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Sample records for glycemic index mixed

  1. Glycemic Index Diet: What's Behind the Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating By Mayo Clinic Staff A glycemic index diet is an eating plan ... 01, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/glycemic-index- ...

  2. Honey and Glycemic Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Silici

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Honey is a natural substance produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera L. from the nectar of blossoms or from secretions of living parts of plants or excretions of plant sucking insects on the living parts of plants, which honeybees collect, transform and combine with specific substances of their own, store and leave in the honey comb to ripen and mature. Besides being of carbohydrate-rich food, honey has been used as a functional food for its potential health benefits. To explain how different kinds of carbohydrate-rich foods directly affect blood sugar, the researchers developed the concept of the “glycemic index” (GI that ranks carbohydrates on a scale based on how quickly and how much they raise blood sugar levels after eating. The diet should include adequate and healthy balance of nutrients, and according to many health professionals the concept of GI provides a useful means of selecting the most appropriate carbohydrate containing foods for the maintenance of health and the treatment of several disease states. There have been some studies on determining the GI of honey. Further more, we need to determine the GI of various honey types with different botanical and geografical origin. Researches on the issue will serve to bring awareness in the public consciousness.

  3. Glycemic index, insulinemic index, and satiety index of kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kai Ling; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2012-08-01

    To determine glycemic, insulinemic, and satiety indices of 3 types of kefir. This study was divided into 3 phases. In phase 1, 50 g of available carbohydrate from low-fat strawberry kefir or orange kefir was tested, and in phase 2, low-fat plain kefir containing 25 g of available carbohydrates was tested for glycemic index (GI), in both cases compared with an equivalent amount of glucose. In phase 3, 1000-kJ portions of all 3 types of kefirs were compared with white bread with the same energy content to determine the insulinemic index (II) and satiety index (SI) of all 3 kefirs. In all phases, a single-meal, randomized crossover design was performed in which the test meals were given to healthy adults, 5 men and 5 women. The total incremental plasma glucose area under the curve (iAUC) for strawberry, orange, and plain kefirs was significantly lower compared with the respective high-GI control food, which was glucose solution. However, the IIs and SIs of kefir did not differ significantly from the white bread. Kefir is a low- to moderate-GI food; however, its II was high. Although kefir had higher water content, the SI of kefir was not significantly different from white bread.

  4. Glycemic index and glycemic load of commercial Italian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scazzina, F; Dall'Asta, M; Casiraghi, M C; Sieri, S; Del Rio, D; Pellegrini, N; Brighenti, F

    2016-05-01

    The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are useful parameters in the nutritional classification of carbohydrate foods. Diets characterized by a low GI and/or a low GL have been repeatedly and independently associated with decreased risk of diabetes and other chronic diseases. The aim of this study is to report the GI and GL value of carbohydrate-rich foods available on the Italian market and mostly consumed in Italy. GI values were determined according to FAO/WHO (1997) and ISO (2010). Overall, the 141 commercial foods that were analyzed represent food categories that are the source of >80% carbohydrate intake in Italy. The food items chosen were based mainly on the market share of the brand within each food category and grouped into 13 food categories: 1) beverages: fermented milk drink, juice, smoothie, soft drink; 2) biscuits; 3) breads; 4) bread substitutes; 5) breakfast cereals; 6) cakes and snacks; 7) candy and confectionery; 8) cereals; 9) desserts and ice-creams; 10) marmalade and jam; 11) pasta; 12) pizza; 13) sugar and sweetener. This database of commercial Italian foods partly overcomes the lack of information on GI and GL of local foods, contributing to a better understanding of the association between GI/GL and health and providing a more informed choice to Italian consumers and health practitioners. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Glycemic index and glycemic load of selected Chinese traditional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Jun; Sun, Feng-Hua; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Huang, Ya-Jun

    2010-03-28

    To determine the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values of Chinese traditional foods in Hong Kong. Fifteen healthy subjects (8 males and 7 females) volunteered to consume either glucose or one of 23 test foods after 10-14 h overnight fast. The blood glucose concentrations were analyzed immediately before, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after food consumption using capillary blood samples. The GI value of each test food was calculated by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC) value for the test food as a percentage of each subject's average IAUC value for the glucose. The GL value of each test food was calculated as the GI value of the food multiplied by the amount of the available carbohydrate in a usual portion size, divided by 100. Among all the 23 Chinese traditional foods tested, 6 of them belonged to low GI foods (Tuna Fish Bun, Egg Tart, Green Bean Dessert, Chinese Herbal Jelly, Fried Rice Vermicelli in Singapore-style, and Spring Roll), 10 of them belonged to moderate GI foods (Baked Barbecued Pork Puff, Fried Fritter, "Mai-Lai" Cake, "Pineapple" Bun, Fried Rice Noodles with Sliced Beef, Barbecue Pork Bun, Moon Cakes, Glutinous Rice Ball, Instant Sweet Milky Bun, and Salted Meat Rice Dumpling), the others belonged to high GI foods (Fried Rice in Yangzhou-Style, Sticky Rice Wrapped in Lotus Leaf, Steamed Glutinous Rice Roll, Jam and Peanut Butter Toast, Plain Steamed Vermicelli Roll, Red Bean Dessert, and Frozen Sweet Milky Bun). The GI and GL values for these Chinese traditional foods will provide some valuable information to both researchers and public on their food preference.

  6. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to glucose intolerance among Greenland's Inuit population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Aerde, Marieke A; Witte, Daniel Rinse; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Intake of carbohydrates which elicit a large glycemic response is hypothesized to increase the risk of diabetes. However, studies assessing the relationship between glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and diabetes are inconsistent. Only few studies have studied the relationship between GI ...

  7. The concept of low glycemic index and glycemic load foods as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This article examines the concepts of low glycemic indices (GIs) and glycemic load (GL) foods as key drivers in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes as well as their shortcomings. The controversies arising from the analysis of glycemic index (GI) and GL of foods such as their reproducibility as well as their ...

  8. Glycemic Index values of some Jaffna fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selladurai Pirasath

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus has recently increased in developing countries. Scientific data on glycemic index values of common meals is essential to modify the diets for diabetes mellitus patients. This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic index (GI values of fruits such as ‘Kathali’ (Yellow plantain, ‘Kappal’ (Golden plantain, and ‘Itharai’ (Green plantain varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya. The results will be helpful to physicians and the general public to decide the benefits ofthe consumption of fruits, particularly by diabetic and coronary heart disease patients.Methods: Healthy volunteers (20 Nos. of 21.05(±0.92 years, 53.90 (±9.36 kg body weights, 153.92 (±9.15 m heights, and 20.55 (±2.22 kgm-2body mass indexes were selected with their written consent. After overnight fasting, 75g glucose and each test fruit containing 75g digestible carbohydrate were administered at different instances and blood glucose levels were measured half hourly for two hours. The glycemic response and GI values were calculated and analyzed by Randomized Complete Block Design using SAS analytical package.Results: The mean GI values of the ‘Kathali’, ‘Kappal’, ‘Itharai’ varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya were 54.45 (±9.26, 50.43 (±5.79, 48.47 (±10.13, 65.36 (±8.00 and 34.80 (±12.78 % respectively. The GI value of papaya differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits. The GI value of ‘Itharai’ variety of plantain differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits except the ‘Kappal’ varietyof plantain.Conclusion: The three varieties of plantains and papaya were low GI fruits, and jack fruit was found to be an intermediate GI fruit. The presence of dietary fiber, esp. soluble fiber, reduces the glycemicresponse and glycemic index of foods.

  9. Acute effect of meal glycemic index and glycemic load on blood glucose and insulin responses in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Erik

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Foods with contrasting glycemic index when incorporated into a meal, are able to differentially modify glycemia and insulinemia. However, little is known about whether this is dependent on the size of the meal. The purposes of this study were: i to determine if the differential impact on blood glucose and insulin responses induced by contrasting GI foods is similar when provided in meals of different sizes, and; ii to determine the relationship between the total meal glycemic load and the observed serum glucose and insulin responses. Methods Twelve obese women (BMI 33.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2 were recruited. Subjects received 4 different meals in random order. Two meals had a low glycemic index (40–43% and two had a high-glycemic index (86–91%. Both meal types were given as two meal sizes with energy supply corresponding to 23% and 49% of predicted basal metabolic rate. Thus, meals with three different glycemic loads (95, 45–48 and 22 g were administered. Blood samples were taken before and after each meal to determine glucose, free-fatty acids, insulin and glucagon concentrations over a 5-h period. Results An almost 2-fold higher serum glucose and insulin incremental area under the curve (AUC over 2 h for the high- versus low-glycemic index same sized meals was observed (p Conclusion This study showed that foods of contrasting glycemic index induced a proportionally comparable difference in serum insulin response when provided in both small and large meals. The same was true for the serum glucose response but only in large meals. Glycemic load was useful in predicting the acute impact on blood glucose and insulin responses within the context of mixed meals.

  10. Acute effect of meal glycemic index and glycemic load on blood glucose and insulin responses in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, José; Aguirre, Carolina; Díaz, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Objective Foods with contrasting glycemic index when incorporated into a meal, are able to differentially modify glycemia and insulinemia. However, little is known about whether this is dependent on the size of the meal. The purposes of this study were: i) to determine if the differential impact on blood glucose and insulin responses induced by contrasting GI foods is similar when provided in meals of different sizes, and; ii) to determine the relationship between the total meal glycemic load and the observed serum glucose and insulin responses. Methods Twelve obese women (BMI 33.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2) were recruited. Subjects received 4 different meals in random order. Two meals had a low glycemic index (40–43%) and two had a high-glycemic index (86–91%). Both meal types were given as two meal sizes with energy supply corresponding to 23% and 49% of predicted basal metabolic rate. Thus, meals with three different glycemic loads (95, 45–48 and 22 g) were administered. Blood samples were taken before and after each meal to determine glucose, free-fatty acids, insulin and glucagon concentrations over a 5-h period. Results An almost 2-fold higher serum glucose and insulin incremental area under the curve (AUC) over 2 h for the high- versus low-glycemic index same sized meals was observed (p < 0.05), however, for the serum glucose response in small meals this was not significant (p = 0.38). Calculated meal glycemic load was associated with 2 and 5 h serum glucose (r = 0.58, p < 0.01) and insulin (r = 0.54, p < 0.01) incremental and total AUC. In fact, when comparing the two meals with similar glycemic load but differing carbohydrate amount and type, very similar serum glucose and insulin responses were found. No differences were observed for serum free-fatty acids and glucagon profile in response to meal glycemic index. Conclusion This study showed that foods of contrasting glycemic index induced a proportionally comparable difference in serum insulin response when

  11. Relation of Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load to Coronary Artery Calcium in Asymptomatic Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yuni; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Mi Kyung; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Jung Eun; Sung, Eunju; Kim, Boyoung; Ahn, Jiin; Kim, Chan-Won; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhao, Di; Zhang, Yiyi; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-08-15

    The relation between glycemic index, glycemic load, and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between energy-adjusted glycemic index, glycemic load, and coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study was cross-sectional analysis of 28,429 asymptomatic Korean men and women (mean age 41.4 years) without a history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. All participants underwent a health screening examination between March 2011 and April 2013, and dietary intake over the preceding year was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cardiac computed tomography was used for CAC scoring. The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 12.4%. In multivariable-adjusted models, the CAC score ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of glycemic index and glycemic load were 1.74 (1.08 to 2.81; p trend = 0.03) and 3.04 (1.43 to 6.46; p trend = 0.005), respectively. These associations did not differ by clinical subgroups, including the participants at low cardiovascular risk. In conclusion, these findings suggest that high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were associated with a greater prevalence and degree of CAC, with glycemic load having a stronger association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbohydrate and protein but not fat or fiber affects glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values have been calculated using data derived from instruments designed to estimate daily food intake. Since the absolute amount of carbohydrate (CHO) and combination of CHO with other macronutrients and fiber is highly variable among...

  13. High glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, D S; Majzoub, J A; Al-Zahrani, A; Dallal, G E; Blanco, I; Roberts, S B

    1999-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent years. However, the role of dietary composition in body weight regulation remains unclear. The purpose of this work was to investigate the acute effects of dietary glycemic index (GI) on energy metabolism and voluntary food intake in obese subjects. Twelve obese teenage boys were evaluated on three separate occasions using a crossover study protocol. During each evaluation, subjects consumed identical test meals at breakfast and lunch that had a low, medium, or high GI. The high- and medium-GI meals were designed to have similar macronutrient composition, fiber content, and palatability, and all meals for each subject had equal energy content. After breakfast, plasma and serum concentrations of metabolic fuels and hormones were measured. Ad libitum food intake was determined in the 5-hour period after lunch. Voluntary energy intake after the high-GI meal (5.8 megajoule [mJ]) was 53% greater than after the medium-GI meal (3.8 mJ), and 81% greater than after the low-GI meal (3.2 mJ). In addition, compared with the low-GI meal, the high-GI meal resulted in higher serum insulin levels, lower plasma glucagon levels, lower postabsorptive plasma glucose and serum fatty acids levels, and elevation in plasma epinephrine. The area under the glycemic response curve for each test meal accounted for 53% of the variance in food intake within subjects. The rapid absorption of glucose after consumption of high-GI meals induces a sequence of hormonal and metabolic changes that promote excessive food intake in obese subjects. Additional studies are needed to examine the relationship between dietary GI and long-term body weight regulation.

  14. Glycemic Index Biscuits Formulation of Pedada Flour (Sonneratia caseolaris) with Tubers Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyah; Susiloningsih, E. K. B.; Nilasari, K.

    2018-01-01

    The glycemic index of food is the level of food according to its effect on blood glucose levels. Foods with low glycemic index have been shown to improve glucose and fat levels in people with diabetes mellitus and improve insulin resistance. Pedada Fruits (Sonneratia caseolaris) is the one of mangrove fruits has a high fiber content, so it can be used as a raw material in biscuits production. The aim of this research to evaluate the glycemic index on the formula biscuit from the pedada flour and starch from white sweet potato, arrowroot, taro, potato and cassava mixed. This research used completely randomized design in factorial patern with one factor and five levels on formulation biscuit of pedada flour with tubers starch (20% : 80%). The biscuits product were measured of the proximate, crude fiber, glycemic index and glycemic load on wistar rats. The best treatment was 20% of pedada flour with 80% of taro starch which produced biscuit with 76.24% of yield, 2.58% of protein, 15.55% of fat, 2.72% of crude fiber, 48.83 of glycemic index and 7.39 of glycemic load.

  15. Yogurt Is a Low-Glycemic Index Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Thomas Ms

    2017-07-01

    High yogurt intake is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Although several mechanisms could explain this association, this paper addresses the glycemic and insulinemic impact of yogurt. There is evidence that low-glycemic index (GI) and low-glycemic load (GL) diets are associated with a reduced risk of T2DM. The 93 GI values for yogurt in the University of Sydney's GI database have a mean ± SD of 34 ± 13, and 92% of the yogurts are low-GI (≤55). The 43 plain yogurts in the database have a lower GI than the 50 sweetened yogurts, 27 ± 11 compared with 41 ± 11 ( P yogurt. Although yogurt has a low GI, its insulinemic index (II) is higher than its GI. High insulin responses may be deleterious because hyperinsulinemia is associated with an increased risk of T2DM. Nevertheless, this may not be a concern for yogurt because, although its II is higher than its GI, the II of yogurt is within the range of II values for nondairy low-GI foods. In addition, mixed meals containing dairy protein elicit insulin responses similar to those elicited by mixed meals of similar composition containing nondairy protein. Because the GI of yogurt is lower than that of most other carbohydrate foods, exchanging yogurt for other protein and carbohydrate sources can reduce the GI and GL of the diet, and is in line with recommended dietary patterns, which include whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, fish, vegetable oils, and yogurt. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Effect of glycemic index on obesity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elisângela Vitoriano; Costa, Jorge de Assis; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves

    2015-06-01

    Evaluate the effect of glycemic index (GI) on biochemical parameters, food intake, energy metabolism, anthropometric measures and body composition in overweight subjects. Simple blind study, in which nineteen subjects were randomly assigned to consume in the laboratory two daily low GI (n = 10) or high GI (n = 9) meals, for forty-five consecutive days. Habitual food intake was assessed at baseline. Food intake, anthropometric measures and body composition were assessed at each 15 days. Energy metabolism and biochemical parameters were evaluated at baseline and the end of the study. Low GI meals increased fat oxidation, and reduced waist circumference and HOMA-IR, while high GI meals increased daily dietary fiber and energy intake compared to baseline. There was a higher reduction on waist circumference and body fat, and a higher increase on postprandial fat oxidation in response to the LGI meals than after high GI meals. High GI meals increased fasting respiratory coefficient compared to baseline and low GI meals. The results of the present study showed that the consumption of two daily low GI meals for forty-five consecutive days has a positive effect on obesity control, whereas, the consumption of high GI meals result has the opposite effect.

  17. Association between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and body mass index in the Inter99 study: is underreporting a problem?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, C.; Toft, U.; Tetens, Inge

    2006-01-01

    Background: The few studies examining the potential associations between glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and body mass index (BMI) have provided no clear pictures. Underreporting of energy intake may be one explanation for this. Objective: We examined the associations between GI, GL...... a positive association between GI, GL, and BMI. Energy adjustment and the exclusion of LERs significantly affected the results of the analysis; thus, we stress the importance of energy adjustment....

  18. [The glycemic index of some foods common in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati-Munari, A C; Roca-Vides, R A; López-Pérez, R J; de Vivero, I; Ruiz-Velazco, M

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the increase of glycemia due to the ingestion of usual food in Mexico, portions with 50 g of carbohydrate form white corn tortilla, yellow corn tortilla, spaghetti, rice, potatoes, beans brown and black, nopal (prickle pear cactus) and peanuts, compared with white bread, were given to 21 healthy and 27 non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Serum glucose and insulin were measured every 30 min for 180 min long. Glycemic index was obtained as: (area under curve of glucose with test food/area under curve of glucose with white bread) X 100. A corrected index was calculated subtracting the area corresponding to initial values. Insulin index was obtained similarly. Each sample was studied 14-18 times. Glycemic and insulin indexes of white and yellow corn tortilla, spaghetti, rice and potatoes were not different from bread (P greater than 0.05). Corrected glycemic indexes of brown beans (54 +/- 15, +/- SE) and black beans (43 +/- 17) were low (p less than 0.05), as well as corrected insulin indexes (69 +/- 11 and 64 +/- 10 respectively, (P less than 0.02). Peanuts had low glycemic (33 +/- 17, P less than 0.01), but normal insulin index. Nopal had very low glycemic and insulin indexes (10 +/- 17 and 10 +/- 16, P less than 0.0001). These data might be useful in prescribing diets for diabetic subjects.

  19. Glycemic load, glycemic index, bread and incidence of overweight/obesity in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente-Arrillaga, Carmen; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Zazpe, Itziar; Vazquez-Ruiz, Zenaida; Benito-Corchon, Silvia; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2014-10-22

    To evaluate prospectively the relationship between white, or whole grain bread, and glycemic index, or glycemic load from diet and weight change in a Mediterranean cohort. We followed-up 9 267 Spanish university graduates for a mean period of 5 years. Dietary habits at baseline were assessed using a semi-quantitative 136-item food-frequency questionnaire. Average yearly weight change was evaluated according to quintiles of baseline glycemic index, glycemic load, and categories of bread consumption. We also assessed the association between bread consumption, glycemic index, or glycemic load, and the incidence of overweight/obesity. White bread and whole-grain bread were not associated with higher weight gain. No association between glycemic index, glycemic load and weight change was found.White bread consumption was directly associated with a higher risk of becoming overweight/obese (adjusted OR (≥2 portions/day) versus (≤1 portion/week): 1.40; 95% CI: 1.08-1.81; p for trend: 0.008). However, no statistically significant association was observed between whole-grain bread, glycemic index or glycemic load and overweight/obesity. Consumption of white bread (≥2 portions/day) showed a significant direct association with the risk of becoming overweight/obese.

  20. Glycemic index and glycemic load of tropical fruits and the potential risk for chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Uchôa Passos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the glycemic index and glycemic load of tropical fruits and the potential risk for chronic diseases. Nine fruits were investigated: coconut water (for the purpose of this study, coconut water was classified as a “fruit”, guava, tamarind, passion fruit, custard apple, hog plum, cashew, sapodilla, and soursop. The GI and GL were determined according to the Food and Agriculture Organization protocol. The GL was calculated taking into consideration intake recommendation guidelines; 77.8% of the fruits had low GI although significant oscillations were observed in some graphs, which may indicate potential risks of disease. Coconut water and custard apple had a moderate GI, and all fruits had low GL. The fruits evaluated are healthy and can be consumed following the daily recommended amount. However, caution is recommended with fruits causing early glycemic peak and the fruits with moderated GI (coconut water and custard apple.

  1. Glycemic index of chocolate fortified with pumpkin ( Cucurbita ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine Glycemic Index of chocolate fortified with pumpkin and taro powder and observed its effect on mood and cognitive functions of UniSZA female students. Two groups of female students (n = 30) were asked to consume control chocolate (Group A) and fortified chocolate (Group B) for four weeks.

  2. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, fiber, simple sugars, and insulin resistance - The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Cathrine; Pedersen, Oluf; Færch, Kristine

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To examine the relationship between daily glycemic index daily glycemic, load, simple sugars, dietary fiber, and the prevalence of a measure of insulin resistance in 30- to 60-year-old nondiabetic Danish men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The inter99 study is a nonpharmacolo......OBJECTIVE - To examine the relationship between daily glycemic index daily glycemic, load, simple sugars, dietary fiber, and the prevalence of a measure of insulin resistance in 30- to 60-year-old nondiabetic Danish men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The inter99 study...... is a nonpharmacological intervention study. We used baseline data and examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate-related dietary factors and an estimate of insulin resistance in 5,675 subjects at 30 - 60 years. The dietary intake was estimated from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire......, and insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Multiple regressions were performed with HOMA-IR as the dependent variable and carbohydrate-related factors as explanatory variables. All models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical activity...

  3. Glycemic index in the management of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Juanola Falgarona, Martí

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) are one of the main causes of disability and death worldwide. It has been proposed that high glycemic index (GI) and high glycemic load (GL) diets are associated with increased risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, MetS and cardiovascular disease. To date, evidence suggests possible benefits of the GI/GL for the prevention and management of obesity and MetS. We aimed to analyze the association between dietary GI and GL and the risk of to develop Met...

  4. High dietary glycemic load and glycemic index increase risk of cardiovascular disease among middle-aged women : a population-based follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, Joline W. J.; de Bruijne, Leonie M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Bots, Michiel L.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this work was to assess whether high dietary glycemic load and glycemic index are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Background The associations of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load with risk of CVD are not well established, particularly

  5. Fortification of seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) flour on nutrition, iodine, and glycemic index of pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, Muhamad; Yahya; Raditya Hardany Nugraha, Galih; Dwi Utari, Dyah

    2017-10-01

    Pasta is a nutritious and energy product which produced from the dough of wheat flour and water. It contains less of iodine and high of glycemic index. Euchema cottonii belongs of red seaweed is food substance that contains much of iodine and dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to know the fortification effect of E. cottonii flour on the nutrition, iodine, and glycemic index of pasta. E. cottonii was collected from the culture farm of E. cottonii on the Wongsorejo beach, District of Banyuwangi, East Java on April-June 2015. Wheat flour and pasta ingredients were obtained locally at shops of Pasar Besar, Malang. Pasta was produced by weighing of components, mixing, dough, milling, steaming and drying. E. cottonii flour was added on mixing process at 0; 7; 14 and 21 % of ingredients. The parameter of this study was the level of water, lipid, protein, ash, and carbohydrate (by difference), iodine, crude fiber, the total of dietary fiber, soluble fiber, insoluble fiber, and glycemic index, respectively. Data were analyzed by variance and the least square difference used to determine the difference between treatments. The highest concentration group showed more nutritious than other treatments. The characters of its product were water 6.70%, lipid 2.26%, protein 23.09%, ash 14.11%, carbohydrate 53.84%, iodine 3.71 ppm, crude fiber 8.02%, the total of dietary fiber 20.88%, soluble fiber 11.69%, insoluble fiber 9.19%, and glycemic index 44.45, respectively. In conclusion, the fortification of E. cottonii flour enhances the nutrition value, iodine content, and glycemic index of pasta.

  6. Glycemic index, glycemic load and mammographic breast density: the EPIC Florence longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Masala

    Full Text Available A few studies have evaluated the association between diet and mammographic breast density (MBD and results are inconsistent. MBD, a well-recognized risk factor for breast cancer, has been proposed as a marker of cumulative exposure to hormones and growth factors. Diets with a high glycemic index (GI or glycemic load (GL may increase breast cancer risk, via an effect on the insulin-like growth factor axis. We have investigated the association between carbohydrate intake, GI, GL and MBD in a prospective study. We identified a large series of women, in the frame of the EPIC-Florence cohort, with a mammogram taken five years after enrolment, when detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements had been collected. Mammograms have been retrieved (1,668, 83% and MBD assessed according to Wolfe's classification. We compared women with high MBD (P2+DY Wolfe's categories with those with low MBD (N1+P1 through logistic models adjusted for age, education, body mass index, menopause, number of children, breast feeding, physical activity, non-alcohol energy, fibers, saturated fat and alcohol. A direct association between GL and high MBD emerged in the highest quintile of intake in comparison with the lowest quintile (OR = 1.73, 95%CI 1.13-2.67, p for trend = 0.048 while no association with glycemic index was evident. These results were confirmed after exclusion of women reporting to be on a diet or affected with diabetes, and when Hormone Replacement Therapy at the date of mammographic examination used to assess MBD was considered. The effect was particularly evident among leaner women, although no interaction was found. A positive association was suggested for increasing simple sugar and total carbohydrates intakes limited to the highest quintiles. In this Italian population we observed an association between glycemic load, total and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and high MBD. These novel results warrant further

  7. Dietary Fiber, Carbohydrates, Glycemic Index, and Glycemic Load in Relation to Breast Cancer Prognosis in the HEAL Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belle, F.N.; Kampman, E.; McTiernan, A.; Bernstein, L.; Baumgartner, K.; Baumgartner, R.; Ambs, A.; Ballard-Barbash, R.; Neuhouser, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dietary intake of fiber, carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load (GL) may influence breast cancer survival, but consistent and convincing evidence is lacking. Methods: We investigated associations of dietary fiber, carbohydrates, GI, and GL with breast cancer prognosis among

  8. Dietary fiber, carbohydrates, glycemic index, and glycemic load in relation to breast cancer prognosis in the HEAL cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belle, F.N.; Kampman, E.; McTiernan, A.; Bernstein, L.; Baumgartner, K.; Baumgartner, R.; Ambs, A.; Ballard-Barbash, R.; Neuhouser, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary intake of fiber, carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load (GL) may influence breast cancer survival, but consistent and convincing evidence is lacking. METHODS: We investigated associations of dietary fiber, carbohydrates, GI, and GL with breast cancer prognosis among

  9. A Randomized Trial about Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Improves Outcomes among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carla K.; Gutschall, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Glycemic index (GI) represents the postprandial glucose response of carbohydrate foods, and glycemic load (GL) represents the quantity and quality of carbohydrate consumed. A diet lower in GI and GL may improve diabetes management. A 9-week intervention regarding GI and GL was evaluated among adults in the age range of 40-70 years who had had type…

  10. Nutritional composition, glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptical quality of glucomannan-enriched soy milk ice cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'adah, S.; Candra, O. M.; Nugrahani, G.; Pramono, A.; Afifah, D. N.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decades, the number of childhood obesity cases has increased significantly, which led to an increase in the number of adults suffering from degenerative diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Glucomannan-Enriched Soy Milk Ice Cream (GSMIC) may prevent obesity in children. The aim of the study was to test the level of carbohydrates, protein, fat, dietary fiber, glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptic quality of GSMIC. This experiment used a completely randomized design to test three formulations of glucomannan flour and soy milk (0.5%, 1.5%, and 2.5%). The products were tested for nutritional composition, and evaluated on glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptic quality. GSMIC 2.5% had higher levels of dietary fiber and high carbohydrate, protein, and fat content compared to ice cream (3.99%, 30.7%, 1.50%, 1.33%, respectively). The glycemic index of ice cream and 2.5% GSMIC were 75.83 (75%) and 51.48 (51%), respectively, while the glycemic load of ice cream and 2.5% GSMIC were 9.04 and 11.61, respectively. Based on the organoleptic analysis, formulation preferred by the panellists was 2.5% glucomannan flour. Glucomannan flour affected the level of carbohydrates, protein, fat, dietary fiber, glycemic index, glycemic load, and organoleptic quality in soy milk ice cream.

  11. INDEKS GLISEMIK KACANG-KACANGAN [Glycemic Index of Selected Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Marsono 1

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional management for diabetic patients based on selection of low available carbohydrate foods has been criticized because the same availability of carbohydrate in different foods may result in different degree of glycemic response. This management is now being corrected by additional aid in selecting foods with the glycemic index (GI of foods. GI is a measure of the glycemic response to the carbohydrate component within a food relative to the response to an equal carbohydrate portion of reference food (glucose or white bread. In Indonesia, data of the glycemic index of foods is still very limited. The objectives of the research are to provide GI of selected legumes, including red bean (Vigna umbellata, Mung bean (Phaseolus aureus, cow pea (Vigna sinensis ENDL, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan MILLSPAUGH, edible podded peas (Pisum sativum LINN and soy bean (Glycine max MERR. Eleventh health and normal volunteers (not diabetic were provided. The volunteers took an overnight fasting, blood were drawn in the morning and analyzed for serum glucose. Then they were given the test legumes containing total carbohydrates equivalent to 25-g glucose to be consumed. Blood samples were drawn for glucose measurement every 30 minutes until 120 min after meal. Serum glucose was determined enzymatically and the glucose responses were drawn graphically. The GI of the beans studied was lowest for red bean (26 and highest for mung bean (76, Edible podded pea and soy bean had similar value of GI i.e. 30 and 31; whereas pigeon and cow pea had a higher value i.e. 35 and 51, respectively.

  12. Glycemic index and glycemic load in the Opuntia ficus-indica fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Salas, María de Jesús; Novelo-Huerta, Hilda Irene; De León-Salas, Marcela Alejandra; Sánchez-Murillo, Mayra Elisa; Mata-Obregón, María Del Carmen; Garza-Juárez, Aurora de Jesús

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that support the clinical usage of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) in the prevention of chronic disease. To determine the GI and GL of the Opuntia ficus-indica fruit. An analytic, transversal study was made involving 25 healthy volunteers accepted by an informed consent with a normal body mass index, glucose, glycoside hemoglobin, cholesterol and serum triglycerides. The homogeneity of the population was evaluated with anthropometrical and biochemical data using principal component analysis (PCA). The equivalent of 50 g of carbohydrates test food (tuna) and 50 g of dextrose as food standard was provided for the measure of the glucose curve. The GI was determined by calculating the area under the curve by the triangulation method. The CG was reported as the product of IG by carbohydrate loading provided. The IG of the tuna was 48.01 ± 17.4, classified as low, while the CG was 24.0 ± 8.7 rated as high. The chemometric analysis by PCA showed that the selection of the normal population for determining the IG, it is important to consider the values of cholesterol and triglycerides. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud

  13. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Baak, Marleen van

    2010-01-01

    Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power.......Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power....

  14. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and metabolic profile in children with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, F; Pellegrini, N; Salvatici, E; Rovelli, V; Banderali, G; Radaelli, G; Scazzina, F; Giovannini, M; Verduci, E

    2017-02-01

    No data exist in the current literature on the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of the diet of phenylketonuric (PKU) children. The aims of this study were to examine the dietary GI and GL in PKU children on a low-phenylalanine (Phe)-diet and to evaluate whether an association may exist between the carbohydrate quality and the metabolic profile. Twenty-one PKU children (age 5-11 years) and 21 healthy children, gender and age matched, were enrolled. Dietary (including GI and GL) and blood biochemical assessments were performed. No difference was observed for daily energy intake between PKU and healthy children. Compared to healthy controls, PKU children consumed less protein (p = 0.001) and fat (p = 0.028), and more carbohydrate (% of total energy, p = 0.004) and fiber (p = 0.009). PKU children had higher daily GI than healthy children (mean difference (95% confidence interval), 13.7 (9.3-18.3)) and higher GL (31.7 (10.1-53.2)). PKU children exhibited lower blood total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) levels (p < 0.01) and higher triglyceride level (p = 0.014) than healthy children, while glucose and insulin concentrations did not differ. In PKU children the dietary GL was associated with triglyceride glucose index (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.515, p = 0.034). In PKU children a relationship of the dietary treatment with GI and GL, blood triglycerides and triglyceride glucose index may exist. Improvement towards an optimal diet for PKU children could include additional attention to the management of dietary carbohydrate quality. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rice: a high or low glycemic index food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J B; Pang, E; Bramall, L

    1992-12-01

    We determined the glycemic (GI) and insulin-index (II) values for 12 rice products, using eight healthy subjects. The products were brown and white versions of three commercial varieties of rice [two varieties with normal amylose content (20%) and the other with 28% amylose], a waxy rice (0-2% amylose), a converted rice, a quick-cooking brown rice, puffed rice cakes, rice pasta, and rice bran. The GI of the rices ranged from 64 +/- 9 to 93 +/- 11, where glucose = 100. The high amylose rice gave a lower GI and II (P rice varieties. The converted rice and most other rice products gave a high GI. Insulin indices correlated positively with GI (r = 0.75, P rice, whether white, brown, or parboiled, should be classified as high GI foods. Only high-amylose varieties are potentially useful in low-GI diets.

  16. Evaluation of the glycemic indices of three commonly eaten mixed meals in Okada, Edo State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omage, Kingsley; Omage, Sylvia O

    2018-01-01

    People do not generally eat single or individual meals; rather they eat mixed meals, consisting of two or more individual meals. These mixed meals usually have glycemic indices which differ from that of the individual food type. This study was aimed at evaluating the glycemic indices of three commonly consumed mixed meals eaten in Okada; rice and beans (test food 1), rice and plantain (test food 2), beans and plantain (test food 3). Two hundred and forty healthy subjects aged between 18 and 30 participated in this study. They were randomized into three groups of eighty persons each, and fed with the standard food (50 g glucose) on day one and one of the test foods on day two, after an overnight fast. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the food had been eaten. The results showed that the Glycemic Index (GI) values for the test foods were high: 86.60 (test food 1), 89.74 (test food 2), 86.93(test food 3). The incremental increase in blood glucose was monitored and calculated for each food and when compared with that of the standard food (glucose), there was significant differences ( p   .05). The results from this study indicated that the GI of the mixed meals was affected by the constituent nutrient and the response is also affected by the proportion of each nutrient. Our findings show that the selected test foods (mixed meals) consumed in Okada have high GI values.

  17. Glycemic index: effect of food storage under low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cassab Carreira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of food storage under low temperature (-20ºC and the resistant starch formation, both on the glycemic index (GI. The GI of only cooked and cooked and stored foods under -20ºC for 30 days was evaluated in short-term tests with humans. Significant increase on the RS content was evidenced for all the stored foods. The food storage resulted in a significant decrease on the GI of beans and chick-peas; the GI of pasta remained the same and the GI of corn meal increased. Thus, the RS formation showed reduced influence on the glycemic index. The storage of starchy foods under low temperature can collaborate to the RS intake but its effect on the GI will depend on the characteristics of the carbohydrates of each food.O estudo foi realizado para avaliar a influência do armazenamento de alimentos sob baixa temperatura e a formação de amido resistente sobre o índice glicêmico (IG. O IG de alimentos cozidos ou cozidos e armazenados a -20ºC por 30 dias foi avaliado em ensaios de curta duração com humanos. Aumento significativo no conteúdo de AR foi evidenciado para todos os alimentos armazenados. O armazenamento dos alimentos resultou em significativa redução no IG do feijão e do grão de bico. O IG do macarrão foi o mesmo e da polenta sofreu aumento. Desta forma, a evidenciada formação de AR mostrou reduzida influência no IG. O armazenamento de alimentos fonte de amido sob baixa temperatura pode colaborar com a ingestão de AR, mas o efeito sobre o IG vai depender das características dos carboidratos de cada alimento.

  18. Variable classifications of glycemic index determined by glucose meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Hsueh Amanda; Wu, Ming-Chang; Lin, Jenshinn

    2010-07-01

    THE STUDY EVALUATED AND COMPARED THE DIFFERENCES OF GLUCOSE RESPONSES, INCREMENTAL AREA UNDER CURVE (IAUC), GLYCEMIC INDEX (GI) AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF GI VALUES BETWEEN MEASURED BY BIOCHEMICAL ANALYZER (FUJI AUTOMATIC BIOCHEMISTRY ANALYZER (FAA)) AND THREE GLUCOSE METERS: Accue Chek Advantage (AGM), BREEZE 2 (BGM), and Optimum Xceed (OGM). Ten healthy subjects were recruited for the study. The results showed OGM yield highest postprandial glucose responses of 119.6 +/- 1.5, followed by FAA, 118.4 +/- 1.2, BGM, 117.4 +/- 1.4 and AGM, 112.6 +/- 1.3 mg/dl respectively. FAA reached highest mean IAUC of 4156 +/- 208 mg x min/dl, followed by OGM (3835 +/- 270 mg x min/dl), BGM (3730 +/- 241 mg x min/dl) and AGM (3394 +/- 253 mg x min/dl). Among four methods, OGM produced highest mean GI value than FAA (87 +/- 5) than FAA, followed by BGM and AGM (77 +/- 1, 68 +/- 4 and 63 +/- 5, pOGM are more variable methods to determine IAUC, GI and rank GI value of food than FAA. The present result does not necessarily apply to other glucose meters. The performance of glucose meter to determine GI value of food should be evaluated and calibrated before use.

  19. Glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with some cardiovascular risk factors among the PREMIER study participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hwa Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical significance of glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL is inconclusive. Objective : This study was conducted to examine the association of GI and GL with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors including body weight, blood pressure (BP, serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin and homocysteine over time among the PREMIER participants. Design: PREMIER was an 18-month randomized lifestyle intervention trial, conducted from 2000 to 2002, designed to help participants reduce BP by following the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH dietary pattern, losing weight, reducing sodium and increasing physical activity. GI and GL were estimated from 24 h diet recall data at baseline, 6 and 18 months after intervention. PROC MIXED model was used to examine the association of changes in GI or GL with changes in CVD risk factors. Results: A total of 756 randomized participants, 62% females and 34% African Americans and who averaged 50.0±0.3 years old and 95.3±0.7 kg, were included in this report. Neither GI nor GL changes was associated with changes in any risk factors at 6 months. At 18 months, however, the GI change was significantly and positively associated with total cholesterol (TC change only (p<0.05, β = 23.80±12.11 mg/dL or 0.62±0.31 mmol/L with a significant age interaction. The GL change was significantly associated with TC (p=0.02, β = 0.28±0.15 mg/dL or 0.01±0.00 mmol/L positively and with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C changes negatively (p=0.03, β = − 0.01±0.00 mg/dL or −0.00±0.00 mmol/L, and significant age interactions were observed for both. Conclusion: GI and GL was associated with TC and LDL-C after controlling for energy, fat and fiber intake and other potential confounders and the associations were modified by age. Further investigation into this relationship is important because of its potential clinical impact.

  20. The effect of protein and glycemic index on children's body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of protein and glycemic index (GI) on body composition among European children in the randomized, 6-month dietary intervention DiOGenes (diet, obesity, and genes) family-based study.......To investigate the effect of protein and glycemic index (GI) on body composition among European children in the randomized, 6-month dietary intervention DiOGenes (diet, obesity, and genes) family-based study....

  1. A low-glycemic-index diet reduces plasma PAI-1 activity in overweight women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    to decrease during weight loss. However, the beneficial effects of healthy diets on PAI-1 levels may not solely depend on weight loss, but other factors may also play a role. For example better glycemic control has been observed in diabetic patients after a low glycemic index (GI) diet compared to a high GI......Introduction An elevated level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in plasma is a core feature of the metabolic syndrome. Plasma PAI-1 is elevated in obesity and might be responsible for some of the secondary effects of obesity as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. PAI-1 has been shown...... diet. Still, the relevance of GI in preventing the metabolic syndrome is controversial. Objectives The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of 10 weeks intake of a low glycemic index vs. a high glycemic index high-carbohydrate, low fat ad libitum diet on plasma PAI-1 activity...

  2. Low glycemic index treatment for seizures in Angelman syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibert, Ronald L; Pfeifer, Heidi H; Larson, Anna M; Raby, Annabel R; Reynolds, Ashley A; Morgan, Amy K; Thiele, Elizabeth A

    2012-09-01

    The low glycemic index treatment (LGIT) is a high fat, limited carbohydrate diet used in the treatment of epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of the LGIT for the treatment of refractory seizures in pediatric patients with Angelman syndrome. A pediatric Angelman syndrome cohort with refractory epilepsy was treated with the LGIT and followed prospectively over 4 months. Parents recorded a daily seizure log for a minimum of 1 month prior to the start of treatment as well as throughout the LGIT trial. Electroencephalography (EEG) and neuropsychological assessments (Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-2nd Edition were obtained for each subject at both baseline and 4-month follow-up time points. Clinical evaluations of subjects were completed by a neurologist and dietitian at the time of enrollment, as well as following both the first and fourth months of dietary therapy. At each time point, blood for laboratory chemistries was drawn and anthropometric measures were obtained. Six children (mean age 3.3 years, range 1.1-4.8) with genetically confirmed Angelman syndrome initiated the LGIT, and completed the trial with no significant adverse events. Cohort averages for indices of seizure severity were as follows: age of 1.6 years at seizure onset, 3 lifetime antiepileptic drugs tried (range 1-6), and baseline seizure frequency of 10.1 events/week (range: 0.4-30.9). All subjects had a decrease in seizure frequency on the LGIT, with five of six exhibiting >80% seizure frequency reduction. All posttrial EEG studies showed improvement and three of four children with epileptiform activity on his or her baseline EEG had no discharges present on follow-up EEG. Developmental gains were noted by parents in all cases, although few of these neurocognitive gains were statistically significant on neuropsychological assessment. This is the first prospective study assessing the LGIT for epilepsy. Our

  3. The obesity epidemic: is glycemic index the key to unlocking a hidden addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, Simon; McRobbie, Hayden; Eyles, Helen; Walker, Natalie; Simmons, Greg

    2008-11-01

    High body mass index (BMI) is an important cause of a range of diseases and is estimated to be the seventh leading cause of death globally. In this paper we discuss evidence that food consumption shows similarities to features of other addictive behaviours, such as automaticity and loss of control. Glycemic index is hypothesised to be the element of food that predicts its addictive potential. Although we do not have substantive evidence of a withdrawal syndrome from high glycemic food abstinence, anecdotal reports exist. Empirical scientific and clinical studies support an addictive component of eating behaviour, with similar neurotransmitters and neural pathways triggered by food consumption, as with other drugs of addiction. The public health implications of such a theory are discussed, with reference to tobacco control. Subtle changes in the preparation and manufacturing of commonly consumed food items, reducing glycemic index through regulatory channels, may break such a cycle of addiction and draw large public health benefits.

  4. Effects of dietary fiber and low glycemic index diet on glucose control in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajorek, Sarah A; Morello, Candis M

    2010-11-01

    To review the effects of dietary fiber and a low glycemic index diet on glycemic risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or T2DM and dyslipidemia. Literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, The Natural Standard, and The Natural Medicines through July 2010 using the terms type 2 diabetes mellitus, dietary fiber, psyllium, and glycemic index. Articles included were randomized controlled studies or meta-analyses examining the effects of dietary interventions (dietary fiber, low glycemic index diet, or psyllium) on glycemic risk factors (glycosylated hemoglobin A₁(c) [A1C] or postprandial plasma glucose [PPG] concentrations) in subjects with T2DM or T2DM and dyslipidemia. Both psyllium supplementation and low glycemic index diets have been studied as monotherapy in the treatment of T2DM. Seven studies were reviewed (3 randomized crossover studies, 1 randomized parallel study, 3 randomized blinded parallel studies). Individually, psyllium supplementation and a low glycemic index diet improved glycemic risk factors. PPG and A1C decreased with psyllium 10.2 g per day, while A1C decreased with a low glycemic index diet (average glycemic index 59). However, the results for the low glycemic index diet are controversial. One study was underpowered to detect changes in A1C, while another study had psyllium fiber as a confounding variable. Psyllium supplementation might be an additional therapeutic option for people with T2DM who are already receiving diabetes medication and who still experience elevated PPG concentrations. Further well-designed clinical trials and adjustment for confounding variables are needed to determine the role of a low glycemic index diet in the treatment of T2DM.

  5. Reduced glycemic index and glycemic load diets do not increase the effects of energy restriction on weight loss and insulin sensitivity in obese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Torkelson, Carolyn J; Redmon, J Bruce; Reck, Kristell P; Kwong, Christine A; Swanson, Joyce E; Liu, Chengcheng; Thomas, William; Bantle, John P

    2005-10-01

    Reducing the dietary glycemic load and the glycemic index was proposed as a novel approach to weight reduction. A parallel-design, randomized 12-wk controlled feeding trial with a 24-wk follow-up phase was conducted to test the hypothesis that a hypocaloric diet designed to reduce the glycemic load and the glycemic index would result in greater sustained weight loss than other hypocaloric diets. Obese subjects (n = 29) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets providing 3138 kJ less than estimated energy needs: high glycemic index (HGI), low glycemic index (LGI), or high fat (HF). For the first 12 wk, all food was provided to subjects (feeding phase). Subjects (n = 22) were instructed to follow the assigned diet for 24 additional weeks (free-living phase). Total body weight was obtained and body composition was assessed by skinfold measurements. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the homeostasis model (HOMA). At 12 wk, weight changes from baseline were significant in all groups but not different among groups (-9.3 +/- 1.3 kg for the HGI diet, -9.9 +/- 1.4 kg for the LGI diet, and -8.4 +/- 1.5 kg for the HF diet). All groups improved in insulin sensitivity at the end of the feeding phase of the study. During the free-living phase, all groups maintained their initial weight loss and their improved insulin sensitivity. Weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity scores were independent of diet composition. In summary, lowering the glycemic load and glycemic index of weight reduction diets does not provide any added benefit to energy restriction in promoting weight loss in obese subjects.

  6. Impact of weight loss and maintenance with ad libitum diets varying in protein and glycemic index content on metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Plada, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of weight loss and maintenance with diets that varied with regard to protein content and glycemic index (GI) on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) status.......We investigated the effects of weight loss and maintenance with diets that varied with regard to protein content and glycemic index (GI) on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) status....

  7. Carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Sabrina; Chan, Doris S M; Vingeliene, Snieguole; Vieira, Ana R; Abar, Leila; Polemiti, Elli; Stevens, Christophe A T; Greenwood, Darren C; Aune, Dagfinn; Norat, Teresa

    2017-06-01

    The investigation of dose-response associations between carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of breast cancer stratified by menopausal status, hormone receptor status, and body mass index (BMI) remains inconclusive. A systematic review and dose-response meta-analyses was conducted to investigate these associations. As part of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research Continuous Update Project, PubMed was searched up to May 2015 for relevant studies on these associations. Prospective studies reporting associations between carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, or glycemic load and breast cancer risk were included. Two investigators independently extracted data from included studies. Random-effects models were used to summarize relative risks (RRs) and 95%CIs. Heterogeneity between subgroups, including menopausal status, hormone receptor status, and BMI was explored using meta-regression. Nineteen publications were included. The summary RRs (95%CIs) for breast cancer were 1.04 (1.00-1.07) per 10 units/d for glycemic index, 1.01 (0.98-1.04) per 50 units/d for glycemic load, and 1.00 (0.96-1.05) per 50 g/d for carbohydrate intake. For glycemic index, the association appeared slightly stronger among postmenopausal women (summary RR per 10 units/d, 1.06; 95%CI, 1.02-1.10) than among premenopausal women, though the difference was not statistically significant (Pheterogeneity = 0.15). Glycemic load and carbohydrate intake were positively associated with breast cancer among postmenopausal women with estrogen-negative tumors (summary RR for glycemic load, 1.28; 95%CI, 1.08-1.52; and summary RR for carbohydrates, 1.13; 95%CI, 1.02-1.25). No differences in BMI were detected. Menopausal and hormone receptor status, but not BMI, might be potential influencing factors for the associations between carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, glycemic load, and breast cancer. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press

  8. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men and women: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Shino; Nanri, Akiko; Kurotani, Kayo; Goto, Atsushi; Kato, Masayuki; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2013-12-27

    Japanese diets contain a relatively high amount of carbohydrates, and its high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load may raise the risk of diabetes in the Japanese population. The current study evaluated the associations between the dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in a population based cohort in Japan. We observed 27,769 men and 36,864 women (45-75 y) who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. The dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were estimated using a food-frequency questionnaire. The development of diabetes was reported in a questionnaire administered five years later, and the associations were analyzed using logistic regression after controlling for age, area, total energy intake, smoking status, family history of diabetes, physical activity, hypertension, BMI, alcohol intake, magnesium, calcium, dietary fiber and coffee intake, and occupation. The dietary glycemic load was positively associated with the risk of diabetes among women: the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio comparing the highest vs. the lowest quartile was 1.52 (95% CI, 1.13-2.04; P-trend = 0.01). The association was implied to be stronger among women with BMI women with BMI ≥ 25. The dietary glycemic index was positively associated with the risk of diabetes among men with a high intake of total fat: the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio comparing the highest vs. the lowest quartile was 1.46 (95% CI, 0.94-2.28; P-trend = 0.04). Among women with a high total fat intake, those in the first and second quartiles of the dietary glycemic index had a significant reduced risk of diabetes, compared with those in the first quartile who had a lower total fat level (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio = 0.59 with 95% CI, 0.37-0.94, and odds ratio = 0.63 with 95% CI, 0.40-0.998 respectively). The population-based cohort study in Japan indicated that diets with a high dietary glycemic

  9. The application of the glycemic index and glycemic load in weight loss: A review of the clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Amin; Wong, Julia M W; Mirrahimi, Arash; Villa, Chris R; Kendall, Cyril W C

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is rapidly becoming a global epidemic. As it is a significant risk factor for several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, it is imperative to study dietary and lifestyle approaches that help reduce its prevalence. Recently, due to its possible link to appetite control and metabolism, several clinical studies have assessed the effect of low glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) diets on weight loss. To determine the application of GI/GL in the prevention and treatment of obesity, we searched several databases and identified 23 clinical trials that examined low GI/GL diets and weight loss as the primary outcome measure. In general, these studies showed much inconsistency in their findings. While a few studies found significantly greater weight loss on the low GI/GL diets, most of the other studies showed a non-significant trend that favored low GI/GL diets; suggesting that factors other than GI/GL may play a role. It would be helpful if a pooled analysis were undertaken to clarify the current findings and outline the limitations of these studies. There is also a need for more long-term randomized, controlled trials that not only focus on weight loss but also on weight maintenance and body composition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effects of Carbohydrate and Dietary Fiber Intake, Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load on HDL Metabolism in Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hidekatsu; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Abe, Shinichi; Tada, Norio; Sako, Akahito

    2014-10-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a lipoprotein which has anti-atherogenic property by reverse cholesterol transport from the peripheral tissues to liver. Low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are associated with the development of coronary artery diseases (CADs). Various epidemiological studies have suggested that the development of CAD increase in individuals with less than 40 mg/dL of HDL-C. In spite of accumulation of evidences which suggest a significant association between low HDL-C and cardiovascular diseases, effects of dietary factors on HDL metabolism remained largely unknown. There may be interracial differences in effects of dietary factors on HDL metabolism. Here we reviewed published articles about effects of carbohydrate and dietary fiber intake, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), on HDL-C metabolism, regarding meta-analyses and clinical studies performed in Asian population as important articles. Low carbohydrate intake, GI and GL may be beneficially associated with HDL metabolism. Dietary fiber intake may be favorably associated with HDL metabolism in Asian populations.

  11. Glycemic Responses, Glycemic Index, and Glycemic Load Values of Some Street Foods Prepared from Plantain (Musa spp., AAB Genome) in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouamé, Camille Adam; Kouassi, Nestor Kouakou; N'dri, Denis Yao; Pereko, Kingsley Kwadwo Asare; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Rhedoor, Abodo Jacko; Amani, Georges N'guessan

    2017-09-16

    The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of four culinary preferences including five local street dishes prepared from three varieties of plantain at different maturity stages was determined. The GI was obtained following ISO/FDI 26642:2010 protocol, and the GL was calculated from test foods' GI, considering the amount of available carbohydrate in the traditional portion size. GI values were 44 for Klaclo (with Ameletiha variety at all black stage), 39 for Aloco (with Agnrin variety at full yellow stage), 39 for Aloco (with Agnrin variety at full yellow with black spots stage); 45 for Chips (with Ameletiha variety at green stage) and 89 for Banane braisée (with Afoto variety at light green stage). GI values were inversely correlated with the total sugar and carbohydrate in foods ( p foods were high (GL > 20). Contrary to Banane braisée, the consumption of Klaclo, Aloco, and Chips may promote the control of postprandial glucose response. Data provides the first GI published values of plantain-based foods commonly consumed in the urban area of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire).

  12. Informing food choices and health outcomes by use of the dietary glycemic index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable epidemiologic evidence links consuming lower glycemic index (GI) diets with good health, particularly upon aging. The GI is a kinetic parameter that reflects the ability of carbohydrate (CHO) contained in consumed foods to raise blood glucose in vivo. Newer nutritional, clinical, and ex...

  13. Glycemic index differences of high-fat diets modulate primarily lipid metabolism in murine adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Verlinde, E.; Schrauwen, P.; Keijer, J.

    2011-01-01

    A low vs. high glycemic index of a high-fat (HF) diet (LGI and HGI, respectively) significantly retarded adverse health effects in adult male C57BL/6J mice, as shown recently (Van Schothorst EM, Bunschoten A, Schrauwen P, Mensink RP, Keijer J. FASEB J 23: 1092–1101, 2009). The LGI diet enhanced

  14. Estimated glycemic index and dietary fiber content of cookies elaborated with extruded wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Pérez, Faviola; Salazar-García, María Guadalupe; Romero-Baranzini, Ana Lourdes; Islas-Rubio, Alma Rosa; Ramírez-Wong, Benjamín

    2013-03-01

    The increasing demand for high-fiber products has favored the design of numerous bakery products rich in fiber such as bread, cookies, and cakes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dietary fiber and estimated glycemic index of cookies containing extruded wheat bran. Wheat bran was subjected to extrusion process under three temperature profiles: TP1;(60, 75, 85 and 100 °C), TP2;(60, 80, 100 and 120 °C), and TP3;(60, 80, 110 and 140 °C) and three moisture contents: (15, 23, and 31 %). Cookies were elaborated using extruded wheat bran (30 %), separated into two fractions (coarse and fine). The dietary fiber content of cookies elaborated with extruded wheat bran was higher than the controls; C0 (100 % wheat flour) and C1 (30 % of no extruded bran coarse fraction) and C2 (30 % of no extruded bran fine fraction). The higher values of dietary fiber were observed on cookies from treatments 5 (TP1, 31 % moisture content and coarse fraction) and 11 (TP2, 31 % moisture content and coarse fraction). The estimated glycemic index of cookies ranged from 68.54 to 80.16. The dietary fiber content of cookies was increased and the lowest glycemic index corresponded to the cookies elaborated with extruded wheat bran. Cookie made with the treatment 11 had a better dietary fiber content and lower estimated glycemic index.

  15. Physicochemical composition and glycemic index of whole grain bread produced from composite flours of quality protein maize and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Akanbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study entails quality assessment of whole grain bread produced from composite flours of quality protein maize and wheat. Quality protein maize and wheat were processed into flours and mixed at various ratios for bread production. The proximate compositions, physical properties, glycemic response, functional and sensory properties of the samples were evaluated using standard methods. The result showed no significant difference (p<0.05 in the proximate composition parameters of the bread samples. The loaf height (2.50 - 3.95 cm, volume (291.00 - 415.00 cm3 and specific volume(1.72 - 2.42 cm3/g decreased significantly with increasing level of quality protein maize, however, loaf length was not affected by the substitution of quality protein maize. The result of the functional properties showed that final viscosity, water absorption and swelling capacity increased with increasing level of quality protein maize. The result of the glycemic response showed that the inclusion of quality protein maize resulted in decline in the blood glucose content (glycemic index of the products. The bread samples were generally acceptable however; bread with 100% wheat was the most preferred. The result of the sensory properties showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05 in the texture and taste of 100% wheat bread and the other samples. The study concluded that substitution of quality protein maize with wheat produced acceptable whole grain loaves that have positive effect on the reduction of blood glucose level.

  16. A psychosocial risk index for poor glycemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David D; Axelrad, Marni E; Anderson, Barbara J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a psychosocial screening tool to predict risk for poor glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes. Participants seen for psychological screening were 196 children aged 3-18 yr at diabetes diagnosis. A psychosocial risk index was developed to predict poor glycemic control [mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 9.5%; 80 mmol/mol] 1-4 yr post diagnosis. Cutoff scores were derived for multiple levels of risk from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and likelihood ratios (LRs). Discrimination and calibration were examined in the sample, and validated in 1000 bootstrap samples. Ability to predict diabetes-related emergency-room (ER) visits and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was also tested. The risk index accounted for 16.2% of variance in mean HbA1c, discriminated between children with and without poor glycemic control [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.814, 0.713-0.915; p risk for poor glycemic control of approximately 10% (LRs = 1.7, 3.2, 5.8, and 9.3). Sensitivity and specificity were 0.68 (0.43-0.86) and 0.79 (0.72-0.84) for detecting patients at moderate risk, and 0.53 (0.29-0.75) and 0.91 (0.85-0.95) for detecting high-risk patients. The index performed equally well in validation samples. This paper presents the first psychosocial risk index for poor glycemic control in children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. It is brief, easily administered, and provides a single score that translates directly into an estimate of risk that can help guide routine diabetes care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Jenab, Mazda; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Lajous, Martin; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Vasilopoulo, Effie; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Van-der-A, Daphne; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H M; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Asli, Lene Angell; Rodriguez, Laudina; Navarro, Carmen; Amiano, Pilar; Sanchez, Maria-José; Barricarte, Aurelio; Buckland, Genevieve; Sonestedt, Emily; Wirfält, Elisabet; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Key, Timothy J; Allen, Naomi E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2012-08-01

    The glycemic potential of a diet is associated with chronically elevated insulin concentrations, which may augment breast cancer (BC) risk by stimulating insulin receptor or by affecting insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-mediated mitogenesis. It is unclear whether this effect differs by BC phenotype. The objective was to investigate the relation between glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and total carbohydrate intake with BC by using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We identified 11,576 women with invasive BC among 334,849 EPIC women aged 34-66 y (5th to 95th percentiles) at baseline over a median follow-up of 11.5 y. Dietary GI and GL were calculated from country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to quantify the association between GI, GL, and carbohydrate intake and BC risk. BC tumors were classified by receptor status. Overall GI, GL, and carbohydrates were not related to BC. Among postmenopausal women, GL and carbohydate intake were significantly associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)) BC when extreme quintiles (Q) were compared [multivariable HR(Q5-Q1) (95% CI) = 1.36 (1.02, 1.82; P-trend = 0.010) and HR(Q5-Q1) = 1.41 (1.05, 1.89; P-trend = 0.009), respectively]. Further stratification by progesterone receptor (PR) status showed slightly stronger associations with ER(-)/PR(-) BC [HR(Q5-Q1) (95% CI) = 1.48 (1.07, 2.05; P-trend = 0.010) for GL and HR(Q5-Q1) = 1.62 (1.15, 2.30; P-trend = 0.005) for carbohydrates]. No significant association with ER-positive BC was observed. Our results indicate that a diet with a high GL and carbohydrate intake is positively associated with an increased risk of developing ER(-) and ER(-)/PR(-) BC among postmenopausal women.

  18. Dietary Glycemic Index during Pregnancy Is Associated with Biomarkers of the Metabolic Syndrome in Offspring at Age 20 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Haldorsson, Thorhallur

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that metabolic syndrome is rooted in fetal life with a potential key role of nutrition during pregnancy. The objective of the study was to assess the possible associations between the dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) during pregnancy and biomarkers...... of the metabolic syndrome in young adult offspring....

  19. The Nigeria high glycemic index starchy foods, obesity, and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osagie, A U; Omoregie, E S

    2011-01-01

    Glycemic index has generated a lot of debate for nearly 30 years, especially as it relates to the control for the treatment of diabetes. This study determined the glycemic index (GI) of ten processed Nigerian foods and revealed their similarity in the release of glucose on consumption. The food items tested were made from yam tubers, cassava tubers and local cereals. These foods were served to human volunteers in several processed forms which resulted in viscous pastes. The GI results are related to the increased incidence of overweight and obesity in the middle class Nigerians. It is suggested that these processed foods should be discouraged in the regular dietary plan if Nigerians desire to stay slim and save the planet by reducing carbon emission and climate change.

  20. Metabolic response to different glycemic indexes of pre-exercise meal

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Valéria Cristina de; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Oliveira, Gustavo Antônio de; Sales, Samuel de Souza; Reis, Fernando Fonseca dos; Pereira, Juscélia Cristina; Lima, Luciana Moreira

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To ensure performance and health, the type of food and the time of pre-exercise ingestion should be considered by practitioners of morning physical activity. Objective: This study assessed the metabolic response after pre-exercise meals with different glycemic indexes (GI) and in the fasting state adopting different types of hydration.METHODS: Twelve men performed four experimental tests; two with pre-exercise meals of high GI (HGI) and low GI (LGI), and two were performed in th...

  1. Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index in the bread fortified with pomelo (Citrus maxima) fruit segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshmi, S K; Sudha, M L; Shashirekha, M N

    2017-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index in breads incorporated with pomelo fruit (Citrus maxima) segments. Volume of the white and brown breads supplemented with pomelo fresh segments increased, while the crumb firmness decreased. Bread with 20% fresh and 5% dry pomelo segments were sensorily acceptable. Bioactive components such as phenolics, flavonoids, naringin and carotenoids were retained to a greater extent in bread containing dry pomelo segments. The pomelo incorporated bread had higher levels of resistant starch fractions (3.87-10.96%) with low predicted glycemic index (62.97-53.13%), despite their higher total starch (69.87-75.47%) content compared to control bread. Thus pomelo segments in the product formulations lowered the glycemic index probably by inhibiting carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme activity which could be attributed to naringin. Hence fortified bread prepared from pomelo fruit segment is recommended to gain nutritional value and to decrease the risk of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of fried sweet potato cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaka Odenigbo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. is a very rich source of starch. There is increased interest in starch digestibility and the prevention and management of metabolic diseases.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of starch fractions and predicted glycemic index of different cultivars of sweet potato. Material and Method: French fries produced from five cultivars of sweet potato (‘Ginseng Red’, ‘Beauregard’, ‘White Travis’, ‘Georgia Jet clone #2010’ and ‘Georgia Jet’ were used. The level of total starch (TS, resistant starch (RS, digestible starch (DS, and starch digestion index starch digestion index in the samples were evaluated. In vitro starch hydrolysis at 30, 90, and 120 min were determined enzymatically for calculation of rapidly digestible starch (RDS, predicted glycemic index (pGI and slowly digestible starch (SDS respectively. Results: The RS content in all samples had an inversely significant correlation with pGI (-0.52; P<0.05 while RDS had positive and significant influence on both pGI (r=0.55; P<0.05 and SDI (r= 0.94; P<0.01. ‘White Travis’ and ‘Ginseng Red’ had higher levels of beneficial starch fractions (RS and SDS with low pGI and starch digestion Index (SDI, despite their higher TS content. Generally, all the cultivars had products with low to moderate GI values. Conclusion: The glycemic index of these food products highlights the health promoting characteristics of sweet potato cultivars.

  3. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Eric C; Yancy, William S; Mavropoulos, John C; Marquart, Megan; McDuffie, Jennifer R

    2008-12-19

    Dietary carbohydrate is the major determinant of postprandial glucose levels, and several clinical studies have shown that low-carbohydrate diets improve glycemic control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a diet lower in carbohydrate would lead to greater improvement in glycemic control over a 24-week period in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eighty-four community volunteers with obesity and type 2 diabetes were randomized to either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (diet (500 kcal/day deficit from weight maintenance diet; LGID). Both groups received group meetings, nutritional supplementation, and an exercise recommendation. The main outcome was glycemic control, measured by hemoglobin A1c. Forty-nine (58.3%) participants completed the study. Both interventions led to improvements in hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and weight loss. The LCKD group had greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c (-1.5% vs. -0.5%, p = 0.03), body weight (-11.1 kg vs. -6.9 kg, p = 0.008), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+5.6 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL, p Diabetes medications were reduced or eliminated in 95.2% of LCKD vs. 62% of LGID participants (p diabetes. The diet lower in carbohydrate led to greater improvements in glycemic control, and more frequent medication reduction/elimination than the low glycemic index diet. Lifestyle modification using low carbohydrate interventions is effective for improving and reversing type 2 diabetes.

  4. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavropoulos John C

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Dietary carbohydrate is the major determinant of postprandial glucose levels, and several clinical studies have shown that low-carbohydrate diets improve glycemic control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a diet lower in carbohydrate would lead to greater improvement in glycemic control over a 24-week period in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research design and methods Eighty-four community volunteers with obesity and type 2 diabetes were randomized to either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (1c. Results Forty-nine (58.3% participants completed the study. Both interventions led to improvements in hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and weight loss. The LCKD group had greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c (-1.5% vs. -0.5%, p = 0.03, body weight (-11.1 kg vs. -6.9 kg, p = 0.008, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+5.6 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL, p Conclusion Dietary modification led to improvements in glycemic control and medication reduction/elimination in motivated volunteers with type 2 diabetes. The diet lower in carbohydrate led to greater improvements in glycemic control, and more frequent medication reduction/elimination than the low glycemic index diet. Lifestyle modification using low carbohydrate interventions is effective for improving and reversing type 2 diabetes.

