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Sample records for glutaric acidemia type

  1. Genetics Home Reference: glutaric acidemia type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glutaric acidemia type 1 in patients of Lumbee heritage from North Carolina. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 May; ... 825-8. Review. Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Genetics Home Reference Celebrates Its ...

  2. Glutaric acidemia type II: gene structure and mutations of the electron transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF:QO) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Stephen I; Binard, Robert J; Woontner, Michael R; Frerman, Frank E

    2002-01-01

    Glutaric acidemia type II is a human inborn error of metabolism which can be due to defects in either subunit of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or in ETF:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF:QO), but few disease-causing mutations have been described. The ETF:QO gene is located on 4q33, and contains 13 exons. Primers to amplify these exons are presented, together with mutations identified by molecular analysis of 20 ETF:QO-deficient patients. Twenty-one different disease-causing mutations were identified on 36 of the 40 chromosomes.

  3. Gene structure and mutations of glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase: impaired association of enzyme subunits that is due to an A421V substitution causes glutaric acidemia type I in the Amish.

    OpenAIRE

    Biery, B. J.; Stein, D. E.; Morton, D. H.; Goodman, S. I.

    1996-01-01

    The structure of the human glutaryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (GCD) gene was determined to contain 11 exons and to span approximately 7 kb. Fibroblast DNA from 64 unrelated glutaric acidemia type I (GA1) patients was screened for mutations by PCR amplification and analysis of SSCP. Fragments with altered electrophoretic mobility were subcloned and sequenced to detect mutations that caused GA1. This report describes the structure of the GCD gene, as well as point mutations and polymorphisms fou...

  4. Gene structure and mutations of glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase: impaired association of enzyme subunits that is due to an A421V substitution causes glutaric acidemia type I in the Amish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biery, B J; Stein, D E; Morton, D H; Goodman, S I

    1996-11-01

    The structure of the human glutaryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (GCD) gene was determined to contain 11 exons and to span approximately 7 kb. Fibroblast DNA from 64 unrelated glutaric acidemia type I (GA1) patients was screened for mutations by PCR amplification and analysis of SSCP. Fragments with altered electrophoretic mobility were subcloned and sequenced to detect mutations that caused GA1. This report describes the structure of the GCD gene, as well as point mutations and polymorphisms found in 7 of its 11 exons. Several mutations were found in more than one patient, but no one prevalent mutation was detected in the general population. As expected from pedigree analysis, a single mutant allele causes GA1 in the Old Order Amish of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Several mutations have been expressed in Escherichia coli, and all produce diminished enzyme activity. Reduced activity in GCD encoded by the A421V mutation in the Amish may be due to impaired association of enzyme subunits.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Adult-Onset Glutaric Aciduria Type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonmez, G.; Mutlu, H.; Ozturk, E.; Sildiroglu, H.O.; Keskin, A.T.; Basekim, C.C.; Kizilkaya, E. [Dept. of Radiology, GATA Haydarpasa Teaching Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-07-15

    Glutaric aciduria or glutaric acidemia type I, an autosomal recessive disease, usually presents with an acute encephalopathic crisis in young children. We report the magnetic resonance (MR) and proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) imaging findings of a previously healthy 20-year-old man who presented with recurrent headaches. Organic acids from the patient's urine contained large amounts of adipate, glutarate, and 3-hydroxyglutarate consistent with glutaric aciduria type I.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Adult-Onset Glutaric Aciduria Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonmez, G.; Mutlu, H.; Ozturk, E.; Sildiroglu, H.O.; Keskin, A.T.; Basekim, C.C.; Kizilkaya, E.

    2007-01-01

    Glutaric aciduria or glutaric acidemia type I, an autosomal recessive disease, usually presents with an acute encephalopathic crisis in young children. We report the magnetic resonance (MR) and proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) imaging findings of a previously healthy 20-year-old man who presented with recurrent headaches. Organic acids from the patient's urine contained large amounts of adipate, glutarate, and 3-hydroxyglutarate consistent with glutaric aciduria type I

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Adult-Onset Glutaric Aciduria Type I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonmez, G.; Mutlu, H.; Ozturk, E.; Sildiroglu, H.O.; Keskin, A.T.; Basekim, C.C.; Kizilkaya, E. [Dept. of Radiology, GATA Haydarpasa Teaching Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-07-15

    Glutaric aciduria or glutaric acidemia type I, an autosomal recessive disease, usually presents with an acute encephalopathic crisis in young children. We report the magnetic resonance (MR) and proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) imaging findings of a previously healthy 20-year-old man who presented with recurrent headaches. Organic acids from the patient's urine contained large amounts of adipate, glutarate, and 3-hydroxyglutarate consistent with glutaric aciduria type I.

  8. Glutaric aciduria type I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, H.; Berant, M.; Braun, J.; Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa; El-Peleg, O.; Christensen, E.

    1991-01-01

    Serial CT findings in an infant with glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I) are reported. The major CT features were dilatation of the insular cisterns, regression of the temporal lobes, with 'bat wings' dilatation of the Sylvian fissures and hypodensity of the lenticular nuclei. CT changes preceded the onset of symptoms by 3 months. An improvement in the temporal lobe atrophy was seen after a period of treatment, coinciding with marked clinical improvement. A peculiar feature was the presence of external hydrocephalus, which diverted the attention from manifestations of the primary disease and thus constituted a diagnostic pitfall. The delineation and recognition of the characteristic radiologic manifestations of GA-I are essential for allowing an adequate radiologist/clinician interaction in diagnosing this inborn error of metabolism. (orig.)

  9. Recurrent rhabdomyolysis and glutaric aciduria type I: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Gu-Ling; Hong, Fang; Tong, Fan; Fu, Hai-Dong; Liu, Ai-Min

    2016-08-01

    Glutaric acidemia type I (GA-I) is a rare metabolic disorder caused by mutation of the glutaryl- CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) gene. The occurrence of rhabdomyolysis with GA-I is extremely rare. We reported a child with recurrent rhabdomyolysis and undiagnosed glutaric acidemia type I (GA-I). And a literature review was performed. A 4.5-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital due to recurrent rhabdomyolysis for 3 times within three years. At the third admission, she was diagnosed with GA-I by biochemical testing and mutation analysis. The girl was found to have a serine to leucine replacement mutation of the GCDH gene in exon 8 at position 764. Other three patients with rhabdomyolysis and GA-I were discovered by literature searching. This report highlights that patients with GA-I may have an increased risk of rhabdomyolysis.

  10. A fast and simple solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method for the assay of urinary markers of glutaric acidemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccarato, Attilio; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Elliani, Rosangela; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio

    2014-10-30

    The analysis of characteristic urinary acidic markers such as glutaric, 3-hydroxyglutaric, 2-hydroxyglutaric, adipic, suberic, sebacic, ethylmalonic, 3-hydroxyisovaleric and isobutyric acid constitutes the recommended follow-up testing procedure for glutaric acidemia type 1 (GA-1) and type 2 (GA-2). The goal of the work herein presented is the development of a fast and simple method for the quantification of these biomarkers in human urine. The proposed analytical approach is based on the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS) afterward a rapid derivatization of acidic moieties by propyl chloroformate, propanol and pyridine. Trueness and precision of the proposed protocol, tested at 5, 30 and 80mgl -1 , provided satisfactory values: recoveries were in the range between 72% and 116% and the relative standard deviations (RSD%) were between 0.9% and 18% (except for isobutyric acid at 5mgl -1 ). The LOD values achieved by the proposed method ranged between 1.0 and 473μgl -1 . Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Glutaric Aciduria type I and acute renal failure — Coincidence or causality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Pode-Shakked

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutaric Aciduria type I (GA-I is a rare organic acidemia, caused by mutations in the GCDH gene, and characterized by encephalopathic crises with neurological sequelae. We report herein a patient with GA-I who presented with severe acute renal failure requiring dialysis, following an acute diarrheal illness. Histopathological evaluation demonstrated acute tubular necrosis, and molecular diagnosis revealed the patient to be homozygous for a previously unreported mutation, p.E64D. As renal impairment is not part of the clinical spectrum typical to GA-I, possible associations of renal failure and the underlying inborn error of metabolism are discussed, including recent advancements made in the understanding of the renal transport of glutaric acid and its derivatives during metabolic disturbance in GA-I.

  12. Glutaric aciduria type 1--importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroze, Bushra; Yunus, Zabedah Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Glutaric aciduria type 1 is a rare inherited organic academia. Untreated patients characteristically develop dystonia secondary to striatal injury during early childhood, which results in high morbidity and mortality. In patients diagnosed during neonatal period, striatal injury can be prevented by metabolic treatment including low lysine diet, carnitine supplementation and aggressive emergency treatment during acute episode of inter current illnesses. However, after the onset of neurological damage initiation of treatment is generally not effective. Therefore; glutaric aciduria type 1 is included in newborn screening panel for inherited metabolic diseases in many countries. We describe two children in a family with glutaric aciduria type 1 and their different long term outcomes. The first child was diagnosed late leading to severe neurological damage. The second child was diagnosed in the neonatal period as a result of selective high-risk screening and was treated appropriately giving a normal growth.

  13. Glutaric aciduria type 1: neuroimaging features with clinical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammad, Shaimaa Abdelsattar; Ahmed, Khaled A. [Ain-Shams University, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo (Egypt); Abdelkhalek, Heba Salah; Zaki, Osama K. [Ain-Shams University, Medical Genetics Unit, Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-10-15

    Glutaric aciduria type 1 is a rare neurometabolic disease with high morbidity. To describe the MR imaging abnormalities in glutaric aciduria type 1 and to identify any association between the clinical and imaging features. MRI scans of 29 children (mean age: 16.9 months) with confirmed diagnosis of glutaric aciduria type 1 were retrospectively reviewed. Gray matter and white matter scores were calculated based on a previously published pattern-recognition approach of assessing leukoencephalopathies. Hippocampal formation and opercular topography were assessed in relation to the known embryological basis. MRI scores were correlated with morbidity score. The most consistent MRI abnormality was widened operculum with dilatation of the subarachnoid spaces surrounding underdeveloped frontotemporal lobes. Incomplete hippocampal inversion was also seen. The globus pallidus was the most frequently involved gray matter structure (86%). In addition to the central tegmental tract, white matter abnormalities preferentially involved the central and periventricular regions. The morbidity score correlated with the gray matter abnormality score (P = 0.004). Patients with dystonia had higher gray matter and morbidity scores. Morbidity is significantly correlated with abnormality of gray matter, rather than white matter, whether secondary to acute encephalopathic crisis or insidious onset disease. (orig.)

  14. Pharmacological evidence for GABAergic and glutamatergic involvement in the convulsant and behavioral effects of glutaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, T T; Begnini, J; de Bastiani, J; Fialho, D B; Jurach, A; Ribeiro, M C; Wajner, M; de Mello, C F

    1998-08-17

    The effect of intrastriatal administration of glutaric acid (GTR), a metabolite that accumulates in glutaric acidemia type I (GA-I), on the behavior of adult male rats was investigated. After cannula placing, rats received unilateral intrastriatal injections of GTR buffered to pH 7.4 with NaOH or NaCl. GTR induced rotational behavior toward the contralateral side of injection and clonic convulsions in a dose-dependent manner. Rotational behavior was prevented by intrastriatal preadministration of DNQX and muscimol, but not by the preadministration of MK-801. Convulsions were prevented by intrastriatal preinjection of muscimol. This study provides evidence for a participation of glutamatergic non-NMDA and GABAergic mechanisms in the GTR-induced behavioral alterations. These findings may be of value in understanding the physiopathology of the neurological dysfunction in glutaric acidemia.

  15. Demographic and clinical features of glutaric acidemia type 1; a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osama K. Zaki

    2014-02-01

    Feb 1, 2014 ... onset of symptoms, macrocephaly (85%) was the commonest feature of GAI followed by ... Health in Egypt for management of patients with metabolic dis- orders ..... in the national screening program for hypothyroidism may be.

  16. Subdural hematomas: glutaric aciduria type 1 or abusive head trauma? A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vester, Marloes E. M.; Bilo, Rob A. C.; Karst, Wouter A.; Daams, Joost G.; Duijst, Wilma L. J. M.; van Rijn, Rick R.

    2015-01-01

    Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is a rare metabolic disorder of glutaryl-CoA-dehydrogenase enzyme deficiency. Children with GA1 are reported to be predisposed to subdural hematoma (SDH) development due to stretching of cortical veins secondary to cerebral atrophy and expansion of CSF spaces.

  17. Occurrence of subdural hematomas in Dutch glutaric aciduria type 1 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vester, Marloes E M; Visser, Gepke; Wijburg, Frits A.; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; Williams, Monique; van Rijn, Rick R.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1), a rare inherited metabolic disorder, have an increased risk for subdural hematomas (SDHs). GA1 is therefore generally included in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with SDHs. This retrospective cohort study reviews all 25 registered, in

  18. Occurrence of subdural hematomas in Dutch glutaric aciduria type 1 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vester, Marloes E. M.; Visser, Gepke; Wijburg, Frits A.; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; Williams, Monique; van Rijn, Rick R.

    Patients with glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1), a rare inherited metabolic disorder, have an increased risk for subdural hematomas (SDHs). GA1 is therefore generally included in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with SDHs. This retrospective cohort study reviews all 25 registered, in

  19. Subdural hematomas: glutaric aciduria type 1 or abusive head trauma? A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vester, M.E.; Bilo, R.A.; Karst, W.A.; Daams, J.G.; Duijst, W.L.J.M.; Rijn, R.R. van

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is a rare metabolic disorder of glutaryl-CoA-dehydrogenase enzyme deficiency. Children with GA1 are reported to be predisposed to subdural hematoma (SDH) development due to stretching of cortical veins secondary to cerebral atrophy and expansion of CSF spaces.

  20. Occurrence of subdural hematomas in Dutch glutaric aciduria type 1 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vester, M.E.M. (Marloes E.M.); G. Visser (G.); F.A. Wijburg (Frits); F.J. van Spronsen; M. Williams (Martine); R.R. van Rijn (Rick)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPatients with glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1), a rare inherited metabolic disorder, have an increased risk for subdural hematomas (SDHs). GA1 is therefore generally included in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with SDHs. This retrospective cohort study reviews all 25

  1. Cerebral H-1 MR spectroscopy revealing white matter NAA decreases in glutaric aciduria type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijens, P. E.; Smit, G. P. A.; Meiners, L. C.; Oudkerk, M.; van Spronsen, F. J.

    MR spectroscopy in two patients with glutaric aciduria type I revealed reductions in the white matter N-acetylaspartate signal, in the more severe case accompanied by a loss of glutamate and the appearance of lactate signals. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A review of patients with glutaric aciduria type 1 at Inkosi Albert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is a rare, autosomal-recessive organic acidaemia. It is caused by deficiency of glutaryl-co-enzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase (GCDH) resulting from a mutation in the GCDH gene on chromosome 19p13.2. There are 108 known disease-causing mutations in the Human Gene Mutation Database.

  3. Novel contiguous gene deletion in peruvian girl with Trichothiodystrophy type 4 and glutaric aciduria type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Serna-Infantes, Jorge; Pastor, Miguel Chávez; Trubnykova, Milana; Velásquez, Félix Chavesta; Sotomayor, Flor Vásquez; Barriga, Hugo Abarca

    2018-02-05

    Trichothiodystrophy type 4 is a rare autosomal recessive and ectodermal disorder, characterized by dry, brittle, sparse and sulfur-deficient hair and other features like intellectual disability, ichthyotic skin and short stature, caused by a homozygous mutation in MPLKIP gene. Glutaric aciduria type 3 is caused by a homozygous mutation in SUGCT gene with no distinctive phenotype. Both genes are localized on chromosome 7 (7p14). We report an 8-year-old female with short stature, microcephaly, development delay, intellectual disability and hair characterized for dark, short, coarse, sparse and brittle associated to classical trichorrhexis microscopy pattern. Chromosome microarray analysis showed a 125 kb homozygous pathogenic deletion, which includes genes MPLKIP and SUGCT, not described before. This is the first case described in Peru of a novel contiguous gene deletion of Trichothiodystrophy type 4 and Glutaric aciduria type 3 performed by chromosome microarray analysis, highlighting the contribution and importance of molecular technologies on diagnosis of rare genetic conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Screening of a healthy newborn identifies three adult family members with symptomatic glutaric aciduria type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MCH Janssen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report three adult sibs (one female, two males with symptomatic glutaric acidura type I, who were diagnosed after a low carnitine level was found by newborn screening in a healthy newborn of the women. All three adults had low plasma carnitine, elevated glutaric acid levels and pronounced 3-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. The diagnosis was confirmed by undetectable glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity in lymphocytes and two pathogenic heterozygous mutations in the GCDH gene (c.1060A>G, c.1154C>T. These results reinforce the notion that abnormal metabolite levels in newborns may lead to the diagnosis of adult metabolic disease in the mother and potentially other family members.

