period starting in the mid 2010's. Increased competition requires the sector to increase productivity through the reduction of low-value by-products and full utilization of all value and energy stored in their respective feedstock. Biodiesel is produced commercially from substrates such as animal fat and vegetable oil, generating approximately 10 wt% crude glycerol as its main, currently underutilized, by-product. This crude glycerol is contaminated with catalyst, soap, free fatty acids, glycerides and methyl esters; hence only a small fraction enters the existing glycerol markets, while the purification costs for the majority of crude glycerol are simply too high. However, this presents a unique opportunity to generate additional value. One technical possibility is to use crude glycerol as a carbon source for butanol production, a compound of higher value and energy, a potential additive for gasoline and diesel fuels and bulk chemical commodity. Conversion facilities could be co-located with biodiesel plants, utilizing established infrastructure and adding significant value and productivity to the existing biodiesel industry. This review focuses on the current activities geared towards the bioconversion of crude glycerol to butanol.

  9. Impact of Pluronic F-68 vs Tween 80 on Fabrication and Evaluation of Acyclovir SLNs for Skin Delivery.

    Newton, Maria John; Kaur, Bhupinder


    The solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of Acyclovir (ACV) were fabricated with Soya lecithin and Fractionated Coconut oil (medium chain glyceride) as a first time combination. The research was focused on developing ACV-SLN by using high pressure hot-homogenization technique. The ingredients were used in different concentrations and ratios to identify the best formulation design. The tween 80 and Pluronic F-68 were used in various concentrations in formulation design to assess the impact on the fabrication and evaluation of SLNs. The SLNs were subjected to various characterization techniques such as XRD ,FTIR, Master sizer analysis and zeta potential. The mean particle size was determined by master sizer and zeta sizer. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used as a tool to analyze the morphology and other features. The zeta potential and drug entrapment efficiency (EE%) were also determined for the prepared ACV-SLNs. The efficiency of drug release from prepared formulations was studied by using in vitro study with the utilization of dialysis membrane technique. SLN dispersions exhibited the average size in nano range. SLNs with small particle size found to have predetermined encapsulation efficiency, and relatively high loading capacity and predetermined in vitro drug release profile.

  10. Composition and Bioactivity of Lipophilic Metabolites from Needles and Twigs of Korean and Siberian Pines (Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc. and Pinus sibirica Du Tour).

    Shpatov, Alexander V; Popov, Sergey A; Salnikova, Olga I; Kukina, Tatyana P; Shmidt, Emma N; Um, Byung Hun


    Lipophilic extractive metabolites in different parts of the shoot system (needles and defoliated twigs) of Korean pine, Pinus koraiensis, and Siberian pine, Pinus sibirica, were studied by GC/MS. Korean pine needles comprised mainly bornyl p-coumarate, heterocyclic 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids (lambertianic acid), 10-nonacosanol, sterols and their esters. While Siberian pine needles contained less bornyl p-coumarate, lambertianic acid, sterols and their esters, but were richer in other 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids. The major components of the twig extract of P. koraiensis were lambertianic acid, abietane and isopimarane type acids, cembrane type alcohols, 8-O-functionalized labdanoids, sterols, sterol esters, and acylglycerols. The same extract of P. sibirica differed in larger amounts of other 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids and pinolenic acid glycerides, but in less quantities of cembranoids and 8-O-functionalized labdanoids. The labdane type pinusolic acid was detected for the first time in Korean pine. P. koraiensis was found to be unique in the genus for an ability to synthesize phyllocladane diterpenoids. The content of bound Δ(5) -unsaturated polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids in the twig extracts of the both pines was similar or superior to that in their seed oil. Among the pines' metabolites tested isocembrol was strongest in inhibition of both α-glucosidase (IC50 2.9 μg/ml) and NO production in activated macrophages (IC50 3.6 μg/ml).

  11. 甘三酯指纹图谱相似度在芝麻油掺混检测中的应用%Application of Similarity of Triacylglycerol Fingerprint to Discriminate Blended Sesame Oil

    皇甫志鹏; 薛雅琳; 刘元法; 张东


    Explore the determination of triglycerides in oils and fats with HPLC -ELSD,and determinate the tri-glycerides fingerprint of pure sesam oil and blended sesame oil with soy oil and sunflower oil,then build the fingerprint database of pure sesame oil. Blended sesame oil was tested by calculating the similarity of blended and pure sesame oil. The blended sesame oil can be detected when the mixed content of soybean and sunflower seed oil reached 3%.%探索了HPLC-ELSD测定油脂甘三酯的方法,并测定了纯芝麻油与不同掺入比例的大豆油-芝麻油,葵花籽油-芝麻油的甘三酯指纹图谱,建立了纯芝麻油的甘三酯指纹图谱数据库.通过计算掺混油脂和纯芝麻油数据库的指纹图谱相似度,对掺混油脂进行检验.当大豆、葵花籽油的掺入量达到3%时,即可做出是否为掺混油脂的准确判定.

  12. Hydrocarbons and energy from plants: Final report, 1984-1987

    Calvin, M.; Otvos, J.; Taylor, S.E.; Nemethy, E.K.; Skrukrud, C.L.; Hawkins, D.R.; Lago, R.


    Plant hydrocarbon (isoprenoid) production was investigated as an alternative source to fossil fuels. Because of their high triterpenoid (hydrocarbon) content of 4--8%, Euphorbia lathyris plants were used as a model system for this study. The structure of the E. lathyris triterpenoids was determined, and triterpenoid biosynthesis studied to better understand the metabolic regulation of isoprenoid production. Triterpenoid biosynthesis occurs in two distinct tissue types in E. lathyris plants: in the latex of the laticifer cells; and in the mesophyll cells of the leaf and stem. The latex has been fractionated by centrifugation, and it has been determined that the later steps of isoprenoid biosynthesis, the conversion of mevalonic acid to the triterpenes, are compartmentized within a vacuole. Also identified was the conversion of hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA to mevalonic acid, catalyzed by the enzyme Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase, as a key rate limiting step in isoprenoid biosynthesis. At least two isozymes of this enzyme, one in the latex and another in the leaf plastids, have been identified. Environmental stress has been applied to plants to study changes in carbon allocation. Salinity stress caused a large decrease in growth, smaller decreases in photosynthesis, resulting in a larger allocation of carbon to both hydrocarbon and sugar production. An increase in Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase activity was also observed when isoprenoid production increased. Other species where also screened for the production of hydrogen rich products such as isoprenoids and glycerides, and their hydrocarbon composition was determined.

  13. Absolute Stereochemistry of 1,2-Diols from Lipids of Thermomicrobia.

    Lagutin, Kirill; Wong, Herbert; Vyssotski, Mikhail; MacKenzie, Andrew


    1,2-Diol based phospholipids are a well-known feature of bacteria from the class Thermomicrobia. Since these bacteria contain only lipids with an alkyldiol-1-phosphate backbone instead of sn-glycero-3-phosphate, it is important to elucidate the stereochemistry of the 1,2-diols. We have studied the absolute stereochemistry of long-chain 1,2-diols isolated from Thermorudis pharmacophila (formerly known as Thermomicrobia sp. WKT50.2) by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using α-methoxyphenylacetic acid (MPA). Low-temperature (-60 °C) NMR of bis-(R)-MPA ester showed (R) stereochemistry of the 1,2-diols. This is the first report concerning the stereochemistry of natural 1,2-diols, which replace the glyceride moiety in phospholipids. The (R) stereochemistry of the diols is expected as it is the same configuration as for the common bacterial lipid backbone-sn-glycero-3-phosphate. This is the first application of low-temperature NMR of a single MPA derivative for assignment of stereochemistry of natural 1,2-diols. The results were confirmed by the comparison of NMR data with bis-(R)-MPA ester of (R) and rac-1,2-octanediol.

  14. Aceites de oliva vírgenes y refinados: Diferencias en componentes menores glicerídicos

    Pérez-Camino, M. C.


    Full Text Available This paper defines the main differences in glyceridic minor compounds between virgin and refined olive oils. Modifications during the steps of the refining process are studied and compared with differences found in two series of virgin and refined oils and those during storage. The results demonstrate that the absence of polymerized compounds is the most useful parameter for the characterization of virgin oils while the presence of dimeric triglycerides and a high ratio diglycerides/fatty acids are those for refined oils.

    En el presente trabajo se definen las principales diferencias en componentes menores glicerídicos entre aceites de oliva vírgenes y refinados. Para ello, se estudian las modificaciones que tienen lugar durante las distintas etapas del proceso de refinación, se comprueban las diferencias encontradas en dos series de aceites vírgenes y refinados y, finalmente, se analizan las modificaciones originadas durante el almacenamiento. Los resultados demuestran que la ausencia de compuestos de polimerización es de gran valor para la caracterización de los aceites de oliva vírgenes, mientras que, la presencia de dímeros de triglicéridos y la elevada relación diglicéridos/ácidos grasos son las características principales de los aceites refinados.

  15. Chemical exploitation of native plant oils II. Subproject 4: Biodegradable tensides from domestic oils. Final report; Chemische Nutzung heimischer Pflanzenoele II. Teilvorhaben 4: Biologisch abbaubare Tenside aus heimischen Oelen. Abschlussbericht

    Schneider, M.P.


    There are many domestic plants that yield large amounts of valuable raw materials such as fats and oils, proteins and carbohydrates. By linking lipophilic (fatty acids) with hydrophilic components like glycerine, amino acids, oligopeptides (protein hydrolysates), or mono- di- or oligosaccharides (starch hydrolysates), a wide range of combination products with surfactant properties is obtained. Target molecules are partial glycerides (mono and diglycerides), fatty acid modified amino acids, protein hydrolysates (fatty acid and protein condensates), and sugar esters. This project focused on the following subjects: 1. Sugar esters - enzymatic acylation of mono- and disaccharides and other sugar derivates. 2. Glycosides - enzymatic glycodisation of monosaccharides. 3. Fatty acid modified amino acids - enzymatic acylation of amino acids and protein hydrolysates. 4. Gemini tensides on the basis of amino acids. (orig.) [German] Zahlreiche Oelpflanzen und Getreidearten liefern preiswert und in grossen Mengen eine Vielzahl wertvoller Rohmaterialien wie Fette und Oele, Proteine und Kohlenhydrate. Durch Verknuepfung deren lipophiler Bestandteile (Fettsaeuren) mit hydrophilen Komponenten wie Glycerin, Aminosaeuren, Oligopeptiden (Proteinhydrolysaten) oder Mono, Di- oder Oligosacchariden (Staerkehydrolysaten) laesst sich eine breite Palette von Kombinationsprodukten mit oberflaechenaktiven Eigenschaften herstellen. Offensichtliche Zielmolekuele sind dabei Partialglyceride (Mono- und Diglyceride), fettsaeuremodifizierte Aminosaeuren, Proteinhydrolysate (Fettsaeure- Eiweiss-Kondensate) und Zuckerester. Ausgehend von unseren vielfaeltigen Vorarbeiten haben wir uns im Rahmen dieses Vorhabens schwerpunktmaessig mit den folgenden Themenkreisen beschaeftigt: 1. Zuckerester - enzymatische Acylierung von Mono- und Disacchariden sowie anderer Zuckerderivate. 2. Glycoside- enzymatische Glycosidierung von Monosacchariden. 3. Fettsaeuremodifizierte Aminosaeuren - enzymatische Acylierung von

  16. Imaging and chemical surface analysis of biomolecular functionalization of monolithically integrated on silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometric immunosensors

    Gajos, Katarzyna; Angelopoulou, Michailia; Petrou, Panagiota; Awsiuk, Kamil; Kakabakos, Sotirios; Haasnoot, Willem; Bernasik, Andrzej; Rysz, Jakub; Marzec, Mateusz M.; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis; Budkowski, Andrzej


    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (imaging, micro-analysis) has been employed to evaluate biofunctionalization of the sensing arm areas of Mach-Zehnder interferometers monolithically integrated on silicon chips for the immunochemical (competitive) detection of bovine κ-casein in goat milk. Biosensor surfaces are examined after: modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, application of multiple overlapping spots of κ-casein solutions, blocking with 100-times diluted goat milk, and reaction with monoclonal mouse anti-κ-casein antibodies in blocking solution. The areas spotted with κ-casein solutions of different concentrations are examined and optimum concentration providing homogeneous coverage is determined. Coverage of biosensor surfaces with biomolecules after each of the sequential steps employed in immunodetection is also evaluated with TOF-SIMS, supplemented by Atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Uniform molecular distributions are observed on the sensing arm areas after spotting with optimum κ-casein concentration, blocking and immunoreaction. The corresponding biomolecular compositions are determined with a Principal Component Analysis that distinguished between protein amino acids and milk glycerides, as well as between amino acids characteristic for Mabs and κ-casein, respectively. Use of the optimum conditions (κ-casein concentration) for functionalization of chips with arrays of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers provided on-chips assays with dramatically improved both intra-chip response repeatability and assay detection sensitivity.

  17. Bio-Based Nano Composites from Plant Oil and Nano Clay

    Lu, Jue; Hong, Chang K.; Wool, Richard P.


    We explored the combination of nanoclay with new chemically functionalized, amphiphilic, plant oil resins to form bio-based nanocomposites with improved physical and mechanical properties. These can be used in many new applications, including the development of self-healing nanocomposites through controlled reversible exfoliation/intercalation, and self-assembled nano-structures. Several chemically modified triglyceride monomers of varying polarity, combined with styrene (ca 30include acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO), maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO) and soybean oil pentaerythritol glyceride maleates (SOPERMA), containing either hydroxyl group or acid functionality or both. The clay used is a natural montmorillonite modified with methyl tallow bis-2-hydroxyethyl quaternary ammonium chloride, which has hydroxyl groups. Both XRD and TEM showed a completely exfoliated structure at 3 wtwhen the clay content is above 5 wtconsidered a mix of intercalated and partially exfoliated structure. The controlled polarity of the monomer has a major effect on the reversible dispersion of clay in the polymer matrix. The bio-based nanocomposites showed a significant increase in flexural modulus and strength. Supported by EPA and DoE

  18. Preclinical investigations of a medium-chain triglyceride:fish oil emulsion. I. Effects of bovine milk lipoprotein lipase on lipid composition.

    Carpentier, Yvon A; Dupont, Isabelle; Portois, Laurence; Malaisse, Willy J


    The bolus intravenous injection of a novel medium-chain triglyceride:fish oil emulsion (MCT:FO, 8:2, w:w) was recently found to increase within 60 min the leucocyte and platelet phospholipid content of long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids. The present report deals with the effects of bovine milk lipoprotein lipase on the lipid composition of this emulsion. The results are compared to those obtained with either a pure fish oil emulsion or a medium-chain triglyceride: long-chain triglyceride:fish oil emulsion (MLF, 5:4:1). Emphasis is placed on i) differences in the fate of distinct fatty acids initially present in the triglycerides, di glycerides and phospholipids, ii) the generation of unesterified fatty acids relative to their initial content in each emulsion, and iii) the time course for these various events. The comparison between the three emulsions under consideration also provides information relevant to their respective sensitivity to lipoprotein lipase and suitability in terms of the generation of distinct unesterified fatty acids, including long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids. Furthermore, attention is drawn to the greater efficiency for the hydrolysis of fatty acids from diglycerides as compared to triglycerides and a transient increase in the paired C8:0/C10:0 ratio in the diglycerides generated from the MCT:FO or MLF emulsion. The present study thus affords novel information relevant to the possible use of the MCT:FO emulsion in human subjects.

  19. Bead milling for lipid recovery from thraustochytrid cells and selective hydrolysis of Schizochytrium DT3 oil using lipase.

    Byreddy, Avinesh R; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish


    Marine microalgae present a renewable alternative source for sustainable production of omega-3 fatty acids, as compared to conventional sources such as krill oil and fish oil. In this study, we optimised a method for lipid extraction from marine thraustochytrids using a bead mill and enzymatic concentration of omega-3 fatty acids from the thraustochytrid oil. The optimised lipid extraction conditions were, bead size 0.4-0.6μm, 4500rpm, 4min of processing time at 5g biomass concentration. The maximum lipid yield (% dry weight basis) achieved at optimum conditions were 40.5% for Schizochytrium sp. S31 (ATCC) and 49.4% for Schizochytrium sp. DT3 (in-house isolate). DT3 oil contained 39.8% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a percentage of lipid, a higher DHA percentage than S31. Partial hydrolysis of DT3 oil using Candida rugosa lipase was performed to enrich omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the glyceride portion. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was increased to 88.7%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative analyses of glycerotoxin expression unveil a novel structural organization of the bloodworm venom system.

    Richter, Sandy; Helm, Conrad; Meunier, Frederic A; Hering, Lars; Campbell, Lahcen I; Drukewitz, Stephan H; Undheim, Eivind A B; Jenner, Ronald A; Schiavo, Giampietro; Bleidorn, Christoph


    We present the first molecular characterization of glycerotoxin (GLTx), a potent neurotoxin found in the venom of the bloodworm Glycera tridactyla (Glyceridae, Annelida). Within the animal kingdom, GLTx shows a unique mode of action as it can specifically up-regulate the activity of Cav2.2 channels (N-type) in a reversible manner. The lack of sequence information has so far hampered a detailed understanding of its mode of action. Our analyses reveal three ~3.8 kb GLTx full-length transcripts, show that GLTx represents a multigene family, and suggest it functions as a dimer. An integrative approach using transcriptomics, quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunocytochemistry shows that GLTx is highly expressed exclusively in four pharyngeal lobes, a previously unrecognized part of the venom apparatus. Our results overturn a century old textbook view on the glycerid venom system, suggesting that it is anatomically and functionally much more complex than previously thought. The herein presented GLTx sequence information constitutes an important step towards the establishment of GLTx as a versatile tool to understand the mechanism of synaptic function, as well as the mode of action of this novel neurotoxin.

  1. Jojoba oil and derivates

    Wisniak, T.


    Jojoba oil differs from all known seed oils by its almost complete absence of glycerides, making it more a liquid wax than a fat. It has become important as a possible substitute for sperm-whale oil to produce lubricants, lubricant additives and other products. The plant occurs naturally in southern Arizona and N.W. Mexico and its oil has long been used by Indians for medicinal, culinary, ritual and other purposes. It tolerates extreme daily fluctuations of temperature and grows well under the difficult soil and moisture conditions of the region. In the first part of this review the plant and its uses are described, including its floral, fruit and seed anatomy and the use of liquid wax during germination. Stored coryledon wax is used up by the embryo as a linear function of time during the first 30 days of germination and growth. Before germination, seeds weight about 0.59 mg and contain about 54% wax. The second and greater part of the review deals with jojoba oil (its extraction, properties, molecular description, toxicity and composition), jojoba meal, which remains after the oil has been extracted, and the chemical modification of the oil.

  2. Transfer of dietary fatty acids from butyric acid fortified canola oil into the meat of broilers

    Stefano Rapaccini


    Full Text Available The literature reported positive beneficial effects of butyric acid and canola oil on production performance traits of broiler chickens. Three hundred hybrid Ross 708 (150 males and 150 females were randomly allotted to 10 pens per treatment with 5 males and 5 females per pen. Ten pens were administered a diet supplemented with soybean oil (control, ten pens the same basal diet but supplemented with a blend of mono-, di-, tri-glyceride of butyric acid added to soybean oil (T1 and ten pens the same basal diet supplemented with a mix of soybean and canola oil containing butyrate (T2. No differences in final body weight, dressing percentage, liver and thigh weight were found be- tween groups. The T2 birds showed the highest feed/gain ratio (P<0.05. The control group showed the highest value for breast weight while the highest quantity of abdominal fat was in T2 carcasses. Fatty acid profile was significantly influenced by the presence of oil supplements, not only quantitatively but also qualitatively.

  3. Study on the Ascorbic Acid Content of rose Hip fruit Depending on Stationary Conditions

    Sorina Ropciuc


    Full Text Available The dog rose area includes southern and central Europe, reaching southern Scandinavia; it is also found in Asia Minor, Central Asia and North Africa. In our country, Rosa canina is the most widespread of the many species of Rosa, common in all areas. The components of the station, known also as the „stationary factors” affect differently the plant life and their chemical composition. Cynosbati fructus is the false fruit of Rosa canina L. (Rosaceae, known in Romanian as rose hip. The rose hip contain as active ingredients 500-1000 % vitamin C, 600-10000 mg% carotenoids, pectin, dextrin, vitamins B2, E, PP, flavone, sugars, organic acids, tannins, volatile oil, vanillin, triterpenoid saponosides, beta-sitosterol, fat (lecithin, glycerides of fatty acids in seeds, minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid plays an important role in human body. The greatest amount is found in plants which reached maturity. It is concentrated in the rose hip flesh. Solutions easily destroyit in the presence of UV, of copper, silver, iron and oxidative enzymes traces. Vitamin C participates actively in all processes of oxidoreductions of the living cell. Its lack in food causes the disease called scurvy which manifests itself by inflammated and bleeding gums, tooth loss. Rose hip fruits are known as medicines since prehistoric times.

  4. Improvement of Medium Chain Fatty Acid Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil via Solid-State Fermentation Using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum

    Anahita Khoramnia


    Full Text Available Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO, respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  5. Studies into the phenolic patterns of different tissues of pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) infructescence by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS (n) and GC-MS analysis.

    Steingass, Christof B; Glock, Mona P; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Carle, Reinhold


    In a comprehensive study, more than 60 phenolic compounds were detected in methanolic extracts from different tissues of pineapple infructescence by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionisation multiple-stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS (n) ) as well as by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analytical workflow combining both methods revealed numerous compounds assigned for the first time as pineapple constituents by their mass fragmentations. Pineapple crown tissue was characterised by depsides of p-coumaric and ferulic acid. In contrast, major phenolic compounds in pineapple pulp extracts were assigned to diverse S-p-coumaryl, S-coniferyl and S-sinapyl derivatives of glutathione, N-L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteine and L-cysteine, which were also identified in the peel. The latter was additionally characterised by elevated concentrations of p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acid depsides and glycerides, respectively. Two peel-specific cyanidin hexosides were found. Elevated concentrations of isomeric N,N'-diferuloylspermidines may be a useful tool for the detection of fraudulent peel usage for pineapple juice production. Mass fragmentation pathways of characteristic pineapple constituents are proposed, and their putative biological functions are discussed.

  6. Lipase degradation of Dynasan 114 and 116 solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN)--effect of surfactants, storage time and crystallinity.

    Olbrich, Carsten; Kayser, Oliver; Müller, Rainer H


    In vivo drug release from solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) takes place by diffusion and degradation of the lipid matrix. SLN with different degree of crystallinity were prepared to study the effect of crystallinity on the degradation velocity. These SLN were produced by using glycerides with different length of fatty acid chains and known differences in crystallisation velocity (Dynasan 114 and 116), and using stabilisers interfering differently with the crystallisation process of the lipid matrix (cholic acid sodium salt (NaCh), Poloxamer 407 (Plx 407)). NaCh disturbs the crystallisation process, Poloxamer shows little interference. The particles were characterised by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), degradation velocity was determined directly after production and during storage up to 4 weeks under different storage conditions using an especially developed assay based on the NEFA Test kit. After production, SLN with a lower crystallinity matrix (Dynasan 114 and 116, NaCh) degraded faster than higher crystalline particles (all SLN with Plx 407), and showed a decrease in degradation velocity with increasing crystallinity during storage. Fast crystallising particles made from Dynasan 116 stabilised with the non-interfering Plx 407 showed no change in the degradation velocity during storage. SLN produced with a higher crystalline lipid in combination with the crystallisation-disturbing NaCh (Dynasan 116, NaCh) required a 'ripening time' to reach sufficient crystallinity.

  7. Biodiesel production potential of mixed microalgal culture grown in domestic wastewater.

    Soydemir, Gulfem; Keris-Sen, Ulker Diler; Sen, Unal; Gurol, Mirat D


    In this study, a mixed microalgal culture grown in secondarily treated domestic wastewater effluent was investigated for biodiesel production using in situ transesterification method with conventional heating. The total lipid content of the mixed culture was found as 26.2% ± 0.6 by weight of dry biomass, and 74% of the lipids were contributed by total glycerides. In situ transesterification with conventional heating process under acidic conditions produced higher biodiesel yield with chloroform as the co-solvent (82.1% ± 3.9) compared to hexane (55.3% ± 3.9) under the same reaction conditions. The gas chromatography analysis showed that FAME composition was mainly composed of palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid methyl esters., and thus the mixed microalgal culture fed by domestic wastewaters has had comparable biodiesel conversion yields and FAME composition to mono-culture and pure cultures fed by synthetic culture media. Hence, this study showed that secondarily treated domestic wastewater could potentially be a suitable and sustainable medium for microalgae grown to be used as biodiesel feedstock.

  8. Effect of processed oils and fats on cholesterol metabolism. III. ; Comparison of the effects of palm oil, hardened soybean oil and cacao butter. Kako yushi no cholesterol taisha ni oyobosu eikyo. (3). ; Palm yu to koka daizuyu oyobi cacao abura tono eikyo no hikaku

    Murakami, C.; Chimi, K.; Kanematsu, H.; Niiya, I. (Japan Institute of Oils and Fats, Other Foods Inspection, Foundation, Tokyo (Japan)); Shimura, M. (Japan Margaruibe, Shortening and Lard Industries Association, Tokyo (Japan)); Mizutani, H. (Ueda Oils and Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Kobe (Japan)); Hirai, C. (Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Industrial Technology)


    Effects on cholesterol contained in serum lipids, levers and feces of rats and the metabolism were compared between palm oil, hardened soybean oil and cacao butter. In addition, the relations to the physical and chemical properties of these oils were also studied. In the case of cacao butter, saturated triglyceride of high fusing point was not contained at all and the main component is 2-oleo-1,3-disaturated glycerides. This component was the main cause for cacao butter to show the unique behavior. Concerning the cholesterol concentrations in lever, the hardened soybean oil group tended to be lower than other 3 groups and this tendency agreed approximately with that in serum. Cholesterol in the feces was also analyzed. Cholesteol content in the case of cacao butter was higher than those for the hardened soybean oil group and palm oil group, and much higher than that of the soybean oil group. But the lathosterol content did not show any significant difference compared with that of palm oil group, and the coprostanol content showed the lower value, which had the significant difference. 14 refs., 1 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Low-Cost Bio-Based Phase Change Materials as an Energy Storage Medium in Building Envelopes

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Abhari, Mr. Ramin [Renewable Energy Group, Inc.; Shukla, Dr. Nitin [Fraunhofer USA, Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston; Kosny, Dr. Jan [Fraunhofer USA, Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston


    A promising approach to increasing the energy efficiency of buildings is the implementation of phase change material (PCM) in building envelope systems. Several studies have reported the energy saving potential of PCM in building envelopes. However, wide application of PCMs in building applications has been inhibited, in part, by their high cost. This article describes a novel paraffin product made of naturally occurring fatty acids/glycerides trapped into high density polyethylene (HDPE) pellets and its performance in a building envelope application, with the ultimate goal of commercializing a low-cost PCM platform. The low-cost PCM pellets were mixed with cellulose insulation, installed in external walls and field-tested under natural weatherization conditions for a period of several months. In addition, several PCM samples and PCM-cellulose samples were prepared under controlled conditions for laboratory-scale testing. The laboratory tests were performed to determine the phase change properties of PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation both at microscopic and macroscopic levels. This article presents the data and analysis from the exterior test wall and the laboratory-scale test data. PCM behavior is influenced by the weather and interior conditions, PCM phase change temperature and PCM distribution within the wall cavity, among other factors. Under optimal conditions, the field data showed up to 20% reduction in weekly heat transfer through an external wall due to the PCM compared to cellulose-only insulation.