  5. Zùsto: A new sweetening agent with low glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen, Joeri Jan; Khorosheva, Galina; Van de Velde, Ursule; Debroye, Corinne; Huyghebaert, André; Rottiers, Raoul; Keymeulen, Bart

    2018-02-01

    Sweetening agents are sugar substitutes with a low glycemic index, used to obtain a better glycemic control in diabetes patients. However, they also may have a role in other subjects, as a high glycemic index is thought to cause many pathological conditions. Unfortunately, not all artificial sweeteners are perceived as sweet as sugar by patients. Consumers refer often to an after taste present in foods sweetened with intensive sweeteners. The objective of this study was to explore whether Zùsto ® had a low glycemic index, to replace glucose as a sweetener. In this study, the glycemic index (GI) of a new sweetening agent, Zùsto ® , is compared to that of glucose 25 g, a standard sugar-loaded drink used in the oral glucose tolerance test to detect diabetes, as primary endpoint. Zùsto ® is composed of non-digestible, water soluble fibers and sweeteners. 10 healthy, female non-obese volunteers received glucose and Zùsto ® , albeit by an interval of a week. Evolution of glycemia, C-peptide and insulin release was measured at different time-points after intake. The results show that, when calculating the mean incremental Area Under the Curve (AUC), the AUC of glucose was around five times as high as that of Zùsto ® ; a GI of 22 for Zùsto ® was calculated. Furthermore, Zùsto ® had no significant effect on the glycemia, contrary to glucose, for at least 60'. This was also the case concerning C-peptide and insulin release, but the difference lasted even for 180'. Moreover, Zùsto ® was perceived as sweet by all volunteers, with no particular aftertaste. Zùsto ® could be a viable alternative for fast sugars and other sweetening agents, both for diabetic patients and other subjects, requiring however a larger trial to confirm these results. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT02607345. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Methodologic considerations in the measurement of glycemic index: glycemic response to rye bread, oatmeal porridge, and mashed potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hätönen, Katja A; Similä, Minna E; Virtamo, Jarmo R; Eriksson, Johan G; Hannila, Marja-Leena; Sinkko, Harri K; Sundvall, Jouko E; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Valsta, Liisa M

    2006-11-01

    Methodologic choices affect measures of the glycemic index (GI). The effects on GI values of blood sampling site, reference food type, and the number of repeat tests have been insufficiently determined. The objective was to study the effect of methodologic choices on GI values. Comparisons were made between venous and capillary blood sampling and between glucose and white bread as the reference food. The number of tests needed for the reference food was assessed. Rye bread, oatmeal porridge, and instant mashed potato were used as the test foods. Twelve healthy volunteers were served each test food once and both reference foods 3 times at 1-wk intervals in a random order after they had fasted overnight. Capillary and venous blood samples were drawn at intervals for 3 h after each study meal. GIs and their CVs based on capillary samples were lower than those based on venous samples. Two tests of glucose solution as the reference provided stable capillary GIs for the test foods. The capillary GIs did not differ significantly when white bread was used as the reference 1, 2, or 3 times, but the variation was lower when tests were performed 2 and 3 times. Capillary GIs with white bread as the reference were 1.3 times as high as those with glucose as the reference. The capillary GIs of rye bread, oatmeal porridge, and mashed potato were 77, 74, and 80, respectively, with glucose as the reference. Capillary blood sampling should be used in the measurement of GI, and reference tests with glucose or white bread should be performed at least twice.

  7. Potatoes, glycemic index, and weight loss in free-living individuals: practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Jody M; Edirisinghe, Indika; Masoni, Amber M; Kappagoda, Tissa; Burton-Freeman, Britt

    2014-01-01

    The role of glycemic index (GI) and foods with negative attributes related to GI as part of a weight loss regimen has not been thoroughly assessed in free-living individuals. This study examined the effects of a dietary prescription for energy intake modification, GI, and potato consumption on weight loss, dietary prescription adherence, body composition, and glucose control in a free-living, self-selecting overweight population. Ninety overweight (body mass index [BMI] 29.6 ± 3.9) men and women were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups for 12 weeks. Two groups were counseled to reduce their energy intake by 500 kcal/day and consume diets that were predominantly composed of either low- or high-GI foods (low glycemic index energy reduced [LGI-ER] or high glycemic index energy reduced [HGI-ER] diet, respectively). The third group received no energy restriction, GI provision, or nutritional counseling. All groups were instructed to consume 5-7 servings of potatoes per week. Changes in weight, body composition, glucose tolerance, and triglycerides were determined at baseline and 12 weeks. There were no significant differences in weight loss or changes in body composition between the groups; however, modest weight loss and body composition changes were seen from week 0 to week 12 for all groups (p fasting concentrations of triglycerides, glucose tolerance, insulin, or insulin sensitivity. The results indicate that in a free-living population of men and women, weight loss is associated with energy intake reduction. Potato intake did not cause weight gain and following either a high- or low-GI dietary prescription was difficult for free-living subjects, emphasizing the complex nature of changing dietary patterns.

  8. ANALYSIS OF MACRONUTRIENCONTENT, GLYCEMIC INDEX AND CALCIUM OXALATE ELIMINATION IN Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Lukitaningsih

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the research to find alternative sources of carbohydrates as a replacement for rice has been developed. Walur is one of the carbohydrate sources that can be explored because it can be grown in any area with out special treatment. However, walur has limitation for direct consumption, because it contains calcium oxalate. The purposes of this study were to determine the chemical character (macronutrient content, calculate glycemic index and get the proper washing techniques to elimin ate calcium oxalate of walur. Macro nutrients content studied in this research include carbohydrates, fats, protein, star chand crude fiber. Analysis of macronutrients has been chemically done, while the glycemic index was measured by in vivo using glucose as a standard. Elimination of calcium oxalate was conducted by washing the fresh walur tubers using a solution of0.01NHCl-NaOH, 5% NaCl, and solution of lemon-lime. The content of oxalate before and after washing was analyzed by permanganometry method. The results showed that walur containing 4.34 ±0.07% of reducingsugar,3.24 ± 0.06 % of not-reducing sugar, 11.27±0.40 % of crude fiber,0.03±1.05 % of starchand0.57±0.01 % of protein. Qualitative analysis of fatty acids showed that hexade canoicacid, octade cadienoicacid, and the acide icosatetranoic were detected in high concentrations. The glycemic index valueof walur was relative lylow, about of 16.9. In addition, washing technique using a solution of lemon-lime was the most excellent technique and can reduce the oxalate content up to61.82%.Fromthis research, it can be concluded that walur can be used as food substitute esrice after washing treatment using lemon-lime solution to remove the calcium oxalate content.

  9. Estimating the reliability of glycemic index values and potential sources of methodological and biological variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Meng, Huicui; Tighiouart, Hocine; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2016-10-01

    The utility of glycemic index (GI) values for chronic disease risk management remains controversial. Although absolute GI value determinations for individual foods have been shown to vary significantly in individuals with diabetes, there is a dearth of data on the reliability of GI value determinations and potential sources of variability among healthy adults. We examined the intra- and inter-individual variability in glycemic response to a single food challenge and methodologic and biological factors that potentially mediate this response. The GI value for white bread was determined by using standardized methodology in 63 volunteers free from chronic disease and recruited to differ by sex, age (18-85 y), and body mass index [BMI (in kg/m 2 ): 20-35]. Volunteers randomly underwent 3 sets of food challenges involving glucose (reference) and white bread (test food), both providing 50 g available carbohydrates. Serum glucose and insulin were monitored for 5 h postingestion, and GI values were calculated by using different area under the curve (AUC) methods. Biochemical variables were measured by using standard assays and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mean ± SD GI value for white bread was 62 ± 15 when calculated by using the recommended method. Mean intra- and interindividual CVs were 20% and 25%, respectively. Increasing sample size, replication of reference and test foods, and length of blood sampling, as well as AUC calculation method, did not improve the CVs. Among the biological factors assessed, insulin index and glycated hemoglobin values explained 15% and 16% of the variability in mean GI value for white bread, respectively. These data indicate that there is substantial variability in individual responses to GI value determinations, demonstrating that it is unlikely to be a good approach to guiding food choices. Additionally, even in healthy individuals, glycemic status significantly contributes to the variability in GI value

  10. Experience and acceptability of diets of varying protein content and glycemic index in an obese cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McConnon, A; Horgan, G W; Lawton, C

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives:To investigate acceptability and tolerability of diets of different protein and glycemic index (GI) content aimed at weight maintenance following a phase of rapid weight loss, as part of a large pan-European dietary intervention trial.Subjects/Methods:The Diogenes study (www.......diogenes-eu.org) consisted of an initial 8-week rapid weight-loss phase (800-1000 kcal/day), followed by a 6-month weight maintenance intervention with five different diets varying in protein and GI content. Measurement of a range of outcomes relating to experience of the Diogenes diets in terms of acceptability, experience...

  11. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie V. Kizirian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96 and late (n = 88 pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI and fat-free mass index (FFMI. In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037. In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010 and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034. Higher fat intake (%E and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy. Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity.

  12. Low Glycemic Index Carbohydrates versus All Types of Carbohydrates for Treating Diabetes in Pregnancy: A Randomized Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Effect of Glycemic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Perichart-Perera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Due to the higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM, more pregnant women complicated with diabetes are in need of clinical care. Purpose. Compare the effect of including only low glycemic index (GI carbohydrates (CHO against all types of CHO on maternal glycemic control and on the maternal and newborn’s nutritional status of women with type 2 DM and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Methods. Women (n=107, ≤29 weeks of gestation were randomly assigned to one of two nutrition intervention groups: moderate energy and CHO restriction (Group 1: all types of CHO, Group 2: low GI foods. Results. No baseline differences in clinical data were observed. Capillary glucose concentrations throughout pregnancy were similar between groups. Fewer women in Group 2 exceeded weight gain recommendations. Higher risk of prematurity was observed in women in Group 2. No differences in glycemic control were observed between women with type 2 DM and those with GDM. Conclusions. Inclusion of low GI CHO as part of a comprehensive nutrition intervention is equally effective in improving glycemic control as compared to all types of CHO. This strategy had a positive effect in preventing excessive maternal weight gain but increased the risk of prematurity.

  13. A high dietary glycemic index increases total mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itandehui Castro-Quezada

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. RESULTS: We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths. As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15-4.04; P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. CONCLUSIONS: High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk.

  14. In vitro starch hydrolysis and estimated glycemic index of tef porridge and injera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumoy, Habtu; Raes, Katleen

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro starch digestibility of injera and porridge from seven tef varieties and to estimate their glycemic index. The total starch, free glucose, apparent amylose, resistant, slowly digestible and rapidly digestible starches of the varieties ranged between 66 and 76, 1.8 and 2.4g/100g flour dry matter (DM), 29 and 31%, 17 and 68, 19 and 53, 12 and 30g/100g starch DM, respectively. After processing into injera and porridge, the rapidly digestible starch content increased by 60-85% and 3-69%, respectively. The estimated glycemic index of porridge and injera of the varieties ranged 79-99 and 94-137 when estimated based on model of Goni et al. (1997) whereas from 69 to 100 and 94 to 161, respectively based on Granfeldtet al. (1992). Tef porridge and injera samples studied here can be classified as medium- high GI foods, not to be considered as a proper food ingredient for diabetic people and patients in weight gain control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. THE EFFECT OF GLYCEMIC INDEX ON PLASMA IL-6 IN SUB-MAX EXERCISE

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    S.H. Hasani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examined the effect of a pre-exercise meal with different glycemic index (GI on plasma IL-6 concentration and glucose metabolism during sub-max exercise (endurance performance run. Material : Ten men completed 1 h running at 70%-75% VO2max on a level treadmill on three occasions. In each trial, one of the three prescribed beverages as meal, i.e. high GI and low GL or placebo was consumed by the subjects 45 min before exercise. Blood samples were collected before, after, 1h and 24h after exercise. Result: Concentration of Plasma IL-6 in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups, IL-6 tended to significantly increase after exercise in groups (all P < 0.05, also there was significant difference for plasma IL-6 concentration between placebo and low glycemic groups in after exercise (P=.003 and 1hour after exercise (P=.005 . CK was significantly elevated at all- time points after exercise in 3 groups (all P < 0.05. Concentration of serum CK in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups but there not significantly. The consumption of the LGI beverage before exercise could minimize the increasing of plasma IL-6 concentration immediately after exercise and during the 1 h recovery period compared with the HGI beverage and Pla. Conclusion: This result suggested that the LGI beverage consumed as pre-exercise meal could modify the inflammatory response in prolonged exercise.

  16. A low-glycemic-index diet reduces plasma PAI-1 activity in overweight women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    Introduction An elevated level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in plasma is a core feature of the metabolic syndrome. Plasma PAI-1 is elevated in obesity and might be responsible for some of the secondary effects of obesity as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. PAI-1 has been shown...... to decrease during weight loss. However, the beneficial effects of healthy diets on PAI-1 levels may not solely depend on weight loss, but other factors may also play a role. For example better glycemic control has been observed in diabetic patients after a low glycemic index (GI) diet compared to a high GI...... and antigen levels in overweight women. Methods 45 healthy overweight women (BMI 27.6 ± 0.2 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to a parallel 10 week intervention with a low GI (n=23) or high GI (n=22) diet. Fasting blood samples were obtained before and after the 10 weeks. To study the postprandial effect of LGI...

  17. Effect of dietary glycemic index on food intake, adiposity, and fasting plasma ghrelin levels in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculati, M; Rossi, F; Cena, H; Roggi, C

    2010-04-01

    An increase in lipid storage as a consequence of feeding animals with high-glycemic index (GI) diets has been observed by many authors. Ghrelin is one of the most important orexigenic hormones, and curiously, its fasting plasma levels are decreased in human obesity. As ghrelin secretion is affected by insulin concentration, we hypothesized that carbohydrates with different glycemic responses might influence fasting plasma ghrelin levels. Twenty rats were divided into two groups and fed ad libitum a low-GI or a high-GI diet for 21 days. In rats fed a high- vs low-GI diet we observed: increased food intake (18.9+/-0.6 vs 16.4+/-2.0 g/day; pfasting ghrelin levels (41.1+/-10.7 vs 59.5+/-9.8 pg/ml; p=0.05). Ghrelin appeared to be downregulated in rats fed a high-GI diet; this observation could be related to the higher food intake and fat mass observed in these rats and to the effects of insulin response on ghrelin levels.

  18. Glycemic acute changes in type 2 diabetics caused by low and high glycemic index diets Las variaciones de la glucosa aguda en individuos con diabetes tipo 2 causada por las dietas de bajo y alto índice glucémico

    OpenAIRE

    C. E. Gonçalves Reis; J. Dullius

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Low-glycemic index diets may improve the glycemic control in type 2 diabetes but the debate over their effectiveness continues. Objectives: To test the effects of low-glycemic index diets on acute glycemic control (2 days) by measuring capillary blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This was a crossover randomized clinical trial with 12 type 2 diabetics which were randomly divided into 2 groups and targeted the following draft diets for low and high glycemic i...

  19. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Andersen, Malene R

    2011-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance.......Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance....

  20. Effect of polishing on glycemic index and antioxidant properties of red and white basmati rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somaratne, G M; Prasantha, B D R; Dunuwila, G R; Chandrasekara, A; Wijesinghe, D G N G; Gunasekara, D C S

    2017-12-15

    Four different pigmented dark-red (red) and non-pigmented white basmati rice varieties were tested for their nutrient composition, glycemic index (GI), total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) at 10% and 100% polished levels. The red basmati had higher content of ash, protein, fat, TPC, TAC and AOA than white basmati. Red and white basmati varieties can be classified as low GI and medium GI rice, respectively. The degree of polishing had no effect on the GI. However, there was a significant negative correlation (r>-0.81; Pred basmati than white basmati varieties. Therefore, red basmati varieties can serve as low GI sources of functional food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A High Dietary Glycemic Index Increases Total Mortality in a Mediterranean Population at High Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Estruch, Ramón; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Schröder, Helmut; Álvarez-Pérez, Jacqueline; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Artacho, Reyes; Ros, Emilio; Bulló, Mónica; Covas, María-Isabel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Lapetra, José; Pintó, Xavier; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Objective Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. Material and Methods The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. Results We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths). As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15–4.04); P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. Conclusions High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25250626

  2. Low Glycemic Index Treatment in pediatric refractory epilepsy: the first Middle East report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Parvaneh; Sedighi, Mostafa; Beheshti, Maryam; Azargashb, Enzollah; Ghofrani, Mohammad; Abdollahe-Gorgi, Fatemeh

    2014-08-01

    Intractable epilepsy is a challenging aspects of pediatric epilepsy. This study was conducted to determine the efficacy and tolerability of Low Glycemic Index Treatment (LGIT) in pediatric patients referred to a Children's Hospital in Iran with intractable epilepsy. We studied 42 children with refractory epilepsy aged between 1.5 and 17 years of age, from October 2009 to April 2011 in the pediatric neurology department of Mofid Children's Hospital. Patient information on clinical status, seizure type, and baseline frequency, blood and urine biochemistry, neuro-imaging and the EEG were collected. LGIT was initiated on an outpatient basis and the diet was composed of 65% fat, 25% protein and 10% carbohydrate (40-60 g), and the glycemic index of foods was limited to below 50. 84% of patients were categorized as having more than one seizure per day at study entry, with the remaining children as experiencing over one seizure per week. A greater than 50% seizure reduction was observed in 71.4% of the patients after the second week, in 73.8% at the end of the first month and in 77.8% at the end of the second month. In 30% of the patients a mild increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was detected. The most important reasons for discontinuation of LGIT were restrictiveness, lack of satiation and excessive meat in this diet. No significant complications were observed during the administration of the diet. LGIT is a safe and effective adjuvant antiepileptic therapy and may be used as an alternative to the ketogenic diet in conditions when this diet cannot be used. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of carbohydrate quantity and glycemic index on resting metabolic rate and body composition during weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To examine the effects of diets varying in carbohydrate and glycemic index (GI) on changes in body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and metabolic adaptation during and after weight loss. Methods: Adults with obesity (n = 91) were randomized to one of four provided-food diets f...

  4. Cfh genotype interacts with dietary glycemic index to modulate age-related macular degeneration-like features in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Genetics and diet contribute to the relative risk for developing AMD, but their interactions are poorly understood. Genetic variations in Complement Factor H (CFH), and dietary glycemic index (GI) are major ris...

  5. Índice glicêmico e carga glicêmica de dietas consumidas por indivíduos obesos Glycemic index and glycemic load of diets consumed by obese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Alves de Carvalho Sampaio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o índice glicêmico e a carga glicêmica de dietas de indivíduos obesos. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo retrospectivo, que analisou as fichas clínicas de 80 adultos obesos, acompanhados em um serviço privado localizado em Fortaleza, Ceará. Determinaram-se o índice glicêmico e a carga glicêmica da dieta. Para verificação da associação entre índice glicêmico e carga glicêmica, e dessas variáveis com a ingestão energética diária e com o índice de massa corporal dos indivíduos, utilizou-se o teste de correlação de Pearson. O teste "t" de Student foi utilizado para verificar diferenças entre os dois índices e o sexo. Em ambos os testes adotou-se pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the glycemic index and glycemic load of diets of obese individuals. METHODS: This is a retrospective study that analyzed the medical records of 80 obese adults attending a private health care service in Fortaleza, Ceará. The glycemic index and load of their diet was determined. The Pearson correlation test was used to verify if there was an association between glycemic index and glycemic load and of these variables with their daily energy intake and body mass index. The Student's "t" test was used to verify the differences between the two indexes and gender. A significance level of p<0.05 was adopted for both tests. RESULTS: Inadequate (moderate or high glycemic index prevailed at breakfast (82.9%, afternoon snack (60.0% and dinner (64.6%. The daily glycemic index was inadequate for 78.7% of the group and predominantly moderate according to the mean found (59.23, however it was less inadequate than the daily glycemic load which was high (143.8 and worse among males. The body mass index of the group, in general and according to gender, was not associated with any of the indices. Daily energy intake was associated only with glycemic load, both generally and taking gender into account. CONCLUSION: The results point toward a higher glycemic load in

  6. Pomegranate juice, but not an extract, confers a lower glycemic response on a high-glycemic index food: randomized, crossover, controlled trials in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimi, Asimina; Nyambe-Silavwe, Hilda; Gauer, Julia S; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Williamson, Gary

    2017-12-01

    Background: Low-glycemic index diets have demonstrated health benefits associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Objectives: We tested whether pomegranate polyphenols could lower the glycemic response of a high-glycemic index food when consumed together and the mechanism by which this might occur. Design: We compared the acute effect of a pomegranate juice and a polyphenol-rich extract from pomegranate (supplement) on the bread-derived postprandial blood glucose concentration in 2 randomized, crossover, controlled studies (double-blinded for the supplements), each on 16 healthy volunteers. An additional randomized, crossover, controlled study on 16 volunteers consuming constituent fruit acids in a pH-balanced solution (same pH as pomegranate) and bread was conducted to determine any contributions to postprandial responses caused by acidic beverages. Results: As primary outcome, the incremental area under the curve for bread-derived blood glucose (-33.1% ± 18.1%, P = 0.000005) and peak blood glucose (25.4% ± 19.3%, P = 0.0004) were attenuated by pomegranate juice, compared with a control solution containing the equivalent amount of sugars. In contrast, the pomegranate supplement, or a solution containing the malic and citric acid components of the juice, was ineffective. The pomegranate polyphenol punicalagin was a very effective inhibitor of human α-amylase in vitro, comparable to the drug acarbose. Neither the pomegranate extract nor the individual component polyphenols inhibited 14 C-D-glucose transport across differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers, but they inhibited uptake of 14 C-glucose into Xenopus oocytes expressing the human glucose transporter type 2. Further, some of the predicted pomegranate gut microbiota metabolites modulated 14 C-D-glucose and 14 C-deoxy-D-glucose uptake into hepatic HepG2 cells. Conclusions: These data indicate that pomegranate polyphenols, when present in a beverage but not in a supplement, can reduce the

  7. Influence of Energy Balance and Glycemic Index on Metabolic Endotoxemia in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breusing, Nicolle; Lagerpusch, Merit; Engstler, Anna Janina; Bergheim, Ina; Mueller, Manfred J; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Overfeeding with a high-fat and/or high-carbohydrate (CHO) diet is known to increase plasma concentrations of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) that may lead to metabolic disturbances like insulin resistance. The impact of CHO quality (i.e., the glycemic index [GI]) independent of fat intake on metabolic endotoxemia remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of changes in energy balance and GI on plasma endotoxin were studied. Fifteen healthy young men overconsumed diets containing 65% CHO and 20% fat for 1 week (OF; +50% of energy requirement) followed by 3 weeks of caloric restriction (CR; -50% of energy requirement) and were then randomized to 2 weeks hypercaloric refeeding (RF, +50% of energy requirement) with either a low- or high-GI (40 vs 74) diet. During OF, subjects gained 1.9 ± 0.7 kg body weight (+0.6 ± 0.8% fat mass) followed by a weight loss of 6.1 ± 0.8 kg (-2.0 ± 0.6% fat mass) and weight regain of 4.0 ± 0.6 kg (0.9 ± 0.8% fat mass). Fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA IR ) increased with OF and RF and decreased with CR, Matsuda ISI decreased by 37% after RF (all p endotoxemia. Impaired insulin sensitivity with hypercaloric refeeding on a high-GI diet was not explained by metabolic endotoxemia.

  8. [Carbohydrates and mental performance--the role of glycemic index of food products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciok, Janusz; Dolna, Agnieszka

    2006-03-01

    The role of carbohydrates in proper functioning of central nervous system measured by parameters of cognitive performance was described. The only source of energy for the brain is glucose, which stimulates the production and secretion of acetylocholine. Important are also enough high blood level of insulin and the level of insulin growth factor (IGF). Many studies had showed that breakfast intake improves the ability of concentration, reaction time, learning ability, mood and memory. Not sufficient amount of nutritional carbohydrates may in opposite be negative for the results of some tests measuring cognitive performance. The results of studies showing that the disturbances in utilization of carbohydrates, present in the patients with diabetes, increase the risk of abnormalities of cognitive performance. There is some evidence that the kind of ingested carbohydrates is important. Several studies suggest that the intake of carbohydrates characterized by low glycemic index (GI) may be favorable for some parameters of cognitive performance, because of prolonged time of stable glicaemia after food ingestion.

  9. Effect of a low glycemic index compared with a conventional healthy diet on polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kate A; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Atkinson, Fiona S; Petocz, Peter; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2010-07-01

    Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are intrinsically insulin resistant and have a high risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Weight loss improves risk factors, but the optimal diet composition is unknown. Low-glycemic index (low-GI) diets are recommended without evidence of their clinical effectiveness. We compared changes in insulin sensitivity and clinical outcomes after similar weight losses after consumption of a low-GI diet compared with a conventional healthy diet in women with PCOS. We assigned overweight and obese premenopausal women with PCOS (n = 96) to consume either an ad libitum low-GI diet or a macronutrient-matched healthy diet and followed the women for 12 mo or until they achieved a 7% weight loss. We compared changes in whole-body insulin sensitivity, which we assessed using the insulin sensitivity index derived from the oral-glucose-tolerance test (ISI(OGTT)); glucose tolerance; body composition; plasma lipids; reproductive hormones; health-related quality of life; and menstrual cycle regularity. The attrition rate was high in both groups (49%). Among completers, ISI(OGTT) improved more with the low-GI diet than with the conventional healthy diet (mean +/- SEM: 2.2 +/- 0.7 compared with 0.7 +/- 0.6, respectively; P = 0.03). There was a significant diet-metformin interaction (P = 0.048), with greater improvement in ISI(OGTT) among women prescribed both metformin and the low-GI diet. Compared with women who consumed the conventional healthy diet, more women who consumed the low-GI diet showed improved menstrual cyclicity (95% compared with 63%, respectively; P = 0.03). Among the biochemical measures, only serum fibrinogen concentrations showed significant differences between diets (P diets in the management of PCOS.

  10. The effect of consumption of low-glycemic-index and low-glycemic-load desserts on anthropometric parameters and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiana, Vasiliki; Kanellos, Panagiotis Τ; Makrilakis, Konstantinos; Eleftheriadou, Ioanna; Tsitsinakis, Georgios; Kokkinos, Alexander; Perrea, Despina; Tentolouris, Nikolaos

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of consumption of desserts with low glycemic index (GI) and low glycemic load (GL), as part of a balanced hypo-caloric diet, on anthropometric and biochemical parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 61 subjects with T2DM were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 30) or to the control group (n = 31). Both groups followed the same hypo-caloric (-500 kcal) diet for 12 weeks. Consumption of four portions of low-GI/low-GL desserts/week was included in the diet in the intervention group while one portion of a favorite usual sweet/week was allowed to be consumed in the control group. Thirty subjects in the control and 28 subjects in the intervention group completed the trial. Body weight, body mass index, and waist circumference were reduced significantly in both groups. Arterial blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, and γ-GT were reduced significantly only in the intervention group; however, there were no significant differences between the two groups at endpoint. C-reactive protein was reduced in the intervention, and HDL cholesterol was also reduced in the control group; the reductions were significantly different at the end of the trial. No significant changes were observed in the other plasma lipids, uric acid, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6 in either study group. Consumption of desserts with low GI/GL in a balanced hypo-caloric diet has a positive impact on anthropometric and metabolic parameters of patients with T2DM.

  11. Effects of weight loss and long-term weight maintenance with diets varying in protein and glycemic index on cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögebakan, Özlem; Kohl, Angela; Osterhoff, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes).......We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes)....

  12. A low-glycemic index diet and exercise intervention reduces TNF(alpha) in isolated mononuclear cells of older, obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Karen R; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Low-glycemic index diets and exercise independently improve glucose tolerance and reduce diabetes risk. However, the combined effect of a low-glycemic index diet and exercise on inflammation and glucose metabolism is not known. Therefore, we randomized 28 insulin-resistant adults (age: 66 ± 1 y; ...... and prevention of inflammation and hyperglycemia. A low-glycemic index diet has antiinflammatory and antidiabetogenic effects when combined with exercise in older, obese prediabetics.......Low-glycemic index diets and exercise independently improve glucose tolerance and reduce diabetes risk. However, the combined effect of a low-glycemic index diet and exercise on inflammation and glucose metabolism is not known. Therefore, we randomized 28 insulin-resistant adults (age: 66 ± 1 y......; BMI: 34.2 ± 0.7 kg · m(-2)) to a 12-wk, low (LGI = 40) or high- (HGI = 80) glycemic index diet plus aerobic exercise (5 d · wk(-1), 60 min · d(-1), 80-85% heart rate(max)) intervention. All food and fluids were provided during the study. Inflammation was assessed from cytokine (TNFα and IL-6...

  13. Metabolic response to different glycemic indexes of pre-exercise meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cristina de Faria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To ensure performance and health, the type of food and the time of pre-exercise ingestion should be considered by practitioners of morning physical activity. Objective: This study assessed the metabolic response after pre-exercise meals with different glycemic indexes (GI and in the fasting state adopting different types of hydration.METHODS: Twelve men performed four experimental tests; two with pre-exercise meals of high GI (HGI and low GI (LGI, and two were performed in the fasting state with hydration: water (H2O and carbohydrate drink (CHO. Each test consisted of a pre-exercise rest period of 30 minutes followed by 60 minutes of cycle ergometer with continuous load equivalent to 60% of the extrapolated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2MaxExt. During the exercise, participants were hydrated every 15 minutes with 3mL per kg body weight. During each experimental test, venous blood samples were obtained for fasting and at 15-minute intervals during rest, and every 20 minutes during exercise. The gas analysis was carried out in periods of 5 minutes every 20 minutes of exercise.RESULTS: There was no difference in substrate oxidation. After 20 minutes of exercise, pre-exercise food intake procedures showed similar behavior, having only reduced blood glucose levels compared to fasting procedures (p<0.01. There was maintenance of blood glucose at stable and higher levels during exercise in relation to the other tests in the fast procedure with CHO.CONCLUSION: The data suggest that despite the similar metabolic behavior between LGI and HGI meals, the adoption of a LGI meal before the morning exercise seems to be a more suitable feeding practice due to higher tendency of rebound hypoglycemia after HGI meal and when morning exercise is performed on fasting, hydration with CHO seems to minimize the hypoglycemic risk arising from that state.

  14. An isocaloric low glycemic index diet improves insulin sensitivity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Suzanne; Reeves, Sue; Sharp, Kay; Jeanes, Yvonne M

    2013-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting 5% to 10% of women worldwide. Approximately half of women with PCOS are lean, yet may still present with central obesity and metabolic disturbances. Low-glycemic index (GI) dietary intervention studies have demonstrated improvements in insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant populations; however, there is little evidence of this effect in women with PCOS. This research aimed to determine the efficacy of an isocaloric low-GI dietary intervention on insulin sensitivity, independent of weight change, in women with PCOS. A nonrandomized 12-week low-GI dietary intervention, preceded by a 12-week habitual diet control phase and proceeded by a 12-week follow-up phase was conducted. Dietary intake, body composition, and metabolic risk markers were determined at baseline, after completion of the habitual diet control phase, and after the low-GI dietary intervention. Twenty-six participants were recruited at baseline, 22 commenced and 21 participants completed the low-GI dietary intervention phase. The primary outcome was change in insulin sensitivity. Secondary outcomes included assessment of changes to lipids, body composition, and estimated macronutrient intake. Repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction were used to detect changes to outcomes across study timepoints. Twenty-one women with PCOS with mean (± standard deviation) age of 32.1±6.7 years completed the 12-week low-GI dietary intervention. As expected, no significant changes occurred during the 12-week habitual diet control phase. However, during the dietary intervention phase, dietary GI decreased from 54.5±3.5 to 48.6±5.1 (Pdiet in women with PCOS and findings may contribute to the limited research in this area. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary fiber and the glycemic index: a background paper for the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, Nina Cecilie; Sonestedt, Emily; Laaksonen, David E; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review recent data on dietary fiber (DF) and the glycemic index (GI), with special focus on studies from the Nordic countries regarding cardiometabolic risk factors, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and total mortality. In this study, recent guidelines and scientific background papers or updates on older reports on DF and GI published between 2000 and 2011 from the US, EU, WHO, and the World Cancer Research Fund were reviewed, as well as prospective cohort and intervention studies carried out in the Nordic countries. All of the reports support the role for fiber-rich foods and DF as an important part of a healthy diet. All of the five identified Nordic papers found protective associations between high intake of DF and health outcomes; lower risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, colorectal and breast cancer. None of the reports and few of the Nordic papers found clear evidence for the GI in prevention of risk factors or diseases in healthy populations, although association was found in sub-groups, e.g. overweight and obese individuals and suggestive for prevention of type 2 diabetes. It was concluded that DF is associated with decreased risk of different chronic diseases and metabolic conditions. There is not enough evidence that choosing foods with low GI will decrease the risk of chronic diseases in the population overall. However, there is suggestive evidence that ranking food based on their GI might be of use for overweight and obese individuals. Issues regarding methodology, validity and practicality of the GI remain to be clarified.

  16. Dietary fiber and the glycemic index: a background paper for the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Cecilie Øverby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to review recent data on dietary fiber (DF and the glycemic index (GI, with special focus on studies from the Nordic countries regarding cardiometabolic risk factors, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and total mortality. In this study, recent guidelines and scientific background papers or updates on older reports on DF and GI published between 2000 and 2011 from the US, EU, WHO, and the World Cancer Research Fund were reviewed, as well as prospective cohort and intervention studies carried out in the Nordic countries. All of the reports support the role for fiber-rich foods and DF as an important part of a healthy diet. All of the five identified Nordic papers found protective associations between high intake of DF and health outcomes; lower risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, colorectal and breast cancer. None of the reports and few of the Nordic papers found clear evidence for the GI in prevention of risk factors or diseases in healthy populations, although association was found in sub-groups, e.g. overweight and obese individuals and suggestive for prevention of type 2 diabetes. It was concluded that DF is associated with decreased risk of different chronic diseases and metabolic conditions. There is not enough evidence that choosing foods with low GI will decrease the risk of chronic diseases in the population overall. However, there is suggestive evidence that ranking food based on their GI might be of use for overweight and obese individuals. Issues regarding methodology, validity and practicality of the GI remain to be clarified.

  17. Dietary glycemic load and glycemic index and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in Dutch men and women: the EPIC-MORGEN study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koert N J Burger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The associations of glycemic load (GL and glycemic index (GI with the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD are not well-established, particularly in men, and may be modified by gender. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether high dietary GL and GI increase the risk of CVD in men and women. METHODS: A large prospective cohort study (EPIC-MORGEN was conducted within the general Dutch population among 8,855 men and 10,753 women, aged 21-64 years at baseline (1993-1997 and free of diabetes and CVD. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire and GI and GL were calculated using Foster-Powell's international table of GI. Information on morbidity and mortality was obtained through linkage with national registries. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs for incident coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke, while adjusting for age, CVD risk factors, and dietary factors. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 11.9 years, 581 CHD cases and 120 stroke cases occurred among men, and 300 CHD cases and 109 stroke cases occurred among women. In men, GL was associated with an increased CHD risk (adjusted HR per SD increase, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.02-1.35], while no significant association was found in women (1.09 [0.89-1.33]. GI was not associated with CHD risk in both genders, while it was associated with increased stroke risk in men (1.27 [1.02-1.58] but not in women (0.96 [0.75-1.22]. Similarly, total carbohydrate intake and starch intake were associated with a higher CHD risk in men (1.23 [1.04-1.46]; and 1.24 [1.07-1.45], but not in women. CONCLUSION: Among men, high GL and GI, and high carbohydrate and starch intake, were associated with increased risk of CVD.

  18. The glycemic load estimated from the glycemic index does not differ greatly from that measured using a standard curve in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn, Bernard J; Wallace, Alison J; Monro, John A; Perry, Tracy; Brown, Rachel; Frampton, Chris; Green, Tim J

    2006-05-01

    Glycemic load (GL) is calculated indirectly as glycemic index (GI) times the weight of available carbohydrate. Alternatively, GL may be measured directly using a standard glucose curve. The purpose of this study was to test the agreement between GL values obtained using direct and indirect methods of measurement in 20 healthy volunteers. A standard curve in which glucose dose was plotted against blood glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was generated using beverages containing 0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 75 g glucose. The GI and available carbohydrate content of 5 foods were measured. The foods (white bread, fruit bread, granola bar, instant potato, and chickpeas) were consumed in 3 portion sizes, yielding 15 food/portion size combinations. GL was determined directly by relating the iAUC of a test food to the glucose standard curve. For 12 of 15 food/portion size combinations, GL determined using GI x available carbohydrate did not differ from GL measured from the standard curve (P > 0.05). For 3 of the test products (100 g white bread, and 100- and 150-g granola bars), GI x available carbohydrate was higher than the direct measure. Benefits of the direct measure are that the method does not require testing for available carbohydrate and it allows portion sizes to be tested. For practical purposes, GI x available carbohydrate provided a good estimate of GL, at least under circumstances in which available carbohydrate was measured, and GI and GL were tested in the same group of people.

  19. Glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary carbohydrate, and dietary fiber intake and risk of liver and biliary tract cancers in Western Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedirko, V; Lukanova, A; Bamia, C; Trichopolou, A; Trepo, E; Nöthlings, U; Schlesinger, S; Aleksandrova, K; Boffetta, P; Tjønneland, A; Johnsen, N F; Overvad, K; Fagherazzi, G; Racine, A; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Grote, V; Kaaks, R; Boeing, H; Naska, A; Adarakis, G; Valanou, E; Palli, D; Sieri, S; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Panico, S; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Siersema, P D; Peeters, P H; Weiderpass, E; Skeie, G; Engeset, D; Quirós, J R; Zamora-Ros, R; Sánchez, M J; Amiano, P; Huerta, J M; Barricarte, A; Johansen, D; Lindkvist, B; Sund, M; Werner, M; Crowe, F; Khaw, K T; Ferrari, P; Romieu, I; Chuang, S C; Riboli, E; Jenab, M

    2013-02-01

    The type and quantity of dietary carbohydrate as quantified by glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), and dietary fiber may influence the risk of liver and biliary tract cancers, but convincing evidence is lacking. The association between dietary GI/GL and carbohydrate intake with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; N = 191), intrahepatic bile duct (IBD; N = 66), and biliary tract (N = 236) cancer risk was investigated in 477 206 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Dietary intake was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated from proportional hazard models. HBV/HCV status was measured in a nested case-control subset. Higher dietary GI, GL, or increased intake of total carbohydrate was not associated with liver or biliary tract cancer risk. For HCC, divergent risk estimates were observed for total sugar = 1.43 (1.17-1.74) per 50 g/day, total starch = 0.70 (0.55-0.90) per 50 g/day, and total dietary fiber = 0.70 (0.52-0.93) per 10 g/day. The findings for dietary fiber were confirmed among HBV/HCV-free participants [0.48 (0.23-1.01)]. Similar associations were observed for IBD [dietary fiber = 0.59 (0.37-0.99) per 10 g/day], but not biliary tract cancer. Findings suggest that higher consumption of dietary fiber and lower consumption of total sugars are associated with lower HCC risk. In addition, high dietary fiber intake could be associated with lower IBD cancer risk.

  20. Effects of moderate and high glycemic index meals on metabolism and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, J P; Cyr-Campbell, D; Campbell, W W; Scheiber, J; Evans, W J

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether pre-exercise ingestion of meals with moderate and high glycemic indexes (GI) affects glucose availability during exercise and exercise performance time. Six male volunteers (22 +/- 1 years; 80.4 +/- 3.7 kg; VO(2peak), 54.3 +/- 1.2 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)) ingested 75 g of carbohydrate in the form of 2 different breakfast cereals, rolled oats (moderate GI, approximately 61; MOD-GI) or puffed rice (high GI, approximately 82; HI-GI), combined with 300 mL of water; or water alone (control). The trials were randomized, and the meals were ingested 45 minutes before the subjects performed cycling exercise (60% VO(2peak)) to exhaustion. Venous blood samples were drawn to measure glucose, free fatty acids (FFAs), glycerol, insulin (INS), epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations. A muscle biopsy specimen was obtained from the vastus lateralis before the meal and immediately after exercise for glycogen determination. Before exercise, both test meals elicited significant (P <.05) hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia compared with control. The glycemic response was higher (P <.05) at the start of exercise after the HI-GI meal than after the control. During exercise, plasma glucose levels were higher (P <.05) at 60 (5.2 +/- 0.1, 4.2 +/- 0.2, and 4.6 +/- 0.1 mmol. L(-1)) and 90 (4.8 +/- 0.1, 4.1 +/- 0.1, and 4.3 +/- 0.1 mmol. L(-1)) minutes after the MOD-GI meal than after either the HI-GI or control. Total carbohydrate oxidation was greater (P <.05) during the MOD-GI trial than in control and was directly correlated with exercise performance time (r =.95, P <.0001). Pre-exercise plasma FFA levels were suppressed (P <.05) 30 and 45 minutes after ingestion of the HI-GI meal and 45 minutes after the MOD-GI meal compared with control. At 30, 60, and 120 minutes of exercise, FFAs remained suppressed (P <.05) for both test meals compared with control. At exhaustion, plasma glucose, INS, FFA, glycerol, EPI, and NE levels and

  1. Influence of the glycemic index and glycemic load of the diet in the glycemic control of diabetic children and teenagers Influencia del índice glicémico y la carga glucémica de la dieta en el control glucémico de niños y adolescentes diabéticos

    OpenAIRE

    K. C. Queiroz; I. Novato Silva; R. de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the influence of the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of the diet in the glycemic control of children and teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). Methods: A total of 146 subjects, aged 7-19 years, monitored at the Division of Pediatric Endocrinology at the HC/UFMG participated in the study. The consumed diet was evaluated using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire previously validated and tested in a pilotproject. The GI of the participant´s diet wa...

  2. Glycemic index, glycemic load and glycemic response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustin, Livia S A; Kendall, Cyril W C; Jenkins, David J A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The positive and negative health effects of dietary carbohydrates are of interest to both researchers and consumers. METHODS: International experts on carbohydrate research held a scientific summit in Stresa, Italy, in June 2013 to discuss controversies surrounding the utilit...

  3. Low glycemic index treatment for seizure control in Angelman syndrome: A case series from the Center for Dietary Therapy of Epilepsy at the Massachusetts General Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grocott, Olivia R; Herrington, Katherine S; Pfeifer, Heidi H; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Thibert, Ronald L

    2017-03-01

    The low glycemic index treatment, a dietary therapy that focuses on glycemic index and reduced carbohydrate intake, has been successful in reducing seizure frequency in the general epilepsy population. Epilepsy is a common feature of Angelman syndrome and seizures are often refractory to multiple medications, especially in those with maternal deletions. Dietary therapy has become a more frequently used option for treating epilepsy, often in combination with other antiepileptic drugs, due to its efficacy and favorable side effect profile. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of the low glycemic index treatment for seizure control in Angelman syndrome. Through a retrospective medical record review of 23 subjects who utilized the low glycemic index treatment at the Clinic and Center for Dietary Therapy of Epilepsy at the Massachusetts General Hospital, we found that the high level of seizure control and favorable side effect profile make the low glycemic index treatment a viable treatment for seizures in Angelman syndrome. The majority of subjects in our cohort experienced some level of seizure reduction after initiating the diet, 5 (22%) maintained complete seizure freedom, 10 (43%) maintained seizure freedom except in the setting of illness or non-convulsive status epilepticus, 7 (30%) had a decrease in seizure frequency, and only 1 (4%) did not have enough information to determine seizure control post-initiation. The low glycemic index treatment monotherapy was successful for some subjects in our cohort but most subjects used an antiepileptic drug concurrently. Some subjects were able to maintain the same level of seizure control on a liberalized version of the low glycemic index treatment which included a larger amount of low glycemic carbohydrates. No correlation between the level of carbohydrate restriction and level of seizure control was found. Few subjects experienced side effects and those that did found them to be mild and easily treated. The

  4. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Mavropoulos John C; Yancy William S; Westman Eric C; Marquart Megan; McDuffie Jennifer R

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective Dietary carbohydrate is the major determinant of postprandial glucose levels, and several clinical studies have shown that low-carbohydrate diets improve glycemic control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a diet lower in carbohydrate would lead to greater improvement in glycemic control over a 24-week period in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research design and methods Eighty-four community volunteers with obesity and type 2 diabetes were ra...

  5. Gluten-free snacks using plantain-chickpea and maize blend: chemical composition, starch digestibility, and predicted glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Silva, Pamela C; Rodriguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2015-05-01

    An increase in celiac consumers has caused an increasing interest to develop good quality gluten-free food products with high nutritional value. Snack foods are consumed worldwide and have become a normal part of the eating habits of the celiac population making them a target to improve their nutritive value. Extrusion and deep-frying of unripe plantain, chickpea, and maize flours blends produced gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber contents (13.7-18.2 g/100 g) and low predicted glycemic index (28 to 35). The gluten-free snacks presented lower fat content (12.7 to 13.6 g/100 g) than those reported in similar commercial snacks. The snack with the highest unripe plantain flour showed higher slowly digestible starch (11.6 and 13.4 g/100 g) than its counterpart with the highest chickpea flour level (6 g/100 g). The overall acceptability of the gluten-free snacks was similar to that chili-flavored commercial snack. It was possible to develop gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber content and low predicted glycemic index with the blend of the 3 flours, and these gluten-free snacks may also be useful as an alternative to reduce excess weight and obesity problems in the general population and celiac community. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Dietary glycemic index is associated with less favorable anthropometric and metabolic profiles in polycystic ovary syndrome women with different phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Scheila Karen; Mário, Fernanda Missio; Alves, Bruna Cherubini; Spritzer, Poli Mara

    2013-10-01

    To compare glycemic index (GI) in the usual diet of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and control women and to investigate whether dietary GI is associated with body composition and anthropometric and metabolic variables across PCOS phenotypes. Cross-sectional study. University hospital outpatient clinic. Sixty-one women with PCOS and 44 nonhirsute women with ovulatory cycles. Metabolic work-up, biochemical and hormonal assays, assessment of body composition and rest metabolic rate, physical activity (pedometer), and food consumption (food frequency questionnaire). GI, glycemic load, dietary intake, and hormone and metabolic profile in PCOS versus control and in PCOS women stratified by tertiles of GI and PCOS phenotype. Mean age was 23.7 ± 6.3 years. Participants with PCOS had higher body fat percentage, fasting insulin, insulin resistance, lipid accumulation product, and androgen levels compared with control women. PCOS and control women in the highest tertile of GI had higher body mass index and waist circumference than those in the lowest tertile. Dietary GI was higher in the classic PCOS group. Obesity and this more severe PCOS phenotype explained 28.3% of variance in dietary GI. Dietary GI is increased in the classic PCOS phenotype and associated with a less favorable anthropometric and metabolic profile. Obesity and classic PCOS phenotype are age-independent predictors of higher dietary GI. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high- or low-glycemic index diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score).......The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score)....

  8. Short-term effects of a low glycemic index carob-containing snack on energy intake, satiety, and glycemic response in normal-weight, healthy adults: Results from two randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Emilia; Orfanakos, Nickolaos; Farajian, Paul; Kapetanakou, Anastasia E; Makariti, Ifigenia P; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos; Ha, Marie-Ann; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2017-10-01

    The potential positive health effects of carob-containing snacks are largely unknown. Therefore, the aims of these studies were to determine the glycemic index (GI) of a carob snack compared with chocolate cookie containing equal amounts of available carbohydrates and to compare the effects of a carob versus chocolate cookie preload consumed as snack before a meal on (a) short-term satiety response measured by subsequent ad libitum meal intake, (b) subjective satiety as assessed by visual analog scales and (c) postprandial glycemic response. Ten healthy, normal-weight volunteers participated in GI investigation. Then, 50 healthy, normal-weight individuals consumed, crossover, in random order, the preloads as snack, with 1-wk washout period. Ad libitum meal (lunch and dessert) was offered. Capillary blood glucose samples were collected at baseline, 2 h after breakfast, just before preload consumption, 2 h after preload, 3 h after preload, just before meal (lunch and dessert), 1 h after meal, and 2 h after meal consumption. The carob snack was a low GI food, whereas the chocolate cookie was a high GI food (40 versus 78, respectively, on glucose scale). Consumption of the carob preload decreased the glycemic response to a following meal and to the individual's feelings of hunger, desire to eat, preoccupation with food, and thirst between snack and meal, as assessed with the use of visual analog scales. Subsequently, participants consumed less amounts of food (g) and had lower total energy intake at mealtimes. The carob snack led to increased satiety, lower energy intake at meal, and decreased postmeal glycemic response possibly due to its low GI value. Identifying foods that promote satiety and decrease glycemic response without increasing the overall energy intake may offer advantages to body weight and glycemic control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Decreases in Dietary Glycemic Index Are Related to Weight Loss among Individuals following Therapeutic Diets for Type 2 Diabetes1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Jenkins, David J. A.; Barnard, Neal D.; Cohen, Joshua; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber A.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of changes in glycemic index (GI) and load (GL) on weight loss and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among individuals with type 2 diabetes beginning a vegan diet or diet following the 2003 American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommendations. The study was a 22-wk, randomized trial of 99 participants with type 2 diabetes who were counseled to follow 1 of 2 diet treatments. GI and GL changes were assessed based on 3-d dietary records. The relationships between GI/GL and changes in weight and HbA1C were calculated. In an intention-to-treat analysis (n = 99), the vegan group reduced GI to a greater extent than the ADA group (P vegan group (P vegan or ADA diet in reducing body weight among people with type 2 diabetes. The reduction of body weight, in turn, was predictive of decreasing HbA1C. PMID:21653575

  10. [Glycemic index and insulin response to the ingestion of precooked corn flour in the form of "arepa" in healthy individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprún-Fereira, M; Ryder, E; Morales, L M; Gómez, M E; Raleigh, X

    1994-09-01

    With the purpose of exploring the glucose and insulin responses to a breakfast composed of a complex carbohydrate (CC) in the form of a "arepa" prepared with precooked corn flour, with or without the addition of protein and fat (CC + P + F), we studied 6 healthy volunteers, ages ranging from 26-50 years and body mass index of 24.5 +/- 1.32. Three tests were performed on each individual: 1) 75 g OGTT, 2) Ingestion of 75 g of CC ("arepa") and 3) Ingestion of 75 g of CC + 6.7 g protein (low fat cheese) and 4 g fat (margarine). Glycemic values (glucose - oxidase method) and insulinemia (radioimmunoassay) were determined at basal, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min. Glucose (GA) and insulin (IA) areas, glycemic index (GI) and insulin/glucose ratio (I/G) were calculated. We found that the "arepa" has a high GI (71.5%) that it is increased, although not significatively to 140% with the addition of protein and fat. Total GA as well as IA obtained for CC and for CC + P + F were similar to OGTT, however the profiles of the glucose and insulin responses during CC and CC + P + F were less abrupt but more prolonged, resulting in a greater I/G ratio for OGTT in comparison with CC or CC + P + F during the initial steps. We conclude that GI of this corn bread ("arepa") is high in comparison to other complex carbohydrates and it is not altered by the addition of protein and fat. This is possibly due to glucose and insulin responses similar to that produced by OGTT.

  11. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high- or low-glycemic index diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score)....

  12. The development of low glycemic index cookie bars from foxtail millet (Setaria italica), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) flour, and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Lily Arsanti; Huriyati, Emy; Marsono, Yustinus

    2017-05-01

    Wholegrain foods are becoming increasingly popular as a high fiber dietary supplement recommended for people with diabetes. In Indonesia, the incidence of diabetes mellitus has almost doubled recently and poses a significant health risk with the high prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular diseases. The present research aimed to develop cookie bars from foxtail millet, arrowroot flour, and kidney beans. The physical, chemical, and sensory properties were evaluated by selecting the best formula to test the glycemic index. Three formulae of cookie bars, which had different percentages of foxtail millet, kidney beans, and arrowroot flour were evaluated. The results showed that the three formulae (F1, F2, F3) had °Hue values of 53.77, 58.46, and 58.31, and breaking force of 8.37, 10.12, and 5.87 N, respectively. While all other nutritional content were significantly different between formulae, the total crude fat was not. The F2 cookie bar was selected and evaluated for the glycemic index because it has the best sensory properties, lowest total sugar and available carbohydrate content. F2 cookie bars that contain 15% foxtail millet, 15% arrowroot flour, and 30% of kidney beans have a glycemic index of 37.6 hence it could be classified as a low glycemic index cookie bar. In conclusion, our findings indicated that F2 cookie bars can be further developed as a suitable diabetic food since it has the best physico-chemical properties, sensory properties, and low glycemic index.

  13. Dietary glycemic load and index and risk of coronary heart disease in a large italian cohort: the EPICOR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieri, Sabina; Krogh, Vittorio; Berrino, Franco; Evangelista, Alberto; Agnoli, Claudia; Brighenti, Furio; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Veglia, Fabrizio; Tumino, Rosario; Frasca, Graziella; Grioni, Sara; Pala, Valeria; Mattiello, Amalia; Chiodini, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore

    2010-04-12

    Dietary glycemic load (GL) and glycemic index (GI) in relation to cardiovascular disease have been investigated in a few prospective studies with inconsistent results, particularly in men. The present EPICOR study investigated the association of GI and GL with coronary heart disease (CHD) in a large and heterogeneous cohort of Italian men and women originally recruited to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. We studied 47 749 volunteers (15 171 men and 32 578 women) who completed a dietary questionnaire. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling estimated adjusted relative risks (RRs) of CHD and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During a median of 7.9 years of follow-up, 463 CHD cases (158 women and 305 men) were identified. Women in the highest carbohydrate intake quartile had a significantly greater risk of CHD than did those in the lowest quartile (RR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.16-3.43), with no association found in men (P = .04 for interaction). Increasing carbohydrate intake from high-GI foods was also significantly associated with greater risk of CHD in women (RR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.02-2.75), whereas increasing the intake of low-GI carbohydrates was not. Women in the highest GL quartile had a significantly greater risk of CHD than did those in the lowest quartile (RR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.26-3.98), with no significant association in men (P = .03 for interaction). In this Italian cohort, high dietary GL and carbohydrate intake from high-GI foods increase the overall risk of CHD in women but not men.

  14. Dietary glycemic index, development of islet autoimmunity, and subsequent progression to type 1 diabetes in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Molly M; Yin, Xiang; Barriga, Katherine; Hoffman, Michelle R; Barón, Anna E; Eisenbarth, George S; Rewers, Marian; Norris, Jill M

    2008-10-01

    Dietary factors may trigger or exacerbate the autoimmune disease process. Our objective was to examine dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) for association with islet autoimmunity (IA) development, and progression from IA to type 1 diabetes. The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young follows children at increased genetic type 1 diabetes risk. Diet is collected prospectively via a parent-reported food frequency questionnaire. This was an observational study of children in the Denver area. A total of 1776 Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young children younger than 11.5 yr was included in the study. There were no interventions. IA, defined as the presence of autoantibodies to insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, or protein tyrosine phosphatase at two consecutive visits, or the presence of autoantibodies at one visit and diabetic on the next consecutive visit was determined. Type 1 diabetes was diagnosed by a physician. A total of 89 subjects developed IA, and 17 subsequently developed type 1 diabetes during follow-up. Our hypothesis was formulated after data collection. GI and GL were not associated with IA development. More rapid progression to type 1 diabetes in children with IA was associated with higher dietary GI (hazard ratio: 2.20; 95% confidence interval: 1.17-4.15) and marginally associated with GL (hazard ratio: 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.96-2.64) at the first IA-positive visit. Higher dietary GI and GL are not associated with IA development, but higher GI is associated with more rapid progression to type 1 diabetes in children with IA, perhaps due to increased demand on the beta-cell to release insulin. Further study is needed to confirm this finding and identify the underlying biological mechanism.

  15. Evaluation of resistant starch, glycemic index and fortificants content of premix rice coated with various concentrations and types of edible coating materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, W. A.; Susiati, A. M.; Adhini, H. A. N.

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of diabetes in Indonesia has been increasing year by year. Diets with a low glycemic index and high resistant starch foods can assist diabetics in controlling their blood glucose levels. Diabetics are known to have micro-nutrient deficiencies of chromium, magnesium and vitamin D that can be overcome by consuming parboiled rice fortified by use of a coating method. The fortification of parboiled rice (premix rice) can be achieved by coating with HPMC (hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose), MC (methyl cellulose), CMC (carboxyl methyl cellulose), gum arabic and rice starch. This research aimed to evaluate the levels of resistant starch, glycemic index and fortificants of premix rice coated with different concentrations and types of edible coating materials. This research used completely randomized design, with treatments to the concentrations and the types of edible coating (HPMC, CMC, MC, gum arabic and rice starch). The concentrations of edible coating were 0.15%, 0.2% and 0.25% for cellulose derivative coatings; 25%, 30%, 35% for gum arabic and 2%, 3.5% and 5% for rice starch. This research shows that fortified premix rice coated with various concentrations and types of edible coating materials is high in resistant starch and has a low glycemic index. The coating treatment affects the levels of magnesium and vitamin D, but does not affect the levels of chromium in parboiled rice. The premix rice with a low glycemic index and high nutrient content (chromium, magnesium and vitamin D) was premix rice coated by CMC 0.25% and HPMC 0.25% with glycemic indeces of 39.34 and 38.50, respectively.

  16. Postprandial Effects of Breakfast Glycemic Index on Vascular Function among Young Healthy Adults: A Crossover Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sanchez-Aguadero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the postprandial effects of high and low glycemic index (GI breakfasts on vascular function. It was a crossover trial that included 40 young healthy adults (50% women, aged 20–40 years, who were recruited at primary care settings. They consumed three experimental breakfasts in randomized order, each one separated by a 1-week washout period: (1 control conditions (only water; (2 low GI (LGI breakfast (29.4 GI and 1489 KJ energy; and (3 high GI (HGI breakfast (64.0 GI and 1318 KJ energy. Blood samples were collected at 60 and 120 min after each breakfast to determine glucose and insulin levels. Vascular parameters were measured at 15 min intervals. Augmentation index (AIx was studied as a primary outcome. Secondary outcomes comprised glucose, insulin, heart rate (HR and pulse pressures (PPs. We found a trend toward increased AIx, HR and PPs for the HGI versus the LGI breakfast. A significant interaction between the type of breakfast consumed and all measured parameters was identified (p < 0.05 except for central PP. Stratifying data by sex, this interaction remained significant for AIx and augmentation pressure only in males (p < 0.05. In conclusion, breakfast GI could affect postprandial vascular responses in young healthy adults.

  17. Postprandial Effects of Breakfast Glycemic Index on Vascular Function among Young Healthy Adults: A Crossover Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Aguadero, Natalia; Patino-Alonso, Maria C; Mora-Simon, Sara; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Alonso-Dominguez, Rosario; Sanchez-Salgado, Benigna; Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis

    2017-07-07

    This study aimed to evaluate the postprandial effects of high and low glycemic index (GI) breakfasts on vascular function. It was a crossover trial that included 40 young healthy adults (50% women), aged 20-40 years, who were recruited at primary care settings. They consumed three experimental breakfasts in randomized order, each one separated by a 1-week washout period: (1) control conditions (only water); (2) low GI (LGI) breakfast (29.4 GI and 1489 KJ energy); and (3) high GI (HGI) breakfast (64.0 GI and 1318 KJ energy). Blood samples were collected at 60 and 120 min after each breakfast to determine glucose and insulin levels. Vascular parameters were measured at 15 min intervals. Augmentation index (AIx) was studied as a primary outcome. Secondary outcomes comprised glucose, insulin, heart rate (HR) and pulse pressures (PPs). We found a trend toward increased AIx, HR and PPs for the HGI versus the LGI breakfast. A significant interaction between the type of breakfast consumed and all measured parameters was identified ( p breakfast GI could affect postprandial vascular responses in young healthy adults.

  18. Effect of Glycemic Index of Breakfast on Energy Intake at Subsequent Meal among Healthy People: A Meta-Analysis

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    Feng-Hua Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meals with low glycemic index (GI may suppress short-term appetite and reduce subsequent food intake compared with high-GI meals. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the evidence. This meta-analytic study was conducted to assess the effect of high- and low-GI breakfast on subsequent short-term food intake. Trials were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, and manual searches of bibliographies until May 2015. Randomized controlled and cross-over trials comparing the effect of low- with high-GI breakfast on subsequent energy intake among healthy people were included. Nine studies consisting of 11 trials met the inclusion criteria. Only one trial was classified with high methodological quality. A total of 183 participants were involved in the trials. The meta-analytic results revealed no difference in breakfast GI (high-GI vs. low-GI on subsequent short-term energy intake. In conclusion, it seems that breakfast GI has no effect on short-term energy intake among healthy people. However, high quality studies are still warranted to provide more concrete evidence.

  19. Timing of Peak Blood Glucose after Breakfast Meals of Different Glycemic Index in Women with Gestational Diabetes

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    Deborah Foote

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the peak timing of postprandial blood glucose level (PBGL of two breakfasts with different glycemic index (GI in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Ten women with diet-controlled GDM who were between 30 and 32 weeks of gestation were enrolled in the study. They consumed two carbohydrate controlled, macronutrient matched bread-based breakfasts with different GI (low vs. high on two separate occasions in a random order after an overnight fast. PBGLs were assessed using a portable blood analyser. Subjects were asked to indicate their satiety rating at each blood sample collection. Overall the consumption of a high GI breakfast resulted in a greater rise in PBGL (mean ± SEM peak PBGL: low GI 6.7 ± 0.3 mmol/L vs. high GI 8.6 ± 0.3 mmol/L; p < 0.001 and an earlier peak PBGL time (16.9 ± 4.9 min earlier; p = 0.015, with high variability in PBGL time between subjects. There was no significant difference in subjective satiety throughout the test period. In conclusion, the low GI breakfast produced lower postprandial glycemia, and the peak PBGL occurred closer to the time recommended for PBGL monitoring (i.e., 1 h postprandial in GDM than a macronutrient matched high GI breakfast.

  20. In vitro starch digestibility, estimated glycemic index and antioxidant potential of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Sebnem; Nehir El, Sedef

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine some functional properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm, which can be a good alternative to the other dietary carbohydrate sources with its high starch content. The total phenolic and flavonoid content of taro corm was found as 205±53mgCAE/100g and 61±9mgCAE/100g, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of corm was determined as 452±72mMTEAC/100g and 244±73mMTEAC/100g, by the scavenging activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals, respectively. The free glucose content of corms was less than 1%, whereas the 60% of dry matter was composed of starch. According to the results, the taro corms' starch was highly digestible and higher than the 50% of the starch was composed of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) fractions. The estimated glycemic index (eGI) of taro corm was 63.1±2.5, indicating taro corm as a medium GI food and a good dietary carbohydrate alternative especially for diabetic people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A low glycemic index staple diet reduces postprandial glucose values in Asian women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi-Geng; Tan, Rong-Shao; Jin, Di; Li, Wei; Zhou, Xiao-Yan

    2014-12-01

    A low glycemic index (GI) diet is beneficial for glucose control in patients with diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to investigate the influence of a low-GI diet on postprandial glucose levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Pregnant women with GDM were randomized to receive a normal diabetic control diet or a low-GI staple diet for 5 days. A low-GI staple food was used to replace rice in lunch and dinner for the low-GI staple diet group, whereas the total energy and carbohydrate levels remained equal in both groups. Fasting and postprandial glucose levels were determined daily. A total of 140 pregnant women with GDM were included in the study, including 66 in the low-GI staple diet group and 74 in the normal diabetic diet control group. No differences existed in baseline characteristics between the 2 groups (all P > 0.05). After dietary intervention, glucose levels were significantly reduced in the low-GI staple diet group (all P diet significantly reduces postprandial glucose levels in women with GDM.

  2. Effect of glycemic index on satiety and body weight Efeito do índice glicêmico na saciedade e no peso corporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive study, the practical significance of the glycemic index of food is still debatable. The purpose of this review paper was to evaluate the effect of glycemic index on food intake and body weight based on the analysis of published studies about this topic. According to some authors, ingestion of high glycemic index diets tends to enhance appetite and promote positive energy balance. The increase of appetite associated with the ingestion of these diets is attributed to an especially sharp early post-prandial rise of blood glucose followed by a marked release of insulin and subsequent rebound relative hypoglycemia and low levels of blood fatty acids, suggesting the difficulty that the body has to access its stored metabolic fuels. Short-term investigations have generally demonstrated that ingestion of low glycemic index foods results in greater satiety and lower energy intake than high glycemic index foods. However, less is known about the importance of glycemic index to energy balance and weight control associated with chronic ingestion of foods differing in glycemic index. Carefully designed long-term studies are required to assess the efficacy of glycemic index in the treatment and prevention of obesity in humans.Apesar de vários estudos, o significado prático do índice glicêmico dos alimentos ainda é bastante discutível. O objetivo deste artigo de revisão foi avaliar o efeito do índice glicêmico na ingestão alimentar e no peso corporal, baseado na análise de estudos publicados sobre este tópico. De acordo com alguns autores, a ingestão de dietas de alto índice glicêmico tende a estimular o apetite e promover o balanço energético positivo. O aumento do apetite, associado à ingestão de tais dietas, é atribuído à elevação aguda da glicemia pós-prandial, seguida por um aumento marcante da secreção insulínica e por uma subseqüente hipoglicemia de rebote e por baixos níveis de ácidos graxos no sangue

  3. Use of the glycemic index in nutrition education Uso do índice glicêmico na educação nutricional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Galvão Cândido

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the lack of studies providing practical guidance for the use of the glycemic index has been indicated as the cause of its little use in nutrition education. The aim of this study is to give instructions on the use of the glycemic index as a tool to be used in nutrition education to estimulate the consumption of low glycemic index foods. Studies published over the past 12 years, in addition to classic studies on this topic, found in the databases MedLine, ScienceDirect, SciELO and Lilacs exploring the importance of the glycemic index and the factors that affect the glycemic index were selected for this article. The preparation of lists grouping foods according to their glycemic index should be based on information found in tables and specific web sites. This is an interesting strategy that must be very carefully conducted, considering the eating habits of the assisted people. To reduce the postprandial blood glucose response, high glycemic index foods should be consumed in association with the following foods: high protein and low fat foods, good quality oils and unprocessed foods with high fiber content. Caffeine should also be avoided. The glycemic index should be considered as an additional carbohydrate-selection tool, which should be part of a nutritionally balanced diet capable of promoting and/or maintaining body weight and health.Recentemente, a falta de artigos que visam fornecer orientação quanto ao uso do índice glicêmico foi apontada como causa de sua baixa utilização na educação nutricional. O objetivo do presente trabalho é oferecer suporte para o uso do índice glicêmico como ferramenta a ser adotada na educação nutricional, para estimular o consumo preferencial de alimentos que apresentem menores valores nesse indicador. Foram selecionados estudos publicados nos últimos doze anos, além de estudos clássicos referentes ao tema, indexados nos bancos de dados MedLine, ScienceDirect, SciELO e Lilacs, que

  4. Effect of a Low Glycemic Index Mediterranean Diet on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. A Randomized Controlled Clinici Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misciagna, G; Del Pilar Díaz, M; Caramia, D V; Bonfiglio, C; Franco, I; Noviello, M R; Chiloiro, M; Abbrescia, D I; Mirizzi, A; Tanzi, M; Caruso, M G; Correale, M; Reddavide, R; Inguaggiato, R; Cisternino, A M; Osella, A R

    2017-01-01

    Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common form of liver disease worldwide affecting all ages and ethnic groups and it has become a consistent threat even in young people. Our aim was to estimate the effect of a Low Glycemic Index Mediterranean Diet (LGIMD) on the NAFLD score as measured by a Liver Ultrasonography (LUS). NUTRIzione in EPAtologia (NUTRIEPA) is a population-based Double-Blind RCT. Data were collected in 2011 and analyzed in 2013-14. 98 men and women coming from Putignano (Puglia, Southern Italy) were drawn from a previous randomly sampled population-based study and identified as having moderate or severe NAFLD. The intervention strategy was the assignment of a LGIMD or a control diet. The main outcome measure was NAFLD score, defined by LUS. After randomization, 50 subjects were assigned to a LGIMD and 48 to a control diet. The study lasted six months and all participants were subject to monthly controls/checks. Adherence to the LGIMD as measured by Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI) showed a median of 10.1. A negative interaction between time and LGIMD on the NAFLD score (-4.14, 95% CI -6.78,-1.49) was observed, and became more evident at the sixth month (-4.43, 95%CI -7.15, -1.71). A positive effect of the interaction among LGIMD, time and age (Third month: 0.07, 95% CI 0.02, 0.12; Sixth month: 0.08, 95% CI 0.03,0.13) was also observed. LGIMD was found to decrease the NAFLD score in a relatively short time. Encouraging those subjects who do not seek medical attention but still have NAFLD to follow a LGIMD and other life-style interventions, may reduce the degree of severity of the disease. Dietary intervention of this kind, could also form the cornerstone of primary prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease.