  5. A case of glutaric aciduria type I with unique abnormalities in the cerebral CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Seiji; Orii, Tadao; Yasuda, Kanji; Kohno, Yoshinori

    1987-01-01

    A first Japanese case of glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I) was described. She was a 7-month-old girl presenting with poor head control, irritability and sleeplessness. The profile of urinary organic acids by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) suggesting GA-I were confirmed by no activity of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase in the fibroblasts. The cerebral computer tomography (CT) showed marked changes such as large fluid collections on bilateral frontotemporal regions and a slight enlargement of bilateral ventricles. The amounts of urinary glutarate excretion decreased after restriction of lysine and tryptophan in her diet and administration of carnitine improved the carnitine levels in blood and urine, while these were less effective for the neurological symptoms. On the other hand, oral administration of lioresal, an analogue of gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA), cleared her symptoms such as ill temper, irritability and sleeplessness dramatically, and the abnormalities of the CT examinations were not more deteriorative until 2 years of her age at least. The neurological manifestations of GA-I seemed to be affected by the unusual metabolism of GABA in the central nervous system. (author)

  6. Glutaric aciduria type I: a common cause of episodic encephalopathy and spastic paralysis in the Amish of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D H; Bennett, M J; Seargeant, L E; Nichter, C A; Kelley, R I

    1991-10-01

    We have diagnosed type I glutaric aciduria (GA-I) in 14 children from 7 Old Order Amish families in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. An otherwise rare disorder, GA-I appears to be a common cause of acute encephalopathy and cerebral palsy among the Amish. The natural history of the disease, which was previously unrecognized in this population, is remarkably variable and ranges from acute infantile encephalopathy and sudden death to static extrapyramidal cerebral palsy to normal adult. Ten patients first manifested the disease between 3 and 18 months at the time of an acute infectious illness. Four of these children died in early childhood, also during acute illnesses. However, there has been little progression of the neurological disease after age 5 years in the surviving children and intellect usually has been preserved, even in children with severe spastic paralysis. When well, patients have plasma glutaric acid concentrations ranging from 4.8 to 14.2 mumol/liter (nl 0-5.6 mumol/liter) and urinary glutaric acid concentrations from 12.5 to 196 mg/g creatinine (nl 0.5-8.4 mg/g creatinine). We have found that GA-I can be diagnosed in the Amish by measurement of urinary glutaric acid concentrations using isotope-dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, whereas the diagnosis can easily be missed by routine urine organic acid gas chromatography.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Interaction of glutaric aciduria type 1-related glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase with mitochondrial matrix proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Schmiesing

    Full Text Available Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1 is an inherited neurometabolic disorder caused by mutations in the GCDH gene encoding glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH, which forms homo- and heteromeric complexes in the mitochondrial matrix. GA1 patients are prone to the development of encephalopathic crises which lead to an irreversible disabling dystonic movement disorder. The clinical and biochemical manifestations of GA1 vary considerably and lack correlations to the genotype. Using an affinity chromatography approach we report here for the first time on the identification of mitochondrial proteins interacting directly with GCDH. Among others, dihydrolipoamide S-succinyltransferase (DLST involved in the formation of glutaryl-CoA, and the β-subunit of the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETFB serving as electron acceptor, were identified as GCDH binding partners. We have adapted the yellow fluorescent protein-based fragment complementation assay and visualized the oligomerization of GCDH as well as its direct interaction with DLST and ETFB in mitochondria of living cells. These data suggest that GCDH is a constituent of multimeric mitochondrial dehydrogenase complexes, and the characterization of their interrelated functions may provide new insights into the regulation of lysine oxidation and the pathophysiology of GA1.

  8. Compound heterozygous mutations in electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase identified in a young Chinese woman with late-onset glutaric aciduria type II

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Ying; Zhou, Yun; Zhang, Keqin; Li, Ling; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Chen, Liye; Wang, Yuhui; Lu, Zhiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Background Glutaric aciduria type II (GA II) is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. The late-onset form of GA II disorder is almost exclusively associated with mutations in the electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETFDH) gene. Till now, the clinical features of late-onset GA II vary widely and pose a great challenge for diagnosis. The aim of the current study is to characterize the clinical phenotypes and genetic basis of a late-onset GAII ...

  9. Anesthetic management of comprehensive dental restoration in a child with glutaric aciduria type 1 using volatile sevoflurane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Nung Teng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1 is a rare, inherited mitochondrial disorder that results from deficiency of mitochondrial glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. Most patients develop neurological dysfunction early in life, which leads to severe disabilities. We present a 37-month-old girl with GA1 manifested as macrocephaly and hypotonia who received comprehensive dental restoration surgery under general anesthesia with sevoflurane. She was placed on specialized fluid management during a preoperative fasting period and anesthesia was administered without complications. All the physiological parameters, including glucose and lactate blood levels and arterial blood gas were carefully monitored and maintained within normal range perioperatively. Strategies for anesthetic management should include prevention of pulmonary aspiration, dehydration, hyperthermia and catabolic state, adequate analgesia to minimize surgical stress, and avoidance of prolonged neuromuscular blockade. We administered general anesthesia with sevoflurane uneventfully, which was well tolerated by our patient with GA1. Additionally, communication with a pediatric geneticist and surgeons should be undertaken to formulate a comprehensive anesthetic strategy in these patients.

  10. Neurodevelopmental profiles of children with glutaric aciduria type I diagnosed by newborn screening: a follow-up case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy; Crowe, Louise; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Anderson, Vicki; Boneh, Avihu

    2015-01-01

    Glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I) is an inherited metabolic disorder that may lead to severe motor disorder and cognitive impairment. GA-I is now included in the newborn screening programme in many countries as early detection allows for prompt treatment and effectively reduces the risk of poor developmental outcome. Information regarding the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome of children with GA-I treated early is sparse.We recruited children with a confirmed diagnosis of GA-I diagnosed via newborn screening, treated in our centre and >3 years of age (n = 6). Children were assessed at two time points using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Four of these had been the subject of a previous report. All participants were male, 3-6 years at the initial assessment and 6-12 years of age at the follow-up assessment.Fine motor skills were below average in all patients. Speech, which was affected in all four patients reported previously, improved following speech therapy. IQ scores remained generally stable within the normal range. Executive functioning was average to high average in four patients. Behaviour, as assessed through parental questionnaires, was problematic in two patients. Compounding factors included child neglect, family history of autism and multiple admissions to hospital (n = 1 in each).GA-I affects fine motor skills and speech, regardless of early treatment, but not IQ scores. Patients with GA-I should be referred for assessment and appropriate early intervention. Further research is needed to correlate specific neuropsychological deficits with neuroimaging.

  11. The long-term treatment of a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus and glutaric aciduria type 1: the effect of insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rizzo, Monica; Galderisi, Alfonso; Celato, Andrea; Furlan, Francesca; Giordano, Laura; Cazzorla, Chiara; Fasan, Ilaria; Moretti, Carlo; Zschocke, Johannes; Burlina, Alberto B

    2016-08-01

    The coexistence of two diseases associated with different metabolic disorders is a very rare event. Some associations, although sporadic, can be particularly challenging both in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic management and in terms of theoretical perspective. Here, we report a child affected by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1). The child was diagnosed with classical T1DM at 15 months of age, with a tendency toward hypoglycemia. A few months later, during an acute intercurrent infective episode, the child displayed acute hypotonia of the lower limbs and limbs dystonia. A brain MRI showed bilateral striatal necrosis, suggesting GA1 diagnosis. Treatment with a low-lysine dietary regimen and carnitine supplementation was started and resulted in an improvement in metabolic control and a reduction of hypoglycemic episodes along with an increasing in insulin daily dose. After 2 years, the neurological outcome consisted of a reduction in dystonic movements and a metabolic stability of both diseases. This case provides some insight into the reciprocal interconnections between the two metabolic disorders. Similar pathogenic mechanisms responsible for the neuronal injury might have impacted each other, and a strict relationship between a specific aspect of GA1-impaired metabolism and glucose homeostasis might explain how the tailored management of GA1 was not only effective in controlling the disease, but it also resulted in an improvement in the control of the glycemic profile. What in known: • Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) usually presents in childhood with severe and possibly irreversible neuronal damage, triggered by a catabolic stress • The association of GA1 with other diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), is a rare event, complicating the treatment management What is new: • Insulin treatment has a role in preventing GA1 metabolic decompensation, even in the catabolic condition of hypoglycemia • Promoting

  12. Novel ETF dehydrogenase mutations in a patient with mild glutaric aciduria type II and complex II-III deficiency in liver and muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lynne A; He, Miao; Vockley, Jerry; Payne, Nicole; Rhead, William; Hoppel, Charles; Spector, Elaine; Gernert, Kim; Gibson, K Michael

    2010-12-01

    We describe a 22-year-old male who developed severe hypoglycemia and lethargy during an acute illness at 4 months of age and subsequently grew and developed normally. At age 4 years he developed recurrent vomiting with mild hyperammonemia and dehydration requiring frequent hospitalizations. Glutaric aciduria Type II was suspected based upon biochemical findings and managed with cornstarch, carnitine and riboflavin supplements. He did not experience metabolic crises between ages 4-12 years. He experienced recurrent vomiting, mild hyperammonemia, and generalized weakness associated with acute illnesses and growth spurts. At age 18 years, he developed exercise intolerance and proximal muscle weakness leading to the identification of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and complex II/III deficiencies in both skeletal muscle and liver. Subsequent molecular characterization of the ETFDH gene revealed novel heterozygous mutations, p.G274X:c.820 G > T (exon 7) and p.P534L: c.1601 C > T (exon 12), the latter within the iron sulfur-cluster and predicted to affect ubiquinone reductase activity of ETFDH and the docking of ETF to ETFDH. Our case supports the concept of a structural interaction between ETFDH and other enzyme partners, and suggests that the conformational change upon ETF binding to ETFDH may play a key role in linking ETFDH to II/III super-complex formation.

  13. Severe metabolic or mixed acidemia on intensive care unit admission: incidence, prognosis and administration of buffer therapy. A prospective, multiple-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Boris; Rimmele, Thomas; Le Goff, Charlotte; Chanques, Gérald; Corne, Philippe; Jonquet, Olivier; Muller, Laurent; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Guervilly, Christophe; Papazian, Laurent; Allaouchiche, Bernard; Jaber, Samir

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we sought describe the incidence and outcomes of severe metabolic or mixed acidemia in critically ill patients as well as the use of sodium bicarbonate therapy to treat these illnesses. We conducted a prospective, observational, multiple-center study. Consecutive patients who presented with severe acidemia, defined herein as plasma pH below 7.20, were screened. The incidence, sodium bicarbonate prescription and outcomes of either metabolic or mixed severe acidemia were analyzed. Among 2, 550 critically ill patients, 200 (8%) presented with severe acidemia, and 155 (6% of the total admissions) met the inclusion criteria. Almost all patients needed mechanical ventilation and vasopressors during their ICU stay, and 20% of them required renal replacement therapy within the first 24 hours of their ICU stay. Severe metabolic or mixed acidemia was associated with a mortality rate of 57% in the ICU. Delay of acidemia recovery as opposed to initial pH value was associated with increased mortality in the ICU. The type of acidemia did not influence the decision to administer sodium bicarbonate. The incidence of severe metabolic or mixed acidemia in critically ill patients was 6% in the present study, and it was associated with a 57% mortality rate in the ICU. In contradistinction with the initial acid-base parameters, the rapidity of acidemia recovery was an independent risk factor for mortality. Sodium bicarbonate prescription was very heterogeneous between ICUs. Further studies assessing specific treatments may be of interest in this population.

  14. Severe metabolic or mixed acidemia on intensive care unit admission: incidence, prognosis and administration of buffer therapy. a prospective, multiple-center study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In this study, we sought describe the incidence and outcomes of severe metabolic or mixed acidemia in critically ill patients as well as the use of sodium bicarbonate therapy to treat these illnesses. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational, multiple-center study. Consecutive patients who presented with severe acidemia, defined herein as plasma pH below 7.20, were screened. The incidence, sodium bicarbonate prescription and outcomes of either metabolic or mixed severe acidemia were analyzed. Results Among 2, 550 critically ill patients, 200 (8%) presented with severe acidemia, and 155 (6% of the total admissions) met the inclusion criteria. Almost all patients needed mechanical ventilation and vasopressors during their ICU stay, and 20% of them required renal replacement therapy within the first 24 hours of their ICU stay. Severe metabolic or mixed acidemia was associated with a mortality rate of 57% in the ICU. Delay of acidemia recovery as opposed to initial pH value was associated with increased mortality in the ICU. The type of acidemia did not influence the decision to administer sodium bicarbonate. Conclusions The incidence of severe metabolic or mixed acidemia in critically ill patients was 6% in the present study, and it was associated with a 57% mortality rate in the ICU. In contradistinction with the initial acid-base parameters, the rapidity of acidemia recovery was an independent risk factor for mortality. Sodium bicarbonate prescription was very heterogeneous between ICUs. Further studies assessing specific treatments may be of interest in this population. PMID:21995879

  15. The M405V allele of the glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase gene is an important marker for glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I) low excretors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Lori-Anne P; Greene, Carol L; Strovel, Erin; Rispoli-Joines, Jessica; Spector, Elaine; Woontner, Michael; Scharer, Gunter; Enns, Gregory M; Gallagher, Renata; Zinn, Arthur B; McCandless, Shawn E; Hoppel, Charles L; Goodman, Stephen I; Bedoyan, Jirair K

    2016-09-01

    Glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I) is an autosomal recessive organic aciduria resulting from a functional deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase, encoded by GCDH. Two clinically indistinguishable diagnostic subgroups of GA-I are known; low and high excretors (LEs and HEs, respectively). Early medical and dietary interventions can result in significantly better outcomes and improved quality of life for patients with GA-I. We report on nine cases of GA-I LE patients all sharing the M405V allele with two cases missed by newborn screening (NBS) using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). We describe a novel case with the known pathogenic M405V variant and a novel V133L variant, and present updated and previously unreported clinical, biochemical, functional and molecular data on eight other patients all sharing the M405V allele. Three of the nine patients are of African American ancestry, with two as siblings. GCDH activity was assayed in six of the nine patients and varied from 4 to 25% of the control mean. We support the use of urine glutarylcarnitine as a biochemical marker of GA-I by demonstrating that glutarylcarnitine is efficiently cleared by the kidney (50-90%) and that plasma and urine glutarylcarnitine follow a linear relationship. We report the allele frequencies for three known GA-I LE GCDH variants (M405V, V400M and R227P) and note that both the M405V and V400M variants are significantly more common in the population of African ancestry compared to the general population. This report highlights the M405V allele as another important molecular marker in patients with the GA-I LE phenotype. Therefore, the incorporation into newborn screening of molecular screening for the M405V and V400M variants in conjunction with MS/MS could help identify asymptomatic at-risk GA-I LE patients that could potentially be missed by current NBS programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Autism in patients with propionic acidemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witters, P.; Debbold, E.; Crivelly, K.; Kerckhove, K. Vande; Corthouts, K.; Debbold, B.; Andersson, H.; Vannieuwenborg, L.; Geuens, S.; Baumgartner, M.; Kozicz, L.T.; Settles, L.; Morava, E.

    2016-01-01

    Certain inborn errors of metabolism have been suggested to increase the risk of autistic behavior. In an animal model, propionic acid ingestion triggered abnormal behavior resembling autism. So far only a few cases were reported with propionic acidemia and autistic features. From a series of twelve

  17. Higher Vulnerability of Menadione-Exposed Cortical Astrocytes of Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficient Mice to Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, and Cell Death: Implications for the Neurodegeneration in Glutaric Aciduria Type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marília Danyelle Nunes; Seminotti, Bianca; Zanatta, Ângela; de Mello Gonçalves, Aline; Bellaver, Bruna; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Quincozes-Santos, André; Goodman, Stephen Irwin; Woontner, Michael; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Wajner, Moacir

    2017-08-01

    Patients affected by glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I) show progressive cortical leukoencephalopathy whose pathogenesis is poorly known. In the present work, we exposed cortical astrocytes of wild-type (Gcdh +/+ ) and glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase knockout (Gcdh -/- ) mice to the oxidative stress inducer menadione and measured mitochondrial bioenergetics, redox homeostasis, and cell viability. Mitochondrial function (MTT and JC1-mitochondrial membrane potential assays), redox homeostasis (DCFH oxidation, nitrate and nitrite production, GSH concentrations and activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and GPx), and cell death (propidium iodide incorporation) were evaluated in primary cortical astrocyte cultures of Gcdh +/+ and Gcdh -/- mice unstimulated and stimulated by menadione. We also measured the pro-inflammatory response (TNFα levels, IL1-β and NF-ƙB) in unstimulated astrocytes obtained from these mice. Gcdh -/- mice astrocytes were more vulnerable to menadione-induced oxidative stress (decreased GSH concentrations and altered activities of the antioxidant enzymes), mitochondrial dysfunction (decrease of MTT reduction and JC1 values), and cell death as compared with Gcdh +/+ astrocytes. A higher inflammatory response (TNFα, IL1-β and NF-ƙB) was also observed in Gcdh -/- mice astrocytes. These data indicate a higher susceptibility of Gcdh -/- cortical astrocytes to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, probably leading to cell death. It is presumed that these pathomechanisms may contribute to the cortical leukodystrophy observed in GA-I patients.

  18. Acute Pancreatitis with Rapid Clinical Improvement in a Child with Isovaleric Acidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elpis Mantadakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isovaleric acidemia is a rare branched-chain organic acidemia. The authors describe a 3.5-year-old girl with isovaleric acidemia and acute abdominal pain associated with bilious emesis. Elevated serum amylase and abdominal ultrasonography demonstrating an enlarged and edematous pancreas, along with the presence of peripancreatic exudates, confirmed the presence of acute pancreatitis. The patient recovered quickly with intravenous hydration, pancreatic rest, and administration of intravenous L-carnitine. Pancreatitis should be ruled out in the context of vomiting in any patient with isovaleric acidemia. Conversely, branched-chain organic acidemias should be included in the differential diagnosis of any child with pancreatitis of unknown origin.

  19. Isovaleric acidemia: an integrated approach toward predictive laboratory medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dercksen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Isovaleric acidemia (IVA) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD) deficiency (E.C.1.2.99.10) and patients present with a heterogeneous phenotype, ranging from metabolically mild and/or intermittent to metabolically severe. A cohort of ten IVA patients with a

  20. Acute Pancreatitis with Rapid Clinical Improvement in a Child with Isovaleric Acidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Mantadakis, Elpis; Chrysafis, Ioannis; Tsouvala, Emmanouela; Evangeliou, Athanassios; Chatzimichael, Athanassios

    2013-01-01

    Isovaleric acidemia is a rare branched-chain organic acidemia. The authors describe a 3.5-year-old girl with isovaleric acidemia and acute abdominal pain associated with bilious emesis. Elevated serum amylase and abdominal ultrasonography demonstrating an enlarged and edematous pancreas, along with the presence of peripancreatic exudates, confirmed the presence of acute pancreatitis. The patient recovered quickly with intravenous hydration, pancreatic rest, and administration of intravenous L...

