Sample records for glutin

  1. Glutinous Rice in Pineapple


    Ingredients: 50 grams glutinous rice, one pineapple, 20 grams dried fruits (raisins, walnuts. Chinese wolfberry, Chinese dates, lotus seeds, lily petals, kidney beans and peanuts) Seasonings: 5 grams rock sugar, 5 grams salad oil. Method:

  2. Glutinous Rice Cakes


    CELEBRATING Spring Festival includes making glutinous rice cakes, or niangao in Chinese. Traditional and new methods of making niangao vary in taste according to different areas. No matter poor or rich. niangao is a must for every family during Spring Festival as it symbolizes auspiciousness. In Beijing, both northern and southernstyle niangao are available. After the Beginning of Autumn (13th solar term), the

  3. Susceptibility of glutinous rice starch to digestive enzymes.

    Guo, Li; Zhang, Juanjuan; Hu, Jian; Li, Xueling; Du, Xianfeng


    To understand the susceptibility of glutinous rice starch to digestive enzymes and its potential impact on glycemic response, enzyme kinetics and in vitro digestibility of the native and gelatinized starches were investigated. The results showed that the Km values of the native and gelatinized starch were 10.35 mg/mL and 9.92 mg/mL, respectively. The digestion rate coefficients k values of the native and gelatinized starches were 2.0 × 10(-3)min(-1) and 1.1 × 10(-2)min(-1), respectively. The contents of rapid digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) in native glutinous rice starch were 8.92%, 21.52% and 69.56%, respectively. After gelatinization, the amounts of RDS, SDS and RS were 18.47%, 29.75% and 51.78%, respectively. The native and gelatinized glutinous rice starches were 10.34% and 14.07% for hydrolysis index (HI), as well as 43.14% and 45.92% for glycemic index (GI), respectively. During the in vitro digestion, the crystallinity of native glutinous rice starch was increased from 34.7% to 35.8% and 38.4% after 20 and 120 min, respectively.

  4. Defined fungal starter granules for purple glutinous rice wine

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.


    The Mekong Delta region ofSouth Vietnamis particularly known as a production area of purple glutinous rice wine ( RuouNepThan ). The latter differs from regular

  5. Defined fungal starter granules for purple glutinous rice wine

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.


    The Mekong Delta region ofSouth Vietnamis particularly known as a production area of purple glutinous rice wine ( RuouNepThan ). The latter differs from regular ri

  6. Two-line Hybrid Glutinous Sorghum Variety Xiangliangyou Nuoliang 1 and Its Processed Products


    @@Sorghum subspecies and varieties in China Chinese sorghum has two species according to their grain's glutinousness degree: the Jing subspecies (not glutinous) and glutinous subspecies. Most hybrid sorghum varieties in commercial production in the country at present belong to the Jing subspecies grown in the northern China which is highly yielding but without satisfactory marketing price because of their poor palatability and less satisfactory spirit making quality. In comparison to the Jing varieties,the glutinous mostly grown in the south are local cultivars which often have fine table quality but low grain yield,and thus,their cultivation can't be expanded wide in the country.

  7. The retrogradation properties of glutinous rice and buckwheat starches as observed with FT-IR, 13C NMR and DSC.

    Lian, Xijun; Wang, Changjun; Zhang, Kunsheng; Li, Lin


    The experiment was conducted to study the retrogradation properties of glutinous rice and buckwheat starch with wavelengths of maximum absorbance, FT-IR, (13)C NMR, and DSC. The results show that the starches in retrograded glutinous rice starch and glutinous rice amylopectin could not form double helix. The IR results show that protein inhabits in glutinous rice and maize starches in a different way and appearance of C-H symmetric stretching vibration at 2852 cm(-1) in starch might be appearance of protein. Retrogradation untied the protein in glutinous amylopectin. Enthalpies of sweet potato and maize granules are higher than those of their retrograded starches. The (13)C NMR results show that retrogradation of those two starches leads to presence of β-anomers and retrogradation might decompose lipids in glutinous rice amylopectin into small molecules. Glutinous rice starch was more inclined to retrogradation than buckwheat starch. The DSC results show that the second peak temperatures for retrograded glutinous rice and buckwheat starches should be assigned to protein. The SEM results show that an obvious layer structure exists in retrograded glutinous rice amylopectin.

  8. Effect of alcohol-acid modification on physicochemical, rheological and morphological properties of glutinous rice starch.

    Gope, Sangeeta; Samyor, Duyi; Paul, Atanu Kumar; Das, Amit Baran


    In the present study chemical modification of glutinous rice starch was carried out using 1-Buatnol-hydrochloric acid with varying time and temperature. The changes in physico-chemical, dynamic rheological and morphological properties of starch during hydrolysis was investigated. There was a significant increase in water solubility of starch due to modification; however, swelling and sedimentation value decrease after modification. The peak, hold and final viscosity of modified starches were decreased significantly as compared to native starch. Thermal properties and dynamic rheological properties of rice starch were changed with the change in time and temperature during modification. The storage (G') modulus, loss (G″) modulus, dynamic viscosity (η') and complex viscosity (η*) of modified starches were varied significantly. Analysis of microstructure revealed that the hydrolysis altered morphology of starch granules. The hydrolysis was affected the surface properties and granule size of rice starch. These results suggested that 1-butanol-HCl hydrolysis of glutinous rice starch can be a preferred way of modification.

  9. Physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of seasoned beef patties with added glutinous rice flour.

    Yi, Hae Chang; Cho, Hyunnho; Hong, Jae Joon; Ryu, Rae Kyeong; Hwang, Keum Taek; Regenstein, Joe M


    This study was conducted to determine if glutinous rice flour (GRF) could be a functional food additive to potentially replace corn starch (CS), soy protein isolate (SPI) and/or sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) to improve the physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of seasoned beef patties. GRF had a lower cook loss among the treatment groups due to an increase in fat and moisture retentions (p<0.05). GRF lowered texture profile values for hardness, gumminess, springiness, and chewiness (p<0.05) of the patties, which are generally beneficial for this product. The beef patties with GRF were juicier and more tender than the control and other treatments (p<0.05). Hedonic scores for juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability were the highest for the beef patties with 1 and 3% GRFs, suggesting that GRF may be an effective functional ingredient to improve the textural quality of seasoned beef patties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Extraction And Stability Of Natural Colorant From Red Glutinous Rice Bran (Oryza Sativa Glutinosa

    Tirza Hanum


    Full Text Available Three extraction methods were studied to isolate natural colorant from red glutinous rice bran. Stability of extracts in relation to processing conditions and in the model beverages was determined at room temperature. Identifications of anthocyanidins was performed using reversed phase HPLC. Extraction method using acidified methanol solvent showed the highest yield (260,24+28,64 mg/100g. HPLC patern indicated the presence of six major anthocyanidins, two of them were identified as apigenidin and apigenin. Stability of anthocyanin colorant was higher in a lower acid condition and was reduced to the lowest value of 49,4, 65,4, 40,8 and 36,6% by high temperature, UV light, sunlight, and the presence of oxidator agent. respectively. Retention of antocyanin in tanin and ascorbic acid added into the model beverages was lower than in protein containing beverage or control.

  11. A ferrocene-mediated anti-interfering glucose biosensor based on glutin and cellulose acetate

    Wu Baoyan; Li Jing; Shi Haibin; Huang Jiadong; Anzai Jun-ichi; Osa Tetsuo; Chen Qiang


    A ferrocene-mediated glucose biosensor removing interference of ascorbic acid and uric acid was developed by coating of ferrocene, glutin and cellulose acetate on screen-printed gold electrode surface. The results show that it can detect glucose sensitively in the presence of uric acid and ascorbic acid, and also suppress the leakage velocity of ferrocene. Compared to the currents of the pretreated electrode, it decreases the current of uric acid and ascorbic acid by 99.4% and 98.8% at 400 mV, respectively, with a dynamic range of 0~30 mM for glucose, sensitivity of 30.73 nA/mM, response time of 10s, and correlation coefficient of 0.998 8.

  12. Reducing retrogradation and lipid oxidation of normal and glutinous rice flours by adding mango peel powder.

    Siriamornpun, Sirithon; Tangkhawanit, Ekkarat; Kaewseejan, Niwat


    Green and ripe mango peel powders (MPP) were added to normal rice flour (NRF) and glutinous rice flour (GRF) at three levels (400, 800 and 1200 ppm) and their effects on physicochemical properties and lipid oxidation inhibition were investigated. Overall, MPP increased the breakdown viscosity and reduced the final viscosity in rice flours when compared to the control. Decreasing in retrogradation was observed in both NRF and GRF with MPP added of all levels. MPP addition also significantly inhibited the lipid oxidation of all flours during storage (30 days). Retrogradation values were strongly negatively correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents, but not with fiber content. The hydrogen bonds and hydrophilic interactions between phenolic compounds with amylopectin molecule may be involved the decrease of starch retrogradation, especially GRF. We suggest that the addition of MPP not only reduced the retrogradation but also inhibited the lipid oxidation of rice flour.

  13. Study on Fermented Glutinous Rice Fermentation Process Mixing with Glutinous Rice and Black Rice%糯米、黑米混合甜酒酿发酵工艺研究

    黄镭; 熊汉国


    Taking glutinous rice and black rice as materials,fermentde glutinous rice fermentation process through the single factor and orthogonal experiment in the control was optimized.The results showed that the best technological parameters of fermentation were as followsthe proportion of black rice and the glutinous rice was 1:4,distiller’s yeast dosage was 0.6%,fermentation temperature was 32℃and fermentation time was 60 h.Mix sweet wine had better sweet and sour flavor,fuller smell.%以糯米、黑米为主要原料,通过接种酒曲进行混合甜酒酿发酵,采用单因素和正交试验对混合甜酒酿的发酵工艺进行优化。结果表明:当黑米与糯米的比例为1:4,酒曲添加量为0.6%,发酵温度为32℃,发酵时间为60 h时,产品口感醇甜,色泽晶莹而黑亮,风味独特。

  14. Moldable setting time evaluation between sodium alginate and bovine gelatine of glutinous rice mixture as dental putty materials

    Takarini, V.; Hasratiningsih, Z.; Karlina, E.; Febrida, R.; Asri, L. A. T. W.; Purwasasmita, BS


    Putty elastomeric material is a viscous, moldable material that can be used as a dental impression to record and duplicate the tooth structure. Commercially available putty materials are hardly found in the Indonesian market. The aim of this work is to develop an alternative putty dental material from glutinous rice with two different gelling agents; sodium alginate and bovine gelatine. A commercially putty material was used as a control. The length of time required for the putty materials to set (setting time) was evaluated with compression set test. The result showed that sodium alginate and bovine gelatine gelling agents resulted in moldable putty materials that comparable to the commercial product. Glutinous rice mixed with sodium alginate gelling agent demonstrated longer setting time (more than 1 hours) compared to bovine gelatine (6 minutes). These may occur due to heat treatment applied to the bovine gelatine, while sodium alginate mixture has a chemical reaction since CaCl2 crosslink agent had been added to the mixture. Glutinous rice with bovine gelatine mixture is a promising candidate to be used as a dental putty material.

  15. Effect of cooking on functional properties of germinated black glutinous rice (KKU-ULR012

    Thapanan Konwatchara


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the changes in functional properties of germinated black glutinous rice (KKU-ULR012 after cooking. Black glutinous rice grains were obtained from Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The rough grains were soaked for 12 hrs, then germinated for 30 hrs at 35±2°C (95%RH, dried at 45±2°C for 8 hrs, dehusked and cooked either using a microwave oven or a pressure cooker. The cooked grains were dehydrated in two stages, 85±2°C for 1 hr and 45±2°C for 12 hrs until the final moisture content was 10±2%wb. The antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, GABA and -oryzanol contents, and the microstructure of the dehydrated grains were then characterized. Germination process induced a 2.55 fold increase in GABA content compared to non-germinated KKU-ULR012. The germinated KKU-ULR012 gave DPPH value, anthocyanins and -oryzanol contents of 33.74±0.15 mgTrolox/100gdb, 182.89±0.48 mg/100gdb and 37.72±0.16 mg/100gdb, respectively. Anthocyanins in cooked germinated KKU-ULR012 diminished almost 88-89% after cooking. The cooking methods employed strongly influenced the antioxidant activity and anthocyanins content that the pressure cooking tended to prevent loss of anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity. The GABA, -oryzanol and antho-cyanins contents and antioxidant activity of germinated grains cooked in the pressure cooker were higher than the samples cooked in the microwave oven (p<0.05. For pressure cooking, the cooked grains gave DPPH, ABTS, anthocyanins and -oryzanol contents of 9.89±0.35 mgTrolox/100gdb, 1.79±0.04 mgTrolox/100gdb, 21.60±0.14 mg/100gdb and 37.16±0.70 mg/100gdb, respectively. The rice grains cooked by pressure cooking were more moist and sticky than the grains cooked by microwave cooking. The microstructure examined by SEM showed that the center of the dehydrated cooked rice grain was smooth indicating starch gelatinization whereas the surface revealed

  16. Effect of repeated cycled crystallization on digestibility and molecular structure of glutinous Bora rice starch.

    Borah, Pallab Kumar; Deka, Sankar Chandra; Duary, Raj Kumar


    The effects of repeated cycled crystallization on the digestibility and molecular structure of glutinous Bora rice starch were investigated. Temperature cycle 4/45°C; cycle duration 5d; time interval of cycles 24h; and starch to water ratio 1:2 were found to be optimum for SDS (slow digestible starch) product development. The SDS content increased from 18.01±2.11% to 82.81±2.34%. An increase in the resistance to digestion, crystallinity, molecular weight, polydispersity and molecular order was observed in the optimal SDS product. Notably, the FT-IR peak at 947cm(-1) and XRD peaks at 2θ≈13° and 20° in the optimal SDS product indicated the formation of V-type complexes even without the presence of co-polymers. Birefringence studies showed a loss of typical Maltese cross in the SDS product and revealed a reorientation of crystalline structures within starch granules, suggestive of imperfect crystallite development.

  17. Identification and characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from fermentation starters for Hong Qu glutinous rice wine brewing.

    Lv, Xu-Cong; Huang, Zhi-Qing; Zhang, Wen; Rao, Ping-Fan; Ni, Li


    Hong Qu glutinous rice wine is one of the most popular traditional rice wines in China. Traditionally, this wine is brewed from glutinous rice with the addition of wine fermentation starters (Hong Qu (also called red yeast rice) and White Qu). The objective of this study was to investigate the variability of filamentous fungi associated with traditional fermentation starters through a traditional culture-dependent method and a molecular identification approach. In this study, forty-three filamentous fungi were separated by traditional culture-dependent means (macro- and microscopic characteristics) from 10 fermentation starters and classified into 16 different species based on morphological examination and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences analysis. It was observed that the genus Aspergillus had the highest number (14 isolates) of isolates followed by Rhizopus (11 isolates), Monascus (5 isolates) and Penicillium (4 isolates). The species R. oryzae, A. niger, A. flavus and M. purpureus were frequently found in wine starter samples, among which R. oryzae was the most frequent species. The enzyme-producing properties (glucoamylase, α-amylase and protease) of all fungal isolates from different starters were also evaluated. A. flavus, R. oryzae and M. purpureus were found to be better glucoamylase producers. A. flavus, R. oryzae and A.oryzae exhibited higher activity of α-amylase. A. flavus and A. oryzae had higher protease activity. However, some fungal isolates of the same species exhibited a significant variability in the production levels for all determined enzyme activity. This study is the first to identify filamentous fungi associated with the starter of Hong Qu glutinous rice wine using both traditional and molecular methods. The results enrich our knowledge of liquor-related micro-organisms, and can be used to promote the development of the traditional fermentation technology.

  18. 芦荟糯米保健醋的研制%Study on aloe glutinous rice vinegar

    陈军; 赵晓燕; 李亚玲


    The aloe glutinous rice vinegar was prepared with aloe juice, glutinous rice, dry yeast and acetic acid bacteria. The ferment technique was studied by mono -factor experiment and ortbogonal experiment. The optimal combination was yeast inoculation amount 1.0% ( V/V), ratio of rice to aloe juice 3: 2( g/mL), added water amount was 1.5 times of aloe and glutinous rice, temperature 28 ℃. The optimal acetic acid fermentation was fermentation at 30 ℃ for 96 h with an acetic acid bacteria inoculation amount of 4% (V/V) and 10% alcohol (V/V). The concentration of the health vinegar with aloe and glutinous rice was 6.48 g/100 mL with unique flavor and taste pure.%以芦荟原汁、糯米、酿酒干酵母、醋酸菌为原料,通过单因素实验和正交试验,探索了芦荟糯米醋的发酵工艺。通过正交试验确定了最佳组合为酵母活化液接种量为1.0%(V/V)、糯米与芦荟汁混合比为3:2(g/mL),加水量为芦荟糯米混合量的1.5倍,发酵温度为28℃。芦荟糯米醋的最佳醋酸发酵条件为发酵温度30℃、酒精度10%(V/V)、接种量4%(V/V)、发酵时间96h,可获得6.48g/100mL芦荟糯米保健醋。酿制的芦荟糯米醋香味独特,品位纯正。

  19. Study on Yoghurt by Mixed Fermentation of Coix Seed and Glutinous Rice%薏米和糯米混合发酵酸奶研究

    尚宏丽; 付莉


    [ Objective ] The aim was to develop a new nutritious and healthy yoghurt with special flavor by combining the nutritional characteristics of coix seed and glutinous rice. [ Method ] A new nutritional yoghurt was produced by the mixed fermentation of coix seed and glutinous rice. [ Result ] The best mixture ratio of coix seed mush ( 1∶ 6 of coix seed to water) to glutinous rice mush ( 1∶ 7 of glutinous rice to water) is 1∶ 2 with 6% of sucrose, 0.25% of citric acid, 0.10% of Xanthan gum, 0.12% of CMC-Na and 0.08% of sucrose ester. [ Conclusion] The study could provide references for the mixed development and application of coix seed and glutinous rice.%[目的]开发结合薏米和糯米本身营养特点、具有独特口味及营养丰富的一款新型功能健康发酵酸奶.[方法]以薏米和糯米为主要原料,通过混合发酵,得到一款营养丰富的功能性酸奶.[结果]薏米和糯米的最佳配比为:薏米乳(料水比1∶6) 和糯米浆(料水比1∶7) 之比为1∶2,蔗糖6.00%,柠檬酸0.25%,黄原胶 0.10%,CMC-Na 0.12%,蔗糖酯0.08%.[结论]该研究可为薏米和糯米的综合开发应用提供参考.

  20. 黑龙江省主栽糯稻遗传背景研究%Research on Genetic Background of Main Cultivated Glutinous Rice in Heilongjiang Province

    刘宇强; 刘晴; 高世伟; 聂守军; 谢树鹏; 魏中华; 王翠玲; 刘立超


    选取黑龙江省近年审定的糯稻品种,对其遗传背景进行分析,试图挖掘其系谱中的骨干亲本,为糯稻品种的选育和改良提供理论依据。结果表明,大部分通过审定的糯稻品种都含有日本水稻的血缘;一些骨干亲本能够直接育成或衍生出糯稻品种,为优秀的糯稻品种选育奠定了基础。今后,应加强骨干亲本的筛选和利用,以为糯稻品种的选育和改良提供帮助。%The genetic backgrounds of main glutinous rice were analyzed in this study, which were approved in recent years in Hei-longjiang Province. The author tries to find out the mainstay parents in pedigree, provides theoretical basis for glutinous rice variety breeding and improvement. The results showed that most of the glutinous rice approved contain the consanguinity of Japanese rice, some mainstay parents can directly breed or derived glutinous rice varieties and lay the foundations for the breeding of glutinous rice. The authors suggested that future breeding program, emphysives on the selection and utilization of mainstay parents.

  1. Processing technology and packaging technology of fermented glutinous rice%醪糟加工工艺及其包装技术的研究

    郑战伟; 张宝善; 孙娟; 董婷婷


    The best processing technology of fermented glutinous rice was studied by single factor experiment and bottles,bags were sterilized in a water bath with high temperature to determine the optimum packaging technology parameters.Glutinous rice as raw materials by saccharification and fermentation has become fermented glutinous rice.The factors such as soaking time of rice,the types of adding yeast,fermentation temperature,fermentation time and fermentation environment were studied to obtain the best processing technology.And then the technology was used as the standard to get fermented glutinous rice.The research determined the best time and temperature of sterilization in saving fermented glutinous rice,as well as packaging material.%通过单因素实验研究了醪糟的最佳加工工艺和瓶装、袋装水浴高温杀菌确定最佳包装技术参数。实验以糯米为原料采用糖化发酵,通过对加工醪糟过程中糯米的浸泡时间、添加酒药的种类、发酵温度、发酵时间以及发酵环境等影响因素的研究,从而选取最佳加工工艺。然后再以该工艺为标准生产醪糟,研究确定了保存醪糟的最佳杀菌时间、温度及包装材料。

  2. 甜味糯米籺保鲜工艺研究%Fresh - keeping technology of sweet glutinous rice He

    孙国勇; 左映平; 侯红瑞


    The sweet glutinous rice He(a kind of cake)was prepared with glutinous rice flour,rice flour and brown sugar. The process was formation with moulds,steam,cooling,vacuum packaging,and steri-lizing. The effect of cooking time,cooling time ,sterilization temperature and time on the fresh - keeping and sensory quality of the cake was analyzed. The optimal process was:cooking time 1. 5 h,cooling time 20 min,sterilization temperature 121 ℃ and sterilization time 15 min. The total number of colonies was 1 300 cfu / g in vacuum packaging cold storage(5 ~ 8 ℃)for 120 days,the number of coliforms less than 3 MPN/ g. The total number of colonies was 1 200 cfu / g in vacuum packed frozen storage (less than -12 ℃)for 180 days,the number of coliforms less than 3 MPN/ g. Pathogenic bacteria were not detected. The taste and flavor of glutinous rice He is still excellent after being stored. So glutinous rice He can be stored in a vacuum packaging at 5 ~ 8 ℃ for 120 days,at - 12 ℃ for 180 days.%以糯米粉、粳米粉、黄糖等为主要原料,经模具成型、蒸煮、冷却、真空包装、杀菌等工序生产甜味糯米籺,分析蒸煮时间、冷却时间、杀菌温度与杀菌时间对甜味糯米籺保鲜效果及感官品质的影响。得出最佳工艺:蒸煮时间为1.5 h,冷却时间为20 min,杀菌温度为121℃,杀菌时间为15 min。检测得甜味糯米籺真空包装冷藏(5~8℃)120 d,菌落总数为1300 cfu / g,大肠菌群数为<3 MPN/ g;真空包装冻藏(低于12℃)180 d,菌落总数1200 cfu / g,大肠菌群<3 MPN/ g;致病菌均未检出。糯米籺外观色泽较好,试吃后口感、风味仍优。甜味糯米?在真空包装下冷藏(5~8℃)可储藏120 d,冻藏(低于12℃)可储藏180 d。

  3. A Study on the Quality of Fast Frozen Dough Made From Glutinous Rice Flour%速冻糯米粉团品质研究

    孙福来; 鲁茂林; 王华; 戴飞


    研究发现冷藏过程糯米凝胶脱水收缩作用,能促使速冻糯米粉团冷藏后表面开裂,适当添加猪脂,有利于减缓这个现象发生。通过显微照片分析,发现在粉团中的凝胶脱水收缩后成网状结构。采用正交试验得出的配方为水分40%、凝胶30%、猪脂8.0%,速冻冷藏后糯米粉团表面基本能消除裂纹现象。%It found that the syneresis of glutinous rice in cold storage period would cause cracking in the surface of the fast frozen dough made from glutinous rice flour. However adding appropriate amount of lard in the dough can slow down this phenomenan. Analyzing the microphotograph, it showed that the gel in the dough would become net structure after syneresis cracking. With the formula(40% water, 30% gel, 8.0% lard) from the orthogonal tests, the cracking in the dough of glutinous rice flour can be basically eliminated after cold storage.

  4. The Outlines of Glutinous Food Culture in Maduoyixiazhai,Hekou,Yunnan%云南河口马多依下寨壮族糯食文化略述



    The Zhuang ethnic group has developed its own glutinous food production and consumption cultural conventions,which,in turn,give birth to the Zhuang ethnic glutinous food culture.In light of field research on Maduoyixiazhai,Hekou,Yunnan,and the academic studies on nationalities in border areas,the article discusses the Zhuang ethnic glutinous food in Yunnan,in terms of varieties,production process and consumption customs.%在历史过程中,壮族形成了自己的糯米生产和消费的文化习俗,进而造就了独具风格的壮族糯食文化。通过对云南省河口县马多依下寨的田野调查成果和学界对于边疆民族糯食文化的研究成果,就云南省壮族的糯食品种、制作工艺、糯食消费和进食习俗做一初步的论述。

  5. “蛋饼早餐”工艺研究%Glutinous Rice-Duck Egg and Duck Egg Pancake



    文章以咸鸭蛋为核心原料,一物二用,以其蛋黄为基础制作糯米鸭蛋,以其蛋清为基础制作鸭蛋煎饼。采用正交试验,优化糯米鸭蛋的调味料配比,选取生抽、黄酒、白糖、盐为影响因素,进行感官评价。结果表明,糯米鸭蛋的最佳配方为在1000g馅料中加入生抽15mL、黄酒30mL、白糖6g、盐1g。鸭蛋煎饼以口感为指标,考察和面时沸水及冷水的用量。结果表明,制作500g煎饼需预先100mL沸水和面,再加入100mL冷水,最后加入150g蛋清,这样制得的煎饼有较好的口感。%This research selects salted duck egg as major ingredients to develop two dishes. Yolk of salted duck egg is used to make Glutinous Rice-Duck Egg. Egg white of salted duck egg is used to make Duck Egg Pan-cakes. This paper employs orthogonal experiments to optimize the formulation of Glutinous Rice-Duck Egg, taking light soy sauce, yellow rice wine, sugar and salt as the four factors for sensory evaluation. The results show that the optimum formula is 1000g fillings, 15mL light soy sauce, 30mL yellow rice wine, 6g sugar and 1g salt. The dough mixing process of Duck Egg Pancake was studied by amounts of boiling water and cold wa-ter . The results of sensory evaluation show that adding boiling water of 100 mL first followed by 100 mL cold wa-ter and 150g egg white achieve pancakes with the best texture.

  6. Genetic diversity analysis of glutinous maize landraces by using SRAP molecular markers%SRAP分子标记分析广西糯玉米地方品种的遗传多样性

    王兵伟; 覃永嫒; 覃嘉明; 黄安霞; 秦洪波; 时成俏


    [目的]研究广西糯玉米地方品种的遗传多样性,初步划分类群,为其改良和创新利用提供参考.[方法]利用SRAP分子标记技术对广西49个糯玉米地方品种进行遗传多样性分析及杂种优势群划分.[结果]49份糯玉米地方品种被划分为5个类群,广西特别是广西西部和北部糯玉米地方品种具有丰富的遗传多样性;百色和河池地区大部分地方品种被划分在同一类群,这些糯玉米地方品种具有较强的区域性,即同一地区大部分糯玉米地方品种亲缘关系较近,且相邻的百色和河池地区的大部分糯玉米地方品种亲缘关系也较近.[结论]广西糯玉米地方品种具有较丰富的遗传多样性,且这些地方品种的遗传类群与地理来源和地理环境有较大关系.%[Objective]In this research, the genetic diversity of Guangxi glutinous maize landraces was studied and the preliminary taxa classification was conducted in order to provide reference for the improvement and innovation of glutinous maize germplasm. [Method]Utilizing the SRAP molecular markers technology, the genetic diversity and heterosis group divisions of 49 glutinous maize landraces in Guangxi were analyzed. [ Result ]The 49 glutinous maize landraces were divided into 5 groups, in which Guangxi, Western and Northern Guangxi areas in particular, had an abundant genetic diversity of glutinous maize landraces. Varieties in most parts of Baise and Hechi region were divided into the same group since these glutinous maize landraces had strong regional characteristics, that is, these glutinous maize landraces from the same area were closely related genetically. Also, the glutinous maize landraces in the neighboring Baise and Hechi areas exhibited strong phylogenetic relationship. [Conclusion]The Guangxi glutinous maize landraces displayed rich genetic diversity, and the geographic origin and geographical environment had significant relationship on these genetically

  7. Influence of nutrient composition and plant growth regulators on callus induction and plant regeneration in glutinous rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Duangsee, K; Bunnag, S


    The potential for callus induction and regeneration depends on nutrient composition and plant growth regulators. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of nutrient composition and plant growth regulators on callus induction and plant regeneration in the glutinous rice cultivar Khunvang. The effect of 2,4-D concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg L(-1)) on callus induction and growth were investigated. The results revealed that the highest percentage of callus induction (97%) was observed in MS medium supplemented with 5 mg L(-1) 2,4-D under 16 h Photoperiod. The effects of casein hydrolysate concentrations of casein hydrolysate (0, 300, 500, 700 and 900 mg L(-1)) and proline (0, 300, 500, 700 and 900 mg L(-1)) on callus induction and growth of Khunvang were also observed. The results indicated that the increasing casein hydrolysate and proline concentrations did not show a significant effect on callus growth. However, proline concentration of 900 mg L(-1) yielded 85.67% of callus growth.

  8. Glutinous rice amylopectin can adjust the plasma gut-regulated peptide levels in rhubarb-induced spleen deficiency rats.

    Zhang, Huijuan; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yingli; Sun, Baoguo


    The pharmacological effects of glutinous rice (GR) and GR amylopectin (GRA) on the gastrointestine were investigated in rhubarb-induced spleen deficiency rats by determining the levels of gastrointestinal hormones such as the peptides serum gastrin, amylase motilin, and somatostatin. GR and GRA were given by gavage at various doses of GR (7.5, 15, and 30 g per kg body weight) and GRA (3.8, 7.6, and 15 g per kg body weight) every day for 4 weeks, respectively. The results indicated that the final body weight of rats in the highest-dose GR (GRH) group and all the GRA groups significantly (P GRH and highest-dose GRA (GRAH) groups had significantly (P < 0.05) lower somatostatin contents compared with the MC group. Meanwhile, the somatostatin contents were negatively correlated with the motilin levels (r = -0.964, P < 0.01) and amylase contents (r = -0.981, P < 0.01). The GRAH treatment group had the highest final body weight, gastrin contents, motilin levels, and amylase contents and the lowest somatostatin contents, which demonstrated that GRA might play the most important role in the spleen-regulating activities of GR.