  5. Effect of adding the novel fiber, PGX®, to commonly consumed foods on glycemic response, glycemic index and GRIP: a simple and effective strategy for reducing post prandial blood glucose levels - a randomized, controlled trial

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    Lyon Michael

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reductions in postprandial glycemia have been demonstrated previously with the addition of the novel viscous polysaccharide (NVP, PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®, to an OGTT or white bread. This study explores whether these reductions are sustained when NVP is added to a range of commonly consumed foods or incorporated into a breakfast cereal. Methods Ten healthy subjects (4M, 6F; age 37.3 ± 3.6 y; BMI 23.8 ± 1.3 kg/m2, participated in an acute, randomized controlled trial. The glycemic response to cornflakes, rice, yogurt, and a frozen dinner with and without 5 g of NVP sprinkled onto the food was determined. In addition, 3 granolas with different levels of NVP and 3 control white breads and one white bread and milk were also consumed. All meals contained 50 g of available carbohydrate. Capillary blood samples were taken fasting and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the start of the meal. The glycemic index (GI and the glycemic reduction index potential (GRIP were calculated. The blood glucose concentrations at each time and the iAUC values were subjected to repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA examining for the effect of test meal. After demonstration of significant heterogeneity, differences between individual means was assessed using GLM ANOVA with Tukey test to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results Addition of NVP reduced blood glucose response irrespective of food or dose (p Conclusion Sprinkling or incorporation of NVP into a variety of different foods is highly effective in reducing postprandial glycemia and lowering the GI of a food. Clinical Trial registration NCT00935350.

  6. Effect of adding the novel fiber, PGX®, to commonly consumed foods on glycemic response, glycemic index and GRIP: a simple and effective strategy for reducing post prandial blood glucose levels--a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Alexandra L; Kacinik, Veronica; Lyon, Michael; Wolever, Thomas Ms

    2010-11-22

    Reductions in postprandial glycemia have been demonstrated previously with the addition of the novel viscous polysaccharide (NVP), PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®), to an OGTT or white bread. This study explores whether these reductions are sustained when NVP is added to a range of commonly consumed foods or incorporated into a breakfast cereal. Ten healthy subjects (4M, 6F; age 37.3 ± 3.6 y; BMI 23.8 ± 1.3 kg/m2), participated in an acute, randomized controlled trial. The glycemic response to cornflakes, rice, yogurt, and a frozen dinner with and without 5 g of NVP sprinkled onto the food was determined. In addition, 3 granolas with different levels of NVP and 3 control white breads and one white bread and milk were also consumed. All meals contained 50 g of available carbohydrate. Capillary blood samples were taken fasting and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the start of the meal. The glycemic index (GI) and the glycemic reduction index potential (GRIP) were calculated. The blood glucose concentrations at each time and the iAUC values were subjected to repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) examining for the effect of test meal. After demonstration of significant heterogeneity, differences between individual means was assessed using GLM ANOVA with Tukey test to adjust for multiple comparisons. Addition of NVP reduced blood glucose response irrespective of food or dose (p granola, and granolas with 2.5 and 5 g of NVP were 64 ± 6, 33 ± 5, and 22 ± 3 respectively. GRIP was 6.8 ± 0.9 units per/g of NVP. Sprinkling or incorporation of NVP into a variety of different foods is highly effective in reducing postprandial glycemia and lowering the GI of a food. NCT00935350.

  7. Effect of adding the novel fiber, PGX®, to commonly consumed foods on glycemic response, glycemic index and GRIP: a simple and effective strategy for reducing post prandial blood glucose levels - a randomized, controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Reductions in postprandial glycemia have been demonstrated previously with the addition of the novel viscous polysaccharide (NVP), PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®), to an OGTT or white bread. This study explores whether these reductions are sustained when NVP is added to a range of commonly consumed foods or incorporated into a breakfast cereal. Methods Ten healthy subjects (4M, 6F; age 37.3 ± 3.6 y; BMI 23.8 ± 1.3 kg/m2), participated in an acute, randomized controlled trial. The glycemic response to cornflakes, rice, yogurt, and a frozen dinner with and without 5 g of NVP sprinkled onto the food was determined. In addition, 3 granolas with different levels of NVP and 3 control white breads and one white bread and milk were also consumed. All meals contained 50 g of available carbohydrate. Capillary blood samples were taken fasting and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the start of the meal. The glycemic index (GI) and the glycemic reduction index potential (GRIP) were calculated. The blood glucose concentrations at each time and the iAUC values were subjected to repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) examining for the effect of test meal. After demonstration of significant heterogeneity, differences between individual means was assessed using GLM ANOVA with Tukey test to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results Addition of NVP reduced blood glucose response irrespective of food or dose (p granola, and granolas with 2.5 and 5 g of NVP were 64 ± 6, 33 ± 5, and 22 ± 3 respectively. GRIP was 6.8 ± 0.9 units per/g of NVP. Conclusion Sprinkling or incorporation of NVP into a variety of different foods is highly effective in reducing postprandial glycemia and lowering the GI of a food. Clinical Trial registration NCT00935350. PMID:21092221

  8. The Association of Unintentional Changes in Weight, Body Composition, and Homeostasis Model Assessment Index with Glycemic Progression in Non-Diabetic Healthy Subjects

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    Eun-Jung Rhee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe performed a retrospective longitudinal study on the effects of changes in weight, body composition, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA indices on glycemic progression in subjects without diabetes during a four-year follow-up period in a community cohort without intentional intervention.MethodsFrom 28,440 non-diabetic subjects who participated in a medical check-up program in 2004, data on anthropometric and metabolic parameters were obtained after four years in 2008. Body composition analyses were performed with a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Skeletal muscle index (SMI, % was calculated with lean mass/weight×100. Subjects were divided into three groups according to weight change status in four years: weight loss (≤-5.0%, stable weight (-5.0 to 5.0%, weight gain (≥5.0%. Progressors were defined as the subjects who progressed to impaired fasting glucose or diabetes.ResultsProgressors showed worse baseline metabolic profiles compared with non-progressors. In logistic regression analyses, the increase in changes of HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR in four years presented higher odds ratios for glycemic progression compared with other changes during that period. Among the components of body composition, a change in waist-hip ratio was the strongest predictor, and SMI change in four years was a significant negative predictor for glycemic progression. Changes in HOMA β-cell function in four years was a negative predictor for glycemic progression.ConclusionIncreased interval changes in HOMA-IR, weight gain and waist-hip ratio was associated with glycemic progression during a four-year period without intentional intervention in non-diabetic Korean subjects.

  9. Phytotherapy in reducing glycemic index and testicular oxidative stress resulting from induced diabetes: a review

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    J. S. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Oxidative stress plays a main role in the development of diabetes complications. The impairment of gonadal antioxidant potential and endocrine disturbance in diabetic males causes testicular damage and failure in sperm production. Plants have been widely used to control diabetes due their hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential, contributing towards the recovery of testicular function. Current study comprises a review of the literature on the main medicinal plants used in the recovery of testicular oxidative damage in animals with experimental diabetes. Eighteen plant species in the nineteen studies selected from the search strategy were evaluated. Plant extracts were evaluated according to their effects on blood glucose and insulin levels, antioxidant enzymes and oxidant levels, lipid peroxidation, total protein, testosterone levels, gonadosomatic index, diameter of seminiferous tubules, seminiferous epithelium height and integrity, number of germ cells at stage VII and apoptosis in the seminiferous epithelium, sperm production, motility, viability and morphology. After the analysis of the studies, it was observed that plant species, used alone or in combination, may control testicular oxidative damage triggered by diabetes. The antioxidant potential varies among species, with some plants proving to have a better performance in the recovery of reproduction parameters than others.

  10. The effects of meal glycemic load on blood glucose levels of adults with different body mass indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçın, Tuba; Al, Ayhan; Rakıcıoğlu, Neslişah

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of meal glycemic load (GL) on blood glucose levels of healthy people with different body mass indexes (BMIs). Thirty healthy controls were included in this study. The participants were divided into two groups according to their BMI as normal group (BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 , n = 15) and overweight group (BMI = 25.0-29.9 kg/m 2 , n = 15). Dietary assessment was done by the 24-h recall method for 3 successive days. Cases were fed by breakfasts with two different GL on consecutive days. Energy values of the test meal, adjusted to meet 25% of daily energy requirements of each case, were identical in low and high GL meal (483 kcal and 482 kcal, respectively). Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken on 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. Average daily energy intake in normal and overweight group was found as 2514.3 ± 223.8 kcal, 2064.1 ± 521.6 kcal and 2211.4 ± 368.7 kcal, 2494.8 ± 918 kcal in males and females, respectively. Blood glucose level was increased and remained more stable in both high GL meal groups compared to low ( P < 0.05). The effects of GL on BMI classified groups were also found different. High GL meal was found to be more effective for increasing blood glucose level, especially on overweight group ( P < 0.05). The effects of GL meal were found to be different on normal and overweight individuals. The high GL meals were more effective to increase the blood glucose level than low GL meal, especially on overweight people.

  11. The effects of meal glycemic load on blood glucose levels of adults with different body mass indexes

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    Tuba Yalcin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to determine the effect of meal glycemic load (GL on blood glucose levels of healthy people with different body mass indexes (BMIs. Methods: Thirty healthy controls were included in this study. The participants were divided into two groups according to their BMI as normal group (BMI = 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, n = 15 and overweight group (BMI = 25.0–29.9 kg/m2, n = 15. Dietary assessment was done by the 24-h recall method for 3 successive days. Cases were fed by breakfasts with two different GL on consecutive days. Energy values of the test meal, adjusted to meet 25% of daily energy requirements of each case, were identical in low and high GL meal (483 kcal and 482 kcal, respectively. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken on 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. Results: Average daily energy intake in normal and overweight group was found as 2514.3 ± 223.8 kcal, 2064.1 ± 521.6 kcal and 2211.4 ± 368.7 kcal, 2494.8 ± 918 kcal in males and females, respectively. Blood glucose level was increased and remained more stable in both high GL meal groups compared to low (P < 0.05. The effects of GL on BMI classified groups were also found different. High GL meal was found to be more effective for increasing blood glucose level, especially on overweight group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The effects of GL meal were found to be different on normal and overweight individuals. The high GL meals were more effective to increase the blood glucose level than low GL meal, especially on overweight people.

  12. Effects of vitamin D-fortified low fat yogurt on glycemic status, anthropometric indexes, inflammation, and bone turnover in diabetic postmenopausal women: A randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Tina; Faghihimani, Elham; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Fallah, Aziz A; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-02-01

    Low levels of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) are common in type 2 diabetic patients and cause several complications particularly, in postmenopausal women due to their senile and physiological conditions. This study aimed to assess the effects of vitamin D-fortified low fat yogurt on glycemic status, anthropometric indexes, inflammation, and bone turnover in diabetic postmenopausal women. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel-group clinical trial, 59 postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes received fortified yogurt (FY; 2000 IU vitamin D in 100 g/day) or plain yogurt (PY) for 12 weeks. Glycemic markers, anthropometric indexes, inflammatory, and bone turnover markers were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. After intervention, in FY group (vs PY group), were observed: significant increase in serum 25(OH)D and decrease of PTH (stable values in PY); significant improvement in serum fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-B, QUICKI, and no changes in serum fasting glucose and HbA1c (significant worsening of all indexes in PY); significant improvement in WC, WHR, FM, and no change in weight and BMI (stable values in PY); significant increase of omentin (stable in PY) and decrease of sNTX (significant increase in PY). Final values of glycemic markers (except HbA1c), omentin, and bone turnover markers significantly improved in FY group compared to PY group. Regarding final values of serum 25(OH)D in FY group, subjects were classified in insufficient and sufficient categories. Glycemic status improved more significantly in the insufficient rather than sufficient category; whereas the other parameters had more amelioration in the sufficient category. Daily consumption of 2000 IU vitamin D-fortified yogurt for 12 weeks improved glycemic markers (except HbA1c), anthropometric indexes, inflammation, and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. www.irct.ir (IRCT2013110515294N1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European

  13. Glycemic index and diabetes

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    ... keep these issues in mind. Portion size still matters because calories still matter, and so do carbohydrates. You need to keep ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  14. Honey and Glycemic Index

    OpenAIRE

    Sibel Silici; Meltem Soylu

    2015-01-01

    Honey is a natural substance produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) from the nectar of blossoms or from secretions of living parts of plants or excretions of plant sucking insects on the living parts of plants, which honeybees collect, transform and combine with specific substances of their own, store and leave in the honey comb to ripen and mature. Besides being of carbohydrate-rich food, honey has been used as a functional food for its potential health benefits. To explain how different ...

  15. Glycemic Index and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... compare to a reference food — either glucose or white bread. A food with a high GI raises blood glucose more ... flakes, puffed rice, bran flakes, instant oatmeal Shortgrain white rice, rice pasta, ... What Affects the GI of a Food? Fat and fiber tend to lower the GI ...

  16. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to HbA1c in Japanese obese adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the Saku Control Obesity Program

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    Goto Maki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary glycemic index or load is thought to play an important role in glucose metabolism. However, few studies have investigated the relation between glycemic index (GI or load (GL and glycemia in Asian populations. In this cross-sectional analysis of a randomized controlled trial, the Saku Control Obesity Program, we examined the relation between the baseline GI or GL and glycemia (HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose [FPG] levels, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, β-cell function (HOMA-β, and other metabolic risk factors (lipid levels, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, and adiposity measures. Methods The participants were 227 obese Japanese women and men. We used multiple linear regression models and logistic regression models to adjust for potential confounding factors such as age, sex, visceral fat area, total energy intake, and physical activity levels. Results After adjustments for potential confounding factors, GI was not associated with HbA1c, but GL was positively associated with HbA1c. For increasing quartiles of GI, the adjusted mean HbA1c were 6.3%, 6.7%, 6.4%, and 6.4% (P for trend = 0.991. For increasing quartiles of GL, the adjusted mean HbA1c were 6.2%, 6.2%, 6.6%, and 6.5% (P for trend = 0.044. In addition, among participants with HbA1c ≥ 7.0%, 20 out of 28 (71% had a high GL (≥ median; the adjusted odds ratio for HbA1c ≥ 7.0% among participants with higher GL was 3.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2 to 8.1 compared to the participants with a lower GL ( Conclusions Our findings suggest that participants with poor glycemic control tend to have a higher GL in an obese Japanese population.

  17. Prediabetes Exhibits Decreased Disposition Index Correlated with Deterioration of Glycemic Parameters in Nonobese Japanese Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Study from Medical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yasutaka; Fujita, Yukihiro; Yanagimachi, Tsuyoshi; Honjo, Jun; Abiko, Atsuko; Asai, Mahito; Haneda, Masakazu

    2017-08-01

    Prediabetes, defined as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), likely develops to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and independently increases cardiovascular risk. We employed disposition index (DI), a new metabolic parameter indicating the pancreatic beta cell function adjusted for insulin resistance, and investigated whether it could be altered in Japanese population with prediabetes and associated with early glucose intolerance. A total of 102 adults who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test at the medical screening were designated to normal glucose tolerance (NGT), IFG, IGT, and DM. We calculated insulinogenic index (IGI) and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of β cell function (HOMA-β) as insulin secretory function, HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) as insulin resistance and DI, and assessed correlations between these indices and glycemic parameters. We observed graded increase of glycemic parameters in the order of NGT, IFG, IGT, and DM. HOMA-IR was significantly higher only in DM compared with NGT, although HOMA-β, IGI, and QUICKI showed no significant differences among the groups. In contrast, DI was significantly lower in IFG, IGT, and DM compared with NGT. In correlation analysis, glycemic parameters related positively to HOMA-IR, but inversely to DI. Only two parameters, IGI and particularly DI, were significantly decreased in the subjects with 1-hr postload glucose >8.6 mmol/L previously proposed as a predictor of type 2 diabetes. Our results suggest that reduction of DI promptly reflects the alteration of early glucose intolerance in Japanese population presenting with prediabetes.

  18. [Features of food priorities in urban population of Kazakhstan in regard of consumption of foods with high glycemic index and significant content of fat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetova, S V; Terekhin, S P

    2015-01-01

    The diseases, associated with metabolism disorders, are now considered as the most common in the world, their prevalence has reached epidemic indicator values in both developed and developing countries. One of the most important methods of treatment and correction of dyslipidemic disorders and disorders of carbohydrate metabolism is the changing of eating behavior, including the literacy of consumers when choosing foods. The most significant indicators of the value of products for patients with metabolic disorders are the glycemic index and fat content. The frequency of consumption of foods with high glycemic index and significant content of fat in urban population of Kazakhstan has been investigated. A random, stratified by sex and age sampling from the number of residents (n=8219) of large cities of Kazakhstan at the age of 18-73 years has been covered. The study was performed using a specially designed questionnaire, including detailed questions on assessment of eating behavior, eating habits and diet. It has been revealed that foods with a high glycemic index and significant fat content are the predominant in frequency of consumption by the urban population of Kazakhstan. About 90% of the citizens consumed bread and bakery products daily or several times a week. Pies, cakes and cookies are consumed daily or several times per week by 35% of the surveyed, pasta products--57%, cereals--68% of the urban population. Average daily diet of fruit and vegetable set of urban residents of Kazakhstan represented 80% of the potatoes, carrots and beets. Tea and coffee admission is traditionally combined with the intake of sugar and sweets. More than 70% of surveyed population consume butter daily or several times a week. The excessive intake of foods with a large amount of fat and high glycemic index against the background of the deficiency of complete protein remains an urgent problem for several years. The obtained results dictate the need of development and implementation

  19. Impact of postharvest drying conditions on in vitro starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index of cooked non-waxy long-grain rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlao, Natthawuddhi; Ogawa, Yukiharu

    2017-02-01

    Wet paddy needs to be dried to reduce its moisture content after harvesting. In this study, effects of postharvest drying condition on in vitro starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index of cooked rice (Oryza sativa L.) were investigated. Varying drying conditions, i.e. hot-air drying at 40, 65, 90 and 115 °C, and sun drying were applied to raw paddy. After husking and polishing, polished grains were cooked using an electric rice cooker. Cooked samples were analyzed for their moisture content and amount of resistant and total starch. Five samples in both intact grain and slurry were digested under simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion process. The in vitro starch digestion rate was measured and the hydrolysis index (HI) and estimated glycemic index (eGI) were calculated. Cooked rice obtained from hot-air drying showed relatively lower HI and eGI than that obtained from sun-drying. Among samples from hot-air drying treatment, eGI of cooked rice decreased with increasing drying temperature, except for the drying temperature of 115 °C. As a result, cooked rice from the hot-air drying at 90 °C showed lowest eGI. The results indicated that cooked rice digestibility was affected by postharvest drying conditions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. A protein-enriched low glycemic index diet with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation exerts beneficial effects on metabolic control in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosheer, Simone M; Waldschütz, Wolfgang; Itariu, Bianca K; Brath, Helmut; Stulnig, Thomas M

    2014-12-01

    The current study aims to investigate practicability and effects of a combined dietary intervention with increased relative protein content supplemented with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on metabolic control and inflammatory parameters in a real life situation in type 2 diabetes patients. In this observational study we advised thirty mostly obese patients with type 2 diabetes to follow a protein-enriched diet with carbohydrates of low glycemic index (low GI) and moderate fat reduction supplemented with omega-3 PUFA for 24 weeks. Primary efficacy parameter was the change in HbA1c; secondary parameters included changes in systemic inflammation (measured by ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, usCRP), body weight, waist circumference, fat mass. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01474603). The dietary intervention significantly reduced the primary efficacy variable HbA1c from a baseline value of 63±11mmol/mol to 59±14mmol/mol (P=0.033) and 56±12mmol/mol (P=0.001) after 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. In addition, usCRP decreased significantly at 24 weeks (P=0.039). Waist circumference, an important indicator for cardiometabolic-risk and silent inflammation, decreased from baseline 116.0±14.1cm to 114.9±13.5cm (P=0.019), 114.0±14.4cm (P=0.001), and 112.7±13.4cm (P=0.049), after 3, 12 and 24 weeks, respectively. Counseling a protein enriched and low glycemic index diet supplemented with long-chain omega-3 PUFA in a real-life clinical setting improves glycemic control and also reduces waist circumference and silent inflammation in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Short-term effects of a hypocaloric diet with low glycemic index and low glycemic load on body adiposity, metabolic variables, ghrelin, leptin, and pregnancy rate in overweight and obese infertile women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Geórgia F; Passos, Eduardo P; Moulin, Cileide C

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is related to hormonal disorders that affect the reproductive system. Low-glycemic index (LGI) diets seem to exert a positive effect on weight loss and on metabolic changes that result from obesity. We investigated the effects of a hypocaloric diet with an LGI and low glycemic load on anthropometric and metabolic variables, ghrelin and leptin concentrations, and the pregnancy rate in overweight and obese infertile women who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). The study was a randomized block-design controlled trial in which we analyzed 26 overweight or obese infertile women. Patients were assigned to a hypocaloric LGI-diet group or a control group and followed the protocol for 12 wk. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, serum lipids, reproductive hormones, leptin, acylated ghrelin, number of oocytes retrieved in the IVF cycle, and pregnancy rate were determined. There were greater reductions in body mass, BMI, percentage of body fat, waist:hip ratio, and leptin in the LGI-diet group than in the control group (P diet group had 85.4% more oocytes retrieved than did the control group (7.75 ± 1.44 and 4.18 ± 0.87, respectively; P = 0.039) in the IVF cycle. Three patients (21.4%) in the LGI group experienced a spontaneous pregnancy during the follow-up, which generated 3 live births. The hypocaloric LGI diet promoted a decrease in BMI, percentage of body fat, and leptin concentrations, which improved oocyte development and pregnancy rate. These results support the clinical recommendation to advise overweight and obese women to lose weight through a balanced diet before being submitted for treatment with assisted reproduction technologies. A hypocaloric diet combined with LGI foods seems to be beneficial for these patients, but additional studies are required before this treatment is recommended. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02416960

  2. Carbohydrates from Sources with a Higher Glycemic Index during Adolescence: Is Evening Rather than Morning Intake Relevant for Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Herder, Christian; Roßbach, Sarah; Roden, Michael; Wudy, Stefan A.; Nöthlings, Ute; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study investigated whether glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) of morning or evening intake and morning or evening carbohydrate intake from low- or higher-GI food sources (low-GI-CHO, higher-GI-CHO) during adolescence are relevant for risk markers of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood. Methods: Analyses included DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study participants who had provided at least two 3-day weighed dietary records (median: 7 records) during adolescence and one blood sample in young adulthood. Using multivariable linear regression analyses, estimated morning and evening GI, GL, low-GI-CHO (GI Morning intakes during adolescence were not associated with any of the adult risk markers. A higher evening GI during adolescence was related to an increased HSI in young adulthood (p = 0.003). A higher consumption of higher-GI-CHO in the evening was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (p = 0.046) and an increased HSI (p = 0.006), while a higher evening intake of low-GI-CHO was related to a lower HSI (p = 0.009). Evening intakes were not related to FLI or the pro-inflammatory-score (all p > 0.1). Conclusion: Avoidance of large amounts of carbohydrates from higher-GI sources in the evening should be considered in preventive strategies to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. PMID:28604592

  3. Carbohydrates from Sources with a Higher Glycemic Index during Adolescence: Is Evening Rather than Morning Intake Relevant for Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Herder, Christian; Roßbach, Sarah; Roden, Michael; Wudy, Stefan A; Nöthlings, Ute; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2017-06-10

    This study investigated whether glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) of morning or evening intake and morning or evening carbohydrate intake from low- or higher-GI food sources (low-GI-CHO, higher-GI-CHO) during adolescence are relevant for risk markers of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood. Methods: Analyses included DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study participants who had provided at least two 3-day weighed dietary records (median: 7 records) during adolescence and one blood sample in young adulthood. Using multivariable linear regression analyses, estimated morning and evening GI, GL, low-GI-CHO (GI adolescence were not associated with any of the adult risk markers. A higher evening GI during adolescence was related to an increased HSI in young adulthood ( p = 0.003). A higher consumption of higher-GI-CHO in the evening was associated with lower insulin sensitivity ( p = 0.046) and an increased HSI ( p = 0.006), while a higher evening intake of low-GI-CHO was related to a lower HSI ( p = 0.009). Evening intakes were not related to FLI or the pro-inflammatory-score (all p > 0.1). Conclusion: Avoidance of large amounts of carbohydrates from higher-GI sources in the evening should be considered in preventive strategies to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

  4. Carbohydrates from Sources with a Higher Glycemic Index during Adolescence: Is Evening Rather than Morning Intake Relevant for Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adulthood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Diederichs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated whether glycemic index (GI or glycemic load (GL of morning or evening intake and morning or evening carbohydrate intake from low- or higher-GI food sources (low-GI-CHO, higher-GI-CHO during adolescence are relevant for risk markers of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood. Methods: Analyses included DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD study participants who had provided at least two 3-day weighed dietary records (median: 7 records during adolescence and one blood sample in young adulthood. Using multivariable linear regression analyses, estimated morning and evening GI, GL, low-GI-CHO (GI < 55 and higher-GI-CHO (GI ≥ 55 were related to insulin sensitivity (N = 252, hepatic steatosis index (HSI, fatty liver index (FLI (both N = 253, and a pro-inflammatory-score (N = 249. Results: Morning intakes during adolescence were not associated with any of the adult risk markers. A higher evening GI during adolescence was related to an increased HSI in young adulthood (p = 0.003. A higher consumption of higher-GI-CHO in the evening was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (p = 0.046 and an increased HSI (p = 0.006, while a higher evening intake of low-GI-CHO was related to a lower HSI (p = 0.009. Evening intakes were not related to FLI or the pro-inflammatory-score (all p > 0.1. Conclusion: Avoidance of large amounts of carbohydrates from higher-GI sources in the evening should be considered in preventive strategies to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

  5. TFAP2B -Dietary Protein and Glycemic Index Interactions and Weight Maintenance after Weight Loss in the DiOGenes Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Background: TFAP2B rs987237 is associated with obesity and has shown interaction with the dietary fat-to-carbohydrate ratio, which has an effect on weight loss. We investigated interactions between rs987237 and protein-to-carbohydrate ratio or glycemic index (GI) in relation to weight maintenance......987237 and dietary protein/carbohydrate interacted to modify weight maintenance. Considering the carbohydrate proportion of the diet, the interaction was different from the previously reported rs987237-fat-to-carbohydrate ratio interaction for weight loss. Thus, TFAP2B-macronutrient interactions might...... after weight loss. Methods: This study included 742 obese individuals from 8 European countries who participated in the Diet, Obesity, and Genes (DiOGenes) trial, lost ≥8% of their initial body weight during an 8-week low-calorie diet and were randomized to one of 5 ad libitum diets with a fixed energy...

  6. Effects of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] Crude Extracts on Starch Digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI, and Resistant Starch (RS Contents of Porridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Lemlioglu-Austin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bran extracts (70% aqueous acetone of specialty sorghum varieties (tannin, black, and black with tannin were used to investigate the effects of sorghum phenolic compounds on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI, and Resistant Starch (RS of porridges made with normal corn starch, enzyme resistant high amylose corn starch, and ground whole sorghum flours. Porridges were cooked with bran extracts in a Rapid Visco-analyser (RVA. The cooking trials indicated that bran extracts of phenolic-rich sorghum varieties significantly reduced EGI, and increased RS contents of porridges. Thus, there could be potential health benefits associated with the incorporation of phenolic-rich sorghum bran extracts into foods to slow starch digestion and increase RS content.

  7. Influência do índice glicêmico na glicemia em exercício físico aeróbico The glycemic index influence on glucose in aerobic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cristina de Faria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do índice glicêmico (IG na resposta glicêmica antes e durante o exercício físico decorrente a diferentes sessões experimentais pré-exercício. MÉTODOS: Doze homens adultos realizaram três sessões experimentais pré-exercício: de alto índice glicêmico (AIG; de baixo índice glicêmico (BIG; e em estado de jejum, sendo nesta última oferecida duas formas diferenciadas de hidratação durante o exercício: água e bebida carboidratada. RESULTADOS: Durante o período de repouso, o tipo de refeição, de AIG ou de BIG, interferiu no comportamento da glicemia, ambas tendendo ao "efeito rebote". Durante o exercício, não foi observada diferença na resposta glicêmica entre as quatro ações testadas; contudo, a intervenção com bebida carboidratada manteve constante a glicemia ao longo dos 60 min do exercício. CONCLUSÃO: O IG é determinante na resposta glicêmica ao longo de uma hora antes do exercício, porém não interfere na resposta glicêmica durante a atividade.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the influence of glycemic index (GI on the glycemic response before and during the physical exercise after to different experimental sessions pre-exercise. METHODS: Twelve adult males performed three experimental sessions pre-exercise: of high glycemic index (HGI; of low glycemic index (LGI; In condition of fast, although this one take two different ways of hydration while the exercise: water and carbohydrate drink. RESULTS: During the repose period, the type of meal, even the HGI and also the LGI, interfered on glycemic's behavior, both tendency to the "Rebound Effect". During the exercise, it was not observed differences in glycemic answers between the four tested actions, although the intervention with CHO drink maintained constant blood along all 60 min of exercise. CONCLUSION: The GI is determinant in the glycemic response over an hour before exercise, but does not interfere in the glycemic response during the

  8. The effect of consuming low- versus high-glycemic index meals after exercise on postprandial blood lipid response following a next-day high-fat meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, M; Chilibeck, P D; Yee, P; Zello, G A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Exercise performed shortly before (that is, within half a day of) a high-fat meal is beneficial for stimulating fat oxidation after the meal and reducing postprandial triglycerides (TG). This benefit of exercise is unfortunately negated if the after-exercise food choice to replace the calories expended during exercise is one containing high-glycemic index (HGI) carbohydrates. We determined the effect of consuming low-glycemic index (LGI) carbohydrates after an exercise session on fat oxidation and TG after a subsequent high-fat meal. Subjects/Methods: Using a randomized, counterbalanced crossover design, 23 overweight or obese individuals (body mass index ⩾25 kg m−2) performed: walking exercise (90 min) at 1800 h followed by no meal (EX); exercise followed by a meal with LGI carbohydrates (that is, lentils, EX-LGI); exercise followed by a meal with HGI carbohydrates (that is, instant potatoes, white bread, EX-HGI); and a control condition with no exercise or meal. After a 10-h overnight fast, participants were given a standardized high-fat meal. Fat oxidation was estimated before and for 6 h after this meal from respiratory gas measures and TG determined from blood samples. Results: Fat oxidation (mean±s.d.) was higher with EX (6.9±1.7 g h−1) than EX-HGI (6.3±1.6 g h−1; P=0.007) and Control (5.9±1.7 g h−1; P=0.00002), and EX-LGI (6.6±1.7 g h−1) was higher than Control (P=0.002). TG total area under the curve was 18–32% lower with EX and EX-LGI compared with control (P=0.0005 and P=0.0001, respectively) and EX-HGI (P=0.05 and P=0.021, respectively). Conclusions: A meal containing HGI carbohydrates consumed after an evening exercise session cancels the beneficial effect of exercise for stimulating fat oxidation and lowering TG after a subsequent high-fat meal, whereas consuming a post-exercise meal with LGI carbohydrates retains the positive effect of exercise. PMID:27376698

  9. The effect of consuming low- versus high-glycemic index meals after exercise on postprandial blood lipid response following a next-day high-fat meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, M; Chilibeck, P D; Yee, P; Zello, G A

    2016-07-04

    Exercise performed shortly before (that is, within half a day of) a high-fat meal is beneficial for stimulating fat oxidation after the meal and reducing postprandial triglycerides (TG). This benefit of exercise is unfortunately negated if the after-exercise food choice to replace the calories expended during exercise is one containing high-glycemic index (HGI) carbohydrates. We determined the effect of consuming low-glycemic index (LGI) carbohydrates after an exercise session on fat oxidation and TG after a subsequent high-fat meal. Using a randomized, counterbalanced crossover design, 23 overweight or obese individuals (body mass index ⩾25 kg m(-2)) performed: walking exercise (90 min) at 1800 h followed by no meal (EX); exercise followed by a meal with LGI carbohydrates (that is, lentils, EX-LGI); exercise followed by a meal with HGI carbohydrates (that is, instant potatoes, white bread, EX-HGI); and a control condition with no exercise or meal. After a 10-h overnight fast, participants were given a standardized high-fat meal. Fat oxidation was estimated before and for 6 h after this meal from respiratory gas measures and TG determined from blood samples. Fat oxidation (mean±s.d.) was higher with EX (6.9±1.7 g h(-1)) than EX-HGI (6.3±1.6 g h(-1); P=0.007) and Control (5.9±1.7 g h(-1); P=0.00002), and EX-LGI (6.6±1.7 g h(-1)) was higher than Control (P=0.002). TG total area under the curve was 18-32% lower with EX and EX-LGI compared with control (P=0.0005 and P=0.0001, respectively) and EX-HGI (P=0.05 and P=0.021, respectively). A meal containing HGI carbohydrates consumed after an evening exercise session cancels the beneficial effect of exercise for stimulating fat oxidation and lowering TG after a subsequent high-fat meal, whereas consuming a post-exercise meal with LGI carbohydrates retains the positive effect of exercise.

  10. Association between Health Information Technology and Case Mix Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Taek; Lee, Junsang; Lee, Jinhyung

    2017-10-01

    Health information technology (IT) can assist healthcare providers in ordering medication and adhering to guidelines while improving communication among providers and the quality of care. However, the relationship between health IT and Case Mix Index (CMI) has not been thoroughly investigated; therefore, this study aimed to clarify this relationship. To examine the effect of health IT on CMI, a generalized estimation equation (GEE) was applied to two years of California hospital data. We found that IT was positively associated with CMI, indicating that increased IT adoption could lead to a higher CMI or billing though DRG up-coding. This implies that hospitals' revenue could increase around $40,000 by increasing IT investment by 10%. The positive association between IT and CMI implies that IT adoption itself could lead to higher patient billings. Generally, a higher CMI in a hospital indicates that the hospital provides expensive services with higher coding and therefore receives more money from patients. Therefore, measures to prevent upcoding through IT systems should be implemented.

  11. Effects of Low versus High Glycemic Index Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Postprandial Vasodilatation and Inactivity-Induced Impairment of Glucose Metabolism in Healthy Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Keller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB may contribute to cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to investigate whether functional sugars with low compared to high glycemic index (GI have beneficial effects on arterial stiffness during a period of low-physical activity. In a controlled cross-over dietary intervention (55% CHO, 30% fat, 15% protein, 13 healthy men (age: 23.7 ± 2.2 years, body mass index: 23.6 ± 1.9 kg/m2 completed 2 × 1 week of low physical activity following 1 week of normal physical activity (2363 ± 900 vs. 11,375 ± 3124 steps/day. During inactive phases participants consumed either low-GI (isomaltulose or high-GI SSB (maltodextrin-sucrose, providing 20% of energy requirements. Postprandial vasodilatation (augmentation index, AIx, insulin sensitivity (IS and Glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1 responses were measured during a meal test before and after SSB-intervention. Compared to maltodextrin-sucrose-SSB, postprandial vasodilatation was prolonged (AIx after 120 min: 9.9% ± 4.3% vs. 11.4% ± 3.7%, p < 0.05 and GLP-1 secretion was higher with isomaltulose-SSB (total area under the GLP-1 curve (tAUCGLP-1: 8.0 ± 4.4 vs. 5.4 ± 3.4 pM × 3 h; p < 0.05. One week of low-physical activity led to impaired IS that was attenuated with low-GI SSB consumption, but did not affect arterial stiffness (p > 0.05. Higher postprandial GLP-1 secretion after intake of low compared to high-GI beverages may contribute to improved postprandial vasodilatation. Although one week of low-physical activity led to marked impairment in IS, it had no effect on arterial stiffness in healthy men.

  12. Carbohydrates and endothelial function: is a low-carbohydrate diet or a low-glycemic index diet favourable for vascular health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovski, Elena; Zurbau, Andreea; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets have become increasingly popular in both media and clinical research settings. Although they may improve some metabolic markers, their effects on arterial function remain unclear. Endothelial dysfunction is the well-established response to cardiovascular risk factors and a pivotal feature that precedes atherosclerotic diseases. It has been demonstrated that a high carbohydrate-induced hyperglycemia and subsequent oxidative stress acutely worsen the efficacy of the endothelial vasodilatory system. Thus, in theory, a carbohydrate restricted diet may preserve the integrity of the arterial system. This review attempts to provide insight on whether low-carbohydrate diets have a favorable or detrimental impact on vascular function, or it is perhaps the quality of carbohydrate that should direct dietary recommendations. Research to date suggests that diets low in carbohydrate amount may negatively impact vascular endothelial function. Conversely, it appears that maintaining recommended carbohydrate intake with utilization of low glycemic index foods generates a more favorable vascular profile. Understanding these relationships will aid in deciphering the diverging role of modulating quantity and quality of carbohydrates on cardiovascular risk.

  13. Yield Traits, Physico-chemical Characteristics and Nutritional Composition of MR219 M3 Generation and its Effect on Glycemic Index and Responses in Animal Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asma Ilyani Kadar; Sobri Hussein; Abdul Rahim Harun; Fazliana Mohd Saaya

    2014-01-01

    Mutation technique is a conventional breeding technique and it is very effective in improving of main crop characteristics such as yield traits, resistance to diseases and pests and nutritional qualities. In this study, MR219 seeds were treated with Carbon ion radiation (60 Gy) by AVF-Cyclotron at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Takasaki, Japan and were planted at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency up to third mutant generation (M3). Thirty one M3 mutant lines (ML1 to ML31) were evaluated on morphological, yield and yield components, and were compared to the parental variety, MR219. Analysis of variance revealed that there was a significant difference among mutant lines in culm height, days to flowering, number of tillers, number of panicles, 1000 grain weight, total grain weight, total of dry matter, alkaline spreading value, gel consistency, amylose content, ash, crude protein, fat, dietary fibre, carbohydrate and energy. Mutant line ML21 had the best performance in majority of yield components and vegetative traits as compared to others mutant lines and parental variety. For nutritional composition, mutant lines namely ML31, ML21, ML10, ML19 were improved in crude protein content, dietary fibre and carbohydrate content. The estimation of glycemic index revealed that two mutant lines namely ML3 and ML30 can be consumed by diabetics. (author)

  14. Response of glycemic index and liver tissue damage to aerobic exercise followed by coriander seed extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Abdi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the response of glycemic index and liver tissue damage to aerobic training along with coriander seed extract in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: diabetic male Wistar rats (n=40, average age: 12 weeks; weight: 130±10 g were randomly divided into four groups: Control, Extract, Exercise and Exercise+Extract. The diabetes model in rats was induced with a single injection of Streptozotocin-(60 mg/kg dissolved in citrate buffer (0.05 mole. The high glucose level of 250 mg/dl is defined as the diabetic criterion. The extract was administered orally (150 mg/kg/day. The exercise program was six weeks of aerobic exercise, 5 times a week with 50-55% of maximal oxygen consumption. Results: The application of aerobic training followed by coriander seed extract in diabetic rats had a significant effect on total serum glucose (P=0.002, AST (P=0.001, ALT (P=0.005 and ALP (P=0.033; however, it had no significant effect on insulin level (P=0.656 and insulin-resistance (P=0.458. Conclusion: It seems that the combination of a regular aerobic exercise and coriander seed extract in diabetic rats had beneficial effects on liver tissue damage and possibly can prevent and improve liver tissue damage via the reduction of the of some liver tissue damage markers.

  15. Talinum triangulare Whole wheat meal fortified with soy flour consumed with Talinum triangulare (gbure) soup glycemic index and the test human subjects' lipid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaleku, Sunday Adeola; Omueti, Olusola D; Emaleku, Godsent Oluwakemi

    2017-08-24

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are some of the leading causes of death in the world, and diet has roles in their etiology. This research study therefore investigates the glycemic index (GI) of soy flour fortified whole wheat meal (SFFWWM) consumed with Talinum triangulare (gbure) soup and the effects of the meal on the lipid profiles of the test human subjects. The control human subjects and test human subjects were fed D-glucose (DG) and whole wheat meal (WWM) with Talinum triangulare soup respectively on the first day of the experiment, and SFFWWM with the same soup the next day (for test subjects only) after 10-12h overnight fasting. Blood glucose levels of the subjects were taken before and 2h after meals' consumption at 30min interval and blood samples collected for lipid profiles evaluations. The result of the study showed that; SFFWWM consumed with Talinum trianguilare soup has a non-significant lower GI than WWM consumed with the same soup, but a significant lower GI than DG at (Pflour would reduce the risk factors of CVDs and DM, the diseases recently claiming thousands of today. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intramyocellular lipid content and insulin sensitivity are increased following a short-term low-glycemic index diet and exercise intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas; Lu, Lan

    2011-01-01

    and insulin sensitivity in older, insulin-resistant humans. Participants (66 ± 1 yr, BMI 33 ± 1 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to a parallel, controlled feeding trial [either an LGI (LGI/EX, n = 7) or high GI (HGI/EX, n = 8) eucaloric diet] combined with supervised exercise (60 min/day, 85% HR(max)). Insulin......The relationship between intramyocellular (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL) accumulation and skeletal muscle insulin resistance is complex and dynamic. We examined the effect of a short-term (7-day) low-glycemic index (LGI) diet and aerobic exercise training intervention (EX) on IMCL...... = 0.03). The LGI/EX group also demonstrated greater reductions in [EMCL] than the HGI/EX group (Δ: -5.8 ± 3.4, LGI/EX; 2.3 ± 1.1, HGI/EX, P = 0.03). Changes in muscle lipids and insulin sensitivity were not correlated; however, the change in [IMCL]/[EMCL] was negatively associated with the change...

  17. Application of refractive index mixing rules in binary systems of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    expressed in terms of average percentage deviation. The performance of the Lorentz– ... of these mixing rules is their inability to account for changes in volume and refractivity during mixing as they are based ..... symmetrical shape and it proposes volume additivity which is the reason for the deviations obtained in case of ...

  18. Effect of an intensive nutrition intervention of a high protein and low glycemic-index diet on weight of kidney transplant recipients: study protocol for a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrollo, Elis Forcellini; Nicoletto, Bruna Bellincanta; Carpes, Larissa Salomoni; de Freitas, Júlia de Melo Cardoso; Buboltz, Julia Roberta; Forte, Cristina Carra; Bauer, Andrea Carla; Manfro, Roberto Ceratti; Souza, Gabriela Corrêa; Leitão, Cristiane Bauermann

    2017-09-06

    Excessive weight gain is commonly observed within the first year after kidney transplantation and is associated with negative outcomes, such as graft loss and cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of a high protein and low glycemic-index diet on preventing weight gain after kidney transplantation. We designed a prospective, single-center, open-label, randomized controlled study to compare the efficacy of a high protein (1.3-1.4 g/kg/day) and low-glycemic index diet versus a conventional diet (0.8-1.0 g/kg/day of protein) on preventing weight gain after kidney transplantation. A total of 120 eligible patients 2 months after transplantation will be recruited. Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate through the modification of diet of renal disease (MDRD) formula  300 mg/24 h will be excluded. Patients' diets will be allocated through simple sequential randomization. Patients will be followed-up for 12 months with nine clinic appointments with a dietitian and the evaluations will include nutritional assessment (anthropometrics, body composition, and resting metabolic rate) and laboratory tests. The primary outcome is weight maintenance or body weight gain under 5% after 12 months. Secondary outcomes include body composition, resting metabolic rate, satiety sensation, kidney function, and other metabolic parameters. Diets with higher protein content and lower glycemic index may lead to weight loss because of higher satiety sensation. However, there is a concern about the association of high protein intake and kidney damage. Nevertheless, there is little evidence on the impact of high protein intake on long-term kidney function outcome. Therefore, we designed a study to test if a high protein diet with low-glycemic index will be an effective and safe nutritional intervention to prevent weight gain in kidney transplant patients. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT02883777 . Registered on 3 August 2016.

  19. Assessing intentions to eat low-glycemic index foods by adults with diabetes using a new questionnaire based on the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomoe; Berry, Tanya R; Willows, Noreen D; Bell, Rhonda C

    2015-04-01

    The Canadian Diabetes Association recommends that people with diabetes choose foods with low-glycemic index (GI). This study developed a questionnaire measuring Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) constructs relative to consuming a low-GI diet by people with diabetes so as to achieve a better understanding of which TPB constructs, demographic characteristics and diabetes-related variables best predict intention to consume a low-GI diet. A questionnaire to measure intentions to consume a low-GI diet was developed based on TPB constructs and was administered to 369 adults (30 to 75 years) with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Responses were analyzed using multiple linear regression. More than 90% of participants (mean age, 56.5±10.8 years; mean body mass index, 30.5±7.2 kg/m(2)) cited reduction and maintenance of healthy blood glucose levels as an advantage of eating low-GI foods. Older age, higher income, female gender, having type 2 diabetes, diabetes treatment (diet only) and understanding of the GI were positively associated with intention to eat a low-GI diet. TPB constructs that significantly predicted intentions to eat a low-GI diet were instrumental attitude (beta = 0.24, p<0.001); subjective norms (beta = 0.13, p=0.007); and perceived behavioural control (beta = 0.55, p<0.001). This new questionnaire is a valid tool to assess TPB constructs contributing to intentions to eat a low-GI diet by people with diabetes. Future studies that use this questionnaire can shed light on how TPB concepts in clinical practice can help people with diabetes to change their dietary intake. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhanced index tracking modeling in portfolio optimization with mixed-integer programming z approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Lam Weng; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah Hj.; Ismail, Hamizun bin

    2014-09-01

    Enhanced index tracking is a popular form of portfolio management in stock market investment. Enhanced index tracking aims to construct an optimal portfolio to generate excess return over the return achieved by the stock market index without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index. The objective of this paper is to construct an optimal portfolio using mixed-integer programming model which adopts regression approach in order to generate higher portfolio mean return than stock market index return. In this study, the data consists of 24 component stocks in Malaysia market index which is FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index from January 2010 until December 2012. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio of mixed-integer programming model is able to generate higher mean return than FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index return with only selecting 30% out of the total stock market index components.

  1. Evaluation of the in vitro glycemic index of a fiber-rich extruded breakfast cereal produced with organic passion fruit fiber and corn flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Vernaza Leoro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of process parameters and Passion Fruit Fiber (PFF addition on the Glycemic Index (GI of an extruded breakfast cereal. A 2³ Central Composite Rotational Design (CCRD was used, with the following independent variables: raw material moisture content (18-28%, 2nd and 3rd barrel zone temperatures (120-160 ºC, and PFF (0-30%. Raw materials (organic corn flour and organic PFF were characterized as to their proximate composition, particle size, and in vitro GI. The extrudates were characterized as to their in vitro GI. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM and Principal Component Analysis (PCA were used to analyze the results. Corn flour and PFF presented 8.55 and 7.63% protein, 2.61 and 0.60% fat, 0.52 and 6.17% ash, 78.77 and 78.86% carbohydrates (3 and 64% total dietary fiber, respectively. The corn flour particle size distribution was homogeneous, while PFF presented a heterogeneous particle size distribution. Corn flour and PFF presented values of GI of 48 and 45, respectively. When using RSM, no effect of the variables was observed in the GI of the extrudates (average value of 48.41, but PCA showed that the GI tended to be lower when processing at lower temperatures (158 ºC. When compared to white bread, the extrudates showed a reduction of the GI of up to 50%, and could be considered an interesting alternative in weight and glycemia control diets.

  2. The effect of a dietary carbohydrase enzyme system on blood glucose levels when combined with foods of varying glycemic index in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that physical performance and recovery can be improved by maintaining or enhancing glucose availability. Carbogen(®) (Triarco Industries, Wayne, NJ, USA), a patented dietary fungal carbohydrase enzyme system, converts complex carbohydrates and fiber into simpler carbohydrates when ingested. Supplementing the enzymatic digestion of complex carbohydrates and fiber that may be digested very slowly or not at all in vivo may increase the availability of glucose. This may be reflected by increased absorption rates and higher measurable levels of whole blood glucose (WBG) that may be bioavailable for extended energy production. These preliminary investigations evaluate the ability of Carbogen to produce a rapid and more sustained increase in WBG levels when combined with a variety of food substrates commonly used by athletes and non-athletes to increase levels of physical activity. To investigate this, food substrates having a low, moderate, or high glycemic index (GI) with various amounts of total carbohydrates and dietary fiber were used. The individually tested substrates include soy nuts, cooked pasta, meal replacement bars, a nutrition shake, and a carbohydrate sports supplement. The investigations presented here consist of seven separate preclinical rat feasibility studies conducted over a period of approximately 12 months. The collective results presented here identify specific attributes of a category of food substrates common to sports nutrition enthusiasts that may significantly increase WBG levels over an extended time when dosed with Carbogen. Specifically, using Carbogen with a food substrate having a low or moderate GI and containing dietary fiber may increase the rate of glucose absorption and maintain significant increases in WBG levels.

  3. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI diet improved weight maintenance.To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study.Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured.Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%.A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  4. Diabetes, glycemic control, and urinary incontinence in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Lefevre, Roger; Hacker, Michele R.; Golen, Toni H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To estimate the association between urinary incontinence and glycemic control in women ages 20 to 85. METHODS We included 7,270 women from the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, stratified into three groups of glycemic control defined by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c): i) those below the diagnostic threshold (HbA1c8.5%) to allow for a different relationship between glycemic control and urinary incontinence within each group. The primary outcomes were the presence of any, only stress, only urgency, and mixed urinary incontinence. We calculated adjusted risk ratios using Poisson regressions with robust variance estimates. RESULTS The survey-weighted prevalence was 52.9% for any, 27.2% for only stress, 9.9% for only urgency, and 15.8% for mixed urinary incontinence. Among women with relatively controlled diabetes, each one-unit increase in HbA1c was associated with a 13% (95% CI: 1.03–1.25) increase for any urinary incontinence and a 34% (95% CI 1.06–1.69) increase in risk for only stress incontinence but was not significantly associated with only urgency and mixed incontinence. Other risk factors included body mass index, hormone replacement therapy, smoking, and physical activity. CONCLUSIONS Worsening glycemic control is associated with an increased risk for stress incontinence for women with relatively controlled diabetes. For those either below the diagnostic threshold or with poorly controlled diabetes, the risk may be driven by other factors. Further prospective investigation of HbA1c as a modifiable risk factor may motivate measures to improve continence in women with diabetes. PMID:26313496

  5. Kiwifruit, carbohydrate availability, and the glycemic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, John A

    2013-01-01

    An appreciable proportion, about 10%, of the dry weight of kiwifruit consists of primary cell walls. About 80% of dry matter is available carbohydrate consisting of glucose, fructose, and sucrose, and about 10% is digestible protein. The cell wall component, being nonstarch polysaccharide, is undigested in the stomach and small intestine, so the component increases in relative concentration in the gut lumen where its physicochemical properties may be important in modulating carbohydrate digestion and absorption. Released from the constraint of fruit structure, the dietary fiber swells to four times its original volume during in vitro digestion. When the digested remnants are allowed to settle into a packed but uncompressed state, as in the gut, they reduce the rate of glucose diffusion by about 40% and profoundly reduce digesta mixing, especially in the presence of a low background of soluble viscous polysaccharide. An in vitro estimation of the glycemic index (GI) of carbohydrate in kiwifruit, and in vivo estimates show the carbohydrate to be of low GI. On a whole fruit basis because of the high water content of kiwifruit, a 100g kiwifruit would be equivalent to about 5g (1 teaspoon) of glucose in its effect on blood glucose; thus, kiwifruit have low glycemic impact and are suitable for those with diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Iron zircon pigment synthesis: Proposal of a mixing index for the raw materials mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Zumaquero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Iron zircon coral pigments are very interesting from an industrial point of view because of their high colouring power and their stability at high temperatures. However, the pigment's synthesis is particularly troublesome due to its specific reaction mechanism. As an encapsulated pigment it becomes very important how the raw materials are distributed in the reaction mixture. To evaluate the effectiveness of the mixing process, it would be convenient to define a parameter, that is the mixing index, to estimate the degree of homogeneity of the system. In the current investigation, a mixing index is proposed derived from the power spectrum of Fourier transform of scanning electron microscope (SEM images of the raw material mixture. Concretely, the number of pixels in a certain range of values in the image of the power spectrum, seems to behave relatively well as mixing index. This index allows us to distinguish between samples with different zirconia and iron oxide used as precursors. The proposed mixing index seems to be related to the colouring power of the final pigment when the synthesis generates enough zircon to encapsulate hematite particles.

  7. Iron zircon pigment synthesis: Proposal of a mixing index for the raw materials mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumaquero, E.; Ortsb, M.J.; Sanz, V.; Mestre, S.

    2017-01-01

    Iron zircon coral pigments are very interesting from an industrial point of view because of their high colouring power and their stability at high temperatures. However, the pigment's synthesis is particularly troublesome due to its specific reaction mechanism. As an encapsulated pigment it becomes very important how the raw materials are distributed in the reaction mixture. To evaluate the effectiveness of the mixing process, it would be convenient to define a parameter, that is the mixing index, to estimate the degree of homogeneity of the system. In the current investigation, a mixing index is proposed derived from the power spectrum of Fourier transform of scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the raw material mixture. Concretely, the number of pixels in a certain range of values in the image of the power spectrum, seems to behave relatively well as mixing index. This index allows us to distinguish between samples with different zirconia and iron oxide used as precursors. The proposed mixing index seems to be related to the colouring power of the final pigment when the synthesis generates enough zircon to encapsulate hematite particles. [es

  8. Determining maximum stand density index in mixed species stands for strategic-scale stocking assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris W. Woodall; Patrick D. Miles; John S. Vissage

    2005-01-01

    Stand density index (SDI), although developed for use in even-aged monocultures, has been used for assessing stand density in large-scale forest inventories containing diverse tree species and size distributions. To improve application of SDI in unevenaged, mixed species stands present in large-scale forest inventories, trends in maximum SDI across diameter classes...

  9. Evaluation of Glycemic Indices of Rice (served with stew) prepared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The increasing rate of diabetic patients in Nigeria calls for concern. There is also the need for enough information on the glycemic index (GI) of many commonly consumed foods in Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to determine the glycemic indices of local varieties of rice produced in Abakaliki and to ...

  10. Low-glycemic-load diets: impact on obesity and chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Stacey J; Sears, Barry

    2003-01-01

    Historically, carbohydrates have been thought to play only a minor role in promoting weight gain and in predicting the risk of development of chronic disease. Most of the focus had been on reducing total dietary fat. During the last 20 years, fat intake decreased, while the number of individuals who were overweight or developed a chronic conditions have dramatically increased. Simultaneously, the calories coming from carbohydrate have also increased. Carbohydrates can be classified by their post-prandial glycemic effect, called the glycemic index or glycemic load. Carbohydrates with high glycemic indexes and high glycemic loads produce substantial increases in blood glucose and insulin levels after ingestion. Within a few hours after their consumption, blood sugar levels begin to decline rapidly due to an exaggerated increase in insulin secretion. A profound state of hunger is created. The continued intake of high-glycemic load meals is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. In this review, the terms glycemic index and glycemic load are defined, coupled with an overview of short- and long-term changes that occur from eating diets of different glycemic indexes and glycemic loads. Finally, practical strategies for how to design low-glycemic-load diets consisting primarily of low-glycemic carbohydrates are provided.

  11. Comparison of glycemic control and variability in patients with type 2 and posttransplantation diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werzowa, Johannes; Pacini, Giovanni; Hecking, Manfred; Fidler, Catharina; Haidinger, Michael; Brath, Helmut; Thomas, Andreas; Säemann, Marcus D; Tura, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common complication after renal transplantation leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) increased glycemic variability and poor glycemic control have been associated with cardiovascular complications. We therefore aimed at determining glycemic variability and glycemic control in subjects with PTDM in comparison to T2DM subjects. In this observational study we analyzed 10 transplanted subjects without diabetes (Control), 10 transplanted subjects with PTDM, and 8 non-transplanted T2DM subjects using Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM). Several indices of glycemic control quality and variability were computed. Many indices of both glycemic control quality and variability were different between control and PTDM subjects, with worse values in PTDM. The indices of glycemic control, such as glucose mean, GRADE and M-value, were similar in PTDM and T2DM, but some indices of glycemic variability, that is CONGA, lability index and shape index, showed a markedly higher (i.e., worse) value in T2DM than in PTDM (P value range: 0.001-0.035). Although PTDM and T2DM subjects showed similar glycemic control quality, glycemic variability was significantly higher in T2DM. These data underscore potential important pathophysiological differences between T2DM and PTDM indicating that increased glycemic variability may not be a key factor for the excess cardiovascular mortality in patients with PTDM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of a Low-Glycemic Index Diet on Pregnancy Outcomes in Women at High Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The GI Baby 3 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Tania P; Muirhead, Ros; Overs, Shannon; Ross, Glynis P; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Kizirian, Nathalie; Denyer, Gareth; Petocz, Peter; Hyett, Jon; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2016-01-01

    Dietary interventions can improve pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We compared the effect of a low-glycemic index (GI) versus a conventional high-fiber (HF) diet on pregnancy outcomes, birth weight z score, and maternal metabolic profile in women at high risk of GDM. One hundred thirty-nine women [mean (SD) age 34.7 (0.4) years and prepregnancy BMI 25.2 (0.5) kg/m(2)] were randomly assigned to a low-GI (LGI) diet (n = 72; target GI ∼50) or a high-fiber, moderate-GI (HF) diet (n = 67; target GI ∼60) at 14-20 weeks' gestation. Diet was assessed by 3-day food records and infant body composition by air-displacement plethysmography, and pregnancy outcomes were assessed from medical records. The LGI group achieved a lower GI than the HF group [mean (SD) 50 (5) vs. 58 (5); P diet and a healthy diet produce similar pregnancy outcomes. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  13. Increased intake of carbohydrates from sources with a higher glycemic index and lower consumption of whole grains during puberty are prospectively associated with higher IL-6 concentrations in younger adulthood among healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goletzke, Janina; Buyken, Anette E; Joslowski, Gesa; Bolzenius, Katja; Remer, Thomas; Carstensen, Maren; Egert, Sarah; Nöthlings, Ute; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Roden, Michael; Herder, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation represents a likely intermediary in the relation between carbohydrate nutrition and both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study assessed the prospective association between carbohydrate quantity and quality [dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and added sugar, fiber, and whole-grain intake] during puberty, a potentially critical period for later disease, and low-grade inflammation in younger adulthood. The analysis was based on 205 participants (113 girls and 92 boys) from the DONALD (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed) study with at least 2 3-d weighed dietary records during puberty (girls: 9-14 y, boys: 10-15 y) and blood samples in younger adulthood (18-36 y). Multivariable linear regression models were used to analyze the associations between carbohydrate nutrition and circulating concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory immune mediators [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin (IL) 6, IL-18, and adiponectin]. A higher intake of carbohydrates during puberty (P-trend = 0.005), particularly from higher-GI food sources (P-trend = 0.01), was prospectively related to higher concentrations of IL-6 in younger adulthood, independently of baseline BMI and early life, socioeconomic, and other nutritional factors. Furthermore, a higher dietary GL (P-trend = 0.002) and a lower intake of whole grains (P-trend = 0.01) were independently associated with higher IL-6 concentrations in adults. Dietary GI and added sugar and fiber intakes were not independently associated with IL-6 (P-trend ≥ 0.09). Carbohydrate nutrition during puberty was not independently related to hs-CRP, IL-18, and adiponectin concentrations (all P-trend > 0.1). During puberty, a higher intake of carbohydrates from higher-GI food sources and lower whole-grain consumption prospectively predict greater IL-6 concentrations in young adulthood. These data support the hypothesis that diet during

  14. A low-glycemic index meal and bedtime snack prevents postprandial hyperglycemia and associated rises in inflammatory markers, providing protection from early but not late nocturnal hypoglycemia following evening exercise in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew D; Walker, Mark; Trenell, Michael I; Stevenson, Emma J; Turner, Daniel; Bracken, Richard M; Shaw, James A; West, Daniel J

    2014-07-01

    To examine the influence of the glycemic index (GI) of foods consumed after evening exercise on postprandial glycemia, metabolic and inflammatory markers, and nocturnal glycemic control in type 1 diabetes. On two evenings (∼1700 h), 10 male patients (27 ± 5 years of age, HbA1c 6.7 ± 0.7% [49.9 ± 8.1 mmol/mol]) were administered a 25% rapid-acting insulin dose with a carbohydrate bolus 60 min before 45 min of treadmill running. At 60 min postexercise, patients were administered a 50% rapid-acting insulin dose with one of two isoenergetic meals (1.0 g carbohdyrate/kg body mass [BM]) matched for macronutrient content but of either low GI (LGI) or high GI (HGI). At 180 min postmeal, the LGI group ingested an LGI snack and the HGI group an HGI snack (0.4 g carbohdyrate/kg BM) before returning home (∼2300 h). Interval samples were analyzed for blood glucose and lactate; plasma glucagon, epinephrine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); and serum insulin, cortisol, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Interstitial glucose was recorded for 20 h postlaboratory attendance through continuous glucose monitoring. Following the postexercise meal, an HGI snack induced hyperglycemia in all patients (mean ± SD glucose 13.5 ± 3.3 mmol/L) and marked increases in TNF-α and IL-6, whereas relative euglycemia was maintained with an LGI snack (7.7 ± 2.5 mmol/L, P types protected all patients from early hypoglycemia. Overnight glycemia was comparable, with a similar incidence of nocturnal hypoglycemia (n = 5 for both HGI and LGI). Consuming LGI food with a reduced rapid-acting insulin dose following evening exercise prevents postprandial hyperglycemia and inflammation and provides hypoglycemia protection for ∼8 h postexercise; however, the risk of late nocturnal hypoglycemia remains. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  15. Temperature and concentration dependence af energy gap and refrective index in certain mixed crystals and semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, R. R.; Kumar, M. Ravi; Rao, T. V. R.

    1993-02-01

    Variations of energy gap ( Eg) and refractive index ( n) with the concentration have been studied through a set of simple empirical equations proposed in the case of certain mixed crystals of technological importance. Similarly, another set of equations has been proposed to explain the temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors such as GaS, GaSe, GaTe, SnS 2 and SnSe 2. The results obtained in both cases are found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values. The proposed equations are proved to be simple and advantageous over others in the sense that less computational work is involved in the calculations of Eg and n.

  16. Glycemic variability: Clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi Venkata Satya Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycemic control and its benefits in preventing microvascular diabetic complications are convincingly proved by various prospective trials. Diabetes control and complications trial (DCCT had reported variable glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C as a cause of increased microvascular complications in conventional glycemic control group versus intensive one. However, in spite of several indirect evidences, its link with cardiovascular events or macrovascular complications is still not proved. Glycemic variability (GV is one more tool to explain relation between hyperglycemia and increased cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients. In fact GV along with fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, HbA1C, and quality of life has been proposed to form glycemic pentad, which needs to be considered in diabetes management. Postprandial spikes in blood glucose as well as hypoglycemic events, both are blamed for increased cardiovascular events in Type 2 diabetics. GV includes both these events and hence minimizing GV can prevent future cardiovascular events. Modern diabetes management modalities including improved sulfonylureas, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1-based therapy, newer basal insulins, and modern insulin pumps address the issue of GV effectively. This article highlights mechanism, clinical implications, and measures to control GV in clinical practice.

  17. Low glycemic index vegan or low-calorie weight loss diets for women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Davidson, Charis R; Wingard, Ellen E; Billings, Deborah L

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this randomized pilot was to assess the feasibility of a dietary intervention among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) comparing a vegan to a low-calorie (low-cal) diet. Overweight (body mass index, 39.9 ± 6.1 kg/m(2)) women with PCOS (n = 18; age, 27.8 ± 4.5 years; 39% black) who were experiencing infertility were recruited to participate in a 6-month randomized weight loss study delivered through nutrition counseling, e-mail, and Facebook. Body weight and dietary intake were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months. We hypothesized that weight loss would be greater in the vegan group. Attrition was high at 3 (39%) and 6 months (67%). All analyses were conducted as intention-to-treat and presented as median (interquartile range). Vegan participants lost significantly more weight at 3 months (-1.8% [-5.0%, -0.9%] vegan, 0.0 [-1.2%, 0.3%] low-cal; P = .04), but there was no difference between groups at 6 months (P = .39). Use of Facebook groups was significantly related to percent weight loss at 3 (P Vegan participants had a greater decrease in energy (-265 [-439, 0] kcal/d) and fat intake (-7.4% [-9.2%, 0] energy) at 6 months compared with low-cal participants (0 [0, 112] kcal/d, P = .02; 0 [0, 3.0%] energy, P = .02). These preliminary results suggest that engagement with social media and adoption of a vegan diet may be effective for promoting short-term weight loss among women with PCOS; however, a larger trial that addresses potential high attrition rates is needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rats prone to obesity under a high-carbohydrate diet have increased post-meal CCK mRNA expression and characteristics of rats fed a high-glycemic index diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eChaumontet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that rats prone to obesity exhibit an exaggerated increase in glucose oxidation and an exaggerated decline in lipid oxidation under a low-fat high-carbohydrate (LF/HC diet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in these metabolic dysregulations. After a one week adaptation to laboratory conditions, 48 male Wistar rats were fed a LF/HC diet for 3 weeks. During weeks 2 and 3, glucose tolerance tests (GTT, insulin tolerance tests (ITT and meal tolerance tests (MTT were performed to evaluate blood glucose, plasma and insulin. Glucose and lipid oxidation were also assayed during the GTT. At the end of the study, body composition was measured in all the rats, and they were classified as carbohydrate resistant (CR or carbohydrate sensitive (CS according to their adiposity. Before sacrifice, 24 of the 48 rats received a calibrated LF/HC meal. Liver, muscle and intestine tissue samples were taken to measure mRNA expression of key genes involved in glucose, lipid and protein metabolism. ITT, GTT and MTT showed that CS rats were neither insulin resistant nor glucose intolerant, but mRNA expression of CCK in the duodenum was higher and that of CPT1, PPARα and PGC1α in liver were lower than in CR rats. From these results, we make the hypothesis that in CS rats, CCK increased pancreatic secretion which may favor a quicker absorption of carbohydrates and consequently induces an enhanced inhibition of lipid oxidation in the liver leading to a progressive accumulation of fat preferentially in visceral deposits. Such a mechanism may explain why CS rats share many characteristics observed in rats fed a high glycemic index diet.