  1. Stabilization of blood methylmalonic acid level in methylmalonic acidemia after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P W; Hwu, W L; Ho, M C; Lee, N C; Chien, Y H; Ni, Y H; Lee, P H

    2010-05-01

    Methylmalonic acidemia with complete mutase deficiency (mut(0) type) is an inborn error of metabolism with high mortality and morbidity. LT has been suggested to be a solution to this disease, but elevation of urinary and blood MMA was still observed after LT. In this study, we measured dry blood spot MMA and its precursor propionyl-carnitine (C3-carnitine) for mut(0) patients. The results revealed that when C3-carnitine rose during metabolic stress, MMA rose exponentially (up to 1000 micromol/L) in patients who did not undergo LT. In patients who underwent LT, MMA rose to 100-200 micromol/L when C3-carnitine reached 10-20 micromol/L. However, when C3-carnitine rose further to 40-50 micromol/L, MMA levels just stayed put. Therefore, LT stabilized blood MMA level, though there might be a threshold for blood MMA clearance by the donor liver. This finding should be critical to understand the long-term outcome for LT in methylmalonic acidemia.

  2. Could glutaric acid (GA) replace glutaraldehyde in the preparation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    folds received wide attention due to low cost, ease of processing and biocompatibility .... ference in the absorbance divided by the absorbance of the native material ..... The present study explicitly demonstrated that glutaric acid acts as suitable ...

  3. Postnatal and antenatal laboratory diagnosis of glutaric aciduria II in a South African family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, H.E.; Balla, R.; De Jong, G.; Piek, C.J.; Mienie, L.J.; Erasmus, E.

    1987-01-01

    Glutaric aciduria type II (Ga II) was proved in a neonate who presented shortly after birth with respiratory distress, metabolic acidosis, non-ketotic hypoglycaemia and a sweaty-feet-like odour. The diagnosis was based on elevated levels of glutaric and other acids in the urine and on studies on cultured skin fibroblasts where defective metabolism of fatty acids of varying chain length was demonstrated. Antenatal diagnosis was performed on a subsequent pregnancy in this family where an abnormal amniotic fluid organic acid profile together with defective fatty acid oxidation in cultured amnion cells was indicative of GA II in the fetus. A measure of efficency of butyrate oxidation was obtained by analysis of the amount of 14 C label incorporated into trichloro-acetic acid precipitable macromolecules. The incorporation of ( 3 H) leucine was taken as a general indicator of metabolism in the cell population. This is the first report of this genetic disorder in a South African family and it should be considered in suspected organic acidaemia in the neonatal period

  4. Evaporation of methyl- and dimethyl-substituted malonic, succinic, glutaric and adipic acid particles at ambient temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jacob Garbrecht; Rosenørn, Thomas; Svenningsson, Birgitta

    2004-01-01

    Evaporation; organic aerosols; vapor pressure; dicarboxylic acid; maonic acid; succinic acid; glutaric acid; adipic acid......Evaporation; organic aerosols; vapor pressure; dicarboxylic acid; maonic acid; succinic acid; glutaric acid; adipic acid...

  5. Clinical and neurocognitive outcome in symptomatic isovaleric acidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grünert Sarah C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its first description over 40 years ago, knowledge of the clinical course of isovaleric acidemia (IVA, a disorder predisposing to severe acidotic episodes during catabolic stress, is still anecdotal. We aimed to investigate the phenotypic presentation and factors determining the neurological and neurocognitive outcomes of patients diagnosed with IVA following clinical manifestation. Methods Retrospective data on 21 children and adults with symptomatic IVA diagnosed from 1976 to 1999 were analyzed for outcome determinants including age at diagnosis and number of catabolic episodes. Sixteen of 21 patients were evaluated cross-sectionally focusing on the neurological and neurocognitive status. Additionally, 155 cases of patients with IVA published in the international literature were reviewed and analyzed for outcome parameters including mortality. Results 57% of study patients (12/21 were diagnosed within the first weeks of life and 43% (9/21 in childhood. An acute metabolic attack was the main cause of diagnostic work-up. 44% of investigated study patients (7/16 showed mild motor dysfunction and only 19% (3/16 had cognitive deficits. No other organ complications were found. The patients' intelligence quotient was not related to the number of catabolic episodes but was inversely related to age at diagnosis. In published cases, mortality was high (33% if associated with neonatal diagnosis, following manifestation at an average age of 7 days. Conclusions Within the group of "classical" organic acidurias, IVA appears to be exceptional considering its milder neuropathologic implications. The potential to avoid neonatal mortality and to improve neurologic and cognitive outcome under early treatment reinforces IVA to be qualified for newborn screening.

  6. Structural and vibrational spectral investigations of melaminium glutarate monohydrate by FTIR, FT-Raman and DFT methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Marchewka, M. K.; Raj, Arushma; Yang, Haifeng; Mohan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Melaminium glutarate monohydrate has been synthesised and FTIR and FT-Raman spectral investigations are carried out. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of melaminium glutarate monohydrate in the ground state have been determined by using B3LYP method with 6-31++G**, 6-31++G and cc-pVDZ basis sets. The stability of the system, inter molecular hydrogen bonding and the electron donor-acceptor interactions of the complex have been investigated by using natural bonding orbital analysis. It reveals that the Nsbnd H⋯O and Osbnd H⋯O intermolecular interactions significantly influence crystal packing of this molecular complex. The glutarate anion forms hydrogen bonds to the melaminium cation as the proton donor of the type Nsbnd H⋯O with a distance (N⋯O) = 2.51 Å. It is also linked by other hydrogen bonds to the water molecule of the type Osbnd H⋯O with (O⋯O) = 2.82 Å and to the amino (sbnd NH2) group of melaminium cation of the type Nsbnd H⋯O with (N⋯O) = 2.82 Å as the proton acceptor. The electrostatic potential of the complex is in the range +1.892e × 10-2 to -1.892e × 10-2. The limits of total electron density of the complex is +6.679e × 10-2 to -6.679e × 10-2.

  7. Structural and vibrational spectral investigations of melaminium glutarate monohydrate by FTIR, FT-Raman and DFT methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V; Marchewka, M K; Raj, Arushma; Yang, Haifeng; Mohan, S

    2015-01-25

    Melaminium glutarate monohydrate has been synthesised and FTIR and FT-Raman spectral investigations are carried out. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of melaminium glutarate monohydrate in the ground state have been determined by using B3LYP method with 6-31++G(**), 6-31++G and cc-pVDZ basis sets. The stability of the system, inter molecular hydrogen bonding and the electron donor-acceptor interactions of the complex have been investigated by using natural bonding orbital analysis. It reveals that the N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O intermolecular interactions significantly influence crystal packing of this molecular complex. The glutarate anion forms hydrogen bonds to the melaminium cation as the proton donor of the type N-H⋯O with a distance (N⋯O)=2.51 Å. It is also linked by other hydrogen bonds to the water molecule of the type O-H⋯O with (O⋯O)=2.82 Å and to the amino (NH2) group of melaminium cation of the type N-H⋯O with (N⋯O)=2.82 Å as the proton acceptor. The electrostatic potential of the complex is in the range +1.892e×10(-2) to -1.892e×10(-2). The limits of total electron density of the complex is +6.679e×10(-2) to -6.679e×10(-2). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Volumetric properties of aqueous solutions of glutaric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Hamo, Meyrav [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Manzurola, Emanuel [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-07-15

    Densities of aqueous solutions with molalities up to 6 mol . kg{sup -1} were determined at 5 K temperature intervals, from T = 288.15 K to T = 333.15 K. Densities served to evaluate the apparent molar volumes, V {sub 2,{phi}}(m, T), the cubic expansion coefficients, {alpha}(m, T), and the changes of isobaric heat capacities with respect to pressure, ({partial_derivative}C {sub P}/{partial_derivative}P) {sub T,m}. They were qualitatively correlated with the changes in the structure of water when glutaric acid is dissolved in it.

  9. Volumetric properties of aqueous solutions of glutaric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Hamo, Meyrav; Apelblat, Alexander; Manzurola, Emanuel

    2007-01-01

    Densities of aqueous solutions with molalities up to 6 mol . kg -1 were determined at 5 K temperature intervals, from T = 288.15 K to T = 333.15 K. Densities served to evaluate the apparent molar volumes, V 2,φ (m, T), the cubic expansion coefficients, α(m, T), and the changes of isobaric heat capacities with respect to pressure, (∂C P /∂P) T,m . They were qualitatively correlated with the changes in the structure of water when glutaric acid is dissolved in it

  10. Renal responses to prolonged (48 h) hypoxemia without acidemia in the late-gestation ovine fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dassel, ACM; Aarnoudse, JG

    The effect of sustained moderate hypoxia on renal blood flow and renal function was studied in the ovine fetus (123-129 days). The experiments consisted of 48 h of isocapnic hypoxia, not resulting in acidemia, but sufficient to produce redistribution of blood flow in favor of the brain at the

  11. Long-term continuous N-carbamylglutamate treatment in frequently decompensated propionic acidemia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummolo, Albina; Melpignano, Livio; Carella, Antonella; Di Mauro, Anna Maria; Piccinno, Elvira; Vendemiale, Marcella; Ortolani, Federica; Fedele, Stefania; Masciopinto, Maristella; Papadia, Francesco

    2018-04-22

    Propionic acidemia is a rare autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disorder that can inhibit the synthesis of N-acetylglutamate, the obligatory activator in urea synthesis, leading to hyperammonemia. N-carbamylglutamate ameliorates hyperammonemia in decompensated propionic acidemia. The effects of long-term continuous N-acetylglutamate administration in such patients are unknown. We report our clinical experience with continuous administration of N-acetylglutamate for 6 years in a patient with propionic acidemia frequently presenting with hyperammonemia. A male Caucasian patient with frequently decompensated propionic acidemia and hyperammonemia was admitted 78 times for acute attacks during the first 9 years of his life. Continuous daily treatment with oral N-carbamylglutamate 100 mg/kg (50 mg/kg after 6 months) was initiated. During 6 years of treatment, he had a significant decrease in his mean plasma ammonia levels (75.7 μmol/L vs. 140.3 μmol/L before N-carbamylglutamate therapy, p N-acetylglutamate administration outside the emergency setting. If this observation is confirmed, future studies should aim to optimize the dosage and explore effects of the dosage requirements on other drugs and on protein tolerance.

  12. Hypoattenuation of the basal nuclei as a sign of propionic acidemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, M.; Moron, A.; Marti, M.; Dominguez, F.

    1999-01-01

    The hypoattenuation of the basal ganglia is an uncommon radiological finding that suggests a metabolic or hypoxic disorder. We report a case of propionic acidemia in a five-year-old boy, presenting as a symmetric hypoattenuation of the basal neclei. We discuss this and other causes of this radiological finding, as well as the possible mechanism and underlying pathology. (Author) 17 refs

  13. Efficiency of acidemia correction on intermittent versus continuous hemodialysis in acute methanol poisoning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zakharov, S.; Pelclová, D.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Běláček, J.; Latta, J.; Písař, M.; Rulíšek, J.; Lepš, J.; Zídek, P.; Kučera, C.; Boček, R.; Mazur, M.; Belik, Z.; Chalupa, J.; Talafa, V.; Kodras, K.; Nalos, D.; Sedlak, C.; Šenkyřík, M.; Šmíd, J.; Šálek, T.; Roberts, D. M.; Hovda, K. E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2017), s. 123-132 ISSN 1556-3650 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Acidemia * continuous veno-venous hemodialysis * extended daily hemodialysis * intermittent hemodialysis * metabolic acidosis * methanol poisoning Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.677, year: 2016

  14. Adult methylmalonic acidemia presented as neuromyelitis optica: one case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-de LI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old male was admitted to our department, complaining of cognitive impairment, urine incontinence for 3 months, blurred vision for one month and numbness of bilateral lower limbs for 20 days. Presumed as “depression” and “viral encephalitis”, antidepressant and dexamethasone had been given but had no response. Neurological examination demonstrated impaired orientation to time and place; hearing impairment of right ear; normal muscle force in upper limbs, proximal lower muscle force was 2 and distal was 0; normal tendon reflex in both upper limbs; diminished tendon reflex in both lower limbs; left palmomental reflex (+; bilateral Babinski sign (+. Below T10: diminished superficial, deep sensation and cortical sensory. Cranial MRI on admission revealed widened sulci in bilateral cleft and frontal, temporal and insular lobes, indicating brain atrophy. Spinal MRI revealed high-intensity signals of C3-7 level and T1-12 level. The patient was diagnosed as “neuromyelitis optica (NMO” at first, but cognitive impairment is really rare in NMO. It finally turned out to be “inherited metabolic diseases” with the negative results of aquaporin 4 (AQP4, NMO-IgG, GM1, voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC from serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. The elevated level of plasm homocysteine [30.79 mmol/L (5-20 mmol/L] and urine methylmalonic acid [0.40 mmol/L (0.001 mmol/L] ascertained the diagnosis of methylmalonic acidemia. The patient was given oral treatment of folate 5 mg (3 times a day, 13 days and levocarnitine 1 g (3 times a day, 8 days and intramuscular injection of mecobalamine 1mg (once a day, 4 days or 0.50 mg (once a day, 8 days and adenosylcobalamine 0.50 mg (once a day, 8 days. Sixteen days on discharge, the patient’s neurological examination revealed no obvious recovery of vision; lower muscle force: about Ⅳ, right sensory level: T12-L1, and left sensory level lowered to L3. Reexamination of MRI revealed brain atrophy

  15. Diagnosis of propionic acidemia by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in a case analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camayd Viera, Ivette; Robaina Jimenez, Zoe; Contreras Roura, Jiovanna

    2011-01-01

    Propionic acidemia is an inherited metabolic disease caused by a deficiency in the propionyl-CoA carboxilase, a biotin-dependent mitochondrial enzyme. The disorder is a clinically heterogeneous disease and one of the most frequently occurring organic acidurias. We report the first Cuban case with a severe form of propionic acidemia followed by acidosis and death. The diagnosis was carried out by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Our aim is to highlight the importance of organic acids urine analysis as part of the first laboratory tests in undiagnosed seriously ill children. The definitive diagnosis is important as it serves as a clear guideline to establish a suitable treatment and allows geneticists to provide patients with a proper genetic counseling

  16. Central Venous Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection with Kocuria kristinae in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Masato; Kawai, Eichiro; Yaoita, Hisao; Ichinoi, Natsuko; Sakamoto, Osamu; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-01-01

    Kocuria kristinae is a catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, Gram-positive coccus found in the environment and in normal skin and mucosa in humans; however, it is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and is considered a nonpathogenic bacterium. We describe a case of catheter-related bacteremia due to K. kristinae in a young adult with propionic acidemia undergoing periodic hemodialysis. The patient had a central venous catheter implanted for total parenteral nutrition approximately 6 mont...

  17. An unusual cause of high anion gap metabolic acidosis: pyroglutamic acidemia. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Jorge E; Htyte, Nay

    2013-01-01

    Pyroglutamic acidemia is an uncommon metabolic disorder, which is usually diagnosed at early ages. The mechanism of action is thought to be glutathione depletion, and its clinical manifestations consist of hemolytic anemia, mental retardation, ataxia, and chronic metabolic acidosis. However, an acquired form has been described in adult patients, who usually present with confusion, respiratory distress, and high anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA). It is also associated with many conditions, including chronic acetaminophen consumption. A 68-year-old white male, with chronic acetaminophen use presented to our service on multiple occasions with severe HAGMA. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit and required mechanical ventilation and aggressive supportive measures. After ruling out the most frequent etiologies for his acid-base disorder and considering the long history of Tylenol ingestion, his 5-oxiproline (pyroglutamic acid) levels were sent to diagnose pyroglutamic acidemia. Clinicians need to be aware of this cause for metabolic acidosis since it might be a more common metabolic disturbance in compromised patients than would be expected. Subjects with HAGMA that cannot be explained by common causes should be tested for the presence of 5-oxoproline. Discontinuation of the offending drug is therapeutic.

  18. Concurrent non-ketotic hyperglycinemia and propionic acidemia in an eight year old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Kruszka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first reported case of a patient with both non-ketotic hyperglycinemia and propionic acidemia. At 2 years of age, the patient was diagnosed with non-ketotic hyperglycinemia by elevated glycine levels and mutations in the GLDC gene (paternal allele: c.1576_1577insC delT and c.1580delGinsCAA; p.S527Tfs*13, and maternal allele: c.1819G>A; p.G607S. At 8 years of age after having been placed on ketogenic diet, he became lethargic and had severe metabolic acidosis with ketonuria. Urine organic acid analysis and plasma acylcarnitine profile were consistent with propionic acidemia. He was found to have an apparently homozygous mutation in the PCCB gene: c.49C>A; p.Leu17Met. The patient was also treated with natural protein restriction, carnitine, biotin, and thiamine and had subjective and biochemical improvement.