  9. Study on Compound Fresh-keeping Technology of Purple Glutinous Maize%紫糯玉米复合保鲜工艺

    李宇; 尹露; 刘晓燕; 田碧英; 李艳艳


    With fresh purple glutinous maize as material, fresh-keeping technology was studied with chitosan, potassium sorbate, sodium pyrosulfite, VC, citric acid as compound preservative, and the influence on blanching and preservative were analyzed, the best fresh-keeping technology of purple glutinous maize was got by orthogonal test. The results showed that:precooked 5 minutes at 60℃;Preservative formula:amount of chitosan 0.8%, amount of potassium sorbate 0.02%, amount of s sodium pyrosulfite 0.08%,amount of vitamin C 0.10%, amount of citric acid 0.20%;vacuum packing, sterilization 10 minutes in water at 110℃, preserved at room temperature, the purple glutinous maize could guarantee the quality by at least half a year, realize purple glutinous maize annual supply basically.%以新鲜紫糯玉米为原料,采用壳聚糖、山梨酸钾、焦亚硫酸钠、VC、柠檬酸作为复合保鲜剂,对其进行护色保鲜,并分析预煮工艺和保鲜剂对保鲜效果的影响,通过正交试验得出紫糯玉米的最佳护色保鲜工艺。研究结果表明:紫糯玉米60℃下预煮5 min;保鲜液配方为:壳聚糖添加量0.8%,山梨酸钾添加量0.02%,焦亚硫酸钠添加量0.08%,VC添加量0.10%,柠檬酸添加量0.20%;真空包装,110℃水杀菌10 min,室温保存,可使紫糯玉米保质期达到半年以上,基本实现紫糯玉米的全年供应。

  10. 酶制剂对醪糟品质改良效果研究%Study of Enzyme Preparation on Improvement of Quality of Fermented Glutinous Rice



    The effects of a single enzyme and compound enzyme preparations for the sensory quailty of ferment-ed glutinous rice have been studied by taking the glutinous rice as raw material. The results indicated that single enzyme used, optimum amount of each enzyme were saccharifying enzyme 0.4 g/kg,α-amylase 1.5 g/kg, acid proteinase 0.8 g/kg, isoamylase 1.2 g/kg. Based on the usage of the optimal single enzyme preparations, the op-timal proportion of compound enzyme had been carried out by orthogonal test:saccharifying enzyme 0.3 g/kg,α-amylase 1.0 g/kg, acid proteinase 0.6 g/kg, isoamylase 0.6 g/kg. Under these conditions, the production of fermented glutinous rice was uniform texture, white, shiny, with a unique aroma of fermented glutinous rice, complex flavor, soft texture.%以糯米为原料,研究了单一酶制剂和多种酶制剂复合后对醪糟感官品质的影响。结果表明:使用单一酶制剂时,单一酶制剂最佳添加量分别为:糖化酶0.4 g/kg,α-淀粉酶为1.5 g/kg,酸性蛋白酶为0.8 g/kg,异淀粉酶为1.2 g/kg;在最佳单一酶制剂使用量的基础上,通过正交试验,进一步研究出多种酶共同使用时的最佳配比:糖化酶添加量为0.3 g/kg、α-淀粉酶为1.0 g/kg、酸性蛋白酶添加量为0.6 g/kg、异淀粉酶添加量为0.6 g/kg。该配比下生产的醪糟质地均一、白色、有光泽,具有醪糟特有的醇香,风味复杂,口感柔和。

  11. Breeding of New Hybrid Glutinous Rice Combination ( Oryza sativa L.ssp.Japonic) and Its Characteristics%水稻粳糯杂交新组合的选育及其特征特性

    王新其; 林金元; 殷丽青; 沈革志


    选用综合农艺性状优良的粳型寒丰糯( HFwx),与同型的寒丰不育系(HFA)进行杂交、回交转育成粳型糯质新不育系寒丰糯A( HFwxA),与自主选育的粳型糯质恢复系糯恢2号配组育成了杂交粳型糯稻新组合糯杂2号.小区试验和生产示范结果表明,该组合具有高产、优质、抗性强等特点.介绍了糯杂2号的选育经过、产量表现和特征特性.%In this study, we had bred the new hybrid glutinous rice germplasm( Oryza saliva L ssp. Japonic) , named Nuoza No. 2, which was obtained by crossing between HFwxA, a japonica glutinous rice CMS which came from crossing and backcrossing between HFwx ( a japonica glutinous rice variety with good comprehensive charaters) and HFA ( a japonica rice CMS) , and a autonomously bred japonica glutinous restoring line. The results of spot experiment and demonstration trials indicated that the characters of the new combination were high - yielding. Good quality and strong resistance. The breeding and selecting process, yield performance and characteristics of Nuoza No. 2 were introduced.

  12. Raw materials and structure of ancient glutinous rice-lime mortar in China%中国传统糯米-石灰砂浆的原材料和结构

    杨华山; 车玉君; 马小满


    Raw materials observed in ancient glutinous rice-lime mortar in China,such as glutinous rice,lime,brown sugar,fine aggre-gate,and clay etc. were investigated in this work. A model was proposed to simulate nonlinear structure in ancient glutinous rice-lime mortar. It was found that the key parameters involved in the model are bifurcation and deflection of fracture energy. The microstructure of glutinous rice-lime mortar were tested by scanning electron microscopic and X-ray diffraction analysis. It was observed that the morphology and size of calcium carbonate were modified by glutinous rice and brown sugar.%研究了中国传统糯米-石灰砂浆的原材料(糯米浆、石灰、红糖浆、河砂和黏土等),并提出了糯米-石灰砂浆的结构模型,该模型刻画了材料的非线性结构。该模型表明,糯米-石灰砂浆的的性能与其结构直接相关,断裂能在其中的分叉和偏转是其强韧化的两个最为关键的要素。糯米-石灰砂浆的微观结构采用SEM和XRD进行分析,测试结果表明:糯米浆和红糖浆对CH碳化反应有一定的影响,CaCO3的晶粒形貌改变和粒度的减小优化了糯米-石灰砂浆的微观结构。

  13. 鲜食紫糯玉米护色保鲜工艺研究%Study on Color Fixation and Fresh-keeping Technology of Purple Glutinous Maize

    潘江; 李宇; 孙钟雷; 袁娅


    Fresh purple glutinous maize was focused on in order to choose the best way to help the purple glutinous maize staying in the most appropriate color and its fresh-keeping with citric acid, sodium sulfite deoxidization, sodium tripolyphosphate and vitamin C. The effection of the pre-cooking time, cooling method and the illumination on product quality was studied, which also included the best production technology of color fixation and fresh- keeping. The results showed that: the amount of citric acid 0.20%, the amount of sodium sulfite deoxidization 0.06%, the amount of sodium tripolyphosphate 0.11%, the amount of vitamin C 0.06%. And the pre-cooking time of purple glutinous maize was 10 min, the cooling method selected natural cooling, stored in the dark and vacuum packaged and sterilized those could make the purple plutinous maize' color fixation and fresh-keeping better effect.%以新鲜紫糯玉米为原料,用柠檬酸、亚硫酸钠、维生素c、三聚磷酸钠保鲜剂对其进行护色保鲜,并分析预煮时间、冷却方法和光照对保鲜效果的影响,通过正交试验得出紫糯玉米的最佳护色保鲜工艺。研究结果表明:柠檬酸添加量0.20%、亚硫酸钠添加量0.06%、三聚磷酸钠添加量0.11%、维生素C添加量0.06%;紫糯玉米预煮时间l0min,冷却方法选取自然冷却,真空包装灭菌后采用避光保存可使紫糯玉米的护色保鲜效果达到最好。

  14. 老北京传统江米酒奶酪的工艺探讨%Investigation the Process of Traditional Old Beijing Glutinous Rice Wine Cheese

    罗秋水; 徐其华; 蔡菁菁; 汤凯洁


    Fresh milk was used as the main raw material by means of the traditional cheese process to pro-duce a glutinous rice wine cheese.The L9 (33 ) orthogonal method was adopted to study the fermentation pa-rameters.This paper describes the effects of different fermentation agents,amounts of sugar and skim milk pow-der on the color,taste,odor,structural status,water holding capacity and texture of glutinous rice wine cheese. The results showed that the optimum amounts of ingredients for the production of glutinous rice wine cheese were as follows:rice wine at 8%, sugar at 4%, and milk powder at 6%.The best quality of products resulted from fermentation at 45℃and incubation for 72h.The sensory evaluation score of this cheese was 97.9,and the water holding capacity was 90.41%.This cheese showed better structural states of flexibility, smoothness and exquisiteness.%以新鲜牛乳为主要原料,根据传统奶酪的工艺生产了江米酒奶酪。采用L9(33)正交实验的方法,研究了不同发酵剂的添加量、糖的添加量以及脱脂乳粉的添加量对江米酒奶酪色泽、滋气味、组织状态、持水力及质构的影响。结果表明:生产江米酒奶酪的最佳工艺条件为米酒添加量为8%,糖添加量为4%,奶粉添加量为6%,恒温45℃培养72 h产品质量最佳。此时奶酪感官评定评分为97.9,持水力为90.41%。组织状态弹性、滑爽性及细腻度都比较好。

  15. 糯米酒制作凝固型酸奶的工艺研究%Production technology of set-style yogurt with glutinous rice wine

    刘婧竟; 乔发东


    A kind of set-style yogurt was prepared with the addition of glutinous rice wine. The optimum sterilizafion conditions for glutinous rice wine were 95℃ and 5 min. The optimal total solids content of milk was 16%. The single factor experiments for sucrose content, rice wine content,fermentation temperature, fermentation time and inoculum size were conducted respectively. With sensory evaluation of rice-wine yogurt as indicator,the optimal production technology of rice-wine set yogurt was obtained by orthogonal experiment as follows: sucrose 7%, rice wine 18%, inoculum size 1%, fermentation temperature 42℃ and fermentation time 4h. The addition amount of rice wine had a significant effect on the quality of rice-wine yogurt.%试验利用糯米酒制作凝固型酸奶,米酒发酵液的最适灭菌条件为95℃、5min,原料奶总固体物最佳含量16%.对蔗糖添加量、米酒发酵液添加量、发酵温度、发酵时间和发酵剂添加量做单因素试验,以米酒酸奶的感官评价为指标,通过正交试验,得出凝固型米酒酸奶最佳工艺组合蔗糖添加量7%、米酒发酵液添加量18%、发酵剂添加量1%、发酵温度42℃、发酵时间4h.其中米酒发酵液添加量对米酒酸奶品质影响显著.

  16. Optimization of Processing Technology of the Xinjiang Rose Pomegranate Glutinous Rice Wine%新疆玫瑰石榴糯米酒的酿制优化研究



    以新疆玫瑰和石榴、糯米为原料,研究玫瑰石榴糯米酒的制备工艺。最佳酿造工艺条件为:玫瑰汁:石榴汁为2∶1,发酵温度30℃,发酵时间96 h,米酒曲的添加量为2%。玫瑰石榴糯米酒风味独特、酒香醇厚,其酒精度14.3%,总酸5.1 g/L,总糖138.7 g/L。%With roses and pomegranate in xinjiang , glutinous rice as raw material , study the preparation technology of roses pomegranate glutinous rice wine. Best brewing process condition is:rose juice:pomegranate juice add ratio 2∶1, fermentation temperature 30℃, fermentation time 96 h, mcould add the amount of 2%. Rose pomegranate glutinous rice wine with unique flavour,full-bodied, the alcohol content 14.3%, the total acid 5.1 g/L, total sugar 138.7 g/L.

  17. Development of Health Vinegar Beverage with Black Glutinous Rice and Red Dates%黑糯米红枣保健醋饮料的研制

    王家东; 王荣荣


    结合传统食醋生产工艺,以黑糯米和红枣为发酵主料,配以银杏叶、苦养茶、枸杞等浸提液参与醋酸发酵,并采用α-淀粉酶、糖化酶作为糖化剂,安琪酿酒高活性干酵母进行酒精发酵和醋母进行醋酸发酵等工艺,生产出具有多种功能因子的新型保健醋饮料.%Combined with the traditional vinegar producing process,take red dates and black glutinous rice as main fermentation materials,mixed with leaves of ginkgo,bitter buckwheat tea,medlar and other extract liquid for acetic acid fermentation.Use α-amylase,saccharifying enzyme as saccharifying agents,angel active dry yeast for ethanol fermentation and mother for acetic fermentation to produce a new type of health vinegar with a variety of functional factors.

  18. 微波热风两段式干燥法生产婴幼儿保健糯米粉%Production of infant health glutinous rice powder by two stages method of microwave and hot air drying

    李凤霞; 蒋欣欣; 陈守江; 于雷; 江铃


    In order to prevent the taste cold empty and abdominal distension diarrhea of infants,the edible traditional Chinese medicine poria cocos,dioscorea opposita thunb,lotus seed,and jujube were added into glutinous rice powder,and then the health glutinous rice powder was developed for infants.The curves of hot air and microwave drying were drawn based on a single factor experiment,and the best drying parameters were determined according to the orthogonal test under two dry optimal conditions,the best proportion of raw materials was determined by other orthogonal experiments.The results showed that the best parameters of dying were microwave 300W,1.5min,and then hot air drying 70℃,2h.The best ratio of raw material was 14g poria cocos and jujube,10g dioscorea opposita thunb,8g lotus seed were added into 100g glutinous rice,and 24% xylitol was added after being smashed.The combination drying method of hot-air drying with microwave drying could effectively keep raw natural composition and good sensory properties when health care glutinous rice powder was produced.%以糯米粉为基料,添加药食同源的中药茯苓、淮山药、莲子、红枣,开发一种能调理婴幼儿脾胃虚寒、腹胀腹泻的即食型糯米粉。依据单因素实验绘制热风和微波干燥曲线,并根据两种干燥的最适条件进行正交实验,确定最佳干燥参数;然后用正交实验对原辅料进行最佳配比实验。结果表明:原辅料最佳配比为100g基料中添加茯苓和红枣各14g,淮山药10g,莲子8g;先用300W微波干燥1.5min,后70℃热风干燥2h;粉碎后添加24%的木糖醇。采用微波热风联合干燥法生产即食型保健糯米粉可有效保持原料固有成分,且具有良好的感官性状。

  19. 螺旋藻甜酒酿的研制%Study on the progressing technology of spiruluna sweeten glutinous rice wine

    田亚红; 王巍杰; 刘辉


    Spiruluna was deodorized by the method of heating and shelter, the optimal deodorization technology was gained. Using the spirulina and sticky rice as the main materials,the spirulina sweeten glutinous rice wine was fermented by Rhizopus sp. and yeast. Two processing procedures were prepared. The optimum processing procedure and parameters were determined by contrast and orthogonal experiment. The results showed the best technological parameters of fermentation were as follows:the rate of sticky rice and spirulina 10:2, fermentation temperature 28℃, fermentation time 72 hours, the proportion of adding Koji 1.5%.The product had abundant nutrition,delicious flavour and healthcare function.%采用加热法和掩蔽法对螺旋藻进行脱腥处理实验,从而确定最佳脱腥工艺.以螺旋藻和糯米为主要原料,通过根霉、酵母糖化发酵,采用两种工艺流程,通过对比实验和正交实验分别确定出最佳工艺流程和工艺参数:糯米与螺旋藻的质量比10:2,发酵温度28℃.发酵时间72h,加曲量1.5%.在此工艺条件下,研制出了一种营养丰富、酒味鲜美并具有保健作用的螺旋藻甜酒酿.

  20. 模糊数学感官评价法优化糯米团制作工艺%The optimization of technology making glutinous rice ball by fuzzy mathematics sensory evaluation

    张志超; 周显青; 张乃建; 张玉荣; 赵希雷


    为优化糯米团制作工艺获得品质良好的糯米团,采用单因素和正交试验对粳米粉添加量、加水量和蒸制时间等因素进行研究。用模糊数学评价法评价糯米团品质,对糯米团色泽、气味、外观结构和适口性感官评价权重进行分析,同时,采用仪器对样品的塌陷度和质构特性进行测定。结果表明:糯米团品质权重集 K =(色泽0.21,气味0.19,外观结构0.24,适口性0.36);模糊数学综合评价优化试验结果表明,影响糯米团感官品质因素主次顺序为粳米粉添加量>加水量>蒸制时间,最佳工艺条件为粳米粉添加量25%、加水量58%、蒸制时间20 min,与塌陷度和质构正交试验结果相同。模糊数学评价方法与仪器分析方法结果一致,验证了模糊数学感官评定方法优化糯米团制作工艺的可行性和准确性。%In order to optimize the processing conditions for making higher quality glutinous rice ball,the key processing factors such as the addition amount of rice flour and water and steaming time were investi-gated by the methods of single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment.The quality of glutinous rice ball was evaluated by the fuzzy mathematics comprehensive evaluation according to the weights analysis of sensory evaluation about color,smell,appearance structure and palatability of glutinous rice ball.Mean-while collapse degree and texture of the samples were both measured by instrument.The results showed that the quality weight sets was K =(color 0.21,smell 0.19,appearance structure 0.24,palatability 0.36).When glutinous rice ball was evaluated by the fuzzy mathematics comprehensive evaluation,it was turned out that the sensory quality was influenced in ascending order,i.e.addition amount of gluti-nous rice flour >addition amount of water >steaming time,and the optimal processing condition was 25%rice flour,58% water and steaming time 20min,which was

  1. Optimization of Extraction Process for Lycopene from Rhodotorula glutins%红酵母番茄红素提取工艺优化

    王海兵; 吴晓英; 刘世龙; 徐莹莹


    从破壁方法、浸提溶剂及提取条件等方面对黏红酵母番茄红素提取工艺进行优化研究。采用单因素试验对破壁方法及浸提溶剂进行选择,结果表明热酸法是黏红酵母破壁提取番茄红素的最佳方法,丙酮-乙酸乙酯(1:1)混合液是理想的提取溶剂。采用正交试验方法对液料比、提取温度和提取时间等番茄红素提取条件进行优化,得到适宜的提取条件为丙酮-乙酸乙酯(1:1)溶剂添加量60mL/g、提取温度30℃、提取时间3h。在此提取工艺下,得到红酵母番茄红素提取量为4.55mg/g,比未优化时的3.22mg/g增加了41.30%。%Cell wall disruption followed by organic solvent extraction was used to extract lycopene from Rhodotorula glutins.The optimal cell wall disruption method and extraction solvent were found to be hot acid treatment and acetone-ethyl acetate(1:1),respectively.Three extraction conditions such as material-to-liquid ratio,temperature and time were optimized by orthogonal array design to be 1:60(g/mL),30 ℃ and 3 h,respectively.Under these conditions,the extraction rate of lycopene was 4.55 mg/g,41.30% higher than before optimization.

  2. Research on Local Glutinous Millet Planting Density in Shibing Qiandongnan%贵州黔东南地方种施秉糯谷子栽培密度研究

    龙九洲; 李云珍; 李星; 伍名龙; 王飞; 余彬情; 王胜兰


    In order to explore the proper planting density of millet in Qingdongnan ,the glutinous millet which came from Shibing Qiandongnan would be tesked by the different density tests.The results showed that the optimum destity of Qiandongnan millte in Guizhou was 600 thousands plants per hectare,so as to provide the scientific information for the millet production.%为探索黔东南州谷子合理种植密度,以黔东南地方种“施秉糯谷子”为供试品种,开展密度试验,结果表明:贵州黔东南谷子栽培的最佳密度为60万株/hm2,为谷子的规范生产提供科学依据。

  3. Application of Non-TNT Glutinous Granular ANFO in Hard Rock Mining%无梯粘性粒状铵油炸药在硬岩采矿中的应用



    无梯粘性粒状铵油炸药由多孔粒状硝铵、柴油、乳胶基体、改性铵油炸药混制而成.该新型炸药加工和使用安全可靠,接近零氧平衡,所产生的有毒有害气体少,炸药能量利用率高,适应风动机械装药的流散性好,返粉率低,防潮性能强、爆破效果好.无梯粘性粒状铵油炸药通过在柿竹园硬岩采矿中的应用表明,在采矿工艺和爆破参数不变的条件下,完全能够取代含梯炸药.%The non-TNT glutinous granular ANFO is mixed with four materials, porous granular ammonium nitrate, diesel, emulsion substance and modified ANFO. The new type explosive is reliable and safe to be processed and used. because of reaching near-zero oxygen balance,so the toxic and harmful gases is less and the utilization of explosive energy is high,and the rate of return powder is low,which can adapt wind-motive mechanical loading,and has fine flow performance and strong moisture resistant, as well as excellent blasting effect. The application of non-TNT glutinous granular ANFO in Shizhuyuan hard rock mining illustrate that the new type explosive can completely to replace with TNT contained explosives under the same conditions of mining technology and blasting parameters.

  4. 重庆糯小米米糠的理化成分分析及营养评价%Physical and chemical composition analysis and nutritional evaluation of Chongqing glutinous millet bran

    王小燕; 何运; 梁叶星; 钟耕


    Objective The nutritional components of Chongqing glutinous millet bran were detected to evaluate the nutritional quality of millet bran. Methods The chemical properties of glutinous millet bran from Chongqing were investigated, including the crude fiber, moisture, starch, protein, fat, ash, and reducing sugar by using routine analysis, DNS colorimetry, and Soxhlet extraction methods. The dietary fiber, amino acids, and fat acids were also tested by enzymatic-gravimetric method, amino acid analyzer, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and their nutritional values were evaluated, too. Results The contents were 34.45%±0.31%, 10.39%±0.14%, 12.36%±0.79, 12.93%±0.57%, 24.67%±0.51%, 8.71%±0.03%, and 7.24%± 0.05%, respectively. Saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids were 28.71% and 71.29%respectively. There were 11 kinds of saturated fatty acids and 8 kinds of unsaturated fatty acids. The ratio of the contents of the saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid were 3:2:5. The essential amino acid index (EAAI), amino acid ratio coefficient (RC) were 0.964 and 1.002. EAA/TAA=34%, EAA/NEAA=54%. This is close to the FAO/WHO standard mode recommended. Conclusion Chongqing glutinous millet bran is an excellent source of dietary fiber and grain protein resources.%目的:对重庆糯小米米糠的营养成分进行测定,并以此来评价该小米米糠的营养品质。方法以重庆糯小米米糠为研究对象,应用常规分析、DNS比色法、索氏抽提、气相色谱-质谱法(GC-MS)等方法,对其粗纤维、水分、淀粉、蛋白质、脂肪、灰分和还原糖成分进行测定,并且对膳食纤维、脂肪酸及氨基酸营养进行评价。结果上述指标含量分别为34.45%±0.31%、10.39%±0.14%、12.36%±0.79%、12.93%±0.57%、24.67%±0.51%、8.71%±0.03%、7.24%±0.05%。饱和脂肪酸与不饱和脂肪酸分别为28.71%、71.29%,饱和脂肪酸11种,不饱和脂肪酸8种。

  5. 超级黑糯玉米芯色素的抗肿瘤和体外抗氧化作用%Anti-Cancer Effect and Antioxidant Activity of Super Black Glutinous Corncob Pigment

    冉颖霞; 宫坤; 周杨; 张庭廷


    In order to research the inhibitory effect on cancer cell and in vitro antioxidant activity of super black glutinous corncob pigment (SBCP). The growth inhibition of SBCP on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7402 and gastric cancer cell line SGC- 7901 in vitro were measured by MTT assay. In vitro chemical simulated systems, the abilities of SBCP to scavenge DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical as well as reducing power were tested using colorimetric methods, and compared with ascorbic acid (Vc). Results showed that SBCP had significant inhibitory effect on proliferation of the BEL-7402 cells and SGC-7901 cells, and the inhibition increasing with the increase of SBCP concentration. IC50 of SBCP BEL - 7402 and SGC- 7901 were respective 4. 13mg/mL and 3. 83mg/mL. SBCP also had obviously antioxidant effect. Compared with the effects of Vc, the abilities to scavenge hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical as well as reducing power of SBCP were 1. 40, 1. 23 and 1. 77 times than that of Vc respectivily, only the ability of scavenge DPPH radical was lower than Vc. Conclusions SBCP has potentially application value in cancer prevent and therapy as well as health food. SBCP has good antioxidant activity in vitro.%为研究超级黑糯玉米芯色素(super black glutinous corncob pigment,SBCP)对肿瘤细胞的增殖抑制效应和体外抗氧化活性.采用MTT法检测了SBCP对人肝癌细胞系BEL-7402以及胃癌细胞系SGC-7901增殖的影响;在体外化学模拟的条件下,通过建立DPPH自由基、羟基自由基、超氧阴离子自由基、还原力试验,采用比色法测定对比了SBCP和抗坏血酸(Vc)对DPPH自由基、羟基自由基和超氧阴离子的清除作用以及还原能力.结果表明SBCP对BEL-7402细胞和SGC--7901细胞增殖有明显的抑制作用,且随药物浓度的增大而增强;SBCP对两种肿瘤细胞的半数抑制浓度(IC50)分别为4.13 mg/mL和3.83 mg/mL.SBCP还具有较好的抗氧化

  6. Newly-designed Traditional Glutinous Rice-lime Mortar with Micron-nano-particles%微纳米复合掺和料对传统糯米-石灰砂浆强度的影响

    杨华山; 车玉君; 江华利; 林戈; 魏东


    Portland cement and polymers have low chemical and physical affinity for traditional building materials .This hinders the restoration of historical buildings .Glutinous rice-lime mortars (GLM ) used in construction since ancient times in China were recov‐ered ,and attempts were made to enhance their performances .Micron particles ,such as limestone ,fly ash and slag ,with silicon fume contained nano-particles were selected on the basis of their properties .Flexural strength and compressive strength of GLM with micron-nano-particles were measured .Test results show that the mechanical performances of newly-designed traditional GLM were improved .And they are compatible with ancient building materials in China ,so it can be used in the restoration of architectural heritage .%水泥基修补材料和高分子修补材料与古迹本体材料存在相容性问题,不利于古迹的修复工作。糯米-石灰砂浆是中国古代传统的一种建筑材料,拟挖掘并提升其性能用于古迹的修补。分别采用石灰石粉、粉煤灰和矿粉等微米级掺和料与硅灰复合,研究微纳米掺和料对糯米-石灰砂浆强度的影响。试验研究的结果表明,微纳米复合掺和料提高了糯米石灰砂浆的力学性能。这种材料与中国古代建筑材料相容,可用于古迹的修复工作。

  7. STABILITAS EKSTRAK ANTOSIANIN BERAS KETAN (Oryza sativa var. glutinosa HITAM SELAMA PROSES PEMANASAN DAN PENYIMPANAN (Stability of Anthocyanins Extracted from Black Glutinous Rice (Oryza sativa var. glutinosa during Heating and Storage Process

    Nanik Suhartatik


    Full Text Available anthocyanin pigments are responsible for the red, blue, and purple colour in crop produces such as fruits, vegetables, rice, and flowers. This bioactive compound has been developed for natural colorants in food products, especially functional foods. The aims of this research were to study the stability of anthocyanin and its colour during heating in various temperatures and during storage under different conditions. The results showed that the higher the heating temperature and the longer the heating time, the higher degradation of anthocyanin. Except for anthocyanin extract heated below 50 c for not more than 15 min, it has increased the anthocyanin stability. antioxidant activities (% RSa, radical scavenging activity and fRaP value, Ferrous Radical Activity Power decreased after the extract were heated at 70c. Extracts stored at room temperature with neutral solution (pH 7.0 have decreased their level of anthocyanin from 25 to 1.87 mg/100 mL. Storage at low temperature had not reduced significantly their anthocyanin concentration. Keywords: anthocyanin, black glutinous rice, antioxidant, heating, storage   ABSTRAK Antosianin sebagai senyawa yang menyebabkan timbulnya warna merah, biru, dan ungu pada padi, buah, sayuran, dan produk hortikultura lainnya, sangat berpotensi untuk dikembangkan sebagai bahan pewarna alami pada produk pangan fungsional. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari stabilitas dan warna ekstrak antosianin dari beras ketan hitam selama proses pemanasan dan penyimpanan. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa semakin tinggi suhu pemanasan dan semakin lama waktu pemanasan, menyebabkan kerusakan antosianin semakin banyak. Kecuali pada pemanasan <50 c tidak lebih dari 15 menit yang dapat meningkatkan kestabilan antosianin. aktivitas antioksidan (% RSa, radical scavenging activity dan nilai fRaP, Ferrous radical Activity Power mengalami penurunan setelah dipanaskan pada suhu 70 oc. Penyimpanan pada suhu kamar dan pH 7,0 dapat

  8. Cuore e autoimmunità glutine dipendente

    Quaglia, Sara


    La cardiomiopatia dilatativa (DCM) nel 70% dei casi è di causa ignota e viene quindi definita idiopatica ma circa la metà di questi casi potrebbe essere ricondotta ad una disregolazione di tipo immune. La presenza di autoanticorpi, infatti, diretti contro auto-antigeni più o meno cuore specifici è stata accertata in molti soggetti con DCM. In particolar modo lavori pubblicati hanno dimostrato come anticorpi contro la miosina e contro il recettore β1adrenergico possano essere coinvolti nella p...

  9. 不同储藏期籼糯糙米制作的汤圆食用品质的变化%Changes of edible quality of sweet dumpling produced by milled long-grain glutinous brown rice in different storage periods

    雷凡; 田春庄; 王月慧


    利用质构仪检测籼糯糙米储藏后制成的速冻汤圆食用品质的变化,分成常规组(15、25、35℃)和气调储藏组(自然空气封入、N2 气体封入、CO2 气体封入、真空),整个储藏期为 1 8 0 d,每隔 3 0 d后制成速冻汤圆,检测其各项指标,并对产品进行感官评价.结果显示:各项指标受温度影响均较大,气调方式对其影响不明显;通过汤圆的感官评价发现,储藏前期温度和气调方式对汤圆的食用品质影响不大;在 35℃下 60 d时汤圆的食用品质开始下降,而气调储藏的汤圆食用品质尚佳;其他温度下 90 d后的汤圆食用品质开始下降,气调方式无显著影响.表明15℃低温条件下,气调储藏能更好地保持籼糯糙米制作的汤圆良好的食用品质,且温度越高,气调效果越明显.%The changes of edible quality of sweet dumpling produced by milled long-grain glutinous brown rice in different storage periods were determined using texture analyzer.In this experiment,the long-grain glutinous brown rice were stored in different temperature (15,25 and 35℃)and controlled atmosphere storage (air sealed,N2 sealed,CO2 sealed,vacuum sealed), for 180 d,and every 30 d,the brown rice were made frozen sweet dumpling,the various indexes and the sensory quality were measured.The experimental results showed that the indicators were extremely influenced by temperature,the controlled atmos-phere storage had no obvious influences.Through the sensory evaluations of sweet dumplings,we found that temperature and controlled atmosphere storage had little effects on the edible quality of the dumplings in the early period;at 35℃ the edible qual-ity of sweet dumplings declined after 60 d,but the dumplings in controlled atmosphere storage had no changes;the edible quality of sweet dumplings began to decline after 90 d under other temperature conditions,the controlled atmosphere storage had no ob-vious effects.It indicated that 1 5℃ low temperature

  10. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Unpolished Dark Purple Glutinous Rice ...

    days of treatment, memory was tested using passive avoidance (PA) and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. Results: ... people older than 65 years [1]. At present, the ... be a critical element in producing dementia [2] and the ... studying cognitive deficits in experimental animals [3]. ..... flavonoids may delay the development of.

  11. Plant regeneration from cultured protoplasts of a glutinous rics

    WangGuangyuan; HsiaChenau; 等


    Young embryos of ricy (Oryza sativa L.subsp.japonica var.Guo-xiang No.1) were cultured on MS agar medium(2,4-D 2 mg/l).Calli were formed and subcultured on N6 agar medium (2,4-D 2 mg/l).After selection,the small,grainy and pale yellowish cell clusters with dense cytoplasm were used in protoplast preparation. Isolated protoplasts were cultured in N6 medium (2,4-D 1 mg/l,6-BA 0.2 mg/l)1* with agarose block culture method.The protoplasts grew,divided and formed calli.After inducing differentiation,the regenerated mature plants were obtained.