  19. Effect of a low glycemic index diet versus a high-cereal fibre diet on markers of subclinical cardiac injury in healthy individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: An exploratory analysis of a randomized dietary trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Vanessa; Viguiliouk, Effie; Kendall, Cyril W C; Balachandran, Bashyam; Jenkins, David J A; Kavsak, Peter A; Sievenpiper, John L

    2017-12-01

    Markers of subclinical cardiac injury are elevated in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared to healthy individuals. Low glycemic index (LGI) diets may improve both diabetes and cardiovascular risk but their effects on cardiac injury and fibrosis have not been previously studied. To test the effect of a LGI diet on markers of subclinical cardiac injury and fibrosis, we assessed the effect of a LGI compared with a high-cereal fibre diet on high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and galectin-3 in otherwise healthy individuals with T2DM in an exploratory analysis of a completed randomized trial. A total of 201 participants completed the trial and had measurements of hs-cTnI and galectin-3 at baseline and at trial completion. Participants were randomized to follow a LGI or a high-cereal fibre diet over a 6-month period. Treatment differences were tested using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) with sex, baseline values, and diet x sex interaction included as covariates. In a completer's analysis, no significant differences were observed for change in hs-cTnI (-0.16ng/L vs. -0.22ng/L, p=0.713) and galectin-3 levels (0.64μg/L vs. 0.14μg/L, p=0.166) when a LGI diet was compared to a high-cereal fibre diet. The effect of a LGI diet was similar to a high-cereal fibre diet on hs-cTnI and galectin-3 levels in otherwise healthy individuals with T2DM over a 6-month period. Nevertheless, in the absence of any adverse effects, LGI diets remain an option for diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk management. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00438698. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Suboptimal glycemic control in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Pouwer, F; Denollet, J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies examining the relationship between depression and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes have yielded mixed findings. One explanation may lie in the heterogeneity of depression. Therefore, we examined whether distinct features of depression...... were differentially associated with suboptimal glycemic control. Cross-sectional baseline data from a dynamic cohort study of primary care patients with type 2 diabetes from the Eindhoven region, The Netherlands, were analyzed. A total of 5772 individuals completed baseline measurements of demographic...... adjustment for the other depression measures (OR 1.33, 1.11-1.59). Alcohol consumption and physical activity met criteria for mediation, but did not attenuate the association between anhedonia and glycemic control by more than 5%. Although diabetes duration was identified as a confounder and controlled for...

  1. Intermittent Vagal Nerve Block for Improvements in Obesity, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: 2-Year Results of the VBLOC DM2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikora, Scott A; Toouli, James; Herrera, Miguel F; Kulseng, Bård; Brancatisano, Roy; Kow, Lilian; Pantoja, Juan P; Johnsen, Gjermund; Brancatisano, Anthony; Tweden, Katherine S; Knudson, Mark B; Billington, Charles J; Billingto, Charles J

    2016-05-01

    One-year results of the VBLOC DM2 study found that intermittent vagal blocking (VBLOC therapy) was safe among subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and led to significant weight loss and improvements in glycemic parameters and cardiovascular risk factors. Longer-term data are needed to determine whether the results are sustained. VBLOC DM2 is a prospective, observational study of 28 subjects with T2DM and body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m(2) to assess mid-term safety and weight loss and improvements in glycemic parameters, and other cardiovascular risk factors with VBLOC therapy. Continuous outcome variables are reported using mixed models. At 24 months, the mean percentage of excess weight loss was 22% (95% CI, 15 to 28, p obesity and glycemic control were largely sustained after 2 years of treatment with VBLOC therapy with a well-tolerated risk profile.

  2. Associação entre perfil glicêmico materno e o índice de líquido amniótico em gestações complicadas pelo Diabetes mellituspré-gestacional Association between maternal glycemic profile and amniotic fluid index in pregnancies complicated by pregestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Maganha

    2009-01-01

    excluded. The amniotic fluid index (AFI was measured weekly, beginning at the 27th week of gestation and continued until delivery and the maternal glycemic profile was obtained a week before ultrasound assessment. This profile consisted of the glycemic level averages and percentages of the abnormal high values. Correlation between the glycemic profile and the AFI was shown by the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: Sixty pregnant women were assessed and 659 correlations between the AFI and glycemic profile were obtained. No correlation was observed in any of the gestational weeks studied. The mean glycemic value was 103.69 mg/dl (SD=13.69 in the group with AFI £18 cm, and the 103.67 mg/dl (SD=11.46 in the group with AFI < 18 cm and no significant difference was detected. CONCLUSION: This study showed no correlation between AFI and maternal glycemic profile during the third trimester in type 1 and 2 diabetic pregnant women, undergoing standardized treatment and rigorous metabolic control.

  3. Adiposity and Glycemic Control in Children Exposed to Perfluorinated Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie G.; Rossing, Laura I.; Grontved, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to explore whether childhood exposure to perfluorinated and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), widely used stain- and grease-repellent chemicals, is associated with adiposity and markers of glycemic control. Materials and Methods: Body mass index, skinfold thickness......, waist circumference, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations were assessed in 8- to 10-year-old children in 1997 in a subset of the European Youth Heart Study, Danish component. Plasma PFC concentrations were available from 499 children. Linear regression models were...... performed to determine the association between PFC exposure and indicators of adiposity and markers of glycemic control. Results: There was no association between PFC exposures and adiposity or markers of glycemic control in normal-weight children. Among overweight children, an increase of 10 ng...

  4. Mixed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Remenat (Catalan (Mixed, "revoltillo" (Scrambled in Spanish, is a dish which, in Catalunya, consists of a beaten egg cooked with vegetables or other ingredients, normally prawns or asparagus. It is delicious. Scrambled refers to the action of mixing the beaten egg with other ingredients in a pan, normally using a wooden spoon Thought is frequently an amalgam of past ideas put through a spinner and rhythmically shaken around like a cocktail until a uniform and dense paste is made. This malleable product, rather like a cake mixture can be deformed pulling it out, rolling it around, adapting its shape to the commands of one’s hands or the tool which is being used on it. In the piece Mixed, the contortion of the wood seeks to reproduce the plasticity of this slow heavy movement. Each piece lays itself on the next piece consecutively like a tongue of incandescent lava slowly advancing but with unstoppable inertia.

  5. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  6. Postprandial glucose and insulin levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients after consumption of ready-to-eat mixed meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; Tsoutsoulopoulou, Konstantina; Kogkas, Stergios; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Efstathopoulou, Eirini

    2017-04-01

    To compare the effects of three ready-to-eat mixed meals, with a high fiber content and low glycemic index, on postprandial glycemic and insulinemic response in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The current study followed a prospective, three-way, cross-over design. Twenty-four patients with T2DM consumed three ready-to-eat mixed meals, i.e., "wild greens pie" (meal 1), "chicken burgers with boiled vegetables" (meal 2) and "vegetable moussaka" (meal 3) and an oral glucose load, all providing 50 g of carbohydrates. Venous blood was collected at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min postprandial. Statistical analyses included repeated measures analysis of variance and calculations of the area under the glucose and insulin curves (AUC) for each one of the test meals and the oral glucose load. Patients consuming each one of the three mixed meals showed better postprandial glycemic responses compared to the oral glucose load (P meal 3 showed a better insulinemic response compared to the oral glucose load and meal 1, after 60 and 120 min postprandial, respectively (P meal 3, compared to the oral glucose load (P eat mixed meals examined in the present study were found to elicit significantly lower glycemic responses compared to the oral glucose load in diabetic patients. The mixed meals examined in the present study could be proposed as effective, palatable and practical solutions for diabetics for glucose control.

  7. Sleep and glycemic control in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Mark Thomaz Ugliara; Wey, Daniela; Schorr, Fabiola; Franco, Denise Reis; Carra, Mario Kehdi; Lorenzi Filho, Geraldo; Menna-Barreto, Luiz

    2015-02-01

    Our aim in the present study was to elucidate how type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and sleep parameters interact, which was rarely evaluated up to the moment. Eighteen T1DM subjects without chronic complications, and 9 control subjects, matched for age and BMI, were studied. The following instruments used to evaluate sleep: the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, sleep diaries, actimeters, and polysomnography in a Sleep Lab. Glycemic control in T1DM individuals was evaluated through: A1C, home fingertip glucometer for 10 days (concomitant with the sleep diary and actimeter), and CGM or concomitant with continuous glucose monitoring (during the polysomnography night). Comparing with the control group, individuals with diabetes presented more pronounced sleep extension from weekdays to weekends than control subjects (p = 0.0303). Among T1DM, glycemic variability (SD) was positively correlated with sleep latency (r = 0.6525, p = 0.0033); full awakening index and arousal index were positively correlated with A1C (r = 0.6544, p = 0.0081; and r = 0.5680, p = 0.0272, respectively); and mean glycemia values were negatively correlated with sleep quality in T1DM individuals with better glycemic control (mean glycemia < 154 mg/dL). Our results support the hypothesis of an interaction between sleep parameters and T1DM, where the glycemic control plays an important role. More studies are needed to unveil the mechanisms behind this interaction, which may allow, in the future, clinicians and educators to consider sleep in the effort of regulating glycemic control.

  8. Gastrointestinal Tolerance and Glycemic Response of Isomaltooligosaccharides in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnupriya Gourineni

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ingredients delivering functional and nutritional benefits are of interest to food manufacturers. Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOs which serve as alternate sweeteners fit into this category. IMOs are a mixture of α-(1 → 6 and α-(1 → 4-linked glucose oligomers, synthesized by an enzymatic reaction from starch (corn, tapioca. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fermentability and glycemic response of IMO in a healthy population. Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over human studies were conducted. In the first study (n = 26, participants’ breath hydrogen over 24 h, gastrointestinal tolerance, and glycemic and insulinemic response to BIOLIGOTM IL5040 isomaltooligosaccharide were measured. In another study (n = 10, participants’ two-hour post-prandial glycemic response to BIOLIGOTM IL5040 isomaltooligosaccharide and BIOLIGOTM IL7010 isomaltooligosaccharide was measured compared to dextrose (control. The IMOs differed in the composition of mono and di-saccharide sugars. IMO syrup dose was matched for 50 g of total carbohydrates and was consumed by mixing in water (237 mL/8 oz.. Mean composite gastrointestinal score was not significantly different (p = 0.322 between the control (1.42 and IMO (1.38. Lack of difference in glycemic response (p = 0.662, with no impact on breath hydrogen (24 h; p = 0.319 and intestinal tolerance, demonstrates that IMO is digestible and can be used to replace sugars in product formulations.

  9. Skin Autofluorescence and Glycemic Variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, M. J.; Lefrandt, J. D.; Graaff, R.; Smit, A. J.

    Background: Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is accelerated during glycemic and oxidative stress and is an important predictor of complications in diabetes mellitus (DM). Study Design: Here we both review and present original data on the relationship between skin

  10. IMPROVING GLYCEMIC CONTROL SAFELY IN CRITICAL CARE PATIENTS: A COLLABORATIVE SYSTEMS APPROACH IN NINE HOSPITALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Gregory A; Holdych, Janet; Kendall, Heather; Harrison, Karen; Montgomery, Patricia A; Kulasa, Kristen

    2017-05-01

    Safely improve glycemic control in the critical care units of nine hospitals. Critical care adult inpatients from nine hospitals with ≥4 point-of-care blood glucose (BG) readings over ≥2 days were targeted by collaborative improvement efforts to reduce hyper- and hypoglycemia. Balanced glucometric goals for each hospital were set targeting improvement from baseline or goals deemed desirable from Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) benchmarking data. Collaborative interventions included standardized insulin infusion protocols, hypoglycemia prevention bundles, audit and feedback, education, and measure-vention (coupling measurement of patients "off protocol" with concurrent interventions to correct suboptimal care). All sites improved glycemic control. Six reached prespecified levels of improvement of the day-weighted mean BG. The day-weighted mean BG for the cohort decreased by 7.7 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.0 mg/dL to 8.4 mg/dL) to 151.3 mg/dL. Six of nine sites showed improvement in the percent intensive care unit (ICU) days with severe hyperglycemia (any BG >299 mg/dL). ICU severe hyperglycemic days declined from 8.6 to 7.2% for the cohort (relative risk, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.88). Patient days with any BG <70 mg/dL were reduced by 0.4% (95% CI, 0.06% to 0.6%), from 4.5 to 4.1%, for a small but statistically significant reduction in hypoglycemia. Seven of nine sites showed improvement. Multihospital improvements in ICU glycemic control, severe hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia are feasible. Balanced goals for glycemic control and hypoglycemia in the ICU using SHM benchmarks and metrics enhanced successful improvement efforts with good staff acceptance and sustainability. BG = blood glucose CMI = case-mix index CY = calendar year DKA = diabetic ketoacidosis EMR = electronic medical record GBMF = Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation ICU = intensive care unit IIP = insulin infusion protocol SHM = Society of z Hospital Medicine.

  11. Standardizzazione isogravitá di un case-mix ospedaliero mediante Charlson index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Messina

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduzione: la comorbidità è un importante fattore confondente negli studi epidemiologici valutativi dell’assistenza ospedaliera. Diversi strumenti di risk adjustment misurano la complessità della malattia, consentendo di correlarla al consumo di risorse assistenziali, agli esiti, nonchè di confrontare studi eseguiti in tempi e realtà diversi.

    Obiettivi: - Standardizzare per complessità casistica la mortalità dei pazienti assistiti da un grande ospedale; - Identificare le variabili in grado di migliorare la capacità predittiva di mortalità intraospedaliera (IM. Materiali e

    Metodi: sono state analizzate 40.801 schede di dimissione prodotte dal Policlinico Senese nel 2001. Sono stati studiati i tassi di IM specifici per Charlson Index Score (CSI: quest’ultimo considera 19 categorie di patologia e si basa sull’ ICD-IX-CM. Le variabili studiate mediante analisi bivariate e regressione logistica, sono state: CSI (codificato in 5 livelli 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, lunghezza del ricovero (LR, sesso ed età. Risultati: CSI è risultato associato con IM (p‹0.001. Sesso, età e LR sono risultati associati sia con CSI (p‹0.001 che IM (p‹0.001. Confrontando i 4 livelli di CSI con quello di riferimento (0, le seguenti Odds Ratio (OR di IM sono state trovate: Livello 1 verso livello 0 OR: 6.79 (p‹0.001, Livello 2 verso livello 0 OR: 15.8 (p‹0.001, Livello 3 verso livello 0 OR: 9.36 (p‹0.001, Livello 4 verso livello 0 OR: 7.4 (p‹0.001. La variabile sesso non è risultata aver un effetto confondente tra CSI e IM al contrario delle variabili LR ed età.

    Conclusioni: il CSI aiuta a valutare (predire il rischio di mortalità intraospedaliera, sebbene in modo non lineare. Abbiamo sempre rilevato valori più alti di mortalità confrontando i livelli 1, 2, 3, e 4 con quello di riferimento (0. In particolare il valore più alto lo ha raggiunto il secondo livello

  12. Optical refractive index and static permittivity of mixed Zr-Si oxide thin films prepared by ion beam induced CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, F.J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Av. Thomas A. Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: fjferrer@us.es; Frutos, F. [E.T.S. de Ingenieria Informatica, Avda. Reina Mercedes, s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Lopez, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Av. Thomas A. Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Gonzalez-Elipe, A.R.; Yubero, F. [Insituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, c/ Americo vespucio, no. 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2007-12-03

    Mixed oxides Zr{sub x}Si{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} (0 < x < 1) thin films have been prepared at room temperature by decomposition of (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}O){sub 3}SiH and Zr[OC(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}]{sub 4} volatile precursors induced by mixtures of O{sub 2}{sup +} and Ar{sup +} ions. The films were flat and amorphous independently of the Si/Zr ratio and did not present phase segregation of the pure single oxides (SiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}). A 10-23 at.% of H and 1-5 at.% of C atoms remained incorporated in the films depending on the mixture ratio of the Si and Zr precursors and the composition of the bombarding gas used during the deposition process. These impurities are mainly forming hydroxyl and carboxylic groups. Optical refractive index and static permittivity of the films were determined by reflection NIR-Vis spectroscopy and C-V electrical characterization, respectively. It is found that the refractive index increases non-linearly from 1.45 to 2.10 as the Zr content in the thin films increases. The static permittivity also increases non-linearly from {approx} 4 for pure SiO{sub 2} to {approx} 15 for pure ZrO{sub 2}. Optical and electrical characteristics of the films are justified by their impurity content and the available theories.

  13. Indirect estimations and spatial variation in leaf area index of coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in Forsmark and Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagesson, Torbern

    2006-12-01

    Two sites in Sweden are investigated for a potential deep repository of the nuclear waste, the Laxemar investigation area (57 deg 5 min N, 16 deg 7 min E) and the Forsmark investigation area (60 deg 4 min N, 18 deg 2 min E). In the characterisation of these sites, development of site descriptive models is an important part. Leaves are the main surface were an exchange of matter and energy between the atmosphere and the biosphere takes place, and leaf area index (LAI) of the vegetation cover is an important variable correlated to a number of ecophysiological parameters and hereby an important parameter in ecosystem models. In the investigation areas, LAI of boreal and temperate ecosystems were therefore estimated indirectly through optical measurements using the LAI-2000 (LI-COR, Cambridge UK) and TRAC (Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies). On average, measured maximum LAI was 3.40 in Laxemar and 3.43 in Forsmark; minimum LAI was 1.65 in Laxemar and 1.97 in Forsmark. Forest inventory data showed that LAI is positively correlated with basal area, stand height, stand volume and breast height tree diameter. For the coniferous stands, there was also a linearly negative relationship with age. In the Laxemar investigation area, there were no significant relationships for LAI with a satellite derived kNN (kNearest Neighbor) data set with stand height, stand volume and stand age. The kNN data set can therefore not be used to extrapolate measured LAI over the Laxemar investigation area. There were significant relationships between LAI and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in the Laxemar investigation area. A NDVI image could be used to extrapolate LAI over the entire investigation area. For the Forsmark investigation area, effective LAI for all stands were correlated to NDVI and this relationship could then be used for extrapolation. The effective LAI image was afterwards corrected for average

  14. Indirect estimations and spatial variation in leaf area index of coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesson, Torbern [Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    Two sites in Sweden are investigated for a potential deep repository of the nuclear waste, the Laxemar investigation area (57 deg 5 min N, 16 deg 7 min E) and the Forsmark investigation area (60 deg 4 min N, 18 deg 2 min E). In the characterisation of these sites, development of site descriptive models is an important part. Leaves are the main surface were an exchange of matter and energy between the atmosphere and the biosphere takes place, and leaf area index (LAI) of the vegetation cover is an important variable correlated to a number of ecophysiological parameters and hereby an important parameter in ecosystem models. In the investigation areas, LAI of boreal and temperate ecosystems were therefore estimated indirectly through optical measurements using the LAI-2000 (LI-COR, Cambridge UK) and TRAC (Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies). On average, measured maximum LAI was 3.40 in Laxemar and 3.43 in Forsmark; minimum LAI was 1.65 in Laxemar and 1.97 in Forsmark. Forest inventory data showed that LAI is positively correlated with basal area, stand height, stand volume and breast height tree diameter. For the coniferous stands, there was also a linearly negative relationship with age. In the Laxemar investigation area, there were no significant relationships for LAI with a satellite derived kNN (kNearest Neighbor) data set with stand height, stand volume and stand age. The kNN data set can therefore not be used to extrapolate measured LAI over the Laxemar investigation area. There were significant relationships between LAI and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in the Laxemar investigation area. A NDVI image could be used to extrapolate LAI over the entire investigation area. For the Forsmark investigation area, effective LAI for all stands were correlated to NDVI and this relationship could then be used for extrapolation. The effective LAI image was afterwards corrected for average

  15. DEA environmental assessment in a time horizon: Malmquist index on fuel mix, electricity and CO2 of industrial nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and global warming become a major policy issue in the world. Economic activities produce not only desirable outputs (e.g., electricity) but also undesirable outputs (e.g., CO 2 emission). The important policy issue is how each nation can balance between economic development and environmental protection to attain a sustainable society. In attaining the sustainable society, environmental assessment is increasingly important because it can serve as an initial step toward the green growth of each nation. For the purpose, this study proposes a new use of DEA (Data Environment Analysis) for environmental assessment in a time horizon. The proposed use of DEA incorporates Malmquist index to examine the degree of a frontier shift among multiple periods. The frontier shift indicates a technology progress and/or managerial innovation during an observed period. The index is conceptually separated into six subcomponents, which are further divided into twelve different subcomponents (six subcomponents × two disposability concepts) under the natural and managerial disposability. In the index measurement, it is necessary for us to consider a frontier crossover among different periods because technology innovation usually has a time lag until it really appears. As an empirical application, this study utilizes the proposed approach to identify the relationship among fuel mix, electricity and CO 2 of ten industrial nations. This study finds three important empirical findings. First, there is a time lag in technology innovation on electricity generation and CO 2 emission reduction. Consequently, it is necessary to consider the existence of a frontier crossover in assessing the electric power industry. Second, nuclear generation, as found in France, as well as hydro and renewable energy, as found in Netherlands, are important for the development of a sustainable society although the former is associated with a very high level of risk and the latter has a limited

  16. Polyphenols and Glycemic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoona; Keogh, Jennifer B.; Clifton, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence from animal studies supports the anti-diabetic properties of some dietary polyphenols, suggesting that dietary polyphenols could be one dietary therapy for the prevention and management of Type 2 diabetes. This review aims to address the potential mechanisms of action of dietary polyphenols in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity based on in vitro and in vivo studies, and to provide a comprehensive overview of the anti-diabetic effects of commonly consumed dietary polyphenols including polyphenol-rich mixed diets, tea and coffee, chocolate and cocoa, cinnamon, grape, pomegranate, red wine, berries and olive oil, with a focus on human clinical trials. Dietary polyphenols may inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase, inhibit glucose absorption in the intestine by sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1), stimulate insulin secretion and reduce hepatic glucose output. Polyphenols may also enhance insulin-dependent glucose uptake, activate 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), modify the microbiome and have anti-inflammatory effects. However, human epidemiological and intervention studies have shown inconsistent results. Further intervention studies are essential to clarify the conflicting findings and confirm or refute the anti-diabetic effects of dietary polyphenols. PMID:26742071

  17. [Socioeconomic, demographic, nutritional, and physical activity factors in the glycemic control of adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rosana de Morais Borges; Fornés, Nélida Schmid; Stringhini, Maria Luiza Ferreira

    2011-04-01

    To identify the association of socioeconomic, demographic, nutritional and of physical activity factors in the glycemic control of adolescents with T1DM. Sectional study of 71 adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Socioeconomic, demographic and anthropometric data were obtained. The glycemic control was classified by the index of glycated hemoglobin (A1C). Four 24-hours recalls of food consumption and physical activity were applied. The A1C was inadequate for the majority of the adolescents. The low educational level of the caregivers influenced the inadequate glycemic control. Patients with lower insulin dose presented better glycemic control. The food consumption was high of fat and poor of carbohydrate. Most of the patients were sedentary. Factors related to education, insulin and food consumption influenced the glycemic control.

  18. Combined therapy of mixed dyslipidemia in patients with high cardiovascular risk and changes in the lipid target values and atherogenic index of plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rosolová, H.; Dobiášová, Milada; Soška, V.; Bláha, V.; Češka, R.; Nussbaumerová, B.; Pelikánová, T.; Souček, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2014), e133-e139 ISSN 1803-7712 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mixed dyslipidemia * atherogenic index of plasma (AIP=log[triglycerides/HDL- cholesterol ]) * combined lipid modifying therapy Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  19. Índice glicêmico: uma abordagem crítica acerca de sua utilização na prevenção e no tratamento de fatores de risco cardiovasculares Glycemic index: a critical analysis of its use as a tool to prevent and treat cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Queiroz Carvalho

    2008-10-01

    amount. The glycemic index is an indicator of carbohydrate quality. Its use in free living conditions has been questioned, due to the interference of several factors which are difficult to control under such conditions. The aim of this paper was to critically analyze studies that evaluated the effect of the glycemic index of foods in the manifestation of cardiovascular diseases and its risk factors.

  20. Acculturation and glycemic control of Asian Indian adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Sumathi; Weatherspoon, Lorraine J; Kaplowitz, Stan A; Song, Won O

    2013-02-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is disproportionately high among Asian Indians (AI), one of the fastest growing immigrant groups in the United States (US). Poorly controlled diabetes associated with inadequate self-management increases complications and thus medical costs. Acculturation may be an important determinant of diabetes self-management and hence control. This study examined the association between the degree of acculturation and glycemic control as measured by Hemoglobin A1c in AI adults with type 2 diabetes. A mixed method (quantitative and qualitative) study was conducted among 30 AI adults with type 2 diabetes. Acculturation assessment using the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-identity Instrument was followed by socio-demographic questions, self-reported anthropometric measures, and open ended diabetes self-care questions. A two-step multiple regression analysis and content analysis of verbatim interview transcriptions were conducted. Interactions of acculturation with body mass index (interaction b = 1.11; p = 0.01), annual household income (interaction b = 7.19; p = .01), and diabetes duration (interaction b = .30; p = .02) significantly predicted higher HbA1c levels (R(2) change = .368; F change = 4.21; p = .02). From the qualitative interviews, the following were regarded as US specific facilitators for glycemic control: excellent health care system and facilities, availability of healthy food choices and self-monitoring devices, medical insurance benefits, good quality medications, and improved health awareness. Cultural orientation might be important for patient tailored interventions targeting AI with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, interventions targeted at Asian Indians with diabetes should include culture specific adaptations to nutrition education and support.

  1. Glycemic Status in Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, S; Nanda, R; Mangaraj, M; Rathod, P K; Mishra, P K

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphorus(OP) poisoning, in addition to its cholinergic manifestations shows metabolic derangements leading to hyperglycemia. Apart from inhibiting acetylcholinesterase it also induces oxidative stress to exhibit this manifestation. The present study aims to assess the glycemic status of OP poisoned patients and its association with various factors in OP poisoning like oxidative stress and dose of atropine. This is a prospective study which recruited 102 patients above 18 years of age with history of OP poisoning. They were categorized into 3 grades-mild, moderate and severe based on the Peradeniya Organophosphorus Poisining Scale. The routine biochemical parameters along with serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and cholinesterase were estimated in the study group. Hyperglycemia and glycosuria were observed, with majority cases of hyperglycemia (57%) noticed in the severe group. There was a rise in the random plasma glucose (RPG), serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total dose of atropine across the groups along with a fall in the serum cholinesterase with increase in severity of poisoning. The fall in plasma glucose at the time of discharge was significant in all three groups when compared to the admission random plasma glucose(RPG) level. This transient hyperglycemia exhibited a significant positive association with serum MDA and dose of atropine administered during treatment (p<0.05). Glycemic status in OP poisoning may play a role in identifying the severity of poisoning at the time of admission.

  2. Efeito do índice glicêmico no gasto energético e utilização de substrato energético antes e depois de exercício cicloergométrico Effect of glycemic index on energy expenditure and energy substrate utilization before and after exercise on a stationary bicycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Guedes Cocate

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: No presente artigo, avaliou-se o efeito do consumo, durante cinco dias consecutivos, de refeições diferindo em índice glicêmico no gasto energético, na oxidação de substrato energético e no consumo excessivo de oxigênio após o exercício. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 15 homens bem treinados, com idade de M=24,4, DP=3,70 anos e consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2max de M=70,00, DP=5,32mL (kg.min-1. Após o consumo das refeições, os participantes permaneceram por noventa minutos no calorímetro indireto Deltatrac®, para a avaliação dos parâmetros metabólicos. A seguir, foi realizado um exercício de 85 a 95% da frequência cardíaca máxima, em três estágios de dez minutos. Os parâmetros metabólicos foram novamente avaliados durante os sessenta minutos pós-exercício. RESULTADOS: Os tratamentos aplicados no estudo não afetaram o gasto energético, o consumo excessivo de oxigênio e a oxidação lipídica após o exercício. Entretanto, a taxa de oxidação de gordura foi maior durante os noventa minutos no grupo que consumiu a refeição de alto índice glicêmico antes do exercício, em relação ao da refeição de baixo índice glicêmico. Além disso, a taxa de oxidação lipídica do período pós-prandial foi inferior àquela obtida no período pós-exercício. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que enquanto o consumo de refeições de baixo índice glicêmico pode não exercer efeito benéfico, a realização de exercício físico pode promover maior oxidação lipídica e consequentemente afetar a redução do teor de gordura corporal.OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed, on 5 consecutive days, the effect of consuming meals with different glycemic indices on energy expenditure, energy substrate oxidation and excessive oxygen consumption after exercise. METHODS: A total of 15 well trained men aged M=24.4, SD=3.70 years with a mean body mass index of M=21.97, SD=1.46 kg/m² and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max

  3. Sedentary Patterns, Physical Activity, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Association to Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

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    Luís B. Sardinha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sedentary behavior has been considered an independent risk factor for type-2 diabetes (T2D, with a negative impact on several physiological outcomes, whereas breaks in sedentary time (BST have been proposed as a viable solution to mitigate some of these effects. However, little is known about the independent associations of sedentary pursuits, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF variables with glycemic control. We investigated the independent associations of total sedentary time, BST, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and CRF with glycemic outcomes in patients with T2D.Methods: Total sedentary time, BST, and MVPA were assessed in 66 participants (29 women with T2D, using accelerometry. Glucose and insulin were measured during a mixed meal tolerance test, with the respective calculations of HOMA-IR and Matsuda index. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c was also analyzed. CRF was measured in a maximal treadmill test with breath-by-breath gases analysis. Multiple regressions were used for data analysis.Results: Regardless of CRF, total sedentary time was positively associated with HbA1c (β = 0.25, p = 0.044. Adjusting for MVPA, total sedentary time was related to fasting glucose (β = 0.32, p = 0.037. No associations between total sedentary time and the remaining glycemic outcomes, after adjusting for MVPA. BST had favorable associations with HOMA-IR (β = −0.28, p = 0.047 and fasting glucose (β = −0.25, p = 0.046, when adjusted for MVPA, and with HOMA-IR (β = −0.25, p = 0.036, Matsuda index (β = 0.26, p = 0.036, and fasting glucose (β = −0.22, p = 0.038, following adjustment for CRF. When adjusting for total sedentary time, only CRF yielded favorable associations with HOMA-IR (β = −0.29, p = 0.039, fasting glucose (β = −0.32, p = 0.012, and glucose at 120-min (β = −0.26, p = 0.035, and no associations were found for MVPA with none of the metabolic outcomes.Conclusion: The results from this

  4. Identifying older diabetic patients at risk of poor glycemic control

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    Mazzei Bruno

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimal glycemic control prevents the onset of diabetes complications. Identifying diabetic patients at risk of poor glycemic control could help promoting dedicated interventions. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of poor short-term and long-term glycemic control in older diabetic in-patients. Methods A total of 1354 older diabetic in-patients consecutively enrolled in a multicenter study formed the training population (retrospective arm; 264 patients consecutively admitted to a ward of general medicine formed the testing population (prospective arm. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c was measured on admission and one year after the discharge in the testing population. Independent correlates of a discharge glycemia ≥ 140 mg/dl in the training population were assessed by logistic regression analysis and a clinical prediction rule was developed. The ability of the prediction rule and that of admission HbA1c to predict discharge glycemia ≥ 140 mg/dl and HbA1c > 7% one year after discharge was assessed in the testing population. Results Selected admission variables (diastolic arterial pressure 218 mg/dl, history of insulinic or combined hypoglycemic therapy, Charlson's index > 2 were combined to obtain a score predicting a discharge fasting glycemia ≥ 140 mg/dl in the training population. A modified score was obtained by adding 1 if admission HbA1c exceeded 7.8%. The modified score was the best predictor of both discharge glycemia ≥ 140 mg/dl (sensitivity = 79%, specificity = 63% and 1 year HbA1c > 7% (sensitivity = 72%, specificity = 71% in the testing population. Conclusion A simple clinical prediction rule might help identify older diabetic in-patients at risk of both short and long term poor glycemic control.

  5. Exploration of Low-Glycemic-Impact Sugars and Polyols, using SRC, DSC, and RVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anti-plasticizing action of the high sucrose concentration in a cookie formula inhibits both gluten development during dough mixing and starch gelatinization/pasting during baking. If alternative sugars and polyols with lower glycemic impact are used to replace sucrose, the resulting absence of ...

  6. Body Mass Index Effect on Differing Responses to Psychological Stress in Blood Glucose Dynamics in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaslan, Basak; Patek, Stephen D; Grabman, Jesse H; Shepard, Jaclyn A; Dassau, Eyal; Breton, Marc D; Kudva, Yogish C; Brown, Sue A; Basu, Ananda; Pinsker, Jordan E; Doyle, Francis J; Gonder-Frederick, Linda

    2018-02-01

    The objective was to investigate the relationship of body mass index (BMI) to differing glycemic responses to psychological stress in patients with type 1 diabetes. Continuous blood glucose monitor (CGM) data were collected for 1 week from a total of 37 patients with BMI ranging from 21.5-39.4 kg/m 2 (mean = 28.2 ± 4.9). Patients reported daily stress levels (5-point Likert-type scale, 0 = none, 4 = extreme), physical activity, carbohydrate intake, insulin boluses and basal rates. Daily reported carbohydrates, total insulin bolus, and average blood glucose (BG from CGM) were compared among patients based on their BMI levels on days with different stress levels. In addition, daily averages of a model-based "effectiveness index" (quantifying the combined impact of insulin and carbohydrate on glucose levels) were defined and compared across stress levels to capture meal and insulin independent glycemic changes. Analyses showed that patient BMI likely moderated stress related glycemic changes. Linear mixed effect model results were significant for the stress-BMI interaction on both behavioral and behavior-independent glycemic changes. Across participants, under stress, an increase was observed in daily carbohydrate intake and effectiveness index at higher BMI. There was no significant interactive effect on daily insulin or average BG. Findings suggest that (1) stress has both behavioral and nonbehavioral glycemic effects on T1D patients and (2) the direction and magnitude of these effects are potentially influenced by level of stress and patient BMI. Possibly responsible for these observed effects are T1D/BMI related alterations in endocrine response.

  7. Exercise and 24-h Glycemic Control: Equal Effects for All Type 2 Diabetes Patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J.W.; Manders, R.J.F.; Canfora, E.E.; van Mechelen, W.; Hartgens, F.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; van Loon, L.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We assessed the effect of a single bout of moderate-intensity exercise on subsequent 24-h glycemic control in 60 type 2 diabetes patients. Moreover, we examined whether individual responses to exercise were related to subjects' baseline characteristics, including age, body mass index,

  8. Reply #1 to: Glycemic Choreoballism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cosentino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This Author Reply Letter was written in response to a Letter to the Editor:Lee D, Ahn T. Glycemic choreoballism. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov. 2016; 6. doi: 10.7916/D8QJ7HNFThe Letter to the Editor, above, was written in response to these two Case Reports:Roy U, Das SK, Mukherjee A, et al. Irreversible hemichoreahemiballism in a case of nonketotic hyperglycemia presenting as the initial manifestation of diabetes mellitus. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov. 2016; 6. doi: 10.7916/D8QZ2B3FCosentino C, Torres L, Nuñez Y, et al. Hemichorea/hemiballism associated with hyperglycemia: report of twenty cases. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov. 2016; 6. doi: 10.7916/D8DN454P

  9. Determinants of Long-Term Durable Glycemic Control in New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Kyoung Jin Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLong-term durable glycemic control is a difficult goal in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. We evaluated the factors associated with durable glycemic control in a real clinical setting.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 194 new-onset, drug-naïve patients with T2DM who were diagnosed between January 2011 and March 2013, and were followed up for >2 years. Glycemic durability was defined as the maintenance of optimal glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] <7.0% for 2 years without substitution or adding other glucose-lowering agents. Clinical factors and glycemic markers associated with glycemic durability were compared between two groups: a durability group and a non-durability group.ResultsPatients in the durability group had a higher baseline body mass index (26.1 kg/m2 vs. 24.9 kg/m2 and lower HbA1c (8.6% vs. 9.7% than the non-durability group. The initial choice of glucose-lowering agents was similar in both groups, except for insulin and sulfonylureas, which were more frequently prescribed in the non-durability group. In multiple logistic regression analyses, higher levels of education, physical activity, and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β were associated with glycemic durability. Notably, lower HbA1c (<7.0% at baseline and first follow-up were significantly associated with glycemic durability (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 7.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.51 to 22.3 (adjusted OR, 9.27; 95% CI, 1.62 to 53.1, respectively, after adjusting for confounding variables including the types of glucose-lowering agents.ConclusionEarly achievement of HbA1c level within the glycemic target was a determinant of long-term glycemic durability in new-onset T2DM, as were higher levels of education, physical activity, and HOMA-β.

  10. Glycemic profile and prebiotic potential "in vitro" of bread with yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius flour

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    Priscilla Moura Rolim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to elaborate bread with yacon flour at two different levels (6% and 11% and to analyze their proximate composition, their glycemic indices and their prebiotic potentials in vitro. Bread with 6% and 11% of yacon flour presented, simultaneously, low and moderate glycemic index. As for the prebiotic potentials, it was evident the presence of probiotic bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus. The results showed that, the addition of yacon flour on bread rendered products from low to moderate GI, with prebiotic potential, low fat and high fiber contents, according to the Brazilian food legislation.

  11. Should glycemic index and glycemic load be considered in dietary recommendations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Nielsen, Birgit M.; Grau, K.

    2008-01-01

    emphasizes the need to investigate the effects of carbohydrate on diet-related conditions and diseases. This review examines the epidemiological literature linking GI and GL to heart disease, insulin sensitivity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity among initially healthy people. The evidence...

  12. Determinants of glycemic control among persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Niger Delta

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    Chukwuani Ufuoma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rising burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM with its attendant′s complication can be successively steamed in the face of appropriate self-care management. The latter is positively imparted by the level of knowledge of the disease itself, its impact on quality of life and available basic technique of its control. Aims: The study is, therefore, aimed to assess the level of glycemic control and its determinants among type 2 subjects attending a secondary hospital in Niger Delta. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred consenting adult type 2 diabetes patients of age more than 40 years and attended diabetes outpatient clinics at the Central Hospital Warri between March and August 2014 were used for this cross-sectional study. Two different questionnaires were administered to all the participants to collect the necessary information on diabetes knowledge as well as factors that might affect their glycemic control. Blood samples were collected for fasting blood glucose (FBG and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c for all the respondents. Weight and height were also measured to the nearest 0.5 kilogram and centimeter using standardized equipment. Body mass index was then calculated as the ratio of weight in kilogram and height in meters square (kg/m 2 . Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for Social Science Version 16 was used to compute the data generated. Results: The mean age and diabetic duration of all participants were 54.8 ± 11.9 years and 8.5 ± 3.2 years, respectively. The overall mean knowledge score of the subjects was 6.90 ± 1.8 (69.0 ± 18.2% The mean FBG level and HbA1c of respondents were 7.89 ± 3.6 mmol/L (range 4-20 mmol/L and 8.2%, respectively, with 55% of the population having poor glycemic control and 45% good glycemic control. The diabetic knowledge scoring of those with poor glycemic control was significantly lower than those with good glycemic control. In addition, diabetics′ with poor glycemic control

  13. A blended- rather than whole-lentil meal with or without α-galactosidase mildly increases healthy adults' appetite but not their glycemic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguah, Katherene O-B; Wonnell, Brittany S; Campbell, Wayne W; McCabe, George P; McCrory, Megan A

    2014-12-01

    Disrupting the physical structure of pulses by blending them or by using a digestive supplement (α-galactosidase) to reduce intestinal discomfort could potentially negate the previously observed beneficial effects of whole pulses of lowering appetitive and glycemic responses because of more rapid digestion. We hypothesized that blended lentils, α-galactosidase, or both increase postprandial appetite and blood glucose responses vs. whole lentils. Men and women [n = 12; means ± SDs body mass index (kg/m(2)): 23.3 ± 3.1; aged 28 ± 10 y] consumed breakfast meals containing whole (W), blended (B), or no lentils [control (C)], each with 3 α-galactosidase or placebo capsules in a randomized, crossover, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Between each test day there was a 3- to 5-d washout period. Mixed-model ANOVA showed effects of meal on postprandial appetite and glucose (P = 0.0001-0.031). The B meal resulted in higher postprandial appetite ratings than did the W meal but not the C meal for hunger, desire to eat, and prospective consumption (Δ = 0.4-0.5 points; P = 0.002-0.044). Postprandial glucose concentration was 4.5 mg/dL lower for the B meal than for the C meal (P meal. There were no main effects of α-galactosidase, but there were meal × α-galactosidase interaction effects, with a greater postprandial desire to eat and lower postprandial fullness with the B meal than with the 2 other meals in the placebo condition but not in the α-galactosidase condition. Blending lentils increased appetite (∼6%), but not glycemic response, compared with whole lentils, whereas α-galactosidase did not. Both B and W meals may be consumed (with or without an α-galactosidase supplement) with little impact on appetite, without increasing glycemic response. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02110511. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Understanding the effects of bulk mixing on the determination of the affinity index: consequences for process operation and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaldos, Marina; Rehman, Usman; Naessens, Wouter; Amerlinck, Youri; Nopens, Ingmar

    2018-02-01

    The main objective of this study is to demonstrate the importance of mixing conditions as a source of inconsistencies between half-saturation indices in comparable systems (e.g. conventional activated sludge, membrane bioreactor) when operated at different conditions or different scales. As proof-of-principle, an exemplary system consisting of the second vessel of a hybrid respirometer has been studied. The system has been modeled both using an integrated computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-biokinetic model (assumed to represent the physical system) and a tanks-in-series, completely stirred tank reactor biokinetic model (representing the applied model). The results show that different mixing conditions cause deviations in the half-saturation indices calculated when matching the applied model to the physical system performance. Additionally, sensor location has been shown to impact the calculation of half-saturation indices in the respirometric system. This will only become more pronounced at larger scales. Thus, mixing conditions clearly affect operation and design of wastewater treatment reactors operated at low substrate concentrations. Both operation and design can be improved with the development and application of integrated CFD-biokinetic or compartmental models.

  15. [Glycemic variability and continuous monitoring of glycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prázný, Martin; Soupal, Jan

    2014-09-01

    Blood glucose levels are not constant in ther human body even in physiological status. It fluctuates depending on food intake, exercise, psychological and other factors. Normally it fluctuates between 3.9 to 7.5 mmol/l and in fasting in the standard conditions it does not exceed even more narrow range 3.9 to 5.5 mmol/l. Fluctuations are more pronounced in patient with diabetes. Hyperglycemia is a common and basic pathology in diabetes, however, antidiabetic drug often cause hypoglycemia, both increasing the range for glucose fluctuations. The level of glucose fluctuation is called glycemic variability (GV). Glycemic variability is now a favorite target of scientific research in dia-betology. Increased glycemic variability is associated with hypoglycemia, possibly may contribute to chronic dia-betes complications and negatively influences quality of life of diabetic patients. Last but not least, thanks to the new technology of continuous glucose monitoring, we can better describe and measure it. Finally, glycemic variability emerges as a potentially important therapeutical target.Key words: continuous glucose monitoring - glycemic variability - insulin pump - sensor augmented pump.

  16. The influence of carbohydrate consumption on glycemic control in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Akueson, Cecelia E; Ronneby, Helle; Rytter, Ane; Andersen, Jens R; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2017-05-01

    To study the influence of the quantity and the quality of carbohydrate consumption on glycemic control in early pregnancy among women with type 1 diabetes. A retrospective study of 107 women with type 1 diabetes who completed 1-3days of diet recording before first antenatal visit, as a part of routine care. The total daily carbohydrate consumption from the major sources (e.g. bread, potatoes, rice, pasta, dairy products, fruits, candy) was calculated. A dietician estimated the overall glycemic index score (scale 0-7). At least two days of diet recording were available in 75% of the 107 women at mean 64 (SD±14) gestational days. The quantity of carbohydrate consumption from major sources was 180 (±51)g/day. HbA1c was positively associated with the quantity of carbohydrate consumption (β=0.41; 95% CI 0.13-0.70, P=0.005), corresponding to an increase of 0.4% in HbA1c per 100g carbohydrates consumed daily, when adjusted for insulin dose/bodyweight and use of insulin pump treatment. The median (IQR) glycemic index score was 2 (0-3). An adjusted association between HbA1c and glycemic index score was not demonstrated. The women using carbohydrate counting daily (45%) had lower HbA1c compared to the remaining women (6.4 (±0.5) vs. 6.8 (±0.9)% (47±6 vs. 51±10mmol/mol), P=0.01). HbA1c in early pregnancy was positively associated with the quantity of carbohydrate consumption regardless of insulin treatment. Carbohydrate counting is probably important for glycemic control in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of glycemic control on diabetic dyslipidemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.; Arshad, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether good glycemic control has an effect on lipid profile in diabetics After taking relevant history and physical examination, serum urea, creatinine, thyroid stimulating hormone, bilirubin, alanine transaminase and HbA1c were measured. Blood samples for determination of fasting plasma glucose, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL levels were collected in a fasting state. Patients were divided into two groups based on HbA1c levels. They were compared using SPSS 13. 42 patients had good glycemic control and 58 had poor control. The two groups were age and weight matched. 43 patients had abnormal lipid profiles. Serum total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower and HDL levels higher in the good control group but serum LDL levels were equal. Conclusion: Good glycemic control improves lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (author)

  18. Food insecurity is related to glycemic control deterioration in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawadi, Hiba Ahmad; Ammari, Fawaz; Abu-Jamous, Dima; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Bataineh, Safa'a; Tayyem, Reema Fayez

    2012-04-01

    Poor glycemic control has been shown to play a major role in the development and progression of diabetes complications. This cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that food insecurity may deteriorate glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of food insecurity among type 2 diabetics in a major hospital that serves the area of northern Jordan, and to investigate its relation to glycemic control. A sample of 843 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes participated in the study. Socioeconomic and health data were collected by interview-based questionnaire. Weight and height were measured by a trained nutritionist. Dietary assessment was done using food frequency questionnaire. Dietary data were processed using food processor software. Food insecurity was assessed by the short form of the U.S. food security survey module. Glycemic control was assessed by measuring glycosyated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Statistical procedures used to analyze the data were chi-square, and post-hoc analysis of variance. About 22% of the tested sample were food secure (FS); 51% were moderately food insecure (MFIS); and 27% were severely food insecure (SFIS). Higher BMI was associated with SFIS patients. After adjusting for age, gender, income, education, and duration of diabetes, body mass index, and caloric consumption; moderate and severe food insecurity were associated with poor glycemic control (p = 0.04). food insecurity may be associated with glycemic control deterioration in patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Pistacia lentiscus Fatty Oil Effects on Glycemic Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pistacia lentiscus fatty oil (PLFO) is a well known natural remedy in eastern Algeria folk medicine. It is widely used in the treatment of respiratory disorders and dermal burns. The present study has been carried out to investigate effects of this oil on fasting glucose and some functional parameters of the liver and kidney in ...

  20. Association between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and body mass index in the Inter99 study: is underreporting a problem?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, C.; Toft, U.; Tetens, Inge

    2006-01-01

    , and BMI by focusing on the confounding factor of total energy intake and the effect of exclusion of low energy reporters (LERs). Design: This was a cross-sectional study of 6334 subjects aged 30 - 60 y. Dietary intake was estimated from a food-frequency questionnaire. GI and GL were estimated by using...... white bread as the reference food. Underreporting of energy intake was assessed as reported energy intake divided by basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR); LERs were defined as those having an EI/BMR

  1. Relationship between aerodynamic roughness length and bulk sedge leaf area index in a mixed-species boreal mire complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseychik, P. K.; Korrensalo, A.; Mammarella, I.; Vesala, T.; Tuittila, E.-S.

    2017-06-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter in natural ecosystems, representing the seasonal development of vegetation and photosynthetic potential. However, direct measurement techniques require labor-intensive field campaigns that are usually limited in time, while remote sensing approaches often do not yield reliable estimates. Here we propose that the bulk LAI of sedges (LAIs) can be estimated alternatively from a micrometeorological parameter, the aerodynamic roughness length for momentum (z0). z0 can be readily calculated from high-response turbulence and other meteorological data, typically measured continuously and routinely available at ecosystem research sites. The regressions of LAI versus z0 were obtained using the data from two Finnish natural sites representative of boreal fen and bog ecosystems. LAIs was found to be well correlated with z0 and sedge canopy height. Superior method performance was demonstrated in the fen ecosystem where the sedges make a bigger contribution to overall surface roughness than in bogs.

  2. Exploration of Functionality of Low-Glycemic-Impact Sugars and Polyols using DSC, RVA, SRC, and Cookie Baking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumers’ growing interest in healthy cookies includes expectations for prebiotic nutritional benefits and low glycemic impact. The anti-plasticizing action of the high sucrose concentration in a cookie formula inhibits gluten development during dough mixing and starch gelatinization/pasting durin...

  3. Dietary glycemic load, insulin load, and weight loss in obese, insulin resistant adolescents: RESIST study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslowski, Gesa; Halim, Jocelyn; Goletzke, Janina; Gow, Megan; Ho, Mandy; Louie, Jimmy C-Y; Buyken, Anette E; Cowell, Chris T; Garnett, Sarah P

    2015-02-01

    The optimal dietary approach for weight loss and improving insulin sensitivity in adolescents is unknown. This study aimed to explore the association between the estimated insulin demand of the diet, as measured by glycemic and insulin load, weight loss, percentage body fat and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) in obese adolescents with clinical features of insulin resistance and/or prediabetes after a 3 month lifestyle and metformin intervention. Secondary data analysis of 91 adolescents (median age 12.7 years (range 10.1-17.4) participating in a randomized controlled trial, known as RESIST; ACTRN12608000416392. Weight change between baseline and 3 months was measured by BMI expressed as percentage of the 95th centile (BMI %95). Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and ISI was determined by an oral glucose tolerance test. Higher dietary glycemic load and insulin load were associated with less weight loss (BMI %95), adjusted for sex and pubertal stage, β = 0.0466, P = 0.007 and β = 0.0124, P = 0.040, respectively. Inclusion of total energy intake in the model explained observed associations between dietary glycemic load and insulin load and change in BMI %95. Neither dietary glycemic load nor insulin load were associated with changes in percentage body fat or ISI. Dietary glycemic index and macronutrient content (% of total energy) were not associated to changes in BMI %95, percentage body fat or ISI. Reduced energy diet contributes to weight loss in obese, insulin resistant adolescents. Diets with a lower insulin demand were associated with a lower energy intake and may hence assist with weight loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Cr-enriched yeast: beyond fibers for the management of postprandial glycemic response to bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanni, Amalia E; Stamataki, Nikoleta; Stoupaki, Maria; Konstantopoulos, Panagiotis; Pateras, Irene; Tentolouris, Nikolaos; Perrea, Despoina; T Karathanos, Vaios

    2017-06-01

    Efforts regarding the amelioration of postprandial glycemic response to bread are mainly focused in the addition of soluble dietary fibers. The current study presents another approach which is based on the supplementation of flour with Cr-enriched yeast. Cr is known for its beneficial effects on improvement of glucose tolerance and enhancement of insulin sensitivity. Twelve normoglycemic subjects were provided with white bread (WB, reference food) or whole wheat bread with Cr-enriched yeast (WWCrB, rich in insoluble fibers) or white wheat bread with Cr-enriched yeast (WCrB, poor in fibers) or whole wheat-rye-barley bread enriched with oat beta glucans (BGB, rich in soluble fibers) with 1-week intervals in amounts that yielded 50 g of available carbohydrates. Postprandial glucose, insulin and ghrelin responses as well as glycemic index (GI) were evaluated. Ingestion of WWCrB, WCrB and BGB elicited lower incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for 120-min glycemic response compared to WB (1033.02 ± 282.32, 701.69 ± 330.86 and 748.95 ± 185.42 vs 2070.87 ± 518.44 mg/dL min, respectively, P bread without the necessity of high fiber amounts, providing with another strategy for the management of glycemic control.

  5. Glycemic, insulinemic, and appetite responses of patients with type 2 diabetes to commonly consumed breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Cathy; Ryan, Miriam; Gibney, Michael J; Corrigan, Michelle; O'Shea, Donal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the breads most commonly consumed by adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and then examine the postprandial glycemic, insulinemic, and appetite responses that these breads elicit. One hundred people with T2DM were surveyed to identify the varieties of bread they most frequently consumed. According to a randomized crossover design, 11 fasting participants with T2DM consumed 50 g of available carbohydrate from 4 breads. Glucose and insulin concentrations and appetite ratings were determined over 270 minutes. Three commonly consumed varieties (white, whole wheat buttermilk, whole grain) identified in the survey-plus a lower-glycemic-index "control" bread (pumpernickel rye)-were tested in the second phase. Despite perceived differences between "brown" and "white" breads, the white, whole wheat buttermilk, and wholegrain breads promoted similar glycemic and insulinemic responses. Pumpernickel bread resulted in a significantly lower peak glucose (P breads and a lower peak insulin (P bread. Similar appetite responses were found with all 4 breads. Adults with T2DM are choosing a variety of breads with perceived differential effects on glycemic, insulinemic, and appetite responses. Appreciable benefits, however, are not conferred by the commonly consumed breads. If breads known to promote favorable metabolic responses are unavailable, the primary emphasis in education should be placed on portion control. Conveying this information to patients is crucial if nutrition education is to achieve its aim of empowering individuals to manage their diabetes through their food choices.

  6. Effect of Algerian Varieties Dates on Glycemic, Arterial Blood Pressure and Satiety Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Gourchala Freha, Mihoub Fatma, Derradj Meriem, Henchiri Cherifa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to determine the Glycemic Indexes (GIs)of three Algerians varieties of dates in healthy subjects, evaluate the satiety and effect on arterial pressure after their consumption. We have first documented the chemical composition of the dates. 10 healthy subjects consumed the dates (carbohydrates content of 50 g) in order to determine the GIs. The responses of glycaemia were monitored during two hours after the dates taking and compared to the reference glucose. In a r...

  7. Predictors of glycemic control among patients with Type 2 diabetes: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philis-Tsimikas Athena

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death and results in significant morbidity. The purpose of this study is to determine what demographic, health status, treatment, access/quality of care, and behavioral factors are associated with poor glycemic control in a Type 2 diabetic, low-income, minority, San Diego population. Methods Longitudinal observational data was collected on patients with Type 2 diabetes from Project Dulce, a program in San Diego County designed to care for an underserved diabetic population. The study sample included 573 patients with a racial/ethnic mix of 53% Hispanic, 7% black, 18% Asian, 20% white, and 2% other. We utilized mixed effects models to determine the factors associated with poor glycemic control using hemoglobin A1C (A1C as the outcome of interest. A multi-step model building process was used resulting in a final parsimonious model with main effects and interaction terms. Results Patients had a mean age of 55 years, 69% were female, the mean duration of diabetes was 7.1 years, 31% were treated with insulin, and 57% were obese. American Diabetes Association (ADA recommendations for blood pressure and total cholesterol were met by 71% and 68%, respectively. Results of the mixed effects model showed that patients who were uninsured, had diabetes for a longer period of time, used insulin or multiple oral agents, or had high cholesterol had higher A1C values over time indicating poorer glycemic control. The younger subjects also had poorer control. Conclusion This study provides factors that predict glycemic control in a specific low-income, multiethnic, Type 2 diabetic population. With this information, subgroups with high risk of disease morbidity were identified. Barriers that prevent these patients from meeting their goals must be explored to improve health outcomes.

  8. Glycemic control and periodontal disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: A cross-sectional study

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    Vaibhav Tandon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic, noncommunicable disease with concomitant oral manifestations that impact on dental care. Aim: To determine the correlation between glycemic control and periodontitis among 35-45 years aged patients with DM type 2 (DM2. Materials and Methods: A convenient sample of 40 subjects aged 35-45 years with DM2 on oral medication were recruited for the study. Glycosylated, hemoglobin(HbA1c, probing pocket depth (PPD, gingival index (GI, plaque index (PI, and the relevant drug history were recorded. The data were analyzed using unpaired student t-test to compare the means of PPD, GI, PI between different HbA1c levels, gender, and duration of drug, and the Pearson correlation was used to find correlation between HbA1c and PPD, GI, PI, duration of drug. Results: With the increase in HbA1c values there was a significant rise in PPD, PI scores, and GI scores (P < 0.001. Diabetic males had a higher PPD, PI, and GI score as compared to females. With the increase in duration of the drug, there was an increase in PPD, which was found to be statistically nonsignificant. Conclusion: Patients are having poor glycemic level had more severe periodontitis as compared to patients having a fair glycemic level.

  9. Predictors of poor glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients attending public hospitals in Dar es Salaam

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    Kamuhabwa AR

    2014-10-01

    , which was associated with poor glycemic control. The proportion of poor glycemic control increased with age. A significantly high proportion of poor glycemic control was observed in patients who had had the disease for more than 20 years since diagnosis. Factors associated with poor glycemic control included lack of health insurance, using more than one oral hypoglycemic agent, normal body mass index, obesity, and nonadherence to diabetic medications.Conclusion: Patients in this study had generally poor glycemic control. From these findings it is recommended that diabetic patients should be routinely screened for lipid profile to determine levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins, which are risk factors for cardiovascular events. An education program should be developed to educate patients on the importance of medication adherence and weight management for better glycemic control.Keywords: type 2 diabetes, lipid profile, self-management behaviors

  10. Equivalent glycemic load (EGL: a method for quantifying the glycemic responses elicited by low carbohydrate foods

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    Spolar Matt

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycemic load (GL is used to quantify the glycemic impact of high-carbohydrate (CHO foods, but cannot be used for low-CHO foods. Therefore, we evaluated the accuracy of equivalent-glycemic-load (EGL, a measure of the glycemic impact of low-CHO foods defined as the amount of CHO from white-bread (WB with the same glycemic impact as one serving of food. Methods Several randomized, cross-over trials were performed by a contract research organization using overnight-fasted healthy subjects drawn from a pool of 63 recruited from the general population by newspaper advertisement. Incremental blood-glucose response area-under-the-curve (AUC elicited by 0, 5, 10, 20, 35 and 50 g CHO portions of WB (WB-CHO and 3, 5, 10 and 20 g glucose were measured. EGL values of the different doses of glucose and WB and 4 low-CHO foods were determined as: EGL = (F-B/M, where F is AUC after food and B is y-intercept and M slope of the regression of AUC on grams WB-CHO. The dose-response curves of WB and glucose were used to derive an equation to estimate GL from EGL, and the resulting values compared to GL calculated from the glucose dose-response curve. The accuracy of EGL was assessed by comparing the GL (estimated from EGL values of the 4 doses of oral-glucose with the amounts actually consumed. Results Over 0–50 g WB-CHO (n = 10, the dose-response curve was non-linear, but over the range 0–20 g the curve was indistinguishable from linear, with AUC after 0, 5, 10 and 20 g WB-CHO, 10 ± 1, 28 ± 2, 58 ± 5 and 100 ± 6 mmol × min/L, differing significantly from each other (n = 48. The difference between GL values estimated from EGL and those calculated from the dose-response curve was 0 g (95% confidence-interval, ± 0.5 g. The difference between the GL values of the 4 doses of glucose estimated from EGL, and the amounts of glucose actually consumed was 0.2 g (95% confidence-interval, ± 1 g. Conclusion EGL, a measure of the glycemic impact of

  11. Glycemic Response to Black Beans and Chickpeas as Part of a Rice Meal: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Donna M; Hutchins, Andrea M; Thompson, Sharon V

    2017-10-04

    Legumes, such as black beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and chickpeas ( Cicer arietinum L.), have a low glycemic index, and may reduce the glycemic load of meals in which they are included. Although the low glycemic response of beans consumed alone has been documented, few studies have examined the glycemic response to traditional food combinations such as black beans and rice or chickpeas and rice. This randomized cross-over study examined the glycemic and insulinemic impact of 50 grams of available carbohydrate from three test meals: plain white rice (control), black beans with rice, and chickpeas with rice among healthy adult women ( n = 12, 18-65 years). Treatments were consumed on different mornings, a minimum of 7 days apart. Blood samples were collected at time 0 (fasting), and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min postprandial, and were subsequently analyzed for glucose and insulin concentrations. Glucose response based on the incremental area under the curve showed a significant difference by treatment ( p = 0.027). Changes in blood glucose concentrations were significantly different for the black bean meal and the chickpea meal in comparison to rice alone at 60 min ( p = 0.026 and p = 0.024), 90 min ( p = 0.001 and p = 0.012) and 120 min post prandial ( p = 0.024; black bean meal). Findings indicate that combinations of black beans and chickpeas with white rice improve glycemic response, providing evidence that has promising implications for dietary guidance to reduce postprandial glucose and related health risks through traditional food patterns.

  12. Glycemic Response to Black Beans and Chickpeas as Part of a Rice Meal: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Winham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Legumes, such as black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L., have a low glycemic index, and may reduce the glycemic load of meals in which they are included. Although the low glycemic response of beans consumed alone has been documented, few studies have examined the glycemic response to traditional food combinations such as black beans and rice or chickpeas and rice. This randomized cross-over study examined the glycemic and insulinemic impact of 50 grams of available carbohydrate from three test meals: plain white rice (control, black beans with rice, and chickpeas with rice among healthy adult women (n = 12, 18–65 years. Treatments were consumed on different mornings, a minimum of 7 days apart. Blood samples were collected at time 0 (fasting, and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min postprandial, and were subsequently analyzed for glucose and insulin concentrations. Glucose response based on the incremental area under the curve showed a significant difference by treatment (p = 0.027. Changes in blood glucose concentrations were significantly different for the black bean meal and the chickpea meal in comparison to rice alone at 60 min (p = 0.026 and p = 0.024, 90 min (p = 0.001 and p = 0.012 and 120 min post prandial (p = 0.024; black bean meal. Findings indicate that combinations of black beans and chickpeas with white rice improve glycemic response, providing evidence that has promising implications for dietary guidance to reduce postprandial glucose and related health risks through traditional food patterns.

  13. Glycemic allostasis during mental activities on fasting in non alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glycemic allostasis is the process by which blood glucose stabilization is achieved through the balancing of glucose consumption rate and release into the blood stream under a variety of stressors.This paper reviews findings on the dynamics of glycemic levels during mental activities on fasting in non‑alcohol users and ...

  14. Effect of Added Carbohydrates on Glycemic and Insulin Responses to Children’s Milk Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Brand-Miller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Powdered milk products for children (Growing Up Milk Powders or GUMPs containing added carbohydrates such as glucose and sucrose are now well established in parts of Asia. We surveyed GUMPs in Malaysia and Indonesia to determine the content of added carbohydrates. The ingredient lists and nutrition information panels were used to calculate the percentage of declared carbohydrates contributed by added carbohydrates and a subset of seven products was tested for their glycemic index (GI and insulin responses in healthy adults. The glycemic load for each product was calculated. In total, 58 products (n = 24 in Malaysia and n = 34 in Indonesia were surveyed. Added carbohydrate content (excluding fibre ranged from 0 to 21.5 g per serve. Milk powders without added sources of carbohydrate had similar GI values to standard liquid whole milk. Products containing maltodextrins, corn or glucose syrups increased the GI by more than 2-fold, and glycemic load (GL by 7-fold compared to milk powders with no added carbohydrates. Insulin responses were significantly but not strongly correlated with glucose responses (r = 0.32, p < 0.006. Children’s milk powders containing higher levels of added carbohydrate ingredients elicit higher glucose and insulin responses than liquid or powdered whole milk.

  15. Polyphenol content and glycemic load of pasta enriched with Faba bean flour

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    Imma Turco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Legumes contain elevated levels of health functional components. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the nutritional properties and the post-prandial glycaemic responses of pasta obtained using 35% Vicia Faba (VF bean flour, which is an important source of fiber and phytochemical compounds. Results: Protein and fiber content were higher in VF pasta compared with durum wheat semolina (DWS pasta. The total phenol content in VF pasta was about two fold higher compared to that of DWS pasta. A higher total flavonoid content, higher antioxidant activity against peroxyl radicals evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assay was also observed in VF pasta. The comparison of post-prandial increase of glucose after VF intake or DWS demonstrated significant differences and VF pasta exhibited a lower glycemic index value, a lower glycemic load and higher glycemic profile compared with DWS pasta. Conclusion: The results suggest that enrichment with 35% Vicia faba bean has potential health benefits and that VF flour can be used as an ingredient to prepare added-value products.

  16. [Glycemic response to consumption of a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar on healthy individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Rosaura; Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar and assess its impact on the glycemic response of healthy individuals, in order to contribute to the healthy food supply beneficial to consumers. A mixture of cereals (corn and oats) and different percentages (20 and 30%) of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to formulate the bar. Additionally, a legume cereal bar without legumes (bar control) was prepared. The bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris was selected through sensory evaluation, being scored with better flavor and texture. This combination of cereals and legumes aminoacid improves complementation and reaches the formulation criteria previously established. Chemical characterization indicated a higher protein content in the bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris (13.55%) relative to the bar control (8.5%). The contents of fat, ash and dietary fiber did not differ between the two bars evaluated. However, the soluble fiber and resistant starch of the selected bar was a 32.05% and 18.67%, respectively, than in the control bar; this may contribute to decreasing the rate of glucose uptake. The selected bar presented a low glycemic index (49) and intermediate glycemic load (12.0) in healthy volunteers, which could lead to a possible reduction in the rate of absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, associated with a carbohydrate content of slow absorption. This bar represents a proposal of a healthy snack for the consumer.

  17. Leukocyte peroxidase and leptin: an associated link of glycemic tolerance and bronchial asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parco S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sergio ParcoImmunopathology Unit, Laboratory of the Department of Medicine, Children’s Hospital, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, ItalyAbstract: Recent observations suggest the presence of an interaction between leptin and the inflammatory system during bronchial asthma. Although there is evidence of a positive association between asthma and obesity in adults and children, little is yet known about the role of serum leptin, as a potential mediator for bronchial epithelial homeostasis, and intraleukocyte myeloperoxidase (MPO, a hemoprotein with a molecular weight of 140 kDa, expression of the inflammatory system, in asthmatic children. Glycemic tolerance is an important pathogenetic element in developing type 2 mellitus diabetes and a confirmed predictor of incident asthma-like symptoms in adults. This work is aimed at assessing a possible correlation between basal leukocyte myeloperoxidase levels, basal leptin and insulin-glycemic tolerance in obese children. Thirty obese children aged between 7 and 15 years were examined. The analyzed data showed a normal response to the insulinemic stimulus in children of both sexes whose basal leptin and MPO values, expressed as MPO intracellular index, werewithin the normal range.Keywords: leptin, myeloperoxidase, glycemic tolerance, asthma

  18. Association Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and the Determinants of Glycemic Control Across the Entire Glucose Tolerance Continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas P. J.; Malin, Steven K.; Karstoft, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) is associated with glycemic control, yet the relationship between VO2max and the underlying determinants of glycemic control is less clear. Our aim was to determine whether VO2max is associated with insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion...... underwent measurements of body composition, HbA1c, fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT), and VO2max. OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity (SiOGTT), glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSISOGTT), and the disposition index (DIOGTT) (the product of SiOGTT and GSISOGTT) were measured, and associations...... between VO2max and these determinants of glycemic control were examined. RESULTS: A low VO2max was associated with high HbA1c (r = -0.33), high fasting glucose (r = -0.34), high 2-h OGTT glucose (r = -0.33), low SiOGTT (r = 0.73), and high early-phase (r = -0.34) and late-phase (r = -0.36) GSISOGTT...