  19. Hypercapnea and Acidemia despite Hyperventilation following Endotracheal Intubation in a Case of Unknown Severe Salicylate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salicylates are common substances for deliberate self-harm. Acute salicylate toxicity is classically associated with an initial respiratory alkalosis, followed by an anion gap metabolic acidosis. The respiratory alkalosis is achieved through hyperventilation, driven by direct stimulation on the respiratory centers in the medulla and considered as a compensatory mechanism to avoid acidemia. However, in later stages of severe salicylate toxicity, patients become increasingly obtunded, with subsequent loss of airway reflexes, and therefore intubation may be necessary. Mechanical ventilation has been recommended against in acute salicylate poisoning, as it is believed to take away the compensatory hyperpnea and tachypnea. Despite the intuitive physiological basis for this recommendation, there is a paucity of evidence to support it. We describe a case of a 59-year-old male presenting with decreased level of consciousness and no known history of ingestion. He was intubated and experienced profound hypercarbia and acidemia despite mechanical ventilation with high minute ventilation and tidal volumes. This case illustrates the deleterious effects of intubation in severe salicylate toxicity.

  20. Mutation in mitochondrial complex IV subunit COX5A causes pulmonary arterial hypertension, lactic acidemia, and failure to thrive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baertling, F.; Al-Murshedi, F.; Sanchez Caballero, L.M.; Al-Senaidi, K.; Joshi, N.P.; Venselaar, H.; Brand, M.A.M. van den; Nijtmans, L.G.J.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2017-01-01

    COX5A is a nuclear-encoded subunit of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase). We present patients with a homozygous pathogenic variant in the COX5A gene. Clinical details of two affected siblings suffering from early-onset pulmonary arterial hypertension, lactic acidemia,

  1. Salt and cocrystals of sildenafil with dicarboxylic acids: solubility and pharmacokinetic advantage of the glutarate salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanphui, Palash; Tothadi, Srinu; Ganguly, Somnath; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2013-12-02

    Sildenafil is a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the drug, the citrate salt, with improved solubility and pharmacokinetics, has been marketed. However, the citrate salt requires an hour to reach its peak plasma concentration. Thus, to improve solubility and bioavailability characteristics, cocrystals and salts of the drug have been prepared by treating aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with sildenafil; the N-methylated piperazine of the drug molecule interacts with the carboxyl group of the acid to form a heterosynthon. Salts are formed with oxalic and fumaric acid; salt monoanions are formed with succinic and glutaric acid. Sildenafil forms cocrystals with longer chain dicarboxylic acids such as adipic, pimelic, suberic, and sebacic acids. Auxiliary stabilization via C-H···O interactions is also present in these cocrystals and salts. Solubility experiments of sildenafil cocrystal/salts were carried out in 0.1N HCl aqueous medium and compared with the solubility of the citrate salt. The glutarate salt and pimelic acid cocrystal dissolve faster than the citrate salt in a two hour dissolution experiment. The glutarate salt exhibits improved solubility (3.2-fold) compared to the citrate salt in water. Solubilities of the binary salts follow an inverse correlation with their melting points, while the solubilities of the cocrystals follow solubilities of the coformer. Pharmacokinetic studies on rats showed that the glutarate salt exhibits doubled plasma AUC values in a single dose within an hour compared to the citrate salt. The high solubility of glutaric acid, in part originating from the strained conformation of the molecule and its high permeability, may be the reason for higher plasma levels of the drug.

  2. Central Venous Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection with Kocuria kristinae in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masato; Kawai, Eichiro; Yaoita, Hisao; Ichinoi, Natsuko; Sakamoto, Osamu; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-01-01

    Kocuria kristinae is a catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, Gram-positive coccus found in the environment and in normal skin and mucosa in humans; however, it is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and is considered a nonpathogenic bacterium. We describe a case of catheter-related bacteremia due to K. kristinae in a young adult with propionic acidemia undergoing periodic hemodialysis. The patient had a central venous catheter implanted for total parenteral nutrition approximately 6 months prior to the onset of symptoms because of repeated acute pancreatitis. K. kristinae was isolated from two sets of blood cultures collected from the catheter. Vancomycin followed by cefazolin for 16 days and 5-day ethanol lock therapy successfully eradicated the K. kristinae bacteremia. Although human infections with this organism appear to be rare and are sometimes considered to result from contamination, physicians should not underestimate its significance when it is isolated in clinical specimens.

  3. Central Venous Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection with Kocuria kristinae in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Kimura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kocuria kristinae is a catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, Gram-positive coccus found in the environment and in normal skin and mucosa in humans; however, it is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and is considered a nonpathogenic bacterium. We describe a case of catheter-related bacteremia due to K. kristinae in a young adult with propionic acidemia undergoing periodic hemodialysis. The patient had a central venous catheter implanted for total parenteral nutrition approximately 6 months prior to the onset of symptoms because of repeated acute pancreatitis. K. kristinae was isolated from two sets of blood cultures collected from the catheter. Vancomycin followed by cefazolin for 16 days and 5-day ethanol lock therapy successfully eradicated the K. kristinae bacteremia. Although human infections with this organism appear to be rare and are sometimes considered to result from contamination, physicians should not underestimate its significance when it is isolated in clinical specimens.

  4. The effect of citrulline and arginine supplementation on lactic acidemia in MELAS syndrome☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Emrick, Lisa T.; Williamson, Kaitlin C.; Craigen, William J.; Scaglia, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a mitochondrial disorder in which nitric oxide (NO) deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of several complications including stroke-like episodes and lactic acidosis. Supplementing the NO precursors arginine and citrulline restores NO production in MELAS syndrome. In this study we evaluated the effect of arginine or citrulline on lactic acidemia in adults with MELAS syndrome. Plasma lactate decreased significantly after citrulline supplementation, whereas the effect of arginine supplementation did not reach statistical significance. These results support the potential therapeutic utility of arginine and citrulline in MELAS syndrome and suggest that citrulline supplementation may be more efficacious. However, therapeutic efficacy of these compounds should be further evaluated in clinical trials. PMID:25411654

  5. The effect of citrulline and arginine supplementation on lactic acidemia in MELAS syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Emrick, Lisa T; Williamson, Kaitlin C; Craigen, William J; Scaglia, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a mitochondrial disorder in which nitric oxide (NO) deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of several complications including stroke-like episodes and lactic acidosis. Supplementing the NO precursors arginine and citrulline restores NO production in MELAS syndrome. In this study we evaluated the effect of arginine or citrulline on lactic acidemia in adults with MELAS syndrome. Plasma lactate decreased significantly after citrulline supplementation, whereas the effect of arginine supplementation did not reach statistical significance. These results support the potential therapeutic utility of arginine and citrulline in MELAS syndrome and suggest that citrulline supplementation may be more efficacious. However, therapeutic efficacy of these compounds should be further evaluated in clinical trials.

  6. Proposed guidelines for the diagnosis and management of methylmalonic and propionic acidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgartner, Matthias R; Hörster, Friederike; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Methylmalonic and propionic acidemia (MMA/PA) are inborn errors of metabolism characterized by accumulation of propionic acid and/or methylmalonic acid due to deficiency of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT) or propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC). MMA has an estimated incidence of ~ 1: 50,000 and PA of ~...... recognition and delayed diagnosis due to nonspecific clinical presentation and insufficient awareness of health care professionals because of disease rarity.......:100'000 -150,000. Patients present either shortly after birth with acute deterioration, metabolic acidosis and hyperammonemia or later at any age with a more heterogeneous clinical picture, leading to early death or to severe neurological handicap in many survivors. Mental outcome tends to be worse in PA...

  7. Predictive value of late decelerations for fetal acidemia in unselective low-risk pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameshima, Hiroshi; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical significance of late decelerations (LD) of intrapartum fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring to detect low pH (LD (occasional, 50%; recurrent, > or = 50%) and severity (reduced baseline FHR accelerations and variability) of LD, and low pH (test, and one-way analysis of variance with the Bonferroni/Dunn test. In the 5522 low-risk pregnancies, 301 showed occasional LD and 99 showed recurrent LD. Blood gases and pH values deteriorated as the incidence of LD increased and as baseline accelerations or variability was decreased. Positive predictive value for low pH (LD, and > 50% in recurrent LD with no baseline FHR accelerations and reduced variability. In low-risk pregnancies, information on LD combined with acceleration and baseline variability enables us to predict the potential incidence of fetal acidemia.

  8. De Novo Biosynthesis of Glutarate via α-Keto Acid Carbon Chain Extension and Decarboxylation Pathway in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wu, Yifei; Sun, Xinxiao; Yuan, Qipeng; Yan, Yajun

    2017-10-20

    Microbial based bioplastics are promising alternatives to petroleum based synthetic plastics due to their renewability and economic feasibility. Glutarate is one of the most potential building blocks for bioplastics. The recent biosynthetic routes for glutarate were mostly based on the l-lysine degradation pathway from Pseudomonas putida that required lysine either by feeding or lysine overproduction via genetic manipulations. Herein, we established a novel glutarate biosynthetic pathway by incorporation of a "+1" carbon chain extension pathway from α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) in combination with α-keto acid decarboxylation pathway in Escherichia coli. Introduction of homocitrate synthase (HCS), homoaconitase (HA) and homoisocitrate dehydrogenase (HICDH) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae into E. coli enabled "+1" carbon extension from α-KG to α-ketoadipate (α-KA), which was subsequently converted into glutarate by a promiscuous α-keto acid decarboxylase (KivD) and a succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (GabD). The recombinant E. coli coexpressing all five genes produced 0.3 g/L glutarate from glucose. To further improve the titers, α-KG was rechanneled into carbon chain extension pathway via the clustered regularly interspersed palindromic repeats system mediated interference (CRISPRi) of essential genes sucA and sucB in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The final strain could produce 0.42 g/L glutarate, which was increased by 40% compared with the parental strain.

  9. Heptadecanoylcarnitine (C17) a novel candidate biomarker for propionic and methylmalonic acidemias during expanded newborn screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvagia, Sabrina; Haynes, Christopher A.; Grisotto, Laura; Ombrone, Daniela; Funghini, Silvia; Moretti, Elisa; McGreevy, Kathleen; Buggeri, Annibale; Guerrini, Renzo; Yahyaoui, Raquel; Garg, Uttam; Seeterlin, Mary; Chace, Donald; De Jesus, Victor; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    Background 3-hydroxypalmitoleoyl-carnitine (C16:1-OH) was recently reported to be elevated in acylcarnitine profile of propionic acidemia (PA) or methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) patients during expanded newborn screening (NBS). High levels of C16:1-OH, combined with other hydroxylated long chain acylcarnitines are related to long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD). Methods The acylcarnitine profile of two LCHADD patients was evaluated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. A specific retention time was reported for each hydroxylated long chain acylcarnitine. The same method was applied to some neonatal dried blood spots (DBS) from PA and MMA patients presenting abnormal C16:1-OH concentrations. Results The final retention time of the peak corresponding to C16:1-OH in LCHADD patients differed from those in MMA and PA patients. Heptadecanoylcarnitine (C17) has been identified as the novel biomarker specific for PA and MMA patients through high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap) experiments. We found that 21 out of 23 neonates (22 MMA, and 1PA) diagnosed through the Tuscany region NBS program had significantly higher levels of C17 compared to levels detected in controls. Twenty-three maternal deficiencies (21 vitamin B12 deficiency, 1 homocystinuria and 1 gastrin deficiency) and 82 false positive for propionylcarnitine (C3) results were also analyzed. Conclusions This paper reports on the characterization of a novel biomarker able to detect propionate disorders during expanded newborn screening (NBS). The use of this new biomarker may improve the analytical performances of NBS programs especially in laboratories where second tier tests are not performed. PMID:26368264

  10. Heptadecanoylcarnitine (C17) a novel candidate biomarker for newborn screening of propionic and methylmalonic acidemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvagia, Sabrina; Haynes, Christopher A; Grisotto, Laura; Ombrone, Daniela; Funghini, Silvia; Moretti, Elisa; McGreevy, Kathleen S; Biggeri, Annibale; Guerrini, Renzo; Yahyaoui, Raquel; Garg, Uttam; Seeterlin, Mary; Chace, Donald; De Jesus, Victor R; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2015-10-23

    3-Hydroxypalmitoleoyl-carnitine (C16:1-OH) has recently been reported to be elevated in acylcarnitine profiles of patients with propionic acidemia (PA) or methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) during expanded newborn screening (NBS). High levels of C16:1-OH, combined with other hydroxylated long chain acylcarnitines are related to long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) and trifunctional protein (TFP) deficiency. The acylcarnitine profile of two LCHADD patients was evaluated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. A specific retention time was determined for each hydroxylated long chain acylcarnitine. The same method was applied to some neonatal dried blood spots (DBSs) from PA and MMA patients presenting abnormal C16:1-OH concentrations. The retention time of the peak corresponding to C16:1-OH in LCHADD patients differed from those in MMA and PA patients. Heptadecanoylcarnitine (C17) has been identified as the novel biomarker specific for PA and MMA patients through high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap) experiments. We found that 21 out of 23 neonates (22 MMA, and 1PA) diagnosed through the Tuscany region NBS program exhibited significantly higher levels of C17 compared to controls. Twenty-three maternal deficiency (21 vitamin B12 deficiency, 1 homocystinuria and 1 gastrin deficiency) samples and 82 false positive for elevated propionylcarnitine (C3) were also analyzed. We have characterized a novel biomarker able to detect propionate disorders during expanded newborn screening (NBS). The use of this new biomarker may improve the analytical performances of NBS programs especially in laboratories where second tier tests are not performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Methylmalonic acidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to diagnose this condition include: Ammonia test Blood gases Complete blood count CT scan or MRI of ... 2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  12. Assignment of electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) to human chromosome 4q33 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and somatic cell hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, E B; Seltzer, W K; Goodman, S I

    1999-08-01

    Electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) is a nuclear-encoded protein located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Inherited defects of ETF-QO cause glutaric acidemia type II. We here describe the localization of the ETF-QO gene to human chromosome 4q33 by somatic cell hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  13. Growth behavior of anodic oxide formed by aluminum anodizing in glutaric and its derivative acid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Daiki; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-12-01

    The growth behavior of anodic oxide films formed via anodizing in glutaric and its derivative acid solutions was investigated based on the acid dissociation constants of electrolytes. High-purity aluminum foils were anodized in glutaric, ketoglutaric, and acetonedicarboxylic acid solutions under various electrochemical conditions. A thin barrier anodic oxide film grew uniformly on the aluminum substrate by glutaric acid anodizing, and further anodizing caused the film to breakdown due to a high electric field. In contrast, an anodic porous alumina film with a submicrometer-scale cell diameter was successfully formed by ketoglutaric acid anodizing at 293 K. However, the increase and decrease in the temperature of the ketoglutaric acid resulted in non-uniform oxide growth and localized pitting corrosion of the aluminum substrate. An anodic porous alumina film could also be fabricated by acetonedicarboxylic acid anodizing due to the relatively low dissociation constants associated with the acid. Acid dissociation constants are an important factor for the fabrication of anodic porous alumina films.

  14. N-acetylcysteine prevents spatial memory impairment induced by chronic early postnatal glutaric acid and lipopolysaccharide in rat pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S Rodrigues

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I is characterized by accumulation of glutaric acid (GA and neurological symptoms, such as cognitive impairment. Although this disease is related to oxidative stress and inflammation, it is not known whether these processes facilitate the memory impairment. Our objective was to investigate the performance of rat pups chronically injected with GA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS in spatial memory test, antioxidant defenses, cytokines levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity, and hippocampal volume. We also evaluated the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC on theses markers. METHODS: Rat pups were injected with GA (5 umol g of body weight-1, subcutaneously; twice per day; from 5th to 28th day of life, and were supplemented with NAC (150 mg/kg/day; intragastric gavage; for the same period. LPS (2 mg/kg; E.coli 055 B5 or vehicle (saline 0.9% was injected intraperitoneally, once per day, from 25th to 28th day of life. Oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers as well as hippocampal volume were assessed. RESULTS: GA caused spatial learning deficit in the Barnes maze and LPS potentiated this effect. GA and LPS increased TNF-α and IL-1β levels. The co-administration of these compounds potentiated the increase of IL-1β levels but not TNF-α levels in the hippocampus. GA and LPS increased TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance content, reduced antioxidant defenses and inhibited Na+, K+-ATPase activity. GA and LPS co-administration did not have additive effect on oxidative stress markers and Na+, K+ pump. The hippocampal volume did not change after GA or LPS administration. NAC protected against impairment of spatial learning and increase of cytokines levels. NAC Also protected against inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity and oxidative markers. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that inflammatory and oxidative markers may underlie at least in part of the neuropathology of GA-I in this model. Thus, NAC could

  15. Thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffraction and electron microscopy data related with the production of 1:1 Caffeine:Glutaric Acid cocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íris Duarte

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the production of 1:1 Caffeine:Glutaric Acid cocrystals as part of the research article entitled “Green production of cocrystals using a new solvent-free approach by spray congealing” (Duarte et al., 2016 [1]. More specifically, here we present the thermal analysis and the X-ray powder diffraction data for pure Glutaric Acid, used as a raw material in [1]. We also include the X-ray powder diffraction and electron microscopy data obtained for the 1:1 Caffeine:Glutaric Acid cocrystal (form II produced using the cooling crystallization method reported in “Operating Regions in Cooling Cocrystallization of Caffeine and Glutaric Acid in Acetonitrile” (Yu et al., 2010 [2]. Lastly, we show the X-ray powder diffraction data obtained for assessing the purity of the 1:1 Caffeine:Glutaric cocrystals produced in [1].