  12. Alleviation of Salt Stress in Seedlings of Black Glutinous Rice by Seed Priming with Spermidine and Gibberellic Acid

    Sumitahnun CHUNTHABUREE


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to elucidate the spermidine (Spd and gibberellic acid (GA3 priming-induced physiological and biochemical changes responsible for induction of salinity tolerance in two rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars, namely ‘Niewdam Gs. no. 00621’ (salt tolerant and ‘KKU-LLR-039’ (salt sensitive. The seeds of the two cultivars were primed separately with distilled water, 1 mM Spd or 0.43 mM GA3. Primed seeds were germinated and the resultant seedlings were hydroponically grown for 14 days before being exposed to salinity stress (150 mM NaCl for 10 days. Seed priming with Spd or GA3 slightly improved salt-induced reductions in growth, anthocyanin and chlorophyll contents of the seedlings. Salt stress induced pronounced increases in Na+/K+ ratio, proline and H2O2 contents, particularly in the sensitive cultivar. The levels of these salt-sensitivity physiological indicators tended to be mitigated by priming with Spd and GA3. Salt-stressed seedlings grown from seeds primed with these growth regulators also possessed higher phenolic contents and greater antioxidant capacity than the control seedlings. Based on all growth and physiological data, Spd tended to be more effective than A3 in improving salt tolerance in both rice cultivars.

  13. Study on Processing Condition of Glutinous Maize Yoghurt%糯玉米酸奶加工工艺研究

    曾顺德; 赵国华; 尹旭敏; 张超; 章道明


    Maize yoghurt was developped by taking waxy com puree of milk stage and skimmed milk powder as fermentation substrate. The results showed that the optium process conditions were 40 % waxy com puree of milk stage, 5 % sugar, 5 % skimmed milk powder, 7 % bacteria ferment, 0.12 % agar, 42 X fermentation for 6 -8 h and 4 ℃ cold storage for 12 h.%以乳熟期糯玉米原浆和脱脂奶粉为发酵基质,研制糯玉米酸奶.结果显示,糯玉米酸奶的最佳工艺条件为糯玉米原浆40%,蔗糖5%,脱脂奶粉5%,菌种发酵剂7%,琼脂0.12%;在42℃下发酵6~8h,在4℃下冷藏12 h,可得到品质较优的糯玉米酸奶.

  14. Preparing Wine with Glutinous Rice and Mung Bean%绿豆糯米酒的研制

    刘艳秋; 王红; 高晓旭


    以绿豆[Vigna radiata (Linn.) Wilczek]和糯米为原料,研制一种新型的具有特殊风味的绿豆糯米酒.采用单因素试验和正交试验,通过感官评定及理化指标确定绿豆糯米酒的最佳配方.结果表明,绿豆糯米酒最佳配方为酒曲添加量0.5%、绿豆添加量25%、发酵时间92 h、发酵温度30℃.利用此配方研制的绿豆糯米酒产品呈浅绿色,具有淡淡的绿豆风味,口感较甜,具有酒香味,酒精度较低.

  15. Wastewater Treatment in Glutinous Rice Wine Brewage%黄酒酿制米浆废水的处理

    鲁玉龙; 祁华宝


    针对高浓度酿酒米浆废水COD Cr达30000 mg/L、BOD 5达1800O mg/L、废水易生化的特点,采用酸化、UASB厌氧、SBR好氧联合处理工艺,处理后出水COD Cr≤1000mg/L、B0D 5≤600mg/L,符合排入当地城市污水处理厂的要求.

  16. Low Alcohol Fermented Wine of Black Glutinous Rice%黑糯米低醇发酵酒生产工艺的研究

    宋淑红; 申灵


    以黑糯米为原料,采用固态发酵工艺,通过正交试验,确定了黑糯米低醇发酵酒的最佳工艺条件:甜酒曲质量分数为1%,酒母质量分数为2%,发酵温度为15℃,发酵时间为48 h,可得营养丰富、口味鲜美的黑糯米酒.

  17. 出口速冻粽子HACCP体系的研究%An investigation on the HACCP system of the exporting deepfreeze glutinous rice dumpling

    张洪卫; 高云; 张振祥; 冯智



  18. Postprandial Glycemic Response and Satiety Evaluation of Glutinous Rice Foods%糯性加工食品餐后血糖及饱腹感评价

    潘海坤; 王淑颖; 范志红


    为了研究糯性加工食品餐后生理反应,选择以粳糯米和籼糯米为原料制成的米饭、年糕、油饭、油糕为研究对象,测定各糯性加工食品餐后120 min的血糖和饱腹感反应,计算血糖生成指数(glycemic index,GI)与饱腹感指数(satiety index,SI).结果表明:各样品的GI值为:粳糯米饭94.42、籼糯米饭84.47、粳糯年糕125.47、籼糯年糕110.87、粳糯油饭89.66、籼糯油饭80.13、粳糯油糕112.34、籼糯油糕99.10,即全部糯性加工食品均为高GI食物.对于同品种糯米,米粉加工食品年糕、油糕GI值分别高于对应整粒加工食品米饭、油饭;加入猪油制成的油饭、油糕的血糖反应较米饭、年糕略微降低;对于同种糯性加工食品,粳糯比籼糯具有更高的血糖反应;各糯性加工食品SI值为0.99~1.15,样品间无显著性差异,数值与参比粳米相近;与未添加猪油的样品相比,添加猪油并未增加餐后饱腹感,等能量比较时饱腹感反而更低.由此说明不同糯米品种、粒度以及脂肪的添加都会影响糯性加工食品的餐后血糖反应.但整体看来糯性加工食品血糖反应较高,不适合控制血糖者食用.

  19. Study on Technique of Keeping Fresh Processing of Sweet and Glutinous Maize Ear Vacuum Package%玉米穗真空包装保鲜技术研究

    翟广谦; 陈永欣; 严峰







  1. 明胶胶体金探针及胶体金标记空微囊的制备%Preparation of Glutin-Colloidal Gold Probes and Microencapsule Labeled by Colloidal Gold

    王秀珍; 杨捷


    目的 利用胶体金技术制备明胶胶体金探针并用胶体金标记明胶一阿拉伯胶空微囊,为下一步利用胶体金技术研究药物在体内的分布探索新的试验方法 .方法 利用胶体金表面带负电荷而壳聚糖、明胶等微囊材料表面带正电荷,它们之间可形成非共价键的静电吸引而牢固结合的原理,以明胶为微囊囊材,使之先与胶体金特异结合,再用标记过的明胶以复凝聚包囊工艺制备明胶一阿拉伯胶微囊.最后利用电镜观察胶体金在体内的分布,得到胶体金标记微囊在动物体内的分布情况.结果胶体金标记好的明胶-阿拉伯胶空微囊被成功制备.结论 胶体金能很好地标记明胶微囊类药物.

  2. PVA/Gel水凝胶的电刺激可逆弯曲偏转行为研究%Study on bending deflection behavior of polyvinyl alcohol/glutin hydrogels under a cyclically varying electric fields

    周进康; 郝金声



  3. Running title: Antioxidant and cell viability of Echinacea purpurea

    shieh cho han

    improve animal growth, carcass quality, multiplication, ... bility of low glutinousness raw materials, such as corn and ... the protein matrix, the combination of two enzymes can ..... casei ATCC 393 increases it adhesion ability to caco-2 cells.


    Тележенко, Л. М.; Дзюба, Н. А.; Кашкано, М. А.


    The objective of the research is to develop compositions and technology of dry compositional mixtures with glutin inclusion for producing instant porridges of functional purpose. The method of mathematical modeling was applied to develop compositional mixtures.The alkaline hydrolysis method was used to obtain collagen preparation (glutin) from the fish industry derivative products. To establish the biological value of the developed instant porridges ion-exchange chromatographing (Hitachi 835)...

  5. Il ruolo degli anticorpi anti peptidi deamidati di gliadina nell'iter diagnostico della malattia celiaca

    Guatelli, Francesca


    La celiachia è una malattia sistemica immunomediata, indotta dal glutine e dalle prolamine correlate, in soggetti geneticamente predisposti. Si caratterizza per una variabile combinazione di manifestazioni cliniche glutine-dipendenti, anticorpi specifici come gli anticorpi antiendomisio (EMA), gli anticorpi antitransglutaminasi di tipo 2 (tTG) e gli anticorpi antigliadina deamidata (DPG), aplotipi HLA DQ2 o DQ8 ed enteropatia. (Linee Guida ESPGHAN 2011) La malattia celiaca è una patologia...

  6. Ten New Crop Varieties(Lines) Released Recently in HAAS


    @@Two-line Hybrid Glutinous Sorghum Xiangliangyou Nuoliang 1 It is the first two-line hybrid glutinous sorghum variety with good quality and high yield in the world developed by the Sorghum Research & Development Center,HAAS. It was appraised to release by Hunan Provincial Crop Variety Release Committee (HPCVRC) in 1996,and listed as an important achievement being popularized in the"Ninth Five-Year Plan" period in China.

  7. Preparation and Properties of Cereal-Metal Complex Films


    1 Results Various kinds of biodegradable polymer materials have been researched[1]. In our previous papers,cereals such as wheat,buckwheat,glutinous rice and nonglutinous rice were polycondenced with citric acid and polysilicic acid to prepare copolymer films respectively[2,3].These copolymer fims have relatively good mechanical properties but the water proofness is not so good.Recently,some cereals such as wheat,glutinous rice,nonglutinous rice,kaoliang,millet and maize were reacted with copper chlorid...

  8. Nutritional evaluation of the gluten free diet

    Mazzeo, Teresa


    Attualmente l’unico trattamento previsto per la malattia celiaca è una rigorosa e permanente eliminazione del glutine dalla dieta. Nella comunità scientifica esiste ancora incertezza riguardo l’adeguatezza e la qualità nutrizionale di tale regime alimentare, poiché gli studi presenti al riguardo sono abbastanza contrastanti rendendo pertanto complicato trarre delle conclusioni definitive. I limitati dati esistenti sulla composizione nutrizionale dei prodotti senza glutine potrebbero in parte ...

  9. 糯米淀粉为基质的脂肪替代品对冰淇淋流变学性质的影响%Effect of Glutinous Rice Starch Based Fat Substitutes on Reological Properties of Ice-cream

    周原; 丁文平



  10. 糯小麦粉与普通小麦粉配粉对面条品质影响的研究%Study of the effect of quality of Chinese noodle which made of glutinous wheat flour and common wheat flour

    黄兴峰; 孙辉; 姜薇莉; 田晓红



  11. Effect of rice variety on the physicochemical properties of the modified rice powders and their derived mucoadhesive gels.

    Okonogi, Siriporn; Kaewpinta, Adchareeya; Khongkhunthian, Sakornrat; Yotsawimonwat, Songwut


    In the present study; the glutinous Niaw Sanpatong (NSP) and Niaw Koko-6 (NKK), and the non-glutinous Jasmine (JM) and Saohai (SH) were chemically modified. The difference of these rice varieties on the physicochemical characteristics of the modified rice powders and the properties of the derived gels were evaluated. X-ray diffractometer was used for crystalline structure investigation of the rice powders and gels. A parallel plate rheometer was used to measure the rheological property of the gels. It was found that the non-glutinous varieties produced gels with higher mucoadhesive properties than the glutinous rice. Rheological behavior of JM and SH gels was pseudoplastic without yield value whereas that of NSP and NKK gels was plastic with the yield values of 1077.4 ± 185.9 and 536.1 ± 45.8 millipascals-second (mPas), respectively. These different properties are considered to be due to the amylose content in different rice variety. The results suggest that the non-glutinous rice varieties with high amylose content are the most suitable for preparing gels as local delivery systems via the mucosal membrane.

  12. Identifying irradiated flours by photo-stimulated luminescence technique

    Ramli, Ros Anita Ahmad; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Othman, Zainon; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan


    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique was used in this study to detect gamma irradiation treatment of five types of flours (corn, rice, tapioca, wheat and glutinous rice) at four different doses 0, 0.2, .05 and 1kGy. The signal level was compared with two threshold values (700 and 5000). With the exception of glutinous rice, all irradiated samples produced a strong signal above the upper threshold (5000 counts/60s). All control samples produced negative result with the signals below the lower threshold (700 counts/60s) suggesting that the samples have not been irradiated. Irradiated glutinous rice samples produced intermediate signals (700 - 5000 counts/60s) which were subsequently confirmed using calibrated PSL. The PSL signals remained stable after 90 days of storage. The findings of this study will be useful to facilitate control of food irradiation application in Malaysia.

  13. Identifying irradiated flours by photo-stimulated luminescence technique

    Ramli, Ros Anita Ahmad; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Othman, Zainon; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)


    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique was used in this study to detect gamma irradiation treatment of five types of flours (corn, rice, tapioca, wheat and glutinous rice) at four different doses 0, 0.2, .05 and 1kGy. The signal level was compared with two threshold values (700 and 5000). With the exception of glutinous rice, all irradiated samples produced a strong signal above the upper threshold (5000 counts/60s). All control samples produced negative result with the signals below the lower threshold (700 counts/60s) suggesting that the samples have not been irradiated. Irradiated glutinous rice samples produced intermediate signals (700 - 5000 counts/60s) which were subsequently confirmed using calibrated PSL. The PSL signals remained stable after 90 days of storage. The findings of this study will be useful to facilitate control of food irradiation application in Malaysia.

  14. The use of induced mutation combined with crossing in high quality rice breeding

    Do Huu At; Bui Huy Thuy; Nguyen Van Bich; Tran Duy Quy [Agricultural Genetics Institute, Division of Genetics and Hybrid Rice Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen Minh Cong [Hanoi No. 1 Teacher Training Univ., Department of Genetics (Viet Nam)


    The high quality rice varieties: Tam thom mutant rice Var., DT17 rice Var, DT21 glutinous rice Var were formed by induced mutation combined with crossing. Tam thom mutant rice Var. lost photosensitivity, could be planted 2 crops/year. DT17 rice Var with high yielding capacity, suitable for growth on lowland in summer crop, is replacing step-by-step Moctuyen rice Var. in North Vietnam. DT21 glutinous rice Var. could be planted 2 crops/year and had short growth duration, average yield was 4.0-4.5 tons/ha. These three ones had good quality, soft and scent cooked rice, suitable for customers and export requirements. Tam thom mutant rice Var. DT17 rice Var., DT21 and glutinous rice Var. were adopted for regional production by Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and allowed to be in trial production. (author)

  15. Conservation and utilization of rice genetic resources in China


    @@Rice genetic resources presents variably in China. There are land races and wild species. cultivated lowland rice and upland rice, indica (Hsien) and japonica (Keng) riee. early, middle, and late rice as well as glutinous and non-glutinous rice. Up to February 2000, a total of 76, 646 rice accessions were catalogued,and 67. 444 base accessions were stored in the National Crop Gene Bank in the Institute of Crop Genetic Resources (ICGR) of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China (Table 1). About 35,000 rice duplicates were stored in China National Rice Research Institute(CNRRI), Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. China.

  16. Morphological and starch structural characteristics of the Japonica rice mutant variety Seolgaeng for dry-milled flour

    Producing fine, good quality rice flour is more difficult than wheat flour because the rice grain is harder. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the morphology and starch of kernels from genetically different rice varieties that can be used to make dry-milled flour. The non-glutinous...

  17. Pebble Dumplings


    Ingredients:Polished glutinous rice powder, yellow cheese powder,cocoa powder, and red bean paste or other for stuffing.Method:1. Mix the rice powder with cheese and cocoa powdersrespectively, add in water and roll a yellow dough and abrown dough; prepare another pure rice powder

  18. Development of defined mixed-culture fungal fermentation starter granulate for controlled production of rice wine

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nout, M.J.R.


    As a first step in the development of defined fungal starter granules for controlled winemaking from purple glutinous rice, the interaction of moulds and yeasts isolated from Vietnamese rice wine starters and the effect of some representative oriental herbs on the growth of moulds and yeasts were ex

  19. Banana Cakes


    Ingredients: Two bananas, 50 grams of preserved fruits, 25 grams sesame seeds, 10 grams glutinous rice powder,white sugar,oil. Method: 1. Chop the preserved fruits and mix them well with vegetable oil. white sugar and sesame. 2. Mash the bananas into a paste and mix it with

  20. Zongzi and Its Story



    THE Dragon Boat Festival falls on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month, when the weather turns warm. Traditionally, people eat zongzi(a pyramid shaped dumpling made of glutinous rice wrapped in bamboo or reed leaves) during this festival to commemorate the ancient patriotic poet Qu Yuan (340-278 B.C.). Qu Yuan lived in the Chu State during the Warring States Period (475-221 B.C.).

  1. Production of Angkak Through Co-Culture of Monascus Purpureus and MONASCUS RUBER

    Bibhu Prasad Panda; Saleem Javed; Mohd Ali


    Angkak (red mold rice, red yeast rice, Chinese red rice) is a traditional Chinese medicine produced by solid-state fermentation of cooked non-glutinous rice with Monascus species. The secondary metabolite of Monascus species, monacolin K /lovastatin, has been proven to lower blood lipid levels. In this study, a co-culture of Monascus purpureus MTCC 369 and Monascus ruber MTCC 1880 was used for angkak production. Four medium parameters screened by Plackett-Burman design were optimized by respo...

  2. Evaluation of sugar content and composition in commonly consumed Korean vegetables, fruits, cereals, seed plants, and leaves by HPLC-ELSD.

    Shanmugavelan, Poovan; Kim, Su Yeon; Kim, Jung Bong; Kim, Heon Woong; Cho, Soo Muk; Kim, Se Na; Kim, So Young; Cho, Young Sook; Kim, Haeng Ran


    In the present investigation, evaluation of sugars viz. fructose, galactose, glucose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, and raffinose in commonly consumed raw Korean vegetables, fruits, cereals, seed plants, and leaves has been analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD). Of the 58 samples analyzed, Onion showed the highest content of fructose (27.74g/100g) and glucose (31.80g/100g) and Chestnuts showed the highest content of sucrose (21.82g/100g). On the other hand, Glutinous sorghum (polished grain), Green tea leaves, and Paddy rice (well-polished rice) showed the lowest content of fructose (0.20g/100g), glucose (0.68g/100g) and sucrose (0.23g/100g), respectively. Glutinous barley (Hopimbori-whole grain) and Green tea leaves showed 0.17g/100g and 0.57g/100g of galactose and lactose respectively. Glutinous barley (Seodunchalbori-polished grain) and Black soybeans (Cheongjaho, dried) showed the highest content of maltose (0.51g/100g) and raffinose (1.82g/100g), respectively. In few samples, galactose, maltose, lactose, and raffinose were detected in trace quantities. A partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was also performed to discriminate the analyzed samples.

  3. Elemental Content in Brown Rice by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Reveals the Evolution of Asian Cultivated Rice

    Yawen Zeng; Luxiang Wang; Juan Du; Jiafu Liu; Shuming Yang; Xiaoying Pu; Fenghui Xiao


    The phylogenetic relationship for classification traits and eight mineral elements in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) from Yunnan Province in China was carried out using microwave assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and the analytical procedures were carefully controlled and validated. In general, the results show that the mean levels of K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu in brown rice for 789 accessions of rice landraces was distinctly lower than that of improved cultivars. They further demonstrate that Ca plays an important role in the differentiation of subspecies indica-japonica, especially to enhance adaptation of cold stress, and that five mineral elements in brown rice enhance the eurytopicity from landrace to improved cultivar. Hierarchical cluster analysis, using average linkage from SPSS software based on eight mineral elements in brown rice, showed that Yunnan rice could be grouped into rice landrace and improved cultivar, with the rice landrace being further clustered into five subgroups, and that, interestingly, purple rice does not cluster with either of the groups. Our present data confirm that indica is the closest relative of late rice and white rice, and that they constitute rice landraces together, whereas japonica is the closest relatives of non-nuda, early-mid and glutinous rice. It is further shown that japonica, non-nuda, early-mid, glutinous, white and red rice might be more primitive than indica, nuda, late, non-glutinous and purple rice, respectively.

  4. 石榴糯米酒发酵工艺的研究

    吴晓菊; 申玉飞


    This paper studies pomegranate juice and pomegranate wine fermented glutinous rice as the main raw material production process and parameters. Glutinous rice with sweet medicine fermentation, the punch cylinder is added to pomegranate juice and fruit wine yeast rice wine brewing pomegranate. Research results show that the optimal technological parameters of pomegranate wine: pomegranate juice and glutinous rice wine yeast is added 4∶1, wine yeast 0.08%, fermentation time 5 d.%以石榴汁、糯米为主要原料,研究发酵石榴糯米酒的生产工艺和参数。糯米经甜酒药发酵,冲缸时加入石榴汁及果酒酵母酿造石榴糯米酒,结果表明石榴糯米酒的最佳工艺参数为石榴汁与糯米添加比4∶1,果酒酵母添加量0.08%,发酵时间5 d。

  5. Disegno dello studio genomico, ambientale, microbiomico e metabolomico sulla celiachia: un approccio al futuro della prevenzione personalizzata della celiachia



    Riassunto Negli ultimi anni abbiamo assistito a un fiorire di novità cliniche e scientifiche sulla celiachia (CE), ma forse la novità più importante che influenzerà il futuro della ricerca e della clinica in questo campo riguarda la storia naturale della malattia. Per molti anni si è creduto che la predisposizione genetica e l’esposizione al glutine fossero necessarie e sufficienti allo sviluppo della CE. Studi recenti, però suggeriscono che la perdita di tolleranza al glutine possa apparire in qualsiasi momento della vita a seguito di altri elementi. Inoltre, diversi fattori ambientali conosciuti per il loro ruolo nell’influenzare la composizione della microflora intestinale sono anche stati considerati legati allo sviluppo della CE. Tra questi fattori sono inclusi la modalità di parto, la dieta dell’infante e l’uso di antibiotici. A tutt’oggi, nessuno studio longitudinale di ampia scala ha determinato se e come la composizione del microbioma e il suo profilo metabolomico possano influenzare la perdita di tolleranza al glutine e il successivo sviluppo della CE in soggetti geneticamente predisposti. In questo articolo descriviamo uno studio prospettico, multicentrico e longitudinale su infanti a rischio per la CE che utilizzerà diverse tecniche per approfondire il ruolo che il microbioma intestinale ha durante i primi passaggi dello sviluppo della malattia autoimmune. PMID:27362724

  6. Physicochemical Properties and Digestibility of Proso Millet Starch%糜黍淀粉理化性质及消化特性

    张丽珍; 冀佩双; 罗旭枭; 穆虹彰; 秦雁鹏; 牛宇; 乔志军


    In this experiment, glutinous and nonglutinous proso millet starch were prepared from glutinous and nonglutinous proso millet flour by an alkaline method and theirgranule morphology, infrared spectral characteristics, transmittance, solubility, water-holding capacity, retrogradation stability and digestibility were explored. The results showed that the amylopectin content was 91.78% and amylose content was 8.21% in glutinous proso millet starch. The amylopectin content was 65.28% and amylose content was 34.72% in nonglutinous proso millet starch. The contents of resistant starch in nonglutinous proso millet flour and starch were higher than those in nonglutinous proso millet flour and starch, and all four values were over 50%. Glutinous proso millet starch showed better transparency and weaker retrogradation stability than did nonglutinous proso millet starch. Water-holding capacity and solubility of both glutinous and nonglutinous proso millet starch showed an upward trend with increasing temperature.%以黍子面和糜子面为原料,用碱法制备黍子淀粉和糜子淀粉,对其颗粒形态、红外光谱特性、透光率、溶解度、持水力、凝沉稳定性以及消化性等性质进行研究。结果表明:黍子淀粉中支链淀粉含量为91.78%,直链淀粉含量为8.21%;糜子淀粉中支链淀粉含量为65.28%,直链淀粉含量为34.72%。糜子面粉、黍子面粉及其淀粉中的抗性淀粉含量均超过50%,糜子面和糜子淀粉中的抗性淀粉含量均分别高于黍子面和黍子淀粉。黍子淀粉的透光率高于糜子淀粉。糜子淀粉凝沉稳定性强于黍子淀粉。糜子淀粉和黍子淀粉的溶解度、持水力随温度的升高,呈现上升趋势。

  7. Processing technology of sesame-cake%芝麻糕的加工工艺研究

    张丽霞; 黄纪念; 孙强; 宋国辉; 芦鑫; 齐立娟


    以白芝麻为主要原料,进行芝麻糕生产工艺研究。利用感官评定和模糊综合评判结合的方法对芝麻糕进行评价,采用正交实验对芝麻糕生产工艺进行优化,研究表明:在芝麻、糯米粉和香芋粉的比例为3:5:0.1(质量比),白砂糖添加量为芝麻酱和糯米粉总量的23%,水添加量为糯米粉和白砂糖质量的51%时,180℃蒸制15min,所得产品为浅咖啡色,黏弹性和软硬度适中,组织细腻,香甜可口。%With the white sesame as main raw material,the processing technology of sesame-cake was researched.The sensory evaluation and fuzzy evaluation methods were used for improving the quality of sesame-cake.The optimal process formulation of the sesame-cake was determined according to the orthogonal test.The results were as follows:the mass ratio of the sesame,glutinous rice power and colocasia esculenta schott powder is 3:5:0.1,the amount of sugar accounts for 23% of the total amount of sesame paste and glutinous rice powder,and the amount of water account for 51% of the total amount of glutinous rice powder and sugar,sesame-cake was steamed for 15 min at 180 ℃.The sesame-cake has a good taste with shallow brown in color,the moderate viscoelastic and hardness.

  8. Traps as treats: a traditional sticky rice snack persisting in rapidly changing Asian kitchens.

    Schwallier, Rachel; de Boer, Hugo J; Visser, Natasja; van Vugt, Rogier R; Gravendeel, Barbara


    An accessory to modern developing economies includes a shift from traditional, laborious lifestyles and cuisine to more sedentary careers, recreation and convenience-based foodstuffs. Similar changes in the developed western world have led to harmful health consequences. Minimization of this effect in current transitional cultures could be met by placing value on the maintenance of heritage-rich food. Vitally important to this is the preservation and dissemination of knowledge of these traditional foods. Here, we investigate the history and functionality of a traditional rice snack cooked in Nepenthes pitchers, one of the most iconic and recognizable plants in the rapidly growing economic environment of Southeast Asia. Social media was combined with traditional ethnobotanical surveys to conduct investigations throughout Malaysian Borneo. Interviews were conducted with 25 market customers, vendors and participants from various ethnical groups with an in-depth knowledge of glutinous rice cooked in pitcher plants. The acidity of pitcher fluid was measured during experimental cooking to analyze possible chemical avenues that might contribute to rice stickiness. Participants identifying the snack were almost all (96%) from indigenous Bidayuh or Kadazandusun tribal decent. They prepare glutinous rice inside pitcher traps for tradition, vessel functionality and because they thought it added fragrance and taste to the rice. The pH and chemical activity of traps analyzed suggest there is no corresponding effect on rice consistency. Harvest of pitchers does not appear to decrease the number of plants in local populations. The tradition of cooking glutinous rice snacks in pitcher plants, or peruik kera in Malay, likely carries from a time when cooking vessels were more limited, and persists only faintly in tribal culture today because of value placed on maintaining cultural heritage. Social media proved a valuable tool in our research for locating research areas and in

  9. CGAR E CGAR-EM na análise dos constituintes químicos isolados do extrato hexanico de Sebastiania argutidens (Euphorbiaceae HRGC and HRGC-MS in the analysis of the chemical constituents isolated from hexanic extract of Sebastiania argutidens (Euphorbiaceae

    Alexsandro Branco


    Full Text Available The fractionation column with SiO2 of the hexane extract of Sebastiania argutidens (Euphorbiaceae yielded fractions containing hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, sterols and pentacyclic triterpenes. Besides, one fraction showed the presence of several methyl esters, including four uncommon long chain palmitate esthers as minor components. The characterization of these chemical constituents have been done by High Resolution Gas Chromatography (HRGC and HRGC coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS. Campesterol, stigmasterol, b-sitosterol, glutin-5-en-3-ol were identified by HRGC co-injection with standards.

  10. Influences of surfactants on the preparation of copper nanoparticles by electron beam irradiation

    Zhou Ruimin [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail:; Wu Xinfeng; Hao Xufeng; Zhou Fei [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li Hongbin [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China); Rao Weihong [Shenzhen Tianding Fine Chemical Engineering Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Shenzhen, Guangdong 518057 (China)


    Electron beam radiation was applied to prepare nano-size copper in water system using polyvinyl alcohol, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, gluten and polyethylene glycol as the surfactants, respectively. The irradiated products were characterized by XRD, TEM and LSPSDA. The XRD and TEM showed that relative pure copper products with an average size of 20 nm, 40 nm and 20 nm can be obtained by using gluten, PEG and SDBS as surfactant, respectively. An admixture of copper and cuprous oxide was obtained in PVA system. The LSPSDA showed that the size of the Cu nanoparticles decreased with increasing the glutin concentration.

  11. Hygiene Sanitasi Dan Pemeriksaan Kandungan Bakteri Escherichia Coli Pada Es Kolak Durian Yang Dijajakan Di Jalan Dr. Mansyur Kelurahan Padang Bulan Kota Medan Tahun 2010

    Tambunan, Samuel


    Ice durian compote is one of the street food that comes from the mixing process in which the main ingredient is the durian mixed with sticky rice (glutinous rice), brown sugar, and coconut milk as the liquid and use the ice crystals to add fresh flavor. Durian compote ice seller is a trader who settled / not moving with the cart on sale on the roadside. Places that are selling on the edge of the highway led to merchandise being sold do not meet health requirements and most likely ice durian c...

  12. 食果纪

    赵雨楠; 梁聪怡


    <正>毛姆说:"任何一把剃刀都自有其哲学。"水果也同理可得。榴莲燕窝:Double Boiled Bird’S Nest with Durian Jelly原料/鲜榴莲、燕窝。创意/鲜榴莲果肉的纯自然,配以美容、营养的高档补品燕窝,在雪白的意境里给人独到的美味。椰汁汤圆:Sweet Glutinous Dumplings in Coconut

  13. 减少强氯精出料结晶差的频次探讨%Analysis of Reducing the Frequency of Ejection of Compact Poor Crystallization of TCCA



      在强氯精生产过程中若控制不当,会使物料结晶颗粒过小,造成氯化锅出料结晶差,出黏料,产生废料,从而增加生产成本和废水处理的难度。%In the process of TCCA production, it will make the material crystalline particles too small , lead to ejection of compact poor crystallization of TCCA and cause waste due to the glutinous material, which can increase the production cost and the difficulty of wastewater treatment.

  14. Influence of Addition of Polyols and Food Emulsifiers on the Retrogradation Rate of Starch


    The influence of polyols and emulsifiers on hardening of non-glutinous rice starch gels has been investigated. The polyols and emulsifiers were added at concentrations of 6% (w/w) and 0.2% (w/w), respectively , to starch gels (starch content, 30%). The hardening rate and the initial viscoelastic values of gels were computed by analyzing static linear viscoelastic parameters (creep compliance) of the gels stored at 0 C for up to 3,000 minutes. Hardening of gels, i.e., retrogradation of star...

  15. FORMULASI TEPUNG PENYALUT BERBASIS TEPUNG JAGUNG DAN PENENTUAN UMUR SIMPANNYA DENGAN PENDEKATAN KADAR AIR KRITIS [Formulation of Corn Flour-Based Batter and Prediction of Its Shelf Life using Critical Moisture Approach



    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to obtain the best formula for corn flour-based batter and to predict its shelf life using critical moisture approach. According to a hedonic test, the best batter formula was composed of 60% corn flour, 12.5% rice flour, 12.5% tapioca starch, and 15% glutinous rice flour. Addition of glutinous rice flour in the formula changed the proportion of amylose and amylopectin in the batter. As a result, the retrogradation of the batter decreased and the texture of its fried product was preferred. A critical moisture approach was used to predict the shelf life of the batter. The critical moisture content of the batter was 0.16 g H2O/g solid.The isotherm sorption phenomenon of the batter was best described using Hasley model. The shelf life of the product was 7 months when packaged in polypropylene (0,07 g/m2day.mmHg at 85% RH.