  19. A Blended- Rather Than Whole-Lentil Meal with or without α-Galactosidase Mildly Increases Healthy Adults’ Appetite but Not Their Glycemic Response123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguah, Katherene O-B; Wonnell, Brittany S; Campbell, Wayne W; McCabe, George P; McCrory, Megan A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Disrupting the physical structure of pulses by blending them or by using a digestive supplement (α-galactosidase) to reduce intestinal discomfort could potentially negate the previously observed beneficial effects of whole pulses of lowering appetitive and glycemic responses because of more rapid digestion. Objective: We hypothesized that blended lentils, α-galactosidase, or both increase postprandial appetite and blood glucose responses vs. whole lentils. Methods: Men and women [n = 12; means ± SDs body mass index (kg/m2): 23.3 ± 3.1; aged 28 ± 10 y] consumed breakfast meals containing whole (W), blended (B), or no lentils [control (C)], each with 3 α-galactosidase or placebo capsules in a randomized, crossover, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Between each test day there was a 3- to 5-d washout period. Results: Mixed-model ANOVA showed effects of meal on postprandial appetite and glucose (P = 0.0001–0.031). The B meal resulted in higher postprandial appetite ratings than did the W meal but not the C meal for hunger, desire to eat, and prospective consumption (Δ = 0.4–0.5 points; P = 0.002–0.044). Postprandial glucose concentration was 4.5 mg/dL lower for the B meal than for the C meal (P meal. There were no main effects of α-galactosidase, but there were meal × α-galactosidase interaction effects, with a greater postprandial desire to eat and lower postprandial fullness with the B meal than with the 2 other meals in the placebo condition but not in the α-galactosidase condition. Conclusions: Blending lentils increased appetite (∼6%), but not glycemic response, compared with whole lentils, whereas α-galactosidase did not. Both B and W meals may be consumed (with or without an α-galactosidase supplement) with little impact on appetite, without increasing glycemic response. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02110511. PMID:25411033

  20. Association among individual deprivation, glycemic control, and diabetes complications: the EPICES score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihan, Hélène; Laurent, Silvana; Sass, Catherine; Nguyen, Gérard; Huot, Caroline; Moulin, Jean Jacques; Guegen, René; Le Toumelin, Philippe; Le Clésiau, Hervé; La Rosa, Emilio; Reach, Gérard; Cohen, Régis

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have related poor glycemic control and/or some diabetes complications to low socioeconomic status. Some aspects of socioeconomic status have not been assessed in these studies. In the present study, we used an individual index of deprivation, the Evaluation de la Précarité et des Inégalités de santé dans les Centres d'Examens de Santé (Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centers [EPICES]) score, to determine the relationship among glycemic control, diabetes complications, and individual conditions of deprivation. We conducted a cross-sectional prevalence study in 135 consecutive diabetic patients (age 59.41 +/- 13.2 years [mean +/- SD]) admitted in the hospitalization unit of a French endocrine department. Individual deprivation was assessed by the EPICES score, calculated from 11 socioeconomic questions. Glycemic control, lipid levels, blood pressure, retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy were assessed. HbA(1c) level was significantly correlated with the EPICES score (r = 0.366, P < 0.001). The more deprived patients were more likely than the less deprived patients to have poor glycemic control (beta = 1.984 [SE 0.477], P < 0.001), neuropathy (odds ratio 2.39 [95% CI 1.05-5.43], P = 0.037), retinopathy (3.66 [1.39-9.64], P = 0.009), and being less often admitted for 1-day hospitalization (0.32 [0.14-0.74], P = 0.008). No significant relationship was observed with either nephropathy or cardiovascular risk factors. Deprivation status is associated with poor metabolic control and more frequent microvascular complications, i.e., retinopathy and neuropathy. The medical and economic burden of deprived patients is high.

  1. Glycated Albumin versus Glycated Hemoglobin as a Glycemic Indicator in Diabetic Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Kobayashi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Compared with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, glycated albumin (GA is superior in estimating glycemic control in diabetic patients on hemodialysis (HD. However, the better index for assessment of glycemic control in diabetic patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD and the impact of protein loss on GA are unknown. Twenty diabetic patients on HD were matched by age, sex, and baseline postprandial plasma glucose (PG levels to 20 PD patients. PG, HbA1c, GA, and serum albumin levels were measured for six months. Protein loss in PD patients was estimated by measuring the protein concentration in the peritoneal dialysate and by 24 h urine collection. Although PG and HbA1c did not differ significantly between the groups, the PD group had significantly lower GA (17.8% versus 20.8%, p < 0.001 and GA/HbA1c ratio (2.95% versus 3.45%, p < 0.0001 than the HD group. Although the PG level correlated significantly with the GA levels in both groups, it was not correlated with the HbA1c levels in both groups. HbA1c level was negatively associated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA dose in both groups, whereas GA was not significantly associated with serum albumin, hemoglobin concentration, ESA dose, and protein loss. Multiple regression analysis identified GA as the only independent factor associated with PG in PD patients. Our results suggested that GA was not significantly associated with protein loss, hemoglobin, serum albumin, and ESA dose. Although GA might underestimate glycemic status, it provided a significantly better measure for estimating glycemic control than HbA1c, even in PD patients.

  2. [Association between smoking/smoking cessation and glycemic control in male patients with type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J; Qin, Y; Shen, C; Gao, Y; Pan, E C; Pan, X Q; Tao, R; Zhang, Y Q; Wu, M

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To explore the association of smoking and smoking cessation with glycemic control in male patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: From December 2013 to January 2014, a total of 7 763 male patients with type 2 diabetes, who received national basic public health service in Changshu county of Suzhou city, Huai'an and Qinghe districts of Huai'an city, Jiangsu province, were recruited by cluster sampling. Questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were measured. Multiple linear regression model was used to evaluate the association of smoking and smoking cessation with glycemic control. Results: The prevalence of current smoking was 45.5% in male patients with type 2 diabetes. The levels of FPG and HbA1c increased with number of cigarettes smoked per day compared with non-smokers ( P smoking duration ≥30 years and smoking index ≥40 pack-years were 0.27% (95 %CI : 0.05%-0.49%) and 0.38% (95 %CI : 0.23%-0.53%), respectively. FPG and HbA1c level decreased obviously with smoking cessation years among former smokers ( P smoking duration, smoking cessation years and levels of FPG and HbA1c. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking was negatively related with glycemic control in male type 2 diabetes patients, especially in patients with drug treatment. Smoking cessation may be beneficial for glycemic control. Smoking cessation should be encouraged for diabetes patients as early as possible.

  3. The effect of a low glycemic load diet on acne vulgaris and the fatty acid composition of skin surface triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robyn N; Braue, Anna; Varigos, George A; Mann, Neil J

    2008-04-01

    Dietary factors have long been implicated in acne pathogenesis. It has recently been hypothesized that low glycemic load diets may influence sebum production based on the beneficial endocrine effects of these diets. To determine the effect of a low glycemic load diet on acne and the fatty acid composition of skin surface triglycerides. Thirty-one male acne patients (aged 15-25 years) completed sebum sampling tests as part of a larger 12-week, parallel design dietary intervention trial. The experimental treatment was a low glycemic load diet, comprised of 25% energy from protein and 45% from low glycemic index carbohydrates. In contrast, the control situation emphasized carbohydrate-dense foods without reference to the glycemic index. Acne lesion counts were assessed during monthly visits. At baseline and 12-weeks, the follicular sebum outflow and composition of skin surface triglycerides were assessed using lipid absorbent tapes. At 12 weeks, subjects on the experimental diet demonstrated increases in the ratio of saturated to monounsaturated fatty acids of skin surface triglycerides when compared to controls [5.3+/-2.0% (mean+/-S.E.M.) vs. -2.7+/-1.7%, P=0.007]. The increase in the saturated/monounsaturated ratio correlated with acne lesion counts(r=-0.39, P=0.03). Increased follicular sebum outflow was also associated with an increase in the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids in sebum (r=0.49, P=0.006). This suggests a possible role of desaturase enzymes in sebaceous lipogenesis and the clinical manifestation of acne. However, further work is needed to clarify the underlying role of diet in sebum gland physiology.

  4. Quality of life and glycemic profile of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients of Indonesian: a descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, R.; Lelo, A.; Lindarto, D.; Mutiara, E.

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes type 2 is increasing globally. Quality of life (QOL) in diabetic patients is the primary goal of care. Today, there is an increasing awareness suggesting that patient’sQOLand treatment satisfaction were improved after good glycemic control. This study aimed to demonstrate the quality of life and the glycemic profiles of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients. This study was a descriptive study of across-sectional design. A sample of 115 out-patients attending eight public health centers in Binjai City, Indonesia. Patient’s quality of life was assessedin four domains of role limitation due to physical health, psychosocial, social and environment in a four Likert point. Two glycemic profiles which are blood sugar level and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured by Spectrophotometer Colorimeter + Full Automatic method and affinity Doronad + Modified HPLC technique, respectively. In the results, we confirmed that almost 80.0% of diabetes mellitus type 2 patients are in good QOL(score 81-100) in three QOL dimensions; Physical health, Social relationship and Environment health but not in Psychological health dimension. The blood sugar level and HbA1clevel are beyond the normal value, 267.5±103.2mg/dLand9.9±2.3%,respectively. The better controlled glycemic index, the better patient’s QOL.

  5. Shared Responsibility for Type 1 Diabetes Care Is Associated With Glycemic Variability and Risk of Glycemic Excursions in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Arwen M; Noser, Amy E; Clements, Mark A; Patton, Susana R

    2018-01-01

    We examined how parent and youth responsibility for type 1 diabetes (T1D) care is related to adherence and glycemic outcomes, namely, glycemic variability and risk of glycemic excursions. One hundred thirty-five parent-youth dyads (10-16 years old; diagnosed with T1D for at least 6 months) participated in this study. Percent responsibility of T1D care attributed to the youth, parent, or shared was measured using the Diabetes Family Responsibility Questionnaire. We collected youth's hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and glucometer downloads to examine relationships between responsibility and HbA1c, frequency of blood glucose monitoring (self-monitoring blood glucose, SMBG), risk of glycemic excursions, and actual glycemic variability using bivariate correlations and path analysis. Participants reported shared responsibility for almost half of T1D self-care tasks. Bivariate correlations showed shared responsibility was associated with less variability, whereas parent responsibility was associated with greater glycemic variability and risk for glycemic excursions. Youth responsibility was associated with lower frequency of SMBG. The path analyses confirmed our correlational findings (pshypothesis that shared T1D responsibility is associated with better diabetes outcomes in youth. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Efficacy and safety of biphasic insulin aspart and biphasic insulin lispro mix in patients with type 2 diabetes: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D represents an escalating burden worldwide, particularly in China and India. Compared with Caucasians, Asian people with diabetes have lower body mass index, increased visceral adiposity, and postprandial glucose (PPG/insulin resistance. Since postprandial hyperglycemia contributes significantly to total glycemic burden and is associated with heightened cardiovascular risk, targeting PPG early in T2D is paramount. Premixed insulin regimens are widely used in Asia due to their convenience and effectiveness. Data from randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing efficacy and safety of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30 with biphasic insulin lispro mix (LM 25/50 and versus other insulin therapies or oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs in T2D demonstrated that BIAsp 30 and LM 25/50 were associated with similar or greater improvements in glycemic control versus comparator regimens, such as basal–bolus insulin, in insulin-naÏve, and prior insulin users. Studies directly comparing BIAsp 30 and LM 25 provided conflicting glycemic control results. Safety data generally showed increased hypoglycemia and weight gain with premixed insulins versus basal–bolus insulin or OADs. However, large observational trials documented improvements in glycated hemoglobin, PPG, and hypoglycemia with BIAsp 30 in multi-ethnic patient populations. In summary, this literature review demonstrates that premixed insulin regimens are an appropriate and effective treatment choice in T2D.

  7. Short-term poor glycemic control and retinal microvascular changes in pediatric Type 1 Diabetes patients in Singapore: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Jun; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Wong, Tien Yin; Lek, Ngee

    2017-06-15

    Poor glycemic control in Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) patients is strongly associated with an increased risk of diabetes-related microvascular complications later in life, but it is unclear whether short period of poor glycemic control in children with T1D can cause evident microvascular morphological changes long before any pathological manifestation. Our study aimed to investigate the longitudinal association between poor glycemic control and subsequent changes in retinal microvasculature, in a pilot study of 55 pediatric T1D patients from Singapore after a one-year follow-up. This is a hospital-based, exposure-matched and retrospective longitudinal study. A total of 55 T1D patients were included from Singapore KK Women's and Children Hospital, 28 of whom had poor glycemic control (average glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] ≥8% during the year) while the other 27 age- and gender-matched subjects had good glycemic control (HbA1c Singapore I Vessel Assessment [SIVA], version 4.0, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore) and a spectrum of retinal vascular parameters (e.g. caliber, tortuosity, branching angle and fractal dimension) were measured quantitatively from 0.5 to 2.0 disc diameters. There was no significant difference in ethnicity, duration of T1D, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) and low-density cholesterol lipoprotein (LDL) between the two groups. Retinal imaging was obtained at the end of 1 year of glycemic control assessment. In multiple linear regression adjusting for ethnicity, BMI, LDL and duration of T1D, patients with poor glycemic control tended to have marginally wider retinal arteriolar caliber (6.0 μm, 95% CI: -0.9, 12.8) and had significantly larger retinal arteriolar branching angle (10.1 degrees, 95% CI: 1.4, 18.9) compared with their age- and gender- matched counterparts with good glycemic control. Our findings showed that abnormal retinal microvascular morphology was evident in pediatric patients with T1D after one-year's poor glycemic

  8. Fathers' involvement in preadolescents' diabetes adherence and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Marisa E; Rohan, Jennifer M; Carle, Adam C; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan; Drotar, Dennis

    2011-09-01

    To examine the relationship of paternal involvement in diabetes care with adherence and glycemic control. One hundred and thirty-six mothers and fathers of preadolescents (aged 9-12 years) with type 1 diabetes reported on paternal involvement. Adherence was measured by interview and blood glucose meter downloads. Mothers' and fathers' ratings of paternal involvement in diabetes care were compared. We evaluated three structural equation models linking paternal involvement with adherence and glycemic control. Mothers and fathers reported similar amounts of paternal involvement, yet mothers rated paternal involvement as more helpful. The data supported a model indicating links between more paternal involvement and higher HbA1c and between lower adherence and higher HbA1c. Mediation and moderation models were not supported. Although paternal involvement was not directly associated with treatment adherence, it was associated with poorer glycemic control. Some fathers may increase their involvement in response to suboptimal glycemic outcomes.

  9. Incidence of sleep apnea in patients with various types of glycemic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Dreval'

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To assess the risk for sleep apnea in patients with various types of glycemic disorders by means of Epworth Sleepiness Scale andSleep Apnea Screening Questionnaire.Materials and Methods. We examined 744 residents of Mozhaisk Region, that were considered to have high risk for development of type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, as estimated by FINDRISK Questionnaire. Patients, who scored 12+ were cleared for participation in this study. Combined score from Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Sleep Apnea Screening Questionnaire was applied for diagnosis of sleep apnea, supplemented with specific questions about snoring and episodes of apnea. Glycemic disorders were diagnosed with standard glucose tolerance test.Results. 42.7% of examined patients (n=318 were diagnosed with various types of glucose disorders. Prevalence of abdominal obe- sity (according to waist circumference measurement comprised 59.3% in male patients and 54.1% in females. We observed positive correlation between body mass index (BMI and snoring – 0.3 (p=0.0001, BMI and apnea – 0.2 (p=0.0001, BMI and daytime sleepiness – 0.1 (p=0.007; we also observed direct correlation between age and snoring – 0.2 (p=0.0001, as well as age and sleep apnea – 0.1 (p=0.028. Risk for sleep apnea was found to be 4.7 times higher in patients with arterial hypertension. After adjustment71Диагностика, контроль и лечениеСахарный диабет. 2013;(1:71–77Сахар ный диабетfor age risk of apnea remained 2.8 times higher in patients with T2DM, 1.9 times higher in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and1.6 times higher in subjects with impaired fasting glycaemia. Relative risk for snoring in patients with various types of glycemic disorders was 1.1-1.2 against normoglycemic controls. We estimated that all types of glycemic disorders increase risk for apnea 1.2–1.6 times. Conclusion. Glycemic disorders, body weight excess, obesity and arterial

  10. Iron zircon pigment synthesis: Proposal of a mixing index for the raw materials mixtures; Síntesis del pigmento de hierro-circón: Propuesta de un índice de mezclado para mezclas de materias primas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumaquero, E.; Ortsb, M.J.; Sanz, V.; Mestre, S.

    2017-11-01

    Iron zircon coral pigments are very interesting from an industrial point of view because of their high colouring power and their stability at high temperatures. However, the pigment's synthesis is particularly troublesome due to its specific reaction mechanism. As an encapsulated pigment it becomes very important how the raw materials are distributed in the reaction mixture. To evaluate the effectiveness of the mixing process, it would be convenient to define a parameter, that is the mixing index, to estimate the degree of homogeneity of the system. In the current investigation, a mixing index is proposed derived from the power spectrum of Fourier transform of scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the raw material mixture. Concretely, the number of pixels in a certain range of values in the image of the power spectrum, seems to behave relatively well as mixing index. This index allows us to distinguish between samples with different zirconia and iron oxide used as precursors. The proposed mixing index seems to be related to the colouring power of the final pigment when the synthesis generates enough zircon to encapsulate hematite particles. [Spanish] Los pigmentos coral de hierro-circón son muy interesantes desde el punto de vista industrial ya que n un alto poder colorante y estabilidad a altas temperaturas. Sin embargo, la síntesis del pigmento es particularmente problemática debido a su mecanismo de reacción. Al tratarse de un pigmento encapsulado, resulta fundamental cómo se encuentran distribuidas las materias primas en la mezcla de reacción. Para evaluar la efectividad del proceso de mezclado, es conveniente definir un parámetro, que es el índice de mezclado, para estimar el grado de homogeneidad del sistema. En el presente trabajo de investigación se propone un índice de mezclado basado en el espectro de potencia de la transformada de Fourier de imágenes obtenidas con el microscopio electrónico de barrido de las mezclas de materias

  11. Nutritional status, glycemic control and its associated risk factors among a sample of type 2 diabetic individuals, a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Firouzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in Malaysia, with most patients poorly controlled. Hence, this study aimed to determine nutritional and metabolic status as well as blood pressure of Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and identify associated risk factors for poor glycemic control. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited and completed a questionnaire covering socio-demographic status, 3-day diet records, and physical activity. Anthropometry and glycemic control parameters, lipid profile and blood pressure were also measured. Results: Subjects were on average 56.7±9.9 years old with a mean duration of diabetes of 6.5 ± 5.0 years. The mean hemoglobin A1c of the subjects was 7.6% ± 1.4%, with only 20.2% achieving the target goal of <6.5% with no significant differences between genders. The mean body mass index was 26.9 ± 4.7 kg/m 2 , with 86.5% either were overweight or obese. Only 10.6% of the subjects exercised daily. The proportions of macronutrients relative to total energy intake were consistent with the recommendations of most diabetes associations. The adjusted odds of having poor glycemic control were 3.235 (1.043-10.397 (P < 0.05 higher among those who had high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels below the normal range. Those taking one or two types of oral anti-diabetic drugs had 19.9 (2.959-87.391 (P < 0.01 and 14.3 (2.647-77.500 (P < 0.01 higher odds of poor glycemic control respectively compared to those who were being treated by diet alone. Conclusion: Poor glycemic control was prevalent among Malaysian diabetic patients, and this could be associated with low levels of HDL and being treated with oral anti-diabetes agents.

  12. Convergence of obesity and high glycemic diet on compounding diabetes and cardiovascular risks in modernizing China: An emerging public health dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Vasanti S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As China is undergoing dramatic development, it is also experiencing major societal changes, including an emerging obesity epidemic, with the prevalence of overweight and obesity doubling in the past decade. However, the implications of a high glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL traditional Chinese diet are adversely changing in modern times, as a high-glycemic diet is becoming a greater contributor to diabetes and cardiovascular risks in a population with rising obesity and decreasing physical activity. Specifically, a high GI diet adversely impacts metabolism and appetite control regulation, and notably confers substantially greater risk of weight gain, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers among overweight and obese individuals (P

  13. Mixing of solids in different mixing devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results obtained by those three devices, the particle size effect and cohesion indexes, bring us to the conclusion that static mixers could be used for mixing of powders, but their shape, number of mixing elements and the mixer length should be adapted for each mixture separately, experimentally and mathematically, ...

  14. Effect of a Mediterranean Diet Intervention on Dietary Glycemic Load and Dietary Glycemic Index: The PREDIMED Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Rodríguez-Rejón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the one year effect of two dietary interventions with MeDiet on GL and GI in the PREDIMED trial. Methods. Participants were older subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease. This analysis included 2866 nondiabetic subjects. Diet was assessed with a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The GI of each FFQ item was assigned by a 5-step methodology using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Generalized linear models were fitted to assess the relationship between the intervention group and dietary GL and GI at one year of follow-up, using control group as reference. Results. Multivariate-adjusted models showed an inverse association between GL and MeDiet + extra virgin olive oil (EVOO group: β = −8.52 (95% CI: −10.83 to −6.20 and MeDiet + Nuts group: β = −10.34 (95% CI: −12.69 to −8.00, when comparing with control group. Regarding GI, β = −0.93 (95% CI: −1.38 to −0.49 for MeDiet + EVOO, β = −1.06 (95% CI: −1.51 to −0.62 for MeDiet + Nuts when comparing with control group. Conclusion. Dietary intervention with MeDiet supplemented with EVOO or nuts lowers dietary GL and GI.

  15. Effect of a Mediterranean Diet Intervention on Dietary Glycemic Load and Dietary Glycemic Index: The PREDIMED Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rejón, Ana Isabel; Ruano-Rodríguez, Cristina; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Toledo, Estefanía; Estruch, Ramón; Covas, María Isabel; Corella, Dolores; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Lapetra, José; Pintó, Xavier; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María; Ruiz-Gutierrez, Valentina; Schröder, Helmut; Ros, Emilio; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare the one year effect of two dietary interventions with MeDiet on GL and GI in the PREDIMED trial. Methods. Participants were older subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease. This analysis included 2866 nondiabetic subjects. Diet was assessed with a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The GI of each FFQ item was assigned by a 5-step methodology using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Generalized linear models were fitted to assess the relationship between the intervention group and dietary GL and GI at one year of follow-up, using control group as reference. Results. Multivariate-adjusted models showed an inverse association between GL and MeDiet + extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) group: β = −8.52 (95% CI: −10.83 to −6.20) and MeDiet + Nuts group: β = −10.34 (95% CI: −12.69 to −8.00), when comparing with control group. Regarding GI, β = −0.93 (95% CI: −1.38 to −0.49) for MeDiet + EVOO, β = −1.06 (95% CI: −1.51 to −0.62) for MeDiet + Nuts when comparing with control group. Conclusion. Dietary intervention with MeDiet supplemented with EVOO or nuts lowers dietary GL and GI. PMID:25295183

  16. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction in saudi women with Type 2 diabetes: Is it affected by age, glycemic control or obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMogbel, Turki A; Amin, Hussein S; AlSaad, Saad M; AlMigbal, Turky H

    2017-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction (SD), as a diabetes mellitus (DM)-related complication, is common among patients having diabetes. This study aimed to ascertain the prevalence of SD in Saudi women with type 2 DM and to determine whether age, glycemic control, and obesity are associated with SD or not. A total of 275 Saudi women with type 2 diabetes took part in this cross-sectional study and filled out the Female Sexual Function Index through a fill-coded questionnaire in primary care clinics in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, in the period between January 2013 and May 2013. The level of glycosylated hemoglobin and the body mass index were assessed to evaluate the DM control status and obesity among the patients. SD was reported by 88.7% of the Saudi women with type 2 diabetes. The results showed a significant association between the presence of SD and the increase in age of patients at 92% in the age group above 50 years. Glycemic control did not show a significant association with SD. The obesity factor showed a slight increase in SD by weight, but it was not statistically significant. The prevalence of SD among the Saudi women having type 2 diabetes is high and increases with age. No association was found between SD and glycemic control.

  17. Relationship between Processing Method and the Glycemic Indices of Ten Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perceval S. Bahado-Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of different traditional cooking methods on glycemic index (GI and glycemic response of ten Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cultivars commonly eaten in Jamaica. Matured tubers were cooked by roasting, baking, frying, or boiling then immediately consumed by the ten nondiabetic test subjects (5 males and 5 females; mean age of 27 ± 2 years. The GI varied between 41 ± 5–93 ± 5 for the tubers studied. Samples prepared by boiling had the lowest GI (41 ± 5–50 ± 3, while those processed by baking (82 ± 3–94 ± 3 and roasting (79 ± 4–93 ± 2 had the highest GI values. The study indicates that the glycemic index of Jamaican sweet potatoes varies significantly with the method of preparation and to a lesser extent on intravarietal differences. Consumption of boiled sweet potatoes could minimize postprandial blood glucose spikes and therefore, may prove to be more efficacious in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  18. Relationship between Processing Method and the Glycemic Indices of Ten Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahado-Singh, Perceval S.; Riley, Cliff K.; Wheatley, Andrew O.; Lowe, Henry I. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of different traditional cooking methods on glycemic index (GI) and glycemic response of ten Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars commonly eaten in Jamaica. Matured tubers were cooked by roasting, baking, frying, or boiling then immediately consumed by the ten nondiabetic test subjects (5 males and 5 females; mean age of 27 ± 2 years). The GI varied between 41 ± 5–93 ± 5 for the tubers studied. Samples prepared by boiling had the lowest GI (41 ± 5–50 ± 3), while those processed by baking (82 ± 3–94 ± 3) and roasting (79 ± 4–93 ± 2) had the highest GI values. The study indicates that the glycemic index of Jamaican sweet potatoes varies significantly with the method of preparation and to a lesser extent on intravarietal differences. Consumption of boiled sweet potatoes could minimize postprandial blood glucose spikes and therefore, may prove to be more efficacious in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22132322

  19. Distinct lipid profiles predict improved glycemic control in obese, nondiabetic patients after a low-caloric diet intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsesia, Armand; Saris, Wim Hm; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An aim of weight loss is to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in obese subjects. However, the relation with long-term glycemic improvement remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the changes in lipid composition during weight loss and their association with long-term glycemic...... improvement. DESIGN: We investigated the plasma lipidome of 383 obese, nondiabetic patients within a randomized, controlled dietary intervention in 8 European countries at baseline, after an 8-wk low-caloric diet (LCD) (800-1000 kcal/d), and after 6 mo of weight maintenance. RESULTS: After weight loss...... and glucose concentrations). Significant differences between the 2 groups were shown in leptin gene expression in adipose tissue biopsies. Significant differences were also observed in weight-related endpoints (body mass index, weight, and fat mass). The lipid signature allowed prediction of which subjects...

  20. Sleep in Adolescents and Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes: Associations with Diabetes Management and Glycemic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaser, Sarah S; Ellis, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    To describe sleep in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes and explore the association between sleep disturbances, diabetes management and glycemic control. Adolescents with type 1 diabetes (n = 159, mean age = 16.4, 43% female, 69% white, mean A1C = 9.3%) completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to assess sleep quantity and quality and sleep disturbances. Frequency of blood glucose monitoring (meter downloads) was used as a measure of diabetes management. Average sleep duration was 7.4 hours, below the recommended duration for this age. Adolescents using insulin pumps reported fewer sleep disturbances and longer sleep duration than those on injections, and older adolescents reported less sleep than younger adolescents. Poorer sleep duration was related to poorer diabetes management and better self-reported sleep quality was associated with better glycemic control for males but not for females. Assessing for and treating sleep disturbances in adolescents may improve diabetes management.

  1. Glycemic control in diabetes in three Danish counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Lone G M; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Heickendorff, Lene; Møller, Holger Jon; Hendel, Jørn; Christensen, Cramer; Schmitz, Anita; Reinholdt, Birgitte; Lund, Erik D; Christensen, Niels J; Hansen, Erik Kjaersgaard; Hastrup, Jens; Skjødt, Hanne; Eriksen, Ebbe Wendel; Brandslund, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a proxy measure for glycemic control in diabetes. We investigated the trend for glycemic control in patients from three Danish counties using HbA1c measurements. We studied 2454 patients from a population of 807,000 inhabitants for whom routine monitoring of diabetes using HbA1c-DCCT aligned was initiated in 2001. We estimated the incidence of monitored patients in the population. The progress in patients with originally diabetic HbA1c levels was investigated by cumulative probability plots, and the individual trend in clinical outcome was investigated by a modified difference plot. The age-standardized incidence of monitored patients was or=6.62% HbA1c) showed on average 15% improved glycemic control in the first year. Further improvement was limited. The overall percentage above the treatment target (>or=6.62% HbA1c) was 51% in 2003 compared to 59% in 2001, and the percentage with poor glycemic control (>or=10.0% HbA1c) was reduced from 19% to 4%. Of patients with originally diabetic HbA1c levels, 15% showed progress in glycemic control, and 28% reached treatment targets. In patients with originally normal HbA1c, 75% showed an upward trend in HbA1c levels, which reached diabetic concentrations in 17%. Patients with diabetic first HbA1c concentrations (>or=6.62% HbA1c) showed on average 15% improved glycemic control in the first year. Further improvement was limited. In individual patients, 75% with originally diabetic HbA1c levels showed improved glycemic control after 3 years, while 78% with originally normal concentrations showed an upward trend in HbA1c levels.

  2. Association of lipocalin-2 level, glycemic status and obesity in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhidir, Areej E; Eltaher, Halima B; Mohamed, Abdelrahim O

    2017-07-14

    Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus aims to maintain a normal glycemic status, which if not, it may lead to acute and/or chronic diabetic complications. Earlier studies found Lipocalin-2 elevated in complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus such as ischemic heart disease. These lipocalin-2 changes had been linked to obesity and uncontrolled diabetes. So, it could be useful to understand the effect of glycemic control and obesity on lipocalin-2. This was a case control study. Fifty-seven patients with type 2 diabetes and 30 non-diabetic controls participated after getting a written consent. Weight (kg), height (m) and waist circumference (cm) were measured then the body mass index (kg/m 2 ) was determined. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fasting. HbA1c, lipid profile and serum creatinine were measured using enzymatic methods. Lipocalin-2 was measured using sandwich ELISA. Lipocalin-2 was found significantly higher in patients with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.001). However, it had no significant correlation with any of the studied variables. Females had elevated BMI compared to males in the patients group (P diabetes (P diabetics, obese and non-obese. There was a significant elevation in waist circumference in uncontrolled diabetics compared to controlled ones. Lipocalin-2 had no significant changes between controlled and uncontrolled diabetics nor non-obese and obese patients. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have elevated level of serum lipocalin-2. There was no significant association found between lipocalin-2 and glycemic control nor obesity.

  3. Frozen desserts and glycemic response in well-controlled NIDDM patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukar, J; Mezitis, N H; Saitas, V; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1990-04-01

    Fructose is known to elicit a lower glycemic response than sucrose, and high-fructose desserts have been recommended for a diabetic diet. We compared a cholesterol-free tofu-based frozen dessert (TFD) containing high-fructose corn syrups with a dairy-based sucrose-sweetened ice cream (IC). Six male and six female non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients (mean age 51 yr, mean ideal body weight 143%, fasting blood glucose less than 160 mg/dl) with well-controlled diabetes and managed on oral hypoglycemic agents were studied. Subjects underwent three trials. In the first trial they ingested 50 g glucose, and in the next two trials they ingested 50-g carbohydrate equivalents of either TFD or IC in random sequence. Venous blood was drawn at intervals during the 3-h trials for glucose and insulin determinations. Fasting plasma glucose was not statistically different between IC and TFD trials (130 vs. 121 mg/dl). Peak glucose responses were at 120 min in both trials (190 mg/dl for IC and 222 mg/dl for TFD), with those for TFD being significantly higher (P less than 0.01). Mean glucose area and glycemic index for TFD were significantly greater than for IC (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.03, respectively). There was no significant difference between mean insulin areas. In summary, the TFD, which contains soybean curd and high-fructose corn syrup, might have been expected to produce more satisfactory postprandial blood glucose levels than IC, which contains sucrose, yet a higher glycemic response was elicited. This is related to the substantial amount of total glucose in this "fructose" dessert.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Chromium supplements for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: limited evidence of effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Johanna T.; Bailey, Regan L.

    2016-01-01

    Some adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) believe that chromium-containing supplements will help control their disease, but the evidence is mixed. This narrative review examines the efficacy of chromium supplements for improving glycemic control as measured by decreases in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Using systematic search criteria, 20 randomized controlled trials of chromium supplementation in T2DM patients were identified. Clinically meaningful treatment goals were defined as an FPG of ≤7.2 mmol/dL, a decline in HbA1c to ≤7%, or a decrease of ≥0.5% in HbA1c. In only a few randomized controlled trials did FPG (5 of 20), HbA1c (3 of 14), or both (1 of 14) reach the treatment goals with chromium supplementation. HbA1c declined by ≥0.5% in 5 of 14 studies. On the basis of the low strength of existing evidence, chromium supplements have limited effectiveness, and there is little rationale to recommend their use for glycemic control in patients with existing T2DM. Future meta-analyses should include only high-quality studies with similar forms of chromium and comparable inclusion/exclusion criteria to provide scientifically sound recommendations for clinicians. PMID:27261273

  5. Glycemic control, compliance, and satisfaction for diabetic gravidas in centering group care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Laura I; Jelin, Angie C; Iqbal, Sara N; Belna, Sarah L; Fries, Melissa H; Patel, Misbah; Desale, Sameer; Ramsey, Patrick S

    2017-05-01

    To determine if diabetic gravidas enrolled in Centering® group care have improved glycemic control compared to those attending standard prenatal care. To compare compliance and patient satisfaction between the groups. We conducted a prospective cohort study of diabetics enrolled in centering group care from October 2013 to December 2015. Glycemic control, compliance and patient satisfaction (five-point Likert scale) were evaluated. Student's t-test, Chi-Square and mixed effects model were used to compare outcomes. We compared 20 patients in centering to 28 standard prenatal care controls. Mean fasting blood sugar was lower with centering group care (91.0 versus 105.5 mg/dL, p =0.017). There was no difference in change in fasting blood sugar over time between the two groups (p = 0.458). The percentage of time patients brought their blood glucose logs did not differ between the centering group and standard prenatal care (70.7 versus 73.9%, p = 0.973). Women in centering group care had better patient satisfaction scores for "ability to be seen by a physician" (5 versus 4, p = 0.041) and "time in waiting room" (5 versus 4, p =0.001). Fasting blood sugar was lower for patients in centering group care. Change in blood sugar over time did not differ between groups. Diabetic gravidas enrolled in centering group care report improved patient satisfaction.

  6. Relationship Among Mothers' Glycemic Level, Periodontitis, and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Filho, Isaac S; Pereira, Eliesita C; Cruz, Simone S; Adan, Luis Fernando F; Vianna, Maria Isabel P; Passos-Soares, Johelle S; Trindade, Soraya C; Oliveira, Ernesto P; Oliveira, Michelle T; Cerqueira, Eneida de M M; Pereira, Antonio Luis; Barreto, Maurício L; Seymour, Gregory John

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the influence of glycemic level on the relationship between periodontitis and low birth weight (LBW). A case-control study was conducted with 372 females divided into cases (109 mothers of newborns with birth weight periodontal status. Results were analyzed using logistic regression. The likelihood of having children with LBW among the mothers with periodontitis was six times greater than that observed among mothers without periodontitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR adjusted] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.47 to 15.17), even after adjustment. There was also a strong, statistically significant relationship between periodontitis and LBW in both the normal glycemic-level group (HbA1c levels Periodontitis and glycemic levels appeared to have opposing influences on birth weight, with periodontitis being associated with LBW and the magnitude of the association being altered depending on maternal blood glucose level.

  7. The Role of Glycemic Control and Variability in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatziralli, Irini P

    2018-02-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) and is considered the leading cause of visual impairment in working-aged adults worldwide. The duration of DM and hyperglycemia have been associated with DR, although the exact role in the pathogenesis of DR and diabetic macular edema remains controversial. As a result, a reasonable question arising is whether control of blood glucose levels may alter the course of DR. Studies have shown that glycemic control remains an important factor for the presence and progression of DR. HbA1c seems to be an indicator which cannot demonstrate exactly the degree of glycemic control, while sudden variations of blood glucose may play an important role in DR; therefore, glycemic variability may be useful to predict DM complications, such as DR.

  8. Perioperative glycemic control in diabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ehab A. Wahby; Mohamed M. Abo Elnasr; Michael I. Eissa; Sahbaa M. Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: The concept of perioperative glycemic control in cardiac surgery patients was conducted in many studies, however, it remains unclear how tight the glycemic control should be. Our aim is to study the effect of perioperative tight glycemic control versus moderate glycemic control on the outcome of diabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods: This study is a randomized prospective study conducted on 135 diabetic patients planned for CABG surge...

  9. Correlation between glycemic excursion by CGMS and diabetic retinopathy among Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Li; Ji Ning; Zhu Wei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate correlation between glycemic excursion by CGMS and diabetic retinopathy among type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Used continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) to monitoring glycemic excursion within a day of twenty four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and inspect fundus photography, correlation was analyzed. Results: Glycemic excursion might reveal the risk for diabetic retinopathy better than HbA1c does. Conclusion: Diabetic retinopathy may correlate with glycemic excursion. (authors)

  10. Site index comparisons among hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    Site index is one of the more easily measured indicators of the productive capacity of an area for a given species. In mixed stands, the site index of one species can be used to predict the site index of another. Site index also illustrates growth differences among species.

  11. Psychological distress, self-efficacy and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indelicato, L; Dauriz, M; Santi, L; Bonora, F; Negri, C; Cacciatori, V; Targher, G; Trento, M; Bonora, E

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the association of glycemic control with depression, anxiety, self-efficacy and other diabetes-specific psychological measures in a cohort of adult patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) free of severe chronic diabetes-related complications. In 172 T2D outpatients consecutively recruited at the Diabetes Center of Verona City Hospital, we performed a standard medical assessment and completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire (MDQ) Age, body mass index (BMI) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were (median [IQR]): 64.0 [58.0-69.0] years, 31.0 [28.0-34.4] kg/m 2 , and 7.3 [6.7-8.0] %, respectively. The overall prevalence of anxiety and depression was 14.5% and 18.6%, respectively. Higher levels of HbA1c were significantly (p diabetes severity (rho = 0.28) and lower self-efficacy (rho = -0.27), but not with depression or anxiety. These three variables were also independent predictors of higher HbA1c levels, when entered in a multivariable stepwise-forward regression model that also included age, BMI, diabetes duration and diabetes-specific social support as covariates. Lower self-efficacy and higher diabetes distress were closely associated with poorer glycemic control. No direct association between HbA1c and clinical psychological symptoms was detected. These results highlight that a number of diabetes-specific psychological variables may play a role amidst psychological distress and glycemic control. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relevance of diabetes distress and self-efficacy to the achievement of individual glycemic targets. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of sleep behavior on glycemic control in type 1 diabetes: the role of social jetlag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, Sandra; Gauchez, Anne-Sophie; Lablanche, Sandrine; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Benhamou, Pierre-Yves; Borel, Anne-Laure

    2016-11-01

    Sleep behavior is changing toward shorter sleep duration and a later chronotype. It results in a sleep debt that is acquitted on work-free days, inducing a small but recurrent sleep misalignment each week, referred to as "social jetlag". These sleep habits could affect health through misalignment with circadian rhythms. The primary objective is to address the impact of sleep behavior on glycemic control, assessed by HbA1c, in patients with type 1 diabetes, independently of other lifestyle or sleep-related factors. The secondary objective is to address whether circadian phase affects glycemic control. In total, 80 adult patients with type 1 diabetes (46% female) were included in a clinical cohort study. Sleep behavior was addressed objectively by a 7-day actimetry, lifestyle by questionnaires, sleep breathing disorders by nocturnal oximetry and circadian phase by dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). Univariate analyses showed that chronotype (r = 0.23, P = 0.042) and social jetlag (r = 0.30, P = 0.008) were significantly associated with HbA1c. In multivariable analysis, social jetlag was the only sleep habit independently associated with HbA1c (β = 0.012 (0.006; 0.017), P < 0.001). HbA1c was lower in patients with a social jetlag below versus above the median (7.7% (7.1-8.7) and 8.7% (7.6-9.8), P = 0.011). DLMO was not associated with HbA1c. However, the later the DLMO, the worse the sleep efficiency (r = -0.41, P < 0.001) and fragmentation index (r = 0.35, P = 0.005). Social jetlag, a small but recurrent circadian misalignment, is associated with worse glycemic control in type 1 diabetes, whereas circadian phase is not. Further intervention studies should address the potential improvement of glycemic control by correcting social jetlag. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  13. The influence of carbohydrate consumption on glycemic control in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Akueson, Cecelia E.; Ronneby, Helle

    2017-01-01

    , as a part of routine care. The total daily carbohydrate consumption from the major sources (e.g. bread, potatoes, rice, pasta, dairy products, fruits, candy) was calculated. A dietician estimated the overall glycemic index score (scale 0–7). Results At least two days of diet recording were available in 75......Aims To study the influence of the quantity and the quality of carbohydrate consumption on glycemic control in early pregnancy among women with type 1 diabetes. Methods A retrospective study of 107 women with type 1 diabetes who completed 1–3 days of diet recording before first antenatal visit......% of the 107 women at mean 64 (SD ± 14) gestational days. The quantity of carbohydrate consumption from major sources was 180 (±51) g/day. HbA1c was positively associated with the quantity of carbohydrate consumption (β = 0.41; 95% CI 0.13–0.70, P = 0.005), corresponding to an increase of 0.4% in HbA1c per 100...

  14. Effect of Ramadan fasting on glycemic control in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzy, A; Mohajeri, S M R; Shakeri, S; Yari, F; Sabery, M; Philippou, E; Varasteh, A-R; Nematy, M

    2012-09-01

    Although Muslim patients with Type 2 diabetes may be exempt from fasting during Ramadan for medical reasons, a high proportion of them fast. To investigate the association between Ramadan fasting and glycemic control in patients with Type 2 diabetes. A prospective cohort clinical trial was designed. Eighty-eight patients with Type 2 diabetes (45 male, 43 female, age 51±10 yr) who opted to fast for at least 10 days during the month of Ramadan were recruited. Fasting blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of Ramadan, and 1 month after Ramadan, to assess fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin, full blood count, glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and fasting lipid profile. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostatic model assessment. Anthropometrics and blood pressure were also measured. There was a significant deterioration in FBG and HbA(1c) (p=0.002 and p≤0.001, respectively) and significant improvements in HDL and LDL cholesterol and body mass index after Ramadan (pRamadan (9.4±2% at the end of Ramadan vs 8.4±2.5% 1 month after Ramadan; pfasting during Ramadan deteriorated the glycemic control in Type 2 diabetes patients. This was more evident in patients using oral hypoglycemic medication than diet- controlled patients. However, Ramadan fasting had small positive effects on lipid profile and body weight.

  15. Joint association of glycemic load and alcohol intake with type 2 diabetes incidence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekary, Rania A; Rimm, Eric B; Giovannucci, Edward; Stampfer, Meir J; Willett, Walter C; Ludwig, David S; Hu, Frank B

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about the joint association between glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and alcohol intake with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The objective of this study was to examine whether alcohol intake alters the associations between carbohydrate quality (GI) or quality and quantity (GL) and T2D incidence in women. Participants from the Nurses' Health Study who were free of T2D, cardiovascular disease, or cancer (n = 81,827) at baseline in 1980 were followed for 26 y. Cumulative averages of GI, GL, total carbohydrates, and alcohol intake were calculated every 2-4 y from validated food-frequency questionnaires. Cox proportional hazard models were used to adjust for covariates. We documented 6950 cases of T2D during follow-up. After adjustment for lifestyle and dietary factors, the positive association between GL and T2D risk was attenuated in subjects with higher alcohol intakes. RRs that compared the top and bottom quintiles of GL were 1.29 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.49; P-trend intakes of 0 to intakes of 5 to intakes ≥15 g/d (P-interaction = 0.02). However, a higher intake of alcohol did not modify the positive association between GI and T2D (P-interaction = 0.76). Our findings suggest that a higher alcohol intake (≥15 g/d) attenuates the positive association between GL and T2D incidence.

  16. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinnosuke Murakami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition.

  17. Glycemic control in cardiac surgery: Rationale and current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Girish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies in cardiac surgical patients have shown an association of hyperglycemia with increased incidences of sepsis, mediastinitis, prolonged mechanical ventilation, cardiac arrhythmias and longer intensive care and hospital stay. There is considerable controversy regarding appropriate glycemic management in these patients and in the definition of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia or the blood sugar levels at which therapy should be initiated. There is also dilemma regarding the usage of "tight glycemic control" with studies showing conflicting evidences. Part of the controversy can be explained by the differing designs of these studies and the variable definitions of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia.

  18. Fruit and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Allan Stubbe; Viggers, Lone; Gregersen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Health professionals often advise subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) to restrict fruit intake. We show here that there is no supportive scientific evidence for this. At least 19 studies have tested intake of fruit on postprandial glucose in T2D. Only two long-term intervention studies have inves...... under normal conditions has deleterious health effects. In summary, we find no evidence for a negative impact of fruit on glycemic control in T2D. Subjects with T2D should eat fruit just as the general population, without fearing worsening of their glycemic control....

  19. Glycemic Control and the Risk of Tuberculosis: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Hui Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB and is increasingly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries, where the burden of TB is high. Glycemic control has the potential to modify the risk of TB. However, there are few studies on the association between glycemic control and TB risk, and the results are inconsistent.We assembled a cohort using 123,546 individuals who participated in a community-based health screening service in northern Taiwan from 5 March 2005 to 27 July 2008. Glycemic control was measured using fasting plasma glucose (FPG at the time of screening. The cohort was followed up to 31 December 2012 for the occurrence of TB by cross-matching the screening database to the national health insurance database. Multiple imputation was used to handle missing information. During a median follow-up of 4.6 y, 327 cases of TB occurred. In the multivariable Cox regression model, diabetic patients with poor glycemic control (FPG > 130 mg/dl had a significantly higher hazard of TB (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.21, 95% CI 1.63-2.99, p < 0.001 compared to those without diabetes. The hazard of TB in diabetic patients with good glycemic control (FPG ≤ 130 mg/dl did not differ significantly from that in nondiabetic individuals (aHR 0.69, 95% CI 0.35-1.36, p = 0.281. In the linear dose-response analysis, the hazard of TB increased with FPG (aHR 1.06 per 10-mg/dl increase in FPG, 95% CI 1.03-1.08, p < 0.001. Assuming the observed association between glycemic control and TB was causal, an estimated 7.5% (95% CI 4.1%-11.5% of incident TB in the study population could be attributed to poor glycemic control. Limitations of the study include one-time measurement of fasting glucose at baseline and voluntary participation in the health screening service.Good glycemic control could potentially modify the risk of TB among diabetic patients and may contribute to the control of TB in settings where diabetes and TB are prevalent.

  20. Approaches to reduce the glycemic response of gluten-free products: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriles, V D; Arêas, J A G

    2016-03-01

    This article aims to discuss the current approaches used to reduce the postprandial glycemic response (GR) of starchy gluten-free products (GFP) and to provide some further prospects. The GR is evaluated through in vivo trials to determine the glycemic index (GI) and the glycemic load (GL) of foods or using the in vitro starch digestibility method to predict the GI. The reviewed studies demonstrated that a reduction in the GR of GFP can be achieved by replacing traditionally used refined flours and starches with nutrient-dense alternative raw materials due to an increase in dietary fiber, resistant starch and protein contents, which can alter the rate of starch digestion, reduce the GI and dilute the amount of available carbohydrate; both the factors contribute to reduce the GL. The addition of viscous dietary fibers could also be a successful way to reduce the GR of GFP. Some studies have demonstrated the potential of germination of GF grains and sourdough fermentation in decreasing the GR of GF bread. Further studies could evaluate alternative GF flours, soluble fibers, resistant starch, and other formulation factors that may affect the GR of different types of GFP. New studies should be performed to test and optimize processing methods by considering the reduction of GR of GFP. Another key aspect for further investigation is the confirmation of the promising results obtained through in vitro assays by in vivo GI evaluation.

  1. Electron microscopy of particles collected at Praia, Cape Verde, during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment: particle chemistry, shape, mixing state and complex refractive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, K.; Lieke, K.; Benker, N.; Emmel, C.; Küpper, M.; Müller-Ebert, D.; Ebert, M.; Scheuvens, D.; Schladitz, A.; Schütz, L.; Weinbruch, S.

    2011-09-01

    A large field experiment of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) was performed in Praia, Cape Verde, in January and February 2008. The aerosol at Praia is a superposition of mineral dust, sea-salt, sulphates and soot. Particles smaller than 500 nm are mainly mineral dust, mineral dust-sulphate mixtures, sulphates and soot-sulphate mixtures. Particles larger then 2.5 μm consist of mineral dust, sea-salt and few mineral dust-sulphate mixtures. A transition range exists in between. The major internal mixtures are mineral dust-sulphate and soot-sulphate. Mineral dust-sea-salt mixtures occur occasionally, mineral dust-soot mixtures were not observed. The aspect ratio was 1.3-1.4 for dry particles smaller than 500 nm and 1.6-1.7 for larger ones. Parameterizations are given for dry and humid state. Although the real part of the refractive index showed low variation (1.55-1.58 at 532 nm), a multi-modal imaginary part was detected as function of particle size, reflecting the complex composition. Soot mainly influences the absorption for wavelengths longer than the haematite absorption edge, whereas for shorter wavelengths dust is dominating. The refractive index of the aerosol depends on the source region of the mineral dust and on the presence/absence of a marine component.

  2. Electron microscopy of particles collected at Praia, Cape Verde, during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment: particle chemistry, shape, mixing state and complex refractive index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandler, K.; Lieke, K.; Benker, N. (Institut fur Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)), e-mail: kzk@gmx.de (and others)

    2011-09-15

    A large field experiment of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) was performed in Praia, Cape Verde, in January and February 2008. The aerosol at Praia is a superposition of mineral dust, sea-salt, sulphates and soot. Particles smaller than 500 nm are mainly mineral dust, mineral dust-sulphate mixtures, sulphates and soot-sulphate mixtures. Particles larger then 2.5mum consist of mineral dust, sea-salt and few mineral dust-sulphate mixtures. A transition range exists in between. The major internal mixtures are mineral dust-sulphate and soot-sulphate. Mineral dust-sea-salt mixtures occur occasionally, mineral dust-soot mixtures were not observed. The aspect ratio was 1.3-1.4 for dry particles smaller than 500 nm and 1.6-1.7 for larger ones. Parameterizations are given for dry and humid state. Although the real part of the refractive index showed low variation (1.55-1.58 at 532 nm), a multi-modal imaginary part was detected as function of particle size, reflecting the complex composition. Soot mainly influences the absorption for wavelengths longer than the haematite absorption edge, whereas for shorter wavelengths dust is dominating. The refractive index of the aerosol depends on the source region of the mineral dust and on the presence/absence of a marine component

  3. Co-Ingestion of Rice Bran Soymilk or Plain Soymilk with White Bread: Effects on the Glycemic and Insulinemic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gerardus Camps

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The regular consumption of soy products is associated with inverse incidence of type 2 diabetes, and there has been an increasing interest in the glycemia reducing potential of rice bran and its components. In this study, we investigated whether consuming soymilk with the addition of rice bran (fiber can reduce the glycemic response of a carbohydrate meal. Seventeen healthy Asian men (BMI: 18.5–29 kg/m2 participated in this randomized crossover trial. On four occasions, they consumed white bread (two times and white bread with two different soymilks differing in protein and rice bran content. Blood samples were taken to measure glucose and insulin response over a period of 3 hours. Taking the glycemic index (GI value of white bread as a reference value of 100, the GI of white bread when co-ingested with rice bran soymilk (RBS was 83.1 (±7.7 and sugar-free soymilk (SFS was 77.5 (±10.1, both were lower than white bread (p < 0.05. The insulin response of both soymilk treatments was similar to white bread (p > 0.05. The glucose/insulin ratio of RBS and SFS were respectively 43.1 (±6.1 and 60.0 (±17.0 and were lower (p < 0.05 than white bread (123.5 ± 21.1 during the first 30 min. In conclusion, co-ingestion of low amounts of soy protein with a carbohydrate meal stimulated early-phase insulin secretion and thereby increased blood glucose clearance effectiveness. Furthermore, rice bran-fortified soymilk reduced the glycemic response similarly to soymilk with a greater dose of soy protein. Rice bran and its components offer therapeutic potential for glycemic and insulinemic control.

  4. Density and Comparative Refractive Index Study on Mixing Properties of Binary Liquid Mixtures of Eucalyptol with Hydrocarbons at 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Sharma

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Density and refractive index have been experimentally determined for binary liquid mixtures of eucalyptol with hydrocarbons (o-xylene,m-xylene and toluene at 303.15 K, 308.15 K and 313.15 K. A comparative study of Lorentz-Lorenz (L-L, Weiner (W, Heller (H, Gladstone-Dale (G-D, Arago-Biot (A-B, Eykman (Eyk, Newton (Nw, Eyring-John (E-J and Oster (Os relations for determining the refractive index of a liquid has been carried out to test their validity for the three binaries over the entire mole fraction range of eucalyptol at 303.15 K, 308.15 K and 313.15 K. Comparison of various mixing rules has been expressed in terms of average deviation. From the experimentally measured values, refractive index deviations at different temperatures have been computed and fitted to the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation to derive the binary coefficients and standard deviations.

  5. Meal frequency patterns and glycemic properties of maternal diet in relation to preterm delivery: Results from a large prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund-Ögge, Linda; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Sengpiel, Verena; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margareta; Myhre, Ronny; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Jacobsson, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Dietary habits are linked to high maternal glucose levels, associated with preterm delivery. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between meal frequency and glycemic properties of maternal diet in relation to preterm delivery. This prospective cohort study included 66,000 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Meal frequency and food intake data were obtained from a validated food frequency questionnaire during mid-pregnancy. Principal component factor analysis was used with a data-driven approach, and three meal frequency patterns were identified: "snack meal", "main meal", and "evening meal". Pattern scores were ranked in quartiles. Glycemic index and glycemic load were estimated from table values. Intakes of carbohydrates, added sugar, and fiber were reported in grams per day and divided into quartiles. Gestational age was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Preterm delivery was defined as birth at meal" pattern was associated with a reduced risk of preterm delivery, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80, 0.98) and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.99) for the third and fourth quartiles, respectively, and p for trend of 0.028. This was mainly attributed to the group of women with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, with HRs of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.96) and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.98) for the third and fourth quartiles, respectively, and p for trend of 0.010. There was no association between glycemic index, glycemic load, carbohydrates, added sugar, fiber, or the remaining meal frequency patterns and preterm delivery. Regular consumption of main meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) was associated with a lower risk of preterm delivery. Diet should be further studied as potential contributing factors for preterm delivery.

  6. Association of adherence to a Mediterranean diet with glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in youth with type I diabetes: the SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, V W; Lamichhane, A P; Crandell, J L; Couch, S C; Liese, A D; The, N S; Tzeel, B A; Dabelea, D; Lawrence, J M; Marcovina, S M; Kim, G; Mayer-Davis, E J

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between a Mediterranean diet and glycemic control and other cardiovascular risk factors among youth with type I diabetes (TID). Incident TID cases aged Mediterranean diet score was assessed using a modified KIDMED index (mKIDMED). Multivariate linear regression and longitudinal mixed model were applied to determine the association between mKIDMED score and log-HbA1c, lipids, blood pressure (BP) and obesity. In cross-sectional analyses using baseline data, for individuals with the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 7.5%, a two-point higher mKIDMED score (1 s.d.) was associated with 0.15% lower HbA1c (P=0.02). A two-point higher mKIDMED score was associated with 4.0 mg/dl lower total cholesterol (TC) (P=0.006), 3.4 mg/dl lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P=0.004), 3.9 mg/dl lower non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) (P=0.004) and 0.07 lower LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (P=0.02). Using longitudinal data, a two-point increase in mKIDMED score was associated with 0.01% lower log-HbA1c (P=0.07), 1.8 mg/dl lower TC (P=0.05), 1.6 mg/dl lower LDL-C (P=0.03) and 1.8 mg/dl lower non-HDL-C (P=0.03) than would otherwise have been expected. HbA1c mediated ∼20% of the association for lipids in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models. An unexpected positive association between mKIDMED score and systolic BP was found among non-Hispanic white youth in cross-sectional analyses (P=0.009). Mediterranean diet was not associated with obesity. Mediterranean diet may improve glycemic control and cardiovascular health in TID youth.

  7. Association of adherence to a Mediterranean diet with glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in youth with type 1 diabetes: The SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Victor W.; Lamichhane, Archana P.; Crandell, Jamie L.; Couch, Sarah C.; Liese, Angela D.; The, Natalie S.; Tzeel, Benjamin A.; Dabelea, Dana; Lawrence, Jean M.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Kim, Grace; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives This study aimed to determine the association between a Mediterranean diet and glycemic control and other cardiovascular risk factors among youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Subjects/Methods Incident T1D cases aged Mediterranean diet score was assessed using a modified KIDMED index (mKIDMED). Multivariate linear regression and longitudinal mixed model were applied to determine the association between mKIDMED score and log-HbA1c, lipids, blood pressure (BP), and obesity. Results In cross-sectional analyses using baseline data, for individuals with an HbA1c of 7.5%, a two-point higher mKIDMED score (one standard deviation) was associated with 0.15% lower HbA1c (P=0.02). A two-point higher mKIDMED score was associated with 4.0 mg/dL lower total cholesterol (TC) (P=0.006), 3.4 mg/dL lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-C (P=0.004), 3.9 mg/dL lower non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL)-C (P=0.004), and 0.07 lower LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (P=0.02). Using longitudinal data, a two-point increase in mKIDMED score was associated with 0.01% lower log-HbA1c (P=0.07), 1.8 mg/dL lower TC (P=0.05), 1.6 mg/dL lower LDL-C (P=0.03), and 1.8 mg/dL lower non-HDL-C (P=0.03) than would otherwise have been expected. HbA1c mediated about 20% of the association for lipids in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models. An unexpected positive association between mKIDMED score and systolic BP was found among non-Hispanic white youth in cross-sectional analyses (P=0.009). Mediterranean diet was not associated with obesity. Conclusions Mediterranean diet may improve glycemic control and cardiovascular health in T1D youth. PMID:26908421

  8. Effect of processing on in vitro glycemic indices and carbohydrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of processing on in vitro glycemic indices and carbohydrate catabolizing enzyme inhibitory properties of some tropical grain legumes. ... used as a measure of how a particular food can elicit rise in blood glucose and low GI foods have often been advocated as therapeutically important in managing hyperglycemia.

  9. The Effect Of Glycemic Control On Serum Lipids And Calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect Of Glycemic Control On Serum Lipids And Calcium – Phosphate Profiles In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. ... control levels in type 2 diabetic patients on the serum lipids and lipoprotein profiles and the serum levels of calcium, ... The patients were classified into two groups depending on their glycosylated

  10. Glycemic Control and the Risk of Tuberculosis: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pin-Hui; Fu, Han; Lai, Ting-Chun; Chiang, Chen-Yuan; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Lin, Hsien-Ho

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) and is increasingly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries, where the burden of TB is high. Glycemic control has the potential to modify the risk of TB. However, there are few studies on the association between glycemic control and TB risk, and the results are inconsistent. We assembled a cohort using 123,546 individuals who participated in a community-based health screening service in northern Taiwan from 5 March 2005 to 27 July 2008. Glycemic control was measured using fasting plasma glucose (FPG) at the time of screening. The cohort was followed up to 31 December 2012 for the occurrence of TB by cross-matching the screening database to the national health insurance database. Multiple imputation was used to handle missing information. During a median follow-up of 4.6 y, 327 cases of TB occurred. In the multivariable Cox regression model, diabetic patients with poor glycemic control (FPG > 130 mg/dl) had a significantly higher hazard of TB (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.21, 95% CI 1.63-2.99, p diabetes. The hazard of TB in diabetic patients with good glycemic control (FPG ≤ 130 mg/dl) did not differ significantly from that in nondiabetic individuals (aHR 0.69, 95% CI 0.35-1.36, p = 0.281). In the linear dose-response analysis, the hazard of TB increased with FPG (aHR 1.06 per 10-mg/dl increase in FPG, 95% CI 1.03-1.08, p diabetic patients and may contribute to the control of TB in settings where diabetes and TB are prevalent.

  11. Effect of domestic cooking on the starch digestibility, predicted glycemic indices, polyphenol contents and alpha amylase inhibitory properties of beans (Phaseolis vulgaris) and breadfruit (Treculia africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinedum, E; Sanni, S; Theressa, N; Ebere, A

    2018-01-01

    The effect of processing on starch digestibility, predicted glycemic indices (pGI), polyphenol contents and alpha amylase inhibitory properties of beans (Phaseolis vulgaris) and breadfruit (Treculia africana) was studied. Total starch ranged from 4.3 to 68.3g/100g, digestible starch ranged from 4.3 to 59.2 to 65.7g/100g for the raw and processed legumes; Resistance starch was not detected in most of the legumes except in fried breadfruit and the starches in both the raw and processed breadfruit were more rapidly digested than those from raw and cooked beans. Raw and processed breadfruit had higher hydrolysis curves than raw and processed beans with the amylolysis level in raw breadfruit close to that of white bread. Raw beans had a low glycemic index (GI); boiled beans and breadfruit had intermediate glycemic indices respectively while raw and fried breadfruit had high glycemic indices. Aqueous extracts of the food samples had weak α-amylase inhibition compared to acarbose. The raw and processed legumes contained considerable amounts of dietary phenols and flavonoids. The significant correlation (r=0.626) between α-amylase inhibitory actions of the legumes versus their total phenolic contents suggests the contribution of the phenolic compounds in these legumes to their α-amylase inhibitory properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep Pattern, Duration and Quality in Relation with Glycemic Control in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozashti, Mohammad Hossein; Eslami, Nazanin; Radfar, Mohammad Hadi; Pakmanesh, Hamid

    2016-11-01

    Sleep disturbances have been shown to be associated with diabetes control, but the relation between planned wakings or napping with glycemic indices has not been evaluated yet. This study evaluated the relation between sleep quality, duration, and pattern, including daytime napping of people with diabetes and their glycemic control. A cross-sectional correlation research design was used for this study. We enrolled 118 people with type 2 diabetes receiving oral agents without major complications at the Shahid Bahonar Center, Kerman. The age, weight, height, serum HbA1c, as well as other glycemic indices and lipid profile were measured. BMI was also calculated. All participants were requested to fill in the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire to evaluate their sleep quality. In addition, they were inquired about their sleep schedule during day and night. Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the correlation between HbA1c and sleep pattern variables. The variables were also compared between participants with or without napping using t-test. All analyses were performed with the SPSS version 19 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The mean age was 58±11 years and mean HbA1c (%) was 7.8±11 (62±13 mmol/mol). Sleep duration and the number of sleep segments significantly predicted HbA1c (F (2,114)=5.232, P=0.007, R2=0.084). A one-hour increment in sleep duration was associated with a 0.174% (1.4 mmol/mol) decrement in HbA1c. PSQI score did not contribute to the regression model. Moreover, participants who napped (66%) had a lower HbA1c (7.6±1) compared to others (8.1±1.3) (P=0.04). We concluded that napping and segmented sleep are associated with a better glycemic control in type 2 diabetes and there is a linear correlation between sleep duration and better glycemic control.

  13. Sleep Pattern, Duration and Quality in Relation with Glycemic Control in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Gozashti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances have been shown to be associated with diabetes control, but the relation between planned wakings or napping with glycemic indices has not been evaluated yet. This study evaluated the relation between sleep quality, duration, and pattern, including daytime napping of people with diabetes and their glycemic control. A cross-sectional correlation research design was used for this study. We enrolled 118 people with type 2 diabetes receiving oral agents without major complications at the Shahid Bahonar Center, Kerman. The age, weight, height, serum HbA1c, as well as other glycemic indices and lipid profile were measured. BMI was also calculated. All participants were requested to fill in the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI questionnaire to evaluate their sleep quality. In addition, they were inquired about their sleep schedule during day and night. Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the correlation between HbA1c and sleep pattern variables. The variables were also compared between participants with or without napping using t-test. All analyses were performed with the SPSS version 19 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA. The mean age was 58±11 years and mean HbA1c (% was 7.8±11 (62±13 mmol/mol. Sleep duration and the number of sleep segments significantly predicted HbA1c (F (2,114=5.232, P=0.007, R2=0.084. A one-hour increment in sleep duration was associated with a 0.174% (1.4 mmol/mol decrement in HbA1c. PSQI score did not contribute to the regression model. Moreover, participants who napped (66% had a lower HbA1c (7.6±1 compared to others (8.1±1.3 (P=0.04. We concluded that napping and segmented sleep are associated with a better glycemic control in type 2 diabetes and there is a linear correlation between sleep duration and better glycemic control.