  16. Functional characterization of novel genotypes and cellular oxidative stress studies in propionic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Villar, Lorena; Pérez-Cerdá, Celia; Pérez, Belén; Abia, David; Ugarte, Magdalena; Richard, Eva; Desviat, Lourdes R

    2013-09-01

    Propionic acidemia (PA), caused by a deficiency of the mitochondrial biotin dependent enzyme propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) is one of the most frequent organic acidurias in humans. PA is caused by mutations in either the PCCA or PCCB genes encoding the α- and β-subunits of the PCC enzyme which are assembled as an α6β6 dodecamer. In this study we have investigated the molecular basis of the defect in ten fibroblast samples from PA patients. Using homology modeling with the recently solved crystal structure of the PCC holoenzyme and a eukaryotic expression system we have analyzed the structural and functional effect of novel point mutations, also revealing a novel splice defect by minigene analysis. In addition, we have investigated the contribution of oxidative stress to cellular damage measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and apoptosis parameters in patient fibroblasts, as recent studies point to a secondary mitochondrial dysfunction as pathophysiological mechanism in this disorder. The results show an increase in intracellular ROS content compared to controls, correlating with the activation of the JNK and p38 signaling pathways. Highest ROS levels were present in cells harboring functionally null mutations, including one severe missense mutation. This work provides molecular insight into the pathogenicity of PA variants and indicates that oxidative stress may be a major contributing factor to the cellular damage, supporting the proposal of antioxidant strategies as novel supplementary therapy in this rare disease.

  17. A male case with CDKL5-associated encephalopathy manifesting transient methylmalonic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamine, Satoshi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Sakai, Yasunari; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Fukai, Ryoko; Miyake, Noriko; Ohkubo, Kazuhiro; Koga, Hiroshi; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Sakata, Ayumi; Kimura, Masahiko; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Sakamoto, Osamu; Hara, Toshiro; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Ohga, Shouichi

    2018-03-03

    Mutations in the X-linked gene CDKL5 cause early-onset epileptic encephalopathy and severe developmental delay. Because this disorder predominantly affects females, the full clinical spectrum of male patients remains elusive. We herein report a 16-year-old boy, who suffered from intractable seizures 20 days after birth. Serial electroencephalograms detected recurrent focal epileptiform discharges from age 4 months, which evolved to hypsarrhythmia later in infancy. Mass-spectrometric analyses revealed increase in urinary excretion of methylmalonic acid without perturbed concentrations of propionic acid, homocystein and methionine. Whole-exome sequencing identified a de novo, truncating mutation in CDKL5 (NM_003159.2:c.419dupA, p.Asn140Lysfs*8). Targeted sequencing excluded concomitant mutations in methylmalonic academia-associated genes. No methylmalonic acidemia has been reported in children with CDKL5 disorder. Extensive analyses on organic acid metabolism for males with CDKL5 mutations will gain more insight into their biochemical profiles in infancy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Towards the development of an enzyme replacement therapy for the metabolic disorder propionic acidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Darvish-Damavandi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Propionic acidemia (PA is a life-threatening disease caused by the deficiency of a mitochondrial biotin-dependent enzyme known as propionyl coenzyme-A carboxylase (PCC. This enzyme is responsible for degrading the metabolic intermediate, propionyl coenzyme-A (PP-CoA, derived from multiple metabolic pathways. Currently, except for drastic surgical and dietary intervention that can only provide partial symptomatic relief, no other form of therapeutic option is available for this genetic disorder. Here, we examine a novel approach in protein delivery by specifically targeting and localizing our protein candidate of interest into the mitochondrial matrix of the cells. In order to test this concept of delivery, we have utilized cell penetrating peptides (CPPs and mitochondria targeting sequences (MTS to form specific fusion PCC protein, capable of translocating and localizing across cell membranes. In vitro delivery of our candidate fusion proteins, evaluated by confocal images and enzymatic activity assay, indicated effectiveness of this strategy. Therefore, it holds immense potential in creating a new paradigm in site-specific protein delivery and enzyme replacement therapeutic for PA.

  19. Synthesis of Dimethyl Glutarate from Cyclobutanone and Dimethyl Carbonate over Solid Base Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, Chen; Dudu, Wu

    2012-01-01

    A facile route for the synthesis of dimethyl glutarate (DMG) from cyclobutanone and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) in the presence of solid base catalysts has been developed. It was found that the intermediate carbomethoxycyclobutanone (CMCB) was produced from cyclobutanone with DMC in the first step, and then CMCB was further converted to DMG by reacting with a methoxide group. The role of the basic catalysts can be mainly ascribed to the activation of cyclobutanone via the abstraction of a proton in the α-position by base sites, and solid bases with moderate strength, such as MgO, favor the formation of DMG

  20. Synthesis of Dimethyl Glutarate from Cyclobutanone and Dimethyl Carbonate over Solid Base Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi, Chen; Dudu, Wu [Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan (China)

    2012-06-15

    A facile route for the synthesis of dimethyl glutarate (DMG) from cyclobutanone and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) in the presence of solid base catalysts has been developed. It was found that the intermediate carbomethoxycyclobutanone (CMCB) was produced from cyclobutanone with DMC in the first step, and then CMCB was further converted to DMG by reacting with a methoxide group. The role of the basic catalysts can be mainly ascribed to the activation of cyclobutanone via the abstraction of a proton in the {alpha}-position by base sites, and solid bases with moderate strength, such as MgO, favor the formation of DMG

  1. Development and Validation of a GC-FID Method for Diagnosis of Methylmalonic Acidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Keyfi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary organic acids are water-soluble intermediates and end products of the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and a number of other metabolic processes. In the hereditary diseases known as organic acidurias, an enzyme or co-factor defect in a metabolic pathway leads to the accumulation and increased excretion of one or more of these acidic metabolites. Gas chromatography is the most commonly-used technology to separate and identify these metabolites. In this report the analytical conditions for the determination of methylmalonic acid using a gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC-FID are studied with the aim to establish a method to analyze organic acids in human urine. Methods: Studies included the GC-FID method development, the conditions of the derivatization (trimethylsilylation reaction, and the stability of the methylmalonic acid standard solution and trimethylsilyl derivatives during storage. Also, a systematic comparison between GC-FID and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS was performed. Results: The highest resolution and sensitivity were obtained at 60 oC with a 30 min reaction time. Standard solutions and derivatized samples were stable for 7 days at 4-8 oC. Relative standard deviations of within-day and day-to-day assay results were less than 5%. Methylmalonic acid was detected in thirty human urine samples by the proposed GC-FID, and the results were compared with gold standard technique GC-MS. The correlation coefficient between GC-MS and GC-FID was obtained with R2= 0.997. Conclusions: The developed method was applied to the quantitative analysis of methylmalonic acid in urine from hospitalized children with methylmalonic acidemia. With this method we aim to support pediatric clinics in Iran and assist in clinical diagnostics.

  2. An experimental and theoretical investigation of loperamide hydrochloride-glutaric acid cocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Giovanna; Maietta, Mariarosa; Maggi, Lauretta; Mustarelli, Piercarlo; Ferrara, Chiara; Berbenni, Vittorio; Freccero, Mauro; Scotti, Federico; Milanese, Chiara; Girella, Alessandro; Marini, Amedeo

    2013-07-11

    Cocrystallization is a powerful method to improve the physicochemical properties of drugs. Loperamide hydrochloride is a topical analgesic for the gastrointestinal tract showing low and pH-dependent solubility; for this reason, an enhancement of its solubility or dissolution rate, particularly at the pH of the intestinal tract, could improve its local efficacy. Here we prepared cocrystals of this active principle with glutaric acid and so obtained a new crystalline solid representing a viable alternative to improve the physicochemical properties and thus the pharmaceutical behavior of the drug. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier infrared spectroscopy, solid-state NMR, and scanning electron microscopy coupled to the energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry were used to investigate the new solid-phase formation. DFT calculations at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory, in the gas phase, including frequencies computation, provided a rationale for the interaction between loperamide hydrochloride and glutaric acid. The cocrystals showed improved water solubility in comparison with loperamide HCl, and the pharmaceutical formulation proposed was able to release the drug more rapidly in comparison with three reference commercial products when tested at neutral pH values.

  3. Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy in an STXBP1 Patient with Lactic Acidemia and Normal Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of clinical findings have been associated with mutations in Syntaxin Binding Protein 1 (STXBP1, including multiple forms of epilepsy, nonsyndromic intellectual disability, and movement disorders. STXBP1 mutations have recently been associated with mitochondrial pathology, although it remains unclear if this phenotype is a part of the core feature for this gene disorder. We report a 7-year-old boy who presented for diagnostic evaluation of intractable epilepsy, episodic ataxia, resting tremor, and speech regression following a period of apparently normal early development. Mild lactic acidemia was detected on one occasion at the time of an intercurrent illness. Due to the concern for mitochondrial disease, ophthalmologic evaluation was performed that revealed bilateral midperiphery pigmentary mottling. Optical coherence tomography (OCT testing demonstrated a bilaterally thickened ganglion cell layer in the perifovea. Skeletal muscle biopsy analysis showed no mitochondrial abnormalities or respiratory chain dysfunction. Exome sequencing identified a de novo c.1651C>T (p.R551C mutation in STXBP1. Although mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported in some individuals, our proband had only mild lactic acidemia and no skeletal muscle tissue evidence of mitochondrial disease pathology. Thus, mitochondrial dysfunction is not an obligate feature of STXBP1 disease.

  4. Fetal pancreatic beta-cell function in pregnancies complicated by maternal diabetes mellitus: relationship to fetal acidemia and macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvesen, D R; Brudenell, J M; Proudler, A J; Crook, D; Nicolaides, K H

    1993-05-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the relationship between fetal pancreatic beta-cell function and fetal acidemia and macrosomia in pregnancies complicated by maternal diabetes mellitus. A cross-sectional study at the Harris Birthright Research Centre for Fetal Medicine, London, was performed. In 32 pregnancies complicated by maternal diabetes mellitus cordocentesis was performed at 36 to 39 weeks' gestation for the measurement of umbilical venous blood pH, PO2, PCO2, lactate, and glucose concentration; plasma insulin immunoreactivity; and insulin/glucose ratio. A reference range for plasma insulin and insulin/glucose ratio was constructed by studying fetal blood samples from 80 women who did not have diabetes mellitus. Mean umbilical venous blood pH was significantly lower and plasma insulin immunoreactivity and insulin/glucose ratio were significantly higher than the appropriate normal mean for gestation. There were significant associations between (1) maternal and fetal blood glucose concentrations (r = 0.95, p < 0.0001), (2) fetal blood glucose and plasma insulin immunoreactivity (r = 0.57, p < 0.01), (3) fetal plasma insulin immunoreactivity and blood pH (r = -0.39, p < 0.05), and (4) fetal insulin/glucose ratio and degree of macrosomia (r = 0.76, p < 0.0001). Fetal pancreatic beta-cell hyperplasia is implicated in the pathogenesis of both fetal acidemia and macrosomia.

  5. Sodium bicarbonate treatment during transient or sustained lactic acidemia in normoxic and normotensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Valenza

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Lactic acidosis is a frequent cause of poor outcome in the intensive care settings. We set up an experimental model of lactic acid infusion in normoxic and normotensive rats to investigate the systemic effects of lactic acidemia per se without the confounding factor of an underlying organic cause of acidosis. METHODOLOGY: Sprague Dawley rats underwent a primed endovenous infusion of L(+ lactic acid during general anesthesia. Normoxic and normotensive animals were then randomized to the following study groups (n = 8 per group: S sustained infusion of lactic acid, S+B sustained infusion+sodium bicarbonate, T transient infusion, T+B transient infusion+sodium bicarbonate. Hemodynamic, respiratory and acid-base parameters were measured over time. Lactate pharmacokinetics and muscle phosphofructokinase enzyme's activity were also measured. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following lactic acid infusion blood lactate rose (P<0.05, pH (P<0.05 and strong ion difference (P<0.05 drop. Some rats developed hemodynamic instability during the primed infusion of lactic acid. In the normoxic and normotensive animals bicarbonate treatment normalized pH during sustained infusion of lactic acid (from 7.22 ± 0.02 to 7.36 ± 0.04, P<0.05 while overshoot to alkalemic values when the infusion was transient (from 7.24 ± 0.01 to 7.53 ± 0.03, P<0.05. When acid load was interrupted bicarbonate infusion affected lactate wash-out kinetics (P<0.05 so that blood lactate was higher (2.9 ± 1 mmol/l vs. 1.0 ± 0.2, P<0.05, group T vs. T+B respectively. The activity of phosphofructokinase enzyme was correlated with blood pH (R2 = 0.475, P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: pH decreased with acid infusion and rose with bicarbonate administration but the effects of bicarbonate infusion on pH differed under a persistent or transient acid load. Alkalization affected the rate of lactate disposal during the transient acid load.

  6. Thermodynamics of Dissolution for Crystalline Racemic Tartaric and Glutaric Acids and Isatin in KOH Aqueous Solutions at 298.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytkin, A. I.; Chernikov, V. V.; Krutova, O. N.; Litvinenko, V. E.; Volkov, A. V.; Bychkova, S. A.; Skvortsov, I. A.

    2018-01-01

    Enthalpies of dissolution are found for crystalline racemic tartaric and glutaric acids and isatin in water and in potassium hydroxide solutions at 298.15 K via direct calorimetry. The protolytic equilibria in isatin aqueous solutions are studied at 298.15 K and ionic strengths of 0.5 (relative to potassium nitrate) by potentiometric means. Standard enthalpies of formation are calculated for racemic tartaric and glutaric acids, isatin, and the products of their dissociation in aqueous solutions.

  7. Mutation in mitochondrial complex IV subunit COX5A causes pulmonary arterial hypertension, lactic acidemia, and failure to thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertling, Fabian; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Sánchez-Caballero, Laura; Al-Senaidi, Khalfan; Joshi, Niranjan P; Venselaar, Hanka; van den Brand, Mariël Am; Nijtmans, Leo Gj; Rodenburg, Richard Jt

    2017-06-01

    COX5A is a nuclear-encoded subunit of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase). We present patients with a homozygous pathogenic variant in the COX5A gene. Clinical details of two affected siblings suffering from early-onset pulmonary arterial hypertension, lactic acidemia, failure to thrive, and isolated complex IV deficiency are presented. We show that the variant lies within the evolutionarily conserved COX5A/COX4 interface domain, suggesting that it alters the interaction between these two subunits during complex IV biogenesis. In patient skin fibroblasts, the enzymatic activity and protein levels of complex IV and several of its subunits are reduced. Lentiviral complementation rescues complex IV deficiency. The monomeric COX1 assembly intermediate accumulates demonstrating a function of COX5A in complex IV biogenesis. A potential therapeutic lead is demonstrated by showing that copper supplementation leads to partial rescue of complex IV deficiency in patient fibroblasts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Diagnosis and management of glutaric aciduria type I--revised recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölker, Stefan; Christensen, Ernst; Leonard, James V

    2011-01-01

    is often difficult to treat, and the efficacy of available drugs cannot be predicted precisely in individual patients. The major aim of this revision is to re-evaluate the previous diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations for patients with this disease and incorporate new research findings...

  9. Liquid-liquid phase separation in internally mixed magnesium sulfate/glutaric acid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng-Min; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Jing, Bo; Zhang, Yun-Hong; Ge, Mao-Fa

    2018-04-01

    The confocal Raman microscopy is utilized to investigate the liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of mixed magnesium sulfate/glutaric acid (MgSO4/GA) droplets deposited on a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrate and a hydrophilic quartz substrate. Raman spectra collected from different regions of the mixed droplets provide detailed information of component distributions for MgSO4 and GA. During the dehydration process, the MgSO4/GA mixed particles show the initial liquid-liquid phase separation between 85% and 80% relative humidity (RH) on both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic substrates. For the droplets deposited on the two substrates, the inner phase of droplets is dominated by aqueous MgSO4, which is surrounded by a rich GA organic layer due to the surface tension effects. In addition, the crystallization of GA could be observed in the organic aqueous phase while it is inhibited in the inner MgSO4 phase due to the effects of gel formation of MgSO4 at low RH. The Raman spectra reveal that with decreasing RH the morphology of the mixed droplet evolves from a uniform droplet to the structure of LLPS with the GA crystallizing in the outer layer and MgSO4 gel formed in the inner phase. These findings contribute to the further understanding of the role of interactions between inorganic salts and organic acids on the morphological evolution and environmental effects of atmospheric aerosols under ambient RH conditions.

  10. Free radicals in dicarboxylic acids: an e.s.r. study of radical conversions in γ-irradiated single crystals of glutaric acid and glutaric-2,2,4,4-d4 acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergene, R.; Minegishi, A.; Riesz, P.

    1980-01-01

    The γ-radiation-induced free radicals in single crystals of glutaric acid and glutaric-2,2,4,4-d 4 acid were studied in the temperature range 77-300 K by e.s.r. techniques. At 77 K the decarboxylation radical and the anion are stabilized. At higher temperatures the decarboxylation radical is found to be converted into a hydrogen abstraction radical with an activation energy of 6.3 +- 0.5 kcal/mole for the non-deuterated crystal. This radical is stable at room temperature. The anion seems to be converted to a unidentified intermediate radical which in turn is converted to the σ-acyl radical. An analysis of the g-value anisotropy and of the 13 C hyperfine splitting variation for this radical in the deuterated crystal is consistent with the assigned radical structure. By heat treatment the σ-acyl radical is converted to another form of the hydrogen abstraction radical with an activation energy of 9.6 +- 0.6 kcal/mole in the deuterated crystal. U.V.-light (lambda= 254 nm) transforms one of the room temperature radicals into the other. (author)

  11. Methylmalonic and propionic acidemias: lipid profiles of normal and affected human skin fibroblasts incubated with [1-14C]propionate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudici, T.A.; Chen, R.G.; Oizumi, J.; Shaw, K.N.; Ng, W.G.; Donnell, G.N.