  10. Optimization of minoxidil microemulsions using fractional factorial design approach.

    Jaipakdee, Napaphak; Limpongsa, Ekapol; Pongjanyakul, Thaned


    The objective of this study was to apply fractional factorial and multi-response optimization designs using desirability function approach for developing topical microemulsions. Minoxidil (MX) was used as a model drug. Limonene was used as an oil phase. Based on solubility, Tween 20 and caprylocaproyl polyoxyl-8 glycerides were selected as surfactants, propylene glycol and ethanol were selected as co-solvent in aqueous phase. Experiments were performed according to a two-level fractional factorial design to evaluate the effects of independent variables: Tween 20 concentration in surfactant system (X1), surfactant concentration (X2), ethanol concentration in co-solvent system (X3), limonene concentration (X4) on MX solubility (Y1), permeation flux (Y2), lag time (Y3), deposition (Y4) of MX microemulsions. It was found that Y1 increased with increasing X3 and decreasing X2, X4; whereas Y2 increased with decreasing X1, X2 and increasing X3. While Y3 was not affected by these variables, Y4 increased with decreasing X1, X2. Three regression equations were obtained and calculated for predicted values of responses Y1, Y2 and Y4. The predicted values matched experimental values reasonably well with high determination coefficient. By using optimal desirability function, optimized microemulsion demonstrating the highest MX solubility, permeation flux and skin deposition was confirmed as low level of X1, X2 and X4 but high level of X3.

  11. Penetration enhancer-containing vesicles (PEVs) as carriers for cutaneous delivery of minoxidil: in vitro evaluation of drug permeation by infrared spectroscopy.

    Mura, Simona; Manconi, Maria; Fadda, Anna Maria; Sala, Maria Chiara; Perricci, Jacopo; Pini, Elena; Sinico, Chiara


    Recently, we carried out a research on new liposomal systems prepared by using in their composition a few penetration enhancers which differ for chemical structure and physicochemical properties. The penetration enhancer-containing vesicles (PEVs) were prepared by using soy lecithin and different amounts of three penetration enhancers, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy) ethanol (Transcutol(®)), capryl-caproyl macrogol 8-glyceride (Labrasol(®)), and cineole.To study the influence of the PEVs on (trans)dermal delivery of minoxidil, in vitro diffusion experiments were performed through new born pig skin and the results were compared with that obtained applying the vesicular system without enhancer (control) after pretreatment of the skin with the various enhancers. In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), attenuated total reflectance FTIR (ATR-FTIR) and FTIR imaging were used to evaluate the effective penetration of minoxidil in the skin layers and to discover the influence of the enhancer on the drug topical delivery. These analytical studies allowed us to characterize the drug formulations and to evaluate the vesicle distribution into the skin. Recorded spectra confirmed that the vesicle formulations with penetration enhancers promoted drug deposition into the skin.

  12. Lipid Production from Microalgae as a Promising Candidate for Biodiesel Production

    Arief Widjaja


    Full Text Available Recently, several strains of microalgae have been studied as they contain high lipid content capable to be converted to biodiesel. Fresh water microalgae Chlorella vulgaris studied in this research was one of the proof as it contained high triacyl glyceride which made it a potential candidate for biodiesel production. Factors responsible for good growing of microalgae such as CO2 and nitrogen concentration were investigated. It was found that total lipid content was increased after exposing to media with not enough nitrogen concentration. However, under this nitrogen depletion media, the growth rate was very slow leading to lower lipid productivity. The productivity could be increased by increasing CO2 concentration. The lipid content was found to be affected by drying temperature during lipid extraction of algal biomass. Drying at very low temperature under vacuum gave the best result but drying at 60oC slightly decreased the total lipid content.

  13. Improvement of medium chain fatty acid content and antimicrobial activity of coconut oil via solid-state fermentation using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum.

    Khoramnia, Anahita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ajdari, Zahra; Lai, Oi-Ming


    Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER) method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs) considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion) and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO), respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  14. Novel Controlled Release Polymer-Lipid Formulations Processed by Hot Melt Extrusion.

    Maniruzzaman, Mohammed; Islam, Muhammad T; Halsey, Sheelagh; Amin, Devyani; Douroumis, Dennis


    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of novel polymer/lipid formulations on the dissolution rates of the water insoluble indomethacin (INM), co-processed by hot melt extrusion (HME). Formulations consisted of the hydrophilic hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose polymer (HPMCAS) and stearoyl macrogol-32 glycerides-Gelucire 50/13 (GLC) were processed with a twin screw extruder to produce solid dispersions. The extrudates characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and hot stage microscopy (HSM) indicated the presence of amorphous INM within the polymer/lipid matrices. In-line monitoring via near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy revealed significant peak shifts indicating possible interactions and H-bonding formation between the drug and the polymer/lipid carriers. Furthermore, in vitro dissolution studies showed a synergistic effect of the polymer/lipid carrier with 2-h lag time in acidic media followed by enhanced INM dissolution rates at pH > 5.5.

  15. Relationship between hepatic fatty acid desaturation and lipid secretion in the estrogenized chicken.

    Hermier, D; Catheline, D; Legrand, P


    Desaturation of fatty acids is thought to facilitate their incorporation into glyceride and their subsequent secretion as lipoproteins. However, in the laying hen, the dramatic increase in hepatic lipogenesis is often paralleled by a liver steatosis that may affect egg production and even result in death. The balance between lipid secretion and storage, in relation to the fatty acid desaturation process, was therefore investigated in young male estrogenized chicken. Estrogen stimulation resulted in a dramatic increase in VLDL concentration (40.4 mg/ml versus 0.158 mg/ml in control) and hepatic lipid content (8.61 g/liver versus 1.47 g/liver in control). In estrogenized chickens, VLDL, total liver, and microsomes contained relatively more monounsaturated and less saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, whereas hepatic delta 9 desaturase activity was twofold higher. Moreover, in these birds, the proportion of monoenoic fatty acids was greater in VLDL (55%) than in the liver (50%), which was indicative of their preferential secretion. Therefore, under the influence of estrogen, fatty acid synthesis and desaturation are associated with and increased VLDL secretion, which limits the degree of hepatic accumulation of triglyceride and the risk of subsequent steatosis.

  16. Study of formulation of mild pharmaceutical forms of paracetamol in medical practice.

    Abdullahu, Bedri; Morina, Naim; Islami, Hilmi


    Paracetamol is one of the most used antipyretic- analgesic preparation, which can be found in different pharmaceutical forms and in different doses. Due to its wide utilization in the clinical practice, determination of paracetamol in pharmaceutical formulation is of a great importance since that over dosage with paracetamol may cause the hepatic fulminant necroses and other toxic effects. Study has included two formulations of paracetamol suppositories with doses of 125 mg widely used in the paediatric practice. Suppositories prepared according to these two formulations by the melting method and spilling into forms was subject to the quality control by implementing a series of trials and analyses for that aim, such are: reactions of identification, average mass, disintegration time, and homogeneity whilst quantitative determination was performed by applying two methods of instrumental analyze: spectrophotometry in UV zone and cromatography in liquid phase with high pressure. Results of these analyses, performed immediately following the preparation and 3 months after the preparation, showed that content of paracetamol in both of two formulations is within the norms of Pharmacopoeia. Suppositories of paracetamol in doses of 125 mg prepared as per formulation 1 are to be considered as more appropriate because it contains semi synthetic glycerides as excipient which has better features than other suppository excipients.

  17. 增稠剂和乳化剂对豆浆稳定性的影响%Effect of thickener and emulsifier on soymilk stability

    王娜; 汪立平; 赵勇


    为增加豆浆的稳定性,采用测定豆浆稳定系数、表面张力及进行感官评分的方法筛选适合用于豆浆样品的增稠剂和乳化剂,确定了最适宜的豆浆增稠剂和乳化剂的种类及其用量。经过黄原胶、刺槐豆胶、卡拉胶、结冷胶和海藻酸钠的单因素实验,黄原胶和刺槐豆胶的复配实验及黄原胶、刺槐豆胶和乳化剂(单硬脂酸甘油酯和蔗糖脂肪酸酯)的正交实验得出以下结果:黄原胶和刺槐豆胶对增加豆浆稳定性有着较好的效果,当它们的质量浓度分别为0.2g/L时,其稳定系数分别为0.737、0.742。单硬脂酸甘油酯和蔗糖脂肪酸酯复配后HLB=8、质量浓度为2g/L时,豆浆样品的稳定性最好,表面张力为41.7mN/m。当黄原胶、刺槐豆胶、乳化剂质量浓度(单硬脂酸甘油酯质量∶蔗糖脂肪酸酯质量=7∶4)分别为0.14、0.14、2g/L时豆浆的稳定性最好,此时豆浆样品的稳定系数为0.879,表面张力为41.6mN/m,感官评分为96。%To improve the soymilk stability,the thickener and emulsifier which were suitable for soymilk were chosen by determining the coefficient of stability,surface tension and sensory score of soymilk.And the most suitable thickener and emulsifier of soymilk and their dosages were determined.After single factor experiment of xanthan gum,locust bean gum,kara glue,gellan gum and sodium alginate,compound experiment of xanthan gum and locust bean gum and the orthogonal experiment of xanthan gum,locust bean gum and emulsifier(single stearic acid glyceride and sucrose fatty acid ester)were carried out,the results were as follows:xanthan gum and locust bean gum had good effect in increasing the soymilk stability in all the thickeners,and their coefficients of stability were 0.737 and 0.742 respectively,when the concentrations were both 0.2g/L.The stability of soymilk added up to highest value when the single stearic acid glyceride and sucrose fatty acid ester

  18. Minor components in oils obtained from Amazonian palm fruits

    Santos, M. F.G.


    Full Text Available This study deals with the characterization of minor compounds in oils obtained from the mesocarp of fruits of the main palm species from the State of Amapá, Brazil, i.e. bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, inajá (Maximiliana maripa, pupunha (Bactris gasipaes and tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare. The concentration of minor glyceridic compounds, i.e. dimeric triacylglycerols (TAG, the oxidized TAG and diacylglycerols (DAG related to oil quality, and the compounds of unsaponifiable matter, i.e. hydrocarbons, aliphatic alcohols, sterols and tocopherols have been determined. The results indicate that the extracted oils had good initial quality, with DAG as the major glyceridic compound. The contents of hydrocarbons (50-734 mg·kg–1 and aliphatic alcohols (80-490 mg·kg–1 were highly variable with inajá oil containing the highest contents. In the case of tocopherols, buriti (1567 mg·kg–1 and tucumã (483 mg·kg–1 oils had the highest contents and the presence of significant amounts of tocotrienols was only detected in inajá oil. Finally, high concentrations of sterols were found in all the samples, particularly in the oils from pupunha (4456 mg·kg–1 and tucumã (2708 mg·kg–1, with β-sitosterol being the major sterol in all the samples with percentages between 65 and 83%.El objetivo de este estudio fue la caracterización de los componentes menores presentes en los aceites obtenidos del mesocarpio de frutos de especies de bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, inajá (Maximiliana maripa, pupuña (Bactris gasipaes y tucumá (Astrocaryum vulgare, de importante producción en el Estado de Amapá, Brasil. Se determinaron las dos principales fracciones presentes en los aceites. Por una parte, los compuestos menores derivados de los componentes mayoritarios o triglicéridos (TAG: dímeros de TAG, TAG oxidados y diglicéridos (DAG relacionados con la calidad de los aceites y, por otra, los principales grupos




    Full Text Available Medium-chain acylglycerols (or glycerides are formed of mono-, di- and triacylglycerol classes. In this study, an alternative method to produce MCA from esterifying palm oil fatty acid distillate (PFAD with the presence of oil palm mesocarp lipase (OPML which is a plant-sourced lipase and PFAD is also cheap by-product is developed in a packed bed reactor. The production of medium-chain acylglycerols (MCA by lipase-catalysed esterification of palm oil fatty acid distillate with glycerol are optimize in order to determine the factors that have significant effects on the reaction condition and high yield of MCA. Response surface methodology (RSM was applied to optimize the reaction conditions. The reaction conditions, namely, the reaction time (30-240 min, enzyme load (0.5-1.5 kg, silica gel load (0.2-1.0 kg, and solvent amount (200-600 vol/wt. Reaction time, enzyme loading and solvent amount strongly effect MCA synthesis (p0.05 influence on MCA yield. Best-fitting models were successfully established for MCA yield (R 2 =0.9133. The optimum MCA yield were 75% from the predicted value and 75.4% from the experimental data for 6 kg enzyme loading, a reaction time of 135min and a solvent amount of 350 vol/wt at 65ºC reaction temperature. Verification of experimental results under optimized reaction conditions were conducted, and the results agreed well with the predicted range. Esterification products (mono-, di- and triacylglycerol from the PBR were identified using Thin Layer Chromatography method. The chromatograms showed the successful fractionation of esterified products in this alternative method of process esterification.

  20. 血尿酸浓度与慢性心力衰竭患者的血糖血脂血压相关性研究%Analysis on the relationships between serum uric acid concentration and blood -sugar, blood -lipid, and blood- pressure in patients with chronic heart failure



    Objective To explore the relationships between serum uric acid(SUA) concentration and blood - sugar, blood lipid, and blood - pressure in patients with chronic heart failure. Methods Eighty -four patients suffering from chronic heart failure were used as the observation group and another 84 healthy people with normal heart function as the control group. The SUA, blood -pressure, fasting blood- glucose, blood- lipid including cholesterol, three acids glyceride, high -density lipo- protein, and low- density lipo- protein were determined in two groups. Results Compared with the control group, the patients with chronic heart failure have higher incidence in high SUA, high choles-terol, high blood - pressure, and abnormality in blood - sugar and blood - lipid. ( P < 0.05 ).Conclusions High SUA is relative to blood - sugar, blood - lipid, and blood - pressure in patients with chronic heart failure.%目的 探讨血尿酸浓度与慢性心力衰竭患者血糖、血脂、血压的关系.方法 选择84例慢性心力衰竭患者为观察组,另选84例心功能正常者为对照组,测定血尿酸、血压、空腹血糖、血脂,包括血浆总胆固醇、甘油三酯、高密度脂蛋白、低密度脂蛋白.结果 慢性心力衰竭组中高尿酸、高血压、血糖和血脂异常的发生率较高,与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 高尿酸血症与慢性心力衰竭患者的血糖、血脂、血压水平密切相关.

  1. A novel tropically stable oral amphotericin B formulation (iCo-010) exhibits efficacy against visceral Leishmaniasis in a murine model.

    Wasan, Ellen K; Gershkovich, Pavel; Zhao, Jinying; Zhu, Xiaohua; Werbovetz, Karl; Tidwell, Richard R; Clement, John G; Thornton, Sheila J; Wasan, Kishor M


    To develop an oral formulation of amphotericin B (AmB) that is stable at the temperatures of WHO Climatic Zones 3 and 4 (30-43 °C) and to evaluate its efficacy in a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The stability testing of four novel oral lipid AmB formulations composed of mono- and di-glycerides and pegylated esters (iCo-010 to iCo-013) was performed over 60 d and analyzed by HPLC-UV. In addition, the four formulations were incubated 4 h in fasted-state simulated intestinal fluid. AmB concentration was measured spectrophotometrically and emulsion droplet diameter was assessed by dynamic light scattering. Antileishmanial activity of iCo-010 was evaluated at increasing oral doses (2.5 to 10 mg/kg) in a murine model of VL. AmB stability in the lipid formulation (iCo-010) was >75% over 60 days. After 4 h in fasted-state simulated intestinal fluid, AmB concentration was >95%. iCo-010 demonstrated significant efficacy when orally administered to VL-infected mice bid for five days (inhibition of 99%, 98%, and 83% at 10, 5 and 2.5 mg/kg compared to the vehicle control). In addition, the qd dose of 20 mg/kg provided 96% inhibition compared to the vehicle control. The oral AmB formulation iCo-010 is stable at the temperatures of WHO Climatic Zones 3 and 4 (30-43 °C). iCo-010 showed excellent antileishmanial activity at both 10 mg/kg po bid for 5 days (<99% reduction in parasitic infection) and 20 mg/kg po qd for 5 days (95% inhibition when compared to control).

  2. Effect of Lipid Composition in Propofol Formulations: Decisive Component in Reducing the Free Propofol Content and Improving Pharmacodynamic Profiles.

    Darandale, Sharad S; Shevalkar, Ganesh B; Vavia, Pradeep R


    Current endeavor was aimed towards studying significance of lipid composition on free propofol concentration in aqueous phase and associated pain on injection. Three different nanoformulations, namely long-chain triglyceride (LCT)/medium-chain glyceride (MCG)-based nanoemulsion (ProNano), MCG-based self-nanoemulsifying formulation (PSNE), and lipid-free nanoformulation (PNS) were accessed for the same. In vitro and in vivo performances of developed formulations were compared with Diprivan®. ProNano showed minimum free propofol concentration (0.13%) and hence lower pain on injection (rat paw-lick test, 6 ± 2 s) compared to Diprivan®, PSNE, and PNS (0.21%, 0.23%, and 0.51% free propofol, respectively, and rat paw-lick test; 12 ± 3, 14 ± 2, and 22 ± 3 s, respectively). These results conjecture the role of MCG in effective encapsulation of propofol. Anesthetic action assessed by measuring duration of loss of righting reflex (LORR), which was found similar in case of ProNano and PSNE (14 ± 3 and 15 ± 3 min, respectively) compared to Diprivan® (13 ± 3 min). In case of lipid-free formulation, PNS, extended anesthetic action (21 ± 2 min) was observed which may be due to sustained release of propofol from nanosponges. Studies on effect of lipoproteins on propofol release highlighted significance of HDL (100% release with maximum concentration of about 1.2 μg/ml of HDL) from all three formulations.

  3. Estimating triacylglycerols from fatty acids by chemometrics. An application in Spanish virgin olive oil

    García Pulido, J.


    Full Text Available The level of acceptation of "1, 3-random 2-random" pattern of acyl groups distribution in virgin olive oil glycerides has been analysed in 36 samples, by comparing the values of triacylglycerols obtained by HPLC with those reported by the cited theory. Hotelling's T2, Principal Components and Canonical Correlation Analysis have been used to study both data sets. The normality of the data distributions, the intra-and intergroup correlations of the triacylglycerols were studied before these multivariate statistical algorithms were applied. An alternative way of estimating triacylglycerols from only total fatty acids has also been studied. A Stepwise Multiple Regression procedure has been employed, and Multiple R coefficients fluctuate between 0,75 and 0,94 except for the variable SOS.

    Se ha analizado el nivel de aceptación del patrón "1, 3-al azar 2-al azar" de la distribución de los grupos acil dentro de los glicéridos del aceite de oliva. Para ello se han comparado los valores de los triglicéridos obtenidos por HPLC con los deducidos mediante esa teoría con 36 muestras de aceites de oliva españoles. Hotelling's T2, Componentes Principales y Correlación Canónica han sido los procedimientos estadísticos usados para estudiar ambos grupos de datos. Previamente se habían analizado la normalidad de la distribución de los datos y las correlaciones intra-intergrupo de triglicéridos. Se propone un camino alternativo para estimar algunos triglicéridos mediante los valores de los ácidos grasos. Se ha empleado un procedimiento de regresión múltiple por pasos, obteniéndose valores de R que fluctúan entre 0,75 y 0,94 excepto para el triglicérido SOS.

  4. Revealing the Nature and Distribution of Metal Carboxylates in Jackson Pollock's Alchemy (1947) by Micro-Attenuated Total Reflection FT-IR Spectroscopic Imaging.

    Gabrieli, Francesca; Rosi, Francesca; Vichi, Alessandra; Cartechini, Laura; Pensabene Buemi, Luciano; Kazarian, Sergei G; Miliani, Costanza


    Protrusions, efflorescence, delamination, and opacity decreasing are severe degradation phenomena affecting oil paints with zinc oxide, one of the most common white pigments of the 20th century. Responsible for these dramatic alterations are the Zn carboxylates (also known as Zn soaps) originated by the interaction of the pigment and the fatty acids resulting from the hydrolysis of glycerides in the oil binding medium. Despite their widespread occurrence in paintings and the growing interest of the scientific community, the process of formation and evolution of Zn soaps is not yet fully understood. In this study micro-attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FT-IR spectroscopic imaging was required for the investigation at the microscale level of the nature and distribution of Zn soaps in the painting Alchemy by J. Pollock (1947, Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice) and for comparison with artificially aged model samples. For both actual samples and models, the role of AlSt(OH)2, a jellifying agent commonly added in 20th century paint tube formulations, proved decisive for the formation of zinc stearate-like (ZnSt2) soaps. It was observed that ZnSt2-like soaps first form around the added AlSt(OH)2 particles and then eventually grow within the whole painting stratigraphy as irregularly shaped particles. In some of the Alchemy samples, and diversely from the models, a peculiar distribution of ZnSt2 aggregates arranged as rounded and larger particles was also documented. Notably, in one of these samples, larger agglomerates of ZnSt2 expanding toward the support of the painting were observed and interpreted as the early stage of the formation of internal protrusions. Micro-ATR-FT-IR spectroscopic imaging, thanks to a very high chemical specificity combined with high spatial resolution, was proved to give valuable information for assessing the conservation state of irreplaceable 20th century oil paintings, revealing the chemical distribution of Zn soaps within the paint

  5. New surface-modified solid lipid nanoparticles using N-glutaryl phosphatidylethanolamine as the outer shell

    Derakhshandeh K


    Full Text Available Soheila Kashanian1, Abbas Hemati Azandaryani1, Katayoun Derakhshandeh2,3 1School of Chemistry, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Center and Sensor and Biosensor Research Center, Razi University, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 3Nanoscience and Technology Research Center School of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran Background: Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs are colloidal carrier systems which provide controlled-release profiles for many substances. In this study, we prepared aqueous dispersions of lipid nanoparticles using a modified, pH-sensitive derivative of phosphatidylethanolamine. Methods: SLNs were prepared using polysorbate 80 as the surfactant and tripalmitin glyceride and N-glutaryl phosphatidylethanolamine as the lipid components. Particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential were examined by photon correlation spectroscopy. Morphological evaluation was performed using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Results: Photon correlation spectroscopy revealed a particle hydrodynamic diameter of 165.8 nm and zeta potential of –41.6.0 mV for the drug-loaded nanoparticles. Atomic force microscopy investigation showed the nanoparticles to be 50–600 nm in length and 66.5 nm in height. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the majority of SLNs possessed less ordered arrangements of crystals compared with corresponding bulk lipids, which is favorable for improving drug-loading capacity. Drug-loading capacity and drug entrapment efficiency values for the SLNs were 25.32% and 94.32%, respectively. Conclusion: The SLNs prepared in this study were able to control the release of triamcinolone acetonide under acidic conditions. Keywords: solid lipid nanoparticles, high-shear homogenization, triamcinolone acetonide, tripalmitin, phosphatidylethanolamine

  6. Influence of the hydrophilicity of suppository bases on rectal absorption of carprofen, a lipophilic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

    Schmitt, M; Guentert, T W


    The influence of the hydrophilicity of fatty suppository bases on the rectal absorption of the lipophilic drug carprofen (octanol-buffer, pH 7.4; partition coefficient, 40) was investigated in dogs. Five animals received each of six carprofen formulations in a random sequence: intravenous, oral, and rectal solutions, and three suppository formulations. The suppository vehicles tested were semisynthetic glycerides containing saturated fatty acids mainly in the range of C10 to C18 [Massa Estarinum A (MEA), Massa Estarinum B (MEB), and Massa Estarinum 299 (ME299)]; their hydroxyl values increased from 1 for ME299, through 24 for MEB, to 45 for MEA. Following every drug administration, blood samples were collected over a period of 104 h and carprofen plasma concentrations were measured by a specific HPLC method with UV detection. The rate and extent of carprofen absorption were characterized by evaluation of the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax), the time of their occurrence (tmax), absolute bioavailabilities, statistical moments, and by deconvolution. Carprofen was rapidly and completely absorbed from the oral solution. The maximum concentrations obtained with oral solutions were significantly higher than those observed with rectal solutions and with the three suppository formulations. Results obtained with the rectal solution exhibited a high degree of intersubject variability. After rectal administration of suppositories, the rate and extent of carprofen absorption increased with the hydroxyl value of the suppository base; the mean absorption times (MAT) and tmax were shorter with MEA (2.15 and 1.7 h, respectively) than with the less hydrophilic vehicles (MEB: 4.09 and 2.1 h, respectively; ME299: 4.22 and 2.4 h, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Imaging and chemical surface analysis of biomolecular functionalization of monolithically integrated on silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometric immunosensors

    Gajos, Katarzyna, E-mail: [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Angelopoulou, Michailia; Petrou, Panagiota [Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Awsiuk, Kamil [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Kakabakos, Sotirios [Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Haasnoot, Willem [RIKILT Wageningen UR, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen (Netherlands); Bernasik, Andrzej [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Rysz, Jakub [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Marzec, Mateusz M. [Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis [Department of Microelectronics, Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Budkowski, Andrzej [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland)