  16. New Process of Raspberry Wine Brewing%树莓酒酿造新工艺

    王雪松; 张素敏; 隋韶奕; 隋洪涛; 李珂


    以树莓为原料生产果酒,在树莓果浆发酵过程中加入糯米糖化醪来弥补树莓果汁酸度过高、碳源不足的缺陷,通过正交试验确定出糯米糖化醪的最佳糖化条件和树莓酒的最佳发酵条件及生产工艺参数,并采用微孔膜精滤,无菌灌装等工艺酿制出风味纯正、酒体丰满、营养丰富的树莓果酒,为充分利用树莓资源开辟了一条新途径。%In this study, Rasp berries for raw materials developed wine. Using glutinous rice mush liquid as materialto provided carbon-source and reduce acid degree during the fermentation of Rasp berries , the best technique parameter and fermentation condition of Raspberries wine and saccharifincation condition of glutinous rice mush liquid were determined by orthogonal test,brew to Rasp berries wine by membrane filtration and sterile filling and so on, and the wine had pure flavour and poise round and full of nutrition, open up a new road forthe useof Rasp berries.




    @@ It has been well understood that a mixture of vegetable and animal proteins is of higher quality than the former alone, and also there are some remarkable instances of effective supplementing between the proteins of certain cereals and certain legume seeds[1]. In practice, it is very valuable for the selection of human diets and farm-animal relations. This question is especially important in China where the protein of the average diet are mainly of vegetable origin, in which about 83 percent are derived from cereals and 11 percent from beans[2]. However, a review of the literature indicates that no work has been done on the supplementary relationships of the protein of mottled gram bean with those of other cereals. The writer purchased, therefore, from the Peiping market some cheaper cereals commonly used in China, namely, yellow corn(黄玉米), red kaoliang(红高粱),oat meal(油麦面),panicled glutinous and non-glutinous millets(黄米及糜子米); and determined the supplementary values between the proteins of mottled gram bean and these cereals. The experimental details are communicated in the present paper.

  18. West Java Snack Mapping based on Snack Types, Main Ingredients, and Processing Techniques

    Nurani, A. S.; Subekti, S.; Ana


    The research was motivated by lack of literature on archipelago snack especially from West Java. It aims to explore the snack types, the processing techniques, and the main ingredients by planning a learning material on archipelago cake especially from West Java. The research methods used are descriptive observations and interviews. The samples were randomly chosen from all regions in West Java. The findings show the identification of traditional snack from West java including: 1. snack types which are similar in all regions as research sample namely: opak, rangginang, nagasari, aliagrem, cuhcur, keripik, semprong, wajit, dodol, kecimpring, combro, tape ketan, and surabi. The typical snack types involve burayot (Garut), simping kaum (Purwakarta), surabi hejo (Karawang), papais cisaat (Subang), Papais moyong, opak bakar (Kuningan), opak oded, ranggesing (Sumedang), gapit, tapel (Cirebon), gulampo, kue aci (Tasikmalaya), wajit cililin, gurilem (West Bandung), and borondong (Bandung District); 2. various processing techniques namely: steaming, boiling, frying, caramelizing, baking, grilling, roaster, sugaring; 3. various main ingredients namely rice, local glutinous rice, rice flour, glutinous rice flour, starch, wheat flour, hunkue flour, cassava, sweet potato, banana, nuts, and corn; 4. snack classification in West Java namely (1) traditional snack, (2) creation-snack, (3) modification-snack, (4) outside influence-snack.

  19. Antioxidations and Their Correlations with Total Flavones and Anthocyanin Contents in Different Black Rice Varieties


    The antioxidations and their correlations with total flavones and anthocyanin contents in different black rice varieties were studied. The results indicated that the great differences in total antioxidant capacity (TAC), scavenging free radical capacity (SFRC), total flavones and anthocyanin contents existed among 242 black rice varieties. Comparisons of TAC,SFRC, total flavones and anthocyanin contents of different black rice types showed that the differences between black rice and white rice, indica one and japonica one, and nonglutinous one and glutinous one were significant at 0.01 levels,respectively. This showed that the TAC, SFRC, total flavones and anthocyanin contents of japonica type were higher than those of indica one, and nonglutinous type were higher than glutinous one. According to the fast clustering procedure, 242 black rice varieties could be clustered into 10 clusters, 184 indica rice varieties into 10 clusters, and 58japonica rice varieties into 6 clusters. Most significant (P<0.01) correlations existed between TAC and total flavones and anthocyanin contents, and between SFRC and total flavones and anthocyanin contents of black rice, respectively. This showed that the antioxidation of black rice was closely correlated with its active compositions of flavones and anthocyanin.

  20. Analysis on Mineral Element Contents in Associated with Varietal Type in Core Collection of Yunnan Rice

    ZENGYa-wen; LIUJia-fu; WANGLu-xiang; SHENShi-quan; LIZi-chao; WANGXiangkun; WENGuo-song; YANGZhong-yi


    Eight-element contents of 653 unpolished rice samples harvested from Xingping experiment farm, Yunnan Province under thc same ecological conditions were analyzed by ICP-AES method. The mineral elements content were closely related to low diversity, high-yielding, and multi-resistance breeding; The K, Mg, Ca and Mn content in high-yielding and resistant varieties were high, and other nutrients such as P, Fe, Zn and Cu were low, which was connected with the heredity and physiological mechanism of mineral nutrients. There is zonal distribution of mineral elements content from Yunnan rice, especially for P, Fe, Zn and Cu co-related with the diversity center, paddy versus upland, glutinous and non-glutinous, glumc-hair versus nuda, rice color, rice flavor, soft rice versus non-soft rice, but it did not find any association with indica-japonica types. The results supported the ecological variety group view of 5-grade taxonomic system "species-subspecies-ccological groups-ecological variety groups - varietal types" .

  1. Chemical Constituents and Antibacterial Properties of Indocalamus latifolius McClure Leaves, the Packaging Material for “Zongzi”

    Jia Sun


    Full Text Available The glutinous rice dumpling named “Zongzi” in Chinese is a type of traditional food that is popular in East Asian countries. “Zongzi” is made of glutinous rice and wrapped in the leaves of Indocalamus latifolius McClure as the packaging material. Four new compounds, latifoliusine A (2, (7S,8R syringylglycerol-8-O-4′-sinapyl ether 4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (7, (7S,8S syringylglycerol-8-O-4′-sinapyl ether 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (8, and (7R,8S syringylglycerol-8-O-4′-sinapyl ether 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (10, along with six known compounds (1, 3–6 and 9 were isolated from I. latifolius McClure leaves. The structures and relative configurations of the compounds were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HRESIMS, heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC, nuclear overhauser enhancement (NOE and circular dichroism (CD. All of the isolated compounds were screened for their antibacterial activities in vitro. The results indicated that apigenin 6-C-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-8-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (5 and apigenin 7-O,8-C-di-glucopyranoside (6 have antibacterial activities against four bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas solanacearum.

  2. [Effects of different rice farming systems on paddy field weed community].

    Zhang, Dan; Min, Qing-Wen; Cheng, Sheng-Kui; Yang, Hai-Long; He, Lu; Jiao, Wen-Jun; Liu, Shan


    Taking the paddy fields planted with glutinous rice and hybrid rice in the traditional agricultural region in Congjiang County of Guizhou Province as the case, and by using semi-experiment combined with random sampling investigation, this paper studied the characteristics of weed community in the paddy fields under rice monoculture (R), rice-fish culture (R-F), and rice-fish-duck culture (R-F-D). Under the three rice farming systems, glutinous rice had higher capability in inhibiting weeds, compared with hybrid rice. Farming system R-F-D decreased the weed density significantly, with the control effect on Monochoia vaginalis and Rotala indica being 100%. The overall weed-inhibiting effect of R-F-D was significantly higher than that of the other farming systems. Under R-F-D, the species richness and Shannon diversity index of weed community decreased markedly, while the Pielou evenness index increased, indicating that the species composition of weed community changed greatly, and the occurrence of native dominant weed species decreased. It was concluded that R-F-D was a feasible farming system for the control of paddy field weed community.

  3. Development of New Craft Rice Wine%新工艺米酒的研发

    刘新益; 何松贵; 徐岩


    采用精糯米作原料和九江酒曲3号为曲,利用现代机械化生产低杂醇油、微量成分较多的米酒。利用该新工艺生产的米酒具有清香和蜜香复合的清雅香气、入口绵甜柔软、落口爽净甘滑、回味清爽怡畅的感官特点。%New craft rice wine with low fusel oil content and high trace elements content was produced with fine glutinous rice as raw materials and Jiujiang No.3 starter as yeast through modern automated manufacturing.Such wine had sensory characteristics including elegant aroma combining honey aroma and Fen-flavor,soft and clean taste,and enjoyable aftertaste.

  4. Algorithms Development in Detection of the Gelatinization Process during Enzymatic ‘Dodol’ Processing

    Azman Hamzah


    Full Text Available Computer vision systems have found wide application in foods processing industry to perform quality evaluation. The systems enable to replace human inspectors for the evaluation of a variety of quality attributes. This paper describes the implementation of the Fast Fourier Transform and Kalman filtering algorithms to detect the glutinous rice flour slurry (GRFS gelatinization in an enzymatic „dodol. processing. The onset of the GRFS gelatinization is critical in determining the quality of an enzymatic „dodol.. Combinations of these two algorithms were able to detect the gelatinization of the GRFS. The result shows that the gelatinization of the GRFS was at the time range of 11.75 minutes to 14.75 minutes for 24 batches of processing. This paper will highlight the capability of computer vision using our proposed algorithms in monitoring and controlling of an enzymatic „dodol. processing via image processing technology.

  5. Algorithms Development in Detection of the Gelatinization Process during Enzymatic ‘Dodol’ Processing

    Azman Hamzah


    Full Text Available Computer vision systems have found wide application in foods processing industry to perform the quality evaluation. The systems enable to replace human inspectors for the evaluation of a variety of quality attributes. This paper describes the implementation of the Fast Fourier Transform and Kalman filtering algorithms to detect the glutinous rice flour slurry (GRFS gelatinization in an enzymatic ‘dodol’ processing. The onset of the GRFS gelatinization is critical in determining the quality of an enzymatic ‘dodol’. Combinations of these two algorithms were able to detect the gelatinization of the GRFS. The result shows that the gelatinization of the GRFS was at the time range of 11.75 minutes to 15.33 minutes for 20 batches of processing. This paper will highlight the capability of computer vision using our proposed algorithms in monitoring and controlling of an enzymatic ‘dodol’ processing via image processing technology.

  6. Comparison of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts obtained from Salvia glutinosa L. and Salvia officinalis L.

    Veličković Dragan T.


    Full Text Available Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as well as total phenols and flavonoids contents of Salvia glutinosa L. (glutinous sage and Salvia officinalis L. (sage extracts were studied. Methanol and aqueous ethanol (70% v/v were used for extraction of bioactive compounds, both in the presence and the absence of ultrasound, from herb and the spent plant material remaining after the essential oil hydrodistillation. The ratio of plant material to extracting solvent was 1:10 g/ml. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts were found to depend on the type of plant material and the extraction conditions. The plant materials from which essential oil had been recovered were proven to be valuable raw materials for making various herbal preparations.

  7. Genetic Characterization of Indigenous Rice Varieties in Eastern Himalayan Region of Northeast India

    Baharul Islam CHOUDHURY; Mohammed Latif KHAN; Selvadurai DAYANANDAN


    The eastern Himalayan region of Northeast (NE) India is home to a large number of indigenous rice varieties, which are traditionally classified as Oryza sativa subspecies indica, japonica or intermediate types. The classification based on traditional Cheng’s index is often inconclusive due to phenotypic plasticity of morphological characters, which are influenced by environmental conditions. We used molecular markers specific for indica and japonica subspecies to assess the degree of genetic relatedness of indigenous rice varieties in NE India. The results revealed that majority of upland (jum) and glutinous rice varieties, traditionally considered as japonica, were genetically close to the subspecies indica. All varieties of boro ecotype were found to be indica type, and only a few varieties cultivated in lowland and upland areas were japonica type. Some of the lowland varieties of the sali ecotype were intermediate between indica and japonica, and they showed a closer genetic affinity to O. rufipogon.

  8. Preparation and surface encapsulation of hollow TiO nanoparticles for electrophoretic displays

    Zhao Qian [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tan Tingfeng, E-mail: [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction, Tianjin 300384 (China); Qi Peng [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang Shirong, E-mail: [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Bian Shuguang [High Technology Research and Development Center, Ministry of Science and Technology, Beijing 100044 (China); Li Xianggao; An Yong; Liu Zhaojun [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)


    Hollow black TiO nanosparticles were obtained via deposition of inorganic coating on the surface of hollow core-shell polymer latex with Ti(OBu){sub 4} as precursor and subsequent calcination in ammonia gas. Hollow TiO particles were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. Encapsulation of TiO via dispersion polymerization was promoved by pretreating the pigments with 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate, making it possible to prepare hollow TiO-polymer particles. When St and DVB were used as polymerization monomer, hollow TiO-polymer core-shell particles came into being via dispersion polymerization, and the lipophilic degree is 28.57%. Glutin-arabic gum microcapsules containing TiO-polymer particles electrophoretic liquid were prepared using via complex coacervation. It was founded that hollow TiO-polymer particles had enough electrophoretic mobility after coating with polymer.

  9. Optimization of red pigment production by Monascus purpureus MTCC369 under solid-state fermentation using response surface methodology

    Makhmur Ahmad


    Full Text Available Monascus pigments are used as a traditional food colorant in orient China, are produced by solid-state fermentation of non-glutinous rice using Monascus purpureus MTCC 369. Five nutrient parameters screened using Plackett-Burman experimental design were optimized by central composite design (central rotatory of response surface methodology for Monascus red pigment production under solid-state fermentation. Maximum red pigment production of 12 mg was predicted per gram of rice based solid medium containing 20g pre-soaked rice and 40 ml distilled water containing dextrose 74.59 g/l, peptone 5.54 g/l, NH4Cl 6.57 g/l, MnSO4.H2O 0.58 g/l and malt extract 14.46 g/l using response surface plots and point prediction tool of Design Expert 7.1:3 (Stat-Ease Inc., USA.

  10. Study on Negative Pressure Microwave Spouted Puffing Processing Technology of Salted Egg White Recombinant Plasmids%咸蛋清重组粒负压微波喷动膨化工艺

    王涛; 张慜; 王玉川; 刘亚萍


    The salted egg white and starch as the main raw material in the experiment ,this paper investigated the effect of the added amount of glutinous rice flour and corn starch,the surimi added amount,the maltodextrin added amount,water content,microwave power and jet frequency on expansion of recombinant plasmids,the expansion ratio and breaking force as index.The experimental results show that the ratio of glutinous rice flour and corn starch is 1:1,the surimi added 50%,the maltodextrin added amount 5%,water content 46%,microwave power 48W/g and spouted frequency 4/min ,with the optimum composition,the quality of the puffed productd and the expansion ration and crispness are better.%以咸蛋清和淀粉为主要原料,研究了糯米粉与玉米淀粉添加量、鱼糜添加量、麦芽糊精添加量、水分含量、微波功率及喷动频率等单因素对重组粒膨化效果的影响。实验结果表明,糯米粉与玉米淀粉比例为1∶1,鱼糜添加量50%,麦芽糊精添加量5%,水分含量为46%,微波功率48 W/g及喷动频率4次/min时得到的重组粒产品最好,产品具有较高的膨化率和脆度。

  11. Special rice in China


    Xianggu Rice: The rice originated from Jiangyong County, Hunan Province. Its characteristics were: even in grain shape, white in color, special fragrant in taste, and sticky in quality. Handongzao: It was from Wannian County, Jiangxi Province. The rice had big, fertile, and white grain, which was soft with fragrant smell, and it had high head rice rate. So, the local peasants liked to plant it. It was one of the "Tribute rice " in old time. Shizhu "Imperial Rice": The rice was also called "Fragrant Rice", was from Siyuan Village, Yuelai Town, Shizhu County, Sichuan Province. It was the treasure among the rices. The grain was bright in color. When it was cooked, the smell was fragrant. It was said that the rice was from "Han Dynasty", and has become the "Tribute Rice " since then. Blood Glutinous Rice: Originated from Changshu City, Jiangsu Province, the rice has been cultivated more than one hundred years. It had high nutrition value. Among the people, the Blood Glutinous Rice was often used as health food for lying-in women and patients. Qufu Fragrant Rice: Its characteristics were: clean, bright, and translucent in grain color, sticky in quality. It was suitable for cooking gruel and was also called "Fragrant Rice" in the local due to its strong fragrance. It was one of the "Tribute Rice" in old time. Taihu Lake Fragrant Japonica: The rice was from the Region of Taihu Lake, Jiangsu Province. The characteristics were: even and big in grain shape, soft in quality, white in color, fragrant in taste. The local people liked to plant and eat it.□ (To be continued) Translated by CHEN Wenhua, From "China Rice",No.1,1994

  12. Selection and Cultivation of Table-consuming Hybrid Maize Pinnuo 1%鲜食玉米杂交种品糯1号的选育与栽培

    周建萍; 乔治军; 马俊华; 孟俊文; 赵建栋; 穆志新; 封连军


    Pinnuo 1 is a glutinous interlinear maize hybrid selected by Institute of Crop Germplasm Resources, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences in 2005 with inbred line PN256-1 as female parent and PN4818 male one, and passed by Crops Variety Appraisal Committee in Shanxi in 2010. Pinnuo 1 is high resistant to dwarf mosaic virus, northern leaf blight, stem rot and ear rot, medium resistant to chagrenate-corrugate and has a mean fresh ear output of 13 402.5 kg/hm2. Besides, the line has fine quality, strong glutinous, thin seed skin, good palate, strong flavor and is suitable to be cultivated in northeast China and northern China.%品糯1号是山西省农业科学院品种资源研究所以自选系PN256-1为母本、PN4818为父本,于2005年选育而成的糯玉米单交种,2010年通过山西省农作物品种审定委员会审定.该品种高抗矮花叶病,抗大斑病、茎腐病、穗腐病,中抗粗缩病,平均鲜穗产量13 402.5 kg/hm2;其品质优、糯性强、种皮薄、口感好、香味浓,适宜在东北、华北等春播区种植.

  13. Production of Miao Ethnic Fermented White Sour Soup%苗族发酵型白酸汤的生产工艺

    后立琼; 陈安均


    Miao ethnic fermented white sour soup was prepared from glutinous rice, rice and sweet tender corn by inoculation with home-made fermented white sour soup from a Miao household. Optimum fermentation parameters were established by analyzing the effects of fermentation time, temperature and inocolum size on acid production. Fermented white sour soup with fragrant smell, palatable acidity and unique flavor of Miao ethnic sour soup was obtained when a mixture of rice, glutinous rice and sweet tender corn at a ratio of 2:1:1 was fermented with an inoculum amount of 15% at 40 ℃ for 3 d.%以大米、糯米、鲜嫩玉米为原料,人工接种苗族农家老酸汤生产发酵型白酸汤。通过对发酵时间、发酵温度、接菌量的研究,确定发酵白酸汤生产工艺的最佳参数。结果表明:以大米、糯米、鲜嫩玉米的混合谷物作为原料(混合比例2:1:1)、老酸汤接种量(体积分数)15%、发酵温度40℃、发酵时间3d,制得的酸汤气味芳香,酸度适口,具有苗族酸汤独特的风味。

  14. 南瓜红米粥工艺研究



    The experiment has utilized the materials of pumpkin and red rice so as to prepare the so-called pumpkin and red-rice porridge. Through making change in the dosage of white granulated sugar, red rice, glutinous rice and complex stabilizer, the paper has made a study on the process of the porridge and thus picked out the best recipe according to the results of orthogonal experiment which is based on single factor test. The results have shown that the best recipe will make porridge with good and tender taste, uniform texture and enticing smell should consist of 60 g white granulated sugar, 80 g red rice, 80 g glutinous rice, 1.0 g complex stabilizer, 1 000 mL water and 200 g pumpkin (50 g per jar) as well as a small number of red beans and green beans.%以南瓜、红米为原料制成南瓜红米粥,通过改变白砂糖、红米、糯米、复合稳定剂各辅料的用量,研究南瓜红米粥加工工艺,在单因素试验的基础上进行正交试验优选配方。结果表明,白砂糖60 g,红米80 g,糯米80 g,复合稳定剂1.0 g,水1000 mL,南瓜200 g (每罐50 g),红豆与绿豆少量,可制作出口感甜柔爽口、形态均一、稳定,香味纯正的南瓜红米粥。

  15. 高蛋白冲调糊粉双螺杆挤压技术%Production of High-protein Instant Powder with Twin-screw Extrusion

    唐静; 钱建亚


    以黑豆为主料,红豆、玉米、糙米、糯米为辅料,应用线性规划设计配方,按所得配方:黑豆35%,红豆15%,玉米32%,糯米10%,糙米8%进行单因素试验,探讨机筒温度、水含量和螺杆转速等工艺条件对产品堆积密度、水含量、产品直径、色差、糊化度、吸水性指数和水溶性指数等主要品质指标的影响. 以糊化度和感官评分为指标进行正交试验,获得最佳工艺条件为:物料水含量20g/100g,机筒温度155℃,螺杆转速30Hz.%With black beans as the main material and red beans, corn, brown rice and glutinous rice as auxil-iary materials, a formula was designed by linear programming: black beans 35%, red beans 15%, corn 32%, glutinous rice 10%and brown rice 8%.Carrying out single factor experiment on the formula, the au-thor investigated into the effect of twin-screw extrusion conditions, barrel temperature, moisture content and screw speed on main quality indexes of the product, bulk density, moisture content, expanded diameter, color value, gelatinization, water absorption index and water solubility index.Taking gelatinization value and senso-ry evaluation as the indicators, further optimization of technology was implemented with the orthogonal test to gain the best product.The optimal conditions were: moisture content 20g/100g, extruder barrel temperature 155℃, and screw speed 30Hz.

  16. Glycemic index and glycemic load of selected Chinese traditional foods.

    Chen, Ya-Jun; Sun, Feng-Hua; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Huang, Ya-Jun


    To determine the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) values of Chinese traditional foods in Hong Kong. Fifteen healthy subjects (8 males and 7 females) volunteered to consume either glucose or one of 23 test foods after 10-14 h overnight fast. The blood glucose concentrations were analyzed immediately before, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after food consumption using capillary blood samples. The GI value of each test food was calculated by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC) value for the test food as a percentage of each subject's average IAUC value for the glucose. The GL value of each test food was calculated as the GI value of the food multiplied by the amount of the available carbohydrate in a usual portion size, divided by 100. Among all the 23 Chinese traditional foods tested, 6 of them belonged to low GI foods (Tuna Fish Bun, Egg Tart, Green Bean Dessert, Chinese Herbal Jelly, Fried Rice Vermicelli in Singapore-style, and Spring Roll), 10 of them belonged to moderate GI foods (Baked Barbecued Pork Puff, Fried Fritter, "Mai-Lai" Cake, "Pineapple" Bun, Fried Rice Noodles with Sliced Beef, Barbecue Pork Bun, Moon Cakes, Glutinous Rice Ball, Instant Sweet Milky Bun, and Salted Meat Rice Dumpling), the others belonged to high GI foods (Fried Rice in Yangzhou-Style, Sticky Rice Wrapped in Lotus Leaf, Steamed Glutinous Rice Roll, Jam and Peanut Butter Toast, Plain Steamed Vermicelli Roll, Red Bean Dessert, and Frozen Sweet Milky Bun). The GI and GL values for these Chinese traditional foods will provide some valuable information to both researchers and public on their food preference.

  17. Formulation Optimization of Instant Eight-Treasure Porridge with Fuzzy Mathematics Evaluation%模糊数学评定优化方便八宝粥配方的研究

    唐萍; 胡怀容; 鲜欣言; 张友华; 李明元


    For optimizing produced formula of instant eight-treasure porridge, under condition of basic formula of red bean 5g, mung bean 3g, flower kidney bean 3g, lotus seed 2g and peanut 2g, addition of millet, black rice, slak-ing glutinous rice powder, white granulated sugar as factors on sensory quality, and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation as examining indicators, which were applied to L9 (34) process for optimizing its recipe. Results indicated that addition of millet and black rice had more significantly influenced on fuzzy sensory score (p<0.001), addition of slaking glutinous rice power and white granulated sugar had significantly influenced on it ( p<0.05) . Optimum formulation for instant eight-treasure porridge was millet 25g, black rice 10g, slaking glutinous rice power 1.5g and white granulated sugar 3.5g, under condition of those, fuzzy sensory evaluation score of instant eight-treasure porridge was 95.4.%为优化方便八宝粥的制作配方,在基础配方红小豆5g、绿豆3g、花芸豆3g、莲子2g和花生仁2g条件下,以小米添加量、黑米添加量、熟化糯米粉添加量及白砂糖的添加量为感官质量影响因素,模糊感官综合评定得分为考察指标,运用L9(34)正交试验优化配方设计。结果表明:小米添加量和黑香米添加量与模糊感官评分相关关系差异极显著(p<0.001),熟化糯米粉添加量和白砂糖添加量差异显著(p<0.05);方便八宝粥的最佳配方为:小米添加量为25g、黑香米添加量为10g、熟化糯米粉添加量为1.5g和白砂糖添加量为3.5g,在此工艺配方条件下制作的方便八宝粥的模糊感官评定得分为95.4分。

  18. Screening and Identification of High Saccharifying Rhizopus oryzae%高糖化力米根霉的筛选和鉴定

    和晶晶; 伍时华; 伍保龙; 王琨; 应玲云; 夏杰; 黄翠姬; 易弋


    In order to screen a high saccharifying strain of rhizopus that is suitable for pure culture of glutinous rice wine,19 Rhizopus spp.strains isolated from different solid starters are examined for their high ability to saccharify starch.Rhizopus 8-3M is selected as the functional Rhizopus strain with the highest reducing sugar [(64.4±0.6)g/100 g rice]and glucose production [(48.1±1.4)g/100 g rice]after cultured for 3 days at 28 ℃.Based on morphological test and phylogenetic analysis of 26S rDNA D1/D2 region and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)sequences,8-3M is identified as Rhizopus oryzae.Then the enzyme activity testing and alcoholic fermentation testing produced by R. oryzae 8-3M are studied.The highest amylase activity of crude enzyme solution from R.oryzae 8-3M in YPS broth for 4 days at 28 ℃ is (69.6±1.7)U/mL.R.oryzae 8-3M cultured in cooked glutinous rice for 96 h at 28 ℃ gives (36.8±2.0)U/mL of the highest glucosidase activity and (1.0±0.1)%(V/V)of ethanol content.Because of its ability of starch-degrading and small amount of ethanol fermentation, R.oryzae 8-3M may have a potential application in making defined fungal starter for glutinous rice wine.%为了筛选一株适用于糯米酒纯菌种酿造的高糖化力根霉,以不同酒曲为筛选源分离出19株根霉,经高糖化力测试从中筛选出一株28℃糖化3天产还原糖[(64.4±0.6)g/100 g 米、产葡萄糖(48.1±1.4)g/100 g米]最高的根霉8-3M。通过对形态学和26S rDNA D1/D2区、ITS区序列进行分析鉴定,8-3M为米根霉(Rhizopus oryzae)。酶活力测试和酒精发酵测试表明:R.oryzae 8-3M在YPS液体培养基中28℃培养4天的粗酶液淀粉酶活力最高为(69.6±1.7)U/mL,在糯米饭中28℃培养96 h 的糖化酶活力最高为(36.8±2.0)U/mL、酒精度为(1.0±0.1)%(V/V)。因而R.oryzae 8-3M既能分泌淀粉酶,将绝大部分淀粉转化为可发酵性糖,又能将

  19. 特色挂面的发展现状与趋势%Research status and development trend of characteristic dried noodles

    田晓红; 谭斌; 汪丽萍; 吴娜娜; 刘明; 刘艳香


    挂面是我国的传统主食。近年来,挂面的多样化创新取得了很大进展。营养健康的全麦粉挂面、杂粮挂面、杂豆挂面、果蔬挂面、薯类挂面占据了挂面的中高端市场,具有良好的发展趋势。糯性小麦、糜子、糯米、糯高粱等糯性谷物,藜麦、籽粒苋、薏米等新资源,可溶性大豆多糖、亚麻籽、菊糖等新型食品配料,在特色挂面中都有广阔的应用前景。但是,目前对挂面新产品的营养评价研究还基本处于空白状态,标准的制订还不能满足目前的市场要求,科技创新的力量还不足,特色挂面在挂面市场中的占有率还有待提高。对近十年来特色挂面的发展现状进行综述,指出了未来的发展趋势,为挂面的进一步创新开发提供依据。%Dry noodle was main food in China.In resent years,diversification of noodle has made great progress.Nutrition healthy noodles,such as whole wheat flour noodles,coarse cereals noodles and pulse noodles,fruit and vegetable noodles,tuber noodles,have occupied the middle -high -end market and a good development trend.Glutinous grain(such as waxy wheat,prosomillet,glutinous rice,glutinous sor-ghum),the new resource for food(such as quinoa,grain amaranth,Coix seed)and novel foods ingredi-ents (such as soluble soybean polysaccharide,flaxfeed,synanthrin)have very broad development pros-pects in characteristics dried noodles.However,research on nutritional evaluation of new noodle products is still basically in a state of blank at present.The standard of noodle can not meet the requirements of current market.The power of technology innovation is insufficient.The market share of characteristics noodles awaits to be improved.The current situation and development trend of dry noodles over the past decade was discussed in order to provide reference for the future innovation development of dry noodles.

  20. Study On The Brewing Rice Koji Qing Shuang Type Chinese Rice Wine%用米曲酿制清爽型黄酒的研究



    Using orthogonal test trials of the three levels of the four factors of glutinous rice, water, yeast and koji dosage, The results show that:Koji brewed without wheat Qu taste and no enzyme preparations taste so refreshing, the taste good Semi qing shuang type chinese rice wine is feasible, Qing shuang type chinese rice wine instead of wheat koji koji system, Reduce the use of starter 10%, Improve liquor yield;Feeding glutinous rice 100%, The amount of water is 192.0%, Plus yeast starter 10.6%, The Garmisch Qu amount to 15.4%in the most appropriate; Koji traditional craft brewed Qing shuang type chinese rice wine while exploring the impact of its fermentation. Provide a scientific basis for the Qing shuang type chinese rice wine production process improvements.%运用正交试验法对糯米、水、酒母和米曲加量四个因子三个水平的试验研究。结果表明:用米曲酿制成无麦曲味和无酶制剂味等的清爽、口感好的半干清爽型黄酒是可行的,用米曲代替麦曲制清爽型黄酒,减少用曲量10%,提高出酒率;以投料糯米100%计,则加水量为192.0%,加酒母量为10.6%,加米曲量为15.4%最适宜;同时探索了用米曲传统工艺酿制清爽型黄酒对其发酵的影响规律,为清爽型黄酒生产工艺的改进提供科学依据。

  1. 10种淀粉的理化特性研究%Physicochemical Properties of 10 Plant Starch Pastes

    何晋浙; 张安强; 丁玉庭


    The transparency, retrogradation, freeze - thaw stability and rheological properties of 10 plant starch pastes were studied. Results: Potato starch paste possesses higher transparency than other starch pastes, and exhibits lower retrogradation and viscosity. Adding sugar and salt induces retrogradation differently for different starch paste.The starches from corn, glutinous rice, sorghum and wheat have lower syneresis rate and better freeze -thaw stability than other starches. With increase of shear rate, the starches from sorghum, mung bean, sweet potato, lotus root and cassava exhibit behavior of shear thinning, which is a typical pseudoplastic fluids with thixotropy. Sorghum and mung bean starch pastes have higher viscosity than other. Compared with the starch pastes from sorghum, wheat and glutinous rice, the starch paste from sweet potato, potato, mung bean, lotus root and tapioca have better acid resistance. All the starch pastes trend to increase viscosity along with pH increase, and change little between pH 4.0 ~ 8.0.%通过对10种植物淀粉糊透明度、凝沉性、冻融性、流变性的理化特性研究,结果表明:薯类淀粉相对于其他类的淀粉糊具有更高的透明性、较低的凝沉比和黏度.加糖加盐对不同淀粉糊有不同的凝沉作用.相对于其他淀粉,玉米、糯米、高粱和小麦淀粉的析水率较低,有较好的冻融性.高梁淀粉、绿豆淀粉,马铃薯淀粉、藕粉淀粉、木薯淀粉黏度均随着剪切速率的增加而明显剪切稀化,呈典型的假塑性流体特性和具有触变性.高粱淀粉、绿豆淀粉有较高的黏性.高梁、小麦、糯米淀粉糊不耐酸性,而红薯、马铃薯、绿豆、藕粉、木薯淀粉糊相对来说比较耐酸性.所有类型的淀粉糊随着pH增加黏度有渐增趋势.