  14. Synchrotron infrared imaging of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in cardiac tissue from mice fed high glycemic diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birarda, Giovanni; Holman, Elizabeth A.; Fu, Shang; Weikel, Karen; Hu, Ping; Blankenberg, Francis G.; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Taylor, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Recent research findings correlate an increased risk for dieases such as diabetes, macular degeneration and cardiovascular disease (CVD) with diets that rapidly raise the blood sugar levels; these diets are known as high glycemic index (GI) diets which include white breads, sodas and sweet deserts. Lower glycemia diets are usually rich in fruits, non-starchy vegetables and whole grain products. The goal of our study was to compare and contrast the effects of a low vs. high glycemic diet using the biochemical composition and microstructure of the heart. The improved spatial resolution and signal-to-noise for SR-FTIR obtained through the coupling of the bright synchrotron infrared photon source to an infrared spectral microscope enabled the molecular-level observation of diet-related changes within unfixed fresh frozen histologic sections of mouse cardiac tissue. High and low glycemic index (GI) diets were started at the age of five-months and continued for one year, with the diets only differing in their starch distribution (high GI diet = 100% amylopectin versus low GI diet = 30% amylopectin/70% amylose). Serial cryosections of cardiac tissue for SR-FTIR imaging alternated with adjacent hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections allowed not only fine-scale chemical analyses of glycogen and glycolipid accumulation along a vein as well as protein glycation hotspots co-localizing with collagen cold spots but also the tracking of morphological differences occurring in tandem with these chemical changes. As a result of the bright synchrotron infrared photon source coupling, we were able to provide significant molecular evidence for a positive correlation between protein glycation and collagen degradation in our mouse model. Our results bring a new insight not only to the effects of long-term GI dietary practices of the public but also to the molecular and chemical foundation behind the cardiovascular disease pathogenesis commonly seen in diabetic patients. PMID

  15. Effectiveness of lifestyle change plus dental care (LCDC) program on improving glycemic and periodontal status in the elderly with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengtipbovorn, Saruta; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2014-06-16

    Currently, there is an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus among the elderly. To minimize adverse effects on glycemic control, prevention and management of general and oral complications in diabetic patients is essential. The purpose of the present study is to assess the effectiveness of a Lifestyle Change plus Dental Care (LCDC) program to improve glycemic and periodontal status in the elderly with type 2 diabetes. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in Health Centers 54 (intervention) and 59 (control) from October 2013 to January 2014. 66 diabetic patients per health center were included. At baseline, the intervention group attended a 20 minute lifestyle and oral health education program, individual lifestyle counseling using motivational interviewing (MI), application of self regulation manual, and individual oral hygiene instruction. The intervention group received booster education every visit by viewing a 15 minute educational video. The control group received a routine program. Participants were assessed at baseline and 3 month follow up for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body mass index (BMI), periodontal status, knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health and diabetes mellitus. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistic, Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, t-test, and multiple linear regression. After the 3 month follow up, a multiple linear regression analysis showed that the intervention group was significantly negatively correlated in both glycemic and periodontal status. Participants in the intervention group had significantly lower glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), plaque index score, gingival index score, pocket depth, clinical attachment level (CAL), and percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP) when compared to the control group. The combination of lifestyle change and dental care in one program improved both glycemic and periodontal status in the elderly with type 2

  16. Subjective sleep disturbances and glycemic control in adults with long-standing type 1 diabetes: The Pittsburgh’s Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denić-Roberts, Hristina; Costacou, Tina; Orchard, Trevor J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To date, studies on sleep disturbances in type 1 diabetes (T1D) have been limited to youth and/or small samples. We therefore assessed the prevalence of subjective sleep disturbances and their associations with glycemia and estimated insulin sensitivity in individuals with longstanding T1D. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study including 222 participants of the Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study of childhood-onset T1D attending the 25-year examination (mean age=52 years, diabetes duration=43 years). The Berlin Questionnaire (risk of obstructive sleep apnea, OSA), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (daytime sleepiness), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (sleep quality, bad dreams presence, and sleep duration) were completed. Associations between sleep disturbances and poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥7.5%/58 mmol/mol), log-transformed HbA1c, and estimated insulin sensitivity (estimated glucose disposal rate, eGDR, squared) were assessed in multivariable regression. Results The prevalences of high OSA risk, excessive daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, and bad dreams were 23%, 13%, 41%, and 26%, respectively, with more women (51%) reporting poor sleep quality than men (30%, p=0.004). Participants under poor glycemic control were twice as likely to report bad dreams (p=0.03), but not independently (p=0.07) of depressive symptomatology. Sleep duration was directly associated with HbA1c among individuals with poor glycemic control, but inversely in their counterparts (interaction p=0.002), and inversely associated with eGDR (p=0.002). Conclusions These findings suggest important interrelationships between sleep, gender, depressive symptomatology, and glycemic control, which may have important clinical implications. Further research is warranted to examine the mechanism of the interaction between sleep duration and glycemic control. PMID:27415404

  17. Subjective sleep disturbances and glycemic control in adults with long-standing type 1 diabetes: The Pittsburgh's Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denic-Roberts, Hristina; Costacou, Tina; Orchard, Trevor J

    2016-09-01

    To date, studies on sleep disturbances in type 1 diabetes (T1D) have been limited to youth and/or small samples. We therefore assessed the prevalence of subjective sleep disturbances and their associations with glycemia and estimated insulin sensitivity in individuals with long-standing T1D. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 222 participants of the Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study of childhood-onset T1D attending the 25-year examination (mean age=52years, diabetes duration=43years). The Berlin Questionnaire (risk of obstructive sleep apnea, OSA), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (daytime sleepiness), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (sleep quality, bad dreams presence, and sleep duration) were completed. Associations between sleep disturbances and poor glycemic control (HbA1c⩾7.5%/58mmol/mol), log-transformed HbA1c, and estimated insulin sensitivity (estimated glucose disposal rate, eGDR, squared) were assessed in multivariable regression. The prevalences of high OSA risk, excessive daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, and bad dreams were 23%, 13%, 41%, and 26%, respectively, with more women (51%) reporting poor sleep quality than men (30%, p=0.004). Participants under poor glycemic control were twice as likely to report bad dreams (p=0.03), but not independently (p=0.07) of depressive symptomatology. Sleep duration was directly associated with HbA1c among individuals with poor glycemic control, but inversely in their counterparts (interaction p=0.002), and inversely associated with eGDR (p=0.002). These findings suggest important interrelationships between sleep, gender, depressive symptomatology, and glycemic control, which may have important clinical implications. Further research is warranted to examine the mechanism of the interaction between sleep duration and glycemic control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. How is the weather? Forecasting inpatient glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, George E; Castro, Janna C; Cook, Curtiss B; Thompson, Bithika M

    2017-11-01

    Apply methods of damped trend analysis to forecast inpatient glycemic control. Observed and calculated point-of-care blood glucose data trends were determined over 62 weeks. Mean absolute percent error was used to calculate differences between observed and forecasted values. Comparisons were drawn between model results and linear regression forecasting. The forecasted mean glucose trends observed during the first 24 and 48 weeks of projections compared favorably to the results provided by linear regression forecasting. However, in some scenarios, the damped trend method changed inferences compared with linear regression. In all scenarios, mean absolute percent error values remained below the 10% accepted by demand industries. Results indicate that forecasting methods historically applied within demand industries can project future inpatient glycemic control. Additional study is needed to determine if forecasting is useful in the analyses of other glucometric parameters and, if so, how to apply the techniques to quality improvement.

  19. Preservation of renal function by intensive glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Toriu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 67-year-old Japanese woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus. At 47 years of age, her hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c was 10.0%, and she had overt nephropathy. The first renal biopsy yielded a diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy. Intensive glycemic control was initiated and her HbA1c improved to 6.0%. Renal dysfunction showed no progression for 15 years. At 62 years of age, a second renal biopsy was performed. Glomerular lesions did not show progression but tubulointerstitial fibrosis and vascular lesions showed progression compared with the first biopsy. Intensive glycemic control can prevent the progression of glomerular lesions, but might not be effective for interstitial and vascular lesions.

  20. Evaluation of a New Digital Automated Glycemic Pattern Detection Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comellas, María José; Albiñana, Emma; Artes, Maite; Corcoy, Rosa; Fernández-García, Diego; García-Alemán, Jorge; García-Cuartero, Beatriz; González, Cintia; Rivero, María Teresa; Casamira, Núria; Weissmann, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    Blood glucose meters are reliable devices for data collection, providing electronic logs of historical data easier to interpret than handwritten logbooks. Automated tools to analyze these data are necessary to facilitate glucose pattern detection and support treatment adjustment. These tools emerge in a broad variety in a more or less nonevaluated manner. The aim of this study was to compare eDetecta, a new automated pattern detection tool, to nonautomated pattern analysis in terms of time investment, data interpretation, and clinical utility, with the overarching goal to identify early in development and implementation of tool areas of improvement and potential safety risks. Multicenter web-based evaluation in which 37 endocrinologists were asked to assess glycemic patterns of 4 real reports (2 continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII] and 2 multiple daily injection [MDI]). Endocrinologist and eDetecta analyses were compared on time spent to analyze each report and agreement on the presence or absence of defined patterns. eDetecta module markedly reduced the time taken to analyze each case on the basis of the emminens eConecta reports (CSII: 18 min; MDI: 12.5), compared to the automatic eDetecta analysis. Agreement between endocrinologists and eDetecta varied depending on the patterns, with high level of agreement in patterns of glycemic variability. Further analysis of low level of agreement led to identifying areas where algorithms used could be improved to optimize trend pattern identification. eDetecta was a useful tool for glycemic pattern detection, helping clinicians to reduce time required to review emminens eConecta glycemic reports. No safety risks were identified during the study.

  1. Sleep and glycemic control in type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Barone,Mark Thomaz Ugliara; Wey,Daniela; Schorr,Fabiola; Franco,Denise Reis; Carra,Mario Kehdi; Lorenzi Filho,Geraldo; Menna-Barreto,Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our aim in the present study was to elucidate how type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and sleep parameters interact, which was rarely evaluated up to the moment. Materials and methods Eighteen T1DM subjects without chronic complications, and 9 control subjects, matched for age and BMI, were studied. The following instruments used to evaluate sleep: the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, sleep diaries, actimeters, and polysomnography in a Sleep Lab. Glycemic control in T1DM individuals was evalua...

  2. Glycemic control in the diabetic pregnancy: is tighter always better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenn, B M; Miodovnik, M

    2000-01-01

    Glucose is the principal nutrient that the mother supplies to the fetus through the placenta by way of concentration-dependent mechanisms. In the presence of maternal hypoglycemia, with limited glucose supply, fetal hypoglycemia and hypoinsulinism ensue. This may be viewed as an adaptive mechanism to increase the chances of fetal survival in the face of limited maternal supply, albeit of a growth-restricted fetus. Fetal nutrient deprivation and the resulting hypoinsulinism may have both short- and long-term consequences. Intrauterine growth failure is associated with higher rates of gestational age-specific neonatal mortality and with long-term cognitive deficits. Furthermore, epidemiologic data suggest that diabetes, coronary artery disease, and hypertension are more common among adults who were small for gestational age at birth. Thus, pancreatic failure in adulthood may be either a response to excessive exposure to glucose as a result of maternal hyperglycemia, or as a result of hypoglycemia where nutrient deprivation leads to fetal growth restriction and reduced islet cell proliferation. Because low mean concentrations of maternal glucose in gestational diabetes are associated with an increased risk of fetal growth restriction, overzealous glycemic control during pregnancy may raise concerns regarding the possible effects on the infant. In the mother with Type 1 diabetes, strict glycemic control is often associated with an increased incidence of severe hypoglycemia. Up to 40% of women report at least one episode of severe hypoglycemia during pregnancy, requiring assistance by another person or professional intervention. It is quite possible that in some patients striving to optimize pregnancy outcome by maintaining the best possible glycemic control jeopardizes the well-being of the mother and the fetus. Thus, with respect to tight glycemic control of pregnant women with diabetes, the question arises: How tight is too tight? Is there a threshold below which the

  3. Marcador in vitro da resposta glicêmica dos alimentos como ferramenta de auxílio à prescrição e avaliação de dietas In vitro indicator of the glycemic response to foods as a tool for diet prescriptions and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Dias Capriles

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As dietas de baixo índice glicêmico e baixa carga glicêmica têm sido associadas à redução do risco de doenças crônicas. Por esse motivo há um interesse crescente na sua aplicação para avaliação e orientação nutricional. No entanto, existem limitações quanto ao uso de dados publicados de índice glicêmico e carga glicêmica, pela variedade e formas de processamento dos alimentos vegetais existentes. Devido à dificuldade de realização de ensaios in vivo, uma vez que são custosos, trabalhosos, invasivos e necessitam de período considerável de experimentação, foram desenvolvidas metodologias in vitro que, a partir da velocidade de digestão dos carboidratos, permitem estimar o índice glicêmico dos alimentos de forma prática, simples e econômica. O presente trabalho apresenta o uso de um marcador in vitro, o índice de hidrólise, na estimativa do índice glicêmico e da carga glicêmica, o método mais empregado por pesquisadores brasileiros, visando à sua aplicação por profissionais da área de Nutrição. Os cálculos e as interpretações para estimativa do Índice glicêmico e da carga glicêmica são apresentados por meio de um exemplo prático com alguns alimentos brasileiros e com o grão de amaranto submetido a diferentes processamentos. Na ausência de dados referentes à resposta glicêmica do alimento de interesse, os valores do marcador in vitro podem ser utilizados para estimar o índice glicêmico e a carga glicêmica dos alimentos. Porém, este marcador não deve ser utilizado indiscriminadamente, uma vez que leva em consideração apenas os fatores intrínsecos aos alimentos que influenciam o aproveitamento dos carboidratos disponíveis.Low glycemic index and low glycemic load diets have been associated with a reduced risk of certain chronic diseases. For this reason, there has been a growing interest in using these concepts' for nutritional assessment and diet prescription. However, the usage of

  4. Food Insecurity, Food "Deserts," and Glycemic Control in Patients With Diabetes: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Seth A; Karter, Andrew J; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Seligman, Hilary K; Ackroyd, Sarah A; Barnard, Lily S; Atlas, Steven J; Wexler, Deborah J

    2018-03-19

    Both food insecurity (limited food access owing to cost) and living in areas with low physical access to nutritious foods are public health concerns, but their relative contribution to diabetes management is poorly understood. This was a prospective cohort study. A random sample of patients with diabetes in a primary care network completed food insecurity assessment in 2013. Low physical food access at the census tract level was defined as no supermarket within 1 mile in urban areas and 10 miles in rural areas. HbA 1c measurements were obtained from electronic health records through November 2016. The relationship among food insecurity, low physical food access, and glycemic control (as defined by HbA 1c ) was analyzed using hierarchical linear mixed models. Three hundred and ninety-one participants were followed for a mean of 37 months. Twenty percent of respondents reported food insecurity, and 31% resided in an area of low physical food access. In adjusted models, food insecurity was associated with higher HbA 1c (difference of 0.6% [6.6 mmol/mol], 95% CI 0.4-0.8 [4.4-8.7], P food access was not associated with a difference in HbA 1c (difference 0.2% [2.2 mmol/mol], 95% CI -0.2 to 0.5 [-2.2 to 5.6], P = 0.33) or with change over time ( P = 0.07). Food insecurity is associated with higher HbA 1c , but living in an area with low physical food access is not. Food insecurity screening and interventions may help improve glycemic control for vulnerable patients. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  5. Glycemic control and radiographic manifestations of tuberculosis in diabetic patients.

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    Chen-Yuan Chiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Radiographic manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM have previously been reported, with inconsistent results. We conducted a study to investigate whether glycemic control has an impact on radiographic manifestations of pulmonary TB. METHODS: Consecutive patients with culture-positive pulmonary TB who had DM in three tertiary care hospitals from 2005-2010 were selected for review and compared with a similar number without DM. Glycemic control was assessed by glycated haemoglobin A1C (HbA1C. A pre-treatment chest radiograph was read independently by two qualified pulmonologists blinded to patients' diabetic status. Films with any discordant reading were read by a third reader. RESULTS: 1209 culture positive pulmonary TB patients (581 with DM and 628 without DM were enrolled. Compared with those without DM, TB patients with DM were significantly more likely to have opacity over lower lung fields, extensive parenchymal lesions, any cavity, multiple cavities and large cavities (>3 cm. The relative risk of lower lung field opacities was 0.80 (95% CI 0.46-1.42 for those with DM with A1C9%; and that of any cavity over no cavity was 0.87 (95% CI 0.46-1.62 for patients with DM with A1C9%, relative to patients without DM. CONCLUSIONS: Glycemic control significantly influenced radiographic manifestations of pulmonary TB in patients with DM.

  6. Evaluation of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese communities: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Shan; Gu, Liubao; Lou, Qinglin; Ouyang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yun; Wu, Haidi; Bian, Rongwen

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic levels in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to explore the factors related to the results of glycemic control. A total of 2454 T2DM patients from 11 communities were examined for glycosylated hemoglobin levels and glycemic control options. Potential factors related to the results of glycemic control were analyzed using logistic regression. Of all the patients, 55.3 % achieved the glycemic control target of HbA1c diet and exercise, insulin injection was most strongly associated with poor glycemic control (OR 6.210, 95 % CI 4.054-9.514; P diabetic durations showed poor glycemic control, which was not found in female patients. Glycemic control was not satisfactory in T2DM patients of Nanjing communities. Various factors are associated with poor results of glycemic control.

  7. [Relationship between quality of life, physical activity, nutrition, glycemic control and sarcopenia in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals-Vázquez, Cristina; Suárez-Cadenas, Ernesto; Estébanez Carvajal, Francisca María; Aguilar Trujillo, María Pilar; Jiménez Arcos, María M; Vázquez Sáchez, María Ángeles

    2017-10-24

    The term sarcopenia is defined as age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, with a consequent impact on quality of life. However, there is a lack of studies examining the prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). To analyze the prevalence of sarcopenia in patients over 65 years with type 2 DM and the influence of physical activity, diet, glycemic control, sex, age, and quality of life. A total of 279 patients (155 females), aged 76.6 ± 6.27 years, participated in this study in order to analyze body circumferences (waist, hip, calf, and arm), body mass index, handgrip strength, physical activity level, nutritional status, quality of life, and glycemic control. The cut-off value for sarcopenia was defined as the body mass index lower than 9.2 or 7.4 kg/m2 for males and females, respectively. In participants, the prevalence of sarcopenia was 8.33%. Moreover, the level of sarcopenia was negatively associated with quality of life (r = -0.130, p = 0.030), physical activity (r = -0.164, p = 0.006), nutritional status (r = -0.274, p exercise level, and increased malnutrition, especially in older adult males.

  8. Dysglycemia, Glycemic Variability, and Outcome After Cardiac Arrest and Temperature Management at 33°C and 36°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgquist, Ola; Wise, Matt P; Nielsen, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Dysglycemia and glycemic variability are associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients. Targeted temperature management alters blood glucose homeostasis. We investigated the association between blood glucose concentrations and glycemic variability and the neurologic outcomes...... of patients randomized to targeted temperature management at 33°C or 36°C after cardiac arrest. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of the multicenter TTM-trial. Primary outcome of this analysis was neurologic outcome after 6 months, referred to as "Cerebral Performance Category." SETTING: Thirty-six sites in Europe...... and Australia. PATIENTS: All 939 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac cause that had been included in the TTM-trial. INTERVENTIONS: Targeted temperature management at 33°C or 36°C. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Nonparametric tests as well as multiple logistic regression and mixed...

  9. Factors associated with glycemic control in adult type 1 diabetes patients treated with insulin pump therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejko, Bartłomiej; Skupien, Jan; Mrozińska, Sandra; Grzanka, Małgorzata; Cyganek, Katarzyna; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Malecki, Maciej T; Klupa, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) by insulin pump seems to improve glycemia and quality of life as compared to conventional insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). However, while many T1DM subjects achieve excellent glycemic control, some others cannot reach recommended goals. In a retrospective analysis, we searched for factors associated with glycemic control in T1DM patients treated with insulin pump therapy. Data from 192 patients (133 women and 59 men) treated with personal insulin pumps at the Department of Metabolic Diseases, University Hospital, Krakow, Poland were analyzed. Sources of information included medical records, memory read-outs from insulin pumps and data from glucose meters. Univariate, multivariate linear and logistic regression analysis for the association with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level were performed. The mean age of the subjects was 28.9 (±11.2) years, the mean duration of T1DM-14.6 (±7.6) years, mean body mass index-23.5 (±3.1) kg/m2. The mean HbA1c level in the entire study group was 7.4% (57 mmol/mol). In the multivariate linear regression analysis, HbA1c correlated with the mean number of daily blood glucose measurements, number of hypoglycemic episodes per 100 blood glucose measurements, age at the examination, and continuous glucose monitoring system use. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for reaching the therapeutic target of HbA1cpump-treated T1DM subjects.

  10. Association between Alcohol Consumption and Glycemic Status in Middle-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Tomoko; Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    Habitual alcohol drinking has been shown to reduce the risk for diabetes by recent meta-analysis studies. However, it remains to be clarified whether the relationship between alcohol and diabetes is influenced by adiposity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether glycemic status is influenced by alcohol drinking in women. The subjects were 18 352 Japanese women, 35 to 60 years of age, who underwent health check-up examinations. The subjects were divided into 4 groups: nondrinkers, occasional drinkers, regular light drinkers (<22 g ethanol/day) and regular heavy drinkers (≥22 g ethanol/day). The relationship between alcohol consumption and glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels was investigated by using analysis of covariance and logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age and histories of smoking and regular exercise. A1C levels were significantly lower in occasional, regular light and regular heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers and was significantly lower in regular light and heavy drinkers than in occasional drinkers. These inverse associations were not altered by adiposity status as evaluated by body mass index and waist-to-height ratios. Odds ratios versus nondrinkers for hyperglycemia were significantly lower (p<0.01) than the reference level of 1.00 in occasional drinkers (0.82 [95% confidence interval 0.73 to 0.92]); regular light drinkers (0.61 [95% CI: 0.44 to 0.85]) and regular heavy drinkers (0.66 [95% CI: 0.50 to 0.88]). The results suggest that glycemic status is inversely associated with alcohol drinking independent of adiposity status in Japanese women. This may be related to the known lower risk for cardiovascular disease in female drinkers. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Salivary interleukin-17 and tumor necrosis factor-α in relation to periodontitis and glycemic status in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsoy, Ulvi Kahraman; Yildiz Çiftlikli, Sinem; Könönen, Eija; Gürsoy, Mervi; Doğan, Başak

    2015-09-01

    Poorly-controlled glycemic status in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is suggested to play a role in the periodontal inflammatory process by aggregating the local cytokine response. Our objectives were to profile salivary interleukin (IL)-17 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in subjects with T2DM and to examine their relevance for the periodontal health status and glycemic control levels. Unstimulated whole saliva samples, together with full-mouth periodontal recordings (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP %], gingival index [GI], probing pocket depth [PPD], and clinical attachment level [CAL]), were collected from 123 subjects with T2DM. Additionally, demographic and general health parameters, including fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), were collected. Salivary IL-17 and TNF-α concentrations were analyzed using the Luminex®-xMAP™ technique. Subjects with poorly-controlled T2DM (HbA1c ≥ 7) had elevated serum triglyceride (P periodontal disease in T2DM. The association between PPD and IL-17 in saliva, however, is independent from the effect of glycemic status. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Distinct lipid profiles predict improved glycemic control in obese, nondiabetic patients after a low-caloric diet intervention: the Diet, Obesity and Genes randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsesia, Armand; Saris, Wim Hm; Astrup, Arne; Hager, Jörg; Masoodi, Mojgan

    2016-09-01

    An aim of weight loss is to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in obese subjects. However, the relation with long-term glycemic improvement remains unknown. We evaluated the changes in lipid composition during weight loss and their association with long-term glycemic improvement. We investigated the plasma lipidome of 383 obese, nondiabetic patients within a randomized, controlled dietary intervention in 8 European countries at baseline, after an 8-wk low-caloric diet (LCD) (800-1000 kcal/d), and after 6 mo of weight maintenance. After weight loss, a lipid signature identified 2 groups of patients who were comparable at baseline but who differed in their capacities to lose weight and improve glycemic control. Six months after the LCD, one group had significant glycemic improvement [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) mean change: -0.92; 95% CI: -1.17, -0.67)]. The other group showed no improvement in glycemic control (HOMA-IR mean change: -0.26; 95% CI: -0.64, 0.13). These differences were sustained for ≥1 y after the LCD. The same conclusions were obtained with other endpoints (Matsuda index and fasting insulin and glucose concentrations). Significant differences between the 2 groups were shown in leptin gene expression in adipose tissue biopsies. Significant differences were also observed in weight-related endpoints (body mass index, weight, and fat mass). The lipid signature allowed prediction of which subjects would be considered to be insulin resistant after 6 mo of weight maintenance [validation's receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC): 71%; 95% CI: 62%, 81%]. This model outperformed a clinical data-only model (validation's ROC AUC: 61%; 95% CI: 50%, 71%; P = 0.01). In this study, we report a lipid signature of LCD success (for weight and glycemic outcome) in obese, nondiabetic patients. Lipid changes during an 8-wk LCD allowed us to predict insulin-resistant patients after 6 mo of weight

  13. Diabetes Distress and Glycemic Control: The Buffering Effect of Autonomy Support From Important Family Members and Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Aaron A; Piette, John D; Heisler, Michele; Rosland, Ann-Marie

    2018-03-29

    To examine whether autonomy support (defined as social support for an individual's personal agency) for diabetes management from informal health supporters (family/friends) reduces the detrimental effects of diabetes distress on glycemic control. Three hundred eight veterans with type 2 diabetes and one or more risk factors for diabetes complications completed a survey that included measures of diabetes distress and perceived autonomy support from their main informal health supporter. Hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) data from 12 months before and after the survey were extracted from electronic medical records. Linear mixed modeling examined the main effects and interaction of autonomy support and diabetes distress on repeated measures of HbA 1c over the 12 months after the survey, controlling for mean prior 12-month HbA 1c , time, insulin use, age, and race/ethnicity. Diabetes distress ( B = 0.12 [SE 0.05]; P = 0.023) was associated with higher and autonomy support ( B = -0.16 [SE 0.07]; P = 0.032), with lower subsequent HbA 1c levels. Autonomy support moderated the relationship between diabetes distress and HbA 1c ( B = -0.13 [SE 0.06]; P = 0.027). Greater diabetes distress was associated with higher HbA 1c at low ( B = 0.21 [SE 07]; P = 0.002) but not high ( B = 0.01 [SE 0.07]; P = 0.890) autonomy support. Autonomy support from main health supporters may contribute to better glycemic control by ameliorating the effects of diabetes distress. Interventions that reduce diabetes distress and enhance the autonomy supportiveness of informal supporters may be effective approaches to improving glycemic control. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  14. Effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment on clinical response and glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients with periodontitis: Controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajitha Kanduluru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM and chronic periodontitis are common chronic diseases in adults in the world population. Once periodontal disease is established, the chronic nature of this infection may contribute to worsening of diabetic status leading to more severe diabetes-related complications. It has been proposed that the relation of periodontitis and diabetes is bidirectional. Objectives: The objective was to compare the clinical response and glycemic control in type 2 DM patients with periodontitis, before and after the nonsurgical periodontal treatment with controls. Materials and Methods: A total 70 type 2 DM patients with chronic generalized moderate periodontitis was divided into 2 groups. Treatment group (35 received one stage full mouth scaling and root planning plus oral hygiene instructions; the control group (35 received only oral hygiene instructions. At baseline, 1 st month and 3 rd month, the clinical periodontal parameters (plaque index [PI], gingival index [GI], pocket depth [PD], clinical attachment loss [CAL], gingival recession [GR], and bleeding on probing [BOP] and glycemic parameters (fasting blood sugar [FBS], and postprandial blood sugar [PPBS] were recorded, whereas the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c was recorded only at baseline and 3rd month. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: When comparing the mean scores of clinical parameters for both the groups, there was a significant difference in all clinical parameters, that is, mean PI, GI, BOP, PD, CAL scores except mean GR, whereas for the glycemic parameters, there was a significant difference in mean FBS; PPBS values and no significant difference in mean percentage of HbA1c for treatment group at 3 rd month follow-up. Conclusion: Findings of the present study showed that nonsurgical periodontal treatment resulted in lower glycemic levels and the reduction of clinical parameters of periodontal infection, confirming the

  15. The effect of breakfast type and frequency of consumption on glycemic response in overweight/obese late adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwattar, A Y; Thyfault, J P; Leidy, H J

    2015-08-01

    The primary aim was to examine the daily glycemic response to normal-protein (NP) vs higher-protein (HP) breakfasts in overweight adolescents who habitually skip breakfast (H-BS). The secondary aim examined whether the glycemic response to these meals differed in H-BS vs habitual breakfast consumers (H-BC). Thirty-five girls (age: 19 ± 1 year; body mass index: 28.4 ± 0.7 kg/m(2)) participated in the semi-randomized crossover-design study. The participants were grouped according to habitual breakfast frequency. H-BS (n = 20) continued to skip breakfast (BS) or consumed a NP (12 g protein) or HP (32 g protein) breakfast for 3 days, whereas the H-BC (n = 15) completed the NP and HP breakfast conditions for 3 days. On day 4 of each pattern, an 8 h testing day was completed. The respective breakfast and a standard lunch meal were provided, and plasma was collected to assess morning, afternoon, and total glucose and insulin area under the curves (AUC). In H-BS, the addition of a HP breakfast increased total glucose AUC vs BS (P < 0.05), whereas NP breakfast increased total insulin AUC vs BS (P < 0.05). In H-BC, the HP breakfast reduced morning, afternoon and total glucose AUCs vs NP (all, P < 0.05). No differences in insulin were detected. When comparing the HP-NP differential glycemic responses between groups, H-BS experienced greater afternoon and total glucose AUCs following HP vs NP breakfasts (both, P<0.05). No differences in insulin responses were observed between groups. Novel differences in the glucose response to HP vs NP breakfasts were observed and were influenced by the frequency of habitual breakfast consumption in overweight adolescents.

  16. Glycemic Control and Urinary Tract Infections in Women with Type 1 Diabetes: Results from the DCCT/EDIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenherr, Sara M; Clemens, J Quentin; Braffett, Barbara H; Cleary, Patricia A; Dunn, Rodney L; Hotaling, James M; Jacobson, Alan M; Kim, Catherine; Herman, William; Brown, Jeanette S; Wessells, Hunter; Sarma, Aruna V

    2016-10-01

    We examined the relationship between glycemic control and urinary tract infections in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Women enrolled in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study, the observational followup of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, were surveyed to assess the rate of physician diagnosed urinary tract infections in the preceding 12 months. The relationship between glycated hemoglobin levels and number of urinary tract infections in the previous 12 months was assessed using a multivariable Poisson regression model. A total of 572 women were evaluated at year 17. Mean age was 50.7 ± 7.2 years, mean body mass index was 28.6 ± 5.9 kg/m(2), mean type 1 diabetes duration was 29.8 ± 5.0 years and mean glycated hemoglobin was 8.0% ± 0.9%. Of these women 86 (15.0%) reported at least 1 physician diagnosed urinary tract infection during the last 12 months. Higher glycated hemoglobin levels were significantly associated with number of urinary tract infections such that for every unit increase (1%) in recent glycated hemoglobin level, there was a 21% (p=0.02) increase in urinary tract infection frequency in the previous 12 months after adjusting for race, hysterectomy status, urinary incontinence, sexual activity in the last 12 months, peripheral and autonomic neuropathy, and nephropathy. The frequency of urinary tract infections increases with poor glycemic control in women with type 1 diabetes. This relationship is independent of other well described predictors of urinary tract infections and suggests that factors directly related to glycemic control may influence the risk of lower urinary tract infections. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Periodontitis and glycemic control in diabetes: NHANES 2009 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Dina; Tarima, Sergey; Okunseri, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    This study examines the association between periodontitis, diabetes (DM), and glycemic control. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for 2009 to 2012 were analyzed. Periodontitis status of each participant was assessed using the full-mouth periodontal examination protocol, classified using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Periodontology surveillance case definition for total periodontitis. Self-reported DM status was defined as yes or no. Glycemic control was assessed using glycohemoglobin data at cutoff points of 7.0%, 7.5%, 8.0%, 8.5%, and 9.0%. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed, and all analyses were adjusted for the survey design. Overall, 7,042 adults ≥30 years old with complete data were included in the study. The mean glycohemoglobin levels for individuals with and without periodontitis were 5.9% and 5.6%, respectively, and increased to 7.4% and 7.0% for participants with DM. The majority of participants with and without periodontitis were aged 50 to 64 and 35 to 49 years (37.4% versus 44.5%), respectively. In the bivariate analysis, several demographic factors were significantly associated with having periodontitis, including self-reported DM status and glycemic control. In the multivariate analysis, demographic factors, glycohemoglobin cutoff values of 8.0%, 8.5%, and 9.0%, and mean glycohemoglobin level remained significant, but self-reported DM status was not. This study demonstrates that glycohemoglobin and demographic factors are significantly associated with periodontitis, but not self-reported status.

  18. Subjective mood and energy levels of healthy weight and overweight/obese healthy adults on high-and low-glycemic load experimental diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breymeyer, Kara L; Lampe, Johanna W; McGregor, Bonnie A; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2016-12-01

    Emerging evidence suggests a positive association of diet and obesity with depression. Researchers have examined several diet-mood hypotheses, including investigating the extent to which carbohydrates may impact mood. There is limited research on how glycemic load, a characteristic of carbohydrates, impacts mood in healthy adults. Eighty-two healthy weight and overweight/obese, but otherwise healthy, adults enrolled in a randomized, crossover controlled feeding study testing low-compared to high-glycemic load diets. All participants completed self-report mood and energy level questionnaires during each arm of the intervention. Diets were isocaloric and were matched by macronutrient content as a percent of total energy. Mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS) subscales; tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigor-activity, fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment, total mood disturbance (TMD), and negative affect (NA) in addition to the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression (CES-D) scale at baseline and end of both 28-day feeding periods. Linear mixed models tested the intervention effect on mood, controlling for baseline POMS and CES-D scores, diet type, diet sequence, feeding period, sex, and percent body fat classification. The consumption of the high-glycemic load diet resulted in a 38% higher score for depressive symptoms on the CES-D (P = 0.002) compared to the low-glycemic load diet as well as 55% higher score for TMD (P = 0.05), and 26% higher score for fatigue/inertia (P = 0.04). In subgroup analyses, the overweight/obese participants had 40% higher scores on the CES-D scale compared to healthy weight participants (P = 0.05). In conclusion, a high-glycemic load diet was associated with higher depression symptoms, total mood disturbance, and fatigue compared to a low-glycemic load diet especially in overweight/obese, but otherwise healthy, adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT

  19. Interaction between functional health literacy, patient activation, and glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodard LD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available LeChauncy D Woodard, Cassie R Landrum, Amber B Amspoker, David Ramsey, Aanand D Naik Veterans Affairs Health Services Research and Development Center for Innovations in Quality, Effectiveness and Safety, Michael E DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Section of Health Services Research, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA Background: Functional health literacy (FHL and patient activation can impact diabetes control through enhanced diabetes self-management. Less is known about the combined effect of these characteristics on diabetes outcomes. Using brief, validated measures, we examined the interaction between FHL and patient activation in predicting glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c control among a cohort of multimorbid diabetic patients.Methods: We administered a survey via mail to 387 diabetic patients with coexisting ­hypertension and ischemic heart disease who received outpatient care at one regional VA medical center between November 2010 and December 2010. We identified patients with the study conditions using the International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision-Clinical ­Modification (ICD-9-CM diagnoses codes and Current Procedure Terminology (CPT ­procedures codes. Surveys were returned by 195 (50.4% patients. We determined patient activation levels based on participant responses to the 13-item Patient Activation Measure and FHL levels using the single-item screening question, “How confident are you filling out medical forms by yourself?” We reviewed patient medical records to assess glycemic control. We used multiple logistic regression to examine whether activation and FHL were individually or jointly related to HbA1c control.Results: Neither patient activation nor FHL was independently related to glycemic control in the unadjusted main effects model; however, the interaction between the two was significantly associated with glycemic control (odds ratio 1.05 [95% confidence

  20. Tight glycemic control in the ICU - is the earth flat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steil, Garry M; Agus, Michael S D

    2014-06-27

    Tight glycemic control in the ICU has been shown to reduce mortality in some but not all prospective randomized control trials. Confounding the interpretation of these studies are differences in how the control was achieved and underlying incidence of hypoglycemia, which can be expected to be affected by the introduction of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). In this issue of Critical Care, a consensus panel provides a list of the research priorities they believe are needed for CGM to become routine practice in the ICU. We reflect on these recommendations and consider the implications for using CGM today.

  1. Mixed and Mixing Systems Worldwide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sean.Donlan

    MIXED AND MIXING SYSTEMS WORLDWIDE: A PREFACE. 2012 VOLUME 15 No 3 ... dissenters, Mixed Jurisdictions Worldwide galvanised scholarship on mixed systems, especially for jurists in those ... Comparative Law, the International Association of Legal Science and numerous law faculties across the classical ...

  2. Is there a need to optimize glycemic control in hemodialyzed diabetic patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    2006-01-01

    The report of Williams et al. gives rise to at least two important questions regarding diabetic patients on maintenance hemodialysis: (1) Does glycemic control play a significant role? (2) Is HbA1c a reliable measure of glycemic control? These questions are discussed. It is recommended that you...... treat ESRD patients with diabetes according to guidelines given for patients without ESRD....

  3. Peri-implant conditions and levels of advanced glycation end products among patients with different glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sowygh, Zeyad H; Ghani, Siti Mariam Ab; Sergis, Konstantinos; Vohra, Fahim; Akram, Zohaib

    2018-01-19

    A close relationship between poor glycemic control and peri-implant break down has been demonstrated. It is hypothesized that levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) are higher with increased glycemic levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. In the present study, we examined the clinical and radiographic peri-implant parameters and levels of AGEs among different glycemic levels in diabetic patients and assessed whether the levels of AGEs correlate with clinical peri-implant parameters. Ninety-three patients who participated in this study were divided into four groups; Group-1: HbA1c 6.1%-8%; Group-2: HbA1c 8.1%-10%; Group-3: HbA1c > 10%; Group-4: non-diabetic individuals with HbA1c implant plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD) and crestal bone loss (CBL) were recorded. Levels of AGEs in PISF were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Between-group comparison of means was verified with Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson correlation coefficient for correlations of AGE levels with peri-implant parameters. Peri-implant PI, BOP, PD, and CBL were significantly higher in group-1, -2, and -3 as compared to non-diabetic patients (P  .05). Mean levels of AGEs in PISF were significantly higher in relation to higher levels of HbA1c levels. Significant positive correlations were found between AGEs and PD (P = .0221) and CBL (P = .0425); and significant negative correlation was found for PI (P = .0376) in patients with HbA1c levels >10%, respectively. Clinical and radiographic peri-implant parameters were poor and levels of AGEs were significantly high in patients with high glycemic levels. These findings suggest that AGEs may be considered as potential marker of inflammation in diabetic individuals with peri-implantitis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Mixing of pharmaceutical solids. III: Multivariate statistical analysis of multicomponent mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowhan, Z T; Chi, L H

    1981-03-01

    The multicomponent mixing for cohesive powders was evaluated by multivariate statistical methods. Tests were carried out for the sampling technique, completely random state and completely segregated state. Hotelling's statistics were not helpful in testing the practical sampling technique. Comparisons of the mixing indexes based on univariate and multivariate statistics indicated excellent consistency in optimizing mixing time. Neither mixing index approached unity because cohesive powders do not reach a completely random state. The multivariate mixing index was smaller than the univariate indexes largely due to interparticular forces among small cohesive particles.

  5. Influence of two breakfast meals differing in glycemic load on satiety, hunger, and energy intake in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganji Vijay

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycemic load (GL is the product of glycemic index of a food and amount of available carbohydrate in that food divided by 100. GL represents quality and quantity of dietary carbohydrate. Little is known about the role of GL in hunger, satiety, and food intake in preschool children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two breakfast meals differing in GL on hunger, satiety, and subsequent food intake at lunch in preschool children aged 4-6 y. Methods Twenty three subjects consumed low-GL (LGL and high-GL (HGL breakfast meals according to a randomized crossover design followed by an ad libitum lunch 4 h after consumption of breakfast. Children were asked to consume meals until they are full. Each treatment was repeated twice in non-consecutive days and data were averaged. Results Children in LGL group consumed significantly lower amounts of GL, total carbohydrate, energy, energy density, and dietary fiber and higher amounts of protein and fat at the breakfast compared to those in HGL group. Prior to lunch, children were hungrier in the HGL intervention group compared to the LGL intervention group (P Conclusions Decreased hunger in children prior to lunch in LGL group is likely due to higher protein and fat content of LGL breakfast. Diets that are low in GL can be recommended as part of healthy diet for preschool children.

  6. Levels of acculturation and effect on glycemic control in Mexicans and Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sarah E; Franks, Susan F; Hall, James; Young, Richard; Cardarelli, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Acculturation of Mexican Americans toward the predominant American culture has been shown to influence health outcomes. Little is known about the role of acculturation in diabetes control. To measure the association between acculturation and diabetes control in Mexicans and Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Cross-sectional survey and chart review. Ambulatory family medicine clinics. Sixty-six Mexican and Mexican American adults with T2DM for ≥ 1 year. INSTRUMENT AND OUTCOMES: A survey tool was developed that included the General Acculturation Index developed by Balcazar et al to measure acculturation. Basic demographics, psychosocial factors, patient satisfaction, and patients' most recent hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) levels were also obtained. There was no significant correlation between acculturation score and HbA(1c) levels. On binary logistic regression, HbA(1c) levels were associated with patient satisfaction in having their questions answered (odds ratio [OR], 0.44; P Acculturation was not associated with glycemic control in this population. Family physicians should not assume that acculturation difficulties explain poor glycemic control in their Mexican American patients with T2DM.

  7. Phytotherapy in reducing glycemic index and testicular oxidative stress resulting from induced diabetes: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,J. S.; Silva,A. A. N.; Silva Junior,V. A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Oxidative stress plays a main role in the development of diabetes complications. The impairment of gonadal antioxidant potential and endocrine disturbance in diabetic males causes testicular damage and failure in sperm production. Plants have been widely used to control diabetes due their hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential, contributing towards the recovery of testicular function. Current study comprises a review of the literature on the main medicinal plants used in the recovery...

  8. High-glycemic index carbohydrates abrogate the antiobesity effect of fish oil in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Qin; Lillefosse, Haldis Haukås; Fjære, Even

    2012-01-01

    Fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is known to attenuate diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue inflammation in rodents. Here we aimed to investigate whether different carbohydrate sources modulated the antiobesity effects of fish oil. By feeding C57BL/6J mice isocaloric high...... metabolic effects of fish oil by demonstrating that high-GI carbohydrates attenuate the antiobesity effects of fish oil....

  9. Phytotherapy in reducing glycemic index and testicular oxidative stress resulting from induced diabetes: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, J. S.; Silva, A. A. N.; Silva Junior, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oxidative stress plays a main role in the development of diabetes complications. The impairment of gonadal antioxidant potential and endocrine disturbance in diabetic males causes testicular damage and failure in sperm production. Plants have been widely used to control diabetes due their hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential, contributing towards the recovery of testicular function. Current study comprises a review of the literature on the main medicinal plants used in the recovery...

  10. Socioeconomic Status and Glycemic Index Among Punjabis in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Possible Association with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Satvinder; Yim, Hip Seng; Abdul Jalil, Rohana; Mohd-Yusof, Barakatun-Nisak; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan

    2018-03-30

    There are only limited reports on Punjabi's health status in Malaysia. This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (Mets) and its risk factors among 277 subjects recruited from the Malaysian Punjabi community. Overall prevalence of Mets was 43%, but 61% among females. Subjects classified with Mets had significantly (p household income (OR 2.30, CI 1.01-5.20, p = 0.046), GI (OR 1.03, CI 1.00-1.06, p = 0.026), and age (OR 1.03, CI 1.00-1.05, p = 0.023). Mets shows high prevalence among the studied Punjabi population, prompting the consideration of adequate preventive measures, primarily among lower socioeconomic groups.

  11. Factors associated with glycemic control in people with diabetes at the Family Health Strategy in Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fonseca Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Identifying factors associated with glycemic control in people with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM registered in the Family Health Strategy (FHS in Pernambuco, Brazil. METHOD Associations between glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin A lower or equal to 7% presented by people with DM and variables related to sociodemographic conditions, lifestyle, characteristics of diabetes, treatment and follow-up of patients by health services were investigated by multiple regression. RESULTS More than 65% of the participants presented inadequate glycemic control, especially those with lower age, longer illness duration, more annual contacts with FHS and complex therapeutic regimen. People with DM without referrals to specialists presented greater glycemic control. Associations with education level and obesity did not remain significant in the multivariate model. CONCLUSION The evolution of diabetes hinders adequate control, however, attention to younger people with DM and referrals to specialists are factors that can improve glycemic control.

  12. [Effect of consumption of bread with amaranth (Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.) on glycemic response and biochemical parameters in Sprague dawley rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Quintero, Keyla Carolina; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Molina, Edgar Alí; Colina-Barriga, Máximo Segundo; Sánchez-Urdaneta, Adriana Beatriz

    2014-11-01

    The incorporation of functional ingredients like amaranth (Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.) in bread making is a strategy to increase fiber intake, which is associated with beneficial health effects, improving glycemic response and lipid profile. Thirty male Sprague dawley rats were randomized into three groups: diet of bread with 0% amaranth (PA0, control), diet of bread with 10% amaranth (PA10) and bread diet with 20% amaranth (PA20) for determining the feed intake, weight gain, triglyceride, total cholesterol, VLDL-C, LDL-C, HDL-C, protein and postprandial glycemic response. Data were analyzed using a completely randomized with 10 replications analysis, using the comparison test of Tukey for biochemical parameters. Postprandial glycemic response was analyzed by the method of repeated measures over time. The daily intake and weight gain was not affected (P>0.05) in the groups with PA10 and PA20. The concentration of glucose, triglycerides and protein showed statistically significant differences (P>0.05) by the difference in content of amaranth diets. The values of total cholesterol, LDL-C, and atherogenic risk factor index were statistically significant (P. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Acute Ingestion of Native Banana Starch on Glycemic Response Evaluated by Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Obese and Lean Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Jiménez-Domínguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An abnormal glycemic profile, including postprandial glycemia and acute glucose spikes, precedes the onset of overt diabetes in obese subjects. Previous studies have shown the beneficial effects of chronic native banana starch (NBS supplementation. In this study, we examined the effects of acute ingestion of NBS on glycemic profiles by means of continuous glucose monitoring in obese and lean subjects. In a crossover study, obese and lean subjects consumed beverages containing either 38.3 g of NBS or 38.3 g of digestible corn starch (DCS twice daily during 4 days. On day 5, a 3-h meal tolerance test (MTT was performed to evaluate glucose and insulin responses. After 1 week of washout period, treatments were inverted. NBS supplementation reduced the 48-h glycemia AUC in lean, obese, and in the combined group of lean and obese subjects in comparison with DCS. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses at MTT were reduced after NBS in comparison with DCS in all groups. However, no changes were observed in glycemic variability (GV indexes between groups. In conclusion, acute NBS supplementation improved postprandial glucose and insulin responses in obese and lean subjects during 48 h of everyday life and at MTT. Further research to elucidate the mechanism behind these changes is required.

  14. Effect of low glycemic load diet with and without wheat bran on glucose control in gestational diabetes mellitus: A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Afaghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A low-glycemic index diet is effective in blood glucose control of diabetic subjects, reduces insulin requirement in women with gestation diabetes mellitus (GDM and improves pregnancy outcomes when used from beginning of the second trimester. However there are limited reports to examine the effect of low glycemic load (LGL diet and fiber on blood glucose control and insulin requirement of women with GDM. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of low glycemic load diet with and without fiber on reducing the number of women with GDM requiring insulin. Materials and Methods: All GDM women (n = 31 were randomly allocated to consume either a LGL diet with Fiber or LGL diet. Results: We found that 7 (38.9% of 18 women with GDM in Fiber group and 10 (76.9% in "Without Fiber" group required insulin treatment. Conclusion: The LGL diet with added fiber for women with GDM dramatically reduced the number needing for insulin treatment.

  15. Geriatric Family Support and Diabetic Type-2 Glycemic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Heidari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: As the most part of geriatric (65 years and older diabetic care is given at home, family support has an important role in their blood sugar level control care. This study aimed to assess the relationship between family support and blood sugar level control in such elderly suffering type-2 diabetes. Methods & Materials: Via descriptive-correlative study, one hundred fifty geriatric patients with type-2 diabetes, who referred to Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism in Iran University of Medical Sciences were selected. Samplings based on nonrandomized and convenience. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographic data glucose-labeled hemoglobin (HbA1C and received-perceived family support by applying the standard questionnaire of "Diabetes Social Support-Family Version" format. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15 by using Chi-square and Pierson Tests. Results: Results showed a significant relationship between family support and glycemic control (r=-0.56, P<0.0001. Also there were significant relationships between family support, gender and marital status (P<0.0001. There were also significant relationships between glycemic control and marital status (P=0.02, financial status (P=0.04 and educational level (P=0.05. Conclusion: Findings of this research added further evidence about the impact of family support on the health of older adults with diabetes. These findings suggest using family centered nursing interventions and collaboration of family members in care of the elderly with type-2 diabetes.

  16. The long-term influence of body mass index on the success rate of mid-urethral sling surgery among women with stress urinary incontinence or stress-predominant mixed incontinence: comparisons between retropubic and transobturator approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seong Jin; Lee, Han Sol; Lee, Jeong Keun; Jeong, Jin Woo; Lee, Sang Cheol; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun

    2014-01-01

    Mid-urethral sling (MUS) surgery for the treatment of urinary incontinence has been widespread since the introduction of tension-free vaginal tape in the mid-1990s. The majority of studies with short-term follow-up body mass index (BMI). However, considering the chronic influence of obesity on pelvic floor musculature, it is cautiously speculated that higher BMI could increase stress on pelvic floor and sub-urethral tape, possibly decreasing the long-term success rate in the obese population. We aimed to compare the long-term effects of BMI on the outcomes of MUS between women with retropubic and transobturator approaches. We performed a retrospective analysis on 243 consecutive women who received MUS and were followed up for ≥36 months. The influence of BMI on the success rates was separately estimated and the factors for treatment failure were examined using logistic regression in either approach. The mean follow-up was 58.4 months, and 30.5% were normal weight, 51.0% overweight, and 18.5% obese. Patients received either the retropubic (30.5%) or transobturator (69.5%) approach. The success rates (%) under the transobturator approach differed according to the BMI groups (94.3, 88.6, and 78.6, respectively; P = 0.037) while those under the retropubic approach were not different according to the BMI groups. However, in multivariate models, only the presence of preoperative mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) was proven to be the risk factor for treatment failure in the transobturator approach (OR 6.39, P = 0.003). The percent of subjects with MUI was higher in obese women than in non-obese women with the transobturator approach. BMI was not independently associated with failures in either approach. Higher success rates in women with lower BMI in the transobturator approach were attributed to the lower percent of preoperative MUI in those with lower BMI.

  17. Retinal neurodegeneration in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: the role of glycemic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picconi, Fabiana; Parravano, Mariacristina; Ylli, Dorina; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Coluzzi, Sara; Giordani, Ilaria; Malandrucco, Ilaria; Lauro, Davide; Scarinci, Fabio; Giorno, Paola; Varano, Monica; Frontoni, Simona

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have identified neuroretinal abnormalities in persons affected by diabetes mellitus, before the onset of microvascular alterations. However, the role of glycemic variability (GV) on early retinal neurodegeneration is still not clarified. To explore the relationship between glycemic control and neuroretinal characteristics, 37 persons with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM) divided into two groups with no signs (noRD) and with mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) compared to 13 healthy control participants (C) were recruited. All persons underwent an optical coherence tomography with automatic segmentation of all neuroretinal layers. Measurements of mean of nasal (N)/temporal (T)/superior (S)/inferior (I) macular quadrants for individual layer were also calculated. Metabolic control was evaluated by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and indexes of GV were calculated from continuous glucose monitoring. The difference among the three groups in terms of RNFL thickness was significantly dependent on quadrant (F(6;132) = 2.315; p = 0.037). This interaction was due to a specific difference in RNFL-N thickness, where both Type 1 DM groups showed a similar reduction versus C (-3.9 for noDR and -4.9 for NPDR), without any relevant difference between them (-1.0). Inner nuclear layer (INL) was increased in all quadrants in the two Type 1 DM groups compared to C (mean difference = 7.73; 95% CI: 0.32-15.14, p = 0.043; mean difference = 7.74; 95% CI: 0.33-15.15, p = 0.043, respectively). A negative correlation between RNFL-N and low blood glucose index (r = -0.382, p = 0.034) and positive correlation between INL and continuous overall net glycemic action -1, -2, -4 h (r = 0.40, p = 0.025; r = 0.39, p = 0.031; r = 0.41, p = 0.021, respectively) were observed in Type 1 DM patients. The triglycerides were positively and significantly correlated to INL (r = 0.48, p = 0.011), in Type 1 DM subjects. GV and triglycerides

  18. The impact of a daily smartphone-based feedback system among women with gestational diabetes on compliance, glycemic control, satisfaction, and pregnancy outcome: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miremberg, Hadas; Ben-Ari, Tal; Betzer, Tal; Raphaeli, Hagit; Gasnier, Rose; Barda, Giulia; Bar, Jacob; Weiner, Eran

    2018-04-01

    Patient compliance and tight glycemic control have been demonstrated to improve outcome in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus. The use of advanced technological tools, including smartphone-based platforms, to improve medical care and outcomes has been demonstrated in various fields of medicine, but only a few small studies were performed with gestational diabetes mellitus patients. We aimed to study the impact of introducing a smartphone-based daily feedback and communication platform between gestational diabetes mellitus patients and their physicians, on patient compliance, glycemic control, pregnancy outcome, and patient satisfaction. This is a prospective, single-center, randomized controlled trial. Newly diagnosed gestational diabetes mellitus patients presenting to our multidisciplinary diabetes-in-pregnancy clinic were randomized to: (1) routine biweekly prenatal clinic care (control group); or (2) additional daily detailed feedback on their compliance and glycemic control from the clinic team via an application installed on their smartphone (smartphone group). The primary outcome was patient compliance defined as the actual blood glucose measurements/instructed measurements ×100. The secondary outcomes included diabetes-control parameters, pregnancy, and neonatal outcomes. The study was adequately powered to detect a 20% difference in patient compliance, based on a preliminary phase that demonstrated 70% baseline compliance to glucose measurements. A total of 120 newly diagnosed gestational diabetes mellitus patients were analyzed. The 2 groups did not differ in terms of age, parity, education, body mass index, family history, maternal comorbidities, oral glucose tolerance test values, and hemoglobin A1C at randomization. The smartphone group demonstrated higher level of compliance (84 ± 0.16% vs 66 ± 0.28%, P diabetes mellitus patients and the multidisciplinary diabetes-in-pregnancy clinic team improved patient compliance and

  19. Effectiveness of an Interprofessional Glycemic Optimization Clinic on Preoperative Glycated Hemoglobin Levels for Adult Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Undergoing Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlden, Robyn L; Yen, Joy L; Moore, Sarah

    2017-12-26

    Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes and refractory obesity; however, many patients have nonoptimal glycemic control preoperatively. We created an interprofessional bariatric glycemic optimization clinic. Patients were seen monthly and received weekly phone calls. We analyzed the effectiveness in assisting patients reach a preoperative glycated hemoglobin (A1C) level of weight was 134.4±29.2 kg. Baseline body mass index was 48.2±8.3 kg/m 2 . Duration of diabetes was 9±7.9 years. Baseline A1C level was 9.0±1.2%. Number of antihyperglycemic agents at baseline was 2.7±0.96. Seventy-five percent reached a target A1C level of ≤7.5%, 92% reached a target of ≤8.0% and 95% reached a target of ≤8.5%; 32% had achieved A1C levels ≤7.5% at 1 month, 59% at 2 months, 70% at 3 months, 73% at 4 months and 75% at 5 months. Mean number of antihyperglycemic agents at target A1C levels was 3.6±1.1. Mean absolute decrease in A1C levels from baseline to target A1C levels was 1.7±1.2. Mean absolute change in weight was -1.9±8.0 kg. Percent change in body weight from baseline to target A1C level was -1.3±4.9%. Glycemic optimization for candidates with diabetes for bariatric surgery is possible in a short time by an interprofessional diabetes team and without weight gain. Further research is needed to determine whether better preoperative glycemic control improves bariatric surgery outcomes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Effect of tree nuts on glycemic control in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled dietary trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effie Viguiliouk

    Full Text Available Tree nut consumption has been associated with reduced diabetes risk, however, results from randomized trials on glycemic control have been inconsistent.To provide better evidence for diabetes guidelines development, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to assess the effects of tree nuts on markers of glycemic control in individuals with diabetes.MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases through 6 April 2014.Randomized controlled trials ≥3 weeks conducted in individuals with diabetes that compare the effect of diets emphasizing tree nuts to isocaloric diets without tree nuts on HbA1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR.Two independent reviewer's extracted relevant data and assessed study quality and risk of bias. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method and expressed as mean differences (MD with 95% CI's. Heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q-statistic and quantified (I2.Twelve trials (n = 450 were included. Diets emphasizing tree nuts at a median dose of 56 g/d significantly lowered HbA1c (MD = -0.07% [95% CI:-0.10, -0.03%]; P = 0.0003 and fasting glucose (MD = -0.15 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.27, -0.02 mmol/L]; P = 0.03 compared with control diets. No significant treatment effects were observed for fasting insulin and HOMA-IR, however the direction of effect favoured tree nuts.Majority of trials were of short duration and poor quality.Pooled analyses show that tree nuts improve glycemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes, supporting their inclusion in a healthy diet. Owing to the uncertainties in our analyses there is a need for longer, higher quality trials with a focus on using nuts to displace high-glycemic index carbohydrates.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01630980.

  1. Characteristics Associated With Decreased or Increased Mortality Risk From Glycemic Therapy Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and High Cardiovascular Risk: Machine Learning Analysis of the ACCORD Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Raghavan, Sridharan; Wexler, Deborah J; Berkowitz, Seth A

    2018-03-01

    Identifying patients who may experience decreased or increased mortality risk from intensive glycemic therapy for type 2 diabetes remains an important clinical challenge. We sought to identify characteristics of patients at high cardiovascular risk with decreased or increased mortality risk from glycemic therapy for type 2 diabetes using new methods to identify complex combinations of treatment effect modifiers. The machine learning method of gradient forest analysis was applied to understand the variation in all-cause mortality within the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial ( N = 10,251), whose participants were 40-79 years old with type 2 diabetes, hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) ≥7.5% (58 mmol/mol), cardiovascular disease (CVD) or multiple CVD risk factors, and randomized to target HbA 1c intensive) or 7.0-7.9% (53-63 mmol/mol; standard). Covariates included demographics, BMI, hemoglobin glycosylation index (HGI; observed minus expected HbA 1c derived from prerandomization fasting plasma glucose), other biomarkers, history, and medications. The analysis identified four groups defined by age, BMI, and HGI with varied risk for mortality under intensive glycemic therapy. The lowest risk group (HGI intensive therapy (95% CI 0.2 to 4.5, P = 0.038; number needed to treat: 43), whereas the highest risk group (HGI ≥0.44) had an absolute mortality risk increase of 3.7% attributable to intensive therapy (95% CI 1.5 to 6.0; P intensive glycemic therapy. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  2. The acute effects of interval- vs. continuous-walking exercise on glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Christensen, Camilla S; Pedersen, Bente K

    2014-01-01

    Context: Glycemic control improves with physical activity, but the optimal exercise mode is unknown. Objective: To determine whether interval-based exercise improves postprandial glucose tolerance and free-living glycemia more than oxygen-consumption and time-duration matched continuous exercise....... Design: Cross-over, controlled with trials performed in randomized order. Setting: Hospitalized and ambulatory care. Patients: Diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2DM; n=10, no withdrawels). Interventions: Subjects performed three 1-hour interventions: 1) interval-walking (IW; repeated cycles of 3 minutes...... of slow and fast walking); 2) continuous-walking (CW); 3) Control (CON). Oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured continuously to match mean VO2 between exercise sessions (∼75% VO2peak). Main Outcome Measures: A mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT; 450 kcal, 55% carbohydrate) with stable glucose isotopic tracers...

  3. Meal frequency patterns and glycemic properties of maternal diet in relation to preterm delivery: Results from a large prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Englund-Ögge

    Full Text Available Dietary habits are linked to high maternal glucose levels, associated with preterm delivery. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between meal frequency and glycemic properties of maternal diet in relation to preterm delivery.This prospective cohort study included 66,000 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Meal frequency and food intake data were obtained from a validated food frequency questionnaire during mid-pregnancy. Principal component factor analysis was used with a data-driven approach, and three meal frequency patterns were identified: "snack meal", "main meal", and "evening meal". Pattern scores were ranked in quartiles. Glycemic index and glycemic load were estimated from table values. Intakes of carbohydrates, added sugar, and fiber were reported in grams per day and divided into quartiles. Gestational age was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Preterm delivery was defined as birth at <37 gestational weeks. A Cox regression model was used to assess associations with preterm delivery.After adjustments, the "main meal" pattern was associated with a reduced risk of preterm delivery, with hazard ratios (HRs of 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.80, 0.98 and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.99 for the third and fourth quartiles, respectively, and p for trend of 0.028. This was mainly attributed to the group of women with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, with HRs of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.96 and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.98 for the third and fourth quartiles, respectively, and p for trend of 0.010. There was no association between glycemic index, glycemic load, carbohydrates, added sugar, fiber, or the remaining meal frequency patterns and preterm delivery.Regular consumption of main meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner was associated with a lower risk of preterm delivery. Diet should be further studied as potential contributing factors for preterm delivery.

  4. Diabetes management and glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes: test of a predictive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittenbach, Richard; Rohan, Jennifer M.; Gupta, Resmi; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a comprehensive model of biologic (pubertal status), family (communication and conflict), and psychological influences (behavioral autonomy) on diabetes management and glycemic control in a sample of youth (N = 226) with type 1 diabetes recruited during late childhood/early adolescence (ages 9–11 years). The study design was a prospective, multisite, multi-method study involving prediction of diabetes management and glycemic control 1 year post-baseline. The primary outcome measures included diabetes management behaviors based on the Diabetes Self-Management Profile (DSMP) administered separately to mothers and youth and glycemic control measured by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) obtained by blood samples and analyzed by a central laboratory to ensure standardization. Our hypothesized predictive model received partial support based on structural equation modeling analyses. Family conflict predicted less adequate glycemic control 1 year later (p < 0.05). Higher conflict predicted less adequate diabetes management and less adequate glycemic control. More advanced pubertal status also predicted less adequate glycemic control, but behavioral autonomy did not. Family conflict is an important, potentially clinically significant influence on glycemic control that should be considered in primary and secondary prevention in the management of type 1 diabetes in youth. PMID:22569775

  5. Glycemic control of diabetes patients under continuous rocket attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskolne, Varda; Dekel, Rachel; Vinker, Shlomo

    2016-01-01

    Evidence regarding the detrimental effects of exposure to stress on glycemic control among diabetes patients has mainly focused on personal life events or acute trauma. However, the effects of continuous exposure to extreme stress on type 2 diabetes patients have rarely been studied. The aim of the current study was to examine the association of continuous exposure to rocket attacks with glycemic control and with risk factors for diabetes complications among civilian type 2 diabetes patients. We focus on patients residing in the Western Negev in the south of Israel that has been subjected to rocket attacks fired from Gaza since the end of 2001. A two-arm retrospective cohort study of type 2 diabetes patients, aged 35-70 years, residing in a region with chronic exposure to rocket attacks (N = 1697) and in a non-exposed comparison region in Israel (N = 3000). Data were retrieved from the Health Maintenance Organization (HMO)'s database for four time periods representing exposure: chronic-2008; elevated-2009 (post'Cast Lead' operation); return to chronic-2010, 2011. Data included socio-demographic variables, HbA 1c , BMI, LDL cholesterol, blood pressure. General Linear Models (GLM) were used for analysis. For HbA 1c , the model yielded a significant main effect for time, a borderline significance main effect for region, and a significant time by region interaction: no differences in HbA 1c levels between the regions in 2008 and 2009, followed by significant differences between the regions in 2010 and 2011 when HbA 1c continued to increase in the exposed region but decreased in the comparison region. Regarding risk factors, a significant main effect for time for LDL cholesterol only, and significant main effects for region were found in all factors: BMI and LDL cholesterol were higher in the exposed than in the comparison region, but blood pressure values were lower. Continuous exposure to rocket attacks is associated with glycemic control and risk factors in a

  6. Differential lipid profile and hormonal response in type 2 diabetes by exogenous insulin aspart versus the insulin secretagogue repaglinide, at the same glycemic control

    OpenAIRE

    Chisalita, Simona Ioana; Lindström, Torbjörn; Eson Jennersjö, Pär; Paulsson, Johan; Westermark, Gunilla; Olsson, Anders; Arnqvist, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to study, at the same glycemic control, how treatment with either the insulin secretagogue repaglinide or exogenous insulin aspart affects endogenous insulin secretion, plasma insulin and IAPP (islet amyloid polypeptide) levels, GH-IGF (growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor) axis and plasma lipoprotein concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Five patients, age 65.0 +/- A 4.1 years (mean +/- A SE), body weight 82.5 +/- A 5.0 kg, BMI (body mass index) 27.7 +/- A 1.5 kg/...

  7. Synergistic interaction between prolonged increased glycemic exposure and mildly increased urinary albumin excretion on diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Shinje; Yoo, Hyung-Joon; Ahn, You-Hern; Kim, Gheun-Ho; Yu, Jae Myung; Park, Joon-Sung

    2018-01-01

    The association of mild increase in urinary albumin excretion with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in clinical studies is controversial. The aim of this study is to clarify the interaction between increased glycemic exposure and mild increase in urinary albumin excretion on risk of DR.Data were collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2005 to 2012. Overall, data from 953 participants without microalbuminuria (477 men and 476 women) were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was constructed to evaluate the association between DR and related clinical parameters, including urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR, mg/g creatinine). The biological interaction of glycemic status and UACR on DR was evaluated by 3 indices: RERI, the relative excess risk due to the interaction; AP, the attributable proportion due to the interaction; and S, the additive interaction index of synergy.We found that UACR, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and diabetic duration were deeply associated with increased risk of DR (UACR, odds ratio [OR] = 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.07; HbA1c, OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.04-1.30; diabetic duration, OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04-1.07). Furthermore, our interaction analysis demonstrated that synergistic interaction between HbA1c and UACR on development of DR was prominent in participants with diabetic duration of ≥10 years (adjusted RERI = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.10-1.74; adjusted AP = 0.29, 95% CI = -0.82-1.41; adjusted S = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.27-2.25), but not subjects with shorter diabetic duration.These findings imply that there is the interaction between prolonged hyperglycemic exposure and increased urinary albumin excretion may exert additive synergistic effect on vascular endothelial dysfunction in the eye, even before the appearance of overt diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Comparison of Glycemic Control, Sleep, Fatigue, and Depression in Type 2 Diabetes with and without Restless Legs Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Norma G.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this pilot study was to determine how sleep quality, glycemic control, sleepiness, fatigue, and depression differ in persons with type 2 diabetes with and without restless legs syndrome (RLS). Research Designs/Methods: The design was a descriptive, case-control study of participants with type 2 diabetes with and without RLS at the University of Pennsylvania, Rodebaugh Diabetes Center. Thirty-nine participants (adults over 21 years of age who had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and had a HbA1c in the last 3 months) were stratified based on RLS diagnostic criteria. Exclusion criteria included severe hypoglycemia identified by seizures or coma related to hypoglycemia or known sleep disorder other than RLS. The primary outcome of sleep was measured by self-report sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) with secondary outcomes including HbA1c, sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale), and depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale). Results: Participants with type 2 diabetes with RLS reported a significant difference in quality of sleep (p = .001), sleep latency (p = .04), sleep efficiency (p = .035), use of sleep medications (p < .001), and daytime dysfunction (p = .005). In the total group, higher HbA1c levels were positively correlated with sleepiness (p = .038). Global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores were positively correlated with fatigue (r = .58, p = .002) and depression (r = .74, p < .001). As well, fatigue and sleepiness were positively correlated (r = .36, p = .04). Conclusions: RLS is a significant sleep disorder that may have an impact on diabetes management and health outcomes. More research should be conducted on the impact of RLS in sleep to improve diabetic management. Citation: Cuellar NG; Ratcliffe SJ. A comparison of glycemic control, sleep, fatigue, and depression in type 2 diabetes with and without restless legs syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2008

  9. Obstructive sleep apnea in Type 2 diabetes and impact of continuous positive airway pressure therapy on glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Ahmad Malik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM are two interacting epidemics both with high prevalence and morbidity. Both epidemiologic and clinical studies suggest that the majority of patients with T2DM also have OSA and untreated OSA in these patients results in poor glycemic control leading to acceleration of diabetes-related complications. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and severity of OSA in T2DM patients and to assess the impact of OSA treatment on presenting symptoms and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c. Methods: We performed polysomnography (PSG studies and measured HbA1c in 62 consecutive patients with T2DM that were referred from various subspecialty clinics from July 2011 to August 2013. Results: In our 62 diabetic patients, 59 (95.2% had abnormal PSG. Based on Apnea–Hypopnea Index (AHI score, 3 (5.1% patients had mild, 28 (47.5% had moderate, and 28 (47.5% had severe OSA. The mean AHI of diabetic patients was significantly more than nondiabetic patients, i.e., 25.7 versus 19.7 (P = 0.001. Variables that significantly correlated with the presence of OSA include age, gender, body mass index (BMI, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (P < 0.05; however, on logistic regression only BMI, hypertension, and nocturia correlated with OSA. Overall, 59% of diabetic patients showed improvement in their glycemic control as measured by HbA1c with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP treatment. Significant, moderate, and mild categories of treatment response were respectively observed in 7%, 20%, and 32% of patients. Conclusion: Treatment of OSA with CPAP reduces HbA1c in a significant number of diabetics.