    Highlights: • Optimization of probe immobilization with robotic spotter printing overlapping spots. • In-situ inspection of microstructured surfaces of biosensors integrated on silicon. • Imaging and chemical analysis of immobilization, surface blocking and immunoreaction. • Insight with molecular discrimination into step-by-step sensor surface modifications. • Optimized biofunctionalization improves sensor sensitivity and response repeatability. - Abstract: Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (imaging, micro-analysis) has been employed to evaluate biofunctionalization of the sensing arm areas of Mach-Zehnder interferometers monolithically integrated on silicon chips for the immunochemical (competitive) detection of bovine κ-casein in goat milk. Biosensor surfaces are examined after: modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, application of multiple overlapping spots of κ-casein solutions, blocking with 100-times diluted goat milk, and reaction with monoclonal mouse anti-κ-casein antibodies in blocking solution. The areas spotted with κ-casein solutions of different concentrations are examined and optimum concentration providing homogeneous coverage is determined. Coverage of biosensor surfaces with biomolecules after each of the sequential steps employed in immunodetection is also evaluated with TOF-SIMS, supplemented by Atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Uniform molecular distributions are observed on the sensing arm areas after spotting with optimum κ-casein concentration, blocking and immunoreaction. The corresponding biomolecular compositions are determined with a Principal Component Analysis that distinguished between protein amino acids and milk glycerides, as well as between amino acids characteristic for Mabs and κ-casein, respectively. Use of the optimum conditions (κ-casein concentration) for functionalization of chips with arrays of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers provided on-chips assays

  8. Cellular and biochemical responses of the oyster Crassostrea gigas to controlled exposures to metals and Alexandrium minutum

    Haberkorn, Hansy; Lambert, Christophe; Le Goïc, Nelly [Laboratoire des Sciences de l‘Environnement Marin, UMR 6539, Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Place Copernic, Technopôle Brest-Iroise, 29280 Plouzané (France); Quéré, Claudie [IFREMER Centre de Brest, Laboratoire de Physiologie des Invertébrés, Unité Physiologie Fonctionnelle des Organismes Marins, BP 70, 29280 Plouzané (France); Bruneau, Audrey; Riso, Ricardo; Auffret, Michel [Laboratoire des Sciences de l‘Environnement Marin, UMR 6539, Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Place Copernic, Technopôle Brest-Iroise, 29280 Plouzané (France); Soudant, Philippe, E-mail: [Laboratoire des Sciences de l‘Environnement Marin, UMR 6539, Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Place Copernic, Technopôle Brest-Iroise, 29280 Plouzané (France)


    Highlights: •Oysters, C. gigas, were exposed to both metals and PST-producer A. minutum. •Oysters exposed to metals accumulated about thirty-six times less PSTs. •Exposure to both metals and A. minutum induced antagonistic or synergetic effects. -- Abstract: Effects of simultaneous exposure of Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, to both a harmful dinoflagellate that produces Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST), Alexandrium minutum, and cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu), were assessed. Oysters were exposed to a mix of Cd–Cu with two different diets (i.e. A. minutum or Tisochrysis lutea) and compared to control oysters fed A. minutum or T. lutea, respectively, without metal addition. Metals and PST accumulations, digestive gland lipid composition, and cellular and biochemical hemolymph variables were measured after 4 days of exposure. Oysters exposed to Cd–Cu accumulated about thirty-six times less PSTs than oysters exposed to A. minutum alone. Exposure to Cd–Cu induced significant changes in neutral lipids (increase in diacylglycerol – DAG – and decrease in sterols) and phospholipids (decreases in phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, cardiolipin and ceramide aminoethylphosphonate) of digestive gland suggesting that lipid metabolism disruptions and/or lipid peroxidation have occurred. Simultaneously, concentrations, percentages of dead cells and phenoloxidase activity of hemocytes increased in oysters exposed to metals while reactive oxygen species production of hemocytes decreased. Feeding on the harmful dinoflagellate A. minutum resulted in significant decreases in monoacylglycerol (MAG) and DAG and ether glycerides (EG), as well as significant increases in hemocyte concentration and phagocytic activity as compared to oysters fed T. lutea. Finally, the present study revealed that short-term, simultaneous exposure to Cd–Cu and A. minutum may induce antagonistic (i.e. hemocyte concentration and phagocytosis) or synergic (i.e. DAG content in

  9. Cytotoxicity, Intestinal Transport, and Bioavailability of Dispersible Iron and Zinc Supplements

    Jae-Min Oh


    Full Text Available Iron or zinc deficiency is one of the most important nutritional disorders which causes health problem. However, food fortification with minerals often induces unacceptable organoleptic changes during preparation process and storage, has low bioavailability and solubility, and is expensive. Nanotechnology surface modification to obtain novel characteristics can be a useful tool to overcome these problems. In this study, the efficacy and potential toxicity of dispersible Fe or Zn supplement coated in dextrin and glycerides (SunActive FeTM and SunActive ZnTM were evaluated in terms of cytotoxicity, intestinal transport, and bioavailability, as compared with each counterpart without coating, ferric pyrophosphate (FePP and zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles (NPs, respectively. The results demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of FePP was not significantly affected by surface modification (SunActive FeTM, while SunActive ZnTM was more cytotoxic than ZnO-NPs. Cellular uptake and intestinal transport efficiency of SunActive FeTM were significantly higher than those of its counterpart material, which was in good agreement with enhanced oral absorption efficacy after a single-dose oral administration to rats. These results seem to be related to dissolution, particle dispersibility, and coating stability of materials depending on suspending media. Both SunActiveTM products and their counterpart materials were determined to be primarily transported by microfold (M cells through the intestinal epithelium. It was, therefore, concluded that surface modification of food fortification will be a useful strategy to enhance oral absorption efficiency at safe levels.

  10. Crystal structure of a triacylglycerol lipase from Penicillium expansum at 1.3 A determined by sulfur SAD

    Bian, Chuanbing; Yuan, Cai; Chen, Liqing; Meehan, Edward J.; Jiang, Longguang; Huang, Zixiang; Lin, Lin; Huang, Mingdong; (UAH); (Fujian); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)


    Triacylglycerol lipases (EC are present in many different organisms including animals, plants, and microbes. Lipases catalyze the hydrolysis of long-chain triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol at the interface between the water insoluble substrate and the aqueous phase. Lipases can also catalyze the reverse esterification reaction to form glycerides under certain conditions. Lipases of microbial origin are of considerable commercial interest for wide variety of biotechnological applications in industries, including detergent, food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, fine chemicals, and biodiesel. Nowadays, microbial lipases have become one of the most important industrial enzymes. PEL (Penicillium expansum lipase) is a fungal lipase from Penicillium expansum strain PF898 isolated from Chinese soil that has been subjected to several generations of mutagenesis to increase its enzymatic activity. PEL belongs to the triacylglycerol lipases family, and its catalytic characteristics have been studied. The enzyme has been used in Chinese laundry detergent industry for several years ( However, the poor thermal stability of the enzyme limits its application. To further study and improve this enzyme, PEL was cloned and sequenced. Furthermore, it was overexpressed in Pichia pastoris. PEL contains GHSLG sequence, which is the lipase consensus sequence Gly-X1-Ser-X2-Gly, but has a low amino acid sequence identities to other lipases. The most similar lipases are Rhizomucor miehei (PML) and Rhizopus niveus (PNL) with a 21% and 20% sequence identities to PEL, respectively. Interestingly, the similarity of PEL with the known esterases is somewhat higher with 24% sequence identity to feruloyl esterase A. Here, we report the 1.3 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of PEL determined by sulfur SAD phasing. This structure not only presents a new lipase structure at high resolution, but also provides a structural platform to analyze the published

  11. 1,8-Bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene/9-aminoacridine: A new binary matrix for lipid fingerprinting of intact bacteria by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    Calvano, C.D., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Monopoli, A.; Ditaranto, N. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Palmisano, F. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca S.M.A.R.T., Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)


    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •New binary matrix for less ionizable lipid analysis with no interfering peaks. •Combined MALDI and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. •Fast lipid fingerprint on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by MALDI MS. •Mapping of phospholipids by XPS imaging. •Very fast membrane lipid extraction procedure. -- Abstract: The effectiveness of a novel binary matrix composed of 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (DMAN; proton sponge) and 9-aminoacridine (9AA) for the direct lipid analysis of whole bacterial cells by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) is demonstrated. Deprotonated analyte signals nearly free of matrix-related ions were observed in negative ion mode. The effect of the most important factors (laser energy, pulse voltage, DMAN/9AA ratio, analyte/matrix ratio) was investigated using a Box–Behnken response surface design followed by multi-response optimization in order to simultaneously maximize signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and resolution. The chemical surface composition of single or mixed matrices was explored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, XPS imaging was used to map the spatial distribution of a model phospholipid in single or binary matrices. The DMAN/9AA binary matrix was then successfully applied to the analysis of intact Gram positive (Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis) or Gram negative (Escherichia coli) microorganisms. About fifty major membrane components (free fatty acids, mono-, di- and tri-glycerides, phospholipids, glycolipids and cardiolipins) were quickly and easily detected over a mass range spanning from ca. 200 to ca. 1600 m/z. Moreover, mass spectra with improved S/N ratio (compared to single matrices), reduced chemical noise and no formation of matrix-clusters were invariably obtained demonstrating the potential of this binary matrix to improve sensitivity.

  12. Estimations of cholesterol, triglycerides and fractionation of lipoproteins in serum samples of some Nigerian female subjects

    E.I. Adeyeye


    Full Text Available Blood samples (serum were collected to determine some biochemical parameters: total glycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C in 53 female subjects in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria using the Reflotron® (an auto analyser, supported with the use of questionnaire to get information on age and sex. Age range of the subjects was 18–80 years. The TG levels in all the subjects were < 200 mg/dL; only one subject (1.89% had TC < 200 mg/dL; nine subjects (17.0% had HDL-C ≤ 35 mg/dL; for LDL-C only one subject (1.89% had a desirable level of < 130 mg/dL; for VLDL-C 29 subjects (54.7% had values 17.2 mg/dL and above. For therapeutic decision-making, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C, were calculated. In TC/HDL-C, three subjects (5.66% had values < 4.4 and in LDL-C/HDL-C, 41 subjects (77.4% had values < 4.5. Hence, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TC/HDL-C and slightly LDL-C/HDL-C and VLDL-C in the subjects could lead to increase coronary heart diseases. Results were matched for the age and sex of subjects.

  13. A Polychaete's powerful punch: venom gland transcriptomics of Glycera reveals a complex cocktail of toxin homologs.

    von Reumont, Björn M; Campbell, Lahcen I; Richter, Sandy; Hering, Lars; Sykes, Dan; Hetmank, Jörg; Jenner, Ronald A; Bleidorn, Christoph


    Glycerids are marine annelids commonly known as bloodworms. Bloodworms have an eversible proboscis adorned with jaws connected to venom glands. Bloodworms prey on invertebrates, and it is known that the venom glands produce compounds that can induce toxic effects in animals. Yet, none of these putative toxins has been characterized on a molecular basis. Here we present the transcriptomic profiles of the venom glands of three species of bloodworm, Glycera dibranchiata, Glycera fallax and Glycera tridactyla, as well as the body tissue of G. tridactyla. The venom glands express a complex mixture of transcripts coding for putative toxin precursors. These transcripts represent 20 known toxin classes that have been convergently recruited into animal venoms, as well as transcripts potentially coding for Glycera-specific toxins. The toxins represent five functional categories: Pore-forming and membrane-disrupting toxins, neurotoxins, protease inhibitors, other enzymes, and CAP domain toxins. Many of the transcripts coding for putative Glycera toxins belong to classes that have been widely recruited into venoms, but some are homologs of toxins previously only known from the venoms of scorpaeniform fish and monotremes (stonustoxin-like toxin), turrid gastropods (turripeptide-like peptides), and sea anemones (gigantoxin I-like neurotoxin). This complex mixture of toxin homologs suggests that bloodworms employ venom while predating on macroscopic prey, casting doubt on the previously widespread opinion that G. dibranchiata is a detritivore. Our results further show that researchers should be aware that different assembly methods, as well as different methods of homology prediction, can influence the transcriptomic profiling of venom glands. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. A Polychaete’s Powerful Punch: Venom Gland Transcriptomics of Glycera Reveals a Complex Cocktail of Toxin Homologs

    von Reumont, Björn M.; Richter, Sandy; Hering, Lars; Sykes, Dan; Hetmank, Jörg; Jenner, Ronald A.; Bleidorn, Christoph


    Glycerids are marine annelids commonly known as bloodworms. Bloodworms have an eversible proboscis adorned with jaws connected to venom glands. Bloodworms prey on invertebrates, and it is known that the venom glands produce compounds that can induce toxic effects in animals. Yet, none of these putative toxins has been characterized on a molecular basis. Here we present the transcriptomic profiles of the venom glands of three species of bloodworm, Glycera dibranchiata, Glycera fallax and Glycera tridactyla, as well as the body tissue of G. tridactyla. The venom glands express a complex mixture of transcripts coding for putative toxin precursors. These transcripts represent 20 known toxin classes that have been convergently recruited into animal venoms, as well as transcripts potentially coding for Glycera-specific toxins. The toxins represent five functional categories: Pore-forming and membrane-disrupting toxins, neurotoxins, protease inhibitors, other enzymes, and CAP domain toxins. Many of the transcripts coding for putative Glycera toxins belong to classes that have been widely recruited into venoms, but some are homologs of toxins previously only known from the venoms of scorpaeniform fish and monotremes (stonustoxin-like toxin), turrid gastropods (turripeptide-like peptides), and sea anemones (gigantoxin I-like neurotoxin). This complex mixture of toxin homologs suggests that bloodworms employ venom while predating on macroscopic prey, casting doubt on the previously widespread opinion that G. dibranchiata is a detritivore. Our results further show that researchers should be aware that different assembly methods, as well as different methods of homology prediction, can influence the transcriptomic profiling of venom glands. PMID:25193302

  15. Zeolites shape up to modern catalysis

    Thomas, J.M.; Ramdas, S.; Millward, G.R.


    Small molecules, like methanol (CH/sub 3/OH) and ethanol (C/sub 2/H/sub 3/OH), as well as large ones, like hexadecane (C/sub 16/H/sub 34/), the glycerides that make up corn oil (average formula C/sub 57/H/sub 104/O/sub 6/) and jojoba oil, composed of linear esters of C/sub 20/ and C/sub 22/ unsaturated alcohols and acids (average formula C/sub 41/H/sub 78/O/sub 2/) and obtained from Simmondsia chinensis, are each converted by a catalyst known as ZSM-5 to essentially the same relatively narrow spectrum of intermediate-sized hydrocarbons. It so happens that this spectrum of hydrocarbons - containing aliphatics peaking at C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ and aromatics in the C/sub 6/ to C/sub 10/ range - corresponds closely to that which makes up petrol (gasoline). ZSM-5 thus enables good quality petrol, and many valuable raw materials such as benzene and toluene, to be produced from a number of non-petroleum raw materials, notable coal and biomass. Many other chemical conversions are also catalysed by this synthetic, silica-rich material ZSM-5, the efficacy of which depends partly upon its property of permitting only those reactants of appropriate size and flexibility to enter into, and to diffuse within, its network of crystal pores. Its efficacy also depends partly upon the fact that the only products formed are those small enough to be accommodated within, and capable of diffusing out of, the intracrystalline pores. The precise magnitude of the pores of molecular dimension, and especially of the cavities generated by intersecting pores, also imposes restrictions upon the size of the transition states through which reactant species must pass, thereby introducing a further constraint upon the otherwise numerous pathways of chemical change open, in principle, to the intermediates generated from the reactants inside the catalyst.

  16. Toxicology and pharmacology of sodium ricinoleate.

    Burdock, George A; Carabin, Ioana G; Griffiths, James C


    Ricinoleic acid constitutes approximately 90% of the fatty acid content of castor oil. Castor oil is known for its purgative effects and can be used to induce labor. Both castor oil and ricinoleic acid are approved for use in food. The mechanistic basis for purgative actions likely includes the membrane-disruptive effects of detergent-like molecules, such as sodium ricinoleate (a 'soap'). These effects have been shown to be dose-related and to exhibit a threshold below which no laxative response was evident, in both animals and in humans. Castor oil was not toxic in subchronic feeding studies in rodents at doses ranging up to 10-20% of the diet. Sodium ricinoleate, as a surfactant, demonstrates predictable skin and mucus membrane irritant effects, and may induce a Type IV dermal sensitization response in those previously sensitized to it. However, food-grade castor oil and sodium ricinoleate are prepared in such a manner as to be free of the castor bean constituents that have been proven to be the source of reported Type I immediate hypersensitivity responses. Feeding studies with castor oil in rodents provide a basis for a no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) estimate of 7,500 mg/kg/day and 5,000 mg/kg/day in mice and rats, respectively (). Applying an uncertainty factor of 100 to the lesser of these NOAELs, one can thus estimate an acceptable daily intake (ADI) in man to be 50 mg/kg, or 3,000 mg of castor oil per day in an average 60 kg person. As ricinoleic acid constitutes approximately 90% of castor oil, applying this calculation to the 3,000 mg/day estimated ADI in humans for castor oil (given the rapid hydrolysis of castor oil glyceride in the gastrointestinal tract), the acceptable daily intake of ricinoleic acid may be as high as 2,400 mg/person.

  17. Effect of partial substitution of gluten-free flour mixtures with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) flour on quality of gluten-free noodles.

    Levent, Hacer


    In this study, chia seed flour (CSF) was used in gluten-free noodle formulation at different levels (0, 10, 20 and 30%, w/w) with and without diacetyl tartaric esters of mono (and di) glycerides (DATEM). Chemical, nutritional, sensory properties and cooking quality of gluten-free noodle samples were investigated. Protein, fat, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of gluten-free noodles increased by 1.7, 5.5, 2.6 and 2.0 times at 30% usage level of CSF as compared to control sample. Phytic acid and phytate phosphorus content increased from 168.30 mg/100 g and 47.46 mg/100 g to 1057.69 mg/100 g and 298.27 mg/100 g, respectively with CSF usage. Increase of CSF level in gluten-free noodle samples caused an expected increase in the amounts of Ca, P, K, Mg, Fe and Zn. Noodle samples containing CSF showed darker colour than control. Significant increase was observed in volume increase and weight increase values with CSF addition. DATEM reduced cooking loss values of noodle samples. The use of CSF improved the gluten-free noodles taste and odor score. As a result, 20% of CSF with DATEM can be used in gluten-free noodle formulation with acceptable sensory attributes of raw and cooked samples. The present results showed that CSF had a good potential to improve the nutritional quality of noodle.

  18. Lipogenic potential of liver from morbidly obese patients with and without non-insulin-dependent diabetes

    Barakat, H.A.; McLendon, V.D.; Carpenter, J.W.; Marks, R.H.; Legett, N.; O' Brien, K.; Caro, J.F. (East Carolina Univ., Greenville, NC (USA))


    Intra-abdominal liver biopsies were obtained during surgery from fasted obese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), obese normoglycemic controls, and lean controls. Lipid synthesis was studied in freshly isolated hepatocytes and liver homogenates from the three groups of subjects. Incorporation of 3H2O into the lipids of hepatocytes was determined in the absence and presence of insulin (0.1 mumol/L). The activities of five enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis, and the incorporation of 14C-glycerol-3-phosphate into lipids were determined in liver homogenates. Basal lipid synthesis by hepatocytes was not different in the three groups of patients. Insulin stimulated lipogenesis by 8% +/- 30% in the lean controls, 33% +/- 8% in the obese controls and 17% +/- 6% in the NIDDM patients. No significant differences in the activities of the five enzymes that are involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis among the three groups of patients were observed. Similarly, incorporation of 14C-glycerol-3-phosphate by liver homogenates, in the presence of saturating or submaximal concentrations of fatty acids, did not differ among the three groups. These results show that under the experimental conditions of this study, including the fasted state of the patients, the basal capacity of liver of NIDDM patients to synthesize fatty acids or glycerides is the same as that of liver from obese and lean controls. Thus, it is likely that an increase in fatty acid flux into a liver with normal lipogenic potential may contribute to the increased synthesis of triglycerides by the liver of these patients in vivo.

  19. Comparison of metoprolol tartrate multiple-unit lipid matrix systems produced by different technologies.

    Aleksovski, Aleksandar; Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Roškar, Robert; Sovány, Tamás; Regdon, Géza; De Beer, Thomas; Vervaet, Chris; Dreu, Rok


    The aim of this study was to develop, evaluate and compare extended release mini-matrices based on metoprolol tartrate (MPT) and either glyceryl behenate (GB) or glyceryl palmitostearate (GPS). Mini-matrices were produced by three different techniques: hot melt extrusion, compression of melt granulates and prilling. Hot-melt extrusion and compression of granules obtained from melted material proved to be reliable, robust and reproducible techniques with aim of obtaining extended release matrices. Prilling tended to be susceptible to increased melt viscosity. Direct compression was not applicable for mini-matrix production due to poor powder flow. In general MPT release from all matrices was affected by its loading and the size of the units/particles. Processing of GB-MPT mixtures by different techniques did not lead to different drug release rates and patterns, while in case of GPS differently obtained matrices provided diverse MPT release outcomes. Matrices based on GB tended to have higher porosity compared to ones composed of GPS and thus most of the GB-based formulations showed faster drug delivery. FT-IR analysis revealed no interactions between primary components used for matrix production and Raman mapping outlined uniform MPT distribution throughout the units. DSC and X-ray studies revealed significant changes in the crystallinity of glycerides after storage under room conditions (GPS samples) and at increased temperature (GB and GPS samples), which was correlated to the changes seen in drug release rate and pattern after storage. Media composition in general tended to insignificantly affect GB matrices, while in case of GPS matrices increasing the pH and presence of biorelevant compounds induced faster drug release.

  20. Evaluation of soyscreen in an oil-based formulation for UV protection of Beauveria bassiana conidia.

    Behle, Robert W; Compton, David L; Laszlo, Joseph A; Shapiro-Ilan, David I


    Soyscreen oil was studied as a formulation ingredient to protect Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin conidia from UV degradation. Feruloylated soy glycerides, referred to as Soyscreen oil, are biobased UV-absorbing molecules made by combining molecules of soybean oil with ferulic acid. Conidia stored in Soyscreen oil for 28 wk at 25, 30, and 35 degrees C retained viability as well as conidia stored in sunflower oil, demonstrating that Soyscreen did not adversely affect viability with prolonged storage. For samples applied to glass and exposed to simulated sunlight (xenon light), conidia in sunflower oil with or without sunscreens (Soyscreen or oxyl methoxycinnimate) had similar conidia viability after exposure. These oil formulations retained conidia viability better than conidia applied as an aqueous treatment. However, the 10% Soyscreen oil formulation applied to field grown cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants, did not improve residual insecticidal activity compared with aqueous applications of unformulated conidia or two commercial formulations when assayed against Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) larvae. Our results suggest that the oil applications lose UV protection because the oil was absorbed by the leaf. This conclusion was supported in subsequent laboratory exposures of conidia in oil-based formulations with UV screens applied to cabbage leaves or balsa wood, which lost protection as measured by decreased viability of conidia when exposed to simulated sunlight. As a result, additional formulation techniques such as encapsulation to prevent separation of the protective oil from the conidia may be required to extend protection when oil formulations are applied in the field.

  1. Solid self-emulsifying phospholipid suspension (SSEPS) with diatom as a drug carrier.

    Milović, Mladen; Simović, Spomenka; Lošić, Dušan; Dashevskiy, Andriy; Ibrić, Svetlana


    We report the application of diatom as a solid carrier for water insoluble drugs applied in oral drug delivery system based on the self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) caprylocaproyl macrogol-8 glycerides/lecithin/propylene glycol/caprylic/capric triglyceride. Diatoms are fossilized skeletons of photosynthetic algae with complex 3-dimensional (3D), porous structure consisting of amorphous silica, obtained by purification of diatomaceous earth. Different solid samples of carbamazepine (CBZ) suspension in SEDDS, called solid self-emulsifying phospholipid suspension (SSEPS), were prepared using two methods: adsorption of CBZ dispersion in SEDDS by gentle mixing with diatoms in mortar with pestle (Method A) or dispersion of diatoms in ethanol solution of CBZ and SEDDS components, followed by ethanol evaporation (Method B). Release rate of CBZ from SSEPS was significantly higher in comparison to pure drug, physical mixture of diatoms and CBZ as well as solid dispersion of pure CBZ and diatoms obtained by ethanol evaporation. The dissolution of CBZ from SSEPS sample prepared using method B was faster than from the sample prepared by the method A. Higher dissolution for sample prepared by the method B can be attributed to the partial adsorption (deeper localization) of liquid material inside the pores of diatoms. Upon storage of the samples under accelerated conditions (40°C and 70% RH) for 10 weeks no significant changes in CBZ crystallinity and dissolution was in case of SSEPS, contrary to solid dispersion with increased crystallinity, indicating that diatoms with adsorbed liquid CBZ-loaded SEPS can maintain initial CBZ characteristics.

  2. Selective enrichment in bioactive compound from Kniphofia uvaria by super/subcritical fluid extraction and centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Duval, Johanna; Destandau, Emilie; Pecher, Virginie; Poujol, Marion; Tranchant, Jean-François; Lesellier, Eric


    Nowadays, a large portion of synthetic products (active cosmetic and therapeutic ingredients) have their origin in natural products. Kniphofia uvaria is a plant from Africa which has proved in the past by in-vivo tests an antioxidant activity due to compounds present in roots. Recently, we have observed anthraquinones in K. uvaria seeds extracts. These derivatives are natural colorants which could have interesting bioactive potential. The aim of this study was to obtain an extract enriched in anthraquinones from K. uvaria seeds which mainly contains glycerides. First, the separation of the seed compounds was studied by using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) in the goal to provide a rapid quantification method of these bioactive compounds. A screening of numerous polar stationary phases was achieved for selecting the most suited phase to the separation of the four anthraquinones founded in the seeds. A gradient elution was optimized for improving the separation of the bioactive compounds from the numerous other families of major compounds of the extracts (fatty acids, di- and triglycerides). Besides, a non-selective and green Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with pure CO2 was applied to seeds followed by a Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC). The CPC system was optimized by using the Arizona phase system, to enrich the extract in anthraquinones. Two systems were selected to isolate the bioactive compounds from the oily extract with varied purity target. The effect of the injection mode for these very viscous samples was also studied. Finally, in order to directly apply a selective process of extraction to the seeds, the super/subcritical fluid extraction was optimized to increase the anthraquinone yield in the final extract, by studying varied modifier compositions and nature, as well as different temperatures and backpressures. Conditions suited to favour an enrichment factor bases on the ratio of anthraquinone and trilycerides extracted are

  3. Self-Assembled Core-Shell-Type Lipid-Polymer Hybrid Nanoparticles: Intracellular Trafficking and Relevance for Oral Absorption.