  2. Study on stability of peroxidase in Chinese kale leaves%芥蓝叶片过氧化物酶稳定性的研究

    王趁趁; 丁超; 唐蕾; 王海鸥; 毛忠贵


    Peroxidase(POD) has a variety of physiological functions and application.POD in Chinese kale leaves was extracted and stabilizers were added in order to improve the stability of POD.The effects of temperature,pH,sugars(glucose,sucrose,trehalose),polyols(glycerol,sorbitol),salts(calcium chloride,magnesium sulfate),proteins(albumin,glutin) on the stability of POD were studied.Results indicated that the optimal pH of kale POD was 5.6,and the optimal temperature was 55℃.1% glycerol,1g/L sorbitol,1g/L trehalose,1g/L calcium chloride,1g/L magnesium sulfate and 1g/L glutin could enhance the stability of POD.Among them,calcium chloride and glutin were most effective,and the stabilities of POD were improved by 28% and 26% respectively.The addition of stabilizers could improve kale POD stability effectively.%过氧化物酶(POD)具有多种生理功能和应用价值。以提高芥蓝叶片POD稳定性为目的,从幼苗的叶片中提取POD,考察温度、pH对酶活性的影响;以及添加糖类(葡萄糖、蔗糖、海藻糖)、多元醇类(甘油、山梨醇)、无机盐类(氯化钙、硫酸镁)和蛋白质类(白蛋白、明胶)对提高POD稳定性的作用。结果表明:芥蓝POD的最适pH为5.6,最适温度为55℃,体积分数为1%的甘油、1g/L山梨醇、1g/L海藻糖以及1g/L氯化钙、1g/L硫酸镁和1g/L明胶能够提高POD的稳定性,其中氯化钙和明胶的效果最为明显,与对照比较分别提高了28%和26%。添加保护剂能够有效地提高芥蓝POD的稳定性。

  3. La salute del christifidelis celiaco tra dieta gluten free e invalidità delle ostie quibus glutinum ablatum est

    Tiziana Di Iorio


    SOMMARIO: 1. L’Eucarestia: “augusto” strumento per la salute deichristifideles nell’economia della salvezza - 2. La transustanziazione - 3. La malattia celiaca e l’unico rimedio terapeutico: la dieta gluten free - 4. Ilchristifidelis affetto dalla sprue celiaca tra dieta gluten free e pane mere triticeus - 5. Prime disposizioni sul divieto dell’uso di ostie quibus glutinum ablatum est - 6. La particola con “una minima quantità di glutine” - 7. Le vigenti prescrizioni sulla validità della materia eucaristica e l’uso di ostie a basso contenuto di glutine - 8. La normativa sulla comunione dei celiaci tra sospetti e apprezzamenti - 9. Ultime precisazioni sull’uso del pane con poca quantità di glutine - 10. Conclusioni. The health of the christifidelis celiac between diet gluten free and invalidity of the hosts quibus glutinum ablatum est.  ABSTRACT: The communion of celiac has aroused the attention of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith for the direct connection between gluten, cause of the disease, and bread mere triticeus, precious element of the Eucharist. The complex matter concerns the impelling urgency to allow the christifidelis celiac to follow a super stricte gluten free diet, necessary way to the protection of his mental and physical health, without expelling him from the eucharistic banquet, indispensable instrument of salvation of his own soul. Therefore, in the saving mission of the Church called to the salus animarum of every man, without discriminating exclusions, direct specific norms are emanated to harmonize the dogmatic demands, connected to the Eucharestic, and the therapeutic needs related to mental and physical health of the faithful with the disease. Such norms have faced the validity of the eucharistic matter sealing the invalidity of the hosts quibus glutinum ablatum est, with a meaningful evolution, during the time. It stays, nevertheless, the suspect of an exhaustive solution of the question

  4. Breeding and High-Yield Cultivation Technology of Good Quality Cross Combination Waxy Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.ssp.japonic)%优质粳型杂交糯稻新组合选育及高产栽培技术

    王新其; 邱美良; 郭萱昊; 殷丽青; 李茂柏; 卢有林; 沈革志


    为了快速培育高产、优质、抗性强的杂交粳型糯稻新种质,选用综合农艺性状优良的粳型寒丰糯(HFwx),将其与同型的寒丰不育系(HFA)进行育性转换,获得了粳型糯质新不育系寒丰糯(HFwxA),并与自主选育的粳型糯质恢复系配组育成了杂交粳型糯稻新组合(HFwxA/N2R).小区和示范试验结果表明,选育获得的杂交糯稻新组合具有高产、优质、抗性强等特点,具有生产应用前景.杂交糯稻新组合的生育特征特性和高产栽培技术的试验总结,对杂交糯稻的推广应用和产业化发展都具有十分重要的参考意义.%In order to quick breed a new high yield,high quality and strong resistance hybrid glutinous rice germplasm (Oryza sativa L. Ssp. Japonic) ,japonica rice (HFwxB) with good comprehensive agronomic was obtained and translated into HFwxA by using it's the same type of CMS (HFA), a new hybrid glutinous rice germplasm was gotten and named Nuoza 2 (HFwxA/N2R). The small field test and demonstration trials indicated that the new combination of Oryza sativa L. Ssp. Japonic was high-yield, good quality and strong resistance, which could be applied and extended. The high-yield cultivation techniques and breeding characters of the hybrid new combination are very useful for its application and industrialization development.

  5. 烧酒曲中扣囊复膜酵母的分离及鉴定%Isolation and identification of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera isolated from rice wine starter

    应玲云; 伍时华; 赵东玲; 何启刚; 刘光鹏; 黄翠姬; 易弋


    Yeast strain YW12 with amylolytic activity was isolated from rice wine solid starter diluted and spread on starch-degrading plate ( YPS agar) to make pure culture starter for rice wine. Based on morphological, cultural and physiological tests and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, YW12 was identified as Saccharomycopsis fibuligera. Detected with the modified Yoo method, amylase activity of crude enzyme solution from YW12 in YPS broth for 4 days at 28 ℃ was 49. 8 U/mL. The strain YW12 cultured in saccharification mash with 170 g/L glucose from glutinous rice for 3 days at 28 ℃ gave 5. 63 % ( v/v) of ethanol content. Because of its ability of starch-degrading and ethanol fermentation, the strain YW12 maybe have a potential to be used in making defined fungal starter for glutinous rice wine.%为了筛选1株可用于纯菌种酿造糯米酒的酵母菌,将烧酒曲稀释涂布在淀粉培养基(YPS)平板上培养,得到1株产淀粉酶酵母菌(YWI2).通过形态学、生理生化特征和18S rDNA、ITS区序列分析鉴定,YW12为扣囊复膜酵母(Saccharomycopsis fibuligera).YW12在YPS液体培养基中28℃培养4d,用Yoo改良法测其粗酶液的淀粉酶活力为49.8 U/mL.YW12在糯米糖化液(含175 g/L葡萄糖)中28℃发酵3d的酒精度为5.63%(v/v).YW12既能同化淀粉又能发酵产生酒精,具有用于纯菌种酿造糯米酒的潜力.

  6. Study on the Formula of Extruded and Expanding Foods with Compound Rice Flour%复合米粉挤压膨化制品配方的研究

    康竹君; 陈恺; 李焕荣; 马明; 张志兴


    以大米为基料,面粉、糯米粉、玉米淀粉、马铃著淀粉为辅料,采用挤压膨化工艺制作膨化制品,研完了大米粉进料颗粒度、各辅料添加量对膨化制品L值、b值、吸水性、水溶性、容重、硬度等品质指标的影响,筛选出了大米粉最佳进料颗粒度为60目。在此基础上设计正交试验,优选出最佳配方为以大米粉为基准(计为1OO),辅料配比为面粉25%、糯米粉20%、玉米淀粉15%、马铃薯淀粉15%;利用该配方制得产品的L值为59.69、b值为12.96、水溶性指数为30.95%、吸水性指数为5.08g/g、容重为126.72g/L、硬度为617.5g,产品感官品质优良。%Rice flour as the base material, wheat flour, glutinous rice flour, corn starch, potato starch as excipients, the extrusion process was adopted to making extruded products. The effect of rice flour feed particles of various accessories and adding quantity on the L value, b value, water absorption, water soluble, bulk density, and hardness of extruded products was studied. The optimal option was the most suitable mesh for extrusion of the particle size was 60. On base of above results, an orthogonal erperimental design was designed, and the results showed that the optimal formula were the wheat flour content 25%, glutinous rice flour 20%, corn l 5 % and potato starch 15%. Using the formula of products, the L value was 59.69, b value was 12.96, water solubility index was 30.95%, water absorption index was 5.08 g / g, bulk density was 126.72 g/L, hardness was 617.3 g, and product senses were of good quality.

  7. Genetic structure and diversity of indigenous rice (Oryza sativa) varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast India.

    Choudhury, Baharul; Khan, Mohamed Latif; Dayanandan, Selvadurai


    The Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast (NE) India is home to a large number of indigenous rice varieties, which may serve as a valuable genetic resource for future crop improvement to meet the ever-increasing demand for food production. However, these varieties are rapidly being lost due to changes in land-use and agricultural practices, which favor agronomically improved varieties. A detailed understanding of the genetic structure and diversity of indigenous rice varieties is crucial for efficient utilization of rice genetic resources and for developing suitable conservation strategies. To explore the genetic structure and diversity of rice varieties in NE India, we genotyped 300 individuals of 24 indigenous rice varieties representing sali, boro, jum and glutinous types, 5 agronomically improved varieties, and one wild rice species (O. rufipogon) using seven SSR markers. A total of 85 alleles and a very high level of gene diversity (0.776) were detected among the indigenous rice varieties of the region. Considerable level of genetic variation was found within indigenous varieties whereas improved varieties were monoporphic across all loci. The comparison of genetic diversity among different types of rice revealed that sali type possessed the highest gene diversity (0.747) followed by jum (0.627), glutinous (0.602) and boro (0.596) types of indigenous rice varieties, while the lowest diversity was detected in agronomically improved varieties (0.459). The AMOVA results showed that 66% of the variation was distributed among varieties indicating a very high level of genetic differentiation in rice varieties in the region. Two major genetically defined clusters corresponding to indica and japonica groups were detected in rice varieties of the region. Overall, traditionally cultivated indigenous rice varieties in NE India showed high levels of genetic diversity comparable to levels of genetic diversity reported from wild rice populations in various parts of the

  8. Substituting normal and waxy-type whole wheat flour on dough and baking properties.

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong


    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture.

  9. [Effects of applying selenium on selenium allocation, grain yield, and grain quality of two maize cultivars].

    Hao, Yu-Bo; Liu, Hua-Lin; Ci, Xiao-Ke; An, Hong-Ming; Shu-Ting, Dong; Zhang, Ji-Wang; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Bin


    A pot experiment with conventional maize cultivar ZD958 and glutinous maize cultivar JN218 was conducted to study the effects of applying different concentrations (0, 10, 25 and 50 mg x kg(-1)) of selenium (Se) on the Se allocation in plant organs, grain yield, and its quality. At low concentrations (x kg(-1)), Se stimulated maize growth, and increased biomass accumulation and grain yield significantly. At high concentrations (> 25 mg x kg(-1)), Se inhibited maize growth, and decreased dry mass accumulation, grain yield, and its quality. The Se concentration in plant organs was in the order of root > leaf > stalk > sheath. The Se concentrations in plant organs had a positive correlation with the Se concentration in soil. Comparing with ZD958, JN218 could accumulate more Se in natural low-Se environment, but enrich lesser Se in the environment with 10 mg x kg(-1) of Se. Taking the Se accumulation amount in grain and aboveground vegetative organs as the standard for evaluation, JN218 was more available planted on natural low-Se (0.25 mg x kg(-1)) soil or high-Se (25 mg x kg(-1)) soil, while ZD958 was appropriate planted on Se-rich (10 mg x kg(-1)) soil or Se-polluted (50 mg x kg(-1)) soil.

  10. Developing a formula for Tuanfeng water chestnut cakes%团风荸荠糕的研制

    王知龙; 吴鹏


    In this paper ,Tuanfeng water chestnut flour and glutinous rice flour are used as raw materials to make cakes which are aroma‐scented ,moderately sweet ,tasty ,nutritious and healthy .Single factor and orthogonal experiments are conducted to develop a processing technology for making water chestnut cakes .Based on an evaluation of the look and taste of the cakes ,an optimal formula is obtained .The optimal formula requires of a proportion of water chestnut and glu‐tionous rice flours of 1∶2 ,and the contents of water and sugar of 20 mL and 3 g respectively .%以团风荸荠粉和糯米粉为原料研制出香气浓郁、甜度适中,口感优良、具有营养保健作用的荸荠糕。通过单因素实验和正交实验对荸荠糕的加工工艺进行研究,以感官品质评定为依据,得到生产荸荠糕的最优工艺配方,即荸荠粉与糯米粉比例为1∶2,加水量为20mL,加糖量为3g。

  11. Sweet Rice Wine Brewed with Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato%紫心甘薯酿制甜米酒

    汤瑾; 李金生


    紫心甘薯含有大量的花青素,有一定的保健作用.以紫心甘薯为原料与糯米混合糖化发酵酿制的紫薯甜米酒,色泽深红透亮,口味鲜甜,酒香浓郁,该种深红色米酒为米酒类产品增添了新品种,同时为紫心甘薯的综合利用提供了新途径.%Purple-fleshed sweet potato contains plenty of anthocyanin,which promotes health in a certain way.The purple sweet potato rice wine is brewed from the fermented mixture of saccharified purple-fleshed sweet potato and glutinous rice.As the wine has a crystal carmine color,a fresh taste and fragrant odor,the burgundy-colored rice wine has added a new variety to the rice wine family,which provides a new way for the comprehensive use of purple-fleshed sweet potato.

  12. PEMANFAATAN RUMPUT LAUN (Eucheuma cottoni UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KADAR IODIUM DAN SERAT PANGAN PADA SELAI DAN DODOL [The Utilization of Seaweed (Eucheuma cottoni to Increase Iodine and Dietary Fiber Contents of Jam and Dodol

    Made Astawan1


    Full Text Available Indonesia is known as a country rich in species of seaweed. The most important components of seaweed are iodine and dietary fiber. Eucheuma cottoni is one species of seaweed that can be used as a source of iodine and dietary fiber. Iodine deficiency can cause several diseases also known as IDD (Iodine Deficiency Disorder, while deficiency of dietary fiber can cause some degenerative diseases. This research is taken to develop the utilization of Eucheuma cottoni as an ingredient in the making of jam and “dodol” (Indonesian traditional snack food.The best ratio of seaweed and sugar for jam production was 37:63, while the best ratio of seaweed and glutinous flour in making dodol was 5:2. The addition of seaweed on jam and dodol formula increased their iodine and dietary fiber contents. The iodine content of jam and dodol was 17.79 and 19.57µg/g, respectively. The dietary fiber content of jam and dodol was 5.75 and 5.63%, respectively.

  13. Selection Under Domestication: Evidence for a Sweep in the Rice Waxy Genomic Region

    Olsen, Kenneth M.; Caicedo, Ana L.; Polato, Nicholas; McClung, Anna; McCouch, Susan; Purugganan, Michael D.


    Rice (Oryza sativa) was cultivated by Asian Neolithic farmers >11,000 years ago, and different cultures have selected for divergent starch qualities in the rice grain during and after the domestication process. An intron 1 splice donor site mutation of the Waxy gene is responsible for the absence of amylose in glutinous rice varieties. This mutation appears to have also played an important role in the origin of low amylose, nonglutinous temperate japonica rice varieties, which form a primary component of Northeast Asian cuisines. Waxy DNA sequence analyses indicate that the splice donor mutation is prevalent in temperate japonica rice varieties, but rare or absent in tropical japonica, indica, aus, and aromatic varieties. Sequence analysis across a 500-kb genomic region centered on Waxy reveals patterns consistent with a selective sweep in the temperate japonicas associated with the mutation. The size of the selective sweep (>250 kb) indicates very strong selection in this region, with an inferred selection coefficient that is higher than similar estimates from maize domestication genes or wild species. These findings demonstrate that selection pressures associated with crop domestication regimes can exceed by one to two orders of magnitude those observed for genes under even strong selection in natural systems. PMID:16547098

  14. 天然淀粉的超高压糊化压力研究%Study on gelatinization pressure of starch by ultra high pressure processing

    荆晓艳; 杨留枝; 刘延奇


    在悬浮液浓度为5%(w/v),温度为(20±2)℃时,对8种不同淀粉进行高压处理5min使淀粉发生糊化,采用X射线衍射测试技术得到了各种淀粉完全糊化的压力:小麦淀粉和木薯淀粉约为500MPa,玉米淀粉、荸荠淀粉、糯小麦淀粉和糯米淀粉均为550MPa,糯玉米淀粉约为650MPa,马铃薯淀粉为750MPa.%To study the gelatinization pressures of different kinds of starch at atmospheric temperature, eight different starches chosen as raw materials (5% (w/v) ,at (20 ±2) ℃) by different pressure were treated for 5 min,then the relations between pressure and starch gelatinization were analysed by X ray diffraction. Wheat starch and tapioca starch,500 MPa;corn starch,water chestnut starch,waxy wheat starch and glutinous rice starch,550 MPa;waxy maize starch,650 MPa;potato starch,750 MPa.


    Uken S.S. Soetrisno


    Full Text Available High Glycaemic Snack Foods for Nutrition Completion of School Children.School lunch program had been launched since 1996, but there is still some problem especially related to the portion size and portion's nutritional value. This study tried to developed snack foods for school children with portion size of 300 Kcal and 5-7 g protein, and evaluated for their glycaemic index and organoleptic quality. Basic ingredients for food formulation were carbohydrate sources: rice, glutinous rice, cassava, or sago; protein sources: soybean, chick peas, peanut, mungbean or tempe; besides other ingredients such as sugar, coconut oil, grated coconut or coconut milk those were added to increase palatability and energy content. Carbohydrate and protein sources were processed under optimal treatment, which were: soaking at pH 5.8-9.6 and followed by overnight drying and roasting at 75-125o C for 30 minutes. Those treatments were to reduce portion size and to increase the glycaemic index. This study involved adult women and school children to evaluate the portion size and the organoleptic quality. Snack foods in form of smooth or coarse sweet jellied dough had good acceptability. The glycaemic index of 15 snack foods are varied between: 64-99. These indexes are considered as moderate to high. Further study is needed to evaluate the energy effectiveness of the snack foods on maintaining and enhancing the work performances of school children.Keywords: formulated food, nutrients, organoleptic evaluation, glycaemic index.

  16. Effects of Drying Condition and Binding Agent on the Quality Characteristics of Ground Dried-Pork Meat Products.

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Ku, Su-Kyung; Park, Jong-Dae; Kim, Hee-Ju; Jang, Aera; Kim, Young-Boong


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of processing conditions (temperature and time) and binding agent types (glutinous rice flour, potato starch, bean flour, and acorn flour) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ground dried-pork meat product. For this purpose, ground dried-pork meat product was produced by adding several binding agents at different drying temperatures and times. The drying time affected moisture content and water activity in all drying temperature. However, under the similar drying conditions, the extent of drying varied depending on the type of binding agents. The results of sensory evaluation for texture degree and overall acceptability indicated the following: overall, higher drying temperatures and longer drying time heightened the degree of texture, and the overall acceptability varied depending on binding agent type. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics were analyzed to determine any possible correlation. The results revealed a high correlation between moisture content, water activity, shear forces, and sensory evaluation (p<0.01). However, there was no correlation with respect to overall acceptability.

  17. Synovial fluid over the centuries

    P. Marson


    Full Text Available This review deals with the most meaningful historical topics on the study of synovial fluid, by starting from the Greco- Roman Medicine, up to Paracelsus (1493-1541, who introduced the term “synovia” to name the intra-articular humour. Afterwards, some till now unreported historical sources are recorded, e.g., a short text by the Italian XVIII century physician Giambattista Contoli (“Breve Instruzione sopre il Glutine, ò Colla…, 1699”. Then, in keeping with some recent researches, a brief history of arthrocentesis is outlined, by considering the first procedures, which should have been performed in Mexico, during the precolonial period. Moreover, the first chemical analysis of synovial fluid, as carried out by the French chemist Jean-Louis Margueron (1792, and the first modern study on the synovial membrane by Marie-François-Xavier Bichat (1800 are explained. Finally, some XIX century investigations concerning the synovial pharmacodynamics, in particular an Italian one based on the elimination of certain chemical substances through the synovial membrane, are discussed.


    Yavorskiy Andrey Andreevich


    Full Text Available The authors consider up-to-date methods of implementation of requirements stipulated by Federal Law no. 261-FZ that encompasses reduction of heat losses through installation of progressive heat-insulation systems, cement plaster system (CPS, and ventilated facades (VF. Unresolved problems of their efficient application caused by the absence of the all-Russian regulatory documents capable of controlling the processes of their installation and maintenance, as well as the projection of their behaviour, are also considered in the article. The authors argue that professional skills of designers and construction workers responsible for the design and installation of façade systems influence the quality and reliability of design and construction works. Unavailability of unified solutions or regulations serves as the objective reason for the unavailability of the respective database; therefore, there is an urgent need to perform a set of researches to have the unified database compiled. The authors use the example of thermal insulation cement plaster systems designated for facades as results of researches into the quantitative analysis of safety systems. Collected and systematized data that cover defects that have proven to be reasons for failures, as well as potential methods of their prevention are also studied. Data on pilot studies of major factors of influence onto reliability of glutinous adhesion of CPS to the base of a wall are provided.

  19. Aflatoxins in selected Thai commodities.

    Tansakul, Natthasit; Limsuwan, Sasithorn; Böhm, Josef; Hollmann, Manfred; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim


    Aflatoxin (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 were determined in 120 samples of selected Thai commodities including unpolished rice, unpolished glutinous rice, chilli powder, whole dried chilli pods and raw peanut. The mean concentrations of the total AFs for analysed samples were 0.16, 25.43, 14.18, 6.62 and 1.43 µg kg(-1) with positive incidences of 4%, 20%, 97%, 37% and 30%, respectively. Quantitative analysis was performed using HPLC equipped with post-column derivatisation and fluorescence detection. Sample clean-up was carried out using immunoaffinity columns for selective enrichment of AFs. The method was validated by using certified reference material, which showed recoveries over 85%. The limit of detections (LODs) and limit of quantifications (LOQs) were in a range between 0.01-0.11 µg kg(-1) and 0.03-0.38 µg kg(-1), respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that AFs were detectable in different matrices. Chilli powder was found to have the highest level of AFs contamination followed by chilli pods, peanut and rice, respectively. However, among the selected commodities, unpolished rice contained only trace levels of AFB1 and AFB2. With regard to the fact that AFs are a natural contaminant in commodities, this report calls to attention the regular monitoring and effective control of food commodities to prevent health hazards.

  20. The effects of kinds of lumus and the storage period on the quality of patin wadi based on the results of nutrient tests

    Dewi, Indah Sari; Hastuti, Utami Sri; Lestari, Umi; Suwono, Hadi


    Wadi is the processed product of fish, due to local knowledge of the Dayak community, made of fresh fish with salt and lumus. The efforts to increase the quality of wadi as a kind of food were based on local knowledge, and are still ongoing. It is one of the ways to conserve wadi existence in the middle of the modern culture. It is important to add a variety of spices in suitable amounts as the innovation in producing wadi. People process wadi by using lumus made of rice and corn. Lumus gives a special taste and aroma t o wadi, furthermore, the effects of kinds of lumus and their concentrates, and the storage period on the nutrients of wadi are not known yet. This research used patin fish (Pangasius sp), white rice (Oryza sativa), white sticky rice (Oryza sativa var.glutinous), and corn (Zea mays) as the kinds of lumus. Each kind of lumus is mixed with fresh patin fish in different concentrations: 15%, 25% and 35%. The results of nutrient tests include measures of protein, carbohydrate, and fat, and show that patin which has been processed into wadi has more nutrients than fresh patin. The storage period and the varying concentrates of lumus effect the level of nutrients in patin wadi.

  1. Effects of the Varieties and Properties of Starch on Puffing under Microwave Irradiation%淀粉的种类及性质对微波膨化的影响

    张立彦; 芮汉明; 李作为


    研究了5种淀粉物料的微波膨化效果,以及淀粉的性质对微波膨化的影响。结果表明:糯米及马铃薯淀粉等含支链淀粉较多的混合物料的微波膨化产品组织结构好,膨化率较高;淀粉糊化度大于95%后,产品的膨化率将下降;淀粉的老化不利于微波膨化,并随着老化程度的增加,产品的膨化率不断下降。%The effects of varieties and properties of starch on puffing under microwave irradiation were researched. The results showed that glutinous rice, potato starch and the materials that have more amylopectin were suited for microwave puffing. And if the gelatinization degree was more than 95 %, the puffing ratio of the corresponding products was decreased. It found that the retrogradation was not advantageous to puffing with the increasing degree or retrogradation, this disadvantageous effect was enhanced.

  2. 植物乳杆菌发酵对大米淀粉理化性质的影响%Effect of fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum on the physicochemical properties of rice starch

    周显青; 张玉荣; 李亚军


    Early long-grain non-glutinous rice was fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum and then rice starch was extracted by protease protein removal method.The physicochemical properties of rice starch during fermentation were studied.The results showed that the transparency of starch paste after fermentation was reduced and the retrogradation was increased.The solubility of fermented rice starch was increased, while the swelling power was decreased in high-temperature phase, but the polarization cross of rice starch was not affected.%以早籼米为原料,利用植物乳杆菌发酵大米,采用酶法提取大米淀粉,研究发酵对大米淀粉理化性质的影响.结果表明:发酵后淀粉糊的透明度降低,凝沉性增强.淀粉的溶解度增加,而膨润力在高温阶段还有所降低,但发酵未影响大米淀粉的偏光十字.

  3. 烹饪用香菇醪糟汁的研制%Study of Production Process of Mushroom GIutinous Rice Wine for Cooking

    黄和升; 王海平


    Mushroom and glutinous rice as the main materials are fermented to produce the cooking wines,on the basis of single factor experiments,process condition is optimizated through orthogonal test.The results show that the optimal process parameters are as follows: inoculums size of 0.4 g/100 g,fermentation time of 6 days,temperature of 24 ℃ and mushroom of 30 g/100 g.%以香菇和糯米为主要原料,采用发酵法研制烹饪用香菇醪糟汁,通过单因素试验确定香菇添加量、药酒添加量、接种量、发酵温度为影响因素,以感官评分为评价指标,采用正交试验对工艺条件进行优化。结果表明:烹饪用香菇醪糟汁最佳工艺条件为酒曲添加量0.4 g/100 g、发酵时间6天、发酵温度24℃、香菇添加量30 g/100 g。

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on starch viscosity and physicochemical properties of different rice

    Wu Dianxing E-mail:; Shu Qingyao; Wang Zhonghua; Xia Yingwu


    Three types of rice cultivars (indica, japonica and hybrid rice) with similar intermediate apparent amylose content (AAC) as well as early indica rice cultivars with different amounts of AAC were selected for studying the effects of gamma irradiation on starch viscosity, physicochemical properties and starch granule structure. Four major parameters of RVA profile, that was determined by a rapid visco analyser (RVA, Model-3D), peak viscosity, hot pasting viscosity, cool pasting viscosity, and setback viscosity, were considerably decreased with increasing dose levels. Gamma irradiation reduced the amylose contents in the cultivars with low AAC, intermediate AAC, and glutinous rice, but had no effects on the high AAC cultivar. No visible changes in gelatinization temperature were detected after irradiation, but the peak time was reduced with the dose levels. Gel consistency was significantly increased in the tested cultivars, especially in the high AAC indica rice. The starch granules were somewhat deformed by gamma irradiation. These results suggested that it is promising to use gamma irradiation to improve rice eating or cooking quality.

  5. Effect of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf pigment on the thermal, pasting, and textural properties and microstructure characterization of rice starch.

    Xu, Yuan; Fan, Mingcong; Zhou, Sumei; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang


    In this study, the thermal, pasting and gel textural properties of japonica rice starch (JRS) and glutinous rice starch (GRS) fortified with Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf pigment (VBTLP) were investigated. The results showed that VBTLP facilitated the gelatinization of JRS and GRS with earlier onsets of onset temperature (To), peak temperature (Tp), conclusion temperature (Tc), and lower values of gelatinization enthalpy (ΔHg), and retrogradation enthalpy (ΔHr), as the VBTLP level increased. For JRS, VBTLP increased the peak viscosity and breakdown, reduced the final viscosity and setback, but for GRS it increased the peak viscosity, final viscosity, breakdown and setback. VBTLP also reduced the hardness and adhesiveness of the JRS gel. The values of lightness (L(∗)) for JRS and GRS with VBTLP decreased by 47.60 and 49.56%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that VBTLP caused looser matrices in dried JRS and GRS gels which had lower crystallinities compared with the control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular Structure and Physicochemical Properties of Starches from Rice with Different Amylose Contents Resulting from Modification of OsGBSSI Activity.

    Zhang, Changquan; Chen, Shengjie; Ren, Xinyu; Lu, Yan; Liu, Derui; Cai, Xiuling; Li, Qianfeng; Gao, Jiping; Liu, Qiaoquan


    OsGBSSI, encoded by the Waxy (Wx) gene, is the key enzyme in the synthesis of amylose chains. Transgenic rice lines with various GBSSI activities were previously developed via site-directed mutagenesis of the Wx gene in the glutinous cultivar Guanglingxiangnuo (GLXN). In this study, grain morphology, molecular structure, and physicochemical properties were investigated in four transgenic lines with modified OsGBSSI activity and differences in amylose content. A milky opaque appearance was observed in low- and non-amylose rice grains due to air spaces in the starch granules. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) analyses showed that although OsGBSSI can synthesize intermediate and extra-long amylopectin chains, it is mainly responsible for the longer amylose chains. Amylose content was positively correlated with trough viscosity, final viscosity, setback viscosity, pasting time, pasting temperature, and gelatinization temperature and negatively with gel consistency, breakdown viscosity, gelatinization enthalpy, and crystallinity. Overall, the findings suggest that OsGBSSI may be also involved in amylopectin biosynthesis, in turn affecting grain appearance, thermal and pasting properties, and the crystalline structure of starches in the rice endosperm.