    1986-01-01

    Normal human skin fibroblasts and those from methylmalonic acidemia and propionic acidemia patients were grown in culture. Following incubation with [1- 14 C]propionate, the major lipid classes in the cells were separated by thin layer chromatography and isolated fractions analyzed by radio gas chromatography for the presence of odd-numbered long-chain fatty acids; the pattern of even-numbered long-chain fatty acids was obtained also. Normal fibroblasts incorporated a small percentage of propionate into odd-numbered fatty acids which were present in all lipids studied. The abnormal cells incorporated a larger amount while maintaining the characteristic ratios of odd-numbered fatty acids found in the normal line. Most of the radioactivity was associated with phospholipids which are the predominant constituents of cell membranes. A characteristic C15/C17 ratio was found for different phospholipids and the triglyceride fraction; pentadecanoic acid was the principal odd-numbered fatty acid utilized in the assembly of complex lipids. Compared to even-numbered long-chain fatty acids the absolute amount of odd-numbered fatty acids was low (1-2%), even in affected cells. An unusual polar lipid fraction was isolated in the course of the study. In the normal cell it contained several unlabeled eicosanoids which were missing from the same fraction of both affected cell lines

  12. Feasibility of adjunct therapeutic hypothermia treatment for hyperammonemia and encephalopathy due to urea cycle disorders and organic acidemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Nadkarni, Vinay; Moudgil, Asha; Cook, Noah; Poeschl, Johannes; Meyer, Michael T; Dimmock, David; Baumgart, Stephen

    2013-08-01

    Children with urea cycle disorders (UCDs) or organic acidemias (OAs) and acute hyperammonemia and encephalopathy are at great risk for neurological injury, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and death. Nutritional support, intravenous alternative pathway therapy, and dialysis are used to treat severe hyperammonemia associated with UCDs and nutritional support and dialysis are used to treat severe hyperammonemia in OAs. Brain protective treatment while therapy is initiated may improve neurological and cognitive function for the lifetime of the child. Animal experiments and small clinical trials in hepatic encephalopathy caused by acute liver failure suggest that therapeutic hypothermia provides neuroprotection in hyperammonemia associated encephalopathy. We report results of an ongoing pilot study that assesses if whole body cooling during rescue treatment of neonates with acute hyperammonemia and encephalopathy is feasible and can be conducted safely. Adjunct whole body therapeutic hypothermia was conducted in addition to standard treatment in acutely encephalopathic, hyperammonemic neonates with UCDs and OAs requiring dialysis. Therapeutic hypothermia was initiated using cooling blankets as preparations for dialysis were underway. Similar to standard therapeutic hypothermia treatment for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, patients were maintained at 33.5°C±1°C for 72h, they were then slowly rewarmed by 0.5°C every 3h over 18h. In addition data of age-matched historic controls were collected for comparison. Seven patients were cooled using the pilot study protocol and data of seven historic controls were reviewed. All seven patients survived the initial rescue and cooling treatment, 6 patients were discharged home 2-4weeks after hospitalization, five of them feeding orally. The main complication observed in a majority of patients was hypotension. Adjunct therapeutic hypothermia for neonates with UCDs and OAs receiving standard treatment was

  13. Stability constants of glutarate complexes of copper(II), zinc(II), cobalt(II) and uranyl(II) by paper electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.P.; Yadava, J.R.; Yadava, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    Stability constants of Copper(II), Zinc(II), Cobalt(II) and Uranyl(II) glutarates have been determined by paper electrophoresis. Glutaric acid (0.005 mol dmsup(-3)) was added to the background electrolyte : 0.1 mol dmsup(-3) HClO 4 . The proportions of (CH 2 ) 3 COOH COO - and (CH 2 ) 3 C 2 O 4 2- were varied by changing the pH of the electrolyte. These anions yielded the complexes Cu(CH 2 ) 3 C 2 O 4 , [Zn(CH 2 ) 3 COOH COO] + [Co(CH 2 ) 3 COOH COO] + and UO 2 (CH 2 ) 3 C 2 O 4 whose stability constants are found to be 10sup(3.9), 10sup(2.9), 10sup(2.7) and 10sup(13.5) respectively. (author)

  14. Disease: H01400 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cts [DS:H00525]; Glutaric acidemia [DS:H00178]; Lysinuric protein intolerance [DS:H00899]; Pyruvate carboxyl...aired by substrate deficiencies assumed cause in various disorders including lysinuric protein intolerance,

  15. Alkyl group dependence on structure and magnetic properties in layered cobalt coordination polymers containing substituted glutarate ligands and 4,4'-bipyridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nettleman, Joseph H.; Supkowski, Ronald M.; LaDuca, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Five two-dimensional divalent cobalt coordination polymers containing 4,4'-bipyridine (bpy) and substituted or unsubstituted glutarate ligands have been prepared hydrothermally and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. [Co(mg)(bpy)] n (1, mg=3-methylglutarate) forms a (4,4) rhomboid grid structure based on the connection of {Co 2 (CO 2 ) 2 } dimeric units. Using the more sterically encumbered ligands 3,3-dimethylglutarate (dmg) and 3-ethyl, 3-methylglutarate (emg) generated {[Co(dmg)(bpy)(H 2 O)].2H 2 O} n (2) and {[Co(emg)(bpy)(H 2 O)].H 2 O} n (3), respectively. These complexes manifest {Co(CO 2 )} n chains linked into 2-D by aliphatic dicarboxylate and bpy ligands. The 'tied-back' substituted glutarate ligand 1,1-cyclopentanediacetate (cda) afforded [Co(cda)(bpy)] n (4), and the unsubstituted glutarate (glu) generated [Co(glu)(bpy)] n (5), both of which exhibit a topology similar to that of 1. The magnetic properties of complexes 1-4 were analyzed successfully with a recently developed phenomenological chain model accounting for both magnetic coupling (J) and zero-field splitting effects (D), even though 1 and 4 contain isolated, discrete {Co 2 (CO 2 ) 2 } dimers. The D parameter in this series varied between 21.8(8) and 48.0(9) cm -1 . However weak antiferromagnetic coupling was observed in 1 (J=-2.43(4) cm -1 ) and 4 (J=-0.89(2) cm -1 ), while weak ferromagnetic coupling appears to be operative in both 2 (J=0.324(5) cm -1 ) and 3 (J=0.24(1) cm -1 ). - Five two-dimensional divalent cobalt coordination polymers containing 4,4'-bipyridine (bpy) and substituted or unsubstituted glutarate ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Three contain dimeric {Co 2 (CO 2 ) 2 } units, while two manifest {Co(CO 2 )} n chains, depending on the steric bulk of the substituent. The magnetic properties of the complexes were analyzed successfully with a recently developed phenomenological chain model

  16. An unusual insertion/deletion in the gene encoding the β-subunit of propionyl-CoA carboxylase is a frequent mutation in Caucasian propionic acidemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahara, T.; Kraus, J.P.; Rosenberg, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Propionic acidemia is an inherited disorder of organic acid metabolism that is caused by deficiency of propionly-CoA carboxylase. Affected patients fall into two complementation groups, pccA and pccBC (subgroups B, C, and BC), resulting from deficiency of the nonidentical α and β subunits of PCC, respectively. The authors have detected an unusual insertion/deletion in the DNA of patients from the pccBC and pccC subgroups that replaces 14 nucleotides in the coding sequence of the β subunit with 12 nucleotides unrelated to this region of the gene. Among 14 unrelated Caucasian patients in the pccBc complementation group, this unique mutation was found in 8 of 28 mutant alleles examined. Mutant allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization to amplified genomic DNAs revealed that the inserted 12 nucleotides do not originate in an ∼1000-bp region around the mutation. In the course of the investigation, they identified another mutation in the same exon: a 3-bp in-frame deletion that eliminates one of two isoleucine codons immediately preceding the Msp I site. Two unrelated patients were compound heterozygotes for this single-codon deletion and for the insertion/deletion described above. They conclude that either there is a propensity for the PCC β-subunit gene to undergo mutations of this sort at this position or, more likely, the mutations in all of the involved Caucasian patients have a common origin in preceding generations

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of two-dimensional divalent metal glutarate/dipyridylamine coordination polymers, with a single crystal-to-single crystal transformation in the copper derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montney, Matthew R.; Supkowski, Ronald M.; Staples, Richard J.; LaDuca, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrothermal reaction of divalent metal chlorides with glutaric acid and 4,4'-dipyridylamine (dpa) has afforded an isostructural family of coordination polymers with formulation [M(glu)(dpa)] n (M=Co (1), Ni (2), Cu (3); glu=glutarate). Square pyramidal coordination is seen in 1-3, with semi-ligation of a sixth donor to produce a '5+1' extended coordination sphere. Neighboring metal atoms are linked into 1D [M(glu)] n neutral chains through chelating/monodentate bridging glutarate moieties with a syn-anti binding mode, and semi-chelation of the pendant carboxylate oxygen. These chains further connect into 2D layers through dipodal dpa ligands. Neighboring layers stack into the pseudo 3D crystal structure of 1-3 through supramolecular hydrogen bonding between dpa amine units and the semi-chelated glutarate oxygen atoms. The variable temperature magnetic behavior of 1-3 was explored and modeled as infinite 1D Heisenberg chains. Notably, complex 3 undergoes a thermally induced single crystal-to-single crystal transformation between centric and acentric space groups, with a conformationally disordered unilayer structure at 293 K and an ordered bilayer structure at 173 K. All materials were further characterized via infrared spectroscopy and elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. - Graphical abstract: The coordination polymers [M(glu)(dpa)] n (M=Co (1), Ni (2), Cu (3); glu=glutarate, dpa=4,4'-dipyridylamine) exhibit 2D layer structures based on 1D [M(glu)] n chains linked through dpa tethers. Antiferromagnetic coupling is observed for 2 and 3, while ferromagnetism is predominant in 1. Compound 3 undergoes a thermally induced single crystal-to-single crystal transformation from an acentric to a centrosymmetric space group

  18. Genetics Home Reference: methylmalonic acidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ardinger HH, Wallace SE, Amemiya A, Bean LJH, Bird TD, Ledbetter N, Mefford HC, Smith RJH, Stephens ... patients with the cblD inborn error of cobalamin metabolism. J Pediatr. 2009 Apr;154(4):551-6. ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: propionic acidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cerdá C, Scholl-Bürgi S, Skovby F, Wijburg F, MacDonald A, Martinelli D, Sass JO, Valayannopoulos V, Chakrapani ... Cerdá C, Scholl-Bürgi S, Skovby F, Wijburg F, MacDonald A, Martinelli D, Sass JO, Valayannopoulos V, Chakrapani ...

  20. Diagnosis of glutaric aciduria type 1 by measuring 3-hydroxyglutaric acid in dried urine spots by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y; Kölker, Stefan; Ng, Dione

    2011-01-01

    completing a parallel comparative study with the standard screening method (i.e., molecular testing). In addition, follow-up DUS GA and 3HGA testing of babies with elevated dried blood spot C5DC acylcarnitines will be useful as a first-tier diagnostic test, thus reducing the number of cases requiring...

  1. The implementation of neonatal peritoneal dialysis in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Sevim; Bilgin, Leyla; Gunduz, Mehmet; Uncu, Nermin; Azili, Mujdem Nur; Tiryaki, Tugrul

    2012-10-01

    To investigate etiology, outcome and complications related to neonatal peritoneal dialysis (PD). Neonates treated with PD in our neonatal intensive care unit during 2007-2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 4036 hospitalized neonates; 20 neonates (0.5%) who underwent 21 cycles of PD [7 preterm, 13 term; 13 female, 7 male] were included. The mean birth weight was 2930.2 ± 720.6 g (1120-4570), mean gestational age was 37.5 ± 3.5 weeks (27-41). The etiologic disorders included inborn errors of metabolism (propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemia, citrullinemia, glutaric aciduria type 2, maple syrup urine disease, 10), or acute renal failure secondary to perinatal asphyxia (4), sepsis (2), prematurity (2), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (1), kernicterus (1). The complications included peritonitis (2), early leakage (4), hemorrhage (1), catheter removal (3) and occlusion (2). The mortality rate was 50%. The gestational ages and birth weights of surviving neonates were higher (p neonates, chronic renal failure (1), severe (4) and moderate neuromotor impairment (2) developed within 4-43 months. PD, although invasive, is an effective therapy in neonates. The complexity and invasiveness of the procedure is probably responsible for high rate of complications and mortality. If appropriate catheter selection and technique in the placement should be done, PD might improve outcome.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: methylmalonic acidemia with homocystinuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or Free article on PubMed Central Kräutler B. Biochemistry of B12-cofactors in human metabolism. Subcell Biochem. ... not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users with questions about a ...

  3. Simultaneous analysis of amino acid and organic acid by NMR spectrometry, 2. Diagnostic aids for inborn error of metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koda, Naoya; Yamaguchi, Shuichi; Mori, Takeshi.

    1987-09-01

    Analysis of urine from patients with inborn error of metabolism were studied by /sup 1/H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. Diseases studied were as follows; phenylketonuria, biotin responsive multiple carboxylase deficiency, non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, 3-ketothiolase deficiency, alkaptonuria, methylmalonic acidemia, isovaleric acidemia, glutaric aciduria, argininosuccinic aciduria and hyperornithinemia. In each disease, specific metabolites in urine were recognized by NMR spectrometry. This method is accomplished within 10 minutes with non-treated small volume of urine and will be successfully available for the screening andor diagnosis of inherited metabolic diseases of amino acid and organic acid.

  4. Simultaneous analysis of amino acid and organic acid by NMR spectrometry, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koda, Naoya; Yamaguchi, Shuichi; Mori, Takeshi.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of urine from patients with inborn error of metabolism were studied by 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. Diseases studied were as follows; phenylketonuria, biotin responsive multiple carboxylase deficiency, non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, 3-ketothiolase deficiency, alkaptonuria, methylmalonic acidemia, isovaleric acidemia, glutaric aciduria, argininosuccinic aciduria and hyperornithinemia. In each disease, specific metabolites in urine were recognized by NMR spectrometry. This method is accomplished within 10 minutes with non-treated small volume of urine and will be successfully available for the screening and/or diagnosis of inherited metabolic diseases of amino acid and organic acid. (author)

  5. Structural studies on actinides carboxylates. 3. Preparation, properties and crystal structure of lithium glutarate hydrogenglutarate dioxouranate(VI)tetrahydrate UO/sub 2/(C/sub 5/H/sub 6/O/sub 4/)Li(C/sub 5/H/sub 7/O/sub 4/). 4H/sub 2/O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benetollo, F; Bombieri, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Padua (Italy). Lab. di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Radioelementi; Herrero, J A; Rojas, R M

    1979-01-01

    The synthesis, thermal behaviour and crystal structure of lithium glutaratehydrogenglutaratedioxouranate(VI) tetrahydrate is described. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P2/sub 1//n. The two glutarato ligands behave differently; one is bridging the uranyl groups in infinite chains running approximately in the a axis direction, the second is bridging the uranyl and the lithium ions. The carboxylic groups are chelated on the uranium and monodentate on the lithium. The structure is linked through a network of hydrogen bonding involving water molecules and oxygen atoms from the carboxylato groups. The geometry around the uranium is approximately hexagonal bipyramidal while the lithium is tetrahedrally coordinated with one glutarate oxygen and 3 water oxygens.

  6. Acquired multiple Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in 10 horses with atypical myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, C M; Dorland, L; Votion, D M; de Sain-van der Velden, M G M; Wijnberg, I D; Wanders, R J A; Spliet, W G M; Testerink, N; Berger, R; Ruiter, J P N; van der Kolk, J H

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess lipid metabolism in horses with atypical myopathy. Urine samples from 10 cases were subjected to analysis of organic acids, glycine conjugates, and acylcarnitines revealing increased mean excretion of lactic acid, ethylmalonic acid, 2-methylsuccinic acid, butyrylglycine, (iso)valerylglycine, hexanoylglycine, free carnitine, C2-, C3-, C4-, C5-, C6-, C8-, C8:1-, C10:1-, and C10:2-carnitine as compared with 15 control horses (12 healthy and three with acute myopathy due to other causes). Analysis of plasma revealed similar results for these predominantly short-chain acylcarnitines. Furthermore, measurement of dehydrogenase activities in lateral vastus muscle from one horse with atypical myopathy indeed showed deficiencies of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (0.66 as compared with 2.27 and 2.48 in two controls), medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (0.36 as compared with 4.31 and 4.82 in two controls) and isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (0.74 as compared with 1.43 and 1.61 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) in two controls). A deficiency of several mitochondrial dehydrogenases that utilize flavin adenine dinucleotide as cofactor including the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases of fatty acid beta-oxidation, and enzymes that degrade the CoA-esters of glutaric acid, isovaleric acid, 2-methylbutyric acid, isobutyric acid, and sarcosine was suspected in 10 out of 10 cases as the possible etiology for a highly fatal and prevalent toxic equine muscle disease similar to the combined metabolic derangements seen in human multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency also known as glutaric acidemia type II.

  7. Dietary practices in isovaleric acidemia: A European survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pinto

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: This survey demonstrates wide differences in dietary practice in the management of IVA across European centres. It provides unique dietary data collectively representing European practices in IVA which can be used as a foundation to compare dietary management changes as a consequence of the first E-IMD IVA guidelines availability.

  8. Dietary practices in propionic acidemia: A European survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Daly

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: There was high use of PFAA with intakes of natural protein commonly below WHO/FAO/UNU (2007 safe levels. Optimal dietary management can only be determined by longitudinal, multi-centre, prospective case controlled studies. The metabolic instability of PA and small patient cohorts in each centre ensure that this is a challenging undertaking.

  9. A Methylmalonic Acidemia Case Presenting with Acrodermatitis Enteropathica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hesaneh izadyar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We encountered a patient with methylmalonic aciduria associated with skin lesions resembling acrodermatitis enteropathica. This child was being fed with a low-protein diet when the skin disorder developed. A deficiency in plasma levels isoleucine, was confirmed. Supplementation of a high-caloric, protein-rich diet led to a prompt improvement of skin lesions. We assume that in our patient the skin lesions were the result of malnutrition, rather than being primarily associated with the underlying metabolic disease. To our knowledge, few reports are so far available concerning methylmalonic aciduria complicated by skin eruptions.