  10. Evaluation of healthy and sensory indexes of sweetened beverages using an electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Luís G., E-mail: ldias@ipb.pt [CIMO – Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); Sequeira, Cédric, E-mail: cedric.b.s@hotmail.com [CIMO – Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); Veloso, Ana C.A., E-mail: anaveloso@isec.pt [Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, ISEC, DEQB, Rua Pedro Nunes, Quinta da Nora, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); CEB – Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Sousa, Mara E.B.C., E-mail: mebsousadias@gmail.com [CIMO – Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal); Peres, António M., E-mail: peres@ipb.pt [LSRE – Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering – Associate Laboratory LSRE/LCM, Escola Superior Agrária, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Bragança (Portugal)

    2014-10-27

    Highlights: • Overconsumption of soft-drinks and fruit-beverages may enhance health risks. • Beverage’s healthy and sensory indexes were calculated using chromatographic data. • A potentiometric electronic tongue with multivariate linear models was applied. • E-tongue discriminated samples according to glycemic load or fructose-intolerance levels. • Healthy and sensory indexes were accurately quantified using E-tongue data. - Abstract: Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may increase the risk of health problems and so, the evaluation of their glycemic load and fructose-intolerance level is essential since it may allow establishing possible relations between physiologic effects of sugar-rich beverages and health. In this work, an electronic tongue was used to accurately classify beverages according to glycemic load (low, medium or high load) as well to their adequacy for people suffering from fructose malabsorption syndrome (tolerable or not): 100% of correct classifications (leave-one-out cross-validation) using linear discriminant models based on potentiomentric signals selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm. These results may be partially explained by the electronic tongue’s capability to mimic the human sweetness perception and total acid flavor of beverages, which can be related with glycemic load and fructose-intolerance index. Finally, the E-tongue was also applied to quantify, accurately, healthy and sensory indexes using multiple linear regression models (leave-one-out cross-validation: R{sub adj} > 0.99) in the following dynamic ranges: 4.7 < glycemic load ≤ 30; 0.4 < fructose intolerance index ≤ 1.5; 32 < sweetness perception < 155; 1.3 < total acid flavor, g L{sup −1} < 8.3; and, 5.8 < well-balanced flavor ≤ 74. So, the proposed electronic tongue could be used as a practical, fast, low-cost and green tool for beverage’s healthy and sensory evaluation.

  11. Evaluation of healthy and sensory indexes of sweetened beverages using an electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Luís G.; Sequeira, Cédric; Veloso, Ana C.A.; Sousa, Mara E.B.C.; Peres, António M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Overconsumption of soft-drinks and fruit-beverages may enhance health risks. • Beverage’s healthy and sensory indexes were calculated using chromatographic data. • A potentiometric electronic tongue with multivariate linear models was applied. • E-tongue discriminated samples according to glycemic load or fructose-intolerance levels. • Healthy and sensory indexes were accurately quantified using E-tongue data. - Abstract: Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may increase the risk of health problems and so, the evaluation of their glycemic load and fructose-intolerance level is essential since it may allow establishing possible relations between physiologic effects of sugar-rich beverages and health. In this work, an electronic tongue was used to accurately classify beverages according to glycemic load (low, medium or high load) as well to their adequacy for people suffering from fructose malabsorption syndrome (tolerable or not): 100% of correct classifications (leave-one-out cross-validation) using linear discriminant models based on potentiomentric signals selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm. These results may be partially explained by the electronic tongue’s capability to mimic the human sweetness perception and total acid flavor of beverages, which can be related with glycemic load and fructose-intolerance index. Finally, the E-tongue was also applied to quantify, accurately, healthy and sensory indexes using multiple linear regression models (leave-one-out cross-validation: R adj > 0.99) in the following dynamic ranges: 4.7 < glycemic load ≤ 30; 0.4 < fructose intolerance index ≤ 1.5; 32 < sweetness perception < 155; 1.3 < total acid flavor, g L −1 < 8.3; and, 5.8 < well-balanced flavor ≤ 74. So, the proposed electronic tongue could be used as a practical, fast, low-cost and green tool for beverage’s healthy and sensory evaluation

  12. Sleep and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schnurbein, Julia; Boettcher, Claudia; Brandt, Stephanie; Karges, Beate; Dunstheimer, Desiree; Galler, Angela; Denzer, Christian; Denzer, Friederike; Vollbach, Heike; Wabitsch, Martin; Roenneberg, Till; Vetter, Celine

    2018-02-01

    Increasing evidence link sleep curtailment and circadian misalignment with adverse metabolic outcome. Adolescents might be most affected, given their late sleep timing and early school and work start times. Our aim was to examine the impact of poor sleeping habits on glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. This was a non-interventional multicenter study across Germany recruiting pubertally mature adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Medical records were used to collect information on diabetes duration, treatment, and complications. Participants self-reported sleep quality, timing, chronotype, and social jetlag-a measure of circadian misalignment. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was determined at the time of questionnaire response. We used multivariable linear regression models to examine associations between sleep and glycemic control. A total of 191 patients aged 16.5 years (mean HbA1c 8.0% [64 mmol/mol]) were included in this study. In multivariable adjusted analyses, sleep quality was significantly associated with HbA1c (mean difference; β = -0.07, P = .05). Stratified analysis indicated that this association might be stronger in boys and also in children with migration background. In contrast, neither sleep duration, sleep debt, chronotype, nor social jetlag was associated with HbA1c . Secondary analyses showed that social jetlag was significantly associated with levels of insulin requirements (mean difference; β = 0.035, P = .03). Our study suggests that poor sleep quality is associated with increased HbA1c in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and that higher levels of circadian misalignment are associated with increased insulin requirements. If replicated, our results indicate a clinical relevance of sleep habits in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Are gastrointestinal symptoms related to diabetes mellitus and glycemic control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christian A; Uwaifo, Gabriel I

    2008-09-01

    Many patients with diabetes mellitus suffer from upper and lower GI symptoms. The reported prevalence of these symptoms varies among different ethnic groups/populations. The natural history of GI symptoms as well as their pathogenesis in patients with diabetes remains poorly understood, although it is known that gastric emptying is influenced by hyperglycemia, euglycemia, and hypoglycemia. Poor glycemic control over a long period of time can lead to neuropathy and damage the vagus nerve, resulting in diabetic gastroparesis whose signs and symptoms vary in the individual patient. Gastroparesis can further worsen glycemic control by adversely altering the pharmacokinetics of orally administered hypoglycemic agents as well as by altering the delivery of diet-derived calories to intestines from which absorption, subsequently, determines incipient blood glucose, and thus effectiveness of various injectable antidiabetics including various insulins and related insulin analogs. As GI symptoms may overlap with other disorders, including functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, and depression, it is important to have such patients/patients with diabetes undergo standardized testing for measuring gastric emptying. Certain medications including metformin, amylin analogues (i.e. pramlintide), glucagon-like peptide 1 analogs (i.e. exenatide, liraglutide), anticholinergic agents, antidepressants, calcium-channel blockers, and others may contribute to GI symptoms observed in patients with diabetes. Given the global diabetes pandemic, it is of utmost importance to not only diagnose and treat present patients with diabetes mellitus and its comorbidities, but also to help prevent the development of further disease burden by educating children and adolescents about healthy lifestyle modifications (avoidance of overeating, portion control, healthy food choices, increased physical and reduced sedentary activity), as changing behavior in adulthood has proven to be notoriously

  14. Afghanistan Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Poul Martin

    2007-01-01

    The Afghanistan index is a compilation of quantitative and qualitative data on the reconstruction and security effort in Afghanistan. The index aims at providing data for benchmarking of the international performance and thus provides the reader with a quick possibility to retrieve valid...... information on progress or lack of progress in the reconstruction of the post Taliban Afghanistan. The index is mainly based on information collected on the internet in order to provide quick access to the original source. The index is under development and thus new information will be added on a continuous...

  15. The long-term influence of body mass index on the success rate of mid-urethral sling surgery among women with stress urinary incontinence or stress-predominant mixed incontinence: comparisons between retropubic and transobturator approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Jin Jeong

    Full Text Available Mid-urethral sling (MUS surgery for the treatment of urinary incontinence has been widespread since the introduction of tension-free vaginal tape in the mid-1990s. The majority of studies with short-term follow-up <2 years found no differences in the surgical outcomes according to body mass index (BMI. However, considering the chronic influence of obesity on pelvic floor musculature, it is cautiously speculated that higher BMI could increase stress on pelvic floor and sub-urethral tape, possibly decreasing the long-term success rate in the obese population. We aimed to compare the long-term effects of BMI on the outcomes of MUS between women with retropubic and transobturator approaches.We performed a retrospective analysis on 243 consecutive women who received MUS and were followed up for ≥36 months. The influence of BMI on the success rates was separately estimated and the factors for treatment failure were examined using logistic regression in either approach.The mean follow-up was 58.4 months, and 30.5% were normal weight, 51.0% overweight, and 18.5% obese. Patients received either the retropubic (30.5% or transobturator (69.5% approach. The success rates (% under the transobturator approach differed according to the BMI groups (94.3, 88.6, and 78.6, respectively; P = 0.037 while those under the retropubic approach were not different according to the BMI groups. However, in multivariate models, only the presence of preoperative mixed urinary incontinence (MUI was proven to be the risk factor for treatment failure in the transobturator approach (OR 6.39, P = 0.003. The percent of subjects with MUI was higher in obese women than in non-obese women with the transobturator approach.BMI was not independently associated with failures in either approach. Higher success rates in women with lower BMI in the transobturator approach were attributed to the lower percent of preoperative MUI in those with lower BMI.

  16. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  17. Pathways from emotional adjustment to glycemic control in youths with diabetes in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S M; Lee, P W; Low, L C; Cheng, A; Yeung, W; Huen, K F; O'Donnell, D

    2000-09-01

    To examine factors that influence emotional adjustment, adherence to diabetic care, and glycemic control in Hong Kong youths with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Seventy youths, their mothers, and matched controls provided information on health beliefs, authoritarian parenting style, parent-child conflict, emotional adjustment, and adherence to medical regimen. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were obtained to measure glycemic control. Predictors explained 34% of the variance in emotional adjustment and 39% of the variance in glycemic control. The data supported a pathway from emotional adjustment to self-efficacy to adherence behaviors to glycemic control. In contrast to Western culture and consistent with prediction, parenting style did not associate with negative outcomes, and even relatively low levels of parent-child conflict correlated negatively with emotional adjustment in this culture. Management of conflict and self-efficacy enhancing interactions are suggested interventions to enhance adherence to diabetic care in Hong Kong youths with IDDM.

  18. Veganism Is a Viable Alternative to Conventional Diet Therapy for Improving Blood Lipids and Glycemic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanowski, John F; Varady, Krista A

    2015-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) have each outlined a set of dietary recommendations aimed at improving glycemic control and blood lipids, respectively. However, traditional vegan diets (low-fat diets that proscribe animal product consumption) are also effective at improving glycemic control, and dietary portfolios (vegan diets that contain prescribed amounts of plant sterols, viscous fibers, soy protein, and nuts) are also effective at improving blood lipids. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of traditional vegan diets and dietary portfolios with ADA and NCEP diets on body weight, blood lipids, blood pressure, and glycemic control. The main findings are that traditional vegan diets appear to improve glycemic control better than ADA diets in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while dietary portfolios have been consistently shown to improve blood lipids better than NCEP diets in hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  19. Perioperative glycemic control in diabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab A. Wahby

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Tight glycemic control improved perioperative outcome in diabetic CABG patients. Maintaining perioperative blood glucose level between 110 and 149 mg/dl is safe and should be recommended as a routine practice in diabetic patients undergoing CABG surgery.

  20. Starch composition, glycemic indices, phenolic constituents, and antioxidative and antidiabetic properties of some common tropical fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu Oboh

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The fruits' low glycemic indices, strong antioxidant properties, and inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities could be possible mechanisms for their use in the management and prevention of type-2 diabetes.

  1. Glycemic control strategies and the occurrence of surgical site infection: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Maria Herrero Domingos

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the evidence available in the scientific literature regarding the relationship between the glycemic control strategies used and the occurrence of surgical site infection in adult patients undergoing surgery. METHOD This is a systematic review performed through search on the databases of CINAHL, MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and EMBASE. RESULTS Eight randomized controlled trials were selected. Despite the diversity of tested interventions, studies agree that glycemic control is essential to reduce rates of surgical site infection, and should be maintained between 80 and 120 mg/dL during the perioperative period. Compared to other strategies, insulin continuous infusion during surgery was the most tested and seems to get better results in reducing rates of surgical site infection and achieving success in glycemic control. CONCLUSION Tight glycemic control during the perioperative period benefits the recovery of surgical patients, and the role of the nursing team is key for the successful implementation of the measure.

  2. [GLYCEMIC CONTROL IN DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE – HOW TO CHOOSE HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENT]?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baretić, M; Lang, V Bralić

    2016-12-01

    The management of hyperglycemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is complex, and the goals and methods regarding glycemic control are not clearly defined. Although aggressive glycemic control seems to be advantageous in early diabetic nephropathy, outcome data supporting tight glycemic control in patients with advanced CKD are lacking. Challenges in the management of such patients include monitoring difficulties and the complexity of available treatments. In this article, we review the current treatment options for patients with diabetes and CKD discussing all hypoglycemic agents that currently are available, as well as insulin, along with their indications and contraindications. The aim is to provide useful information to family physicians when deciding on individualized glycemic goals and appropriate therapy for patients with early or end stages of CKD.

  3. Microvascular Complications Associated With Rapid Improvements in Glycemic Control in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Christopher H; Goebel-Fabbri, Ann

    2017-07-01

    Aggressive glycemic control has become the standard clinical approach to diabetes care. Unintended consequences have included the development of microvascular complications that are related to the rapidity of glycemic improvement. Diabetic neuropathy may develop in up to 10% of individuals secondary to aggressive glycemic control. The neuropathy is predominantly small fiber sensory and autonomic, and the severity of the neuropathy is tied to the change in the glycosylated hemoglobin A1C. Other microvascular complications such as retinopathy and nephropathy are common and may occur in parallel with the neuropathy. Eating disorders are a common comorbid risk factor. Individuals with uncontrolled diabetes for prolonged periods, particularly those with a history of eating disorders involving insulin restriction for calorie purging, are at high risk for developing treatment-induced microvascular complications. Gradual glycemic improvements should be encouraged but future research is needed to optimize treatment and prevention strategies.

  4. Mixing Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandzia, Claudia; Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    In this guidebook most of the known and used in practice methods for achieving mixing air distribution are discussed. Mixing ventilation has been applied to many different spaces providing fresh air and thermal comfort to the occupants. Today, a design engineer can choose from large selection...

  5. Effect of bromocriptine-QR on glycemic control in subjects with uncontrolled hyperglycemia on one or two oral anti-diabetes agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinik, Aaron I; Cincotta, Anthony H; Scranton, Richard E; Bohannon, Nancy; Ezrokhi, Michael; Gaziano, J Michael

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Bromocriptine-QR on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes whose glycemia is poorly controlled on one or two oral anti-diabetes agents. Five hundred fifteen Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) subjects (ages 18 to 80 and average body mass index [BMI] of 32.7) with baseline HbA1c ≥ 7.5 and on one or two oral anti-diabetes (OAD) medications (metformin, sulfonylurea, and/or thiazolidinediones) were randomized 2:1 to bromocriptine-QR (1.6 to 4.8 mg/day) or placebo for a 24 week treatment period. Study investigators were allowed to adjust, if necessary, subject anti-diabetes medications during the study to attempt to achieve glycemic control in case of glycemic deterioration. The impact of bromocriptine-QR treatment intervention on glycemic control was assessed in subjects on any one or two OADs (ALL treatment category) (N = 515), or on metformin with or without another OAD (Met/OAD treatment category) (N = 356), or on metformin plus a sulfonylurea (Met/SU treatment category) (N = 245) 1) by examining the between group difference in change from baseline a) concomitant OAD medication changes during the study, and b) HbA1c and 2) by determining the odds of reaching HbA1c of ≤ 7.0% on bromocriptine-QR versus placebo. Significantly more patients (approximately 1.5 to 2-fold more; PQR arm. In subjects that did not change the intensity of the baseline diabetes therapy (72%), and that were on any one or two OADs (ALL), or on metformin with or without another OAD (Met/OAD), or on metformin plus sulfonylurea (Met/SU), the HbA1c change for bromocriptine-QR versus placebo was -0.47 versus +0.22 (between group delta of -0.69, PQR therapy for 24 weeks can provide significant added improvement in glycemic control relative to adding placebo.

  6. Particle–Mixing Simulations Using DEM and Comparison of the Performance of Mixing Indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Migyung [Tongmyong Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Mixing of molecular grains having different characteristics is very important in many industries such as the food and pharmaceutical industries. With the development of computer simulations, it is common practice to find the optimal mixing conditions through a simulation before the actual mixing task to estimate the proper level of mixing. Accordingly, there has been an increasing need for a mixing index to measure the mix of particles in the simulation process. Mixing indices, which have been widely used so far, can largely be classified into two types: first is the statistical-based mixing index, which is prepared using the sampling method, and the second is the mixing index that is prepared using all the particles. In this paper, we calculated mixing indices in different ways for the data in the course of mixing the particles using the DEM simulation. Additionally, we compared the performance, advantages, and disadvantages of each mixing index. Therefore, I propose a standard that can be used to select an appropriate mixing index.

  7. Evaluation of micronutrient (Zinc, Magnesium, and Copper levels in serum and glycemic status after nonsurgical periodontal therapy in type 2 diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Sundaram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To find out the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on serum zinc (Zn, magnesium (Mg, and copper (Cu concentration and glycemic status in type 2 diabetes with chronic periodontitis (CP. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients were included in this study, which was further divided into three groups. Group 1 consisted of forty patients with CP, Group 2 consisted of forty patients of CP with controlled diabetes, and Group 3 consisted of forty patients of CP with uncontrolled diabetes. Periodontal parameters such as plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, pocket depth, and clinical attachment levels (CALs were evaluated. Blood samples were collected to assess the levels of fasting blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin, Zn, Mg, and Cu. All parameters were evaluated at baseline and 3 months after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Results: The results showed statistically significant reduction in all the clinical parameters within the groups except for the CAL in group 1 patients (P = 0.05. The glycemic status also showed a statistically significant reduction after treatment (P < 0.001. The intragroup comparison was taken between the values of micronutrients, showed substantial increase in the levels of both Zn and Mg and decrease in the level of Cu after nonsurgical periodontal treatment (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Patients with diabetes and periodontitis had altered metabolism of Zn, Mg, and Cu contributing to the progression and complication of diabetes mellitus and periodontitis. Nonsurgical periodontal treatment improved the variation and concentration of plasma micronutrients and also the periodontal status and glycemic level.

  8. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; Heitmann, Berit L

    2006-01-01

    , body fat distribution, and body composition in a random group of adult Danes. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a subsample of men and women from the Danish arm of the Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease study. The subsample comprised 185 men and 191 women...... born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. RESULTS: Positive associations between GI and changes in body weight (DeltaBW), percentage body fat (Delta...... observed in men, and no significant associations with GL were observed in either sex. CONCLUSIONS: High-GI diets may lead to increases in BW, body fat mass, and WC in women, especially in sedentary women, which suggests that physical activity may protect against diet-induced weight gain. No associations...

  9. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes 1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; L. Heitmann, Berit

    2006-01-01

    .Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relationbetween GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes inbody weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in a randomgroup of adult Danes.Design: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a subsampleof men and women from the Danish arm...

  10. An enriched, cereal-based bread affects appetite ratings and glycemic, insulinemic, and gastrointestinal hormone responses in healthy adults in a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Anton, Carolina; Lopez-Millan, Belen; Rico, Maria C; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Estefania; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria D; Gil, Angel; Mesa, Maria D

    2015-02-01

    Bread can contribute to the regulation of appetite. The objective of this study was to investigate the appetite ratings and postprandial glucose, insulin, and gastrointestinal hormone responses related to hunger and satiety after the intake of a cereal-based bread. A randomized, controlled crossover trial was conducted in 30 healthy adults (17 men and 13 women) aged 19-32 y with body mass index of 19.2-28.5. Each volunteer consumed the cereal-based bread and the control bread 2 times, with a 1-wk wash-out period, over a total of 4 sessions. The cereal-based bread contained a variety of cereal flours (wheat, oat, and spelt) and consisted of 22% dried fruits (figs, apricots, raisins, and prunes). It was also enriched with both fiber (7% from wheat cross-linked maltodextrins and pea) and protein (10-11% from wheat gluten and hydrolyzed wheat proteins). The control bread consisted of white bread with margarine and jam to control for energy density, fat, and sugar content. We measured appetite ratings using standardized visual analogue scales and glucose, insulin, and gastrointestinal hormone responses over a postprandial time of 4 h after the ingestion of each bread. Linear mixed-effects models were used to compare the areas under the curve (AUCs) for different variables. Consuming the cereal-based bread decreased prospective consumption more than consumption of the control bread (-5.3 ± 0.6 m · min and -4.4 ± 0.6 m · min, respectively; P = 0.02) and increased satiety more (6.2 ± 0.7 m · min and 5.2 ± 0.6 m · min, respectively; P = 0.04), although subsequent ad libitum energy intake 4 h later did not differ. Postprandial blood glucose, insulin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide AUCs were lower after the ingestion of the cereal-based bread, whereas the pancreatic polypeptide AUC was higher than with the control bread (P bread contributed to appetite control by reducing hunger and enhancing satiety. In addition, consumption of

  11. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  12. Diversity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...

  13. Walkability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...

  14. Do Cinnamon Supplements Have a Role in Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes? A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Rebecca B; Dwyer, Johanna T; Saldanha, Leila; Bailey, Regan L; Merkel, Joyce; Wambogo, Edwina

    2016-11-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp) has been suggested to help patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) achieve better glycemic control, although conclusions from meta-analyses are mixed. To evaluate whether the use of cinnamon dietary supplements by adults with T2DM had clinically meaningful effects on glycemic control, as measured by changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), a comprehensive PubMed literature search was performed. Eleven randomized controlled trials were identified that met our inclusion criteria that enrolled 694 adults with T2DM receiving hypoglycemic medications or not. In 10 of the studies, participants continued to take their hypoglycemic medications during the cinnamon intervention period. Studies ranged from 4 to 16 weeks in duration; seven studies were double-blind. Cinnamon doses ranged from 120 to 6,000 mg/day. The species of cinnamon used varied: seven used Cinnamomum cassia or Cinnamomum aromaticum, one used Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and three did not disclose the species. Because of the heterogeneity of the studies, a meta-analysis was not conducted. All 11 of the studies reported some reductions in FPG during the cinnamon intervention, and of the studies measuring HbA1c very modest decreases were also apparent with cinnamon, whereas changes in the placebo groups were minimal. However, only four studies achieved the American Diabetes Association treatment goals (FPG cinnamon supplements added to standard hypoglycemic medications and other lifestyle therapies had modest effects on FPG and HbA1c. Until larger and more rigorous studies are available, registered dietitian nutritionists and other health care professionals should recommend that patients continue to follow existing recommendations of authoritative bodies for diet, lifestyle changes, and hypoglycemic drugs. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of the effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycemic control in type 2 diabetic prevalent hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Sarhan, Iman I; Halawa, Mohamed R; Afify, Essam N; Hebah, Hayam A; Al-Gohary, Eman A; El-Shazly, Islam O

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin D is claimed to have an adjuvant effect on glycemic control by dual action on pancreatic β-cells and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to assess the possible effect of short-term alfacalcidol supply on glycemic control in type 2 diabetic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Twenty type 2 diabetic HD patients (using diet and oral drugs but not insulin) were randomly selected from our dialysis unit as well as 20 non-diabetic HD patients as control. A third group of 12 healthy subjects were studied as well. All three groups were similar in age, sex, and body mass index. Oral alfacalcidol therapy was administrated daily as recommended by Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) guidelines for 12 weeks guided by monthly serum phosphorus and Cax PO4 product. Corrected total calcium, phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D), and glucoparameters (fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c%], insulin resistance by homeostatic model assessment, and β-cell function by HOMA-β%) were measured under basal conditions and after 3 months of therapy. 25(OH)D was non-significantly lower in diabetic than non-diabetic HD patients, but significantly lower than healthy subjects at the start of the study. However, vitamin D level increased significantly after 3 months of trial, although the levels did not reach normal values. This vitamin D rise was associated with highly significant improvement in concentrations of fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting insulin, HbA1c%, and HOMA-β-cell function in diabetic and non-diabetic controls. However, there was a significant rise in insulin resistance after treatment. The percentage of change was evident more in diabetics regarding FBS and 25(OH)D concentration. Adjustment of 25(OH)D level in type 2 diabetic prevalent HD patients may improve, at least with short-term therapy, glycemic control mainly through improving β-cell function. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  16. The impact of fasting during Ramadan on the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, S B; Ayaz, T; Ozyurt, N; Ilkkilic, K; Kirvar, A; Sezgin, H

    2013-10-01

    Millions of Muslims fast from dawn until dusk during the annual Islamic holy month of Ramadan. Most of the studies evaluating biochemical changes in diabetic patients during Ramadan showed little changes in the glycemic control. In this study, our aim was to assess the impact of fasting during Ramadan on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. We examined 122 patients with type 2 diabetes (82 female, 40 male, age 56.93 ± 9.57 years) before and after the Ramadan. 66.4% of the patients were treated with oral antidiabetic (OAD) alone, 6.5% with a combination of insulin plus OAD and 19.7% with insulin alone. 88 of 122 patients fasted during Ramadan (26.98 ± 5.93 days). Weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial glucose (PPG), fructosamine, HbA1c, fasting insulin and lipid parameters were measured. The frequencies of both severe hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia were higher in the fasting group, but the difference was not significant (p=0.18). Weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, FPG (143.38 ± 52.04 vs. 139.31 ± 43.47 mg/dl) PPG (213.40 ± 98.56 vs. 215.66+109.31 mg/dl), fructosamine (314.18 ± 75.40 vs. 314.49 ± 68.36 µmol/l), HbA1c (6.33 ± 0.98 vs. 6.22 ± 0.92%) and fasting insulin (12.61 ± 8.94 vs. 10.51 ± 6.26 µU/ml) were unchanged in patients who fasted during Ramadan. Microalbuminuria significantly decreased during Ramadan (132.85 ± 197.11 vs. 45.03 ± 73.11 mg/dl). In this study, we concluded that fasting during Ramadan did not worsen the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Baseline glycemic status and mortality in 241,499 Korean metropolitan subjects: A Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Park, Se Eun; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Lee, Won-Young

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes and prediabetes subjects have increased risk for mortality. We analyzed the mortality risk due to all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer in Korean subjects participating in a health-screening program according to baseline glycemic status and HbA1c levels. Among 241,499 participants of a health-screening program between 2005 and 2012, the risk of death from all causes, CVD, and cancer was calculated based on the baseline glycemic status (normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes) and HbA1c levels. Uncontrolled diabetes was defined as HbA1c≥7.0%. Vital status and confirmation of the cause of death were based on the analysis of death certificate records from the National Death Index. During 923,343.1 person-years of follow-up, 877 participants died. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of subjects with controlled and uncontrolled diabetes to normoglycemic subjects for all-cause mortality were 1.58 (95% CI 1.24-2.03) and 2.26 (95% CI 1.78-2.86), respectively. The HRs of subjects with controlled and uncontrolled diabetes to normoglycemic subjects for mortality due to cancer were 1.75 (95% CI 1.23-2.48) and 1.67 (95% CI 1.13-2.45). However, glycemic status was not significantly associated with the risk of mortality due to CVD. The subjects with HbA1c higher than 6.5% showed more than 2-fold increased risk for all-cause mortality and the subjects with HbA1c lower than 5.2% showed increased HR (1.45, 95% CI 1.06-1.97) compared with those with HbA1c of 5.5% in subjects not taking anti-diabetic medications. Mortality risk from all causes and cancer significantly increased in diabetes subjects regardless of the glucose control status. In subjects not taking anti-diabetic medications, both high and low HbA1c resulted in increased risk for all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [The overweight, the obesity and the glycemic control among diabetics of the provincial reference center of diabetes (CRD), Kenitra, Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Zeghari; Aboussaleh, Youssef; Sbaibi, Rachid; Achouri, Imane; Benguedour, Rachid

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a disorder of assimilation, use and storage of sugars provided in the diet. Its management is based on follow-up of overweight and obese patients and on regular glycemic control. This study aimed to analyze overweight, obesity and glycemic control in 2227 patients with different types of diabetes (type 1, 2 and gestational) presenting to the Provincial referral center of diabetes (RCD) in Kenitra, Morocco. We conducted a study over the period January-December 2015. Overweight and obesity assessment was performed using Body Mass Index calculator (BMI = weight/height 2 (kg/m 2 ). Overweight and obesity were defined by BMI > 25 kg/m 2 and BMI > 30 kg/m 2 respectively; the weight and the height were measured according to World Health Organization's recommendations. Glycemic control was based on glycated hemoglobin levels and fasting blood glucose test. Current guidelines recommend a glycosylated hemoglobin level of 7% and a fasting blood glucose of 0.70g/l - 1.10g/L. The age of patients ranged from 8 months to 80 years, with a prevalence of diabetic patients from the urban environment (74%) compared to those from the rural areas (26%). The entire study population was overweight. The average BMI of women showed a trend toward obesity (BMI≈30): (29.21 kg/m 2 ± 3,1) in patients with gestational diabetes and (29.15 kg/m 2 ± 3.2) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Blood sugar levels were above the standards: 8.5% ± 2.6 > 7% for glycosylated hemoglobin and 1.5 g/L ± 1.3>1.10g/L for fasting blood glucose. The difference between glycosylated hemoglobin levels between men (8.57% ± 2.6) and women (8.1% ± 2.3) were not significant (p > 0.05), it was the same with fasting blood glucose: men (1.44 g/L ± 1,1) and women (1.43 g/L ± 1.2). Pearson's correlation coefficients were highly significant (pdiabetic patients in order to develop a remediation plan.

  19. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  20. Multinational study in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes: association of age, ketoacidosis, HLA status, and autoantibodies on residual beta-cell function and glycemic control 12 months after diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, H.B.; Swift, P.G.F.; Holl, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    .005), and by stimulated C-peptide (p IA; p = 0.02) and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA; p = 0.0004) at 1 month. HbA1c at 12 months was predicted by HbA1c at diagnosis (p ... (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Younger age, ketoacidosis at diagnosis, and IA and GADA 1 month after diagnosis were the strongest explanatory factors for residual beta-cell function at 12 months. Glycemic control at 12 months was influenced predominantly by ethnicity, HbA1c at diagnosis, and GADA at 1......Objective: To identify predictors of residual beta-cell function and glycemic control during the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Subjects and Methods: Clinical information and blood samples were collected from 275 children. HbA1c, antibodies, HLA typing and mixed meal...

  1. Mixed parentage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang Appel, Helene; Singla, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increase in cross border intimate relationships and children of mixed parentage, there is little mention or scholarship about them in the area of childhood and migrancy in the Nordic countries. The international literature implies historical pathologisation, contestation and current...... complex paradigms regarding these children. This chapter explores how children of mixed parentage negotiate their identities in the Danish context, where statistically and socially there are no widely acceptable terms for categorizing them. To this purpose, an empirical qualitative in...

  2. Dietary contributors to glycemic load in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikany, James M.; Judd, Suzanne E.; Letter, Abraham J.; Ard, Jamy D.; Newby, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective High dietary glycemic load (GL) has been associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and selected cancers. We sought to identify the main food and food group contributors to dietary GL in a representative sample of US adults to inform future interventions. Methods Participants were from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, a longitudinal cohort of 30,239 community-dwelling black and white women and men age ≥45 years across the US. Diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. The amount of each carbohydrate food, and its glycemic index, were used to calculate GL values for each carbohydrate food reported. These were totaled to estimate the mean total daily GL for each participant. Individual carbohydrate foods also were collapsed into 18 carbohydrate food groups, and the portion of the total GL contributed by each carbohydrate food and food group was determined. Analyses were conducted overall, by race/sex groups, and by region. Results Sweetened beverages were the main contributors to GL overall (12.14 median % of daily GL), by far the largest contributors in black men (17.79 median %) and black women (16.43 median %), and major contributors in white men (12.02 median %) and white women (11.22 median %). Other important contributors to GL overall and in all race/sex groups and regions included breads, starchy side dishes, and cereals. Conclusions In this US cohort of white and black adults, sweetened beverages were major contributors to GL overall, and especially in black participants. This information may help to inform future interventions targeting reduction in dietary GL. PMID:25837217

  3. Low glycemic load diets protect against metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the male Nile rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsinger, Julia; Landstrom, Michelle; Pronczuk, Andrzej; Auerbach, Andrew; Hayes, K C

    2017-04-01

    Dietary modification helps prevent and manage Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in humans and Nile rats. Specifically fibrous legumes, like lentils, benefit humans, but whether this reflects a specific change in the Glycemic Load (GLoad) remains controversial. Accordingly, low-GLoad foods were tested in the glucose-sensitive Nile rat. 131 male Nile rats aged 3 weeks to 15 months were challenged during four experiments with 15 dietary exposures that varied Glycemic Index (GI, 36-88), GLoad (102-305/2000 kcal), and cumulative GLoad (Cum GLoad=days×GLoad, 181-537g total glucose). Lentil diets with low GLoads (102, 202) prevented, delayed, reduced, even reversed the progress of MetS and T2DM as measured by blood glucose (fasting, random, and oral glucose tolerance test) and plasma lipid parameters (plasma cholesterol and triglycerides) plus necropsy findings (liver and kidney pathology plus adipose reserves). The benefit from lentils exceeded dietary factors such as macronutrient composition (%Energy from carbohydrate:fat:protein, between 70:10:20 to 40:40:20), total fiber (0-24%), or dietary caloric density (2.9-4.7 kcal/g). The benefit of a low GLoad applied equally to rats inherently susceptible or resistant to T2DM, based on random glucose above or below 75 mg/dl, respectively, during interventions of 7-17 weeks. Measuring total food intake and the novel concept of Cum GLoad during growth generated strong correlations (up to r=0.93) between Cum GLoad and parameters of MetS and T2DM, especially during sexual maturation. The present experiments confirm the applicability of male Nile rats to diet-induced human T2DM, and suggest dietary compositions to deter MetS and T2DM in humans. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Food composition of the diet in relation to changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, D.; Angquist, L.; Du, H.; Jakobsen, M.U.; Forouhi, N.G.; Halkjaer, J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; A, van der D.; Masala, G.; Steffen, A.; Palli, D.; Wareham, N.J.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Boeing, H.; Riboli, E.; Sorensen, T.I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups/items contribute to these associations is necessary. Objective: To ascertain the association of food groups/items

  5. Fibrinogen titer and glycemic status in women using contraceptives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, S.; Qureshi, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the coagulation and glycemic status in Pakistani women using contraceptives. Design: The study was conducted prospectively on 70 women and compared with 10 age-matched controls. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Karachi. Period of study was 18 month. Subjects and Methods: Eighty women aged between 20-45 years selected from low socioeconomic class and poor family background were categorized in control (n=10) and oral and injectable contraceptive users (n = 70). The contraceptives used were tablet Lofemenal, injection Norigest and Norplant implant. Their blood was tested for fibrinogen titer and random blood glucose. Results: There was no appreciable difference either in fibrinogen titer or plasma glucose levels in injectable users as compared to controls, but increased incidence of high fibrinogen titer and borderline blood glucose was observed in oral contraceptive users 25% and 20 % respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded that long-term use of oral contraceptives (> 3 years) might increase the thrombotic tendency and elevate the plasma glucose levels especially in women above 30 years of age. (author)

  6. Relationship of glycemic and triglycerides with BMI in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, A.; Ihsanullah; Rafiq, A.; Ahmad, N.; Khan, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism arising from defect in insulin secretion or action or both. The clinical guidelines recommend measurement of BMI as vital signs for evaluating the obese and diabetic patients. Methods: This study was carried out on 160 diabetics, which were divided on the basis of BMI into obese (120) and non-obese (40) diabetics from Peshawar district. All patients had their triglycerides and glucose checked after over night fast. Results: The serum triglyceride in diabetics having BMI >30 (obese) was increased as compared to patients having BMI <30 (non-obese). The comparison of serum glucose level in obese diabetics was found to be significantly raised as compared to non-obese diabetics. Conclusions and Recommendations: It was concluded that dyslipidemia is common in all diabetics. The abnormal triglyceride level can improve with good glycemic control, but do not reach the normal state. Good glycaemic control, Reducing BMI, periodic checkups of lipids and blood glucose are recommended for all diabetics in order to avoid complications. (author)

  7. The influence of glycemic control on the oral health of children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Vera Lúcia; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto; Ferreira, Fernanda de Morais; Pintarelli, Tatiana Pegoretti; Oliveira, Ana Cristina Borges; Boguszewski, Margaret Cristina da Silva

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the influence of disease control, expressed by the mean values of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), in the oral health of children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM). A cross sectional study involving 87 children and adolescents (59 girls), 10 ± 2.6 years old. The participants were divided into three groups: HbA1c ≤ 8%, 8% 10%. The duration of the disease, age and average HbA1c were obtained from their medical records. Oral health was evaluated according to the following indexes: Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S); Community Periodontal Index (CPI); Decayed, Missing or Filled Teeth Index (DMFT/dmft) for permanent and deciduous teeth; and the stimulated salivary flow rate (SSFR). The median SSFR was 1.1 mL/min in the group with HbA1c ≤ 8%, 0.7 mL/min in the intermediary group and 0.6 mL/min in the HbA1c > 10% group. A significant decrease in salivary flow was observed with an increase in HbA1c (p = 0.007). The DMFT/dmft and CPI indexes were higher in individuals with higher HbA1c values. More caries-free individuals were found in the group with HbA1c ≤ 8% compared to those with HbA1c > 10%. The group with HbA1c > 10% exhibited more caries and bleeding gums than the other groups. HbA1c values in girls were higher than in boys. Children and adolescents with unsatisfactory glycemic control, represented by higher HbA1c concentrations, exhibited a higher frequency of caries and gingivitis, and a reduction in salivary flow.

  8. Associations between bolus infusion of hydrocortisone, glycemic variability and insulin infusion rate variability in critically Ill patients under moderate glycemic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooijdonk, Roosmarijn T. M.; Binnekade, Jan M.; Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; Horn, Janneke; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively studied associations between bolus infusion of hydrocortisone and variability of the blood glucose level and changes in insulin rates in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. 'Glycemic variability' and 'insulin infusion rate variability' were calculated from and expressed as the

  9. Dietary glycemic load is a predictor of age-related hearing loss in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; McMahon, Catherine M; Burlutsky, George; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Mitchell, Paul

    2010-12-01

    Age-related hearing loss is a frequent disability in older adults and nutrition could play a role in the development of this condition. Carbohydrate nutrition [including dietary glycemic index (GI) and load (GL)] may be linked to hearing loss. We aimed to determine the association between carbohydrate nutrition (including mean dietary GI and GL, and the dietary intakes of carbohydrate and sugar), starch, cereal and total fiber, and age-related hearing loss. The Blue Mountains Hearing Study is a population-based survey of age-related hearing loss (1997-1999 to 2002-2004). Hearing loss was measured in 2956 participants (aged ≥50 y) and was defined as the pure-tone average of frequencies 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 kHz > 25 dB hearing level. Dietary data were collected in a semiquantitative FFQ. A purpose-built database based on Australian GI values was used to calculate the mean GI. A higher mean dietary GI was associated with an increased prevalence of any hearing loss, comparing quintiles 1 (lowest) and 5 (highest), [multivariable-adjusted odds ratio = 1.41 (95% CI = 1.01-1.97)]. Participants in the highest quartile of mean dietary GL intake compared with those in the lowest quartile had a 76% greater risk of developing incident hearing loss (P-trend = 0.04). Higher carbohydrate and sugar intakes were associated with incident hearing loss (P-trend = 0.03 and P-trend = 0.05, respectively). In summary, a high-GL diet was a predictor of incident hearing loss, as was higher intake of total carbohydrate. Hence, high postprandial glycemia might be a potential underlying biological mechanism in the development of age-related hearing loss.

  10. Effect of glycemic state on postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akihiro; Monma, Yuto; Kajitani, Shoko; Noda, Kazuki; Nakajima, Sota; Endo, Hideaki; Takahashi, Tohru; Nozaki, Eiji

    2016-09-01

    Both postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia have been thought to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, and to be a potent risk factor for cardiovascular event. To examine effects of glycemic state on postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), a total of 112 consecutive male pati ents with angiographically confirmed CAD were loaded with a high-fat and high-glucose test meal. CAD patients were divided into three groups as "non-diabetic", "prediabetic", and "diabetic" CAD groups. The serum triglyceride (TG) and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) levels at the 6th hour in diabetic CAD group showed significantly higher than non-diabetic CAD group, and the incremental area under the curves (iAUCs) of these levels in diabetic CAD group were significantly greater than non-diabetic CAD group (TG, P = 0.0194; RLP-C, P = 0.0219). There were no significant differences in the iAUCs of TG or RLP-C between prediabetic and non-diabetic CAD group. The AUCs of plasma insulin levels or insulin resistance index (IRI): (AUCs of insulin) × (AUCs of glucose) as the insulin resistance marker were greater in diabetic CAD group than non-diabetic CAD group (insulin, P = 0.0373; IRI, P = 0.0228). The AUCs of serum TG or RLP-C levels showed a correlation with the AUCs of plasma insulin (AUC-TG, r = 0.5437, P postprandial hyperlipidemia in CAD patients. Diabetic, but not prediabetic state, may be a risk for postprandial impaired lipid metabolism in CAD patients.

  11. Baseline ALT levels as a marker of glycemic response to treatment with GLP-1 receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno-Orna, Jose A; Verdes-Sanz, Guayente; Borau-Maorad, Laura; Campos-Fernández, Julia; Lardiés-Sánchez, Beatriz; Monreal-Villanueva, Marta

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to assess if ALT levels, as a marker of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, may predict HbA1c response to treatment with GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs). A retrospective, longitudinal, analytical study was conducted including patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus continuously treated with GLP-1 agonists (85% with liraglutide) for one year. Patients were divided into two groups according to baseline ALT levels, with 24 U/L (the median of the distribution) as the cut-off point. The dependent variable was HbA1c change (one-year follow-up minus baseline). The predictive value of ALT levels above 24 U/L and ALT change was analyzed using multivariate linear regression adjusted to age, gender, diabetes duration, type and dose of GLP-1 RA, baseline HbA1c, baseline body mass index (BMI), and change in BMI. A total of 117 patients (48% females) aged 58.6 (SD 9.6) years were enrolled into the study. Treatment was associated with a change in ALT of -4.3 U/L (p=0.041) and a change in HbA1c of -1.1% (pALT (-9.25 vs 0.46 U/L; p=0.002) were significantly higher in patients with ALT levels above the median. In the multivariate analysis, both ALT>24 U/L (b=-0.74; 95%CI: -1.31 to -0.18; p=0.011) and ALT change (b=0.028; 95%CI: 0.010 to 0.046; p=0.003), were significant response predictors. Elevated baseline transaminase values and decreased transaminase levels during follow-up are associated to a favorable glycemic response to GLP-1 RAs. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Health Literacy, Diabetes Self-Care, and Glycemic Control in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Bains, Sujeev S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Although limited health literacy is a barrier to disease management and has been associated with poor glycemic control, the mechanisms underlying the relationships between health literacy and diabetes outcomes are unknown. We examined the relationships between health literacy, determinants of diabetes self-care, and glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods Patients with diabetes were recruited from an outpatient primary care clinic. We collected information on demographics, health literacy, diabetes knowledge, diabetes fatalism, social support, and diabetes self-care, and hemoglobin A1c values were extracted from the medical record. Structural equation models tested the predicted pathways linking health literacy to diabetes self-care and glycemic control. Results No direct relationship was observed between health literacy and diabetes self-care or glycemic control. Health literacy had a direct effect on social support (r = −0.20, P fatalism (r = −0.22, P < 0.05), and more social support (r = 0.27, P < 0.01) were independent, direct predictors of diabetes self-care and through self-care were related to glycemic control (r = −0.20, P < 0.05). Conclusions Our findings suggest health literacy has an indirect effect on diabetes self-care and glycemic control through its association with social support. This suggests that for patients with limited health literacy, enhancing social support would facilitate diabetes self-care and improved glycemic control. PMID:20879964

  13. Subject Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    D. X. Wang & L. Y. Zhang), 33. Phase Mixing of Alfvén Waves near a 2D Magnetic Null Point (J. A. McLaughlin), ... in Radio Galaxies and BL Lacs (J. A. Alhassan, A. A. Ubachukwu & F. C.. Odo), 61. The Thirty-Meter ... Synergy Between Radio and Optical Telescopes: Optical Followup of Extragalactic. Radio Sources (C. H. ...

  14. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thorium self-sufficient fuel cycle. 143. Bharti Arun see Dua Amita ... bination of Yang's self-dual equations for. SU(2) gauge fields and Charap's ..... Monitoring Station. 1007. Roy Shweta see Singh P. 331. Saha Aparna. Effects of barrier fluctuation on the tun- neling dynamics in the presence of clas- sical chaos in a mixed ...

  15. Indexing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.G.; Parker, G.E.; Berry, R.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the indexing mechanism described can be used in a nuclear reactor fuel element inspection rig. It comprises a tubular body adapted to house a canister containing a number of fuel elements located longtitudinally, and has two chucks spaced apart for displacing the fuel elements longitudinally in a stepwise manner, together with a plunger mechanism for displacing them successively into the chucks. A measuring unit is located between the chucks for measuring the diameter of the fuel elements at intervals about their circumferences, and a secondary indexing mechanism is provided for rotating the measuring unit in a stepwise manner. (U.K.)

  16. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Index. Alshaary, A. A. see Sharaf, M. A., 9. Banajh, M. A. see Sharaf, M. A., 9. Burbidge Geoffrey see Narlikar Jayant, V., 67. Chen, H. D. see Li, K. J., 147. Chen, Y. Q. see Huang, C., 139. Cui Wenyuan Evolution of the Distribution of Neutron Exposures in the Galaxy. Disc: An Analytical Model, 55. Dhurde Samir see ...

  17. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Index. Alecian, E. see Samadhi, R., 171; see Goupil, M.-J., 249. Antia, H. M. Helioseismology, 161. Ashoka, B. N. see Seetha, S., 301. Baudin, F. see Samadhi, R., 171. Boehm, T. see Goupil, M.-J., 249. Catala, C. see Goupil, M.-J., 249. Cunha Margarida S. Asteroseismic Theory of Rapidly Oscillating Ap Stars, 213.

  18. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    SUBJECT INDEX. Absorption. Effect of NaCl on the spectral and kinetic properties of cresyl violet (CV)-sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) complex. 299. Acid catalysts. Temperature-programmed desorption of water and ammonia on sulphated zirconia catalysts for measuring their strong acidity and acidity distribution. 281.

  19. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2008) 29, 405–409. Author Index. Aggarwal Malini see Jain Rajmal, 125; X-ray Emission Characteristics of Flares. Associated with CMEs, 195. Alyana Radharani see Rathod Jatin, 293; see Reddy Chandrasekhar, A., 313. Ambastha Ashok Helioseismic Effects of Energetic Transients, 93; see Maurya.

  20. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    SUBJECT INDEX. Ab initio calculations. Basis set effects on energy and hardness profiles of the hydrogen fluoride dimer. 549. Activation by calcinations. Highly active and reusable catalyst from Fe-Mg- hydrotalcite anionic clay for Friedel–Crafts type benzyla- tion reactions. 635. Adsorption. Adsorption studies of iron(III) on ...

  1. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Index. Aggarwal Malini see Jain Rajmal, 155. Aghaee, A. Determination of the Mean Hi Absorption of the Intergalactic. Medium, 59. Agrawal, S. P. see Singh Ambika, 89. Biesiada Marek Could the Optical Transient SCP 06F6 be due to Micro- lensing?, 213. C¸ aliskan, S . see Küçük, ˙I., 135. Evans Lloyd, T. Carbon ...

  2. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Index. Ahmad Farooq see Iqbal Naseer, 373. Ali Syed Salman Study of a Large Helical Eruptive Prominence Associated with. Double CME on 21 April 2001, 347; see Uddin Wahab, 267. Ali, A. Chemistry of Carbon Rich Star IRAS 15194–5115, 399. Ambastha Ashok Photospheric, Chromospheric and Helioseismic ...

  3. Subject Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2006) 27, 469–472. Subject Index. Astrophysical Processes. Spatial Damping of Linear Compressional Magnetoacoustic Waves in Quiescent. Prominences (K. A. P. Singh), 321. Report on the Dynamical Evolution of an Axially Symmetric Quasar Model. (N. J. Papadopoulos & N. D. Caranicolas), 389.

  4. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    SUBJECT INDEX. 1D inversion. A direct inversion scheme for deep resistivity sound- ing data using artificial neural networks. 49. 40. Ar-. 39. Ar thermochronology. Tectono-thermal evolution of the India-Asia colli- sion zone based on. 40. Ar-. 39. Ar thermochronology in. Ladakh, India. 737. ANN. Artificial neural network ...

  5. Index Fossils

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stricted geologic time range, easily preservable, of short species duration and found in multiple environment. Index fossils are used by geologists and palaeontologists as significant aids to determine the correlation and age of rock sequences [2]. Geologists use both large fossils or 'macrofossils' and microscopic fossils or ...

  6. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    Yan, X. L. see Deng, L. H., 221. Phase Relationship Between Sunspot Number, Flare Index and Solar Radio. Flux, 387. ZANINETTI, L. Revisiting the Cosmological Principle in a Cellular Framework, 399. ZHAO XIAN-FENG. Constraints on the Moment of Inertia of a Proto Neutron Star from the Hyperon Coupling Constants, ...

  7. Index Fossils

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 10. Index Fossils - Evidences from Plant Sources. Dipanjan Ghosh. General Article ... Author Affiliations. Dipanjan Ghosh1. Biological Science Department Kirnahar Shib Chandra High School Kirnahar, Birbhum 731302, West Bengal, India.

  8. Impact of leisure-time physical activity on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizu, Shinako; Kishimoto, Hiro; Iwase, Masanori; Fujii, Hiroki; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ide, Hitoshi; Jodai, Tamaki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2014-01-01

    The effects of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) on glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors are not fully understood in Asian type 2 diabetic patients, who are typically non-obese. We studied associations between LTPA and glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 4,870 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients aged ≥ 20 years were divided into eight groups according to their LTPA. We investigated associations between the amount and intensity levels of physical activity (PA) and glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, cardiovascular risk factors, and low-grade systemic inflammation in a cross-sectional study. LTPA was dose-dependently associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, but not with blood pressure, low density lipoprotein cholesterol or adiponectin. The amount of PA required to lower HbA1c was greater than that required to improve cardiovascular risk factors. LTPA was inversely associated with HbA1c in non-obese participants but not in obese participants after multivariate adjustments for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, energy intake, cardiovascular diseases, depressive symptoms, and treatment of diabetes. Higher-intensity LTPA, not lower-intensity LTPA was associated with HbA1c after multivariate adjustments with further adjustment including BMI. LTPA was dose-dependently associated with better glycemic control and amelioration of some cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. In addition, increased higher-intensity LTPA may be appropriate for glycemic control.

  9. Dietary Adherence, Glycemic Control, and Psychological Factors Associated with Binge Eating Among Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Chileans with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbozo, Sylvia; Flynn, Patricia M; Stevens, Serena D; Betancourt, Hector

    2015-12-01

    Despite the strong association between obesity and binge eating, limited research has examined the implications of binge eating on dietary adherence and psychological factors in ethnically diverse type 2 diabetes patients. This study investigated the prevalence of binge eating and its association with dietary adherence, glycemic control, and psychological factors among indigenous and non-indigenous type 2 diabetes patients in Chile. Participants were 387 indigenous (Mapuche) and non-indigenous (non-Mapuche) adults with type 2 diabetes. Self-report measures of binge eating, dietary adherence, diet self-efficacy, body image dissatisfaction, and psychological well-being were administered. Participants' weight, height, and glycemic control (HbA(1c)) were also obtained. Approximately 8 % of the type 2 diabetes patients reported binge eating. The prevalence among Mapuche patients was 4.9 %, and among non-Mapuche patients, it was 9.9 %. Compared to non-binge eaters, binge eating diabetes patients had greater body mass index values, consumed more high-fat foods, were less likely to adhere to their eating plan, and reported poorer body image and emotional well-being. Results of this study extend previous research by examining the co-occurrence of binge eating and type 2 diabetes as well as the associated dietary behaviors, glycemic control, and psychological factors among indigenous and non-indigenous patients in Chile. These findings may increase our understanding of the health challenges faced by indigenous populations from other countries and highlight the need for additional research that may inform interventions addressing binge eating in diverse patients with type 2 diabetes.

  10. Impact of leisure-time physical activity on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinako Kaizu

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The effects of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA on glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors are not fully understood in Asian type 2 diabetic patients, who are typically non-obese. We studied associations between LTPA and glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: A total of 4,870 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients aged ≥ 20 years were divided into eight groups according to their LTPA. We investigated associations between the amount and intensity levels of physical activity (PA and glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, cardiovascular risk factors, and low-grade systemic inflammation in a cross-sectional study. RESULTS: LTPA was dose-dependently associated with body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, but not with blood pressure, low density lipoprotein cholesterol or adiponectin. The amount of PA required to lower HbA1c was greater than that required to improve cardiovascular risk factors. LTPA was inversely associated with HbA1c in non-obese participants but not in obese participants after multivariate adjustments for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, energy intake, cardiovascular diseases, depressive symptoms, and treatment of diabetes. Higher-intensity LTPA, not lower-intensity LTPA was associated with HbA1c after multivariate adjustments with further adjustment including BMI. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: LTPA was dose-dependently associated with better glycemic control and amelioration of some cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. In addition, increased higher-intensity LTPA may be appropriate for glycemic control.

  11. Glycemic control and antidiabetic drugs in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with renal complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huri HZ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hasniza Zaman Huri,1,2 Lay Peng Lim,1 Soo Kun Lim3 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 2Clinical Investigation Centre, University Malaya Medical Centre, 3Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Good glycemic control can delay the progression of kidney diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients with renal complications. To date, the association between antidiabetic agents and glycemic control in this specific patient population is not well established.Purpose: This study aimed to identify antidiabetic regimens as well as other factors that associated with glycemic control in T2DM patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD.Patients and methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional study involved 242 T2DM inpatients and outpatients with renal complications from January 2009 to March 2014 and was conducted in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C was used as main parameter to assess patients’ glycemic status. Patients were classified to have good (A1C <7% or poor glycemic control (A1C ≥7% based on the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association.Results: Majority of the patients presented with CKD stage 4 (43.4%. Approximately 55.4% of patients were categorized to have poor glycemic control. Insulin (57.9% was the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic medication, followed by sulfonylureas (43%. Of all antidiabetic regimens, sulfonylureas monotherapy (P<0.001, insulin therapy (P=0.005, and combination of biguanides with insulin (P=0.038 were found to be significantly associated with glycemic control. Other factors including duration of T2DM (P=0.004, comorbidities such as anemia (P=0.024 and retinopathy (P=0.033, concurrent medications such as erythropoietin therapy (P=0.047, a-blockers (P=0.033, and antigouts (P=0.003 were also correlated with A1C.Conclusion: Identification of

  12. Frequency and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in an African diabetic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibirige D

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Davis Kibirige,1 George Patrick Akabwai,2 Leaticia Kampiire,3 Daniel Ssekikubo Kiggundu,4 William Lumu5 1Department of Medicine/Diabetic and Hypertension Clinics, Our Lady of Consolota Hospital, Kisubi, 2Baylor College of Medicine, Children’s Foundation, 3Infectious Diseases Research Collaboration, Kampala, 4Nephrology Unit, Mulago National Referral and Teaching Hospital, Kampala, 5Department of Medicine and Diabetes/Endocrine Unit, Mengo Hospital, Mengo, Uganda Background: Persistent suboptimal glycemic control is invariably associated with onset and progression of acute and chronic diabetic complications in diabetic patients. In Uganda, studies documenting the magnitude and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in adult ambulatory diabetic patients are limited. This study aimed at determining the frequency and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in adult diabetic patients attending three urban outpatient diabetic clinics in Uganda. Methods: In this hospital-based cross-sectional study, eligible ambulatory adult diabetic patients attending outpatient diabetic clinics of three urban hospitals were consecutively enrolled over 11 months. Suboptimal glycemic control was defined as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c level ≥7%. Multivariable analysis was applied to determine the predictors. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 52.2±14.4 years, and the majority of them were females (283, 66.9%. The median (interquartile range HbA1c level was 9% (6.8%–12.4%. Suboptimal glycemic control was noted in 311 study participants, accounting for 73.52% of the participants. HbA1c levels of 7%–8%, 8.1%–9.9%, and ≥10% were noted in 56 (13.24%, 76 (17.97%, and 179 (42.32% study participants, respectively. The documented predictors of suboptimal glycemic control were metformin monotherapy (odds ratio: 0.36, 95% confidence interval: 0.21–0.63, p<0.005 and insulin therapy (odds ratio: 2.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.41–4.12, p=0

  13. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear......Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. Architectonic implementation questions relations between the human body and a body of architecture by the different ways we handle drawing materials. A drawing may explore architectonic problems at other...

  14. Density and Comparative Refractive Index Study on Mixing Properties of Binary Liquid Mixtures of Eucalyptol with Hydrocarbons at 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sangita; Patel, Pragnesh B.; Patel, Rignesh S.; Vora, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    Density and refractive index have been experimentally determined for binary liquid mixtures of eucalyptol with hydrocarbons (o-xylene,m-xylene and toluene) at 303.15 K, 308.15 K and 313.15 K. A comparative study of Lorentz-Lorenz (L-L), Weiner (W), Heller (H), Gladstone-Dale (G-D), Arago-Biot (A-B), Eykman (Eyk), Newton (Nw), Eyring-John (E-J) and Oster (Os) relations for determining the refractive index of a liquid has been carried out to test their validity for the three binaries over the e...

  15. The Relationship Between Sleep Duration and Glycemic Control Among Hispanic Adults With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Full, Kelsie M; Schmied, Emily A; Parada, Humberto; Cherrington, Andrea; Horton, Lucy A; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2017-10-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and glycemic control in adult Hispanic patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. Methods This cross-sectional study used baseline data from 317 Hispanic adults with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes who participated in a randomized controlled trial testing a peer support intervention to improve diabetes control. To be eligible, participants had to be 18 years or older and have A1C >7% in the 3 months prior to randomization. Glycemic control was assessed by A1C ascertained through medical chart review; higher A1C levels reflected poorer glycemic control. Sleep duration (hours/night), diabetes control behaviors, and demographics were obtained by interviewer-administered questionnaire. We used multivariable generalized linear models to estimate the association between sleep duration and glycemic control. Results Forty-three percent of participants reported sleeping fewer than 7 hours per night. Sleep duration (hours/night) was inversely associated with A1C levels; however, the relationship was no longer statistically significant after adjusting for insulin status. Conclusions Sleep duration was not significantly associated with glycemic control in this sample of Hispanic adults with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes when adjusting for insulin. Future research should continue to explore this relationship among Hispanic adults with diabetes using an objective measure of sleep duration and a larger sample of Hispanic adults with both controlled and uncontrolled type 2 diabetes to determine if these results hold true.

  16. A randomized controlled trial to prevent glycemic relapse in longitudinal diabetes care: Study protocol (NCT00362193

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Dianne

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is a common disease with self-management a key aspect of care. Large prospective trials have shown that maintaining glycated hemoglobin less than 7% greatly reduces complications but translating this level of control into everyday clinical practice can be difficult. Intensive improvement programs are successful in attaining control in patients with type 2 diabetes, however, many patients experience glycemic relapse once returned to routine care. This early relapse is, in part, due to decreased adherence in self-management behaviors. Objective This paper describes the design of the Glycemic Relapse Prevention study. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal frequency of maintenance intervention needed to prevent glycemic relapse. The primary endpoint is glycemic relapse, which is defined as glycated hemoglobin greater than 8% and an increase of 1% from baseline. Methods The intervention consists of telephonic contact by a nurse practitioner with a referral to a dietitian if indicated. This intervention was designed to provide early identification of self-care problems, understanding the rationale behind the self-care lapse and problem solve to find a negotiated solution. A total of 164 patients were randomized to routine care (least intensive, routine care with phone contact every three months (moderate intensity or routine care with phone contact every month (most intensive. Conclusion The baseline patient characteristics are similar across the treatment arms. Intervention fidelity analysis showed excellent reproducibility. This study will provide insight into the important but poorly understood area of glycemic relapse prevention.

  17. Serum glycated albumin as a glycemic control marker in diabetic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akihiro; Lee, Peter; Mizutani, Hisashi; Takahashi, Tomoya; Azakami, Daigo; Mizukoshi, Mina; Fukuta, Hiroko; Sakusabe, Noriko; Sakusabe, Arihito; Kiyosawa, Yoshio; Arai, Toshiro; Sako, Toshinori

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of glycated proteins such as serum fructosamine, glycated hemoglobin, and glycated albumin (GA) are increasingly used to complement serum glucose concentration for better management of diabetes mellitus. For example, the degree of glycemic control in diabetic cats can be determined by evaluating fructosamine concentration. Unfortunately, fructosamine tests are currently not performed in Japan, and as such, the measurement of GA may serve as a replacement test. The objectives of the current study were 2-fold. First, serum GA and fructosamine level were evaluated for positive correlation in cats as a preliminary gauge on whether serum GA use is applicable. Second, a GA percentage reference range was determined from healthy control cats for possible future diagnostic use. A positive correlation was determined for fructosamine and GA in both normal and diabetic cats. Moreover, the serum GA percentage reference interval based on control cats was determined to be 7.5-13.9% (95% nonparametric interfractile interval). Interestingly, no significant difference in serum GA percentages was observed between samples from diabetic cats with excellent glycemic control and control cats. However, good, fair, and poor glycemic control diabetic cats resulted in a significant increase in serum GA percentages in comparison to control cats. Therefore, these results indicate that serum GA may be a useful glycemic control indicator that could substitute for fructosamine to monitor glycemic control in diabetic cats.

  18. Serum Fructosamine: A Simple and Inexpensive Test for Assessing Preoperative Glycemic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohat, Noam; Tarabichi, Majd; Tischler, Eric H; Jabbour, Serge; Parvizi, Javad

    2017-11-15

    Although the medical community acknowledges the importance of preoperative glycemic control, the literature is inconclusive and the proper metric for assessment of glycemic control remains unclear. Serum fructosamine reflects the mean glycemic control in a shorter time period compared with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Our aim was to examine its role in predicting adverse outcomes following total joint arthroplasty. Between 2012 and 2013, we screened all patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty preoperatively using serum HbA1c, fructosamine, and blood glucose levels. On the basis of the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association, 7% was chosen as the cutoff for HbA1c being indicative of poor glycemic control. This threshold correlated with a fructosamine level of 292 μmol/L. All patients were followed and total joint arthroplasty complications were evaluated. We were particularly interested in retrieving details on surgical-site infection (superficial and deep). Patients with fructosamine levels of ≥292 μmol/L were compared with those with fructosamine levels of simple and inexpensive test that appears to be a good predictor of adverse outcome in patients with known diabetes and those with unrecognized diabetes or hyperglycemia. Our findings suggest that fructosamine can serve as an alternative to HbA1c in the setting of preoperative glycemic assessment. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  19. Glycemic outcome not predicted by baseline psychological measures in a diabetes management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graco, Marnie; Hutchinson, Anastasia; Barker, Anna; Lawlor, Vicki; Wong, Rita; Fourlanos, Spiros

    2012-06-01

    The Northern Health Diabetes Hospital Admission Risk Program is a chronic disease management program that aims to improve the glycemic management of patients with diabetes. The aim of this project was to determine if there was any relationship between psychological characteristics and glycemic outcome in a diabetes management program. A prospective study of patients attending the diabetes management program investigated validated measures of cognition, stage of change, locus of control, self-efficacy, depression and anxiety, and quality of life. The study investigated 86 type 2 diabetes patients (mean age 59 years, 49% female). Glycemic control (HbA1c) was measured at baseline and after 12 months in the program. Glycemic control was poor on admission to the service with a mean HbA1c of 8.9%. The measures of cognition, self-efficacy, locus of control, mental health, and quality of life were not associated with improvements in HbA1c. Those participants with shorter duration of disease and more contacts with the service were significantly more likely to experience improvements in HbA1c. Psychometric data were not predictive of glycemic outcome. Rather, in this chronic disease management program, glycemia improved more in patients who were seen earlier in their disease course and managed more intensively, regardless of their psychometric status.

  20. Relationships among diabetic retinopathy, antioxidants, and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Carly S Y; Benzie, Iris F F; Choi, Siu Wai; Chan, Lily Y L; Yeung, Vincent T F; Woo, George C

    2011-02-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is increasing worldwide and affects ∼11% of the Hong Kong population. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common cause of vision loss in type 2 DM. Risk of DR is increased by poor glycemic control, elevated lipids, and blood pressure, but it is not possible to predict the development or progression of DR at an individual level. Increased oxidative stress is thought to play a role. The use of a wider biomarker profile incorporating biomarkers of antioxidant status and oxidative stress may aid identification of individuals at higher risk or at very early stages of developing DR. Four hundred twenty type 2 DM subjects without diabetic complications were investigated. Eyes were examined for DR and anterior and posterior ocular segment pathology. DR was graded according to Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study criteria. Demographic data were collected. Traditional risk factors plus biomarkers of antioxidant status and oxidative stress in fasting blood and urine were determined. Overall DR prevalence was 89%. No significant differences in any demographic measures or biomarkers were found among those subjects with different DR grades, or in those without DR. Significant correlations (p < 0.0001) between HbA1c and DNA damage, (ρ = 0.32) and fasting plasma glucose and DNA damage (ρ = 0.52) were seen. DNA damage was also significantly and inversely correlated (p < 0.0001) with both plasma ascorbic acid (ρ = -0.41) and plasma total antioxidant level (ρ = -0.21). DR prevalence was very high in this group, but no biomarker differences were seen in those with DR compared to those free of DR, or in those with different degrees of severity of DR. This group of 420 subjects is being followed up to investigate whether the extended biomarker profile at baseline is related to progression of and/or incident DR.

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 187 of 187 ... Vol 27, No 1 (2009), The Effect Of Glycemic Control On Serum Lipids And Calcium – Phosphate Profiles In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Abstract. A-G A Abdel-Gayoum, AS ... Vol 25, No 2 (2007), The Protective Effect Of Turmeric On Iron Overload In Albino Rats, Abstract. S M El-Bahr. Vol 31 ...