  7. 雪菊米酒的研制%Development of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt Rice Wine

    吴晓菊; 金英姿


    With the Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt, glutinous rice as the main raw materials,develop a new rice wine-Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt rice wine. Through single factor experiments and orthogonal test to determine the optimum process conditions were:Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt extract addition 20%,the swet song addition 1.0%, yeast addition 0.08%,fermentation time 5 days. Under the conditions , the Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt rice wine had a delicate taste and unique flavor , and had the functions of nutrintion value and health effects.%以雪菊、糯米为主要原料,研制新型米酒———雪菊米酒。通过单因素试验和正交试验确定最佳工艺条件是:雪菊提取液添加量20%、甜酒曲添加量1.0%、酿酒酵母添加量0.08%、发酵时间5 d。在此条件下制备的雪菊米酒口感细腻、风味独特,兼有雪菊和米酒的营养价值和保健作用。

  8. Guo Nian-Chinese New Year

    Liu Zhiyang


    The 8th day of the 12th lunar monthis called Laba,the celebration of Chinese Lunar Nev Year starts from Laba on which day people enjoy a congee called Laba Zhou made of glutinous rice,dates and various beans.In ancient China,the main activity during Chinese New Year is to beat the ghosts,no matter royal family or common people.On the 23rd day of the same month,people offer sacrifice to the Kitchen God who decides weal and woe for abundant food and clothes.In the meantime,people do the cleaning to prevent diseases.On the 30th day,people paste pictures of door gods and couplets,put the flag out,make and eat dumplings and play fireworks.On the eve,people all stay up late to welcome the New Year.When the daybreak arrives,people visit each other to make New Year wishes.

  9. Optimization of Processing Technology of Compound Dandelion Wine

    Wu Jixuan


    Full Text Available Exploring dandelion food has been the concern in fields of the food processing and pharmaceutical industry for playing exact curative effect on high-fat-diet induced hepatic steatosis and diuretic activity. Few dandelion foods including drinks and microencapsulation were explored and unilateral dandelion wine were less carried out for its bitter flavour. In tis paper, to optimize the processing technologies of fermented compound wine from dandelion root, the orthogonal experiment design method was used to composite dandelion root powder with glutinous rice and schisandra fruit and optimize the fermenting parameters. Four factors with dandelion content, schisandra content, acidity and sugar content were discussed. The acidity factor was firstly confirmed as 7.0 g/L. The other three factors were confirmed by a series experiments as dandelion 0.55%, schisandra 0.5%, sugar 22%. With nine step processing of mixing substrate, stirring with water, cooking rice, amylase saccharification, pectinase hydrolysis, adjusting juice, fermenting with yeast, fitering, aging, sterilization, a light yellow wine with the special taste with flavour of dandelion, schisandra and rice and less bitter, few index were determined as 14.7% alcohol, 6.85 g/L acidity. A dandelion fermented compound wine with suitable flavour and sanitarian function was developed for enriching the dandelion food.

  10. [The effects of an aroma candy on oral Candida albicans colony-forming units (CFU) and oral hygiene states in healthy elderly carrying Candida albicans].

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Ezawa, Kunio; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Matsukawa, Taiji; Kishi, Akinobu; Satou, Nobuya; Abe, Shigeru


    In a preceding paper, we showed that aroma candy containing oligonol, capric acid, and cinnamon (cassia) powder had potent inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of Candida albicans in vitro and protective activity against murine oral candidiasis. In order to assess the effects of this candy (the test candy) on oral C. albicans colony-forming units (CFU) and oral hygiene states, a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover comparative study was performed. Twenty subjects were divided into two groups. One group ingested the test candy in the first 7 days followed by 2 weeks washing-off period, then ingested the placebo candy (control candy) for 7 days. The other group was vice versa. C. albicans CFU in all oral rinse samples from the subjects before and after 7 days ingestion of candy was measured. The degree of oral malodor in all subjects was monitored using a portable measuring instrument. The results showed no statistically significant difference between test-candy group and placebo group for C. albicans CFU. However, C. albicans CFU in test-candy group with>4,000 CFUs was significantly decreased after 7 days ingestion of test-candy (poral malodor in the test-candy group was significantly decreased after 7 days ingestion of test-candy (poral hygiene states indicated that in the test-candy group, oral malodor, glutinous feeling, and refreshing feeling significantly improved in comparison with control-candy group (poral health care of elderly carrying C. albicans.

  11. [Production of acrylamide in agricultural products by cooking].

    Takatsuki, Satoshi; Nemoto, Satoru; Sasaki, Kumiko; Maitani, Tamio


    Some model studies were performed using various agricultural Products, to clarify the relation between cooking conditions and production of acrylamide (AA). Disc chips made from dried mashed potato, corn meal, wheat flour, rice flour (jyohshin-ko) and glutinous rice flour (shiratama-ko), and dried sesame (arai-goma) and dried almond were baked at 120-200 degrees C for 5-20 min, and the samples were analyzed for the levels of AA. When the samples were baked for 10 min, the highest production of AA was observed at 180-200 degrees C. When the samples were baked at 180 degrees C, AA levels in agricultural products except sesame were highest after baking for 10 min. Vegetables and fruit were baked at 220 degrees C for 5 min with a oven, high AA concentrations were found in baked potato, asparagus, pumpkin, eggplant and green gram sprouts. Concentrations of AA in potato, asparagus and green gram sprouts baked after being pre-cooked by microwave irradiation were higher than those in the products baked without being precooked. On the other hand, the precooking by boiling reduced the production of AA by baking to 1/10-1/4. Acrylamide was not found in microwaved or boiled vegetables. High free asparagine concentrations in crops tended to result in high concentrations of AA being produced by heating the agricultural products.

  12. 优质富硒玉米新品种晋糯8号的开发利用%Application and Utilization of Jinnuo 8 Super Quality,Se Rich Maize New Line

    栗利元; 陈永欣; 韩永明; 张璐; 郭盛; 陈琳; 翟广谦


    优质富硒玉米晋糯8号,种子黄色,F1 果穗黑色;生育期短,抗多种病害,适应性广;花丝、穗轴紫红色,穗型美观;糯中带甜,营养丰富,粗蛋白12.43%,粗脂肪3.76%,硒(Se)0.473 mg/mg.其用途较广,鲜穗可直接出售,整穗速冻、真空包装保鲜加工,干籽粒加工利用,花丝、穗轴、秸秆等都有很高的利用价值.%Jinnuo 8, a super quality, Se rich maize new line, has yellow seed, black fl ear, short growth period, multi-disease resistance, wide adaptability; purple serica and cob, pretty ear shape, glutinous sweet taste, rich nutrition, crude protein 12.43%,crude fat 3.76% ,and Se 0.473 mg/kg. Jinnuo 8 could be used in various ways: fresh ear could be marketed directly, or whole ear fast frozen,vacumme package and fresh procession, dry seed grain procession, and serica, cob and stalk all have high use value.

  13. A study of dietetic on the diarrhea

    Tae-Hyeun Baek


    Full Text Available Objectives : This research examined about dietary therapy on the diarrhea based on the literary findings, for clinical treatment and prevention of the diarrhea. Methods : This Research examined on histories, compositions, applications, and effects of the diarrhea on about 100 cases of dietary therapy of the diarrhea from recent Chinese literatures Results : 1. Various vegetables, animals and mineral materials including herbs, grains, vegetables, fruits, food and drink were used for the dietary therapy. 2. Methods of the preparation for use as therapeutics were decoction, pulvis, gruel, medicinal wine, cake, tea, paste and gelatin and etc. 3. Frequently used materials were sesame oil, honey, ear mushroom, shiitake mushroom, kelp, walnut seed, hemp seed, groundnut, glutinous rice, apricot stone, yellow bean peel, radish, potato, spinage, and spring onion. Conclusion : Though dietary therapy for the diarrhea is not based on clinical or experimental data, but through experience. It is mostly based on Yin-Yang and five elements, visceral manifestation, channels and their collateral channels and chinese herbal medicine theories. If we use them properly according to oriental medicine method, it will be effective on treating and preventing the diarrhea.

  14. Physiological and biochemical parameters for evaluation and clustering of rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance at seedling stage

    Sumitahnun Chunthaburee


    Full Text Available Salinity tolerance levels and physiological changes were evaluated for twelve rice cultivars, including four white rice and eight black glutinous rice cultivars, during their seedling stage in response to salinity stress at 100 mM NaCl. All the rice cultivars evaluated showed an apparent decrease in growth characteristics and chlorophyll accumulation under salinity stress. By contrast an increase in proline, hydrogen peroxide, peroxidase (POX activity and anthocyanins were observed for all cultivars. The K+/Na+ ratios evaluated for all rice cultivars were noted to be highly correlated with the salinity scores thus indicating that the K+/Na+ ratio serves as a reliable indicator of salt stress tolerance in rice. Principal component analysis (PCA based on physiological salt tolerance indexes could clearly distinguish rice cultivars into 4 salt tolerance clusters. Noteworthy, in comparison to the salt-sensitive ones, rice cultivars that possessed higher degrees of salt tolerance displayed more enhanced activity of catalase (CAT, a smaller increase in anthocyanin, hydrogen peroxide and proline content but a smaller drop in the K+/Na+ ratio and chlorophyll accumulation.

  15. Production of angkak through co-culture of Monascus purpureus and Monascus ruber

    Bibhu Prasad Panda


    Full Text Available Angkak (red mold rice, red yeast rice, Chinese red rice is a traditional Chinese medicine produced by solid-state fermentation of cooked non-glutinous rice with Monascus species. The secondary metabolite of Monascus species, monacolin K /lovastatin, has been proven to lower blood lipid levels. In this study, a co-culture of Monascus purpureus MTCC 369 and Monascus ruber MTCC 1880 was used for angkak production. Four medium parameters screened by Plackett-Burman design were optimized by response surface methodology for highest lovastatin production in angkak during solid-state fermentation by the co-culture. Maximum lovastatin production of 2.84 mg g-1 was predicted in solid medium containing 20 g rice and 40 ml liquid nutrients medium (malt extract 9.68 g l-1, dextrose 38.90 g l-1, MnSO4.H2O 1.96 g l-1, and MgSO4.7H2O 0.730 g l-1 by point prediction tool of Design Expert 7.1 software (Statease Inc. USA.

  16. Dietary Pattern and Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Adults

    W. Aekplakorn


    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the dietary patterns of middle-aged Thais and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Methods. The Thai National Health Examination Survey IV data of 5,872 participants aged ≥30–59 years were used. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis and their associations with Mets were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The first, meat pattern, was characterized by a high intake of red meat, processed meat, and fried food. The second, healthy pattern, equated to a high intake of beans, vegetables, wheat, and dairy products. The third, high carbohydrate pattern, had a high intake of glutinous rice, fermented fish, chili paste, and bamboo shoots. Respondents with a healthy pattern were more likely to be female, higher educated, and urban residents. The carbohydrate pattern was more common in the northeast and rural areas. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of carbohydrate pattern was associated with MetS (adjusted odds ratio: 1.82; 95% CI 1.31, 2.55 in men and 1.60; 95% CI 1.24, 2.08 in women, particularly among those with a low level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA. Conclusion. The carbohydrate pattern with low level of LTPA increased the odds of MetS.

  17. Synergistic effect of electrolyzed water and citric Acid against bacillus cereus cells and spores on cereal grains.

    Park, Young Bae; Guo, Jin Yong; Rahman, S M E; Ahn, Juhee; Oh, Deog-Hwan


    The effects of acidic electrolyzed water (AcEW), alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW), 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), and 1% citric acid (CA) alone, and combinations of AcEW with 1% CA (AcEW + CA) and AlEW with 1% CA (AlEW + CA) against Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and spores was evaluated as a function of temperature (25, 30, 40, 50, or 60 degrees C) and dipping time (3 or 6 h). A 3-strain cocktail of Bacillus cereus cells or spores of approximately 10(7) CFU/g was inoculated in various cereal grains (brown rice, Job's tear rice, glutinous rice, and barley rice). B. cereus vegetative cells and spores were more rapidly inactivated at 40 degrees C than at 25 degrees C. Regardless of the dipping time, all treatments reduced the numbers of B. cereus vegetative cells and spore by more than 1 log CFU/g, except the deionized water (DIW), which showed approximately 0.7 log reduction. The reductions of B. cereus cells increased with increasing dipping temperature (25 to 60 degrees C). B. cereus vegetative cells were much more sensitive to the combined treatments than spores. The effectiveness of the combined electrolyzed water (EW) and 1% CA was considerable in inhibiting B. cereus on cereal grains. The application of combined EW and CA for controlling B. cereus cells and spores on cereal grains has not been previously reported. Therefore, the synergistic effect of EW and CA may provide a valuable insight on reducing foodborne pathogens on fruits, vegetables, and cereal grains.

  18. Study on Response Surface Optimization Purple Potato Rice Wine Fermentation%响应面法优化紫薯糯米酒发酵研究



    In this experiment, we partially replaced purple sweet potato with glutinous rice, mixed them together and fermented, through which a new and nutritious rice wine with a unique color could be created. Eveluated with a standard of sweetness, acidity, alcohol content of fermented sweet wine as well as sensory index, Box-Behnken experiment to determine the best formula for the added amount of purple potato (X1) 25%by single factor and response surface, add the amount of koji (X2) was 1.26%and fermentation time (X3) for 70 h. At this point the wine has a rich, sweet, sweet and refreshing taste of alcohol, nutrient-rich.%将紫薯替代部分糯米混合后,经发酵制得一种具有独特色泽、营养价值高的新型甜米酒。以发酵后甜酒的糖度,酸度,酒精度及感官指标为标准,通过单因素和响应面中Box-Behnken试验确定最佳配方为紫薯添加量(X1)25%,酒曲添加量(X2)为1.26%和发酵时间(X3)为70 h。此时的米酒具有浓郁的甜香,口感醇甜爽口,营养丰富。

  19. Processing technology of Blechnum orientale L.healthy wine%乌毛蕨保健酒工艺研究

    伍国明; 伍芳华; 李梅


    Blechnum orientate L. healthy wine was developed by fermentation using the whole wild plant of Blechnum orientate L. and glutinous rice as its main materials. The dosage of Blechnum orientate L. used in fermentation was studied, as well as the technology of main fermentation. The highest sensory quality of wine was obtained when 7.0% Blechnum orientate L. was used for saccharification. The optimum conditions of main fermentation were determined as follows: yellow wine brewing yeast (YWBY) 0.12%, the ratio of material to water 1:1.4, fermentation temperature 25^ and fermentation time 6d. Then the Blechnum orientate L. healthy wine was further brewed by post fermentation, and treated by compression, clarifying and sterilization. It is rich in flavonoids for some medical effects. Besides, it is excellent in color, flavor and tastes with distinctive fern wine style.%以野生药用植物乌毛蕨全草和糯米为主要原料、采用发酵方法酿造乌毛蕨保健酒.研究了乌毛蕨草粉的用量和主发酵工艺条件.结果表明,添加7.0%乌毛蕨全草粉糖化发酵的成品酒感官质量最好.优化的主发酵工艺条件为0.12%YWBY接种量、料水比1∶1.4,于25℃下发酵6d.再经后发酵、压榨、澄清、灭菌等步骤,研制出富含黄酮类化合物而具有特殊药用功效,且色、香、味俱佳与具有独特蕨酒风格的乌毛蕨保健酒.

  20. Biological aspects on the cultures of the entomophthoralean fungus Pandora delphacis grown on broomcorn millets

    FENG Mingguang; LIANG Yong


    A novel method was developed to use glutinous broomcorn millets (Panicum miliaceum L.) as solid substrate to make cultures of the entomophthoralean fungus Pandora delphacis specifically pathogenic to planthoppers, leafhoppers and aphids. Steamed millets with water content of 45% were inoculated with a liquid culture of P. delphacis at a ratio of 20% (v/w) and then incubated at 25℃ and L:D 12:12. The millets cultured for 3-17 d exhibited high potential for conidialproduction. The 5-d-old millet culture sporulated most abundantly, discharging up to 17.12 (±1.31) × 104 conidia/ millet. The cultures incubated for 7-11 d also had a satisfactory sporulation capability, yielding 13.00-13.90 × 104 conidia/millet. Compared to 2.32 (±0.34) × 104 conidia discharged from each of Myzus persicae adults killed by P. delphacis and a ≤60-h duration of sporulation, eachof the millets cultured for 5-11 d produced 5.6-7.4 times more conidia with an over doubled duration for conidial discharge (144 h). Among 106 M. persicae adults exposed to the shower of conidia discharged from the cultured millets, a total mortality of 69.8% caused by P. delphacis infection was observed within 7 d after exposure, but no death was attributed to the fungal infection in the aphids unexposed. The results indicate that the millet cultures of P. delphacis are biologically similar to aphid cadavers killed by the same fungus. Due to the superiority of the cultured millets to the cadavers in sporulation potential and duration, the method for making cultures of P. delphacis on the broomcorn millets is highly recommended for use in study of entomophthoralean fungi for microbial control. This is the first report on the success of the solid culture of Pandora species on cereals.

  1. Establishment of a novel corneal endothelial cell line from domestic rabbit, Oryctolagus curiculus.

    Fan, TingJun; Zhao, Jun; Fu, YongFeng; Cong, RiShan; Guo, RuiChao; Liu, WanShun; Han, BaoQin; Yu, QiuTao; Wang, Jing


    To develop a rabbit corneal endothelial (RCE) cell line, in vitro culture of RCE cells was initiated from Oryctolagus curiculus corneas and a novel RCE cell line was established in this study. To initiate the primary culture of RCE cells, corneas from rabbit eyes were sliced and attached into glutin-coated wells with endothelial cell surface down. After being cultured at a time-gradient interval from 48 to 6 h, the corneal slices were detached and reattached into new wells, respectively. Cells in the wells containing only a pure population of RCE cells were collected and cultured in 20% FBS-DMEM/F12 medium containing chondroitin sulfate, ocular extract, epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), carboxymethyl-chitosan, N-acetylglucosamine hydrochloride, glucosamine hydrochloride, culture medium of rabbit corneal stromal cells and oxidation-degradation products of chondroitin sulfate at 37 degrees C, 5% CO(2). The cultured RCE cells, in quadrangle and polygonal shapes, proliferated to confluence 3 weeks later. During the subsequent subculture, the shape of RCE cells changed gradually from polygonal to more fibroblastic. A novel RCE cell line, growing at a steady rate, with a population doubling time of 53.8 h, has been established and subcultured to passage 67. Chromosome analysis showed that the RCE cells exhibited chromosomal aneuploidy with the modal chromosome number of 44. The results of immuno-cytochemical staining with neuron specific enolase (NSE) confirmed that the RCE cells were in neuroectodermal origin. Combined with the results of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment and endothelial cell morphology recovery, it can be concluded that the cell line established here is an RCE cell line. This RCE cell line may serve as a useful tool in theoretical researches of mammalian corneal endothelial cells, and may also have potential application in artificial corneal endothelium development.

  2. 糯小麦种质资源宁 W0065的评价与利用%Evaluation and Utilization of the Waxy Wheat Germplasm Ning W0065

    欧俊梅; 王治斌; 陶军; 任勇; 周强; 雷加容


    Aiming at evaluating the practical utility of the waxy wheat line Ning W0065,the current research assessed its agronomic traits and disease resistance,and also determined its amylopectin content.Relative to the control,Ning W0065 showed greater plant height,smaller spike length,lower 1000 -kernel weight,later maturity,and higher susceptibility to powdery mildew.Thus this line cannot be directly used for wheat production in Sichuan Province.On the other side,Ning W0065 exhibited some good characters:greater numbers of tiller,effective spike per plant,and being purely glutinous.Hence,it could serve as an excellent germplasm re-source for wheat breeding.%为了解引进的糯小麦新品系宁 W0065的利用价值,对其农艺性状、抗病性和支链淀粉含量进行了分析鉴定。研究结果表明,宁 W0065具有株高偏高、穗长偏短、千粒重偏轻、生育期偏晚及易感白粉病等缺点,不能在四川生产上直接利用。不过,宁 W0065具有分蘖力强、成穗率高及纯糯的特点,可作为优异种质资源加以利用。

  3. Effects of human immunodeficiency virus and metabolic complications on myocardial nutrient metabolism, blood flow, and oxygen consumption: a cross-sectional analysis

    Cade W Todd


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the general population, peripheral metabolic complications (MC increase the risk for left ventricular dysfunction. Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV and combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART are associated with MC, left ventricular dysfunction, and a higher incidence of cardiovascular events than the general population. We examined whether myocardial nutrient metabolism and left ventricular dysfunction are related to one another and worse in HIV infected men treated with cART vs. HIV-negative men with or without MC. Methods Prospective, cross-sectional study of myocardial glucose and fatty acid metabolism and left ventricular function in HIV+ and HIV-negative men with and without MC. Myocardial glucose utilization (GLUT, and fatty acid oxidation and utilization rates were quantified using 11C-glucose and 11C-palmitate and myocardial positron emission tomography (PET imaging in four groups of men: 23 HIV+ men with MC+ (HIV+/MC+, 42 ± 6 yrs, 15 HIV+ men without MC (HIV+/MC-, 41 ± 6 yrs, 9 HIV-negative men with MC (HIV-/MC+, 33 ± 5 yrs, and 22 HIV-negative men without MC (HIV-/MC-, 25 ± 6 yrs. Left ventricular function parameters were quantified using echocardiography. Results Myocardial glucose utilization was similar among groups, however when normalized to fasting plasma insulin concentration (GLUT/INS was lower (p Conclusion Men with metabolic complications, irrespective of HIV infection, had lower basal myocardial glucose utilization rates per unit insulin that were related to left ventricular diastolic impairments, indicating that well-controlled HIV infection is not an independent risk factor for blunted myocardial glucose utilization per unit of insulin. Trial Registration NIH Clinical Trials NCT00656851

  4. Experimental study on process used for producing Bifidobacterium coconut rice wine%双歧椰汁米酒实验室生产工艺的研究

    朱辉; 张德纯; 刘明方; 王春耀; 刘胜男


    目的 以优质糯米和椰汁为原料,通过双歧杆菌和酿酒酵母共生发酵研制出一种功能性的米酒.方法 采用正交试验设计的方法得到了双歧杆菌和酿酒酵母最佳的共生发酵条件.结果 最佳的共生发酵条件是:发酵温度35℃、双歧杆菌接种量3%、酿酒酵母接种量2%、发酵时间16 h,再通过添加30%酿酒酵母单独发酵产物之后,研制出双歧椰汁米酒.结论 采用此工艺生产的功能性米酒既有椰汁的果香味又有米酒的醇香味,口感柔和,易于接受.%Objective Using high quality glutinous rice and coconut juice as raw material to develop a functional rice wine through Bifidobacterium and 5. Cerevisiae symbiotic fermentation. Method We selected orthogonal design method to get optimal symbiotic fermentation conditions of Bifidobacterium and S. cerevisiae and then added separate fermented pro-ducte by S. cerevisiae, eventually getting the process used for producing Bifidobacterium coconut rice wine. Result The best symbiotic fermentation conditions were as follows: fermentation temperature 35 t, inoculation amount of Bifidobacterium 3% , inoculation amount of 5. Cerevisiae 2% , and fermentation time 16 h. Then 30% fermented product, by S. cerevisiae alone was added to get Bifidobacterium coconut juice. Conclusion This functional rice wine produced by the said process has not only coconut juice fruit fragrance, but also rice wine's mellow taste, which tastes soft and easily acceqtable.

  5. Two-step identification of taro (Colocasia esculenta cv. Xinmaoyu) using specific psbE-petL and simple sequence repeat-sequence characterized amplified regions (SSR-SCAR) markers.

    Dai, H J; Zhang, Y M; Sun, X Q; Xue, J Y; Li, M M; Cao, M X; Shen, X L; Hang, Y Y


    Colocasia esculenta cv. Xinmaoyu is an eddoe-type taro cultivar local to Taicang, Jiangsu Province, China; it is characterized by its pure flavor, glutinous texture, and high nutritional value. Due to its excellent qualities, the Trademark Office of the State Administration for Industry and Commerce of the People's Republic of China awarded Xinmaoyu, a geographical indication certification in 2014. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop an efficient molecular marker for the specific identification of this cultivar, which would greatly facilitate the conservation and utilization of this unique germplasm resource. In the present study, amplifying the psbE-petL fragment from two dasheen-type and seven eddoe-type taro cultivars revealed three conserved insertions/deletions among sequences from the two taro types. Based on these sequence differences, a pair of site-specific primers was designed targeting the psbE-petL sequence from the dasheen-type taro, which specifically amplified a DNA band in all individuals from cultivars of this type, but not in those from the seven eddoe-type cultivars. To discriminate Xinmaoyu from the other eddoe-type taro cultivars, a pair of simple sequence repeat-sequence characterized amplified region (SSR-SCAR) primers was further developed to specifically amplify a DNA band from all Xinmaoyu individuals, but not from individuals of other eddoe-type taro cultivars. In conclusion, through a two-step-screening procedure using psbE-petL and SSR-SCAR markers, we developed a pair of primers that could specifically discriminate Xinmaoyu from nine taro cultivars commonly cultivated in Jiangsu Province and Fujian Province.

  6. Simultaneous determination of triazine herbicides in rice by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution and high mass accuracy hybrid linear ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Mou, Ren-Xiang; Chen, Ming-Xue; Cao, Zhao-Yun; Zhu, Zhi-Wei


    A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 triazine herbicides (cyanazine, simazine, simetryn, metribuzin, atrazine, ametryn, terbuthylazine, prometryn, terbutryn, and dimethametryn) in rice samples by high resolution and high mass accuracy hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. After extraction with acetonitrile and evaporation, the herbicides were redissolved in n-hexane and purified on a Florisil solid-phase extraction column. All compounds were separated within 12 min, producing more than 11 data points for each herbicide and high mass accuracy quantified ions which the mass errors of absolute value were less than 1.9 ppm in pure solution and 2.1 ppm in the matrix-matched standards solution. The method was validated in terms of the limits of detection and the limits of quantification. The linearity was satisfactory, with a correlation coefficient of >0.9975. Precision and recovery studies were evaluated at three concentration levels for Japonica, Indica, and Glutinous rice matrix. The mean recoveries obtained for all analytes in spiked Xiushui 03, Liangyoupeijiu, and Taihunuo rice samples were 83.3-99.0%, 82.0-99.7%, and 84.2-99.4%, respectively, with relative standard deviation in range 1.7-10.6%, 1.2-10.7%, and 1.9-11.6% for spiked rice samples, respectively. The intra-day precision (n=5) for the 10 herbicides in rice samples spiked at an intermediate level was between 2.8% and 7.9%, and the inter-day precision over 10 days (n=10) was between 5.5% and 15.9%.

  7. Clarification effects of different clarifier on Papaya and seedless orange juice%不同澄清剂对番木瓜柑桔果汁澄清效果的影响

    蒋侬辉; 钟云; 林秉斌


    以番木瓜和无核椪柑为主要原料.对番木瓜柑桔复合澄清果汁生产工艺进行了研究,采用正交试验法获得混合果汁的最优配方:番木瓜原汁20%、柑橘原汁20%、蔗糖8%、柠檬酸0.08%.试验表明,采用0.03%的果胶酶能明显提高果汁的出汁率和澄清度,采用1.0 g/L壳聚糖和2.0 g/L的明胶也有较好的澄清效果,3种澄清方法中以果胶酶的澄清效果最好.%A new tape of compound and clarified juice using papaya and seedless orange as the main material was made in this paper, the optimum process technics and the best reeipe of the beverage was screened out by an orthogonal test, and the best recipe was: papaya juice 20%, orange juice 20%, sugar 8%, citric aeid 0.08%. A content of 0.03% pectase improved the transmittance, natural layered rate and juice yield of compound juice, and the other clarifier such as 1.0 g/L ehitosan and 2.0 g/L glutin also have a good clarification effect ,but clarification with peetase is the best among them.

  8. Variation of Bacterial Community Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Sole-Cropped versus Intercropped Wheat Field after Harvest.

    Zhenping Yang

    Full Text Available As the major crops in north China, spring crops are usually planted from April through May every spring and harvested in fall. Wheat is also a very common crop traditionally planted in fall or spring and harvested in summer year by year. This continuous cropping system exhibited the disadvantages of reducing the fertility of soil through decreasing microbial diversity. Thus, management of microbial diversity in the rhizosphere plays a vital role in sustainable crop production. In this study, ten common spring crops in north China were chosen sole-cropped and four were chosen intercropped with peanut in wheat fields after harvest. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and DNA sequencing of one 16S rDNA fragment were used to analyze the bacterial diversity and species identification. DGGE profiles showed the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil samples varied among various crops under different cropping systems, more diverse under intercropping system than under sole-cropping. Some intercropping-specific bands in DGGE profiles suggested that several bacterial species were stimulated by intercropping systems specifically. Furthermore, the identification of these dominant and functional bacteria by DNA sequencing indicated that intercropping systems are more beneficial to improve soil fertility. Compared to intercropping systems, we also observed changes in microbial community of rhizosphere soil under sole-crops. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure in spring crops showed a strong crop species-specific pattern. More importantly, Empedobacter brevis, a typical plant pathogen, was only found in the carrot rhizosphere, suggesting carrot should be sown prudently. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that crop species and cropping systems had significant effects on bacterial community diversity in the rhizosphere soils. We strongly suggest sorghum, glutinous millet and buckwheat could be taken into account as intercropping

  9. Variation of Bacterial Community Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Sole-Cropped versus Intercropped Wheat Field after Harvest.

    Yang, Zhenping; Yang, Wenping; Li, Shengcai; Hao, Jiaomin; Su, Zhifeng; Sun, Min; Gao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Chunlai


    As the major crops in north China, spring crops are usually planted from April through May every spring and harvested in fall. Wheat is also a very common crop traditionally planted in fall or spring and harvested in summer year by year. This continuous cropping system exhibited the disadvantages of reducing the fertility of soil through decreasing microbial diversity. Thus, management of microbial diversity in the rhizosphere plays a vital role in sustainable crop production. In this study, ten common spring crops in north China were chosen sole-cropped and four were chosen intercropped with peanut in wheat fields after harvest. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing of one 16S rDNA fragment were used to analyze the bacterial diversity and species identification. DGGE profiles showed the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil samples varied among various crops under different cropping systems, more diverse under intercropping system than under sole-cropping. Some intercropping-specific bands in DGGE profiles suggested that several bacterial species were stimulated by intercropping systems specifically. Furthermore, the identification of these dominant and functional bacteria by DNA sequencing indicated that intercropping systems are more beneficial to improve soil fertility. Compared to intercropping systems, we also observed changes in microbial community of rhizosphere soil under sole-crops. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure in spring crops showed a strong crop species-specific pattern. More importantly, Empedobacter brevis, a typical plant pathogen, was only found in the carrot rhizosphere, suggesting carrot should be sown prudently. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that crop species and cropping systems had significant effects on bacterial community diversity in the rhizosphere soils. We strongly suggest sorghum, glutinous millet and buckwheat could be taken into account as intercropping crops with peanut

  10. Genetic Polymorphism of Wx Gene and Its Correlation with Main Grain Quality Characteristics in Rice

    Ying-xiu WAN


    Full Text Available The allelic variation of the Wx gene in 50 non-glutinous rice varieties (lines was analyzed by using the microsatellite marker RM190 [for (CTn simple sequence repeat (SSR] and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence(CAPS marker 484/W2R-ACC?[for G/T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP]. Six homozygous (CTn types, namely (CT20, (CT19, (CT18, (CT17, (CT16, (CT14, (CT11 and (CT10, and a heterozygous genotype (CT11/(CT18 were detected for RM190, of which (CT11 and (CT18 were predominant. Two homozygous Wx genotypes (G/G and T/T and one heterozygous (G/T were detected using 484/W2R-ACC?. Most of the materials with a RM190 of (CT11 were G/G for SNP of 484/W2R-ACC I, while T/T for SNP was predominantly appeared in materials with (CT18. The materials tested could be grouped into 10 categories using the two markers together. Results indicated that 59.3% variance of amylose content was attributed to the polymorphism of Wx gene revealed by RM190, while 56.1% and 24.6% of the variances in amylose content and gel consistency were respectively to the polymorphism of Wx gene revealed by 484/W2R-ACC I. Furthermore, with both SSR and CAPS markers, 72.4% of the variance in amylose content could be explained. In addition, the application prospects of the two markers in breeding were also discussed.