    Li, Qiuxia; Xia, Dengning; Tao, Jinsong; Shen, Aijun; He, Yuan; Gan, Yong; Wang, Chi


    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) are advantageous for drug delivery. However, their intracellular trafficking mechanism and relevance for oral drug absorption are poorly understood. In this study, self-assembled core-shell lipid-polymer hybrid NPs made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and various lipids were developed to study their differing intracellular trafficking in intestinal epithelial cells and their relevance for oral absorption of a model drug saquinavir (SQV). Our results demonstrated that the endocytosis and exocytosis of hybrid NPs could be changed by varying the kind of lipid. A glyceride mixture (hybrid NPs-1) decreased endocytosis but increased exocytosis in Caco-2 cells, whereas the phospholipid (E200) (hybrid NPs-2) decreased endocytosis but exocytosis was unaffected as compared with PLGA nanoparticles. The transport of hybrid NPs-1 in cells involved various pathways, including caveolae/lipid raft-dependent endocytosis, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis, which was different from the other groups of NPs that involved only caveolae/lipid raft-dependent endocytosis. Compared with that of the reference formulation (nanoemulsion), the oral absorption of SQV-loaded hybrid NPs in rats was poor, probably due to the limited drug release and transcytosis of NPs across the intestinal epithelium. In conclusion, the intracellular processing of hybrid NPs in intestinal epithelia can be altered by adding lipids to the NP. However, it appears unfavorable to use PLGA-based NPs to improve oral absorption of SQV compared with nanoemulsion. Our findings will be essential in the development of polymer-based NPs for the oral delivery of drugs with the purpose of improving their oral absorption. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tools for Early Prediction of Drug Loading in Lipid-Based Formulations


    Identification of the usefulness of lipid-based formulations (LBFs) for delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs is at date mainly experimentally based. In this work we used a diverse drug data set, and more than 2,000 solubility measurements to develop experimental and computational tools to predict the loading capacity of LBFs. Computational models were developed to enable in silico prediction of solubility, and hence drug loading capacity, in the LBFs. Drug solubility in mixed mono-, di-, triglycerides (Maisine 35-1 and Capmul MCM EP) correlated (R2 0.89) as well as the drug solubility in Carbitol and other ethoxylated excipients (PEG400, R2 0.85; Polysorbate 80, R2 0.90; Cremophor EL, R2 0.93). A melting point below 150 °C was observed to result in a reasonable solubility in the glycerides. The loading capacity in LBFs was accurately calculated from solubility data in single excipients (R2 0.91). In silico models, without the demand of experimentally determined solubility, also gave good predictions of the loading capacity in these complex formulations (R2 0.79). The framework established here gives a better understanding of drug solubility in single excipients and of LBF loading capacity. The large data set studied revealed that experimental screening efforts can be rationalized by solubility measurements in key excipients or from solid state information. For the first time it was shown that loading capacity in complex formulations can be accurately predicted using molecular information extracted from calculated descriptors and thermal properties of the crystalline drug. PMID:26568134

  5. Differences in Human Meibum Lipid Composition with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction Using NMR and Principal Component Analysis

    Foulks, Gary N.; Yappert, Marta C.; Milliner, Sarah E.


    Purpose. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used to quantify lipid wax, cholesterol ester terpenoid and glyceride composition, saturation, oxidation, and CH2 and CH3 moiety distribution. This tool was used to measure changes in human meibum composition with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Methods. 1H-NMR spectra of meibum from 39 donors with meibomian gland dysfunction (Md) were compared to meibum from 33 normal donors (Mn). Results. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the CH2/CH3 regions of a set of training NMR spectra of human meibum. PCA discriminated between Mn and Md with an accuracy of 86%. There was a bias toward more accurately predicting normal samples (92%) compared with predicting MGD samples (78%). When the NMR spectra of Md were compared with those of Mn, three statistically significant decreases were observed in the relative amounts of CH3 moieties at 1.26 ppm, the products of lipid oxidation above 7 ppm, and the ═CH moieties at 5.2 ppm associated with terpenoids. Conclusions. Loss of the terpenoids could be deleterious to meibum since they exhibit a plethora of mostly positive biological functions and could account for the lower level of cholesterol esters observed in Md compared with Mn. All three changes could account for the higher degree of lipid order of Md compared with age-matched Mn. In addition to the power of NMR spectroscopy to detect differences in the composition of meibum, it is promising that NMR can be used as a diagnostic tool. PMID:22131391

  6. Penetration enhancer-containing vesicles (PEVs) as carriers for cutaneous delivery of minoxidil.

    Mura, Simona; Manconi, Maria; Sinico, Chiara; Valenti, Donatella; Fadda, Anna Maria


    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of a few different penetration enhancers to produce elastic vesicles with soy lecithin and the influence of the obtained vesicles on in vitro (trans)dermal delivery of minoxidil. To this purpose, so-called Penetration Enhancer-containing Vesicles (PEVs) were prepared as dehydrated-rehydrated vesicles by using soy lecithin and different amounts of three penetration enhancers, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethanol (Transcutol), capryl-caproyl macrogol 8-glyceride (Labrasol), and cineole. Soy lecithin liposomes, without penetration enhancers, were used as control. Prepared formulations were characterized in terms of size distribution, morphology, zeta potential, and vesicle deformability. The influence of PEVs on (trans)dermal delivery of minoxidil was studied by in vitro diffusion experiments through newborn pig skin in comparison with traditional liposomes and ethanolic solutions of the drug also containing each penetration enhancer. A skin pre-treatment study using empty PEVs and conventional liposomes was also carried out. Results showed that all the used penetration enhancers were able to give more deformable vesicles than conventional liposomes with a good drug entrapment efficiency and stability. In vitro skin penetration data showed that PEVs were able to give a statistically significant improvement of minoxidil deposition in the skin in comparison with classic liposomes and penetration enhancer-containing drug ethanolic solutions without any transdermal delivery. Moreover, the most deformable PEVs, prepared with Labrasol and cineole, were also able to deliver to the skin a higher total amount of minoxidil than the PE alcoholic solutions thus suggesting that minoxidil delivery to the skin was strictly correlated to vesicle deformability, and therefore to vesicle composition.

  7. 山茱萸多糖软胶囊的制备工艺%Preparation Technology of Comus Polysaccharides Soft Capsule

    赵艳艳; 詹政军; 郭利军


    To develop preparation technology of comus polysaccharides soft capsule, with comus production as raw material, polysaccharides was extracted with water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Preparation technique is systematically done by screening,including the shell composition of the soft capsule,the diluent of contents,and to content uniformity, liquidity and sedimentation volume as examining index. The prescription containing polyethylene glycol (PEG - 400) as dispersant, oil as adsorbent, polyethylene glyceride as emulsifier, beeswax as suspended aid, Vitamin E for strengthening agent,and the prescription showed the best stability. The preparation technology is stable and the quality is controllable. It is suitable for industrial production.%押为了研制山茱萸多糖软胶囊,以山茱萸为原材料,采用水提醇沉法制备山茱萸多糖,并筛选内容物中的主药与分散剂、吸附剂的比例,以内容物均匀度、流动性和沉降体积比为考察指标,确定山茱萸多糖软胶囊处方及制备工艺。结果表明,以聚乙二醇(PEG-400)为分散剂,食用植物油为吸附剂,聚甘油酯为乳化剂,蜂蜡为助悬剂,维生素E为增强剂制得的内容物处方最稳定。该工艺质量可控,适合于工业生产。

  8. Ether- and Ester-Bound iso-Diabolic Acid and Other Lipids in Members of Acidobacteria Subdivision 4

    Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Foesel, Bärbel U.; Wüst, Pia K.; Overmann, Jörg; Tank, Marcus; Bryant, Donald A.; Dunfield, Peter F.; Houghton, Karen; Stott, Matthew B.


    Recently, iso-diabolic acid (13,16-dimethyl octacosanedioic acid) has been identified as a major membrane-spanning lipid of subdivisions 1 and 3 of the Acidobacteria, a highly diverse phylum within the Bacteria. This finding pointed to the Acidobacteria as a potential source for the bacterial glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers that occur ubiquitously in peat, soil, lakes, and hot springs. Here, we examined the lipid composition of seven phylogenetically divergent strains of subdivision 4 of the Acidobacteria, a bacterial group that is commonly encountered in soil. Acid hydrolysis of total cell material released iso-diabolic acid derivatives in substantial quantities (11 to 48% of all fatty acids). In contrast to subdivisions 1 and 3 of the Acidobacteria, 6 out of the 7 species of subdivision 4 (excepting “Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum”) contained iso-diabolic acid ether bound to a glycerol in larger fractional abundance than iso-diabolic acid itself. This is in agreement with the analysis of intact polar lipids (IPLs) by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), which showed the dominance of mixed ether-ester glycerides. iso-Diabolic acid-containing IPLs were not identified, because these IPLs are not released with a Bligh-Dyer extraction, as observed before when studying lipid compositions of subdivisions 1 and 3 of the Acidobacteria. The presence of ether bonds in the membrane lipids does not seem to be an adaptation to temperature, because the five mesophilic isolates contained a larger amount of ether lipids than the thermophile “Ca. Chloracidobacterium thermophilum.” Furthermore, experiments with Pyrinomonas methylaliphatogenes did not reveal a major influence of growth temperature over the 50 to 69°C range. PMID:24928878

  9. Plasma total homocysteine (THCY) level and other biochemical risk factors in hypertensives with and without cardiovascular events

    Akande AA; Salisu OT; Omotoso ABO; Kolo PM


    Objective:The aim of this study is to assess the correlation between traditional cardiovascular risk factors and elevated plasma tHcy level in Nigerian hypertensive. Methods: Thirty-six hypertensive patients were recruited with 36 age and sex-matched controls. The age, sex and anthropometric measurements including height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were taken. Plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), tri-glycerides and tHey were analyzed. The results of the two groups were compared. Results: The mean total cholesterol and LDL-C were significantly higher in the subjects than in the controls (P=0.01 and 0.03 respectively). On the other hand, means of HDL-C and triglycerides were not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.06 and O. 68 respectively). Mean total plasma tHey was (12. 95±4.9)μmol/L in hypertensive patients when compared with (11.29±3.6)μmol/L in the controls (P =0.09), however the mean they was significantly higher in hypertensive patients who had stroke or myocardial infarction than those without these complications (one way Anova F = 3.63, P =0.04). Significant positive correlation was seen between tHcy and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, BMI and LDL-C. Conclusion:The study suggests that elevated plasma tH-ey may predict occurrence of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive individuals.

  10. Caracterización del aceite de la almendra de Astrocaryum macrocalyx (Burret

    Lognay, G.


    Full Text Available In the present work we investigated the glyceride and sterol compositions of Astrocaryum macrocalyx ("huicungo" kernel fat. This species is native from the Peruvian Amazonia (Iquitos. Gas chromatographic analysis of the fatty acids revealed 8 components, among which lauric (54.5% and myristic (21.9% acids predominate. The sterol profile is classic; β-sitosterol and campesterol are the main constituents (74.3 and 12.0% respectively while the Δ7-sterols were detected in minute amounts. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that Astrocaryum macrocalyx kernel fat is stabilized in the β1'-2 polymorphic form at ambiant temperature.

    En este trabajo se analizan los glicéridos y esteroles del aceite de la almendra de Astrocaryum macrocalyx ("huicungo", una especie nativa de la Amazonia peruana (Iquitos. El análisis por cromatografía gaseosa de los ácidos grasos muestra la presencia de 8 componentes, entre los cuales predominan los ácidos grasos láurico (54.5% y mirístico (21.9%. La composición esterólica es clásica; el β-sitosterol y el campesterol son mayoritarios (74.3 y 12.0% respectivamente del total. Los Δ7-esteroles están presentes en forma de trazas. Las medidas realizadas por espectrometría de difracción de rayos-X han demostrado que el "huicungo" se estabiliza en la forma polimórfica β1'-2 a temperatura ambiente.

  11. Solid-state NMR Reveals the Carbon-based Molecular Architecture of Cryptococcus neoformans Fungal Eumelanins in the Cell Wall.

    Chatterjee, Subhasish; Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Itin, Boris; Casadevall, Arturo; Stark, Ruth E


    Melanin pigments protect against both ionizing radiation and free radicals and have potential soil remediation capabilities. Eumelanins produced by pathogenic Cryptococcus neoformans fungi are virulence factors that render the fungal cells resistant to host defenses and certain antifungal drugs. Because of their insoluble and amorphous characteristics, neither the pigment bonding framework nor the cellular interactions underlying melanization of C. neoformans have yielded to comprehensive molecular-scale investigation. This study used the C. neoformans requirement of exogenous obligatory catecholamine precursors for melanization to produce isotopically enriched pigment "ghosts" and applied 2D (13)C-(13)C correlation solid-state NMR to reveal the carbon-based architecture of intact natural eumelanin assemblies in fungal cells. We demonstrated that the aliphatic moieties of solid C. neoformans melanin ghosts include cell-wall components derived from polysaccharides and/or chitin that are associated proximally with lipid membrane constituents. Prior to development of the mature aromatic fungal pigment, these aliphatic moieties form a chemically resistant framework that could serve as the scaffold for melanin synthesis. The indole-based core aromatic moieties show interconnections that are consistent with proposed melanin structures consisting of stacked planar assemblies, which are associated spatially with the aliphatic scaffold. The pyrrole aromatic carbons of the pigments bind covalently to the aliphatic framework via glycoside or glyceride functional groups. These findings establish that the structure of the pigment assembly changes with time and provide the first biophysical information on the mechanism by which melanin is assembled in the fungal cell wall, offering vital insights that can advance the design of bioinspired conductive nanomaterials and novel therapeutics.

  12. Lecithin-linker formulations for self-emulsifying delivery of nutraceuticals.

    Chu, Jacquelene; Cheng, Yu-Ling; Rao, A Venketeshwer; Nouraei, Mehdi; Zarate-Muñoz, Silvia; Acosta, Edgar J


    Lecithin-linker microemulsions are formulations produced with soybean lecithin in combination with a highly lipophilic (lipophilic linker) and highly hydrophilic (hydrophilic linkers) surfactant-like additives. In this work, lecithin-linker systems were formulated to produce self-emulsifying delivery systems for β-carotene and β-sitosterol. The concentration of the lipophilic linker, sorbitan monooleate, was adjusted to minimize the formation of liquid crystals. The concentration of hydrophilic linkers, decaglyceryl caprylate/caprate and PEG-6-caprylic/capric glycerides, was gradually increased (scanned) until single phase clear microemulsions were obtained. For these scans, the oil (ethyl caprate) to water ratio was set to 1. The single phase, clear microemulsions were diluted with fed-state simulated intestinal fluid (FeSSIF) and produced stable emulsions, with drop sizes close to 200 nm. Using pseudo-ternary phase diagrams to evaluate the process of dilution of microemulsion preconcentrates (mixtures of oil, lecithin and linkers with little or no water) with FeSSIF, it was determined that self-emulsifying systems are obtained when the early stages of the dilution produce single phase microemulsions. If liquid crystals or multiple phase systems are obtained during those early stages, then the emulsification yields unstable emulsions with large drop sizes. An in vitro permeability study conducted using a Flow-Thru Dialyzer revealed that stable emulsions with drop sizes of 150-300 nm produce large and irreversible permeation of β-carotene to sheep intestine. On the other hand, unstable emulsions produced without the linker combination separated in the dialyzer chamber. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Design and Formulation of Optimized Microemulsions for Dermal Delivery of Resveratrol

    Vaida Juškaitė


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate optimal formulations of microemulsions (MEs and evaluate their feasibility for delivery of resveratrol into human skin ex vivo. Oil-in-water MEs were formulated using surfactant (S PEG-8 caprylic/capric glycerides and cosurfactant (CoS polyglyceryl-6-isostearate. Ethyl oleate was used as an oily phase. MEs were formulated using 5 : 1, 6 : 1, and 7 : 1 surfactant and cosurfactant (S : CoS weight ratios. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed and optimal compositions of MEs were obtained using Design Expert software. Mean droplet size for optimized ME formulations was determined to be 68.54 ± 1.18 nm, 66.08 ± 0.16 nm, and 66.66 ± 0.56 nm for systems with S : CoS weight ratios 5 : 1, 6 : 1, and 7 : 1, respectively. Resveratrol loading resulted in mean droplet size increase. The distribution of droplet size between fractions changed during storage of formulated MEs. Results demonstrated the increase of number of droplets and relative surface area when S : CoS weight ratios were 6 : 1 and 7 : 1 and the decrease when S : CoS weight ratio was 5 : 1. The highest penetration of resveratrol into the skin ex vivo was determined from ME with S : CoS weight ratio 5 : 1. It was demonstrated that all MEs were similar in their ability to deliver resveratrol into the skin ex vivo.

  14. Enhanced local anesthetic action of mepivacaine from the bioadhesive gels.

    Cho, Cheong-Weon; Choi, Jun-Shik; Shin, Sang-Chul


    Mepivacaine, an amide-type local anesthetic, has been used to relieve local pain. Among the many drug delivery systems, transdermal drug delivery has some advantages, as it provides controlled drug delivery for an extended period of time. To develop new gel formulations that have suitable bioadhesion, the bioadhesive force of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was assessed using an auto-peeling tester. The effect of drug concentration on drug release from 2% HPMC gel was studied using synthetic cellulose membrane at 37±0.5°C. The drug concentrations tested were 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5%. The effect of temperature on drug release from the 2% drug gel was evaluated at 27, 32, 37 and 42°C. To increase the skin permeation of mepivacaine from HPMC gel, enhancers such as saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, pyrrolidones, propylene glycol derivatives, glycerides, and non-ionic surfactants were incorporated into the mepivacaine-HPMC gels. The enhancing effect of the enhancer on drug permeation was then examined in the modified Keshary-Chien cell. For the efficacy study, the anesthetic action of the formulated mepivacaine gel containing enhancer and vasoconstrictor was evaluated with the tail-flick analgesimeter. Among the various kinds of HPMC, HPMC-K100M gel showed the highest viscosity and bioadhesive force. As the viscosity of the HPMC gels increased, the bioadhesive forces increased. Increasing the drug concentration or temperature increased the drug release rate. Among the enhancers used, polyoxyethylene 2-oleyl ether showed the greatest enhancement of permeation. Based on the area under the efficacy curve of the rat tail flick test curve, mepivacaine gel containing polyoxyethylene 2-oleyl ether and tetrahydrozoline showed prolonged and increased local anesthetic action compared to the control. For bioadhesive mepivacaine gels with enhanced local anesthetic action, mepivacaine gels containing penetration enhancer and vasoconstrictor could be developed with the

  15. Aspergillus niger lipase-catalyzed synthesis of high contentlauric acid monoglyceride%黑曲霉脂肪酶合成单月桂酸甘油酯

    邓颖颖; 杨哪; 徐学明


    A lipase from Aspergillus niger has been found with strong catalytic activity and selectivity.In order to prove the lipase high selectivity,it was used to catalyze the fatty acids and glycerin synthetic fatty acid glyceride and optimize the reaction process parameters.The results showed that when the ratio of glycerol to lauric acid 1:1.5,the lipase dosage 0.5%(W/W),the water dosage 3%(W/W)based on the reactant which was employed in the reacting system,the conversion rate of lauric acid could reach 91.2% at 50℃ for 12h reaction.The content of lauric acid monoglycerid was about 70% in the reacting production.%从黑曲霉中提出了一种具有很高催化活性和选择性的脂肪酶,为证明这种脂肪酶的高选择性,用此酶直接催化甘油和月桂酸反应合成单月桂酸甘油酯,并且优化了反应的工艺参数。实验表明,采用甘油月桂酸摩尔比为1∶1.5,脂肪酶与底物质量比为0.5%,水与底物质量比为3%的条件在50℃下反应12h,可使月桂酸转化率达到91.2%,单酯含量高达70%。

  16. Association of cognitive function with superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde in the oldest old%高龄老人血浆超氧化物歧化酶和丙二醛与认知功能的关系

    洪文钊; 殷召雪


    Objective: To study the association of cognitive function with superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) and ma-londialdehyde (MDA) in the oldest - old aged 90 years and over. Methods: From 5 longevity areas, all centenari-ans were included, and the old aged 90 ~ 99 were matched and recruited. Information including basic information, smoking status, drinking status and leisure activities was collected by questionnaire; cognitive function was assessed by mini - mental state examination ( MMSE). 4 ml venous blood sample was collected to determine the level of tri-glycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, SOD, MDA, uric acid, Cu and Zn. General lineal model was used to test the lineal trend of MMSE scores with the level of SOD and MDA. Logistic regression was used to analyze association of cognitive function with the level of SOD and MDA. Multivariate linear regression model was fit to study the association of MMSE scores with SOD and MDA. Results: t - test showed, comparing with cognitive normal group, SOD activity of cognitive impairment group (31. 85 ±5.31 U/ml) was higher significantly ( P 0. 05 ) , after the confounded factors were adjusted. Conclusion: SOD activity was inversely associated with cognitive function among the oldest - old, while MDA was not found to be associated with cognitive function.%目的:分析高龄老人血浆超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、丙二醛(MDA)与认知功能的关系.方法:通过问卷调查基本信息、生活方式及认知功能等,测定血浆相关生化指标及SOD和MDA水平.logistic回归分析和多元线性回归模型研究认知功能与SOD、MDA水平的关系.结果:与最低水平组比较,最高水平组SOD下认知受损发生的OR(95% CI)为3.96 (1.66-9.45).SOD水平与认知功能评分之间显著相关(P<0.05),MDA与认知功能评分之间无显著相关性(P>0.05).结论:高龄老人中血浆SOD活性与认知功能呈负向关系,未发现血浆MDA与认知功能有显著关系.

  17. Signature lipids and stable carbon isotope analyses of Octopus Spring hyperthermophilic communities compared with those of Aquificales representatives

    Jahnke, L. L.; Eder, W.; Huber, R.; Hope, J. M.; Hinrichs, K. U.; Hayes, J. M.; Des Marais, D. J.; Cady, S. L.; Summons, R. E.


    The molecular and isotopic compositions of lipid biomarkers of cultured Aquificales genera have been used to study the community and trophic structure of the hyperthermophilic pink streamers and vent biofilm from Octopus Spring. Thermocrinis ruber, Thermocrinis sp. strain HI 11/12, Hydrogenobacter thermophilus TK-6, Aquifex pyrophilus, and Aquifex aeolicus all contained glycerol-ether phospholipids as well as acyl glycerides. The n-C(20:1) and cy-C(21) fatty acids dominated all of the Aquificales, while the alkyl glycerol ethers were mainly C(18:0). These Aquificales biomarkers were major constituents of the lipid extracts of two Octopus Spring samples, a biofilm associated with the siliceous vent walls, and the well-known pink streamer community (PSC). Both the biofilm and the PSC contained mono- and dialkyl glycerol ethers in which C(18) and C(20) alkyl groups were prevalent. Phospholipid fatty acids included both the Aquificales n-C(20:1) and cy-C(21), plus a series of iso-branched fatty acids (i-C(15:0) to i-C(21:0)), indicating an additional bacterial component. Biomass and lipids from the PSC were depleted in (13)C relative to source water CO(2) by 10.9 and 17.2 per thousand, respectively. The C(20-21) fatty acids of the PSC were less depleted than the iso-branched fatty acids, 18.4 and 22.6 per thousand, respectively. The biomass of T. ruber grown on CO(2) was depleted in (13)C by only 3.3 per thousand relative to C source. In contrast, biomass was depleted by 19.7 per thousand when formate was the C source. Independent of carbon source, T. ruber lipids were heavier than biomass (+1.3 per thousand). The depletion in the C(20-21) fatty acids from the PSC indicates that Thermocrinis biomass must be similarly depleted and too light to be explained by growth on CO(2). Accordingly, Thermocrinis in the PSC is likely to have utilized formate, presumably generated in the spring source region.