  10. 1H-NMR urinalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Shuichi

    1988-01-01

    In an effort to examine the usefulness of 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) urinalysis in the diagnosis of congenital metabolic disorders, 70 kinds of urinary metabolites were analysed in relation to the diagnosis of inborn errors of amino acid and organic acid disorders. Homogated decoupling (HMG) method failed to analyze six metabolites within the undetectable range. When non-decoupling method (NON), in which the materials are dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, was used, the identification of signals became possible. The combination of HMG and NON methods was, therefore, considered to identify all of the metabolites. When the urine samples, which were obtained from patients with hyperglycerolemia, hyperornithinemia, glutaric acidemia type II, or glycerol kinase deficiency, were analysed by using both HMG and NON methods, abnormally increased urinary metabolites were detected. 1 H-NMR urinalysis, if used in the combination of HMG and NON methods, may allow simultanenous screening of inborn errors of metabolism of amino acid and organic acid disorders. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. /sup 1/H-NMR urinalysis. Simultaneous screening of inborn errors of metabolism of amino acid and organic acid disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Shuichi

    1988-02-01

    In an effort to examine the usefulness of /sup 1/H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) urinalysis in the diagnosis of congenital metabolic disorders, 70 kinds of urinary metabolites were analysed in relation to the diagnosis of inborn errors of amino acid and organic acid disorders. Homogated decoupling (HMG) method failed to analyze six metabolites within the undetectable range. When non-decoupling method (NON), in which the materials are dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, was used, the identification of signals became possible. The combination of HMG and NON methods was, therefore, considered to identify all of the metabolites. When the urine samples, which were obtained from patients with hyperglycerolemia, hyperornithinemia, glutaric acidemia type II, or glycerol kinase deficiency, were analysed by using both HMG and NON methods, abnormally increased urinary metabolites were detected. /sup 1/H-NMR urinalysis, if used in the combination of HMG and NON methods, may allow simultanenous screening of inborn errors of metabolism of amino acid and organic acid disorders. (Namekawa, K.).

  12. Probing conformational states of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase by fragment screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begley, Darren W.; Davies, Douglas R.; Hartley, Robert C.; Hewitt, Stephen N.; Rychel, Amanda L.; Myler, Peter J.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Staker, Bart L.; Stewart, Lance J. (Emerald)

    2014-10-02

    Glutaric acidemia type 1 is an inherited metabolic disorder which can cause macrocephaly, muscular rigidity, spastic paralysis and other progressive movement disorders in humans. The defects in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) associated with this disease are thought to increase holoenzyme instability and reduce cofactor binding. Here, the first structural analysis of a GCDH enzyme in the absence of the cofactor flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is reported. The apo structure of GCDH from Burkholderia pseudomallei reveals a loss of secondary structure and increased disorder in the FAD-binding pocket relative to the ternary complex of the highly homologous human GCDH. After conducting a fragment-based screen, four small molecules were identified which bind to GCDH from B. pseudomallei. Complex structures were determined for these fragments, which cause backbone and side-chain perturbations to key active-site residues. Structural insights from this investigation highlight differences from apo GCDH and the utility of small-molecular fragments as chemical probes for capturing alternative conformational states of preformed protein crystals.

  13. Blood typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detect these minor antigens. It is done before transfusions, except in emergency situations. Alternative Names Cross matching; Rh typing; ABO blood typing; Blood group; Anemia - immune hemolytic blood type; ...

  14. Klebsiella Typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, D S; Skov, R; Benedí, J.V.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing and O:K-serotyping of Klebsiella in two different epidemiological settings. METHODS: One hundred and four bacteremia isolates without known epidemiological relation and 47 isolates from an outbreak in a neonatal intensive care...... unit (NICU) were K-typed by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE), O-typed by an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, and typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme XbaI. RESULTS: Typing data for the 104 bacteremia isolates were compared...... with regard to typability, number of types, maximum number of isolates per type, and the Discriminative Index (DI). O-typing combined with K-typing (DI 0.98) as O:K-serotyping (DI 0.99) gave a very discriminative typing system, whereas O-typing alone was not very discriminative (DI 0.76). PFGE (DI 1...

  15. Complexing agents and pH influence on chemical durability of type I moulded glass containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biavati, Alberto; Poncini, Michele; Ferrarini, Arianna; Favaro, Nicola; Scarpa, Martina; Vallotto, Marta

    2017-06-16

    Among the factors that affect the glass surface chemical durability, pH and complexing agents presence in aqueous solution have the main role (1). Glass surface attack can be also related to the delamination issue with glass particles appearance in the pharmaceutical preparation. A few methods to check for glass containers delamination propensity and some control guidelines have been proposed (2,3). The present study emphasizes the possible synergy between a few complexing agents with pH on the borosilicate glass chemical durability. Hydrolytic attack was performed in small volume 23 ml type I glass containers autoclaved according to EP or USP for 1 hour at 121°C, in order to enhance the chemical attack due to time, temperature and the unfavourable surface/volume ratio. 0,048 M or 0.024 M (moles/liter) solutions of the acids citric, glutaric, acetic, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and sodium phosphate with water for comparison, were used for the trials. The pH was adjusted ± 0,05 units at fixed values 5,5-6,6-7-7,4-8-9 by LiOH diluted solution. Since silicon is the main glass network former, silicon release into the attack solutions was chosen as the main index of the glass surface attack and analysed by ICPAES. The work was completed by the analysis of the silicon release in the worst attack conditions, of moulded glass, soda lime type II and tubing borosilicate glass vials to compare different glass compositions and forming technologies. Surface analysis by SEM was finally performed to check for the surface status after the worst chemical attack condition by citric acid. Copyright © 2017, Parenteral Drug Association.

  16. Complexing Agents and pH Influence on Chemical Durability of Type I Molded Glass Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biavati, Alberto; Poncini, Michele; Ferrarini, Arianna; Favaro, Nicola; Scarpa, Martina; Vallotto, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Among the factors that affect the glass surface chemical durability, pH and complexing agents present in aqueous solution have the main role. Glass surface attack can be also related to the delamination issue causing glass particles' appearance in the pharmaceutical preparation. A few methods to check for glass containers delamination propensity and some control guidelines have been proposed. The present study emphasizes the possible synergy between a few complexing agents with pH on borosilicate glass chemical durability.Hydrolytic attack was performed in small-volume 23 mL type I glass containers autoclaved according to the European Pharmacopoeia or United States Pharmacopeia for 1 h at 121 °C, in order to enhance the chemical attack due to time, temperature, and the unfavorable surface/volume ratio. Solutions of 0.048 M or 0.024 M (M/L) of the acids citric, glutaric, acetic, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), together with sodium phosphate with water for comparison, were used for the trials. The pH was adjusted ±0.05 units at fixed values 5.5, 6.6, 7, 7.4, 8, and 9 by LiOH diluted solution.Because silicon is the main glass network former, silicon release into the attack solutions was chosen as the main index of the glass surface attack and analysed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry. The work was completed by the analysis of the silicon release in the worst attack conditions of molded glass, soda lime type II glass, and tubing borosilicate glass vials to compare different glass compositions and forming technologies. Surface analysis by scanning electron microscopy was finally performed to check for the surface status after the worst chemical attack condition by citric acid. LAY ABSTRACT: Glass, like every packaging material, can have some usage limits, mainly in basic pH solutions. The issue of glass surface degradation particles that appear in vials (delamination) has forced a number of drug product recalls in recent years

  17. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching. There are four major blood ... cause exceptions to the above patterns. ABO blood typing is not sufficient to prove or disprove paternity ...

  18. Type Tricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    Type Tricks’ is about typographical rules and the underlying structure of the work process in the design of new typefaces. In that way, it is both a reference book and a user manual. In an illustrative format, it presents the different stages of type design in an easily accessible manner. Being...

  19. Type inference for correspondence types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Gordon, Andy; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    We present a correspondence type/effect system for authenticity in a π-calculus with polarized channels, dependent pair types and effect terms and show how one may, given a process P and an a priori type environment E, generate constraints that are formulae in the Alternating Least Fixed......-Point (ALFP) logic. We then show how a reasonable model of the generated constraints yields a type/effect assignment such that P becomes well-typed with respect to E if and only if this is possible. The formulae generated satisfy a finite model property; a system of constraints is satisfiable if and only...... if it has a finite model. As a consequence, we obtain the result that type/effect inference in our system is polynomial-time decidable....

  20. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... positive or Rh-negative blood may be given to Rh-positive patients. The rules for plasma are the reverse: ... ethnic and racial groups have different frequency of the main blood types in their populations. Approximately ...

  1. Estudio de pacientes con aciduria glutárica tipo II, mediante la incubación de fibroblastos con ácidos palmítico y mirístico tritiados = Study of patients with type II glutaric aciduria by incubation of fibroblasts with tritiated palmitic and myristic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osorio Orozco, José Henry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la aciduria glutárica tipo II, o deficiencia múltiple de acil-CoA deshidrogenasas, es un trastorno causado por deficiencia de la flavoproteína de transferencia de electrones, de su oxidorreductasa o de ambas; se trata de una enfermedad metabólica autosómica recesiva, caracterizada por acidosis, hipoglicemia, aciduria orgánica, olor a pies sudados y malformaciones en cerebro y riñones.Objetivo: analizar las tasas de oxidación de sustratos tritiados por fibroblastos de pacientes con aciduria glutárica tipo II.Materiales y métodos: se incubaron fibroblastos de dos pacientes con aciduria glutárica tipo II y de 20 controles en presencia de ácidos palmítico y mirístico tritiados.Resultados: se encontró muy deprimida (16%-18% la oxidación de los sustratos tritiados por los fibroblastos procedentes de pacientes con aciduria glutárica tipo II en comparación con los controles.Conclusión: la prueba estudiada permite la confirmación in vitro del diagnóstico de aciduria glutárica tipo II.

  2. The upstream enhancer elements of the G6PC promoter are critical for optimal G6PC expression in murine glycogen storage disease type Ia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Mok; Pan, Chi-Jiunn; Koeberl, Dwight D; Mansfield, Brian C; Chou, Janice Y

    2013-11-01

    Glycogen storage disease type-Ia (GSD-Ia) patients deficient in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC) manifest impaired glucose homeostasis characterized by fasting hypoglycemia, growth retardation, hepatomegaly, nephromegaly, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, and lactic acidemia. Two efficacious recombinant adeno-associated virus pseudotype 2/8 (rAAV8) vectors expressing human G6Pase-α have been independently developed. One is a single-stranded vector containing a 2864-bp of the G6PC promoter/enhancer (rAAV8-GPE) and the other is a double-stranded vector containing a shorter 382-bp minimal G6PC promoter/enhancer (rAAV8-miGPE). To identify the best construct, a direct comparison of the rAAV8-GPE and the rAAV8-miGPE vectors was initiated to determine the best vector to take forward into clinical trials. We show that the rAAV8-GPE vector directed significantly higher levels of hepatic G6Pase-α expression, achieved greater reduction in hepatic glycogen accumulation, and led to a better toleration of fasting in GSD-Ia mice than the rAAV8-miGPE vector. Our results indicated that additional control elements in the rAAV8-GPE vector outweigh the gains from the double-stranded rAAV8-miGPE transduction efficiency, and that the rAAV8-GPE vector is the current choice for clinical translation in human GSD-Ia. © 2013.

  3. Disorders of fatty acid oxidation and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease-different clinical entities and comparable perinatal renal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Agnes; Mehler, Katrin; Gottschalk, Ingo; Vierzig, Anne; Eydam, Marcus; Hauke, Jan; Beck, Bodo B; Liebau, Max C; Ensenauer, Regina; Weber, Lutz T; Habbig, Sandra

    2017-05-01

    Differential diagnosis of prenatally detected hyperechogenic and enlarged kidneys can be challenging as there is a broad phenotypic overlap between several rare genetic and non-genetic disorders. Metabolic diseases are among the rarest underlying disorders, but they demand particular attention as their prognosis and postnatal management differ from those of other diseases. We report two cases of cystic, hyperechogenic and enlarged kidneys detected on prenatal ultrasound images, resulting in the suspected diagnosis of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). Postnatal clinical course and work-up, however, revealed early, neonatal forms of disorders of fatty acid oxidation (DFAO) in both cases, namely, glutaric acidemia type II, based on identification of the novel, homozygous splice-site mutation c.1117-2A > G in the ETFDH gene, in one case and carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency in the other case. Review of pre- and postnatal sonographic findings resulted in the identification of some important differences that might help to differentiate DFAO from ARPKD. In DFAO, kidneys are enlarged to a milder degree than in ARPKD, and the cysts are located ubiquitously, including also in the cortex and the subcapsular area. Interestingly, recent studies have pointed to a switch in metabolic homeostasis, referred to as the Warburg effect (aerobic glycolysis), as one of the underlying mechanisms of cell proliferation and cyst formation in cystic kidney disease. DFAO are characterized by the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in aerobic glycolysis, and thus they do resemble the Warburg effect. We therefore speculate that this inhibition might be one of the pathomechanisms of renal hyperproliferation and cyst formation in DFAO analogous to the reported findings in ARPKD. Neonatal forms of DFAO can be differentially diagnosed in neonates with cystic or hyperechogenic kidneys and necessitate immediate biochemical work-up to provide early

  4. Tank type LMFBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Hiroshi

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To detect the abnormality in the suspended body or reactor core supporting structures thereby improve the safety and reliability of tank type LMFBR reactors. Constitution: Upon inspection during reactor operation period, the top end of the gripper sensing rod of a fuel exchanger is abutted against a supporting bed and the position of the reactor core supporting structures from the roof slab is measured by a stroke measuring device. Then, the sensing rod is pulled upwardly to abut against the arm portion and the position is measured by the stroke measuring device. The measuring procedures are carried out for all of the sensing rods and the measured values are compared with a previously determined value at the initial stage of the reactor operation. As a result, it is possible to detect excess distortions and abnormal deformation in the suspended body or reactor core supporting structures. Furthermore, integrity of the suspended body against thermal stresses can be secured by always measuring the coolant liquid level by the level measuring sensor. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Type Classes for Lightweight Substructural Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Gan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Linear and substructural types are powerful tools, but adding them to standard functional programming languages often means introducing extra annotations and typing machinery. We propose a lightweight substructural type system design that recasts the structural rules of weakening and contraction as type classes; we demonstrate this design in a prototype language, Clamp. Clamp supports polymorphic substructural types as well as an expressive system of mutable references. At the same time, it adds little additional overhead to a standard Damas-Hindley-Milner type system enriched with type classes. We have established type safety for the core model and implemented a type checker with type inference in Haskell.

  6. Refining types using type guards in TypeScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolff, Ivo Gabe; Hage, J.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss two adaptations of the implementation of type guards and narrowing in the TypeScript compiler. The first is an improvement on the original syntax-directed implementation, and has now replaced the original one in the TypeScript compiler. It is specifically suited for the scenario in which

  7. Guarded dependent type theory with coinductive types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizjak, Aleš; Grathwohl, Hans Bugge; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    We present guarded dependent type theory, gDTT, an extensional dependent type theory with a later' modality and clock quantifiers for programming and proving with guarded recursive and coinductive types. The later modality is used to ensure the productivity of recursive definitions in a modular......, type based, way. Clock quantifiers are used for controlled elimination of the later modality and for encoding coinductive types using guarded recursive types. Key to the development of gDTT are novel type and term formers involving what we call delayed substitutions’. These generalise the applicative...... functor rules for the later modality considered in earlier work, and are crucial for programming and proving with dependent types. We show soundness of the type theory with respect to a denotational model....

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care of Type 2 Diabetes This two-page introduction to type 2 diabetes is in PDF format ... Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed ...

  9. Refinement Types for TypeScript

    OpenAIRE

    Vekris, Panagiotis; Cosman, Benjamin; Jhala, Ranjit

    2016-01-01

    We present Refined TypeScript (RSC), a lightweight refinement type system for TypeScript, that enables static verification of higher-order, imperative programs. We develop a formal core of RSC that delineates the interaction between refinement types and mutability. Next, we extend the core to account for the imperative and dynamic features of TypeScript. Finally, we evaluate RSC on a set of real world benchmarks, including parts of the Octane benchmarks, D3, Transducers, and the TypeScript co...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ... Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes ...

  11. Respiratory muscle strength and muscle endurance are not affected by acute metabolic acidemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nizet, T.A.C.; Heijdra, Y.F.; Elshout, F.J.J. van den; Ven, M.J.T. van de; Bosch, F.H.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory muscle fatigue in asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) contributes to respiratory failure with hypercapnia, and subsequent respiratory acidosis. Therapeutic induction of acute metabolic acidosis further increases the respiratory drive and, therefore, may diminish

  12. Propionic acidemia as a cause of adult-onset dilated cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemersma, M.; Hazebroek, M.R.; Helderman-van den Enden, A.T.; Salomons, G.S.; Ferdinandusse, S.; Brouwers, M.; Ploeg, L. van der; Heymans, S.; Glatz, J.F.C.; Wijngaard, A. van den; Krapels, I.P.C.; Bierau, J.; Brunner, H.G.