  11. Study on production process of several cereals drinks fermented by probiotics%几种益生菌发酵谷物饮料制作工艺研究

    骆超超; 卢志勇; 于微; 王青竹; 高学军


    Cereals drink fermented by probiotics maintains the original nutritional value of cereals, also has the beneficial effect of probiotic fermented products. It has good flavor,unique taste and significant effects of nutrition and health care to human body. Rice wine was produced with glutinous rice fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae; acidity drink and opypeptide drink were produced with com juice respectively fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lacbobacillus bulgaricus. The probiotics were screened from fermented cereals and the inoculation-count of the probiotics was 1.5%. The conditions of fermented as follows: the fermented temperature and time of rice wine were 30 ℃ and 72 h, and these conditions of acidity drink and opypeptide drink both were 37 ℃ and 48 h. Mouthfeel, colour and fiavour of those drinks were all good.%益生菌发酵谷物饮料既保存了谷物原有的营养价值,又具有益生茵发酵制品的有益作用,风味良好、口感独特,对人体有显著的营养保健作用.用1.5%的量接种从发酵谷物中筛选获得的酿酒酵母、嗜酸乳杆菌、保加利亚乳杆菌分别发酵糯米制作米酒、发酵玉米汁制作酸性饮料、多肽饮料,其发酵条件分别为:米酒发酵温度30℃,发酵时间72h,酸性饮料与多肽饮料均为37℃和48 h,所得产品口感、色泽、风味俱佳.

  12. Establishment of a novel corneal endothelial cell line from domestic rabbit, Oryctolagus curiculus


    To develop a rabbit corneal endothelial (RCE) cell line, in vitro culture of RCE cells was initiated from Oryctolagus curiculus corneas and a novel RCE cell line was established in this study. To initiate the primary culture of RCE cells, corneas from rabbit eyes were sliced and attached into glutin-coated wells with endothelial cell surface down. After being cultured at a time-gradient interval from 48 to 6 h, the corneal slices were detached and reattached into new wells, respectively. Cells in the wells containing only a pure population of RCE cells were collected and cultured in 20% FBS-DMEM/F12 medium con- taining chondroitin sulfate, ocular extract, epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), carboxymethyl-chitosan, N-acetylglucosamine hydrochloride, glucosamine hydrochloride, culture medium of rabbit corneal stromal cells and oxidation-degradation products of chondroitin sul- fate at 37℃, 5% CO2. The cultured RCE cells, in quadrangle and polygonal shapes, proliferated to con- fluence 3 weeks later. During the subsequent subculture, the shape of RCE cells changed gradually from polygonal to more fibroblastic. A novel RCE cell line, growing at a steady rate, with a population doubling time of 53.8 h, has been established and subcultured to passage 67. Chromosome analysis showed that the RCE cells exhibited chromosomal aneuploidy with the modal chromosome number of 44. The results of immuno-cytochemical staining with neuron specific enolase (NSE) confirmed that the RCE cells were in neuroectodermal origin. Combined with the results of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment and endothelial cell morphology recovery, it can be concluded that the cell line established here is an RCE cell line. This RCE cell line may serve as a useful tool in theoretical re- searches of mammalian corneal endothelial cells, and may also have potential application in artificial corneal endothelium development.

  13. Delimitation and phylogeny of Aletris (Nartheciaceae) with implications for perianth evolution

    Yi-Min ZHAO; Wei WANG; Shu-Ren ZHANG


    Aletris,containing approximately 21 species,is the largest genus in Nartheciaceae,and is disjunctively distributed in eastern Asia and eastern North America.Its delimitation has been controversial because it is uncertain whether Metanarthecium should be included in the genus.Although there are a few molecular phylogenetic studies on Aletris,the interspecific relationships within the genus have never been evaluated in a phylogenetic context.Here we used two cpDNA loci,matK and trnL-F,to delimitate A letris and discuss the phylogeny within the genus.Phylogenetic analyses showed Metanarthecium might be distantly related to Aletris.This is also supported by morphological,palynological,cytological,and phytochemical data.Therefore,Metanarthecium should be excluded from Aletris.Within Aletris,there are two major clades:A.farinosa and A.lutea of eastern North America and A.glabra of eastern Asia form clade A; and the remaining Asian species form clade B.The Asian clade includes three subclades:subclade Ⅰ (two varieties ofA.pauciflora,and A.glandulifera and A.megalantha),subclade Ⅱ (three samples of A.laxiflora),and subclade Ⅲ (all other sampled Asian species).Based on phylogenetic relationships,A.pauciflora var.khasiana deserves a specific status,and A.gracilipes,formerly a synonym ofA.laxiflora,should be reinstated.The reconstruction of the perianth evolution indicates that perianth connate halfway and glabrous on abaxial surface are plesiomorphic for Aletris and Nartheciaceae.Farinose-glutinous perianth is a diagnostic character for clade A.

  14. Establishment of a novel corneal endothelial cell line from domestic rabbit, Oryctolagus curiculus

    FAN TingJun; ZHAO Jun; FU YongFeng; CONG RiShan; GUO RuiChao; LIU WanShun; HAN BaoQin; YU QiuTao; WANG Jing


    To develop a rabbit corneal endothelial (RCE) cell line, in vitro culture of RCE cells was initiated from Oryctolagus curiculus corneas and a novel RCE cell line was established in this study. To initiate the primary culture of RCE cells, corneas from rabbit eyes were sliced and attached into glutin-coated wells with endothelial cell surface down. After being cultured at a time-gradient interval from 48 to 6 h, the corneal slices were detached and reattached into new wells, respectively. Cells in the wells containing only a pure population of RCE cells were collected and cultured in 20% FBS-DMEM/F12 medium containing chondroitin sulfate, ocular extract, epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), carboxymethyl-chitosan, N-acetylglucosamine hydrochloride, glucosamine hydrochloride,culture medium of rabbit corneal stromal cells and oxidation-degradation products of chondroitin sulfate at 37℃, 5% CO2. The cultured RCE cells, in quadrangle and polygonal shapes, proliferated to confluence 3 weeks later. During the subsequent subculture, the shape of RCE cells changed gradually from polygonal to more fibroblastic. A novel RCE cell line, growing at a steady rate, with a population doubling time of 53.8 h, has been established and subcultured to passage 67. Chromosome analysis showed that the RCE cells exhibited chromosomal aneuploidy with the modal chromosome number of 44. The results of immuno-cytochemical staining with neuron specific enolase (NSE) confirmed that the RCE cells were in neuroectodermal origin. Combined with the results of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment and endothelial cell morphology recovery, it can be concluded that the cell line established here is an RCE cell line. This RCE cell line may serve as a useful tool in theoretical researches of mammalian corneal endothelial cells, and may also have potential application in artificial corneal endothelium development.

  15. Ecological Control Effects on Pest, Pathogen and Weed of Multiple Species Coexistence in Paddy Fields in Traditional Agricultural Regions%传统农业区稻田多个物种共存对病虫草害的生态控制效应——以贵州省从江县为例

    张丹; 成升魁; 杨海龙; 何露; 焦雯珺; 刘珊; 闵庆文


    Agriculture has flourished in China since time immemorial. One of the legacies of the time-honored agricultural development in China has been varied farming practices that adapt well to different natural conditions. Value of these traditional practices or models is rediscovered and cherished today when the so-called modem agriculture fails to be sustainable due to a variety of ecological and health problems and risks introduced by modern systems. Among plenty of traditional agricultural practices or models, some ecological principles were revealed, but significant philosophies of other traditional agricultural systems remain unknown. However, the area of traditional agriculture in China is rapidly shrinking. To that end, it is critical to investigating traditional agricultural practices and models. Understanding the role of agrobiodiversity as a contributor to sustainable agriculture, evaluation of its functions was performed in this study.Agrobiodiversity is most likely to enhance ecosystem stability and productivity when a unique or complementary effect is added to the ecosystem. Performing a semi-experiment combined with the random sampling investigation technique, modern and traditional rice varieties in different farming systems were investigated, i.e., 1) rice monoculture (R); 2) rice-fish culture (R-F); and 3)rice-fish-duck culture (R-F-D). Results show that the glutinous rice in every farming system had a lower weed density than that of the hybrid ones. There was no significant difference in the density of rice planthoppers, spider, rice leave roller (Cnaphalocrocis medialis Guenee) between glutinous rice and hybrid ones. The hybrid rice in every farming system had a lower incidence of Blast disease than that of the glutinous ones. Concerning the farming systems, under R-F-D, the weed density in paddy fields decreased significantly, and the control effects on weed species such as Monochoria vaginalis (Burm.f.), Rotala indica (Willd.) Koehne were 100

  16. 真空微波干燥重组鱼丸的研究%The Study of Vacuum Microwave Drying Re-Structured Fish Balls

    陈凤杰; 张慜


    with the flesh of fish as main raw materialthe crisp dehydrated re-structured fish balls was prepared by the vacuum microwave puffing technology in this study. The effects of differetn kinds of auxiliary materials and cooking time on the expansion ratio and organoleptic quality of the re-structured fish balls were studied by single factor experiments, furthermore, the effect of microwave power and vacuum degree on the drying rate, expansion ratio and organoleptic quality of the re-structured fish ball were also determined and listed as follows: flesh of fish(after pretreatment) 100 g, glutinous .rice flour 10 g, pig fat 4 g, salt 2 g, white sugar 6 g, chives, ginger and, garlic seasoning 0. 6 g, cooking time 6 min, the vacuum degree-0. 095 MPa and microwave power 180 W, drying time 15 min. Under the optimum conditions, the products from this process demonstrated that a uniform faint yellow, the flavour of raw materials, and taste exquisite and crisp.%以鱼肉为主要原料,采用真空微波膨化技术制作松脆脱水重组鱼丸.通过大量单因素实验,研究了各种辅料和蒸煮时间对重组鱼丸膨化率和感官品质的影响;进一步采用真空微波膨化技术,研究了微波功率、真空度对重组鱼丸干燥速率、膨化率和感官品质的影响.结果表明,重组鱼丸的适宜配方和工艺条件为:鱼肉(经过预处理)100 g,糯米粉10 g,猪肥膘4 g,食盐2 g,白砂糖6 g,葱姜蒜粉0.6g;蒸煮时间为6 min,真空微波炉的真空度和微波功率分别为-0.095MPa和180W,干燥时间为15 min,得到的成品表面呈现均匀的淡黄色,有鲜美的鱼肉味,口感细腻、松脆.

  17. 静电喷雾法制备微胶囊化乳酸菌及其储存稳定性的研究%Preparation of Microencapsulated Lactobacilli by Electrostatic Spray and It's Storage Stability

    冯琼; 李保国; 刘畅; 张灼阳; 郭晓奎


    采用微孔淀粉吸附乳酸菌,以海藻酸钠和明胶的混合体系为壁材,对其进行静电喷雾包埋,并在模拟胃肠液环境中进行耐酸性和肠溶性实验.得出用6%的微孔淀粉吸附乳酸菌,活菌数最高,当芯壁材比为1∶3时包埋率为85.88%,微胶囊化乳酸菌在经人工胃液处理2 h后,活菌数比未经微胶囊化的对照组高出2个数量级;经人工肠液处理40 min后,乳酸菌可全部释放.微胶囊化乳酸菌饮料在4℃冰箱储藏4 w后,其活菌数仅是在同一数量级上有少许下降,而对照组未经包埋的乳酸菌和市售乳酸菌饮料下降了约2个数量级,经微胶囊化的乳酸菌具有较好的储存稳定性.%Lactobacilli were adsorbed in microporous starch and then encapsulated by the mixture of alginate-sodium and glutin with the method of electrostatic spray. The results showed that the viability of microencapsulated lactobacilli was the highest when absorbed with 6% microporous starch. The encapsulation efficiency reached 85. 88% at the ratio of the core volume to the wall volume being 1: 3. After treated by artificial gastric juice for 2 h,the viability of microencapsulated lactobacilli was 2 log more than that of control group. As microencapsulated lactobacilli were treated by artificial intestinal juice for 40 minutes,the microencapsulated lactobacilli was completely released. During the four weeks the milk drink with microencapsulated lactobacilli were stored in 4℃ refrigerator,the number of alive lactobacilli decreased a little,whereas for those without encapsulated lactobacilli and on the market,the number declined about 2 log. The conclusion is that microencapsulated lactobacilli has better storage stability.

  18. Molecular identification of yeast species associated with 'Hamei'--a traditional starter used for rice wine production in Manipur, India.

    Jeyaram, K; Singh, W Mohendro; Capece, Angela; Romano, Patrizia


    In Manipur state of North-Eastern India, wine from glutinous rice using traditional solid state starter called 'Hamei' is particularly interesting because of its unique flavour. A total of 163 yeast isolates were obtained from fifty four 'Hamei' samples collected from household rice wine preparations in tribal villages of Manipur. Molecular identification of yeast species was carried out by analysis of the restriction digestion pattern generated from PCR amplified internal transcribed spacer region along with 5.8S rRNA gene (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2). Seventeen different restriction profiles were obtained from the size of PCR products and the restriction analysis with three endonucleases (Hae III, Cfo I and Hinf I). Nine groups were identified as S. cerevisiae, Pichia anomala, Trichosporon sp., Candida tropicalis, Pichia guilliermondi, Candida parapsilosis, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Pichia fabianii and Candida montana by comparing this ITS-RFLP profile with type strains of common wine yeasts, published data and insilico analysis of ITS sequence data available in CBS yeast database. ITS-RFLP profile of eight groups was not matching with available database of 288 common wine yeast species. The most frequent yeast species associated with 'Hamei' were S. cerevisiae (32.5%), P. anomala (41.7%) and Trichosporon sp. (8%). The identity of major groups was confirmed by additional restriction digestion of ITS region with Hind III, EcoRI, Dde I and Msp I. The genetic diversity of industrially important S. cerevisiae group was investigated using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Although most of the 53 strains of S. cerevisiae examined were exhibited a common species specific pattern, a distinct degree of chromosomal length polymorphism and variable number of chromosomal DNA fragments were observed with in the species. Cluster analysis showed seven major karyotypes (K1-K7) with more than 83% similarity. The karyotype pattern K1 was the most frequent (67.9%) among the strains from


    李利娟; 董寅生; 林萍华; 储成林; 盛晓波; 郭超


    采用定向凝固和冷冻干燥法制备定向多孔陶瓷材料,考察主要制备参数对多孔陶瓷材料性能的影响.以Al_2O_3,SiO_2为原料,Na_2O·SiO_2为添加剂,明胶为粘结剂,将陶瓷原料与蒸馏水混合制成浆料,预冻,冷冻干燥,烧结得到多孔陶瓷材料,通过扫描电镜观察其孔结构,并对其孔隙率和收缩率进行测试.制备过程中,浆料的固含量,冷冻温度,烧结温度对多孔陶瓷材料的孔隙率、收缩率、微观结构有较大影响.采用定向凝固和冷冻干燥法可以制备定向多孔陶瓷材料,通过控制工艺参数可以调整多孔陶瓷孔隙结构和性能,以满足不同需求.%Objectives To prepare oriented porous ceramics by directional solidification and freeze-drying method, the main preparation parameters that affect the properties of porous ceramics were investigated. Methods The solid materials, including alumina, silicon dioxide, sodium metassilicate and glutin, were mixed with distilled water at certain ratios to obtain slurry. The slurry was solidified directionally, freeze-dried and then sintered to get oriented porous ceramics. The microstructure of the porous ceramics was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the properties were characterized by shrinkage and porosity. Results The solid content of slurry, the freezing and sintering temperatures affected the microstructure, shrinkage and porosity of the porous ceramics. Conclusion Oriented porous ceramics can be successfully prepared by directional solidification and freeze-drying method. By controlling the technique parameters, the pore structure and properties can be adjusted to satisfy different needs.

  20. Diversity in the Content of Some Nutritional Components in Husked Seeds of Three Wild Rice Species and Rice Varieties in Yunnan Province of China

    Zai-Quan CHENG; Xing-Qi HUANG; Yi-Zheng ZHANG; Jun QIAN; Ming-Zhi YANG; Cheng-Jun WU; Jia-Fu LIU


    In addition to rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, there are three wild rice species, namely O.rufipogon Griff, O. officinalis Wall and O. granulata Baill, in Yunnan Province, China. Each species has different subtypes and ecological distributions. Yunnan wild rice species are excellent genetic resources for developing new rice cultivars. The nutritional components of the husked seeds of wild rice have not been investigated thus far. Herein, we report on the contents of total protein, starch, amylose, 17 amino acids, and five macro and five trace mineral elements in husked seeds from three wild rice species and six O. sativa cultivars. The mean (± SD) protein content in the husked rice of O. rufipogon, O. officinalis, and O. granulata was (14.5 ± 0.6)%, (16.3 ± 1. 1)%, and (15.3 ± 0.5)%, respectively. O. officinalis Ⅲ originating from Gengma had the highest protein content (19.3%). In contrast, the average protein content of six O. sativa cultivars was only 9.15%. The total content of 17 amino acids of three wild rice species was 30%-50% higher than that of the six cultivars. Tyrosine, lysine, and valine content in the three wild rice species was 34%-209% higher than that of the cultivars. However, the difference in total starch content among different O. sativa varieties or types of wild rice species was very small. The average amylose content of O. rufipogon, O. officinalis,and O. granulata was 12.0%, 9.7%, and 11.3%, respectively, much lower than that of the indica and japonica varieties (14.37%-17.17%) but much higher than that of the glutinous rice cultivars (3.89%). The sulfur, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, and ferrite content in the three wild rice species was 30%-158% higher than that of the six cultivars. The considerable difference in some nutritional components among wild rice species and O. sativa cultivars represents a wide biodiversity of Yunnan Oryza species. Based on the results of the present study, it is predicted that some good genetic traits

  1. Effects of Rice Bran Dietary Fiber Particle Size and Addition Dosage on the Pasting Properties of Rice Starch%米糠膳食纤维对大米淀粉糊化特性的影响


    To investigate the effect of the particle size and addition dosage of rice bran dietary fiber on the pasting properties of rice starch,rapid viscosity analyzer system ( RVA) was employed to monitoring the pas-ting properties of the rice starch.The results demonstrated that different varieties of rice starch had different pasting characteristic values.When the dietary fiber content increased from 0%to 15%,the peak viscosity,set-back and breakdown values of the Japonica rice starch group decreased by 50.78%,30.36%and 73.11%,the peak time delayed for 1.66 min,the trough viscosity and final viscosity increased by 95.20%and 7.25%re-spectively.As for the Indica rice starch group,the peak viscosity,setback and breakdown values decreased by 18.37%,29.05%and 54.48%,the peak time delayed for 0.74 min,the trough viscosity and final viscosity in-creased by 23.96%and 7.61%respectively.The addition of the rice bran dietary fiber had no effect on the pas-ting properties of the Glutinous rice starch group( P>0.05) .The effects of pasting properties of rice bran dietary fiber particle size( Less than 80 meshes) on Japonica rice starch,Indica rice starch and Glutinous rice starch were not significant ( P>0.05) .The addition dosage(0%-15%) of rice bran dietary fiber in Japonica rice starch and Indica rice starch had a positive correlation with the peak viscosity( P<0.05) ,setback and breakdown val-ues,and had a negative correlation with trough viscosity,pasting temperature and peak time( P<0.05) .No sig-nificant correlation existed between the rice bran dietary fiber particle size and the pasting properties of the three kinds of rice starch in the work.%采用快速粘度分析仪( RVA)测定不同米糠膳食纤维颗粒大小和添加量对稻米淀粉糊化特性的影响。结果表明,籼米淀粉、粳米淀粉和糯米淀粉等3种稻米淀粉的糊化特征值存在着差异;当米糠膳食纤维添加量由0%增加到15%时,粳米淀粉糊化时的峰值粘度

  2. Calculation of Safe Moisture and Isosteric Heat of Sorption in Rice Grains%大米安全水分和吸着等热计算

    张元娣; 秦文; 李兴军


    对静态称重法测定的5个大米样品吸着等温线数据,分别采用Brunauer - Emmett - Teller (BET)、CAE、修正Chung - Pfost (MCPE)、修正Guggenhein - Anderson - de Boer( MGAB)、修正Henderson、修正Oswin及Strohman - Yoerger 7个方程进行拟合,MCPE被判定为大米最佳吸着等温线方程.以M=f(hr,t)形式表达的平均解吸等温线方程MCPE的3个参数C1、C2及C3各是492.539、39.846及0.176,在RH 70%下,对应的10、15、20、25、30、35℃条件下大米样品平均解吸值,分别是15.88%、15.49%、15.13%、14.80%、14.50%及14.21%.3个粳米(方正香米、东北普通米、松花江米)在25℃的安全水分是14.92% ~ 15.39%,低于15.5%;2个籼米(泰国香米和江苏米)安全水分则是13.88%~14.43%,低于14.5%,与GB 1354-2009大米限量水分一致.大米吸着等热在含水率<20%干基条件下,随着米粒含水率增加而快速减少,在高于20%干基含水率则随含水率增加而缓慢减少.在含水率<22.5%干基条件下,较低温度下的大米吸附等热与解吸等热均高于较高温度;大米解吸等热高于吸附等热,但是随着含水率增加则差异减少.%The sorption isotherm data of 5 rice samples determined by the static weighting method were respectively fitted with 7 equations as Brunauer - Emmett - Teller (BET), CAE, Modified Chung - Pfost (MCPE ) , Modified Guggenhein - Anderson - de Boer ( MGAB), Modified Henderson, Modified Oswin and Strohman - Yoerger, and MCPE was determined as the optimum sorption isotherm equation for the rice. In M =f(hr,t) average sorption isotherm equation ,3 MCPE parameters of C1, C2 and C3 are respectively 492.539,39.846 and 0.176. Under RH 70% , the average sorption values under corresponding 10,15,20,25,30 and 35 ℃ were respectively 15.88% ,15.49% , 15.13% , 14. 80% , 14.50% and 14.21 %. The safe moistures of 3 non - glutinous rice samples ( Fangzheng japonica rice, Northeast common rice and

  3. 抗牙龈卟啉单胞菌卵黄抗体的制备、纯化和生物学特性鉴定%Preparation, purification and characterization of egg yolk immunoglobulin Y specific to porphyromonas gingivalis

    董瑶; 徐燕; 马倩; 孟明理; 沈继龙; 徐振山; 宋礼华


    AIM:To prepare egg yolk immunoglobulin ( IgY) against Porphyromonas gingivalis and to study its biological characteristics. METHODS:Ten 150 day-old laying hens were immunized with Porphyromonas gingi-valis and IgY was isolated from the egg yolk by the water dilution ( WD) method and 2 steps of ammonium sulfate puri-fication. The titers and specificity of the purified antibodies were assessed by ELLSA. The molecular weight were meas-ured by SDS-PAGE. The antigenicity and function of the IgY were demonstrated by western blotting and the hemag-glutination inhibition ( HI) test respectively. RESULTS:The yield of IgY was 70 mg per yolk with the purity of 65%. Its titer was 25 600. Pg-IgY could bound specifically to Porphyromonas gingivalis and could inhibit the hemagglutina-tion at 3. 125 μg/well. CONCLUSION:The production and purity of IgY are high, the IgY has strong specificity a-gainst T Porphyromonas gingivalis.%目的:制备特异性抗牙龈卟啉单胞菌( Pg)的鸡卵黄免疫球蛋白( IgY)并检测其生物学特性. 方法:厌氧培养牙龈卟啉单胞菌,将甲醛灭活的菌体经翅膀下浅层肌肉免疫150日龄罗曼母鸡3次,每次间隔10 d. 取鸡蛋用两步硫酸铵沉淀法提取IgY,BCA法测定蛋白质含量,ELLSA法检测纯化后IgY的特异性和抗体效价变化,并进行 SDS-PAGE 和 Western blotting 分析. 观察抗 Pg-IgY 对红细胞凝集的抑制作用.结果:经3次免疫后,抗体滴度最高可达25 600,纯化后每个鸡蛋可得约70 mg IgY抗体;SDS-PAGE分析,纯化的IgY有1条主要蛋白带,相对分子质量( Mr)为180 kD,纯度为65%; Western blotting分析, 该IgY抗体可识别抗原Pg. 每孔3. 125 μg Pg-IgY可有效抑制Pg的红细胞凝集活性;1 mg/mL Pg-IgY可有效抑制Pg生长.结论:本研究得到的IgY特异性强,产量和纯度高.

  4. Separation, Purification, and Purity Identification of Cd-Binding Protein from Rice%大米镉结合蛋白的分离纯化及纯度鉴定

    陈露; 陈季旺; 蔡俊; 丁文平; 吴永宁


    采用石墨炉原子吸收光谱法(graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry,GFAAS)测定不同品种、不同加工精度大米及大米4种蛋白质中的镉含量。选用镉含量较高的大米为实验原料,采用Osborne分级法提取大米中的4种蛋白质(清蛋白、球蛋白、醇溶蛋白和谷蛋白),以及超滤、离子交换色谱从镉含量较高的大米蛋白中分离纯化出均一纯度的大米镉结合蛋白(rice Cd-binding protein,RCBP),十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis,SDS-PAGE)鉴定RCBP的纯度及测定分子质量。结果表明:籼米中镉含量高于糯米及粳米;随着加工精度的增加,同种大米中的镉含量依次降低。4种大米蛋白中的镉含量分别为0.66、0.31、0.63、0.23μg/g,清蛋白中镉含量最高。超滤分离大米清蛋白(rice albumin,RA)得到大米超滤清蛋白(rice ultrafiltration albumin,RUA),离子交换色谱纯化RUA得到目标镉结合蛋白(组分c), SDS-PAGE鉴定组分c为单一条带,分子质量为14 kD。%A graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) method was used to determine the cadmium content in rice grains from different varieties and at milling levels, as well as in four rice seed storage proteins (albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin) obtained through the Osborne sequential extraction method. Moreover, rice cadmium-binding protein (RCBP) was separated and purified to homogeneity by using ultrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography. The purity and molecular mass of RCBP were identified. The results showed that the cadmium content in indica rice was higher than that in glutinous rice and japonica rice and the cadmium content in rice decreased with the increase of milling level. The cadmium contents of rice albumin, globulin, prolamin, and glutelin were 0.66, 0.31, 0.63 and 0.23μg/g, respectively. RCBP

  5. 石墨炉原子吸收法测定武汉市售大米中镉含量的研究%Determination of cadmium content in rice from Wuhan market using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    陈露; 陈季旺; 刘珊珊; 黄迪; 王慧平; 丁文平


    目的:研究石墨炉原子吸收光谱法测定大米中镉含量,并对武汉市售大米中镉含量进行测定分析。方法采用湿法消解对样品进行前处理,测定大米中镉含量的检出限、重复性、回收率和精密度。结果较佳消化条件为大米质量1 g、消化剂包括10 mL硝酸和2 mL过氧化氢、时间12 h。在该试验条件下,石墨炉原子吸收光谱法测定大米中镉含量的检出限为0.051μg/kg,加标回收率为98.85%。大米中镉含量随产区和品种的不同差异显著,湖南、湖北、江西等中南地区的大米镉含量较高,吉林、黑龙江等东北地区的大米镉含量较低;籼米的镉含量高于粳米和糯米,糯米的镉含量高于粳米。结论该方法测定大米中的镉含量准确、试验误差小,重复性好,可以用于大米中镉含量的测定。%ABSTRACT:Objective To investigate the method of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) to determine the cadmium content in rice, and its application in rice from Wuhan market.Methods Rice was digested by wet digestion for sample pretreatment, the detection limits, precision, repeatability, and recovery rate of GFAAS method were determined under preferred conditions.Results The detection limit of GFAAS method to determine the cadmium content in rice was 0.051μg/kg and the recovery rate was 98.85% under the preferred sample pretreatment conditions, including 1 g rice, 10 mL nitric acid digestion reagent, 2 mL hydrogen peroxide, and 12 h of digestion time. The cadmium content of indica rice was higher than that of japonica rice, and the cadmium content of glutinous rice was higher than that of japonica rice. The cadmium content of rice produced in Hunan, Hubei, and Jiangxi province was higher than that in Jilin and Heilongjiang province.Conclusion This method to determine the cadmium content in rice is accurate and has lower test error and better repeatability under the preferred sample pretreatment


    Nelis Imanningsih


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The combination of starch from various sources, salt and protein, are the basic formulation often found in the Indonesian traditional food. The different composition of amylopectine-amylose and the interactions among the ingredients in the formulation, determines pasting properties in order gain a suitable texture characteristics. The aim of the research is to study the interactions of severals kinds of flours with water, white egg protein, and salt and its influences to the cooking behaviour of semi-solid food. There are four formulations for each kind of flour (rice, glutenniuos rice, wheat and cassava that are: (1 water: flour = 25 : 3 g; (2 water :  flour : salt  =  25 : 3 : 0.28 g; (3 water : flour : albumen = 25 : 3 : 0.3 g; and (4 water : flour : salt : albumen = 25 : 3 : 0.28 : 0.3 g. The flours are analysed for proximate, particle size distribution and amylose-amylopectine composition. Pasting behaviour is measured using Rapid Visco Analizer (RVA to determine peak viscosity, peak temperature, and peak time gelatinisation. Rice, glutinous rice, wheat and cassava flours have different gelatinization profiles that depend on starches structural origin and amylose and amylopectin composition. Wheat flour has the lowest peak viscosity among four type of flour examined, whether cassava flour has the highest. Salt in starch-water system delays peak time. Egg white protein raises peak viscosity of starches, the addition of salt and egg white protein simultaneously into the system increases peak viscosity and causes the peak occurs earlier. In food processing, tapioca flour can be used to give viscosity at short time cooking but it could not give a sufficient viscosity to the cold products. Rice flour needs a long time cooking to give a suitable viscosity to the products, however this viscosity can hold well in cold temperature. Keywords: flour, salt, protein, gelatinisation, viscosity   ABSTRAK Kombinasi berbagai macam tepung dengan