  18. Lactase persistence and lipid pathway selection in the Maasai.

    Wagh, Kshitij; Bhatia, Aatish; Alexe, Gabriela; Reddy, Anupama; Ravikumar, Vijay; Seiler, Michael; Boemo, Michael; Yao, Ming; Cronk, Lee; Naqvi, Asad; Ganesan, Shridar; Levine, Arnold J; Bhanot, Gyan


    The Maasai are a pastoral people in Kenya and Tanzania, whose traditional diet of milk, blood and meat is rich in lactose, fat and cholesterol. In spite of this, they have low levels of blood cholesterol, and seldom suffer from gallstones or cardiac diseases. Field studies in the 1970s suggested that the Maasai have a genetic adaptation for cholesterol homeostasis. Analysis of HapMap 3 data using Fixation Index (Fst) and two metrics of haplotype diversity: the integrated Haplotype Score (iHS) and the Cross Population Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (XP-EHH), identified genomic regions and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as strong candidates for recent selection for lactase persistence and cholesterol regulation in 143-156 founder individuals from the Maasai population in Kinyawa, Kenya (MKK). The non-synonmous SNP with the highest genome-wide Fst was the TC polymorphism at rs2241883 in Fatty Acid Binding Protein 1(FABP1), known to reduce low density lipoprotein and tri-glyceride levels in Europeans. The strongest signal identified by all three metrics was a 1.7 Mb region on Chr2q21. This region contains the genes LCT (Lactase) and MCM6 (Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component) involved in lactase persistence, and the gene Rab3GAP1 (Rab3 GTPase-activating Protein Catalytic Subunit), which contains polymorphisms associated with total cholesterol levels in a genome-wide association study of >100,000 individuals of European ancestry. Sanger sequencing of DNA from six MKK samples showed that the GC-14010 polymorphism in the MCM6 gene, known to be associated with lactase persistence in Africans, is segregating in MKK at high frequency (∼58%). The Cytochrome P450 Family 3 Subfamily A (CYP3A) cluster of genes, involved in cholesterol metabolism, was identified by Fst and iHS as candidate loci under selection. Overall, our study identified several specific genomic regions under selection in the Maasai which contain polymorphisms in genes associated with

  19. Lactase persistence and lipid pathway selection in the Maasai.

    Kshitij Wagh

    Full Text Available The Maasai are a pastoral people in Kenya and Tanzania, whose traditional diet of milk, blood and meat is rich in lactose, fat and cholesterol. In spite of this, they have low levels of blood cholesterol, and seldom suffer from gallstones or cardiac diseases. Field studies in the 1970s suggested that the Maasai have a genetic adaptation for cholesterol homeostasis. Analysis of HapMap 3 data using Fixation Index (Fst and two metrics of haplotype diversity: the integrated Haplotype Score (iHS and the Cross Population Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (XP-EHH, identified genomic regions and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs as strong candidates for recent selection for lactase persistence and cholesterol regulation in 143-156 founder individuals from the Maasai population in Kinyawa, Kenya (MKK. The non-synonmous SNP with the highest genome-wide Fst was the TC polymorphism at rs2241883 in Fatty Acid Binding Protein 1(FABP1, known to reduce low density lipoprotein and tri-glyceride levels in Europeans. The strongest signal identified by all three metrics was a 1.7 Mb region on Chr2q21. This region contains the genes LCT (Lactase and MCM6 (Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component involved in lactase persistence, and the gene Rab3GAP1 (Rab3 GTPase-activating Protein Catalytic Subunit, which contains polymorphisms associated with total cholesterol levels in a genome-wide association study of >100,000 individuals of European ancestry. Sanger sequencing of DNA from six MKK samples showed that the GC-14010 polymorphism in the MCM6 gene, known to be associated with lactase persistence in Africans, is segregating in MKK at high frequency (∼58%. The Cytochrome P450 Family 3 Subfamily A (CYP3A cluster of genes, involved in cholesterol metabolism, was identified by Fst and iHS as candidate loci under selection. Overall, our study identified several specific genomic regions under selection in the Maasai which contain polymorphisms in genes associated

  20. 丹参酮ⅡA 固体脂质纳米粒的制备及质量评价%Preparation and quality evaluation of tanshinonesⅡA solid lipid nanoparticles

    瞿继兰; 刘志东; 郭秀君; 庞晓晨; 韩真真


    [目的]以山嵛酸甘油酯和单硬脂酸甘油酯为载体材料制备丹参酮 IIA 固体脂质纳米粒(TA-SLN)并评价其质量。[方法]采用乳化固化法制备 TA-SLN,以包封率为指标,通过单因素考察法对处方进行优化,激光粒径测定仪测定其粒径、电位,并用差示扫描量热仪(DSC)表征其性质。[结果]制备的 TA-SLN 平均粒径为(110±4) nm,Zeta 电位为-34.4 mV,包封率为79.08%。DSC 表明其理化性质稳定可靠。[结论]采用乳化固化法制备的 TA-SLN 粒径和包封率较适宜,理化性质稳定,为开发其新制剂奠定了实验基础。%Objective] To prepare tanshinonesⅡA-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles with docosanoic acid glyceride and glyceryl monos-tearate as its lipid matrix and investigate its quality. [Methods] TanshinonesⅡA-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared by emul-sion evaporation-solidification. With encapsulation efficiency as index, through the single factor the formulation was optimized, using laser particle size analyzer its particle size was measured, Using potential and use DSC its properties was characterized. [Results] The obtained solid lipid nanoparticles had an average size of (110±4) nm, zeta potential was -38.5 mV and the entrapment efficiency was 79.08%. DSC showed that its physical and chemical properties were stable and reliable. [Conclusion] The solid lipid nanoparticles prepared by the emulsion evaporation-solidification have an appropriate size, the encapsulation efficiency and stable physical and chemical properties have provided an experimental foundation for the development of the new formulation.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Vincristine Sulfate-loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles%硫酸长春新碱固体脂质纳米粒的制备及其性质考察

    夏爱晓; 宋倩倩; 孙渊; 周鹏; 杜有功; 李范珠


    OBJECTIVE To prepare vincristine sulfate-solid lipid nanoparticles(VCR-SLN) with single stearic acid glyceride as its lipid matrix and investigate its characterization. METHODS Multiple emulsion-solvent diffusion technique was adopted to prepare VCR-SLN and the orthogonal design was applied to optimize its formula and technology. Its morphology, particle size, ζ potential, drug entrapment efficiency, drug loading capacity and in vitro release of the VCR-SLN were investigated. RESULTS VCR-SLN were spherelike and smooth, the mean particles size was (144.83±2.71)nm, ζ potential was (-24.77±0.513)mV, entrapment efficiency was (40.54±0.45)%, drug loading capacity was (1.14±0.074)%. The release profile of vincristine sulfate in vitro fitted Weibull equation. CONCLUSION VCR-SLN can be prepared very well by multiple emulsion-solvent diffusion technique.%目的 以单硬脂酸甘油酯为载体材料,采用复乳溶剂挥发法制备硫酸长春新碱固体脂质纳米粒(VCR-SLN),并考察其理化性质.方法 采用复乳溶剂挥发法制备VCR-SLN,以正交设计优化处方及制备工艺,并考察其形态、粒径、Zeta电位、包封率、载药量和体外释放.结果 VCR-SLN为类球形实体粒子,平均粒径为(144.83±2.71)nm,Zeta电位为(-24.77±0.513)mV,包封率为(40.54±0.45)%,载药量为(1.14±0.074)%.药物体外释放曲线符合Weibull方程.结论 复乳溶剂挥发法适用于制备硫酸长春新碱固体脂质纳米粒.

  2. Influence of glucosamine on the bioactivity of insulin delivered subcutaneously and in an oral nanodelivery system

    Al-Kurdi ZI


    Full Text Available Zakieh I Al-Kurdi,1,2 Babur Z Chowdhry,2 Stephen A Leharne,2 Nidal A Qinna,3 Mahmoud MH Al Omari,1 Adnan A Badwan1 1The Jordanian Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Company (PLC, Naor, Jordan; 2Faculty of Engineering and Science, University of Greenwich, Medway Campus, Kent, UK; 3Department of Pharmacology and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of Petra, Amman, Jordan Abstract: The aim of the work reported herein was to study the effect of glucosamine HCl (GlcN·HCl on the bioactivity (BA of insulin, administered via subcutaneous (SC and oral routes, in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. The oral insulin delivery system (insulin–chitosan reverse micelle [IC-RM] was prepared by solubilizing insulin–chitosan (13 kDa polyelectrolyte complex in a RM system consisting of oleic acid, PEG-8 caprylic/capric glycerides, and polyglycerol-6-dioleate. The BA of insulin in vivo was evaluated by measuring blood glucose level using a blood glucose meter; the results revealed that the extent of hypoglycemic activity of SC insulin was GlcN·HCl dose dependent when they were administered simultaneously. A significant reduction in blood glucose levels (P<0.05 was found for the insulin:GlcN·HCl at mass ratios of 1:10 and 1:20, whereas lower ratios (eg, 1:1 and 1:4 showed no significant reduction. Furthermore, enhancement of the action of SC insulin was achieved by oral administration of GlcN·HCl for 5 consecutive days prior to insulin injection (P<0.05. For oral insulin administration via the IC-RM system, the presence of GlcN·HCl increased the hypoglycemic activity of insulin (P<0.05. The relative BA were 6.7% and 5.4% in the presence and absence of GlcN·HCl (ie, the increase in the relative BA was approximately 23% due to incorporating GlcN·HCl in the IC-RM system, respectively. The aforementioned findings offer an opportunity to incorporate GlcN·HCl in oral insulin delivery systems in order to enhance a reduction in blood

  3. Análisis estereoespecífico de los triacil-sn-gliceroles de las grasas naturales por métodos enzimáticos y cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia

    Ruiz Gutiérrez, V.


    Full Text Available This paper is a review in which difficulties for the determination of the fatty acid stereospecific positions in the triacyl-sn-glycerol molecules of natural fats are discussed. For determining the stereospecific composition of the triacylglycerols, theoretical models for positional distribution of fatty acids in natural fats can be a useful estimation. Also, the principal methods for the stereospecific analysis by means of enzymatic analysis and high performance liquid chromatography are included. In both methods, the isolated sn-glyceridic fractions are later analysed by gas chromatography in order to know their fatty acid composition. In conclusion, combinations of several different analytical techniques such as enzymatic methods, high performance liquid chromatography, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography can furnish valuable information to determine the stereospecific composition of the triacyl-sn-glycerols.

    Este artículo es una revisión bibliográfica en la que se discute la complejidad que presenta la determinación de la composición estereoespecífica de los triacil-sn-gliceroles de las grasas naturales. Los modelos teóricos de distribución de los ácidos grasos en las grasas naturales pueden ser una estimación útil para la determinación de la composición estereoespecífica de sus triacil-sn-gliceroles. Además, se recogen los principales métodos de análisis enzimático y cromatografía liquida de alta eficacia para el análisis estereoespecífico. En ambos métodos, se aislan distintas fracciones sn-glicerídicas que son posteriormente analizadas por cromatografía de gases para conocer su composición en ácidos grasos. Como conclusión, puede señalarse que la información más valiosa para determinar la composición estereoespecífica de los triacil-sn-gliceroles resulta de la combinación de diferentes técnicas de análisis como son los análisis enzim

  4. Biodiesel production using immobilized enzyme-current state and future perspective%固定化酶生产生物柴油的现状及展望

    龚仁敏; 代苗苗; 何所惧; 杜艳


    Recently,with the global shortage of fossil fuels,price hike of crude oil and increased environmental concerns have resulted in the rapid growth of biodiesel production.The central reaction in the biodiesel production is the transesterification reaction which can be catalyzed either chemically or biologically.Enzymatic transesterification has certain advantages over chemical catalysis of transesterification,as it is less energy intensive,allows easy recovery of glycerol as a by-product and the transesterification of glycerides with high free fatty acid contents.This article reviews the current status and latest development of biodiesel production with immobilized lipase,including various feedstocks,source of lipases,immobilization techniques,lipase inactivation caused by methanol(ethanol)and glycerol.Lastly,future perspective for biodiesel production catalyzed by immobilized lipase is discussed.%近年来由于化石燃料的全球性短缺、原油价格的过度上涨和环境问题的加剧致使生物柴油的生产迅速增长。生物柴油生产的关键反应是化学或生物催化的转酯反应,酶催化的转酯反应与化学催化相比有相对节能、副产物甘油易回收及适合高含量游离脂肪酸油脂作为底物等明显优势。本文综述了固定化脂肪酶生产生物柴油的现状及最新进展,包括生物柴油的原料、脂肪酶的来源、酶的固定化技术、甲(乙)醇及甘油对脂肪酶的失活作用,展望了固定化脂肪酶生产生物柴油的未来前景。

  5. Palm oil: a healthful and cost-effective dietary component.

    Ong, A S H; Goh, S H


    Palm oil is an excellent choice for food manufacturers because of its nutritional benefits and versatility. The oil is highly structured to contain predominantly oleic acid at the sn2-position in the major triacylglycerols to account for the beneficial effects described in numerous nutritional studies. Oil quality and nutritional benefits have been assured for the variety of foods that can be manufactured from the oil directly or from blends with other oils while remaining trans-free. The oxidative stability coupled with the cost-effectiveness is unparalleled among cholesterol-free oils, and these values can be extended to blends of polyunsaturated oils to provide long shelf-life. Presently the supply of genetic-modification-free palm oil is assured at economic prices, since the oil palm is a perennial crop with unparalleled productivity. Numerous studies have confirmed the nutritional value of palm oil as a result of the high monounsaturation at the crucial 2-position of the oil's triacylglycerols, making the oil as healthful as olive oil. It is now recognized that the contribution of dietary fats to blood lipids and cholesterol modulation is a consequence of the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of the fats. Lipolytic hydrolysis of palm oil glycerides containing predominantly oleic acid at the 2 position and palmitic and stearic acids at the 1 and 3 positions allows for the ready absorption of the 2-monoacrylglycerols while the saturated free fatty acids remain poorly absorbed. Dietary palm oil in balanced diets generally reduced blood cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides while raising the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Improved lipoprotein(a) and apo-A1 levels were also demonstrated from palm oil diets; an important benefits also comes from the lowering of blood triglycerides (or reduced fat storage) as compared with those from polyunsaturated fat diets. Virgin palm oil also provides carotenes apart from

  6. 超敏C-反应蛋白在2型糖尿病并发动脉粥样硬化中的研究%Research on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetes patients with atherosclerosis

    张敏; 丁爱华; 王尚武


    目的 探讨血清超敏C-反应蛋白(Hs-CRP)、胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、低密度脂蛋白-胆固醇(LDL-C)与2型糖尿病并发动脉粥样硬化的关系.方法 150例糖尿病患者(实验组)及50例健康对照者(对照组)均采用免疫比浊法测定Hs-CRP,氧化酶法测定TG、TC、一步法测定LDL-C水平,并进行相关性分析.结果 实验组Hs-CRP、TG、TC、LDL-C较对照组明显升高(P<0.001),血糖控制不良组(C组)中Hs-CRP明显高于血糖控制良好组(A组)和血糖控制一般组(B组)(P<0.01),B组高于A组(P<0.01)且与TG、TC、LDL-C正相关.结论 Hs-CRP、TG、TC、LDL-C与2型糖尿病并发动脉粥样硬化密切相关,可作为风险预测指标预测2型糖尿病并发症出现.%Objective To probe into the relationship between high - sensitivity C - reactive protein ( 11s - CRP ), cholesterol ( TC ), tri-glyceride ( TG ), low - density lipoprotein cholesterol ( LDL - C ) and the emergence of atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods 11s - CRP, LDL - C, and TG and TC were detected by immunoturbidimetry, one - step method and oxidase method respectively in 150 diabetes patients ( experimental group ) and 50 healthy controls ( control group ). Results The levels of 11s - CRP, TG, TC and LDL - C were significantly higher in experimental group than in the control group ( P < 0. 001 ). The level of 11s - CRP in group C( Poor blood sugar control ) was obviously higher than group B( Blood sugar control general ) and group A( Good blood glucose control )( P <0.01 ) and higher in group B than group A ( P < 0. 01 ) 11s - CRP level was positively correlated with the levels of TG, TC and LDL - C. Conclusion The levels of 11s - CRP, TG, TC and LDL - C are closely related with atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes, they can be used as risk predictors for type 2 diabetes - related atherosclerosis.

  7. 新型工业油料作物亚麻荠:从基因组到代谢工程%New Type of Industrial Oilseed Crop Camelina sativa:from Genome to Meta-bolic Engineering

    苑丽霞; 毛雪; 高昌勇; 张莉; 薛金爱; 李润植


    亚麻荠是一种新发掘的重要工业油料作物,具有低耗、广适和多抗等优异农艺性状。因生育短和已建立简易高效遗传转化体系,亚麻荠正发展成为理想的新型模式植物。本文重点介绍亚麻荠基因组、转录组、蛋白组以及遗传图谱的最新研究进展,深入论述亚麻荠种子代谢工程策略及所取得成就,特别是乙酰甘油脂、羟化脂肪酸、中链脂肪酸、长链ω-3多聚不饱和脂肪酸和棕榈油酸等高值油脂生物合成途径的代谢组装,分析和讨论未来亚麻荠前沿研究动向及其产业发展前景。%Camelina sativa is newly re-embraced as an important industrial oilseed crop with several excellent agronomic traits of low-input, broad adaptation and multiple resistance. With the short life cycle and an estab-lished system of a simple and effective genetic transformation, camelina is currently being developed as an ide-al model crop. In the paper, we mainly highlight the latest advance in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and genetic mapping. Moreover, we deeply analysis camelina seed metabolic engineering strategy and its prom-ising achievements. Particularly, it is described regarding the metabolic assembly of biosynthesis pathway for acetyl glycerides, hydroxylated fatty acids, medium-chain fatty acids,ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty ac-ids, palmitoleic acid (ω-7) and other high-value oils. At last, we discuss the cutting-edge research directions in camelina such as genome editing application and future outlook for camelina industry development.

  8. 脂肪酶催化米糠油水解反应的研究%Study of rice bran oil hydrolysis catalyzed by lipase

    黄甫; 王萌; 聂开立; 邓利; 王芳; 谭天伟


    研究了Candida sp.99-125脂肪酶催化米糠油水解反应,考察了米糠油水解反应过程中水油比、酶用量和反应温度对酶促油脂水解的影响,并且研究了添加剂Ca(OH)2对酶促油脂水解反应的影响.结果表明,最适合水解条件为水油比1.2、酶用量0.3%和反应温度40℃,反应48h后的水解率为90.6%.酶促油脂水解反应中添加油重2.6%的Ca(OH)2,反应24 h后的水解率为93.3%,反应产物中脂层成份单甘脂(MAG)、二甘酯(DAG)和三甘酯(TAG)的质量分数分别为0.7%、1.4%和4.6%,添加Ca(OH)2缩短了酶促水解反应时间,提高了酶促水解反应速率和水解率.%The enzymatic hydrolysis of rice bran oil catalyzed by Candida sp. 99-125 lipase has been investigated. The effect of the ratio of water to oil, enzyme amount ( mass fraction to oil) and reaction temperature on the hydrolysis was studied. The optimal reaction conditions were found to be; ratio of water to oil of 1. 2, a lipase amount of 0. 3% ( mass fraction to oil) , and a reaction temperature of 40 ℃. A hydrolysis degree of 90. 6% was obtained under the optimal reaction conditions after 48 h. When 2. 6% Ca(0H)2(mass fraction to oil) was added, a hydrolysis degree of 93. 3% was obtained after 24 h. The glyceride components were found to be monoglyceride 0. 7% , diglyceride 1.4% and triglyceride 4. 6% . When Ca( OH)2 was added to the hydrolysis reaction, the reaction time was reduced and higher hydrolysis rates were obtained.

  9. X-ray diffraction studies on single and mixed confectionery fats using synchrotron radiation

    MacMillan, S.C.; Roberts, K.J.; Wells, M.; Polgreen, M.; Smith, I. [Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, (United Kingdom). Department of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, Centre for Molecular and Interface Engineering


    Full text: Understanding and refining the molecular-scale processes involved in the manufacture of structured materials such as long-chain hydrocarbon compounds is important in many commercial areas such as the petrochemical, biochemical, food, pharmaceutical and soap industries. In such processes crystallisation is an important separation, purification and preparation technique. Despite this our knowledge of the crystallisation process itself is surprisingly limited. In order to improve the crystallisation of confectionery fats, the crystallisation of it`s main component, cocoa butter fat, must be properly understood. Cocoa butter fat can exhibit up to 6 polymorphic forms of different crystallographic structures with melting points varying from 17.3 deg C to 36.3 deg C. During the production of chocolate it is essential to control the polymorphic form of fats present, in order to produce a final product with the correct physical and rheological properties. Both shear rate and temperature are thought to play a crucial role in this process. The most widely used method for studying polymorphism is X-ray diffraction. Typical X-ray diffraction patterns of fats exhibit two groups of diffraction lines corresponding to the long and short spacings. The long spacings correspond to the planes formed by the methyl end groups and are dependent on the chain length and the angle of tilt of the component fatty acids of the glyceride molecules. The short spacings refer to the cross sectional packing of the hydrocarbon chain and are independent of the chain length. The relationship between crystallisation rate, polymorphic form, shear and the fat composition has for the first time been quantified, which will enable more accurate control of the polymorhic form in chocolate production. This has been achieved by developing an improved in-situ cell for X-ray studies. The X-ray studies are necessary for the examination of on-line studies under well controlled conditions of temperature

  10. Aproximación al estudio de la morfología setígera en algunas especies ibéricas de los géneros Glycera Savigny, 1818 y Glycerella Arwidsson, 1899 (Polychaeta, Glyceridae

    Moreira, J.


    Full Text Available The spiniger chaetae of several Iberian species of the polychaete genera Glycera Savigny, 1818 and Glycerella Arwidsson, 1899, namely Glycera alba Rathke, 1843, Glycera fallax Quatrefages, 1850, Glycera tesselata Grube, 1863, Glycera aff. tridactyla Schmarda, 1861, Glycera unicornis Savigny, 1818 and Glycerella magellanica (McIntosh, 1885, were compared and studied under the SEM, with particular attention to the joint between blade and shaft. This study showed differences in the number, size and shape of the teeth present at the joint; this fact points out the potential taxonomic value of the chaetal microstructure at the subgeneric level within the Glyceridae Grube, 1850, also representing a starting point for more detailed forthcoming studies. In addition, those differences might not be useful for operational taxonomic identification because of the need of the SEM but may represent an additional tool for studies on the systematics and phylogeny of glycerids.A partir del estudio al Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido (MEB de las sedas espinígeras de varias especies del género Glycera Savigny, 1818 (Glycera alba Rathke, 1843; Glycera fallax Quatrefages, 1850; Glycera tesselata Grube, 1863; Glycera aff. tridactyla Schmarda, 1861 y Glycera unicornis Savigny, 1818 y Glycerella Arwidsson, 1899 (Glycerella magellanica (McIntosh, 1885, recogidas en la península Ibérica, se aborda un estudio comparado preliminar de la morfología setígera a nivel de la zona de articulación entre el mango y el artejo. Como resultado de este estudio se han revelado diferencias en el número, tamaño y forma de los dientes que componen esta zona, lo cual apunta a un potencial valor de la microestructura setígera como carácter taxonómico a nivel subgenérico en la familia Glyceridae Grube, 1850, abriendo la posibilidad de su empleo en futuros estudios de revisión del grupo. Estas diferencias, si bien no serían susceptibles de ser empleadas en la identificaci

  11. An experimental evaluation of the antidiabetic and antilipidemic properties of a standardized Momordica charantia fruit extract

    Naik Suresh R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MCE, Momordica charantia fruit extract Linn. (Cucurbitaceae have been documented to elicit hypoglycemic activity on various occasions. However, due to lack of standardization of these extracts, their efficacy remains questionable. The present study was undertaken by selecting a well standardised MCE. This study reports hypoglycemic and antilipidemic activities of MCE employing relevant animal models and in vitro methods. Methods Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by a s.c., subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg in acetate buffer (pH 4.5. MCE and glibenclamide were administered orally to alloxan diabetic rats at doses of 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg & 600 mg/kg, and 4 mg/kg respectively for 30 days, blood was withdrawn for glucose determination on 0, 7, 14, 21 and 30th days. On the 31st day, overnight fasted rats were sacrificed and blood was collected for various biochemical estimations including glycosylated haemoglobin, mean blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, triglcerides, protein and glycogen content of liver. The hemidiaphragms and livers were also isolated, carefully excised and placed immediately in ice cooled perfusion solution and processed to study the glucose uptake/transfer processes. Hypolipidemic activity in old obese rats was evaluated by treating two groups with MCE (150 mg/kg & 300 mg/kg orally for 30 days and determining total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-CH, LDL-CH and VLDL-CH levels from serum samples. Results Subchronic study of MCE in alloxan induced diabetic rats showed significant antihyperglycemic activity by lowering blood glucose and GHb%, percent glycosylated haemoglobin. Pattern of glucose tolerance curve was also altered significantly. MCE treatment enhanced uptake of glucose by hemidiaphragm and inhibited glycogenolysis in liver slices in vitro. A significant reduction in the serum cholesterol and glyceride levels of obese rats following MCE treatment was also

  12. 聚乳酸的静态双向拉伸性能%Static biaxially oriented property of PLA

    罗焯欣; 董月平


    以国产聚乳酸(PLA)和进口PLA为原料,研究其成膜加工性能以及静态拉伸工艺对薄膜性能的影响,并研究了扩链剂苯乙烯-丙烯酸甘油酯共聚物(ADR)、聚碳酸丁二酯(PBC)以及防粘连剂对PLA成膜性和力学性能的影响。结果表明:在拉伸速度为60mm/s时,易得到综合性能较好的薄膜;w(ADR)为0.2%时,可有效改善PLA薄膜的厚薄均匀性,并可提高薄膜的纵、横向拉伸强度;w(PBC)为10%时,可明显改善其成膜性,膜的厚薄均匀性及脆性;防粘连剂的加入对成膜性及薄膜性能影响不大。%The film forming ability and static stretching process of imported and domestic poly(lactic acid) (PLA)were studied in this paper. The impact of chain extender that include poly(butylene carbonate)(PBC) and styrene-acrylic glyceride(ADR)and anti-blocking agent on the forming and mechanical properties of PLA were observed as well. The results indicate that the properties of the film are the best when the oriented speed for PLA is 60 mm/s. The thickness uniformity of PLA is improved by adding chain extender ADR of 0.2% in mass fraction along with the lateral and vertical tensile strength of the film. 10% of PBC in mass fraction can enhance the film reforming ability of the film significantly as well as thickness uniformity and brittleness. Anti-blocking agent contributes little to forming ability and properties of PLA.