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 643 ... Vol 7, No 3 (2004), glycemic control and pain threshold in alloxan diabetic rats, Abstract PDF. GF Ibironke, OJ Saba, FO Olopade ... Vol 7, No 3 (2004), Heavy metal contamination of Clarias gariepinus from a lake and fish farm in Ibadan, Nigeria, Abstract PDF. FE Olaifa, AK Olaifa, AA Adelaja, AG ...

  3. A New Index of Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. de Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyses and revises the latest Democracy Index published by the Economist Intelligence Unit in the United Kingdom. We analyze the changes produced in the index from 2006 to 2011, as well as in the five basic factors that constitute the index: electoral process and pluralism; civil liberties; the functioning of government; political participation; and political culture. The analysis of these factors ?measured by sixty variables? has made it possible to develop a new index, based on the data from 167 countries, and calculate a revised ranking. Countries have been classified into four types: democracies, flawed democracies, mixed systems, and authoritarian/totalitarian regimes. The new index permits a better understanding of the impact of the crisis through variables such as economic growth, human development, quality of life, corruption, and violence.

  4. Mixed marriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnić-Pejović Marija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the II World War, the population of the Boka Kotorska Bay was a mixture of Orthodox and Catholic confessions: approximately two thirds of the population was Orthodox, while one third belonged to the Catholics. In spite of the religious affiliation, mixed marriages were relatively often between these two groups. Based on a research in archives, this paper deals with such mixed marriages, formed mostly in 18th and 19th century, in the area of Herceg Novi. The second half of 19th century witnessed 639 of marriages, or 12,78 marriages per year, out of which 72 were mixed or 8,87%. In this particular period, 64 Catholic males married Orthodox females, while only 8 Orthodox males married Catholic females. The Church influence on the society was significant, including issues related to marriage, which sometimes created troubles for mixed marriages; however, positive civil and church regulations supported mixed marriages. Marriages between people of a different religious confession thus created wider kinship affiliations, which in turn enhanced religious tolerance, intertwining of different cultures and customs, and acceptance of different political and social views. The tolerance therefore affected political and social turmoil especially in troubled times, which made many issues easier: troubled issues were solved more rationally, and there were not so many persecutions based on someone’s religious affiliation. We need a wider perspective and a broader research on the Boka Kotorska Bay in order to understand how marriages and kinship ties affected a way of life and intertwining of cultural models of the East and West.

  5. A systematic review on the effect of sweeteners on glycemic response and clinically relevant outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebe Natasha

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major metabolic complications of obesity and type 2 diabetes may be prevented and managed with dietary modification. The use of sweeteners that provide little or no calories may help to achieve this objective. Methods We did a systematic review and network meta-analysis of the comparative effectiveness of sweetener additives using Bayesian techniques. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and CAB Global were searched to January 2011. Randomized trials comparing sweeteners in obese, diabetic, and healthy populations were selected. Outcomes of interest included weight change, energy intake, lipids, glycated hemoglobin, markers of insulin resistance and glycemic response. Evidence-based items potentially indicating risk of bias were assessed. Results Of 3,666 citations, we identified 53 eligible randomized controlled trials with 1,126 participants. In diabetic participants, fructose reduced 2-hour blood glucose concentrations by 4.81 mmol/L (95% CI 3.29, 6.34 compared to glucose. Two-hour blood glucose concentration data comparing hypocaloric sweeteners to sucrose or high fructose corn syrup were inconclusive. Based on two ≤10-week trials, we found that non-caloric sweeteners reduced energy intake compared to the sucrose groups by approximately 250-500 kcal/day (95% CI 153, 806. One trial found that participants in the non-caloric sweetener group had a decrease in body mass index compared to an increase in body mass index in the sucrose group (-0.40 vs 0.50 kg/m2, and -1.00 vs 1.60 kg/m2, respectively. No randomized controlled trials showed that high fructose corn syrup or fructose increased levels of cholesterol relative to other sweeteners. Conclusions Considering the public health importance of obesity and its consequences; the clearly relevant role of diet in the pathogenesis and maintenance of obesity; and the billions of dollars spent on non-caloric sweeteners, little high-quality clinical research has been done. Studies are

  6. A systematic review on the effect of sweeteners on glycemic response and clinically relevant outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Natasha; Padwal, Raj; Field, Catherine; Marks, Seth; Jacobs, Rene; Tonelli, Marcello

    2011-11-17

    The major metabolic complications of obesity and type 2 diabetes may be prevented and managed with dietary modification. The use of sweeteners that provide little or no calories may help to achieve this objective. We did a systematic review and network meta-analysis of the comparative effectiveness of sweetener additives using Bayesian techniques. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and CAB Global were searched to January 2011. Randomized trials comparing sweeteners in obese, diabetic, and healthy populations were selected. Outcomes of interest included weight change, energy intake, lipids, glycated hemoglobin, markers of insulin resistance and glycemic response. Evidence-based items potentially indicating risk of bias were assessed. Of 3,666 citations, we identified 53 eligible randomized controlled trials with 1,126 participants. In diabetic participants, fructose reduced 2-hour blood glucose concentrations by 4.81 mmol/L (95% CI 3.29, 6.34) compared to glucose. Two-hour blood glucose concentration data comparing hypocaloric sweeteners to sucrose or high fructose corn syrup were inconclusive. Based on two ≤10-week trials, we found that non-caloric sweeteners reduced energy intake compared to the sucrose groups by approximately 250-500 kcal/day (95% CI 153, 806). One trial found that participants in the non-caloric sweetener group had a decrease in body mass index compared to an increase in body mass index in the sucrose group (-0.40 vs 0.50 kg/m2, and -1.00 vs 1.60 kg/m2, respectively). No randomized controlled trials showed that high fructose corn syrup or fructose increased levels of cholesterol relative to other sweeteners. Considering the public health importance of obesity and its consequences; the clearly relevant role of diet in the pathogenesis and maintenance of obesity; and the billions of dollars spent on non-caloric sweeteners, little high-quality clinical research has been done. Studies are needed to determine the role of hypocaloric sweeteners in a wider

  7. Effects of Food Label Use on Diet Quality and Glycemic Control Among Latinos With Type 2 Diabetes in a Community Health Worker-Supported Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Shebl, Fatma M; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Chhabra, Jyoti; Vega-López, Sonia; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    To determine the impact of an intervention led by community health workers (CHWs) on food label use and to assess whether food label use and diet quality mediate the intervention's impact on glycemic control. From 2006 to 2010, 203 Latinos (intervention group, n = 100; control group, n = 103) in Hartford County, Connecticut, with type 2 diabetes were randomized to an intervention that included 17 CHW-led home-based sessions over a 12-month period in addition to the standard of care available in both study arms. Data on food label use, diet quality, covariates, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were collected at baseline and at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Data were analyzed via mixed effects and multilevel structural equation modeling. Food label use in the intervention (vs control) group was significantly higher at 3, 12, and 18 months (odds ratio = 2.99; 95% confidence interval = 1.69, 5.29). Food label use and diet quality were positive mediators of improved HbA1c levels. Culturally tailored interventions led by CHWs could increase food label use. Also, CHW-delivered food label education may lead to better diet quality and improve glycemic control among Latinos with type 2 diabetes.

  8. Dysglycemia, Glycemic Variability, and Outcome After Cardiac Arrest and Temperature Management at 33°C and 36°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgquist, Ola; Wise, Matt P; Nielsen, Niklas; Al-Subaie, Nawaf; Cranshaw, Julius; Cronberg, Tobias; Glover, Guy; Hassager, Christian; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Kuiper, Michael; Smid, Ondrej; Walden, Andrew; Friberg, Hans

    2017-08-01

    Dysglycemia and glycemic variability are associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients. Targeted temperature management alters blood glucose homeostasis. We investigated the association between blood glucose concentrations and glycemic variability and the neurologic outcomes of patients randomized to targeted temperature management at 33°C or 36°C after cardiac arrest. Post hoc analysis of the multicenter TTM-trial. Primary outcome of this analysis was neurologic outcome after 6 months, referred to as "Cerebral Performance Category." Thirty-six sites in Europe and Australia. All 939 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac cause that had been included in the TTM-trial. Targeted temperature management at 33°C or 36°C. Nonparametric tests as well as multiple logistic regression and mixed effects logistic regression models were used. Median glucose concentrations on hospital admission differed significantly between Cerebral Performance Category outcomes (p variability, were associated with poor neurologic outcome and death. More patients in the 33°C treatment arm had hyperglycemia.

  9. Ptolemaic indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Lie Hetland

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a new family of bounds for use in similarity search, related to those used in metric indexing, but based on Ptolemy's inequality, rather than the metric axioms. Ptolemy's inequality holds for the well-known Euclidean distance, but is also shown here to hold for quadratic form metrics in general, with Mahalanobis distance as an important special case. The inequality is examined empirically on both synthetic and real-world data sets and is also found to hold approximately, with a very low degree of error, for important distances such as the angular pseudometric and several Lp norms. Indexing experiments are performed on several data sets, demonstrating a highly increased filtering power when using certain forms of Ptolemaic filtering, compared to existing, triangular methods. It is also shown that combining the Ptolemaic and triangular filtering can lead to better results than using either approach on its own.

  10. Exercise and Glycemic Control: Focus on Redox Homeostasis and Redox-Sensitive Protein Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lewan; Shaw, Christopher S.; Stepto, Nigel K.; Levinger, Itamar

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity, excess energy consumption, and obesity are associated with elevated systemic oxidative stress and the sustained activation of redox-sensitive stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Sustained SAPK activation leads to aberrant insulin signaling, impaired glycemic control, and the development and progression of cardiometabolic disease. Paradoxically, acute exercise transiently increases oxidative stress and SAPK signaling, yet postexercise glycemic control and skeletal muscle function are enhanced. Furthermore, regular exercise leads to the upregulation of antioxidant defense, which likely assists in the mitigation of chronic oxidative stress-associated disease. In this review, we explore the complex spatiotemporal interplay between exercise, oxidative stress, and glycemic control, and highlight exercise-induced reactive oxygen species and redox-sensitive protein signaling as important regulators of glucose homeostasis. PMID:28529499

  11. The Importance of Social Support on Glycemic Control in Low-Income Latinos with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotberg, Britt; Junqueira, Yasmine; Gosdin, Lucas; Mejia, Roberto; Umpierrez, Guillermo E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The U.S. Latino population exhibits poorer glycemic control than the white population, leading to more frequent health complications and greater disease severity. Social support has been shown a significant factor in health and well-being. Purpose: To determine the association between glycemic control and social support in patients…

  12. The influence of aspirin dose and glycemic control on platelet inhibition in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemkes, B. A.; Bahler, L.; Kamphuisen, P. W.; Stroobants, A. K.; van den Dool, E. J.; Hoekstra, J. B.; Nieuwland, R.; Gerdes, V. E.; Holleman, F.

    Background: Low-dose aspirin seems to offer no benefit in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The anti-platelet effect may be diminished by poor glycemic control or inadequate dosing of aspirin. Objectives: To study the effects of both glycemic control

  13. Glycemic instability in type 1 diabetic patients: Possible role of ketosis or ketoacidosis at onset of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Mariko; Yamada, Yuichiro; Hosokawa, Masaya; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Toyoda, Kentaro; Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Seino, Yutaka; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2008-08-01

    In type 1 diabetic patients, some have glycemic instability while others glycemic stability. We have developed criteria for evaluating glycemic instability and investigated the factors responsible. Glycemic instability in 52 type 1 diabetic patients was assessed by the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) and M-value, and clinical characteristics of good, fair and poor control groups were compared. The median MAGE and M-value was 6.6mmol/L and 18.7, respectively. Then MAGE >or=6.6mmol/L and M-value >or=18.7 was defined as poor control. In the 32 patients without detectable C-peptide levels, 18 patients (56%) showed poor control. The frequency of ketosis or ketoacidosis at onset of diabetes was dramatically higher in the poor control group not only in the patients as a whole but also in those without detectable C-peptide levels. A decreased level of C-peptide is a significant factor in glycemic instability. However, some patients have glycemic stability though beta-cell function is completely depleted. The presence of ketosis or ketoacidosis at onset of diabetes may be a factor in later glycemic instability, suggesting the importance of examining patients in detail at onset of diabetes for careful follow-up to prevent progression of acute and chronic complications of diabetes.

  14. Effect of an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention on Glycemic Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes A Randomized Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette Yun; MacDonald, Christopher Scott; Hansen, Katrine Bagge

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE It is unclear whether a lifestyle intervention can maintain glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE To test whether an intensive lifestyle intervention results in equivalent glycemic control compared with standard care and, secondarily, leads to a reduction in gluc...

  15. Supplementation with Glucosamine Has no Adverse Effects on Glycemic Level and Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Mazloom

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of glucosamine as an alternative treatment for osteoarthritis is becoming more frequent, including in those who have diabetes at the same time. The results from in vitro and animal studies propose that glucosamine may inversely affect glucose metabolism. However, the recommended dose of oral glucosamine in healthy people or diabetics did not have such effects consistently. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of glucosamine on glycemic control and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: Fifty-four patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The participants were assigned to receive 1500 mg glucosamine hydrochloride or placebo for 12 weeks. After determining their baseline characteristics, body mass index and dietary intake components, fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin were measured at weeks of 0, 8, and 12. Indices of insulin function including quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were calculated by specific formulas. Independent t-test and general linear model repeated measures were used to analyze the data. Results: In the glucosamine group, the means of fasting blood glucose and insulin were 107.31±24.07 mg/dl and 8.75±4.37 μu/ ml, respectively at baseline, which reached 112.38±31.50 and 9.10±4.17 at week 12. In the placebo group, the mean for fasting blood glucose and insulin were 103.84±24.15 and 9.79±4.02 at the beginning of the study, which reached to 111.40±26.43 and 8.58±3.68 at week 12. The results showed that there were no significant differences in fasting blood glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and QUICKI indices at all the studied time points (weeks of 0, 8 and 12 within or between the groups. Conclusion: Twelve weeks of a normal recommended dose of glucosamine supplements may not have adverse effects on glycemic control and insulin

  16. High glycemic load diet, milk and ice cream consumption are related to acne vulgaris in Malaysian young adults: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Noor Hasnani; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Azizan, Noor Zalmy

    2012-08-16

    The role of dietary factors in the pathophysiology of acne vulgaris is highly controversial. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the association between dietary factors and acne vulgaris among Malaysian young adults. A case-control study was conducted among 44 acne vulgaris patients and 44 controls aged 18 to 30 years from October 2010 to January 2011. Comprehensive acne severity scale (CASS) was used to determine acne severity. A questionnaire comprising items enquiring into the respondent's family history and dietary patterns was distributed. Subjects were asked to record their food intake on two weekdays and one day on a weekend in a three day food diary. Anthropometric measurements including body weight, height and body fat percentage were taken. Acne severity was assessed by a dermatologist. Cases had a significantly higher dietary glycemic load (175 ± 35) compared to controls (122 ± 28) (p consumptions was significantly higher in cases compared to controls. Females in the case group had a higher daily energy intake compared to their counterparts in the control group, 1812 ± 331 and 1590 ± 148 kcal respectively (p Body Mass Index, and body fat percentage between case and control groups (p > 0.05). Glycemic load diet and frequencies of milk and ice cream intake were positively associated with acne vulgaris.

  17. Impact of Physical Activity on Glycemic Control and Insulin Resistance: A Study of Community-dwelling Diabetic Patients in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Yin, Xueyao; Yu, Dan; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of various intensities of physical activity with glycemic control and insulin resistance in eastern China. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in eastern China. The subjects included 604 community-dwelling people. The participants were classified as insufficiently active (IA); sufficiently active (SA) and very active (VA) according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Insulin sensitivity was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Related social, biological, lifestyle factors and clinical characteristics were recorded and used as potential confounders. Results The cohort of 604 type 2 diabetes patients were classified according to the activity level: 107 subjects who were classified as IA, 329 met the criteria for SA, and the rest were VA. The proportion of obese patients, smokers, patients with hypertension, and the body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hemoglobin A1c protein (HbA1c), and 2-h postprandial blood glucose (2hPG) were significantly lower in the SA and VA groups than in the IA group (pactivity (pactivity. Conclusion Physical activity is a significant factor regarding glycemic control and insulin sensitivity, although SA and walking may be superior to VA for ameliorating insulin sensitivity.

  18. Alloxan-induced diabetes, a common model for evaluating the glycemic-control potential of therapeutic compounds and plants extracts in experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osasenaga Macdonald Ighodaro

    Full Text Available Glycemic homeostasis refers to glucose balance or control within circulation in living organisms. It is normally and largely compromised in diabetes. The compromise when exacerbated, leads to several complications including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy which are collectively known as diabetic complications and are the principal actors in co-morbidity and eventual mortality often associated with diabetes. The ability of therapeutic compounds including medicinal plants to restore glycemic balance or homeostasis in hyperglycemic condition is an index of their antidiabetic function and relevance. Alloxan and streptozotocin are the most popular diabetogenic agents used for assessing the antidiabetic or hypoglycemic capacity of test compounds. Notably, alloxan is far less expensive and more readily available than streptozotocin. On this ground, one will logically expect a preference for use of alloxan in experimental diabetes studies. Surprisingly, a sub meta-analysis of randomly selected studies conducted within the last one and half decade revealed otherwise. This observation necessitated the review of alloxan as a diabetogenic agent in animal studies. Keywords: Alloxan, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetogenic agent, Streptozotocin, Animals

  19. Cross-sectional association between BMI, glycemic control and energy intake in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Analysis from the Japan Diabetes Complications Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Hirohito; Yoshimura, Yukio; Tanaka, Sachiko; Iimuro, Satoshi; Ohashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hideki; Seino, Hiroaki; Ishibashi, Shun; Akanuma, Yasuo; Yamada, Nobuhiro

    2007-09-01

    Although, weight loss is associated with improved glycemic control in diabetic patients, the relationships between patient weight, daily energy intake (EI), and glycemic or other control status have been poorly investigated. Baseline characteristics of the Japan Diabetes Complications Study, a representative cohort of Japanese diabetic patients, were used for quartile analysis stratified according to patient body mass index (BMI) and EI. Despite a 1.4-fold discrepancy in BMI between the highest and the lowest quartiles, no significant linear trend in HbA(1C) levels or EI between quartiles was seen, although, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, total cholesterol and triglycerides increased and HDL cholesterol decreased with the increase in BMI. Quartile analysis, according to EI, revealed a 1.8-fold elevation in EI between the lowest and the highest quartile. Nevertheless, the differences in patient BMI between the lowest and the highest quartile were no more than 3% and there were no significant linear trends among the four quartiles in most parameters including HbA(1C), blood pressure, serum lipids. These results revealed only very limited cross-sectional correlations among BMI, EI and other parameters suggesting that it is necessary to consider much wider variations in ideal weight and optimal dietary prescription when making assessments of diabetic patients.

  20. Calculating the Mean Amplitude of Glycemic Excursions from Continuous Glucose Data Using an Open-Code Programmable Algorithm Based on the Integer Nonlinear Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE is an essential index for glycemic variability assessment, which is treated as a key reference for blood glucose controlling at clinic. However, the traditional “ruler and pencil” manual method for the calculation of MAGE is time-consuming and prone to error due to the huge data size, making the development of robust computer-aided program an urgent requirement. Although several software products are available instead of manual calculation, poor agreement among them is reported. Therefore, more studies are required in this field. In this paper, we developed a mathematical algorithm based on integer nonlinear programming. Following the proposed mathematical method, an open-code computer program named MAGECAA v1.0 was developed and validated. The results of the statistical analysis indicated that the developed program was robust compared to the manual method. The agreement among the developed program and currently available popular software is satisfied, indicating that the worry about the disagreement among different software products is not necessary. The open-code programmable algorithm is an extra resource for those peers who are interested in the related study on methodology in the future.

  1. Implementing Low-Cost, Community-Based Exercise Programs for Middle-Aged and Older Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: What Are the Benefits for Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu Mendes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a long-term, community-based, combined exercise program developed with low-cost exercise strategies on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Participants (n = 124; 63.25 ± 7.20 years old engaged in either a 9-month supervised exercise program (n = 39; consisting of combined aerobic, resistance, agility/balance, and flexibility exercise; three sessions per week; 70 min per session or a control group (n = 85 who maintained their usual care. Glycemic control, lipid profile, blood pressure, anthropometric profile, and the 10-year risk of coronary artery disease were assessed before and after the 9-month intervention. Results: A significant time * group interaction effect (p < 0.001 was identified in the values of the glycated hemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and the 10-year risk of coronary artery disease. Conclusions: A long-term, community-based, combined exercise program developed with low-cost exercise strategies was effective in inducing significant benefits on glycemic control, lipid profile, blood pressure, anthropometric profile, and the 10-year risk of coronary artery disease in middle-aged and older patients with type 2 diabetes. Clinical Trial Identification Number: ISRCTN09240628.

  2. Museum lighting for golden artifacts, with low correlated color temperature, high color uniformity and high color rendering index, using diffusing color mixing of red, cyan, and white-light-emitting diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Corell, Dennis Dan; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2012-01-01

    Museum lighting presents challenges mainly due to the demand for precise color rendering and the damaging effects of radiation. Golden objects must normally be illuminated by the non-standard CCT of 2200 K. An LED system that conforms to these requirements has been developed and implemented...... at the Royal Danish Collection at Rosenborg Castle. Color mixing of red, cyan, and white LEDs was employed to achieve the spectral power distribution needed for the required CCT and a CRI above 90. Color uniformity is achieved by the use of a highly diffusing reflector. The system has shown energy saving above...

  3. Relationship between oxidized low-density lipoprotein antibodies and obesity in different glycemic situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babakr AT

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abdullatif Taha Babakr,1 Osman Mohamed Elsheikh,2 Abdullah A Almarzouki,3 Adel Mohamed Assiri,1 Badr Eldin Elsonni Abdalla,4 Hani Yousif Zaki,5 Samir H Fatani,1 EssamEldin Mohamed NourEldin11Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, International University of Africa, Khartoum, Sudan; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, 4Department of Biochemistry, Sciences Faculty for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Gezira, Sudan Background: Autoantibodies to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL are a heterogeneous group of antibodies that are controversially discussed to be either pathogenic or protective. Biochemical and anthropometric measurements correlated with increased levels of these antibodies are also controversial, especially in conditions of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study was conducted to evaluate levels of oxLDL antibodies and their correlation with obesity in different glycemic situations. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-four adult males were classified into three subgroups: group 1 (n=125, comprising a control group of nondiabetic subjects; group 2 (n=77, comprising subjects with impaired glucose tolerance; and group 3 (n=72, comprising patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Body mass index was calculated, and measurement of oxLDL and oxLDL antibodies was performed. Results: Higher mean concentrations of oxLDL were found in the type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance groups (143.5±21.9 U/L and 108.7±23.7 U/L, respectively. The mean value for the control group was 73.5±27.5 U/L (P<0.001. Higher mean concentrations of anti-oxLDL antibodies were observed in the type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired

  4. Effect of Chlorogenic Acid Administration on Glycemic Control, Insulin Secretion, and Insulin Sensitivity in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuñiga, Laura Y; Aceves-de la Mora, Martha C Aceves-de; González-Ortiz, Manuel; Ramos-Núñez, Julia L; Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza

    2017-12-20

    Chlorogenic acid has been described as a novel polyphenol with metabolic effects on glucose homeostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chlorogenic acid administration on glycemic control, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 30 patients with IGT; 15 patients randomly assigned to oral chlorogenic acid received 400 mg three times per day for 12 weeks, and the other 15 patients received placebo in the same way. Before and after the intervention, anthropometric and metabolic measurements, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin A1c, and a lipid profile, were performed. Area under the curve of glucose and insulin as well as the insulinogenic, Stumvoll, and Matsuda indices were calculated. Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney U, and chi-square tests were performed, and P ≤ .05 was considered statistically significant. There were significant decreases in FPG (5.7 ± 0.4 vs. 5.5 ± 0.4 mmol/L, P = .002), insulinogenic index (0.71 ± 0.25 vs. 0.63 ± 0.25, P = .028), body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein levels in the chlorogenic acid group, with an increment in the Matsuda index (1.98 ± 0.88 vs. 2.30 ± 1.23, P = .002). There were no significant differences in the placebo group. In conclusion, chlorogenic acid administration in patients with IGT decreased FPG and insulin secretion, while increasing insulin sensitivity and improving both anthropometric evaluations and the lipid profile.

  5. [Effect of community periodontal care intervention on periodontal health and glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Sha, Yue-qin; Zhang, Bo-xue; Zhu, Ling; Kang, Jun

    2011-04-18

    To evaluate the effectiveness of community periodontal care intervention in type 2 diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis who participated in community non-communicable diseases management service. The randomized controlled and blinded community trial with a duration of six months was designed to compare effects of "periodontal initial therapy" on group I(22 cases), of "professional mechanical tooth cleaning (PMTC), i.e. coronal scaling" on group II(19 cases)and of "non-clinical therapy" on the control group(25 cases). The clinical periodontal indexes, such as probing depth (PD), attachment loss (AL), modified bleeding index (mBI), plaque index (PLI) were obtained with a Williams type periodontal probe; Laboratory examinations including glycosylated haemoglobin A1(HbA1C), glucose assay, were conducted. The reductions of PD in groups I and II were 0.71 and 0.70 mm, respectively, which was more significant than in control group (0.20 mm); the reductions of AL in groups I, II, and control group were 0.86, 0.57, and 0.03 mm, respectively, which showed significance in all the three groups. The subjects of groups I and II had 0.56% and 1.01% reductions of HbA1C respectively, and the significance was observed in group II. In addition, the improvement of HbA1C values in group II was highly correlated with the decrease in gingivitis (r=0.51, P=0.03). The community periodontal care approaches implemented in the community health service centers have significantly improved periodontal health as well as reduced glycemic level, which could be regarded as basic health care strategies for the patients with diabetes.

  6. Swelling of Lalpha-phases by matching the refractive index of the water-glycerol mixed solvent and that of the bilayers in the block copolymer system of (EO)15-(PDMS)15-(EO)15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yun; Hoffmann, Heinz; Makarsky, Alona; Richter, Walter; Talmon, Yeshayahu

    2007-06-14

    The swelling of Lalpha-phases from the block copolymer polyethylenoxide-b-polydimethylsiloxane-polyethylenoxide (EO)15-(PDMS)15-(EO)15 in water/glycerol mixtures is reported. At low and medium polymer concentrations (block copolymer forms a turbid vesicular dispersion in water. With time, the small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) and the large multilamellar vesicles (MLV) separate into a two phase L1/Lalpha-system. The turbid dispersions of the Lalpha-phase below 60% of the compound become more and more transparent with increasing glycerol and at 60% of glycerol become completely clear. Replacement of water by the solvent glycerol thus lowers the turbidity of the dispersion and swells the interlamellar distance between the bilayers. A 20% aqueous L1/Lalpha-dispersion can thus be transformed into a single birefringent transparent Lalpha-phase. The swelling of the Lalpha-phase in water and the decrease of the turbidity of the dispersion by the addition of glycerol is explained by the matching of the refractive index of the solvent to the refractive index of the bilayers of the block copolymer. The matching of a refractive index lowers the Hamaker constant in the DLVO theory between the bilayers and therefore decreases the attraction between the bilayers what allows them to swell to a larger separation. The microstructures in the phases were determined by cryo- and FFR-TEM. The interlamellar distance between the bilayers was determined by SAXS measurements. The viscous properties of the Lalpha-phases were determined by oscillatory rheological measurements. In comparison to other Lalpha-phases from normal surfactants, the Lalpha-phases from the block copolymer (EO)15-(PDMS)15-(EO)15 have low shear moduli. This is probably due to the high flexibility of the poly dimethylsiloxane block in the bilayers what can be recognized on the non-spherical shapes of the SUV's.

  7. Mixed segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Grutt; Bonde, Anders; Aagaard, Morten

    This book is about using recent developments in the fields of data analytics and data visualization to frame new ways of identifying target groups in media communication. Based on a mixed-methods approach, the authors combine psychophysiological monitoring (galvanic skin response) with textual...... content analysis and audience segmentation in a single-source perspective. The aim is to explain and understand target groups in relation to, on the one hand, emotional response to commercials or other forms of audio-visual communication and, on the other hand, living preferences and personality traits...

  8. Glycemic Excursions in Type 1 Diabetes in Pregnancy: A Semiparametric Statistical Approach to Identify Sensitive Time Points during Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resmi Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To examine the gestational glycemic profile and identify specific times during pregnancy that variability in glucose levels, measured by change in velocity and acceleration/deceleration of blood glucose fluctuations, is associated with delivery of a large-for-gestational-age (LGA baby, in women with type 1 diabetes. Methods. Retrospective analysis of capillary blood glucose levels measured multiple times daily throughout gestation in women with type 1 diabetes was performed using semiparametric mixed models. Results. Velocity and acceleration/deceleration in glucose levels varied across gestation regardless of delivery outcome. Compared to women delivering LGA babies, those delivering babies appropriate for gestational age exhibited significantly smaller rates of change and less variation in glucose levels between 180 days of gestation and birth. Conclusions. Use of innovative statistical methods enabled detection of gestational intervals in which blood glucose fluctuation parameters might influence the likelihood of delivering LGA baby in mothers with type 1 diabetes. Understanding dynamics and being able to visualize gestational changes in blood glucose are a potentially useful tool to assist care providers in determining the optimal timing to initiate continuous glucose monitoring.

  9. Glycemic Excursions in Type 1 Diabetes in Pregnancy: A Semiparametric Statistical Approach to Identify Sensitive Time Points during Gestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Resmi; Khoury, Jane; Altaye, Mekibib; Dolan, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To examine the gestational glycemic profile and identify specific times during pregnancy that variability in glucose levels, measured by change in velocity and acceleration/deceleration of blood glucose fluctuations, is associated with delivery of a large-for-gestational-age (LGA) baby, in women with type 1 diabetes. Methods. Retrospective analysis of capillary blood glucose levels measured multiple times daily throughout gestation in women with type 1 diabetes was performed using semiparametric mixed models. Results. Velocity and acceleration/deceleration in glucose levels varied across gestation regardless of delivery outcome. Compared to women delivering LGA babies, those delivering babies appropriate for gestational age exhibited significantly smaller rates of change and less variation in glucose levels between 180 days of gestation and birth. Conclusions. Use of innovative statistical methods enabled detection of gestational intervals in which blood glucose fluctuation parameters might influence the likelihood of delivering LGA baby in mothers with type 1 diabetes. Understanding dynamics and being able to visualize gestational changes in blood glucose are a potentially useful tool to assist care providers in determining the optimal timing to initiate continuous glucose monitoring. PMID:28280744

  10. Manufacturing sector carbon dioxide emissions in nine OECD countries 1973--87: A Divisia index decomposition to changes in fuel mix, emission coefficients, industry structure, energy intensities, and international structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvanger, A.

    1990-11-01

    In this paper the reduction in energy-related manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions for nine OECD countries in the period 1973 to 1987 is analyzed. Carbon dioxide emissions are estimated from energy use data. The emphasis is on carbon dioxide intensities, defined as emissions divided by value added. The overall manufacturing carbon dioxide intensity for the nine OECD countries was reduced by 42% in the period 1973--1987. Five fuels are specified together with six subsectors of manufacturing. Carbon dioxide emissions are estimated from fossil fuel consumption, employing emissions coefficients for gas, oil and solids. In addition, electricity consumption is specified. For electricity use an emission coefficient index is calculated from the shares of fossil fuels, nuclear power and hydro power used to generate electricity, and the efficiency in electricity generation from these energy sources. A Divisia index approach is used to sort out the contribution to reduced carbon dioxide intensity from different components. The major finding is that the main contribution to reduced carbon dioxide intensity is from the general reduction in manufacturing energy intensity, most likely driven by economic growth and increased energy prices, giving incentives to invest in new technology and new industrial processes. There is also a significant contribution from reduced production in the most carbon dioxide intensive subsectors, and a contribution from higher efficiency in electricity generation together with a larger nuclear power share at the expense of oil. 19 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs

  11. Improved Glycemic Control With Intraperitoneal Versus Subcutaneous Insulin in Type 1 Diabetes A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logtenberg, Susan J.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Gans, Reinold O.; van Ballegooie, Evert; Bilo, Henk J.

    OBJECTIVE - Continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII) with an implantable pump has been available for the past 25 years. CIPII, with its specific pharmacodynamic properties, may be a viable treatment alternative to improve glycemic control in patients with type I diabetes for whom other

  12. Dietary fiber intake, dietary glycemic load, and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuilin; Liu, Simin; Solomon, Caren G; Hu, Frank B

    2006-10-01

    We aimed to examine whether pregravid dietary fiber consumptions from cereal, fruit, and vegetable sources and dietary glycemic load were related to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. This study was a prospective cohort study among 13,110 eligible women in the Nurses' Health Study II. GDM was self-reported and validated by medical record review in a subsample. We documented 758 incident GDM cases during 8 years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, parity, prepregnancy BMI, and other covariates, dietary total fiber and cereal and fruit fiber were strongly associated with GDM risk. Each 10-g/day increment in total fiber intake was associated with 26% (95% CI 9-49) reduction in risk; each 5-g/day increment in cereal or fruit fiber was associated with a 23% (9-36) or 26% (5-42) reduction, respectively. Dietary glycemic load was positively related to GDM risk. Multivariate relative risk for highest versus lowest quintiles was 1.61 (1.02-2.53) (P for trend 0.03). The combination of high-glycemic load and low-cereal fiber diet was associated with 2.15-fold (1.04-4.29) increased risk compared with the reciprocal diet. These findings suggested that prepregnancy diet might be associated with women's GDM risk. In particular, diet with low fiber and high glycemic load was associated with an increased risk. Future clinical and metabolic studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  13. Correlation between glycemic variability and gastroesophageal reflux in adolescentswith type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I L Alimova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To estimate an impact of glycemic variability on the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM.Materials and methods. We enrolled 33 patients with T1DM aged from 12 to 17 years. 24-h pH-monitoring was performed with “Gas- troskan 24” system (Istok-Sistema, Fryazino; 24-h continuous glucose monitoring utilized CGMS MMT-7310 (Medtronic Minimed, USA with subsequent night-time analysis.Results. As compared to stable night-time glycemia controls (SD <2.0 mmol/L, patients with higher night-time glycemic variability (SD>2.0 mmol/L showed longer period of esophageal acidification (17% [2–58]; p<0.001, higher incidence of acid reflux events with duration above 5 min (2 ev. [1-10]; p<0.001, longer period of most protracted acid reflux event (63 min [5–132]; p<0.001, as well as higher prevalence of pathologic acid GER events (76.4%; χ2=17.11; p<0.001 during night-time. Increase in glycemic in- stability positively correlated with incidence and severity of acid GER events. 6-8 months follow-up supported these findings. Conclusion. Glycemic variability in adolescents with T1DM is a significant risk factor for development of GERD with hypomotor dys- function according to pH-monitoring.

  14. Glycemic Control in a Clinic-Based Sample of Diabetics in M'Bour Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    BeLue, Rhonda; Ndiaye, Khadidiatou; NDao, Fatou; Ba, Fatou Niass Niang; Diaw, Mor

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) including Senegal is faced with a significant and increasing burden of type 2 diabetes. However, little information is available about diabetes management among Senegalese diabetics. Purpose: The current study aims to describe the level of glycemic control among a convenience sample of diabetics who receive…

  15. Glycemic control in the infectious diseases ward; role of clinical pharmacist interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsaei, Shadi; Karimzadeh, Iman; Elyasi, Sepideh; Hatamkhani, Shima; Khalili, Hossein

    2014-04-15

    Hyperglycemia is one of the most frequent metabolic complications in hospitalized patients. Increased risk of infection following hyperglycemia has been reported in hospitalized patients and infections may also cause insulin resistance which complicates the control of blood glucose level. In this study the impact of the clinical pharmacist interventions on the glycemic control in patients admitted to infectious diseases ward has been evaluated. We conducted a prospective, pre-post interventional study among patients with hyperglycemia. The clinical pharmacist-led multidisciplinary team managed the glycemic profile of patients according to an established insulin protocol commonly used in internal wards. Clinical pharmacists reviewed patients' medical charts for proper insulin administration, evaluated nurses' technique for insulin injection and blood glucose measurement, and educated patients about symptoms of hypoglycemia and the importance of adherence to different aspects of their glycemic management. The percentage of controlled random blood sugar increased from 13.8% in the pre-intervention to 22.3% in the post-intervention group (p value percentage of controlled fasting blood sugars in the post-intervention group was non-significantly higher than in the pre-intervention group. Pharmacists and additional health care providers from other departments such as nursing and dietary departments need to be devoted to glycemic control service. Collaborative practice agreement between physicians is necessary to promote this service and help to increase the use of such services in different settings for diabetes control.

  16. Poor agreement of computerized calculators for mean amplitude of glycemic excursions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sechterberger, Marjolein K.; Luijf, Yoeri M.; DeVries, J. Hans

    2014-01-01

    Glucose variability has been identified as a predictor of hypoglycemia and has been associated with mortality in critically ill patients without diabetes. A popular metric to quantify glucose variability is the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE). The "ruler and pencil" approach to

  17. Effects on Glycemic Control in Impaired Wound Healing in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) Fatty Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuhiro, Miyajima; Hui Teoh, Soon; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Shinohara, Masami; Fatchiyah, Fatchiyah; Ohta, Takeshi; Yamada, Takahisa

    2018-02-01

    Impaired diabetic wound healing is an important issue in diabetic complications. The present study aims to evaluate the protective effect on glycemic control against impaired diabetic wound healing using a diabetic rat model. We investigated the wound healing process and effect on the impaired wound repair by glycemic control in the Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rat, which is a new animal model of obese type 2 diabetes and may be a good model for study impaired wound healing. Male SDT fatty rats at 15 weeks of age were administered orally with sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor for 3 weeks. Wounds were induced at 2 weeks after SGLT 2 inhibitor treatment, and the wound areas were periodically examined in morphological and histological analyses. The SDT fatty rats showed a delayed wound healing as compared with the normal rats, but a glycemic control improved the impaired wound healing. In histological analysis in the skin of SDT fatty rats showed severe infiltration of inflammatory cell, hemorrhage and many bacterial masses in the remaining and slight fibrosis of crust on skin tissue . Thought that this results skin performance to be a delay of crust formation and regeneration of epithelium; however, these findings were ameliorated in the SGLT 2 inhibitor treated group. Glycemic control is effective for treatment in diabetic wounds and the SDT fatty rat may be useful to investigate pathophysiological changes in impaired diabetic wound healing.

  18. Symptoms and well-being in relation to glycemic control in type II diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Does, Ferdinand E.E.; De Neeling, J. Nico D.; Snoek, Frank J.; Kostense, Pieter J.; Grootenhuis, Peter A.; Bouter, Lex M.; Heine, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To describe the cross-sectional relation between glycemic control and physical symptoms, emotional well-being, and general well-being in patients with type II diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The study population consisted of 188 patients with type II diabetes between 40 and 75

  19. Glycemic control in diabetic children and adolescents after attending diabetic camp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin P. Soenggono

    2011-10-01

    Conclusion Glycemic control in T1DM children and adolescents was significantly improved 3 months after attending diabetic camp compared to that before attending camp. According to subjects’ self-assessment by PedsQL questionnaire, no subjects indicated a poor quality of life for the duration of their illness. [Paediatr Indones. 2011;51:294-7].

  20. Diabetes with comorbid depression: role of SSRI in better glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlawat, Pratibha; Gupta, Rajiv; Rajput, Rajesh; Gahlan, Deepak; Gehlawat, Virender Kumar

    2013-10-01

    The presence of depression in patients with diabetes mellitus is reported to be associated with poor glycemic control and an increased risk of diabetic complications. Treatment of depression with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may improve glycemic control and may be beneficial for patients with comorbid depression and diabetes. To study the effect of Escitalopram (SSRI) in patients with diabetes mellitus with comorbid depression and the relationship of treatment response for depression and glycemic control. 40 patients received open-label Escitalopram therapy for up to 12 weeks. Clinical outcome measures included Hamilton Depression rating scale (HAM-D) assessment at 3, 6, and 12 weeks. In addition, fasting and post-prandial plasma glucose level, weight and waist circumference, glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1C), lipid profile, renal function test and fundus examination were done before and during Escitalopram therapy. A significant decline in mean HAM-D scores was observed 3 weeks onwards till the end of the study during Escitalopram therapy. There was a corresponding decline in mean fasting and post-prandial plasma glucose level at 6 and 12 weeks respectively and glycosylated hemoglobin level at 12 weeks was observed. Escitalopram is effective in treating depression in patients with diabetes mellitus, and has beneficial effects on glycemic control. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Bile acid sequestrants for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Mikkelsen, Kristian H

    2017-01-01

    by the control group and no evidence of publication bias or small study effects. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses found that BAS treatment improves glycemic control. The size of the effect was clinically relevant and despite limited safety data, our findings support the inclusion of BASs in current diabetes management...

  2. Canagliflozin Slows Progression of Renal Function Decline Independently of Glycemic Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerspink, Hiddo J. L.; Desai, Mehul; Jardine, Meg; Balis, Dainius; Meininger, Gary; Perkovic, Vlado

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition with canagliflozin decreases HbA1c, body weight, BP, and albuminuria, implying that canagliflozin confers renoprotection. We determined whether canagliflozin decreases albuminuria and reduces renal function decline independently of its glycemic effects in a

  3. No influence of carbonation on glycemic response, gastric emptying, and satiety of sweetened drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Evelyn Rou Lin; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of carbonation of sweetened beverages on glycemic response, gastric emptying, and satiety. After an overnight fast, 15 healthy individuals (6 women, 9 men) consumed a 500 mL beverage containing 50 g glucose that was noncarbonated (NC), low carbonated (LC), or high carbonated (HC) at a standardized rate of consumption (100 mL/min). Blood glucose was measured at baseline and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after beverage consumption. Antral cross-sectional area was measured using ultrasound at baseline, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 90, and 120 min; for the estimation of gastric volume and gastric emptying rate. Satiety was assessed using electronic visual analog scales at the same time points as the blood glucose measurement. There were no significant differences in glycemic response among the test beverages. Higher carbonation levels significantly increased antral cross-sectional area during the first 20 min after beverage consumption (P carbonation on satiety, but the area under the curve for thirst was significantly lower for HC compared with NC (P = 0.009). The carbonation of a simple glucose solution did not increase glycemic response nor alter gastric emptying and subjective feelings of satiety (with the exception of thirst). The present study suggests that carbonation does not alter glycemic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of Exercise Stages of Change with Glycemic Control in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Sundar; Clyburn, Ernest B.; Brown, Ronald T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the distribution of diabetic patients' stages of change to follow an exercise regimen, examining whether later stages of change were associated with better glycemic control. Data on participants from a primary care clinic (who were predominantly black, female, and indigent) indicated that over half of were in pre-contemplation,…

  5. Glycemic control during consecutive days with prolonged walking exercise in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Eijsvogels, Thijs M; Nyakayiru, Jean; Schreuder, Tim H A; Hopman, Maria T; Thijssen, Dick H; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-07-01

    Despite its general benefits for health, exercise complicates the maintenance of stable blood glucose concentrations in individuals with type 1 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to examine changes in food intake, insulin administration, and 24-h glycemic control in response to consecutive days with prolonged walking exercise (∼8h daily) in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Ten individuals with type 1 diabetes participating in the worlds' largest walking event were recruited for this observational study. Simultaneous measurements of 24-h glycemic control (continuous glucose monitoring), insulin administration and food intake were performed during a non-walking day (control) and during three subsequent days with prolonged walking exercise (daily distance 40 or 50km). Despite an increase in daily energy (31±18%; p10 mmol/L) and hypoglycemia (blood glucose 0.05 for all variables). The prolonged walking exercise was associated with a modest increase in glycemic variability compared with the control day (pexercise allows for profound reductions in daily insulin administration in persons with type 1 diabetes, despite large increments in energy and carbohydrate intake. When taking such adjustments into account, prolonged moderate-intensity exercise does not necessarily impair 24-h glycemic control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Glycemic control during consecutive days with prolonged walking exercise in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J.W.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Nyakayiru, J.D.O.A.; Schreuder, T.H.A.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Loon, L.J. van

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Despite its general benefits for health, exercise complicates the maintenance of stable blood glucose concentrations in individuals with type 1 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to examine changes in food intake, insulin administration, and 24-h glycemic control in response to

  7. Correlation of binge eating disorder with level of depression and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Selime; Kayar, Yusuf; Önem Akçakaya, Rabia; Türkyılmaz Uyar, Ece; Kalkan, Kübra; Yazısız, Veli; Aydın, Çiğdem; Yücel, Başak

    2015-01-01

    It is reported that eating disorders and depression are more common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) in T2DM patients and examine the correlation of BED with level of depression and glycemic control. One hundred fifty-two T2DM patients aged between 18 and 75 years (81 females, 71 males) were evaluated via a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorder, Clinical Version in terms of eating disorders. Disordered eating attitudes were determined using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and level of depression was determined using the Beck Depression Scale. Patients who have BED and patients who do not were compared in terms of age, gender, body mass index, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, depression and EAT scores. Eight of the patients included in the study (5.26%) were diagnosed with BED. In patients diagnosed with BED, depression and EAT scores were significantly high (PEAT scores and depression scores (r = +0.196, Pdisordered eating attitudes. Psychiatric treatments should be organized for patients diagnosed with BED by taking into consideration comorbid depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigating glycemic potential of rice by unraveling compositional variations in mature grain and starch mobilization patterns during seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Maria Krishna de; Parween, Sabiha; Butardo, Vito M; Alhambra, Crisline Mae; Anacleto, Roslen; Seiler, Christiane; Bird, Anthony R; Chow, Chung-Ping; Sreenivasulu, Nese

    2017-07-19

    Rice lines with slower starch digestibility provide opportunities in mitigating the global rise in type II diabetes and related non-communicable diseases. However, screening for low glycemic index (GI) in rice breeding programs is not possible due to time and cost constraints. This study evaluated the feasibility of using in vitro cooked grain amylolysis, starch mobilization patterns during seed germination, and variation in starch structure and composition in the mature seed to differentiate patterns of starch digestibility. Mobilization patterns of total starch, resistant starch, amylose and amylopectin chains, and free sugars during seed germination revealed that the process is analogous to digestion in the human gastrointestinal tract. The combination of these biochemical markers can be used as an alternative measure to predict GI. Additionally, transcriptome analysis of stored mRNA transcripts in high and low GI lines detected differences in starch metabolism and confirmed the importance of seed storage pathways in influencing digestibility. Pathway analyses supported by metabolomics data revealed that resistant starch, cell wall non-starch polysaccharides and flavonoids potentially contribute to slower digestibility. These new insights can guide precision breeding programs to produce low GI rice with acceptable cooking quality to help mitigate the burden of diet-associated lifestyle diseases.

  9. Liberal Glycemic Control in Critically Ill Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Palash; Plummer, Mark P; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Jenkins, Alicia J; Januszewski, Andrzej S; Chapman, Marianne J; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Deane, Adam M

    2016-09-01

    The optimal blood glucose target in critically ill patients with preexisting diabetes and chronic hyperglycemia is unknown. In such patients, we aimed to determine whether a " liberal" approach to glycemic control would reduce hypoglycemia and glycemic variability and appear safe. Prospective, open-label, sequential-period exploratory study. Medical-surgical ICU. During sequential 6-month periods, we studied 83 patients with preexisting type 2 diabetes and chronic hyperglycemia (glycated hemoglobin, ≥ 7.0% at ICU admission). During the "standard care" period, 52 patients received insulin to treat blood glucose concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L whereas during the "liberal" period, 31 patients received insulin to treat blood glucose concentrations greater than 14 mmol/L. Time-weighted mean glucose concentrations and the number and duration of moderate (liberal: 10.3 [2.1] mmol/L; p = 0.02) and nadir blood glucose (4.4 [1.5] vs 5.5 [1.6] mmol/L; p liberal period. There was a signal toward reduced risk of moderate-severe hypoglycemia (relative risk: liberal compared with standard care: 0.47 [95% CI, 0.19-1.13]; p = 0.09). Ten patients (19%) during the standard period and one patient (3%) during the liberal period had recurrent episodes of moderate-severe hypoglycemia. Liberal therapy reduced glycemic variability (coefficient of variability, 33.2% [12.9%] vs 23.8% [7.7%]; p liberal glycemic control appears to attenuate glycemic variability and may reduce the prevalence of moderate-severe hypoglycemia.

  10. Effects of soy-soluble fiber and flaxseed gum on the glycemic and insulinemic responses to glucose solutions and dairy products in healthy adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Marco M C; Goff, H Douglas; Kisch, Julie A; Coulson, Alex; Wright, Amanda J

    2013-01-01

    Soy-soluble polysaccharides and flaxseed gum are underutilized dietary fibers of interest to the food industry. However, because the ability of soluble fibers to modulate postprandial glucose and insulin metabolism has been related to their viscous effects, the utility of these and other low-viscosity soluble fibers remains unproven. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between soy-soluble polysaccharides and flaxseed gum concentration, product viscosity, and the postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses in the context of glucose solutions as well as fluid and gelled dairy products. Twelve healthy males participated in a randomized crossover postprandial study in which they visited the laboratory following overnight fasts on 11 occasions to consume one of 11 study treatments, each consisting of 50 g available carbohydrates. The study treatments included a glucose reference (in duplicate), glucose solutions containing soy-soluble polysaccharides (6%), flaxseed gum (0.7%), or guar gum (0.23%), all matched for an apparent viscosity of 61 mPa·s at 50 s⁻¹, as well as dairy-based beverages and puddings with 0% or 1% soluble fiber added. Blood samples were collected at fasting and up to 2 hours postprandially for determination of glucose and insulin concentrations. Area under the curve (AUC), peak concentration, and time-to-peak values as well as glycemic index (GI) and insulinemic index (II) were calculated. Fiber fortification of a 50 g glucose solution had no effect on postprandial blood glucose or insulin levels, even at a high concentration (i.e., 6% soy-soluble polysaccharides). Glucose AUC and GI values for the dairy-based beverage (p soluble polysaccharide-fortified dairy products (p fiber-fortified fluid and gelled dairy-based study treatments and no significant differences were observed in terms of the insulin AUC, II, and peak insulin concentration between any of the dairy products. All dairy products had lower glycemic

  11. Distinct impacts of sleep-disordered breathing on glycemic variability in patients with and without diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Nakata

    Full Text Available Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB is highly prevalent in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM and heart failure (HF and contributes to poor cardiovascular outcomes. Enlarged glycemic variability (GV is a risk factor of cardiac events independently of average blood glucose level, but the influence of SDB on GV is uncertain. In this study, we examined whether the impact of SDB on GV is modified by the presence of DM with or without HF.Two hundred three patients (67.5±14.1 [SD] years old, 132 males who were admitted to our institute for examination or treatment of DM and/or HF underwent continuous glucose monitoring and polysomnography. Both HbA1c (8.0±2.0 vs. 5.7±0.4% and mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE, median: 95.5 vs. 63.5 mg/dl were significantly higher in a DM group (n = 100 than in a non-DM group (n = 103, but apnea-hypopnea index (AHI: 29.0±22.7 vs. 29.3±21.5 was similar in the two groups. AHI was correlated with log MAGE in the non-DM group but not in the DM group, and multivariate regression analysis revealed that AHI was an independent variable for log MAGE in the non-DM group but not in the DM group. We then divided the non-DM patients into two subgroups according to BNP level (100 pg/ml. AHI was positively correlated with log MAGE (r = 0.74, p<0.001 in the non-DM low-BNP subgroup, but such a correlation was not found in the non-DM high-BNP subgroup. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP reduced MAGE from 75.3 to 53.0 mg/dl in the non-DM group but did not reduce MAGE in the DM group.Severity of SDB was associated with higher GV, but DM as well as HF diminished the contribution of SDB to GV. Treatment with CPAP was effective for reduction of GV only in patients without DM.

  12. Distinct impacts of sleep-disordered breathing on glycemic variability in patients with and without diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Kei; Miki, Takayuki; Tanno, Masaya; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Yano, Toshiyuki; Muranaka, Atsuko; Sato, Tatsuya; Oshima, Hiroto; Tatekoshi, Yuki; Mizuno, Masashi; Abe, Koki; Miura, Tetsuji

    2017-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is highly prevalent in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and heart failure (HF) and contributes to poor cardiovascular outcomes. Enlarged glycemic variability (GV) is a risk factor of cardiac events independently of average blood glucose level, but the influence of SDB on GV is uncertain. In this study, we examined whether the impact of SDB on GV is modified by the presence of DM with or without HF. Two hundred three patients (67.5±14.1 [SD] years old, 132 males) who were admitted to our institute for examination or treatment of DM and/or HF underwent continuous glucose monitoring and polysomnography. Both HbA1c (8.0±2.0 vs. 5.7±0.4%) and mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE, median: 95.5 vs. 63.5 mg/dl) were significantly higher in a DM group (n = 100) than in a non-DM group (n = 103), but apnea-hypopnea index (AHI: 29.0±22.7 vs. 29.3±21.5) was similar in the two groups. AHI was correlated with log MAGE in the non-DM group but not in the DM group, and multivariate regression analysis revealed that AHI was an independent variable for log MAGE in the non-DM group but not in the DM group. We then divided the non-DM patients into two subgroups according to BNP level (100 pg/ml). AHI was positively correlated with log MAGE (r = 0.74, p<0.001) in the non-DM low-BNP subgroup, but such a correlation was not found in the non-DM high-BNP subgroup. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) reduced MAGE from 75.3 to 53.0 mg/dl in the non-DM group but did not reduce MAGE in the DM group. Severity of SDB was associated with higher GV, but DM as well as HF diminished the contribution of SDB to GV. Treatment with CPAP was effective for reduction of GV only in patients without DM.

  13. Liraglutide therapy beyond glycemic control: An observational study in Indian patients with type 2 diabetes in real world setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavadev J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Jothydev Kesavadev, Arun Shankar, Gopika Krishnan, Sunitha JothydevJothydev's Diabetes Research Center, JDC Junction, Trivandrum, Kerala, India 695032Background: Liraglutide is an analog of human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and acts as a GLP-1 receptor agonist. Liraglutide is presently used in the treatment of selected patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Objective: To assess efficacy and safety of liraglutide in, overweight and obese Indian patients with T2DM.Methods: A single center, prospective, open-labeled, single-arm, observational study for 24 weeks in a real-world setting. Fourteen overweight and obese patients with T2DM who were clinically suitable for liraglutide therapy received liraglutide injections. The starting dose of liraglutide (Victoza injection was 0.6 mg/day for 3 days followed by 1.2 mg for next 10 days and finally 1.8 mg/day for 22 weeks. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after 12 and 24 weeks of therapy. Adverse events (AE noted during course of therapy were recorded. A repeated measure analysis of variance was performed to assess statistical significance.Results: Fourteen patients were studied for 24 weeks. After 24 weeks of liraglutide therapy, mean fasting and postprandial plasma glucose decreased by 48.5 mg/dL and 66.71 mg/dL, respectively (P = 0.002 and P = 0004 over 24 weeks, respectively. A mean reduction of 2.26% of glycosylated hemoglobin was noted (P < 0.001 over 24 weeks. Mean decrease in body weight of 8.65 kg and mean decrease in body mass index of 3.26 kg/m2 was noted (P < 0.001 over 24 weeks for each parameter. Systolic blood pressure was reduced by 15.15 mm of Hg (P = 0.004. Significant improvement in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and serum creatinine was noted. Nine patients reported AEs. The AEs noticed were nausea (n = 6, feeling of satiety (n = 3, and vomiting (n = 1. No serious AE or hypoglycemic episodes were observed.Conclusion: Liraglutide once a day

  14. Effect of scaling and root planing on serum interleukin-10 levels and glycemic control in chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Anirudh Balakrishna Acharya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Chronic periodontal disease (CPD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM share common pathogenic pathways involving the cytokine network resulting in increased susceptibility to both diseases, leading to increased inflammatory destruction, insulin resistance, and poor glycemic control. Periodontal treatment may improve glycemic control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of scaling and root planing (SRP of T2DM patients with CPD on hyperglycemia and the levels of serum interleukin-10 (IL-10. Materials and Methods: Forty-five subjects were divided into three groups comprising 15 subjects each as Group 1 (healthy controls, Group 2 (CPD patients, and Group 3 (T2DM patients with CPD. Plaque index, gingival index (GI, probing pocket depths (PPD, clinical attachment loss (AL, bleeding on probing (BoP, random blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C, and serum IL-10 were measured at baseline; SRP was performed on Groups 2 and 3 and the selected parameters recorded again at 6 months. Results: Statistically significant (P < 0.05 differences were observed in the variables at baseline and 6 months after SRP between the three groups using one-way ANOVA. The paired samples t-test for PPD and AL in Group 3 was statistically significant. Group 3 revealed positive correlations between PPD and HbA1C, BoP and IL-10, respectively, at 6 months and a predictable association of HbA1C with PPD and GI, and IL-10 levels with BoP, respectively, at 6 months. Conclusion: Scaling and root planing is effective in reducing blood glucose levels in T2DM patient with pocket depths and effective in elevating systemic IL-10 levels in CPD patients and CPD patients with T2DM.

  15. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris: A review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Marilyn L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity, and resultant health hazards which include diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, are worldwide medical problems. Control of diet and exercise are cornerstones of the management of excess weight. Foods with a low glycemic index may reduce the risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as their complications. As an alternative to a low glycemic index diet, there is a growing body of research into products that slow the absorption of carbohydrates through the inhibition of enzymes responsible for their digestion. These products include alpha-amylase and glucosidase inhibitors. The common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris produces an alpha-amylase inhibitor, which has been characterized and tested in numerous clinical studies. A specific and proprietary product named Phase 2® Carb Controller (Pharmachem Laboratories, Kearny, NJ has demonstrated the ability to cause weight loss with doses of 500 to 3000 mg per day, in either a single dose or in divided doses. Clinical studies also show that Phase 2 has the ability to reduce the post-prandial spike in blood glucose levels. Experiments conducted incorporating Phase 2 into food and beverage products have found that it can be integrated into various products without losing activity or altering the appearance, texture or taste of the food. There have been no serious side effects reported following consumption of Phase 2. Gastro-intestinal side effects are rare and diminish upon extended use of the product. In summary, Phase 2 has the potential to induce weight loss and reduce spikes in blood sugar caused by carbohydrates through its alpha-amylase inhibiting activity.

  16. Multi-scale glycemic variability: a link to gray matter atrophy and cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes.

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    Xingran Cui

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM accelerates brain aging and cognitive decline. Complex interactions between hyperglycemia, glycemic variability and brain aging remain unresolved. This study investigated the relationship between glycemic variability at multiple time scales, brain volumes and cognition in type 2 DM.Forty-three older adults with and 26 without type 2 DM completed 72-hour continuous glucose monitoring, cognitive tests and anatomical MRI. We described a new analysis of continuous glucose monitoring, termed Multi-Scale glycemic variability (Multi-Scale GV, to examine glycemic variability at multiple time scales. Specifically, Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition was used to identify five unique ultradian glycemic variability cycles (GVC1-5 that modulate serum glucose with periods ranging from 0.5-12 hrs.Type 2 DM subjects demonstrated greater variability in GVC3-5 (period 2.0-12 hrs than controls (P<0.0001, during the day as well as during the night. Multi-Scale GV was related to conventional markers of glycemic variability (e.g. standard deviation and mean glycemic excursions, but demonstrated greater sensitivity and specificity to conventional markers, and was associated with worse long-term glycemic control (e.g. fasting glucose and HbA1c. Across all subjects, those with greater glycemic variability within higher frequency cycles (GVC1-3; 0.5-2.0 hrs had less gray matter within the limbic system and temporo-parietal lobes (e.g. cingulum, insular, hippocampus, and exhibited worse cognitive performance. Specifically within those with type 2 DM, greater glycemic variability in GVC2-3 was associated with worse learning and memory scores. Greater variability in GVC5 was associated with longer DM duration and more depression. These relationships were independent of HbA1c and hypoglycemic episodes.Type 2 DM is associated with dysregulation of glycemic variability over multiple scales of time. These time-scale-dependent glycemic fluctuations

  17. Mixed cryoglobulinemia

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    Ferri Clodoveo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC, type II and type III, refers to the presence of circulating cryoprecipitable immune complexes in the serum and manifests clinically by a classical triad of purpura, weakness and arthralgias. It is considered to be a rare disorder, but its true prevalence remains unknown. The disease is more common in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe or Northern America. The prevalence of 'essential' MC is reported as approximately 1:100,000 (with a female-to-male ratio 3:1, but this term is now used to refer to a minority of MC patients only. MC is characterized by variable organ involvement including skin lesions (orthostatic purpura, ulcers, chronic hepatitis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, peripheral neuropathy, diffuse vasculitis, and, less frequently, interstitial lung involvement and endocrine disorders. Some patients may develop lymphatic and hepatic malignancies, usually as a late complication. MC may be associated with numerous infectious or immunological diseases. When isolated, MC may represent a distinct disease, the so-called 'essential' MC. The etiopathogenesis of MC is not completely understood. Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is suggested to play a causative role, with the contribution of genetic and/or environmental factors. Moreover, MC may be associated with other infectious agents or immunological disorders, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection or primary Sjögren's syndrome. Diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory findings. Circulating mixed cryoglobulins, low C4 levels and orthostatic skin purpura are the hallmarks of the disease. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis involving medium- and, more often, small-sized blood vessels is the typical pathological finding, easily detectable by means of skin biopsy of recent vasculitic lesions. Differential diagnoses include a wide range of systemic, infectious and neoplastic disorders, mainly autoimmune hepatitis, Sjögren's syndrome

  18. Use of an insulin bolus advisor improves glycemic control in multiple daily insulin injection (MDI) therapy patients with suboptimal glycemic control: first results from the ABACUS trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ralph; Cavan, David A; Cranston, Iain; Barnard, Katharine; Ryder, Jacqueline; Vogel, Claudia; Parkin, Christopher G; Koehler, Walter; Vesper, Iris; Petersen, Bettina; Schweitzer, Matthias A; Wagner, Robin S

    2013-11-01

    Use of automated bolus advisors is associated with improved glycemic control in patients treated with insulin pump therapy. We conducted a study to assess the impact of using an insulin bolus advisor embedded in a blood glucose (BG) meter on glycemic control and treatment satisfaction in patients treated with multiple daily insulin injection (MDI) therapy. The study goal was to achieve >0.5% A1C reduction in most patients. This was a 26-week, prospective, randomized, controlled, multinational study that enrolled 218 MDI-treated patients with poorly controlled diabetes (202 with type 1 diabetes, 16 with type 2 diabetes) who were 18 years of age or older. Participants had mean baseline A1C of 8.9% (SD, 1.2 [74 mmol/mol]), mean age of 42.4 years (SD, 14.0), mean BMI of 26.5 kg/m(2) (SD, 4.2), and mean diabetes duration of 17.7 years (SD, 11.1). Control group (CNL) patients used a standard BG meter and manual bolus calculation; intervention group (EXP) patients used the Accu-Chek Aviva Expert meter with an integrated bolus advisor to calculate insulin dosages. Glucose data were downloaded and used for therapy parameter adjustments in both groups. A total of 193 patients (CNL, n = 93; EXP, n = 100) completed the study. Significantly more EXP than CNL patients achieved >0.5% A1C reduction (56.0% vs. 34.4%; P < 0.01). Improvement in treatment satisfaction (Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire scale) was significantly greater in EXP patients (11.4 [SD, 6.0] vs. 9.0 [SD, 6.3]; P < 0.01). Percentage of BG values <50 mg/dL was <2% in both groups during the study. Use of an automated bolus advisor resulted in improved glycemic control and treatment satisfaction without increasing severe hypoglycemia.

  19. Effect of meal glycemic load and caffeine consumption on prolonged monotonous driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Christopher; Desbrow, Ben; Hall, Susan; Irwin, Christopher

    2017-11-01

    Monotonous driving involves low levels of stimulation and high levels of repetition and is essentially an exercise in sustained attention and vigilance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of consuming a high or low glycemic load meal on prolonged monotonous driving performance. The effect of consuming caffeine with a high glycemic load meal was also examined. Ten healthy, non-diabetic participants (7 males, age 51±7yrs, mean±SD) completed a repeated measures investigation involving 3 experimental trials. On separate occasions, participants were provided one of three treatments prior to undertaking a 90min computer-based simulated drive. The 3 treatment conditions involved consuming: (1) a low glycemic load meal+placebo capsules (LGL), (2) a high glycemic load meal+placebo capsules (HGL) and (3) a high glycemic load meal+caffeine capsules (3mgkg -1 body weight) (CAF). Measures of driving performance included lateral (standard deviation of lane position (SDLP), average lane position (AVLP), total number of lane crossings (LC)) and longitudinal (average speed (AVSP) and standard deviation of speed (SDSP)) vehicle control parameters. Blood glucose levels, plasma caffeine concentrations and subjective ratings of sleepiness, alertness, mood, hunger and simulator sickness were also collected throughout each trial. No difference in either lateral or longitudinal vehicle control parameters or subjective ratings were observed between HGL and LGL treatments. A significant reduction in SDLP (0.36±0.20m vs 0.41±0.19m, p=0.004) and LC (34.4±31.4 vs 56.7±31.5, p=0.018) was observed in the CAF trial compared to the HGL trial. However, no differences in AVLP, AVSP and SDSP or subjective ratings were detected between these two trials (p>0.05). Altering the glycemic load of a breakfast meal had no effect on measures of monotonous driving performance in non-diabetic adults. Individuals planning to undertake a prolonged monotonous drive following consumption of a

  20. Sotagliflozin improves glycemic control in nonobese diabetes-prone mice with type 1 diabetes

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    Powell DR

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available David R Powell, Deon Doree, Sabrina Jeter-Jones, Zhi-Ming Ding, Brian Zambrowicz, Arthur Sands Lexicon Pharmaceuticals, The Woodlands, TX, USA Purpose: Oral agents are needed that improve glycemic control without increasing hypoglycemic events in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D. Sotagliflozin may meet this need, because this compound lowers blood glucose through the insulin-independent mechanisms of inhibiting kidney SGLT2 and intestinal SGLT1. We examined the effect of sotagliflozin on glycemic control and rate of hypoglycemia measurements in T1D mice maintained on a low daily insulin dose, and compared these results to those from mice maintained in better glycemic control with a higher daily insulin dose alone. Materials and methods: Nonobese diabetes-prone mice with cyclophosphamide-induced T1D were randomized to receive one of four daily treatments: 0.2 U insulin/vehicle, 0.05 U insulin/vehicle, 0.05 U insulin/2 mg/kg sotagliflozin or 0.05 U insulin/30 mg/kg sotagliflozin. Insulin was delivered subcutaneously by micro-osmotic pump; the day after pump implantation, mice received their first of 22 once-daily oral doses of sotagliflozin or vehicle. Glycemic control was monitored by measuring fed blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels. Results: Blood glucose levels decreased rapidly and comparably in the 0.05 U insulin/sotagliflozin-treated groups and the 0.2 U insulin/vehicle group compared to the 0.05 U insulin/vehicle group, which had significantly higher levels than the other three groups from day 2 through day 23. A1c levels were also significantly higher in the 0.05 U insulin/vehicle group compared to the other three groups on day 23. Importantly, the 0.2 U insulin/vehicle group had, out of 100 blood glucose measurements, 13 that were <70 mg/dL compared to one of 290 for the other three groups combined. Conclusion: Sotagliflozin significantly improved glycemic control, without increasing the rate of hypoglycemia measurements, in