  7. 蛹虫草八宝粥的研制%Development of Cordyceps militaris Eight-treasure Porridge

    何洋; 刘林德; 苏志坚; 黄清荣


    [目的]将蛹虫草发酵液应用于八宝粥的生产中,为蛹虫草功能性食品的开发开拓新的思路.[方法]首先通过正交试脸优化蛹虫草菌丝球的制备方法,再以得到的蛹虫草液体发酵产生的菌丝球为特色原料,配以传统材料糯米、玉米、绿豆、红豆、红芸豆、花生、红枣、桂圆、莲子、银耳得到成品.[结果]以4%的葡萄糖为碳源,1%的玉米粉汁为氮源,转速120 r/min,接种量3%的条件下,生产直径6~8 mm的菌球数量最多.各原料混合熬制的八宝粥色泽鲜艳、质软香甜、清香诱人、滑而不腻,且产品各理化指标和微生物指标均符合要求.[结论]蛹虫草八宝粥富含虫草素、虫草酸、虫草多糖等活性物质,是一种新型的蛹虫草功能性食品.%[ Objective ] The aim was to apply broth from Cordyceps militaris fermentation in the production of eight-treasure porridge and open up new development thought for developing functional food from C. militaris. [ Method] At first, the production method of C. militaris mycelium pellet was optimized through orthogonal test. Then, with the mycelium pellet produced from liquid fermentation with C. militaris as feature raw material, the finished product was yielded by supplementing traditional materials, such as glutinous rice, corn, mung bean, red bean, red kidney bean, peanut, red date, longan, lotus seeds and white fungus gourd. [ Result] With 4% glucose as carbon source and 1% maizena juice as nitrogen source, when the rotation speed and innoculation amount were 120 r/min and 3%, the yielded mycelium pellets with diameter of 6 -8 mm were most. The eight-treasure porridge decocted from the mixture of raw materials was bright-colored, soft, fragrant, sweet,smooth but not greasy and threw out inviting faint scent. All the physical and chemical indexes and microbiological index of the product met the requirement. [ Conclusion ] The C. militaris eight-treasure porridge was rich in

  8. 民族村落农业种质资源多样性变化及其原因分析——以云南省师宗县黑尔壮族社区为例%Change in Agricultural Germplasm Resource Diversity in Minority Villages and Analysis of Its Cause-A Case Study of Hei'er Zhuang Nationality Village in Shizong County, Yunnan Province

    王思铭; 周玖璇; 况荣平; 薛达元; 武建勇


    Hei'er Village in Shizong County of Yunnan Province was chosen as a case of study for analysis of change in agricultural germplasm resource diversity therein and its causes. And a total of 66 kinds of agricultural germplasm resources were collected and collated. Strategies for protection of the resources in those villages have been discussed. Results show that the diversity in the village was quite abundant before 1980, but it was affected by a series of factors, such as modern farming and economic development, losing a great number of indigenous varieties, and most of the preserved indigenous varieties were closely related to the local traditional life style and production, especially culture of the nationality. Take Hei'er glutinous rice as an example, causes of its preservation and the threats it is faced with were analyzed. Meanwhile, some other indigenous varieties or species, like rape, ginger, peanuts and so on, were also found of high value worthy preserving in the village. These findings suggest that community-specific strategies and policies, such as ecological compensation, stimulation of villagers' enthusiasm, utilization of the strength of traditional knowledge and culture, exploitation and development to the full extent of the indigenous agricultural germplasm resources, and village-based farmer household responsible conservation, should be taken to promote preservation and sustainable utilization of the valuable indigenous varieties.%以云南省师宗县黑尔壮族社区为例,收集整理了66种农业种质资源,分析了该社区农业种质资源多样性的变化及其原因,探讨了民族村落农业种质资源的保护策略.结果表明,1980年以前,黑尔壮族社区农业种质资源较为丰富,但由于现代农业和经济发展等因素的影响,地方品种严重丧失;被保留下来的地方品种大都与当地生产生活,尤其是与民族文化密切相关.以黑尔糯稻为例,分析了黑尔糯稻种质资源得以保

  9. Identification of an Antagonistic Bacterium A2 and Its Control Effect on Blumeria graminis f.sp.Tritici%拮抗细菌A2菌株的鉴定及其对小麦白粉病的防治效果

    杨振娟; 阿拉坦夫; 孙蕾; 檀贝贝; 武哲; 张克诚


    For adapting the development of free pollution agriculture and aiming at biological control of Blumeria graminis f. Sp. Tritici, we isolated an antagonistic strain A2 that was identified as Bacillus subtilis from soil of protected farmland. The strain was identified based on morphological, physical characteristics and the homological analysis of 16S rDNA sequence. Meanwhile, testing the control efficacy of Blumeria graminis f. Sp. Tritici with the treatment of spraying clear water as control. The results showed that: A2 strain was road-shaped bacteria and gram-positive, could produce bacterial endospores of oval, amylase, fluidity glutin, and showed the positive reaction in the litmus milk test. In pot plant experiments, A2 strain and its culture supernatant showed significant control efficacies against Blumeria graminis f. Sp. Tritici, and the control efficacy of admixture of them was much better. The control efficacy of fermentation broth of A2 strain achieved 72.22%, when the control efficacy of culture supernatant of A2 strain was 29.24%. The conclusion was drawn that: it was feasible for A2 to be applied in biological control and could provide scientific basis for the production of new free pollution biopesticide.%为适应现代无公害农业的发展,针对小麦白粉病的防治,从保护地土壤中分离得到一株生防细菌A2.通过形态学特征、生理生化特性的观察和测定,结合16S rDNA序列分析并构建系统发育树,对菌株A2进行了初步鉴定.同时,以清水为对照,测定了菌株A2对3432品种小麦白粉病的防治效果.结果显示该菌株主要特征是菌体杆状,内生芽孢、芽孢卵圆形,革兰氏染色阳性,好氧,接触酶反应、乙酰甲基甲醇实验为阳性,能利用柠檬酸盐;该菌株与亲缘关系较近菌株B.subtilis isolate G8的同源性达99%.结合以上两点,将菌株A2初步鉴定为枯草芽孢杆菌(B.subtilis).防效实验显示菌株A2发酵液处理最好防治效果为72

  10. Distribution and Influencing Factors Analysis of Complications after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy%腹腔镜胆囊切除术后并发症分布及其影响因素分析



    Objective To explore the distribution and influencing factors of complications after laparo-scopic cholecystectomy ( LC ) , and provide reference for preventing and treating complications after LC. Methods Total of 869 cases of LC were collected from Department of General Surgery in Hainan Nongken General Hospital from Jan. 2008 to Dec. 2013,and these cases were divided into complication group(31 cases) and non-complication group (838 cases) according to the existence of complications. The distribution and risk factors of complications after LC were analyzed. Results The risk factors of complications after LC included operation experience (OR=2. 054,95%CI 1. 390-2. 719),thickness of gallbladder wall (OR=2.591,95%CI1.591-3.590),triangle conglutination of Calot(OR =5.028,95%CI 3.380-6.676),con-glutination between gallbladder and surrounding tissue(OR=3. 967,95%CI 2. 738-5. 196),and complica-tions(OR=4. 043,95%CI 2. 404-5. 682),while drainage(OR=0. 354,95%CI 0. 060-0. 648) was the pro-tective factor. Conclusion The incidence of complications after LC is still high,and there are many risk fac-tors of the complications. So we should adopt prevention measures aimed at these risk factors, in order to reduce the incidence of the complications.%目的:探讨腹腔镜胆囊切除术( LC)后并发症的分布情况及其影响因素,为防治LC术后并发症提供依据。方法选择2008年1月至2013年12月在海南省农垦总医院普外科实施LC的患者869例,依据术后是否发生并发症分为并发症组(31例)和非并发症组(838例)。分析LC术后并发症的分布情况及并发症发生的危险因素。结果影响LC术后并发症发生的危险因素包括手术经验(OR=2.054,95%CI 1.390~2.719)、胆囊壁厚度(OR=2.591,95%CI 1.591~3.590)、Calot三角粘连(OR=5.028,95%CI 3.380~6.676)、胆囊与周围粘连(OR=3.967,95%CI 2.738~5.196)、合并症(OR=4.043,95%CI 2.404~5.682),而放置引流(OR=0.354,95%CI 0.060

  11. 生物淀粉酶系对β-淀粉的水解和无蒸煮黄酒酿造释疑%Disabusing of Biological Amylases Hydrolyzing of β-starch and Un-cooking Rice Wine Brewing

    陈佩仁; 陈江萍; 王林秋; 王友崇; 符汉君


    以大米(糯、粳、籼米)为主要原料酿造各类黄酒培养黄曲霉、红曲霉、黑曲霉(俗称乌衣)及根霉菌所获得分别以α-淀粉酶(液化型淀粉酶或称糊精化酶)和葡萄糖淀粉酶(淀粉-1,4-葡萄糖苷酶)为主体的淀粉酶系,经恰当的组合,利用其高度专一性之特征,在适宜的条件下催化完成淀粉水解糖化和酵母菌的酒精发酵。淀粉酶系不但能水解糖化经蒸煮糊化后处于常态发酵醪中的α-淀粉(熟淀粉),在经适当改良的无蒸煮发酵醪中亦能水解糖化β-淀粉(生淀粉);于室温等相同的环境下,仅是水解速率有所差异之别。似不存在能水解糖化α-淀粉的淀粉酶系,不能水解糖化β-淀粉的专有之属性。在酒类酿造中对淀粉酶系作用机理的认识,是有必要继续进行深入研究和探讨的。%Using rice (glutinous rice, japonica rice, indica rice ) as main raw materials to brew all kinds of rice wine is catalyzing the hydrolysis and saccharification of the appropriate combination of amylase obtained by cultivation of aspergillus flavus, monascus and aspergillus niger (commonly known as Wu Yi) and rhizopus, mainly respectivelyα-amylase (amylase or dextrinised enzyme) and glucose amylase (starch-1,4-glucosidase), and alcohol fermentation of yeast, under suitable conditions and using its characteristics of high specificity. Amylases not only can hydrolyze and saccharify the cooked and gelatinizedα-starch (cooked starch) in normal fermentation mash, but also can hydrolyze and saccharify the uncookedβ-starch (uncooked starch) in the proper modified fermentation mass. The only difference is the hydrolysis speed in the same environment at room temperature. It seems that there is no specific property of the amylases which could hydrolyze and saccharifyα-starch while couldn't hydrolyze and saccharifyβ-starch, It is necessary to continue research and discussion on the

  12. 羊毛、丝光毛交织围巾(披肩)的设计开发%Design and development of interweaved wool and mercerizing wool for scarf (shawl)

    王译晗; 王利平; 张猛


    随着市场多样化的需求,时尚围巾(披肩)的开发越来越受到人们的关注。以100%纯羊毛织物(100深青色的丝光毛和40深红色毛纱)为原料,设计了一款羊毛、丝光毛交织围巾(披肩)。该羊毛、丝光羊毛披肩(围巾)手感柔软、滑糯,绒毛丰满,光泽自然柔和,既保暖、御寒,又美观大方、高雅富贵,是一种装饰性很强的服饰产品。利用丝光羊毛不易毡化、不易起球、手感柔软和光泽柔和的特点,生产舒适、立体感强、装饰效果好的丝光毛抗菌羊毛围巾(披肩)。选用丝光羊毛和羊毛,着重论述了40 s2深红色毛纱的纺纱工艺,生产该羊毛围巾(披肩)的原料选择、织物规格及生产技术关键。为提高附加值,对产品进行了缩绒、抗菌整理,进一步满足了消费者的时尚功能需求。s 2 s 2%With the demand of the market diversification, fashion scarf (shawl) development has been paid more and more attention. A kind of wool and mercerizing wool interweaved scarves (shawls) were designed with 100%pure wool fabric (100 s/2 dark indigo mercerizing wool and 40 s2 crimson wool) as raw materials. The wool and mercerizing wool interweaved shawls (scarfs) are soft handle, slip and glutinous, and with plump villi, natural and soft luster, the scarves (shawls) can keep warm, protection against cold, as well as beautiful, elegant and rich, the scarves (shawls) are a highly decorative clothing products. The main advantages of mercerizing wool are uneasy felt, uneasy pilling, soft handle and soft luster, the features are applied to obtain a comfortable, with strong sense of three-dimensional, good decorative effect and antibacterial mercerizing wool scarfs (shawl). Mercerizing wool and wool were chosen, focusing on discussing the 40 crimson yarn spinning technology, as well as the selection of raw materials for the production of this kind of wool scarf (shawl), fabric

  13. 云南传统栽培稻品种waxy基因序列分析%Sequence Analysis of waxy Gene of Yunnan Rice Landrace

    李枝桦; 陆春明; 卢宝荣; 王云月


    栽培稻是全球最重要的粮食作物之一,waxy基因对栽培稻的品质改良研究具有重要意义.云南是亚洲栽培稻多样性分布中心之一,传统品种丰富.本研究依据云南不同稻区、不同海拔选取99份传统栽培稻品种,对waxy基因序列进行分析.结果显示,供试品种中waxy基因序列包含36个单倍型,其中52个品种存在23 bp碱基的插入,而47个品种存在23 bp碱基的缺失;糯稻waxy基因第一内含子5’端既有G也有T碱基,剪切位点以T为主,粘稻剪切位点以G为主.7个糯稻地方品种的第一内含子5'端为G,同时第二外显子存在23 bp碱基的缺失,与前人的研究结果有所不同,表明云南栽培稻waxy基因单核苷酸多态性高,单倍型多,稻种资源丰富,为挖掘和利用优异糯性基因及品质改良提供了宝贵材料,为云南传统栽培稻种质资源的利用与保护提供了理论依据.%Rice (Oryza saliva L.) is the major staple food of the world's population, waxy gene is the key gene that determines the starch composition, which is very important of the quality improvement of rice. Yunnan province is one the center of diversity of Asian cultivated rice and many traditional rice varieties were found in Yunnan province. DNA sequence analysis of the 99 Yunnan rice landrace varieties from different attitude and rice planting area. The sequence characterization confirmed that 36 haplotypes of the waxy gene found in the 99 varieties. 52 varieties contain a "23 bp" insertion in the waxy gene, but 47 varieties have a "23 bp" deletion. There are seven glutinous rice varieties that have G/T mutation and the "23 bp" deletion. Yunnan rice varieties had rich SNPs and haploids, which provided valuable rice resource for waxy gene utilization and rice quality improvement. This study provided the scientific basis for conservation of Yunnan rice landrace resources.

  14. Seasonal Customs of Jeollanam ̄do in South Korea

    Geng Ruiqin


    important activities are offering sacrifices to gods and ancestors, sweeping tombs, and paying New Year’s visits. People also believe that this is the proper time to avoid the“three dis-asters”, keep away night ghosts, burn hair, and go to fortune tellers, etc. There are also games played in this period, such as the see-saw and board-turning. 2) the First Day of the First Lunar Month cannot be counted as a traditional festival. However, a day’s rest is taken in the countryside when every house sticks spring couplets on their doors or pillars. These are pairs of long strips of paper on which auspicious words or sayings are written. 3 ) In traditional society, when farming dominated, people observed the Fifteenth Day of the First Lunar Month with grand ceremony, main-ly through engaging in entertaining activities. In Jeollanam-do, the festival atmosphere is warmly created by playing folk or peasant music, flying kites, playing tug-of-war games, or Gohssaum, and so on. In addition to the group activities, indi-vidual families might offer sacrifices in their hou-ses. Each village also offers sacrifices together, known as the Tangshan Sacrifice and Dragon King Sacrifice. There are various superstitions related to this day. For example, many people will buy a strainer and hang it at home, believing that it will bring blessings. Or, on the eve of this day people might set fires on field ridges, believing that this will bring a good harvest. People might also set up Changsheng or Changganzi, along the borders or milestones separating villages from each other, which are known as the patron gods protecting their territory. On this day the staple food is supposed to be“Wugufan”, literally“Rice with Five Grains”, which actually includes more than five kinds of va-rious grains. It is so-called because all the main grains are collectively called “five grains”. In ad-dition, people also cook the“Eight Treasures Rice Soup” which contains glutinous rice, Chinese


    Clara Meliyanti Kusharto


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aims of this research was to formulate and improve the nutrient content and define of makassar traditional snack which was enriched with Pupae-mulberry (Pury powder. Experimental study was conducted and proximate analysis was used to determine nutrient content of the product and acceptance test was used by hedonic test of 25-32 semi-trained panelists. This research produced three kinds of traditional snacks, namely Rampari sponge cake, Deppatori Pury, and Pury sticks. Based on organoleptic test product Deppatori was selected to develop further by mixing basic substances consist of rice flour, glutinous rice flour, brown sugar, sesame and water with pupae-mulberry (pury powder. The formulas were F1 (pury powder 5%, F2 (pury powder 10%, and F3 (pury powder 15%. The study showed that by hedonic scale, the panel preferred F2 because the addition more than 10% of Pury powder will make texture harder. Hedonic quality scale indicated that F2 had characteristics yellowish brown color, taste and flavor close to neutral. Nutrient content of Deppatori Pury 10% (per 100 g was water 7.92 g, ash 1.19 g, protein 5.80 g, fat 25.99 g, carbohydrates 67.02 g, energy 484 kcal, calcium 74.14 mg, iron 1.96 mg, phosporus 97.23 mg, respectively and result of microbiology test was 390 cfu/g. Protein contribution of Deppatori-Pury 10% per 100 g serving size to RDA of elderly was 9.4-10.4%. Therefore, two serving size is recommended for Deppatori-Pury as future food to reach 20% RDA protein.Keywords: acceptability, deppatori, makassar’s snack, pury powderABSTRAKTujuan penelitian adalah melakukan formulasi dan meningkatkan kandungan zat gizi serta daya terima kue-kue tradisional Makassar yang diperkaya tepung pupae-mulberry (Pury. Penelitian ini merupakan studi eksperimental yang melakukan analisis kandungan zat gizi secara proksimat dan uji penerimaan panelis (organoleptik menggunakan uji hedonik oleh 25-32 orang panelis semi terlatih. Pembuatan kue

  16. Dynamic Effect of the Dissolution Time of PAM on Soil Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity%干粉PAM溶解时间对土壤饱和导水率的动态影响

    韩冬; 魏占民; 于健; 宋日权


    increased by 26.87% compared with control. TheKs did not change with the amount of PAM added. PAM stabilized the aggregate structure of the soils, increased the amount of water-stable aggregate, and thus improved theKS. The amount of the water-stable aggregate of > 0.25mm for the treatment with 45 kg/hm2 of PAM added was 8.91% more than the control in sandy loam soil, while that for clay loam soil increased by 32.54%. When the dissolving time of PAM was long enough, theKS of PAM treatment was significant lower than control, and the largest reduction was observed in the treatment with 45 kg/hm2 of PAM in clay loam soil, and theKS was decreased by 10.86% compared with control. However, theKs did not change with the amount of PAM added significantly. For the related mechanisms, PAM increased contents and stability of soil aggregates and thus improvedKS. On the other hand, after PAM dissolving in water, the solution became glutinous. PAM also adsorbed soil particles and blocked soil pore and thus decreased theKS. We found that PAM improved the structure of sandy loam soil better than that of clay loam soil. The study will provide a theoretical basis for improving soil transparent performance with PAM.

  17. Study on biogenic amines formation and influencing factors in Chinese rice wine%黄酒中生物胺的形成及其影响因素

    张凤杰; 薛洁; 王异静; 王德良; 周建弟; 谢广发


    The aim of present work was to study the produce of biogenic amines during brewing process for Chinese rice wine, and the influencing factors including raw material, Wheat Qu, seed starter, amino acid, brewing technique and ageing.Biogenic amines were quantified by a pre-column derivatization by high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC).Putrescine and tryamine were the most prevalent amine.None of amines were detected in water.The aliphatic amines ( putrescine, cadaverine, spermine) were present in glutinous rice and wheat Qu, but the content was not over 6.01 mg/kg.Significantly different contents depended on seed starters (P <0.01) ranging from 16.43 to 87.72mg/L.There was a positive correlation between the content of biogenic amines and total acid, but significant negative correlation between this content and alcohol and the sense organ taste.The total content of biogenic amines during traditional brewing process was higher than that during mechanized brewing process, but both had same change tendency, i.e., increasing in early fermentation period and followed with decreasing, which was the same to bacterial count.Statistically significant increase was found in analyzed amino acids, but there was no correlation between it and the content of biogenic amines.Slight decreases came about during ageing for traditional rice wine, but irregular changes for mechanized rice wine.Overall, total content of biogenic amines ranging from 0.14 to 175.15 mg/L were within the safe level for human health .%采用高效液相色谱技术,分析了黄酒酿造原料、发酵剂和不同年份酒中的生物胺含量,并对传统工艺和机械化生产过程中生物胺含量的变化进行了跟踪分析,剖析了影响生物胺含量的因素.结果表明,腐胺和酪胺是黄酒中的主要生物胺,糯米原料和曲中生物胺含量很低,检出的3种脂肪族生物胺(腐胺、尸胺和精胺)总量不超过6.0lmg/kg;7种酒母中生物胺总含量差异极显著(P<0

  18. A Proteomics of Differential Study on Non-stimulated Whole Salivas from Periodontitis Patients with Type 2 Dia-betes Mellitus%牙周炎伴2型糖尿病患者非刺激性全唾液差异蛋白质组学研究

    王侗飞; 杨明; 郑燕华; 王继峰; 史琳涛; 杨福全; 汤楚华


    Objective To screen and identify differential proteins in non-stimulated whole salivas of periodontitis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus so as to improve understanding of relationship between periodontitis and type 2 dia-betes mellitus. Methods A total of 16 healthy controls ( control group) , 16 patients with chronic periodontitis ( group A) , 4 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without periodontitis ( group B) and 16 patients with periodontitis accompa-nies by type 2 diabetes mellitus ( group C) from June to December 2015 were recruited in this study. Non-stimulated whole salivas of all groups were collected. A proteomics analysis was performed using technology based on tandem mass tags ( TMT) markers combined with high performance liquid chromatography-MS/MS ( HPLC-MS/MS) , and differential-ly expressed proteins of periodontitis accompanies by type 2 diabetes mellitus were screened. Results In this study, 630 proteins were identified. Compared with those in control group, 75 proteins showed significant differences including up-regulated 46 and down-regulated 29. According to UnitProtKB database, 13 proteins possibly associated with periodontitis accompanied by type 2 diabetes mellitus were identified. Annexin A1, secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor, saliva ag-glutinator, lysozyme C, serine proteinase inhibitors A1 and serine proteinase inhibitors A3 were up-regulated, while hap-toglobin, profilin-1, Ca binding protein S100-P, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, lactic dehydrogenase, transaldolase, carbonic anhydrase 1 were down-regulated. Conclusion In this study, 13 differentially expressed proteins are screened in patients with periodontitis accompanied by type 2 diabetes mellitus, which may be used as candidate proteins of salivar-y biomarkers.%目的:筛选并确定牙周炎伴2型糖尿病患者唾液中的差异性蛋白,以提高对牙周炎与2型糖尿病相互关系的认识。方法选取2015年6月—2015年12月的健康对照者16

  19. Embryonic and Early Larval Development of Schizothorax wangchiachii%短须裂腹鱼胚胎与仔鱼早期发育特性研究

    左鹏翔; 尹翔; 胡思波; 李光华; 冷云; 张建斌; 缪祥军; 王志飞; 崔丽莉; 梁祥; 钟文武


    culture of yolk-sac lar-vae were conducted in an incubator at constant water temperature ( 14 ±1 )℃ and embryonic and larval develop-ment were observed using a Nikon stereoscopic anatomical lens and recorded with a Nikon DS -Fil high-definition camera.At least 30 zygotes were sampled once each hour during the first 48-hour zygote development phase and then sampled once every two hours after that .Twenty larvae were sampled each day .Results show that mature and fertilized eggs were demersal , weakly glutinous with abundant yolk .The average diameter of fertilized eggs was 2.36 mm and 3.68 mm after swelling.Cleavage began at 6 h 30 min after fertilization at (14 ±1)℃.Blastula, gastrula and mid-gastrula stages occurred , respectively , at 20 h 55 min, 60 h 28 min and 70 h 4 min after fertiliza-tion.The neurula stage occurred at 77 h 52 min and muscles were observed to shrink at 142 h after fertilization. Heart pulsation began at 177 h 46 min and the newly hatched larvae were released from the membrane at 254 h 40 min after fertilization.Cumulative temperature was up to 3 565.3℃· h during the development process .The average total length of newly hatched larvae was 8.7 mm.The pectoral fins, gills, mouth cavity, eye pigmentation, blood vessels and other organs developed gradually from day 2-9 after hatching .On day 10 after hatching , the lar-vae reached 15 .15 mm and initial swim bladder inflation began .Yolk-sac absorption was complete after day 10 and the larvae could swim horizontally and began to search for food ( rotifers were supplied ) .The development time se-quence and morphological characteristics of Schizothorax wangchiachii development from zygote to yolk-sac larvae presented here will lay a theoretical foundation for industrial breeding of S.wangchiachii.

  20. Intervention of Chinese medicine in hematopoietic system in rats caused by radiation%中药对辐射致大鼠造血系统损伤的干预作用

    瞿彬; 张蓉; 杨云霜; 李延晖


    Objective To observe the intervention of Chinese medicine in hematopoietic system in rats caused by radiation.Methods Totally 150 healthy male Wister rats were divided randomly into 5 groups:normal group,radiation model group,radiation bazhen medicine group,radiation liuwei medicine group and radiation self-side medicine group,with 30 rats in each group.Except blank group,the remaining four groups received 7 Gy of 60Co γ-ray irradiation.After irradiation,the abdominal aortic blood were collected and determined using automatic biochemical analyzer; peripheral blood micronucleated reticulocye was observed; bone marrow specimens of pathological morphological changes and pathological changes were observed using electron microscopy.Results Afterradiation,the white blood cells of each experimental group were decreased and neutrophil ratio increased.After 60Co γ-ray irradiation,the bodies showed inflammatory response.The apparent collapse was observed in rat by radiation in electron microscope.Neutrophils increased significantly.Conclusions Radiation can cause the change of hemogram and bone marrow of body structure.The prescription of traditional Chinese medicine six taste glutinous rehmannia pill has good radiation protection effect on severe acute radiation sickness and plays a role in the prevention and treatment.Prescriptions of anti-radiation from can provide effective protection on hematopoiesis system and promote blood regeneration.%目的 观察不同方药对辐射造血系统大鼠的干预作用.方法 将150只健康Wistar雄性大鼠完全随机分为空白对照组、辐射模型组、模型+八珍组、模型+六味组和模型+自拟方组,每组30只.除空白对照组外,其余4组均分别施予60Coγ射线全身照射,吸收剂量分别为7 Gy.分别于照射后第1、14、30天取材,每组每次10只,10%水合氯醛腹腔麻醉,腹主动脉采血进行血常规测定,观察外周血网织红细胞微核;取大鼠股骨标本,制作骨髓切片,

  1. 海马神经干细胞与胶原蛋白海绵及明胶海绵的生物相容性%Biocompatibility of hippocampal neural stem cells with collagen and gelatin sponge

    郭宝凤; 董明敏; 席恺


    The morphological changes of differentiation cells by immunocytochemical staining.RESULTS: ①Hippocampus neural stem cells could grew on the collagen and gelatin sponge and attached to them gradually. The adsorption rate of collagen was higher than thai of gelatin sponge (37.17 % and 14.87 %,x2=4.819,P < 0.05). ② There was no significant difference in the total number of the cells in the control group, collagen group and gelatin sponge group [(53.17±3.5)×104,(53.25±2.6)×104, (52.04±4.05)×104,F=0.233,P > 0.05].CONCLUSION: Two biomaterials (collagen and glutin sponge), especially collagen, have good biocompatibility with hippocampus neural stem cells from the guinea pigs and can be used safely as scaffold materials in peripheral nerve tissue engineering.%背景:在应用组织工程修复周围神经的研究中,载体的选择至关重要.理想的载体应与细胞外基质类似,与活体细胞有良好的生物相容性.目的:评价豚鼠海马神经干细胞与胶原蛋白海绵和明胶海绵的生物相容性,探讨它们作为周围神经组织工程载体材料的可行性.设计:随机对照实验.单位:郑州大学第一附属医院耳鼻咽喉科,郑州大学基础医学院解剖教研室.材料:实验于2005-07/2005-12在郑州大学基础医学院解剖教研室神经生物学研究室完成.健康新生(<24 h)杂色豚鼠12只,清洁级,雌雄不限,体质量50-70 g,由郑州大学医学院实验动物中心提供.方法:新生(<24 h)豚鼠,10 g/L水合氯醛腹腔麻醉,体积分数为0.75乙醇消毒,无菌操作分离出海马组织.体外无血清培养海马神经干细胞,传至第2代,将浓度调整为1×1010 L-1后分别与胶原蛋白海绵、明胶海绵联合体外培养,一周后取材,进行细胞计数,倒置相差显微镜及扫描电镜观察,并测定两种材料与细胞的吸附率. 主要观察指标:①观察神经干细胞在胶原蛋白海绵和明胶海绵上的生长、黏附情况,并测定其细胞总数与载体材料的

  2. 中西医结合治疗产后发热临床研究%Combination of Chinese and Western Medicine in the Treatment of Postpartum Fever

    邓彩云; 张龙月; 陈莹


    ,Suye(perilla leaf) 10 g,Dangshen(Angelica) 10 g,Baishao(Radix Paeoniae Alba)10 g,Chuanxiong (Rhizoma ligustici wallichii)5 g,Shengdihuang (Raw Radix Rehmanniae)10 g.Poor treatment,can add almond,Radix Codonopsis Pilosulae;toxin-evil hot syndrome:Hongteng (Red Cane) 15 g,Baijiangcao (Herba Patriniae) 15 g,Huanglian(Coptis)5 g,Huangqin(Skullcap) 10 g,Huangbai (Phellodendron Bark) 10 g,Lianqiao(Frnctus Forsythiae) 10g,Jinyinhua(Honeysuckle) 10g,Zihuadiding(Viola yedoensis) 10 g,Chishao(Radix Paeoniae Rubra)10 g,Mudanpi (Cortex Moutan) 10 g,Yiyiren (Semen Coicis)20 g,Shenggancao (Licorice) 5 g.Symptoms do not ease and rhubarb,cattail pollen,trogopterus dung;blood stasis syndrome of fever:Danggui (Angelica) 10 g,Chuanxiong (Ligusticum wallichii) 8 g,Taoren (Peach Kernel) 5 g,Honghua(Carthamus) 6 g,Chaihu(Radix Bupleurum) 6 g,Danshen(Salvia miltiorrhiza) 8 g,Digupi(Cortex Lycii Radicis)10 g,Zhigancao(Baked Licorice) 5 g.If the effect of treatment in patients with poor,Rhizoma Corydalis,cannabis fruit;Yin deficiency syndrome of fever:Qinghao(Artemisia Annua) 10 g,Huangqin(Skullcap) 10 g,Digupi(Cortex Lycii Radicis) 10 g,Mudanpi(Cortex Moutan) 10 g,Danggui (Angelica) 10 g,Baishao(White Peony Root) 10 g,Chuanxiong(Ligusticum Wallichii) 5 g,Shengdihuang(Raw radix rehmanniae) 15 g,Baiwei(Blackend Swallowwort Root) 10 g,Yinchaihu(Silver Bupleurum) 10 g,Nuodaogen(Glutinous Rice Root) 30 g,Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis)10 g treatment.If after taking decoct with water,daily 1 agent,3 times orally administration.The symptoms do not ease with Astragalus,Radix Ophiopogonis,Radix Glehniae.Results:The effective rate of observation group was 95.9%,the control group was 73.5%,the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05);comparison the patients in the two groups of white cell content showed that the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05);after treatment,WBC content compared to the treatment group closer to the normal range,the difference was statistically significant