  13. An experimental evaluation of the antidiabetic and antilipidemic properties of a standardized Momordica charantia fruit extract

    Fernandes, Nafisa PC; Lagishetty, Chakradhar V; Panda, Vandana S; Naik, Suresh R


    Background The MCE, Momordica charantia fruit extract Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) have been documented to elicit hypoglycemic activity on various occasions. However, due to lack of standardization of these extracts, their efficacy remains questionable. The present study was undertaken by selecting a well standardised MCE. This study reports hypoglycemic and antilipidemic activities of MCE employing relevant animal models and in vitro methods. Methods Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by a s.c., subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg) in acetate buffer (pH 4.5). MCE and glibenclamide were administered orally to alloxan diabetic rats at doses of 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg & 600 mg/kg, and 4 mg/kg respectively for 30 days, blood was withdrawn for glucose determination on 0, 7, 14, 21 and 30th days. On the 31st day, overnight fasted rats were sacrificed and blood was collected for various biochemical estimations including glycosylated haemoglobin, mean blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, triglcerides, protein and glycogen content of liver. The hemidiaphragms and livers were also isolated, carefully excised and placed immediately in ice cooled perfusion solution and processed to study the glucose uptake/transfer processes. Hypolipidemic activity in old obese rats was evaluated by treating two groups with MCE (150 mg/kg & 300 mg/kg) orally for 30 days and determining total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-CH, LDL-CH and VLDL-CH levels from serum samples. Results Subchronic study of MCE in alloxan induced diabetic rats showed significant antihyperglycemic activity by lowering blood glucose and GHb%, percent glycosylated haemoglobin. Pattern of glucose tolerance curve was also altered significantly. MCE treatment enhanced uptake of glucose by hemidiaphragm and inhibited glycogenolysis in liver slices in vitro. A significant reduction in the serum cholesterol and glyceride levels of obese rats following MCE treatment was also observed. Conclusion Our

  14. Research on Preparation and Performance of Rosin/Starch Based Biodegradable Hot Melt Adhesive%松香/淀粉基可生物降解热熔胶的制备及性能研究

    欧阳梁燕; 臧强; 符光英; 吴喜娟; 刘德才; 刘桥定; 罗志刚


    The composite plasticizer ( composition of glycerol and ethylene glycol according to their proportion) was applied in the modification of natural waxy rice starch, and the high shear conditions to prepare thermoplastic waxy rice starch ( TPS ) .Rosin, as the raw material, with glycerol as the modification agent, by esterification modification, produced the rosin glyceride which was roling as the tackifying rosin, melting blended with the prepared thermoplastic waxy rice starch base on a certain temperature, with the appropriate auxiliary agent, prepared the rosin/starch based biodegradable hot melt adhesive.When the mass ratio of rosin and thermoplastic waxy rice starch was 45/55 , the melt viscosity of the prepared hot melt adhesive products was 5.1 Pa・ s, the softening point was 92℃, the tensile strength was 4.5 MPa, the elongation at break was 215%, the monthly degradation rate was 26.8%.With good thermal stability, the products could meet the technical standards requirements of the hot melt adhesive of common market.%利用复合增塑剂(甘油、乙二醇按比例组成)对天然糯米淀粉进行改性,并在高剪切作用下制得热塑性糯米淀粉基料( TPS);以松香为原料,以甘油作改性剂对松香进行酯化改性,得到松香甘油酯作增粘树脂,将制得热塑性糯米淀粉基料与松香甘油酯在一定温度下熔炼共混,并配以合适的助剂,制得松香/淀粉基可生物降解热熔胶。当松香树脂与热塑性糯米淀粉的质量配比为45/55时,所制备的热熔胶新品熔融粘度为5.1 Pa・ s,软化点为92℃,抗拉强度为4.5 MPa,断裂伸长率为215%,月降解率为26.8%,且热稳定性较好,能达到普通市售热熔胶的技术标准要求。

  15. 新型降血糖化合物G004对kkay小鼠糖脂代谢的作用%Effect of G004 on glucose and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic kkay mice

    尚利娜; 皋聪; 巫冠中; 张文平


    目的:研究新型降血糖化合物G004对自发性糖尿病kkay小鼠糖脂代谢的影响.方法:采用自发性2型糖尿病kkay小鼠连续灌胃给药,测定血糖、血脂和血糖调节激素水平;采用β-TC-6胰岛素分泌细胞,测定G004对细胞分泌胰岛素的作用;制备大鼠体外灌流胰腺,放射免疫法测定灌流流出液中的胰岛素含量.结果:G004有效降低kkay小鼠空腹血糖、三酰甘油水平,并显著降低游离脂肪酸;G004促进β-TC-6细胞及体外灌流胰腺分泌胰岛素.结论:化合物G004可能通过促进胰岛素分泌改善kkay小鼠糖代谢和脂代谢.%Objective; To investigate the effect of G004 on glucose and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic kkay mice. Methods; The effect of G004 on blood glucose, lipid and the hormones regulating blood glucose was examined in type 2 diabetic kkay mice. The insulin-secreting cell line |$-TC-6 cells were used to examine its effect on stimulation of insulin secretion. Isolated rat pancreas was isolated and perfused with G004, and insulin concentrations in effluent perfusate were measured by radioimmunoassay ( RIA ) . Results; The fasting plasma glucose, tri-glyceride level and free fatty acids levels were effectively reduced in kkay mice treated with G004. Insulin secretion was effectively promoted by G004 from the perfused pancreas and p-TC-6 cells. Conclusion; G004 stimulates insulin secretion and ameliorates the abnormity of glucose and lipid metabolism in kkay mice.

  16. Olive oil's bitter principle reverses acquired autoresistance to trastuzumab (Herceptin™ in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells

    Brunet Joan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low incidence of breast cancer in the Mediterranean basin suggests that a high consumption of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO might confer this benefit. While the anti-HER2 oncogene effects of the main ω-9 fatty acid present in EVOO triacylglycerols (i.e., oleic acid have been recently described, the anti-breast cancer activities of EVOO non-glyceridic constituents -which consist of at least 30 phenolic compounds-, remained to be evaluated. Methods Semi-preparative HPLC was used to isolate EVOO polyphenols (i.e., tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein. Both the anti-proliferative and the pro-apoptotic effects of EVOO phenolics were evaluated by using MTT-based quantification of metabolically viable cells and ELISA-based detection of histone-associated DNA fragments, respectively. The nature of the interaction between oleuropein aglycone and the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin™ was mathematically evaluated by the dose-oriented isobologram technique. HER2-specific ELISAs were employed to quantitatively assess both the basal cleavage of the HER2 extracellular domain (ECD and the expression level of total HER2. The activation status of HER2 was evaluated by immunoblotting procedures using a monoclonal antibody specifically recognizing the tyrosine phosphorylated (Phosphor-Tyr1248 form of HER2. Results Among EVOO polyphenols tested, oleuropein aglycone was the most potent EVOO phenolic in decreasing breast cancer cell viability. HER2 gene-amplified SKBR3 cells were ~5-times more sensitive to oleuropein aglycone than HER2-negative MCF-7 cells. Retroviral infection of the HER2 oncogene in MCF-7 cells resulted in a "SKBR3-assimilated" phenotype of hypersensitivity to oleuropein aglycone. An up to 50-fold increase in the efficacy of trastuzumab occurred in the presence of oleuropein aglycone. A preclinical model of acquired autoresistance to trastuzumab (SKBR3/Tzb100 cells completely recovered trastuzumab

  17. Nutritional quality of sandbox tree (Hura crepitans Linn.).

    Fowomola, M A; Akindahunsi, A A


    Antinutrient, proximate, mineral, fatty acid, vitamin, and amino acid analyses of sandbox tree (Hura crepitans) seeds were carried out. The results of antinutrient analysis showed that H. crepitans seed contains alkaloid (5.0 +/- 0.2 mg/100 g), tannins (5.0 +/- 0.3 mg/100 g), phytate (53.0 +/- 6.0 mg/100 g), cardiac glycoside (1890.0 +/- 1.5 mg/100 g), and saponin (2.2 +/- 0.1 mg/100 g). Its trypsin inhibitor activity was found to be 30.27 +/- 1.86 TIU/mg of protein. The results of proximate analysis showed that H. crepitans seed is very rich in crude protein (25.16 +/- 0.22%), crude oil (51.43 +/- 0.22%), and energy content (2,621.891 +/- 6.357 kJ/100 g). H. crepitans seed also contains 1.85 ppm Na, 3.4 ppm K, 0.088 ppm Ca, and trace amounts of Mg, Fe, and Zn. The results also showed that H. crepitans oil contains 20.12% oleic acid, followed by stearic acid (3.0%), while linoleic acid is present at the lowest level (0.03%) among the other acids. The Hura oil has a high saponification value (127.16 +/- 0.18 mg/g) and low acid value (3.56 +/- 0.16 mg/g). The results also showed that the average molecular weight of glycerides is higher in the oil as reflected by the ester value (123.6 +/- 0.73 mg/g). The iodine value of Hura oil was found to be 65.62 +/- 0.73%. A low peroxide value (6.6 +/- 0.2 mg/g) was observed in Hura oil. The results showed that H. crepitans seed contains 328.1 IU of vitamin A/100 g, 0.398 mg of vitamin E/100 g, and 0.26 mg of vitamin K/100 g. The results also showed that H. crepitans seed is very rich in glutamate (14.41 g/100 g of protein) and deficient in cysteine (0.78 g/100 g of protein). Among the essential amino acids, arginine has the highest value (5.97 g/100 g of protein). This is followed by leucine, at 4.16 g/100 g of protein. Therefore, H. crepitans seed is a nutritionally promising seed.

  18. Scientific basis of fat requirement for Indians and recent trends in CVD

    S Ahamed Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Dietary fats have several roles such as provision of metabolic energy, fat soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids (linoleic, LA and α-linolenic, ALNA. Fats improve texture and palatability and have a satiety role. LA and ALNA and their long-chain polyunstaturated fatty acids (LC n-6 PUFA and LC n-3 PUFA respectively are important structural membrane components and therefore essential for formation of new tissues. LC n-3 PUFA have specific role in vision and nervous system. Both n-6 and n-3 PUFA are essential for fetal and early infant growth and development and nervous tissue development.  The absolute levels and ratio of n-6 and n-3 PUFA in membrane affect a wide range of physiological processes either directly or through eicosanoids. The individual components of fats affect the risk of diet - related chronic diseases through the atherogenic effects of plasma lipids, insulin resistance, thrombosis, endothelial dysfunction as well as pathways of inflammation. The chain length/geometric configuration of double bonds and position of saturated (SFA, mono unsaturated (MUFA or PUFA on glycerol backbone (triglyceride structure modify the nutritional and metabolic effects of dietary fats. The non-glyceride components present in the vegetable oils have hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects. Several lines of evidence have documented that restrictions in SFA and cholesterol, negligible intake of trans fatty acids (TFA on the one hand and preference for more than one type of vegetable oil (to ensure adequate absolute intakes of LA, ALNA and their ratio, adding n-3 PUFA from fish or plant sources, and ensuring moderate intake of  total fat in  the diet  substantially reduces the risk of diet-related chronic diseases. Studies were done at National Institute of Nutrition  on intake of individual  fatty acids, the pro/anti-athero-thrombogenic effects of different types of visible fats in Indian adults, insulin sensitivity and the antioxidant

  19. Overall Energy Considerations for Algae Species Comparison and Selection in Algae-to-Fuels Processes

    Link, D.; Kail, B.; Curtis, W.; Tuerk,A.


    The controlled growth of microalgae as a feedstock for alternative transportation fuel continues to receive much attention. Microalgae have the characteristics of rapid growth rate, high oil (lipid) content, and ability to be grown in unconventional scenarios. Algae have also been touted as beneficial for CO{sub 2} reuse, as algae can be grown using CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-based energy generation. Moreover, algae does not compete in the food chain, lessening the 'food versus fuel' debate. Most often, it is assumed that either rapid production rate or high oii content should be the primary factor in algae selection for algae-to-fuels production systems. However, many important characteristics of algae growth and lipid production must be considered for species selection, growth condition, and scale-up. Under light limited, high density, photoautotrophic conditions, the inherent growth rate of an organism does not affect biomass productivity, carbon fixation rate, and energy fixation rate. However, the oil productivity is organism dependent, due to physiological differences in how the organisms allocate captured photons for growth and oil production and due to the differing conditions under which organisms accumulate oils. Therefore, many different factors must be considered when assessing the overall energy efficiency of fuel production for a given algae species. Two species, Chlorella vulgaris and Botryococcus braunii, are popular choices when discussing algae-to-fuels systems. Chlorella is a very robust species, often outcompeting other species in mixed-culture systems, and produces a lipid that is composed primarily of free fatty acids and glycerides. Botryococcus is regarded as a slower growing species, and the lipid that it produces is characterized by high hydrocarbon content, primarily C28-C34 botryococcenes. The difference in growth rates is often considered to be an advantage oiChlorella. However, the total energy captured by each algal

  20. MicroRNAs in the regulation of brown adipocyte differentiation%调控褐色脂肪细胞分化的microRNAs

    郭云涛; 苗向阳


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous non-coding RNA about 22 nucleotide long, regulate gene expression at the post-transcription level by inhibiting the translation or inducing the degradation of their target mRNAs in organisms. There are two types of adipose tissues:brown and white. White adipose tissues store energy in the form of tri-glycerides (TGs), while brown adipose tissues catabolize TGs to generate energy. Brown adipose tissues are of great im-portance to the research of obesity and related metabolic diseases due to their function of preventing people from obesity. A lot of studies have revealed that miRNAs play crucial roles in regulating brown adipocyte differentiation and are modulat-ed by lots of transcription factors and environmental factors, which form a complex regulatory network maintaining the homeostasis of adipose tissues. In this review, we summarize the latest studies of miRNAs in brown adipocyte differentia-tion, which might provide new strategies for the treatment of obesity and other related diseases.%MicroRNA(miRNA)是近年来在真核生物中发现的一类长约22nt的内源性非编码RNA,在动物中主要通过抑制靶 mRNA 翻译,在转录后水平调控基因表达。动物体内有两种类型的脂肪组织:褐色和白色脂肪,白色脂肪以甘油三脂形式贮存能量,而褐色脂肪利用甘油三酯产生能量。褐色脂肪因其对肥胖的拮抗作用而对研究肥胖等代谢疾病具有重要意义,大量研究表明 miRNA在褐色脂肪细胞分化中扮演着重要角色,其自身也受到多种转录因子和环境因子调控,这个复杂的调控网络维持了体内脂肪组织稳态。文章主要综述了 miRNA在褐色脂肪细胞分化中的最新研究进展,以期为利用 miRNA进行肥胖、糖尿病等相关疾病及其并发症的治疗提供新思路。

  1. Interfacial & colloidal aspects of lipid digestion.

    Wilde, P J; Chu, B S


    Amongst the main issues challenging the food manufacturing sector, health and nutrition are becoming increasingly important. Global concerns such as obesity, the ageing population and food security will have to be addressed. Food security is not just about assuring food supply, but is also about optimising nutritional delivery from the food that is available [1]. Therefore one challenge is to optimise the health benefits from the lipids and lipid soluble nutrients. Colloid scientists have an affinity for lipids because they are water insoluble, however this presents a challenge to the digestive system, which has to convert them to structures that are less insoluble so they are available for uptake. Despite this, the human digestive system is remarkably effective at digesting and absorbing most lipids. This is primarily driven through maximising energy intake, as lipids possess the highest calorific value, which was a survival trait to survive times of famine, but is now an underlying cause of obesity in developed countries with high food availability. The critical region here is the lipid-water interface, where the key reactions take place to solubilise lipids and lipid soluble nutrients. Digestive lipases have to adsorb to the oil water interface in order to hydrolyse triacylglycerols into fatty acids and mono glycerides, which accumulate at the interface [2], and inhibit lipase activity. Pancreatic lipase, which is responsible for the majority of lipid hydrolysis, also requires the action of bile salts and colipase to function effectively. Bile salts both aid the adsorption of co-lipase and lipase, and help solubilise the lipolysis products which have accumulated at the interface, into mixed micelles composing bile salts and a range of other lipids, to facilitate transport to the gut mucosal surface prior to uptake and absorption. The process can be affected by the lipid type, as shorter chain, fatty acids are more easily absorbed, whereas the uptake of longer

  2. 南京地区体检人群血红蛋白与血脂相关性研究%Correlation between hemoglobin level and serum lipid among healthy examination people

    宋为娟; 杨瑞霞


    目的:探讨体检人群血红蛋白(Hb)与血脂的相关性。方法随机选取江苏省人民医院体检中心健康体检者654例,检测其 Hb、胆固醇(Ch)、三酰甘油(TG)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL)水平,分析 Hb与血脂相关指标的关系。结果男性 Hb、Ch、TG浓度明显高于女性,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。在女性组中,高 Hb浓度组的Ch、TG、LDL水平明显高于低Hb浓度组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);在男性组中,高 Hb浓度组的Ch、TG、LDL水平明显高于低Hb浓度组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),且随Hb水平的增高,Ch、TG、LDL水平均呈升高趋势,相关性分析显示男性Hb水平与血清Ch(r=0.637)、TG(r=0.247)、LDL (r=0.812)呈正相关,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论对 Hb浓度异常升高的体检人群,应及时进行血脂检测,了解血脂状况,可有效防治心脑血管疾病的发生。%Objective To study the correlation between hemoglobin level and serum lipid among general popu‐lation .Methods A total of 654 general population were enrolled .The levels of hemoglobin ,cholesterol ,triglycerides , low‐density lipoprotein were detected ,the relationship between hemoglobin and serum lipids related indicators were analyzed retrospectively .Results Men′s hemoglobin ,cholesterol ,triglycerides were significant higher than female′s hemoglobin ,cholesterol ,triglycerides (P0 .05) ,In the male group ,the levels of cholesterol ,tri‐glycerides ,low‐density lipoprotein in high hemoglobin concentration group were higher than those of the low hemo‐globin concentration group with statistical significant difference (P<0 .05) .In the male group ,with the hemoglobin level increased ,the levels of cholesterol ,triglycerides ,low‐density lipoprotein had an increasing trend (P< 0 .01) , There were positive correlation between cholesterol (r=0 .637

  3. 声辐射力脉冲成像技术在2型糖尿病合并非酒精性脂肪肝病患者的应用%A pilot clinical study on quantitative evaluating the degree of diffuse fatty liver by acoustic radiation ;force impulse imaging in patients with T2DM complicated with NAFLD

    魏华; 岑欢; 卢颖; 张建兴; 陈冰丽


    Objective To investigate the influencing factors of the controlled virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) in liver of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) complicated withnon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods Two hundred and twenty-seven patients with T2DM complicated with NAFLD were enrolled in this study,and the shear wave speed of the liver was measured by VTQ. Levels of the fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin,total cholesterol three acids glyceride, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein , aspertate aminotransferase , alanine aminotransferase , gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and uric acid were measured. The relationships among VTQ and the severity of NAFLD , and those quantitative indexes were analyzed. Results Univariate analysis showed that the value of shear wave speed was negatively correlated with age,duration of diabetes,INS and HDL-C,while was positively correlated with HbA1c and AST. Conclusion Age, sex and levels of serum HbA1c,INS,AST and HLD-C might affect the values of shear wave speed in patients with T2DM complicated with NAFLD.%目的:探索2型糖尿病(T2DM)合并非酒精性脂肪肝病(NAFLD)患者肝脏剪切波速度(VTQ 值)的相关影响因素。方法:以227例T2DM合并NAFLD 患者为研究对象,应用 Siemens Acuson S2000彩色超声波诊断仪测量肝实质VTQ值,记录性别、年龄、病程,检测空腹血糖、糖化血红蛋白、甘油三脂、总胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇、天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶、丙氨酸氨基转移酶、谷氨酰转肽酶、尿酸,分析 T2DM 合并 NAFLD 患者肝实质 VTQ 值与脂肪肝严重度和上述指标的相关性。结果:男、女的VTQ值差异具有显著性(P =0.000)。单因素线性分析,重度脂肪肝VTQ 值显著高于轻、中度;肝实质VTQ值与和脂肪肝程度、HbA1c、AST呈直线正相关,与年龄、糖尿病病程、INS、HDL-C呈直

  4. 醋酸曲安奈德固体脂质纳米粒卡波姆凝胶的性能及经皮给药研究%Characteristics and Transdermal Drug Delivery of Triamcinolone-Acetonide-Acetate-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Carbomer Gel

    刘卫; 朱姚亮; 陈华兵; 杨祥良


    Aim To prepare triamcinolone-acetonide-acetate (TAA)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) carbomer gel with tripalmitin glyceride (TPG), and investigate their characteristics and transdermal drug delivery. Methods SLN suspension was prepared by high-pressure homogenization technique, and then mixed with carbomer gel matrix to get SLN gel. The morphology, particle size with polydispersity index (PI) and zeta potential were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS). The entrapment efficiency, stability and in vitro drug release were also studied. The transdermal drug delivery through porcine ear skin was evaluated using modified Franz diffusion cells. Results The SLN had a spherical shape with the average size of (95.5-186.2) nm, the zeta potential of (-26.3--15.7) mV and the entrapment efficiency of 67.4%-90.3% for different TAA encapsulated compounds. TAA-SLN carbomer gel had good stability, the release profile in vitro fitted Higuchi equation. In comparison with conventional hydrogels, TAA-SLN carbomer gel resulted in higher drug permeation amount and drug deposition within porcine ear skin after 24 h penetration experiment. Conclusion TAA-SLN carbomer gel is prepared with stable physicochemical properties. The release profile and improved drug permeation into skin make it be a promising vehicle for transdermal drug delivery.%目的以醋酸曲安奈德(TAA)为模型药物, 以三棕榈酸甘油酯为脂质材料制备醋酸曲安奈德固体脂质纳米粒(SLN)卡波姆凝胶, 考察其特性以及药物经皮渗透性能.方法采用高压乳匀技术制得TAA-SLN分散液, 并制成卡波姆凝胶, 考察了卡波姆凝胶中SLN的微观形态、粒径、 Zeta电位、包封率等理化特性和稳定性、体外药物释放行为.采用改进的Franz扩散池研究了SLN卡波姆凝胶的药物经皮渗透性能.结果制得的TAA-SLN为均匀的球形粒子, 不同载药量SLN粒径为95.5~186.2 nm, Zeta

  5. Determination of triglyceride in palm oil and animal fats by high -performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole -time of flying mass spectrometry%高效液相色谱-四极杆飞行时间质谱法测定棕榈油和动物脂肪甘油三酯

    张东; 薛雅琳; 朱琳; 柴杰


    Triglycerides in palm oil and animal fats such as lard,beef tallow and suet were investigated by HPLC /Q -TOF.The results showed that the composition and content of triglycerides in each oil or fat were different.16,19,15 and 13 triglycerides were identified in palm oil,lard,beef tallow and suet,respec-tively;in which the content of trisaturated glycerides were 9.13%,1.46%,13.75% and 9.05%,sepa-rately.PPO was the major triglyceride (34.41%)in palm oil,followed by PLO +SLL,PPL and PPP. OLS,PLO +SLL,POS and POO with content of 67.65% were the dominant triglycerides in lard.In beef tallow,the content of POS and OLS was 40.17%,the content of PPO、SSL and SOS was relatively high. SSL、POO、SOS and POS in suet was 73.12%.Meanwhile,4 oils and fats were statistically analyzed u-sing principal component analysis (PCA).%采用高效液相色谱—飞行时间质谱法对比分析棕榈油、猪脂、牛脂和羊脂甘油三酯,结果显示4种油脂的甘油三酯种类和含量均不相同。从棕榈油、猪脂、牛脂和羊脂分别鉴定出16、19、15、13种甘油三酯,三饱和脂肪酸甘油酯分别占9.13%、1.46%、13.75%及9.05%。棕榈油中 PPO 含量最高,占34.41%,其次是 PLO +SLL、PPL 和 PPP。猪脂中含量较高的甘油三酯分别为 OLS、PLO+SLL、POS 及 POO,占总甘油三酯的67.65%;牛脂中含量较大的甘油三酯为 POS 和 OLS,占40.17%,其次为 PPO、SSL 及 SOS;羊脂中含量较大的甘油三酯为 SSL、POO、SOS 和 POS,占73.12%。同时,采用主成分分析法对4种油脂进行了统计分析。

  6. 桃胶片加工工艺及品质研究%Study on processing technology and quality of peach gum

    陈雪勤; 黄泽元


    In this experiment, peach gum as the main raw material is used to make the new peach slices,to study the peach gum, gelatin, water, acid modified starch, pre gelatinized starch, citric acid, sucrose content and the peach piece quality,the best technology for the production of peach slices is got and the optimal technological pa-rameters are determined by single factor test and orthogonal test.The results show that the optimum production of peach gum tablets are to hydrolyze peach gum and soluble sugar,to mix, add other ingredients, then to form packa-ging,and the optimal formula of peach gum is carrageenan 0.6 g, modified starch 4 g, pre gelatinized starch 10 g, water 30 g, peach gum 5.5 g, sucrose 30 g, citric acid 0.2 g, citric acid and sodium 0.25 g, salt 0.375 g, mono-glyceride 0.15 g, hydroxylated lecithin 0.25 g, sucrose ester 0.25 g.Peach gum tablets are produced under the conditions with pale yellow, translucent, crystal clear;with peach flavor;taste lubrication, pure taste, with masti-cation, there is positive significance in this use of peach gum resources and traditional sweets development.%实验以桃胶为主要原料,通过研究桃胶、水、卡拉胶、酸变性淀粉、预糊化淀粉、柠檬酸、蔗糖用量及对桃胶片品质的影响,获得桃胶片生产优化工艺,利用单因素试验和正交试验确定优化工艺参数。结果表明,桃胶片生产优化工艺为先分别水解桃胶和溶糖,然后将其混合,添加其他成分,再成型包装,桃胶片优化配方为卡拉胶0.6 g,酸变性淀粉4 g,预糊化淀粉10 g,水为30 g,桃胶5.5 g,蔗糖30 g,柠檬酸0.2 g,柠檬酸钠0.25 g,食盐0.375 g,单甘酯0.15 g,羟基化卵磷脂0.25 g,蔗糖酯0.25 g。该条件下生产出的桃胶片呈浅黄色,半透明,晶莹剔透;具有桃胶特有的风味;口感润滑、滋味纯正,具有咀嚼性。

  7. 慢性间歇性低压低氧抑制线粒体途径介导的代谢综合征大鼠心肌组织细胞凋亡%Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia ameliorates myocardial apoptosis through inhibiting mitochondrial pathway in rats with metabolism syndrome

    袁芳; 李艳青; 滕旭; 周京京; 郭赞; 王昕; 张自伟; 张翼


    Aim To confirm the inhibitory effect of chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia ( CIHH) on my-ocardial apoptosis induced by metabolism syndrome ( MS) , and to investigate its mechanism. Methods A rat model of MS induced by fructose was used. The blood pressure and the plasma content of glucose, tri-glyceride, cholesterol, and insulin after 12 h fasting were detected. HE stain were used to detect the cardi-ac structure. The TUNEL staining and activity of caspase-3 were used to detect the apoptosis of myocar-dium. The protein expression of Bcl-2 and Bax was detected by Western blot . Results Compared with the control rats, the blood pressure and the plasma content of glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, and insu-lin were all increased in rats with MS. In rats with MS, the impairment of cardiac structure and the increase of apoptosis were also observed. The protein expression of Bcl-2 was significantly down-regulated, and that of Bax was significantly up-regulated in MS rats. The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was also significantly decreased. Interest-ingly, CIHH could ameliorate all of the above issues. There was no significant difference between control group and CIHH group. Conclusion CIHH may im-prove the increased apoptosis in rats with MS via inhib-iting the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. This stud-y might provide new targets for therapy and the preven-tion of MS patients.%目的:证实CIHH( chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxi-a, CIHH)具有改善代谢综合征( metabolism syndrome, MS)大鼠心肌细胞凋亡的作用,并探讨其机制。方法10%果糖水喂养SD大鼠(250~300) g 42 d制备MS模型,检测动脉血压以及空腹血糖、胆固醇、甘油三酯和胰岛素含量,HE染色观察心肌结构,TUNEL染色和caspase-3活性测定检测心肌细胞凋亡, Western blot 检测 Bcl-2和 Bax 的蛋白表达水平。结果与正常大鼠比较,果糖喂养大鼠表现出明显的高血压、高血糖、高甘油三脂血症、高胆固醇血症和高胰

  8. Diabetes subdiagnosticado e necrose miocárdica: preditores de hiperglicemia no infarto do miocárdio Unrecognized diabetes and myocardial necrosis: predictors of hyperglycemia in myocardial infarction

    Renata Teixeira Ladeira


    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Hiperglicemia na fase aguda do infarto do miocárdio é importante fator prognóstico. Entretanto, sua fisiopatologia não está completamente elucidada. OBJETIVO: Analisar simultaneamente correlação entre hiperglicemia e marcadores bioquímicos relacionados ao estresse,metabolismo glicídico e lipídico, coagulação, inflamação e necrose miocárdica. MÉTODOS: Oitenta pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio foram incluídos prospectivamente. Os parâmetros analisados foram: glicose, hormônios do estresse (cortisol e norepinefrina, fatores do metabolismo glicídico [hemoglobina glicada (HbA1c, insulina], lipoproteínas (colesterol total, LDL, HDL, LDL eletronegativa minimamente modificada e adiponectina, glicerídeos (triglicérides, VLDL e ácido graxo, fatores da coagulação (fator VII, fibrinogênio,inibidor do ativador do plasminogênio-1, inflamação (proteína C reativa ultrassensível e necrose miocárdica (CK-MB e troponina. Variáveis contínuas foram convertidas em graus de pertinência por intermédio de lógica fuzzy. RESULTADOS: Houve correlação significativa entre hiperglicemia e metabolismo glicídico (p BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia in the acute phase of myocardial infarction is an important prognostic factor. However, its pathophysiology is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To analyze simultaneously the correlation between hyperglycemia and biochemical markers related to stress, glucose and lipid metabolism, coagulation, inflammation, and myocardial necrosis. METHODS Eighty patients with acute myocardial infarction were prospectively included. The following parameters were analyzed: blood glucose; stress hormones (cortisol and norepinephrine; glucose metabolism factors [glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; insulin]; lipoproteins (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, minimally modified electronegative LDL, and adiponectin; glycerides (triglycerides, VLDL and fatty acids; coagulation factors (factor VII, fibrinogen, plasminogen

  9. Effect of lower dose clozapine plus aripiprazole on body weight, glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with schizophrenia%较低剂量氯氮平合并阿立哌唑对精神分裂症患者体质量及糖脂代谢的影响

    王小红; 王艳婷; 周云云; 兰润林; 侯春兰; 侯凌峰; 董继学; 李俊福


    目的:探讨较低剂量氯氮平合并阿立哌唑对精神分裂症患者体质量及糖脂代谢的影响.方法:选取2008年3月至2010年3月我院住院精神分裂症患者92例,随机分为研究组和对照组,研究组给予较低剂量氯氮平合并阿立哌唑治疗,对照组给予单纯氯氮平治疗.两组观察疗程24周.两组患者分别在治疗前、治疗12周及24周对其体质量、身高、血糖、餐后2h血糖、三酰甘油及胆固醇进行测定,并做统计分析. 结果:与对照组相比,研究组治疗前后体质量及糖脂代谢变化显著较小(P均<0.01).研究组体质量、血糖及三酰甘油异常率明显低于对照组(P均<0.01). 结论:较低剂量氯氮平合并阿立哌唑治疗与单用较高剂量氯氮平相比,对精神分裂症患者体质量及糖脂代谢影响较小.%Objective: To investigate effect of the lower dose of clozapine plus aripiprazole on body weight,glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with schizophrenia. Method:92 schizophrenic patients from our hospital March,2008 to March,2010 were randomly divided into study group and control group,the study group was given a low dose clozapine combined with aripiprazole and the control group was given clozapine treatment for 24 weeks. The body mass, height, blood glucose, postprandial 2 hour blood glucose, cholesterol and tri-glyceride were measured before treatment, week 12 and 24. Results: Compared with the control group, the study group showed fewer changes on body weight and metabolism of glucose and lipid between before and after the treatment (all P<0.01), and abnormal rates of body mass, glucose and triglyceride (all P<0.01). Conclusion: Lower dose clozapine plus aripiprazole have less impact on the body mass and glucose metabolism than only high doses clozapine in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  10. Research on the relationship between body fat distribution and cardiovascular diseases risk factors%体脂分布与心血管疾病危险因素的相关性研究

    海德桑; 徐焱成


    Objective To investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Methods 225 consecutive healthy Chinese subjects. Hight, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference, blood pressure and electrocardiog/am ( ECG) were measured. Total body fat, abdominal fat,and hip fat were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry,total cholesterol( TC) ,Tri-glyceride ( TG ) , high density lipoprotein cholesterol ( HDL-C ) and low density lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) were also measured. Results Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and triglyceride had a positive correlation with waist circumference in both males and females, while HDL-C and waist circumference were negatively correlated. Abdominal fat were positively correlated with LDL-C. Conclusions Increase of SBP,DBP,TG and decrease of HDL-C,are correlated with waist circumference. ECG has no significant correlation with waist circumference, but the abdominal obesity group has a tendency of higher rate of abnormal ECG.%目的 探讨腹型肥胖与心血管疾病危险因素的关系.方法 225例普通体检人群测量身高、体重、腰围、臀围和血压,常规心电图检查,双能X线仪检测全身脂肪、腹部脂肪及臀部脂肪含量,测定空腹静脉血清总胆固醇、三酰甘油、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平.结果 无论男性或女性,腰围与收缩压、舒降压、三酰甘油水平呈线性正相关,与高密度脂蛋白胆固醇呈线性负相关;腹型肥胖组的收缩压、舒张压、总胆固醇和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平显著高于非腹型肥胖组;腰围、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇与腹部脂肪含量呈正相关;腹型肥胖人群中异常心电图的发生率有升高趋势,但与非肥胖人群比较差异无统计学意义.结论 随着腰围的增大,收缩压、舒张压及三酰甘油都升高而HDL-C降低,表明腹型肥胖与心血管疾病危险因素密切相关.

  11. Effects of Lipase Supplemented in Different Energy Level Diets on Growth Performance, Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Serum Biochemical Indexes of Weaned Piglets%不同能量水平饲粮中添加脂肪酶对断奶仔猪生长性能、养分表观消化率和血清生化指标的影响

    张丽娜; 陈代文; 余冰; 何军; 郑萍; 毛湘冰; 王曲圆; 黄志清; 罗钧秋


    本试验旨在探讨不同能量水平饲粮中添加脂肪酶对断奶仔猪生长性能、养分表观消化率和血清生化指标的影响. 试验采用2×3因子试验设计:饲粮消化能水平分别为14.04、13.72和13.41 MJ/kg,脂肪酶添加量分别为0和2 U/g. 试验选用90头平均体重为(6.43±0.57) kg的28日龄健康"杜×长×大"断奶仔猪,按体重随机分为6个处理,每个处理5个重复,每个重复3头猪. 试验期28 d. 结果如下:饲粮添加脂肪酶显著或极显著降低了仔猪料重比,血清总胆固醇、甘油三酯、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇含量( P0.05). 降低能量水平显著提高仔猪平均日增重和平均日采食量(P0.05). 综上所述,在本试验能量水平下,饲粮添加脂肪酶降低仔猪料重比,促进脂质代谢,具有提高养分表观消化率的趋势.%This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of lipase supplemented in the diets with different energy levels on growth performance, nutrient apparent digestibility and serum biochemical indexes of weaned piglets. The experiment used a 2×3 factorial design with three levels of digestive energy ( DE, 14.04, 13.72 and 13.41 MJ/kg) and two levels of lipase (0 and 2 U/g). Ninety 28-day-old "Duroc×Landrace×Large Yorkshire" weaned piglets with body weight of (6.43±0.57) kg were assigned to six treatments with 5 repli-cates per treatment and 3 pigs per replicate for a 28 d feeding period. The results showed as follows:lipase sup-plementation significantly reduced ratio of feed to gain ( F/G) , serum contents of total cholesterol ( TC) , tri-glyceride ( TG) , high density lipoprotein cholesterol ( HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol ( LDL-C) of piglets (P0.05). ADG and ADFI of piglets were significantly improved (P<0.05), and the apparent digestibility of DM and GE were significantly decreased ( P<0.05 or P<0.01) by decreasing dietary DE levels. There were no sig-nificant interactions on growth

  12. Physico-chemical characteristics of Mesua ferrea seed oil and nutritional composition of its seed and leaves

    M. Abu Sayeed


    Full Text Available Studies on the physico-chemical characteristics of seed oils of Mesua ferrea collected from different districts of Bangladesh revealed specific gravity (0.9287-09312, refractive index (1.4690-1.4739, solidification point [-4.0-(-4.3], pour point [-1.0-(-1.3], cloud point (5.5-6.0, flash point (90-98, fire point (110-116, smoke point (44-47, iodine value (89.17-93.01, saponification value (199.03-206.40, saponification equivalent (271.80-281.86, acid value (9.64-11.87, free fatty acid (4.85-5.96, ester value (188.95-1.95.44, unsaponifiable matter (1.44-1.50, acetyl value (2.70-2.84, peroxide value (3.58-3.64, Reichert-Meissl value (5.852-6.031 and polenske number (0.7891-0.8401. Glyceride classes were estimated to be monoglycerides (1.05-1.35 %, diglycerides (2.12-2.32 % and triglycerides (87.65-89.50 % whereas total lipid extracts were fractionated into neutral lipid (89.83-92.18 %, glycolipid (3.65-4.15 % and phospholipid (1.98-2.68 %. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids present in the oils were separated and amounted to be (27.40-29.11 % and (65.85- 68.31 %, respectively, depending upon the areas from where the seeds were collected. GLC analysis of the oil indicated the presence of palmitic acid (10.87%, linoleic acid (13.68%, oleic acid (55.93% and stearic acid (14.19% as major fatty acids in the oil. In addition, myristic acid (2.13% and arachidic acid (2.921% were also present in minor amount. In biochemical analysis, Mesua ferrea seeds contained total lipid (66.91-70.23 g %, moisture (4.02-5.05 g %, ash (1.46-1.50 g %, total protein (6.99-7.19 g %, water soluble protein (2.98-3.11 g %, starch (5.51-5.85 g %, crude fiber (1.22-1.98 g %, carbohydrate (15.88-18.68 g % and energy value (700.55-724.15 kcal/100 g, while its leaves contained total lipid (2.32-2.44 g %, moisture (65.12-72.19 g %, ash (2.60-2.71 g %, total protein (4.23-4.85 g %, water soluble protein (1.47-2.01 g %, starch (3.06-3.27 g %, crude fiber (3.12-3.29 g %, carbohydrate

  13. Effects of Niizhenshuxin formula on the level of E2 in serum, the expression of ER in arterial wall and histomorphology with ovariectomized and high fat rats%女贞舒心方对高脂去卵巢大鼠血清E2水平、动脉管壁ER表达及组织形态学的影响

    钟栩; 王晨; 王安春; 曾俊杰


    Objective To observe effect of Nuzhenshuxin formula (NF) on the level of E2 in serum, the expression of ER in arterial wall and histomorphology with ovariectomized and high fat rats. Methods 60 female rats were divided into 5 groups: normal ( NG), model (MG), Diethylstilbestrol ( DES) and NF high, low dose groups. After the models were established successfully, the rats were fed with high fat diet and drug at the same time. The rat's body weight was recorded once week. 6 weeks later, the content of total cholesterol (TC), tri-glyceride (TG) , low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL-C) in serum and the level of E2 and expression of ER in arterial wall were detected, while the artery pipe wall change was observed with microscope. Results After fed with NF for 6 weeks, the weight growth of rats were slowed down, the level of TC, TG and LDL-C were declined, the level of HDL-C was increased, the level of E2 and the expression of ER were raised, while the blood vessel endangium was improved, compared with those of model group (P < 0. 05, P < 0. 01). Conclusions NF can increase the level of E2 and adjust the blood fat through displaying plant estrogen type function, it is beneficial to blood vessel protection for menopause women.%目的 通过观察女贞舒心方(NF)对高脂去卵巢大鼠血清雌二醇(E2)水平、动脉管壁雌激素受体(ER)表达及组织形态学的影响,为本方通过调节雌激素水平而发挥心血管保护作用提供科学依据.方法 将成年雌性大鼠60只随机分为5组,分别为正常组(NG)、模型组(MG)、己烯雌酚(DES)组、NF高、低剂量组.除正常组外,切除双侧卵巢,给予高脂饮食,同时给予相应剂量药物灌服,每周测体重,6w后,测定血清胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、高、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇( HDL-C、LDL-C)含量、血清E2水平及主动脉管壁ER的表达,并观察主动脉管壁形态.结果 NF能减缓大鼠体重增长,降低血清TC、TG、LDL-C水

  14. 慢性牙周炎合并动脉粥样硬化兔的血管内皮功能与升主动脉E选择素的表达%Vascular endothelial function and E-selectin expression in ascending aorta in rabbits with chronic periodontitis and atherosclerosis

    高云; 钟良军; 张源明; 周晓欢; 梁平; 徐隽


    目的 应用新西兰大白兔建立慢性牙周炎(CP)合并动脉粥样硬化(AS)的动物模型,探讨CP对AS血管内皮功能的影响.方法 将32只雄性新西兰大白兔随机分为4组:对照组、CP组、AS组、CP+AS组.各组分别按照实验设计进行相应干预处理,至14周末处死动物,检测血清中血脂、内皮素1、一氧化氮含量,观察实验牙X线片及升主动脉的病理改变,测定主动脉壁E选择素表达的阳性面积百分比.结果 高脂喂养升高血清总胆固醇、三酰甘油、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)水平(P<0.01),牙周炎升高血清三酰甘油水平(P<0.05).对照组、CP组、AS组、CP+AS组血清内皮素1水平分别为(87.7±10.1)、(104.9±8.9)、(112.7±14.3)、(132.2±10.5)ng/L,血清一氧化氮水平分别为(31.83±4.21)、(28.34±4.29)、(27.75±2.94)、(25.59±3.03)μmol/L;析因设计资料方差分析表明,CP和AS均可升高血清内皮素1和升主动脉壁E选择素的表达水平,降低血清一氧化氮水平(均P<0.05),两种疾病合并未见明显协同效应(P>0.05).结论 CP和AS均可导致血管内皮功能不全,两种疾病合并未见协同作用.%Objective To investigate the influence of chronic periodontitis (CP) on the endothelial function of atherosclerosis (AS) by establishing animal models of CP and AS in rabbits. Methods Thirty-two male New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups at random: control group, CP group, AS group and CP+AS group. Each group received corresponding treatment. Animals were killed after 14 weeks. Levels of blood lipids, endothelin-1 (ET-1), and nitric oxide (NO) were examined. Periodontitis severity was observed radiographically, while ascending aorta surveyed histologically. The percentage of the positive area of E-selectin in ascending aorta wall investigated by immunohistochemistry method. Results High-fat diet increased the levels of serum total cholesterol, tri-glyceride

  15. Fatty acid composition of Tilia spp. seed oils

    Dowd, M. K.


    Full Text Available As part of a study of the seed oil fatty acid composition of Malvaceae plants, the seeds of seven Tilia species (lime or linden trees were evaluated for their fatty acid profiles. Seeds were obtained from the Germplasm Research Information Network and from various commercial sources. After extraction of the seed oil with hexane, the glycerides were trans-methylated and analyzed by gas chromatography on two polar stationary phases. All of the seed oils analyzed were composed primarily of linoleic acid (49-60% with lesser amounts of oleic (16-22% and palmitic (8-10% acids. The usual secondary components were also found. In addition, cyclopropenoid acids (i.e., sterculic and malvalic acids were present at levels between 6 and 17%. In all samples, the level of malvalic acid was approximately twice the level of sterculic acid, indicating that considerable a-oxidation of sterculic acid had occurred in these seeds. Two additional a-oxidation products, 8-heptadecenoic acid and 8,11-heptadecadienoic acid were also detected. Combined, the level of these fatty acids was between 1.3 and 2.3%, roughly comparable to the levels of these acids recently reported in the seed oil of Thespesia populnea.Como parte de un estudio sobre la composición de aceites derivados de semillas de plantas Malvaceae, las semillas de siete especies de Tilia (árboles de tilia o lima fueron evaluadas con respecto a sus perfiles de ácidos grasos. Las semillas fueron obtenidas de Germplasm Research Information Network así como de varias fuentes comerciales. Tras la extracción del aceite con hexano, los glicéridos fueron trans-metilados y analizados por cromatografía de gases con dos fases polares estacionarias. Todos los aceites extraidos de las semillas analizados estaban compuestos principalmente de ácido linoleico (49-60% y, en cantidades más bajas de ácido oleico (16-22% y palmítico (8-10%. Otros componentes secundarios típicos también fueron encontrados. Además, los

  16. Clinical characteristics of elders with elevated alanine aminotransferase and its association with ultrasound diagnosis of fatty liver%丙氨酸氨基转移酶升高的老年人的临床特征与超声诊断脂肪肝的相关性

    王健生; 徐惠明; 陈小芳; 薛骏明; 周明霞


    Objective To evaluate clinical characteristics associated withof elders with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and its association with ultrasound diagnosis of fatty liver. Methods The physical examination data of 1 054 elders were cross - sectionally analyzed from May. 2010 to Jun. 2012. There were 154 persons with elevated ALT, in which 54 cases were caused by hepatitis B and alcohol abuse. 100 subjects were included into the present study. Subjects were divided into NAFLD group (50 cases) and control group (50 cases). BMI, lipid metabolism, ALT, diabetes mellitus and so on were analyzed. Results In 100 cases of included individuals, 50% were diagnosed as NAFLD using ultrasonography. Patients with NAFLD showed higher (BMI) (P =0.013) , diabetes prevalence (P =0.019) and tri-glycerides (P =0.022) compared with individuals without NAFLD. Multivariate regression analysis showed that BMI (OR = 1.454; 95% CI: 1.139 -1.856; P= 0.003) and diabetes mellitus (OR =3. 378; 95% CI: 1.343 -8.494, P = 0.01) were independent risk factor associated with NAFLD. Conclusion Clinical features such as history of diabetes and high BMI may predict the presence of NAFLD on ultrasonography inpatients with elevated ALT but negative hepatitis.%目的 评估丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)升高的老年人的临床特征与脂肪肝的相关性.方法 通过对2010年5月-2010年6月来我院行健康体检的1 054例老年体检者进行横断面研究,发现154例ALT升高,其中54例有乙型肝炎或者酒精摄入过量,最终100例入选本组研究.被分为非酒精性脂肪肝组(NAFLD)50例和对照组50例.分别进行体格检查计算体质量指数(BMI)、脂质代谢、ALT及糖尿病等调查.结果 在100例患者中,超声诊断50%有非酒精性脂肪肝,与无脂肪肝的患者相比,非酒精性脂肪肝患者有糖尿病史(P=0.019),并有较高的BMI (P=0.013)和甘油三脂(P=0.022).多变量回归分析显示BMI和糖尿病为脂肪

  17. Study on the Processing Technology and Formula of Wolfberry and Walnut Milk%枸杞核桃乳工艺条件与配方

    牛美兰; 邢建华; 张强; 周继红


    Wolfberry and walnut milk was prepared using wolfberry and walnut as main raw materials. The extraction conditions for wolfberry juice, effect of NaOH solution concentration and temperature on peeling of walnut kernel, and component of emul-sifier was studied. Orthogonal design was adopted to optimize the formula of wolfberry and walnut milk including pH, dose of wolfberry juice, walnut milk and sugar. The results showed that the optimal wolfberry juice extraction conditions were, mass ratio of wolfberry to water, 1:4; extraction temperature, 60℃; extraction time, 4 h. The optimal peeling craft for walnut kernel was soaking in 5 g/L NaOH solution at 70-80℃ for 10-15 min as the obtained kernel was white; and the walnut milk was with good color. The best component of emulsification stabilizer was 0.75 g/L monoglyceride+0.75 g/L sucrose ester+0.25 g/L modified soybean phosphatide+0.25 g/L trimeric glyceride+0.25 g/L CMC+0.25 g/L sodium alginate+0.75 g/L xanthan gum+0.75 g/L pectin. The best formula of wolfberry and walnut milk was 18% wolfberry juice+20% walnut milk+120% sugar, pH 4.6.%为了研究枸杞核桃乳的最佳工艺条件,参考报道的工艺条件选择枸杞汁的最佳提取条件,采用不同浓度的NaOH溶液和温度组合试验选择最佳的核桃仁去皮条件,采用不同成分乳化稳定剂的稳定性试验选择最佳的乳化稳定剂;为了研究枸杞核桃乳的最佳配方,采用正交试验研究枸杞汁用量、核桃乳用量、pH、白砂糖用量的最佳组合.结果表明,枸杞汁提取的最佳工艺条件为枸杞与水的质量比1∶4,提取温度60℃,提取时间4h;核桃仁的最佳去皮条件为选用5 g/L NaOH溶液在70~80℃下浸泡,在此条件下只需10~15 min就可达到皮仁的分离,而且仁色白,所加工的核桃乳色泽好;乳化稳定剂成分最佳为单甘酯0.75 g/L,蔗糖酯0.75 g/L,改性大豆磷脂0.25 g/L,三聚甘油酯0.25 g/L,羧甲基纤维素(CMC)0.25g/L,海藻酸钠0.25 g

  18. Impact of elevated aspartate and alanine aminotransferase on metabolic syndrome and its components among adult people living in Ningxia, China

    Kun-Peng He; Chuan Zhao; Yan Qiang; He-Rong Liu; Nan Chen; Xiu-Juan Tao; Li-Li Chen; Hui Song


    Objective: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a combination of medical disorders that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. It suggests an association between an elevated serum aminotransferase level and MS. Little data show the relationship between the levels of serum aminotransferase and the incidence of MS in Ningxia, China. Methods: A total of 5415 subjects who received medical health checkups from 2007 to 2009 were enrolled in the study. The participants were interviewed by trained health workers under a structured questionnaire. MS was defined according to the modified ATPIII criteria for Asian Americans by the American Heart Association (AHA-ATP III). Results: The prevalence of elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and ALT (>40 U/L) were 7.1%and 22.2%in males, and 2.1%and 4.8%in females respectively. The prevalence of MS was 32.1%in males and 15.4%in females. The components of MS were significantly more in the group with elevated aminotransferase levels than in the group with normal amino-transferase levels. The odds ratios (95%CI) for elevated AST were 1.90 (1.49, 2.42), 2.59 (2.01, 3.39), 1.68 (1.32, 2.15), and 1.81 (1.36, 2.42) in the adults with abdominal obesity, high serum triglycerides levels, high blood pressure, and high plasma glucose levels respectively. After adjustment for age, the odds ratios (95%CI) for elevated ALT were 3.08 (2.63, 3.61), 4.30 (3.64, 5.08), 1.26 (1.08, 1.48), 2.16 (1.93, 2.65) and 2.38 (1.96, 2.87) in adults with abdominal obesity, high serum tri-glycerides levels, low serum high-density lipoproteincholesterol (HDL-C), high blood pressure, and high plasma glucose levels respectively. The odds ratios (95%CI) for elevated AST were 1.67 (1.06, 2.63), 2.28 (1.46, 3.63), 2.59 (1.59, 4.21) and for elevated ALT 2.02 (1.50, 2.73), 2.68 (1.96, 3.65), 3.94 (2.86, 5.43) for the subjects with 1, 2, and ?3 risk factors after adjustment for age, gender, and BMI. Conclusion: The serum aminotransferase levels were

  19. Avaliação da produção de lipases por diferentes cepas de microrganismos isolados em efluentes de laticínios por fermentação submersa Evaluation of lipase production using different strains of microorganisms isolated from dairy effluent through submerged fermentation

    Mirela Roveda


    Full Text Available A produção enzimática é um dos campos mais promissores dentro das tecnologias para a síntese de compostos de alto valor agregado, estando em constante crescimento pela grande capacidade dos microrganismos de realizarem transformações químicas. As enzimas produzidas por processos fermentativos têm sido utilizadas para o controle ambiental. Muitas destas enzimas podem ser produzidas a partir de resíduos industriais, diminuindo os custos de produção. As lipases são enzimas que catalisam a hidrólise de triglicerídeos em glicerídeos e ácidos graxos. As lipases vêm sendo utilizadas na redução da concentração dos lipídios contidos nos efluentes, promovendo a hidrólise dos óleos e gorduras presentes. Objetivou-se avaliar a produção de lipases por fungos isolados a partir de efluentes de laticínios. Foram isolados 21 fungos, pertencentes aos gêneros Penicillium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma e Fusarium. Na etapa de seleção, 9 fungos foram selecionados devido à capacidade de crescimento em meio contendo azeite de oliva como substrato. Na fermentação submersa, os fungos E9 (Aspergillus, E21 (Aspergillus e E20 (Penicillium foram os que apresentaram as maiores atividades enzimáticas, de 1,250 a 2,250 U, utilizando-se como meio de cultivo o efluente coletado na saída do equalizador do sistema de tratamento de efluente.Enzymatic production is one of the most promising fields within technologies for the synthesis of high added value compounds, given their constant growth due to the great capacity of microorganisms to carry out chemical transformations. The enzymes produced from fermentation processes have been used for environmental control. Many of these enzymes can be produced from industrial residues, reducing the production cost. Lipases are a group of enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis of triglycerides to glycerides and fatty acids. Lipases have been used to reduce the concentration of lipids contained in effluent, promoting

  20. Determination of Cholesterol Content in Vegetable Oil for Rapid Screening Waste Oil%快速测定植物油胆固醇含量在地沟油筛查中的应用

    何文绚; 方润; 李艳霞; 郑声西; 林捷


    采用皂化气相色谱氢火焰离子检测器法测试了多个植物油样品,发现胆固醇峰被干扰比较严重,很难得出植物油与地沟油胆固醇含量的界定值。采用SPE进行样品前处理,对SPE处理条件进行优化,得出优化条件为称样量0.25 g ,20 mL 0.6%乙醚-正己烷(V/V)作为淋洗液,20 mL 15%乙醚-正己烷(V/V)作为洗脱液。用SPE气相色谱氢火焰离子检测器法分析了84个植物油样品和13个地沟油样品中胆固醇含量,测定结果表明,植物油胆固醇含量与地沟油胆固醇含量有明显区别,所有植物油胆固醇含量都小于50μg/g,13个地沟油样中11个样胆固醇含量大于50μg/g。因此,采用上述植物油胆固醇测定方法,胆固醇含量超过50μg/g可判定为疑似地沟油,反之不成立。本方法在0~760 mg/L浓度范围内相关系数R2=0.9999,方法检出限为6. 0μg/g,两个浓度水平(17.7和695 mg/L)的相对标准偏差分别为1.6%和1.5%,回收率为103%。%The contents of cholesterol in a number of vegetable oils were determined by saponification-gas chromatography ( FID) . There was quite a large possibility that cholesterol peak was seriously interfered by saponification-gas chromatography ( FID) , so it was difficult to set a cholesterol content value to differentiate vegetable oil from waste oil. Solid phase extraction ( SPE) sample pretreatment was chosen and the process conditions were optimized. The optimal conditions were as follows:0. 25 g of oil samples, 20 mL of 0. 6%ethyl ether-hexane ( V/V) as eluent ( get rid of fatty acid glycerides) and 20 mL of 15% ethyl ether-hexane ( V/V) as eluent ( obtain cholesterol) . An obvious cholesterol-content-difference between vegetable oils and waste oils was found by SPE-GC. The detected cholesterol contents in 84 vegetable oil samples were all less than 50 μg/g and the contents of 11 waste oil samples among the 13 waste oils were greater than 50 μg/g. Therefore, cholesterol content in

  1. Research on lipid changes in patients with hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism%甲状腺功能减退症及亚临床甲状腺功能减退症患者的血脂变化研究



    Objective To observe lipid levels in patients with hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism and also to ana -lyze the relationship between thyroid-stimulating hormone ( TSH) and lipid level in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism .Methods One hundred and thirty-three patients with hypothyroidism and 146 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism , who sought medical care from January 2010 to June 2014 in the outpatient and inpatient departments of the hospital were respectively assigned as the hypothyroid -ism group and the subclinical hypothyroidism group .Another 86 examinees , who sought medical advice during the same period , but with normal thyroid function , were used as the control group .Changes in lipid levels were compared between the groups .The subclini-cal hypothyroidism group was further divided into the subclinical hypothyroidism group 1 and group 2 in accordance with TSH levels , and then they were compared with the normal control group .Results For the hypothyroidism group , the levels of total cholesterol , tri-glyceride ( TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( LDL-C) were higher than those of the control group , while the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( HDL-C) was lower than that of the control group , and statistical significance could be seen , when com-parisons were made between them(P0.05).For the subclinical hypothyroidism group 2, the levels of total cholesterol, TG and LDL-C were all significantly higher than those of the control group, also with statistical significance(p<0.05).Conclusion The levels of lipid in patients with hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism significantly increased , and the lipid increase in the patients of the subclinical hypothyroidism group 2 was correlated with the increase of TSH level , to which attention must be paid clinically .%目的:观察甲状腺功能减退症(甲减)及亚临床甲状腺功能减退症(亚甲减)患者血脂的状况,并分析亚

  2. Effects of interactions between post-traumatic stress disorder with brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene Val66 Met polymorphism on serum lipid profiles in adolescents%PTSD 与 BDN F基因 Val66Met 多态性相互作用对青少年血脂的影响

    樊梅; 李蓉晖; 胡敏珊; 方定志


    To test our hypothesis that the interplay may occur between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and affect serum lipid profiles .Chinese high school students were enrolled after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake .The PTSD checklist-civilian version (PCL-C) was used to measure the symp-toms of PTSD .Body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated .Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) ,tri-glyceride (TG) ,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ,high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and glucose were tested by routine methods . BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and verified by DNA sequencing .The results show that the male PTSD subjects have higher TG than male subjects without PTSD in the V al/V al homozygotes .Compared with the Met allele carriers ,V al/V al homozygotes have higher TG in the males with PTSD .The female PTSD subjects have higher BMI than the female subjects without PTSD in the Met allele carriers .The results suggest that the changes of lipid profiles induced by interactions of PTSD and BDNF V al66Met polymorphism are different in adolescents with different gender .These findings will provide new insights into further exploration of factors influencing lipid profiles and the mechanism ,and precision medicine and personalized prevention of dysli-poproteinemia and cardiovascular diseases .%为验证“创伤后应激障碍(post-traumatic stress disorder ,PTSD)和脑源性神经营养因子(brain derived neurotrophic fac-tor ,BDNF)基因 BDNFVal66Met多态性之间存在相互作用并影响血脂及相关指标”的新假设,以2008年汶川地震灾区高中学生为研究对象,采用PTSD检查量表平民版(PTSD checklist-civilian version ,PCL-C)评估PTSD症状,常规体格检查并计算体质指数(body mass index

  3. 丙泊酚中长链脂肪乳复合利多卡因用于无痛胃镜检查术中的临床观察%Clinical observation of propofol formulated in a medium-and long-chain triglyceride emulsion combined with lidocaine in painless gastroscopy

    徐钢; 解珂; 扬程


    目的:观察丙泊酚中长链脂肪乳注射液复合利多卡因在无痛胃镜检查中的临床效果。方法选择行无痛胃镜检查术患者80例,随机分为4组,每组20例,A组为丙泊酚长链脂肪乳组,B组为丙泊酚长链脂肪乳+利多卡因组,C组为丙泊酚中长链脂肪乳组,D组为丙泊酚中长链脂肪乳+利多卡因组。麻醉诱导后,待患者呼之不应、睫毛反射消失后实施胃镜检查。记录2组患者注药前5 min、检查开始即刻、检查结束后5 min的心率、平均动脉压、脉搏氧饱和度及不良反应发生情况。结果4组患者年龄、体重、检查时间、苏醒时间及起效时间比较差异无统计学意义。麻醉后4组患者平均动脉压、脉搏氧饱和度较麻醉前均有所下降,心率反射性增快,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。4组患者呛咳恶心呕吐、体动、呼吸抑制等不良反应差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);A 组患者注射痛显著高于其他3组,B组和C组注射痛发生率相似,D组的发生率最低(P<0.05)。结论丙泊酚中长链脂肪乳注射液复合利多卡因应用于无痛胃镜检查术起效快,苏醒时间短,呼吸抑制轻,注射痛不明显,可获得满意的临床效果。%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of propofol formulated in a medium-and long-chain tri-glyceride emulsion combined with lidocaine in painless gastroscopy.Methods A total of 80 patients undergoing painless gastroscopy were randomly divided into 4 groups ( n=20) , including Group A injected with propofol formulated in a long chain triglyceride ( LCT) emulsion, Group B with LCT plus lidocaine, Group C with propofol formulated with a medium-and long-chain triglyceride ( MCT/LCT) emulsion, and Group D with MCT/LCT plus lidocaine.After induction of anesthesia, gastroscopy was performed when patients could not give any response and eyelash reflex disappeared.Then, heart rate, mean

  4. Epidemiology investigation on NAFLD of Harbin City staff%哈尔滨市机关职员非酒精性脂肪性肝病流行病学调查

    陈俭静; 芦建慧; 彭相文; 赵艳; 高舒; 吴坤


    Objective To investigate the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) of Harbin City staff, and the influencing factors of NAFLD. Methods The staffs who came to the first affiliated hospital of Harbin medical university for healthy check-up were recruited from October 2010 to July 2011. After that, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study in patients with NAFLD and controls without NAFLD. Results One-way analysis of variance found that the two groups were significantly different in gender, marrital status, education background, lunch site, dietary schedule, nut consumption, carbohydrate consumption, fat consumption and so on (all P<0.05). By non-conditional Logistic stepwise regression analysis, 8 of 23 factors were used to construct a model, five of which were the risk factors and three were protective factors of NAFLD. Protective factors included female (OR = 0. 349, 95% CI-.0. 217-0. 561), master degree or above ( OR = 0. 581 , 95% CI: 0. 380-0. 888 ) , regular tea drinking ( OR = 0. 535 , 95% CI: 0. 336-0. 854 ) . Thick waist (0# = 5.735, 95% C/:2. 992-10.990) , lunch out (0R= 1.649, 95% CI-.0. 433-0. 974), elevated alanine transarninase (ALT) (OR-3.254, 95% CI-.l. 401-7. 560) , hypertension (Ofl=1.678, 95% CI-1. 041-2. 705) , tri-glycerides (0R = 3. 020, 95% Cl-.l. 793-5.088) were risk factors. Conclusions Harbin authority staffs have higher prevalence of NAFLD than in other parts of our country, improper eating habits and lifestyle factors affecting the prevalence of NAFLD, and metabolic syndrome are closely related with NAFLD.%目的 了解哈尔滨市机关职员非酒精性脂肪性肝病(nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,NAFLD)的患病率及其主要危险因素.方法 采用自制调查问卷,对2010年10月~2011年7月到哈尔滨医科大学第一临床附属医院体检的哈尔滨市区机关职员进行拦截式访问调查,问卷内容包括一般情况、生活方式、饮食习惯、疾病既往史、血液学及生物化

  5. Níveis de probiótico em rações de origem animal e vegetal para frangos de corte Levels of probiotics in animal and vegetal origin feed for broilers

    Matias Djalma Appelt


    complete random design with 10 treatments, each one with 5 replicates of 20 broilers per experimental unity, allocated in a reused litter. The probiotic which was used was based on Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis and it was included at the levels of 0.00, 0.05; 0.10; 0.15 and 0.20% in each feed. The evaluated performance traits were final weight, weight gain, feed intake, food conversion and mortality, evaluated at 7, 21 and 40 days of age. It was also evaluated the intestinal pH (duodenum and jejunum and blood parameters (calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, and total protein at 21 and 39 days of age, respectively. At 40 days of age, the yields of the whole carcass and noble cuts, and the percentage of abdominal fat were evaluated. There wasn't interaction between probiotic levels and type of feed (animal or vegetal origin, but there was effect of probiotic levels and type of feed on the weight, weight gain, food conversion and mortality in the phases 1 to 21 days of age, since vegetable origin feed promoted better blood values of calcium, cholesterol and glycerides, which are determined at 39 days of age, comparing to animal origin feed.

  6. Effects of Sijunzi Decoction Combined with Enteral Nutrition Emulsion on Immune Function and Nutritional Sta-tus of Rats with Hepatic Cirrhosis and Hepatic Carcinoma after Partial Hepatectomy%四君子汤联合肠内营养乳剂对肝硬化肝癌大鼠肝部分切除后免疫功能与营养状态的影响

    金国贤; 曲晓翰; 郭庆; 孙英伟; 邵丽春


    Objective To study the effects of Sijunzi decoction combined with enteral nutrition emulsion on im-mune function and nutritional status of rats with hepatic cirrhosis and hepatic carcinoma after partial hepatectomy. Meth-ods A total of 112 rats were selected and models were successfully established for hepatic cirrhosis and hepatic carcino-ma, and they were randomly divided into observation group ( n=56 ) and control group ( n=56 ) . The rats underwent partial hepatectomy using Higgins method. The control group received enteral nutrition emulsion and physiological saline based on regular diet, while the observation group was added with Sijunzi decoction based on regular diet and enteral nu-trition emulsion. Changes of immune function and nutritional status before and after operation were compared in the two groups. Results Compared with those in the control group, the levels of hemoglobin ( Hb) , total cholesterol ( TC) , tri-glyceride ( TG) and low density lipoprotein ( LDL) were significantly higher in observation group 7 d after the operation (P<0. 05, P<0. 01); on 7 d after the operation in the two groups, the postoperative concentrations of CD3, CD4, IgG, IgM and IgA and CD4/CD8 value were significantly lower, while the CD8 concentrations were significantly higher than those before the treatment (P<0. 01); in the observation group, the postoperative concentrations of CD3, CD4, IgG, IgM and IgA and CD4/CD8 value were significantly higher, while the CD8 concentration was significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0. 05, P<0. 01). Conclusion Intragastric administration of enteral nutrition emul-sion and Sijunzi Decoction can help to improve the immune function and nutritional status of rats with hepatic cirrhosis and hepatic carcinoma after partial hepatectomy and provide certain theoretical basis for clinical practice.%目的:探讨四君子汤联合经肠内营养乳剂治疗肝硬化肝癌大鼠肝部分切除术对营养状态与免疫

  7. Pyrolysis Strategies for Effective Utilization of Lignocellulosic and Algal Biomass

    Maddi, Balakrishna

    protein degradation). Algal bio-char also had a significantly higher N-content. Overall, our results suggest that it is feasible to convert algal cultures deficient in lipids, such as nuisance algae obtained from natural blooms, into liquid fuels by thermochemical methods. Next, pyrolysis characteristics of each of the major components present in lignocellulosic as well as algal biomass were studied independently in a thermo-gravimetric analyzer, using model compounds. From those studies, we have established that, with algae and oil seed feed stocks, triglycerides degrade at distinctly higher temperatures (T>350 C) compared to both protein and carbohydrate fractions (T ~ 250-350 C). Similar trend was not seen for lignocellulosic biomass, where degradation temperature interval of lignin overlapped with that of carbohydrates. This unique trend observed for algal biomass (and oil seeds) can be exploited in multiple ways. First, it permits to separately collect high value triglyceride degradation products not contaminated with N-compounds from protein and oxygenates from carbohydrates; this observation formed the basis of a novel "pyrolytic fractionation technique" developed in this thesis. Second, it led to the development of a new and simple analytical method for rapid estimation of the triglyceride content of oleaginous feed stocks. Pyrolytic fractionation is a two-step pyrolysis approach that can be implemented for oleaginous feed stocks (algae and oil-seeds) to separately recover triglyceride degradation products as a "high-quality" bio-oil fraction. The first step is a low-temperature pyrolysis (T ~ 300-320 C) to produce bio-oils from degradation of protein and carbohydrate fractions. Solid residues left behind can subsequently be subjected to a second higher temperature pyrolysis (T ~ 420-430 C) to volatilize and/or degrade triglycerides to produce fatty acids and their derivatives (such as mono-, di- and tri-glycerides) and long chain hydrocarbons. Proof

  8. The Regulatory Mechanism of the Lipid Metabolism Pathways During Male Germ Cell Differentiation in Chickens%脂代谢通路对鸡雄性生殖细胞分化的调控机制

    左其生; 赵瑞峰; 张文慧; 张亚妮; 李碧春; 张蕾; 连超; 肖天荣; 王颖洁; 汤贝贝; 王飞; 纪艳芹; 路镇宇


    [Objective] This research explores the regulatory mechanism of the lipid metabolic signaling pathways and its related genes during the process of chickens’ male germ cell differentiation to provide a basis for improving the efficiency of the in vitroinduction system.[Method] Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) was used to obtain highly purified ESC (embryonic stem cell), PGC (Primitive germ cells) and SSC (spermatogonial stem cells), to extract total RNA from each type of cell. High throughput analysis methods-RNA-seq and Microarray were used to sequence the transcriptome level of obtained cells. Gene ontology analysis (GO) and the KEGG database were used to look for lipid metabolism signaling pathways and related genes. RA (Retinoic acid), the end-product of retinol metabolism pathway, was used to induce ESC in vitro differentiation into male germ cell combination with Piloty’s Acid. qRT-PCR was used to detect the expression changes of the genes involved in the retinol metabolic pathways.[Result] From the results of RNA-seq, we found that there were 328 genes in 27 lipid metabolic pathways that were continuously involved in lipid metabolism regulation in the process of ESC differentiation into SSC in vivo. Some of these pathways, included retinol metabolism. primary bile acid synthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, metabolism of fatty acid metabolism, glyceride metabolism and the steroid biosynthesis pathway. In the retinol metabolism pathways; ADH5 was expressed in PGC specifically; ALDH1A1 increased persistently throughout the entire development process; both two genes were involved in retinoic acid synthesis in the cell. CYP26b1 was involved in the degradation of retinoic acid and down expressed throughout the entire development process. The experiment that induced ESC differentiation to SSC with RA shows that the changing process of ADH5, ALDH1A1 and CYP26b1 family genes were consistent with RNA-seq results. SSC-like cells generated in RA induced

  9. Effects of Lactobacilli and Bursin on Growth Performance, Slaughter Performance, Meat Quality and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Broiler%乳酸杆菌和囊素三肽对肉鸡生长性能、屠宰性能、肉质和血清生化指标的影响

    曾东; 李涛; 倪学勤; 彭芝榕; 沈雪娇; 易丹


    This test was conducted to study the effects of the Lactobacilli and bursin on growth performance, slaughter performance, meat quality and serum biochemical parameters of broilers by adding Lactobacilli prepa-ration in a basal diet or intramuscular injection bursin.One hundred and eighty 1-day-old Cobb broilers were randomly divided into 4 groups with 3 replicates in each group and 15 broilers per replicate.The broilers in group I were fed the basal diet, those in group Ⅱ were fed the basal diet and injected bursin ( 0.01 mg/kg BW) , those in group Ⅲwere fed the basal diet+0.1%Lactobacilli preparation, and those in group Ⅳ were fed the basal diet+0.1%Lactobacilli preparation, and injected bursin ( 0.01 mg/kg BW) .The test lasted for 42 d.The results showed as follows: 1 ) the average daily feed intake in groups Ⅱ and Ⅳ was significantly higher than that in groupsⅠ and Ⅲ ( P0.05).2) The semi-eviscerated rate in group Ⅱ was significantly higher than that in groupⅠ (P0.05) .3) The meat color in groupsⅡandⅢwas much bet-ter than that in groupsⅠandⅣ, but the pH was no significant difference among groups ( P>0.05) .The drip loss in groupsⅡandⅣwas significantly higher than that in groupsⅠandⅢ( P<0.01) , and the shear force in groups Ⅱ,Ⅲ and Ⅳwas significantly lower than that in groupⅠ (P<0.01).4) The surem total protein and albumin contents in groupⅢwere significantly higher than those in groupⅠ( P<0.05) and the surem tri-glyceride content in groups Ⅲ and Ⅳ was significantly lower than that in groupⅠ( P<0.05) .The composite indicators show that Lactobacilli and bursin can improve the growth performance and slaughter performance of broilers to a certain extent, and can significantly improve meat quality and serum biochemical parameters of broilers; furthermore, the combination effect of Lactobacilli and bursin is not superior to single use.%本试验通过在基础饲粮中添加乳酸杆菌制剂或肌肉注射囊素三

  10. Effects of cholesterol-lowering probiotics on the metabolism of bile acid in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the possible mechanism%降脂益生菌对非酒精性脂肪肝大鼠胆汁酸代谢的影响及机制

    白利梅; 郑鹏远; 张军; 李付广; 梅璐; 黄煌; 丁一芮; 刘思濛


    given high fat diet together with cholesterol-low-ering probiotics through oral gavage. General indexes of each group including body weight and the levels of tri-glyceride, cholesterol and CK18-M30 in serums samples were detected. The expression of cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxy-lase (CYP7A1), fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), fibroblast grwoth factor 15 (FGF15) and apical sodium-dependent bile acid transparter(ASBT) at mRNA level were de-tected by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). Western blot assay was used to detect the protein expression of CYP7A1, FXR in liver tissues and ASBT in ileum tissues. The expression of FXR in liver and ileum tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Results Rats with NAFLD showed loss of body weight and decreased levels of the serological markers after treating with the probiotics (P0. 05). Conclusion Probiotics intervention might up-regulate the expression of CYP7A1 by suppressing the FXR path-way in liver tissues and inhibiting the expression of ASBT in ileum tissues. Treating NAFLD rats with cholester-ol-lowering probiotics could activate the FXR-FGF15 pathway in ileum tissues and enhance the metabolism of bile acid, which contributed to the alleviation of NAFLD.

  11. 饲料添加芒果叶黄酮浸膏促进鱼类生长%Mango extractum additive promoting fish growth

    吕小文; 郝倩; 陈业渊; 陈华蕊; 罗海燕; 付勤; 台建祥; 吕飞杰


    To improve the preventable level of aquatic disease, and keep the high level of safety of aquatic products, we explored the growing characteristics of tilapia, carp, and tortoise administrated with mango extractum, which was extracted from the leaves of mango with alcohol. The level of flavone was determined at the level of 32.34 % in the mango extractum. In this study, we have analyzed the livability, growth, feed ratio, nutrition, blood, and immunity of tilapia, carp, and tortoise, which is important to find a new feed nutritional additive with natural lower toxicity. Our results proved that tilapia, carp, and tortoise could all grow more quickly when was fed with mango extractum. The survival rate, body length, and body gain of tilapia increased from 80.13% to 86.61%, 70.36 mm to 73.23 mm, and 530.75 g to 576.47 g respectively, when the tilapia was administrated with 0.8‰ mango extractum. The relative weight gain of carp was enhanced from 114.94% to 147.87%, and the value was generally higher when the mango extractum dose in the feed was increased, although it was found to be dose-independent. The feed coefficients of carp and tortoise reduced from 2.04 to 1.79, and from 1.14 to 0.90, respectively. However, the nutritional composition in edible tissues of carp and tortoise kept at normal level including protein, fat, ash, and water content. At the same time, we found similar results of the viscerosomatic, hepatosomatic and somatotype indexes of tortoise fed with mango extractum. Moreover, we found that mango extractum lowers the level of blood sugar, cholesterol, and glyceride in tilapia and tortoise. The concentrations of cholesterol and triglyceride in the serum of carp decreased from 3.13 mmol/L to 2.46 mmol/L, and from 2.91 mmol/L to 2.42 mmol/L, respectively. The efficiency was improved along with the supplement of mango extractum. Our data also proved that mango extractum strengthened the activity of peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, and lysozyme in the

  12. Associatlon of milk consumption with the prevalence of obesity and metabolic abnormalities among children%牛奶饮用频率与小学生肥胖及代谢异常的关系

    张倩; 刘爱玲; 杜松明; 尚现文; 李廷玉; 郭红卫; 胡小琪; 马冠生


    目的 了解牛奶饮用频率与儿童肥胖及代谢异常的关系,为制定干预措施提供基础数据.方法 从哈尔滨、北京、济南、上海、重庆、广州6个大城市随机整群抽取6~13岁小学生7082名,问卷调查他们的年龄、性别、家庭经济情况及牛奶饮用频率等信息.按照标准程序测量身高、体重、腰围、血压,采集晨起空腹血测定血糖、总胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇和三酰甘油等指标.结果 饮用牛奶频率为每周7次以上、7次、1~6次和基本不喝奶的4组儿童中,肥胖率依次为8.6%,10.1%,11.0%和12.1%;腹型肥胖率在4组中依次为12.9%,13.7%,15.7%和15.6%;高三酰甘油血症率在各组中依次为2.6%,4.0%,4.2%和4.6%.调整混杂因素后,各组间肥胖、腹型肥胖、高三酰甘油血症检出率差异有统计学意义,其他肥胖相关代谢异常检出率差异无统计学意义.结论 饮用牛奶频率与儿童肥胖及代谢异常有关,应大力提倡儿童饮用牛奶以利于他们的健康成长.%Objective To investigate the association between the frequency of milk intake and obesity and related chronic diseases among children in China. Methods A total of 7 082 children in Grade 2nd to 5th, aged 6-13 yean were enrolled to complete the questionnaires from six developed cities such as Harbin, Beijing, Jinan, Shanghai, Chongqing and Guangzhou and so on, by multistage randomized sampling in 2009. They were tested for anthropometry development and blood biochemistry according to the same standards, including height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose level, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipopiotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, tri-glycerides (TC). Results The prevalence of obesity among children consuming milk more than 7 times per week, 7 times per week ,1-6 times per week, and seldom, was 8. 6% , 10. 1% , 11. 0% and

  13. Amended final report on the safety assessment of glyceryl dilaurate, glyceryl diarachidate, glyceryl dibehenate, glyceryl dierucate, glyceryl dihydroxystearate, glyceryl diisopalmitate, glyceryl diisostearate, glyceryl dilinoleate, glyceryl dimyristate, glyceryl dioleate, glyceryl diricinoleate, glyceryl dipalmitate, glyceryl dipalmitoleate, glyceryl distearate, glyceryl palmitate lactate, glyceryl stearate citrate, glyceryl stearate lactate, and glyceryl stearate succinate.


    Glyceryl Dilaurate, Glyceryl Diarachidate, Glyceryl Dibehenate, Glyceryl Dierucate, Glyceryl Dihydroxystearate, Glyceryl Diisopalmitate, Glyceryl Diisostearate, Glyceryl Dilinoleate, Glyceryl Dimyristate, Glyceryl Dioleate, Glyceryl Diricinoleate, Glyceryl Dipalmitate, Glyceryl Dipalmitoleate, Glyceryl Distearate, Glyceryl Palmitate Lactate, Glyceryl Stearate Citrate, Glyceryl Stearate Lactate, and Glyceryl Stearate Succinate are diacylglycerols (also known as diglycerides or glyceryl diesters) that function as skin conditioning agents - emollients in cosmetics. Only Glyceryl Dilaurate (up to 5%), Glyceryl Diisostearate (up to 43%), Glyceryl Dioleate (up to 2%), Glyceryl Distearate (up to 7%), and Glyceryl Stearate Lactate (up to 5%) are reported to be in current use. Production proceeds from fully refined vegetable oils, which are further processed using hydrogenation and fractionation techniques, and the end products are produced by reacting selected mixtures of the partly hydrogenated, partly fractionated oils and fats with vegetable-derived glycerine to yield partial glycerides. In the final stage of the production process, the products are purified by deodorization, which effectively removes pesticide residues and lower boiling residues such as residues of halogenated solvents and aromatic solvents. Diglycerides have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as indirect food additives. Nominally, these ingredients are 1,3-diglycerides, but are easily isomerized to the 1,2-diglycerides form. The 1,3-diglyceride isomer is not a significant toxicant in acute, short-term, subchronic, or chronic animal tests. Glyceryl Dilaurate was a mild primary irritant in albino rabbits, but not a skin sensitizer in guinea pig maximization tests. Diacylglycerol Oil was not genotoxic in the Ames test, in mammalian Chinese hamster lung cells, or in a rodent bone marrow micronucleus assay. An eye shadow containing 1.5% Glyceryl Dilaurate did not induce skin