    2017-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is extremely heterogeneous with a large proportion due to dominantly inherited disease-causing variants in sarcomeric genes. Recessive metabolic diseases may cause DCM, usually with onset in childhood, and in the context of systemic disease. Whether metabolic defects can

  13. Classification of Parameters Extracted from Cardiotocographic Signals for Early Detection of Metabolic Acidemia in Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROTARIU, C.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fetal acidosis is reflected by the values of umbilical cord pH and base deficit (BDecf: normal recordings (pH over 7.2 and BDecf under 8 mmol/l and abnormal recordings (pH under 7.2 and BDecf over 8 mmol/l. The purpose of this paper is to present the implementation of an automated system for detecting fetal acidosis in cardiotocographic recordings. The method uses spectral analysis of medium (0.07-0.13 Hz and high (0.13-1 Hz frequency spectrum. We implement the algorithm for segments of the recordings without signal loss for better classification. We determined the normalized medium and high frequency components and mid to high frequency ratio. The recordings in the database are divided into a control group (100 normal recordings and a test group (431 normal or abnormal recordings. A t-test with the p value under 0.05 between the two groups is used to classify the test group. The classification is improved by including the presence of late and prolonged decelerations in the classification process, obtaining the final results, which are comparable to the best ones in current literature.

  14. Inborn Errors of Metabolism with Acidosis: Organic Acidemias and Defects of Pyruvate and Ketone Body Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Lori-Anne P; DeBrosse, Suzanne D; McCandless, Shawn E

    2018-04-01

    When a child presents with high-anion gap metabolic acidosis, the pediatrician can proceed with confidence by recalling some basic principles. Defects of organic acid, pyruvate, and ketone body metabolism that present with acute acidosis are reviewed. Flowcharts for identifying the underlying cause and initiating life-saving therapy are provided. By evaluating electrolytes, blood sugar, lactate, ammonia, and urine ketones, the provider can determine the likelihood of an inborn error of metabolism. Freezing serum, plasma, and urine samples during the acute presentation for definitive diagnostic testing at the provider's convenience aids in the differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Types of Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... Use Map Selector Search Alzheimer’s Association Alzheimer's & Dementia Types of Dementia Types of Dementia Types of Dementia ...

  16. Type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin-dependent diabetes; Juvenile onset diabetes; Diabetes - type 1; High blood sugar - type 1 diabetes ... Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age. It is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults. Insulin is ...

  17. Types of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes, Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your ... is serious. What are the different types of diabetes? The most common types of diabetes are type ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 ... Planner, and tips from experts Let's Be Well: Products to help you thrive with diabetes - lets-be- ...

  19. Type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type 2 diabetes; Oral hypoglycemic - type 2 diabetes; High blood sugar - type 2 diabetes ... your kidneys are working well ( microalbuminuria and serum creatinine ). Visit your eye doctor at least once a ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ...

  1. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type-checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...... terms. CTT provides a computational interpretation of functional extensionality, is conjectured to have decidable type checking, and has an implemented type-checker. Our new type theory, called guarded cubical type theory, provides a computational interpretation of extensionality for guarded recursive...

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program In It Together We Can Help ... Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health Insurance ...

  3. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do ... type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ...

  5. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...... terms. CTT provides a computational interpretation of functional extensionality, enjoys canonicity for the natural numbers type, and is conjectured to support decidable type-checking. Our new type theory, guarded cubical type theory (GCTT), provides a computational interpretation of extensionality...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... August 1, 2013 Last Edited: October 27, 2015 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, . In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type ... To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type ...

  8. Type classes for mathematics in type theory

    OpenAIRE

    Spitters, Bas; Van der Weegen, Eelis

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of first-class type classes in the Coq system calls for re-examination of the basic interfaces used for mathematical formalization in type theory. We present a new set of type classes for mathematics and take full advantage of their unique features to make practical a particularly flexible approach formerly thought infeasible. Thus, we address both traditional proof engineering challenges as well as new ones resulting from our ambition to build upon this development a library...

  9. Concrete Types for TypeScript

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Gregor; Zappa Nardelli, Francesco; Vitek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Typescript extends JavaScript with optional type annotations that are, by design, unsound and, that the Typescript compiler discards as it emits code. This design point preserves programming idioms developers are familiar with, and allows them to leave their legacy code unchanged, while offering a measure of static error checking in parts of the program that have type annotations. We present an alternative design for TypeScript, one where it is possible to support the same degree of dynamism,...

  10. Several types of types in programming languages

    OpenAIRE

    Martini, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Part 2: Regular Submissions; International audience; Types are an important part of any modern programming language, but we often forget that the concept of type we understand nowadays is not the same it was perceived in the sixties. Moreover, we conflate the concept of " type " in programming languages with the concept of the same name in mathematical logic, an identification that is only the result of the convergence of two different paths, which started apart with different aims. The paper...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  12. Types and Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Meineche Smidt, Erik

    A hierarchical type system for imperative programming languages gives rise to various computational problems, such as type equivalence, type ordering, etc. We present a particular class of finite automata which are shown to be isomorphic to type equations. All the relevant type concepts turn out...... to have well-known automata analogues, such as language equality, language inclusion, etc. This provides optimal or best known algorithms for the type system, by a process of translating type equations to automata, solving the analogous problem, and translating the result back to type equations. Apart...

  13. Type checking with open type functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrijvers, Tom; Jones, Simon Peyton; Chakravarty, Manual

    2008-01-01

    We report on an extension of Haskell with open type-level functions and equality constraints that unifies earlier work on GADTs, functional dependencies, and associated types. The contribution of the paper is that we identify and characterise the key technical challenge of entailment checking; an...

  14. Equational type logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manca, V.; Salibra, A.; Scollo, Giuseppe

    1990-01-01

    Equational type logic is an extension of (conditional) equational logic, that enables one to deal in a single, unified framework with diverse phenomena such as partiality, type polymorphism and dependent types. In this logic, terms may denote types as well as elements, and atomic formulae are either

  15. Types of intersections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    There are many types of intersections in the Netherlands. In an inherently safe road traffic system, however, the number of intersection types needs to be limited, depending on the road types that intersect. The desired types of intersections do not always correspond with the recommendations in the

  16. Type Inference with Inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    1991-01-01

    of (monotonic) inequalities on the types of variables and expressions. A general result about systems of inequalities over semilattices yields a solvable form. We distinguish between deciding typability (the existence of solutions) and type inference (the computation of a minimal solution). In our case, both......Type inference can be phrased as constraint-solving over types. We consider an implicitly typed language equipped with recursive types, multiple inheritance, 1st order parametric polymorphism, and assignments. Type correctness is expressed as satisfiability of a possibly infinite collection...

  17. Towards Practical Gradual Typing

    OpenAIRE

    Takikawa, Asumu; Feltey, Daniel; Dean, Earl; Flatt, Matthew; Findler, Robert Bruce; Tobin-Hochstadt, Sam; Felleisen, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, programmers have embraced dynamically-typed programming languages. By now, they have also come to realize that programs in these languages lack reliable type information for software engineering purposes. Gradual typing addresses this problem; it empowers programmers to annotate an existing system with sound type information on a piecemeal basis. This paper presents an implementation of a gradual type system for a full-featured class-based language as well as a novel p...

  18. Multiparty Asynchronous Session Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honda, Kohei; Yoshida, Nobuko; Carbone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    . This work extends the foregoing theories of binary session types to multiparty, asynchronous sessions, which often arise in practical communication-centered applications. Presented as a typed calculus for mobile processes, the theory introduces a new notion of types in which interactions involving multiple......Communication is a central elements in software development. As a potential typed foundation for structured communication-centered programming, session types have been studied over the past decade for a wide range of process calculi and programming languages, focusing on binary (two-party) sessions...... peers are directly abstracted as a global scenario. Global types retain the friendly type syntax of binary session types while specifying dependencies and capturing complex causal chains of multiparty asynchronous interactions. A global type plays the role of a shared agreement among communication peers...

  19. Multiparty symmetric sum types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Yoshida, Nobuko; Honda, Kohei

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new theory of multiparty session types based on symmetric sum types, by which we can type non-deterministic orchestration choice behaviours. While the original branching type in session types can represent a choice made by a single participant and accepted by others...... determining how the session proceeds, the symmetric sum type represents a choice made by agreement among all the participants of a session. Such behaviour can be found in many practical systems, including collaborative workflow in healthcare systems for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Processes...... with the symmetric sums can be embedded into the original branching types using conductor processes. We show that this type-driven embedding preserves typability, satisfies semantic soundness and completeness, and meets the encodability criteria adapted to the typed setting. The theory leads to an efficient...

  20. Advances in Blood Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishy, N; Sapatnekar, S

    The clinical importance of blood group antigens relates to their ability to evoke immune antibodies that are capable of causing hemolysis. The most important antigens for safe transfusion are ABO and D (Rh), and typing for these antigens is routinely performed for patients awaiting transfusion, prenatal patients, and blood donors. Typing for other blood group antigens, typically of the Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood groups, is sometimes necessary, for patients who have, or are likely to develop antibodies to these antigens. The most commonly used typing method is serological typing, based on hemagglutination reactions against specific antisera. This method is generally reliable and practical for routine use, but it has certain drawbacks. In recent years, molecular typing has emerged as an alternative or supplemental typing method. It is based on detecting the polymorphisms and mutations that control the expression of blood group antigens, and using this information to predict the probable antigen type. Molecular typing methods are useful when traditional serological typing methods cannot be used, as when a patient has been transfused and the sample is contaminated with red blood cells from the transfused blood component. Moreover, molecular typing methods can precisely identify clinically significant variant antigens that cannot be distinguished by serological typing; this capability has been exploited for the resolution of typing discrepancies and shows promise for the improved transfusion management of patients with sickle cell anemia. Despite its advantages, molecular typing has certain limitations, and it should be used in conjunction with serological methods. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Linearly Refined Session Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Baltazar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Session types capture precise protocol structure in concurrent programming, but do not specify properties of the exchanged values beyond their basic type. Refinement types are a form of dependent types that can address this limitation, combining types with logical formulae that may refer to program values and can constrain types using arbitrary predicates. We present a pi calculus with assume and assert operations, typed using a session discipline that incorporates refinement formulae written in a fragment of Multiplicative Linear Logic. Our original combination of session and refinement types, together with the well established benefits of linearity, allows very fine-grained specifications of communication protocols in which refinement formulae are treated as logical resources rather than persistent truths.

  2. Blood Type Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat ... Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program In It Together We Can Help Center for ...

  4. Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Perhaps you have learned that you have a ... I lower my chances of developing type 2 diabetes? Research such as the Diabetes Prevention Program shows ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Infographics Living with Diabetes Home Recently Diagnosed Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 ... Diabetes at School Tour de Cure Women's Series Do-It-Yourself Fundraising Become a Volunteer American Diabetes ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program In It Together We Can Help Center for Information Legal Assistance Success Stories ... Tips for Caregivers ...

  7. Types of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For ... 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts ... Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being active. But, your doctor may need ...

  11. Different Types of Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Different types of lupus Lupus Foundation of America September 18, 2017 Resource ... lupus. Learn more about each type below. Systemic lupus erythematosus Systemic lupus is the most common form ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More ... Generation of Brilliant Researchers Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Online We Support Your Doctor Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People Working to Stop Diabetes Common Terms Diabetes Statistics Infographics Living with Diabetes Home Recently Diagnosed Where ... Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications Health Insurance For ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2 Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, your body ... Sign Up Thank you for signing up ' + ' '); $('.survey-form').show(); }, success: function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey- ...

  17. Types of chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000910.htm Types of chemotherapy To use the sharing features on this page, ... cancer.org/treatment/treatments-and-side-effects/treatment-types/chemotherapy/how-chemotherapy-drugs-work.html . Updated February 15, ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... Care of Type 2 Diabetes This two-page introduction to type 2 diabetes is in PDF format ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Control Complications Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Enroll in the Living With Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a- ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse over time – even if ... About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose ... Living With Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- A Future Without ...

  1. Diabetes Type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not ... You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, have obesity, have a ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, . In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About Type ... ensureArray(data.submitSurveyResponse.errors); $.each(surveyErrors, function () { if (this.errorField) { $('input[name="' + this.errorField + '"]').closest('.form-group') . ...

  3. Diabetes, Type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Riazi, Afsane; Bradley, Clare

    2007-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the role of psychological stress in Type 1 diabetes. Studies relating to stress and Type 1 diabetes onset and control, as well as the evidence relating to stress management training in people with Type 1 diabetes are discussed.

  4. Osteogenesis imperfecta type V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, Frank; Moffatt, Pierre; Cheung, Moira

    2013-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type V is an autosomal dominant bone fragility disorder that we had described a decade ago. Recent research has shown that OI type V is caused by a recurrent c.-14C>T mutation in IFITM5. In the present study, we assessed all patients diagnosed with OI type V at our...

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight ... About Type 2 Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to ...

  6. Type Systems for Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Ebbe; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Sangiorgi, Davide

    of controls and a set of reaction rules, collectively a bigraphical reactive system (BRS). Possible advantages of developing bigraphical type systems include: a deeper understanding of a type system itself and its properties; transfer of the type systems to the concrete family of calculi that the BRS models...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse over time – even if ... About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose ... the Living With Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- A Future Without ...

  8. Tension Type Headache: Evaluation of Chronic Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Karadaş

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tension type headache(TTH which is a primary headache has episodic and chronic forms. Episodic TTH (ETTH can also be frequent-type and non-frequent-type. According to population-based studies, annual prevalence rates are 38.3% for ETTH and 2.2% for chronic TTH (CTTH. Patients can shift between the sub-groups of TTH. In particular, patients with ETTH are at risk of developing CTTH. Peripheral and central nociceptive mechanism are thought to be responsible in occurrence of TTH. Psychiatric disorders are frequently associated with TTH. Although basic and combined analgesics are used in acute treatment and antidepresants are used in prophylaxis, new treatment modalities are needed.

  9. Guarded Type Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    2011-01-01

    conditional using the instanceof operator and thus the cast type is redundantly mentioned twice. We propose a new typing rule for Java called Guarded Type Promotion aimed at eliminating the need for the explicit casts when guarded. This new typing rule is backward compatible and has been fully implemented...... in a Java 6 compiler. Through our extensive testing of real-life code we show that guarded casts account for approximately one fourth of all casts and that Guarded Type Promotion can eliminate the need for 95 percent of these guarded casts....

  10. Improving Precision of Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    Types in programming languages provide a powerful tool for the programmer to document the code so that a large aspect of the intent can not only be presented to fellow programmers but also be checked automatically by compilers. The precision with which types model the behavior of programs...... is crucial to the quality of these automated checks, and in this thesis we present three different improvements to the precision of types in three different aspects of the Java programming language. First we show how to extend the type system in Java with a new type which enables the detection of unintended...

  11. Type B Drum packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.S.

    1995-11-01

    The Type B Drum package is a container in which a single drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material will be packaged for shipment. The Type B Drum containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the US Department of Energy (DOE), as no double containment packaging for single drums of Type B radioactive material is currently available. Several multiple-drum containers and shielded casks presently exist. However, the size and weight of these containers present multiple operational challenges for single-drum shipments. The Type B Drum containers will offer one unshielded version and, if needed, two shielded versions, and will provide for the option of either single or double containment. The primary users of the Type B Drum container will be any organization with a need to ship single drums of Type B radioactive material. Those users include laboratories, waste retrieval facilities, emergency response teams, and small facilities

  12. TypeSan : Practical type confusion detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haller, Istvan; Jeon, Yuseok; Peng, Hui; Payer, Mathias; Giuffrida, Cristiano; Bos, Herbert; Van Der Kouwe, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The low-level C++ programming language is ubiquitously used for its modularity and performance. Typecasting is a fundamental concept in C++ (and object-oriented programming in general) to convert a pointer from one object type into another. However, downcasting (converting a base class pointer to a

  13. Honesty by Typing

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoletti , Massimo; Scalas , Alceste; Tuosto , Emilio; Zunino , Roberto

    2013-01-01

    We propose a type system for a calculus of contracting processes. Processes can establish sessions by stipulating contracts, and then can interact either by keeping the promises made, or not. Type safety guarantees that a typeable process is honest - that is, it abides by the contracts it has stipulated in all possible contexts, even in presence of dishonest adversaries. Type inference is decidable, and it allows to safely approximate the honesty of processes using either synchronous or async...

  14. Mastering TypeScript

    CERN Document Server

    Rozentals, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Whether you are a JavaScript developer aiming to learn TypeScript, or an experienced TypeScript developer wanting to take your skills to the next level, this book is for you. From basic to advanced language constructs, test-driven development, and object-oriented techniques, you will learn how to get the most out of the TypeScript language.

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  16. Diabetes mellitus type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Desta, Semere Tekeste

    2017-01-01

    Høgskulen på Vestlandet Avdeling for helsefag for sykepleiere Tittel: Diabetes type 1 Bakgrunn for val av tema: I 2000 var det ca. 130 000 personer i Norge med diabetes, av disse hadde ca. 20 000 diabetes type 1. I dag er det ca. 230 000 personer som har diabetes i Norge. Av disse ca. 28 000 type 1 diabetes. Tallet viser hvor alvorlig sykdommen er, fordi det har vært og fortsatt er, en økning av antall diabetikere i Norge. Type 1 diabetes kan komme i alle aldersgrupper, men vanligvis...

  17. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  18. Type Ia Supernova Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibundgut, B.; Sullivan, M.

    2018-03-01

    The primary agent for Type Ia supernova cosmology is the uniformity of their appearance. We present the current status, achievements and uncertainties. The Hubble constant and the expansion history of the universe are key measurements provided by Type Ia supernovae. They were also instrumental in showing time dilation, which is a direct observational signature of expansion. Connections to explosion physics are made in the context of potential improvements of the quality of Type Ia supernovae as distance indicators. The coming years will see large efforts to use Type Ia supernovae to characterise dark energy.

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... steps you take Help change the conversation about type 2 diabetes. Recipes and More: Diabetes Food Hub - ... }, success: function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('. ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday ... Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2383) Give by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Diabetes Basics > Type 2 Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A ... 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse over time – even if you don’t need medications at first, you may need to later on. Some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes than ...

  3. Types of Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Types of Anesthesia KidsHealth / For Teens / Types of Anesthesia What's in ... Get? Print en español Tipos de anestesia About Anesthesia Anesthesia is broken down into three main categories: ...

  4. Diabetes Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is ... kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults ...

  5. Type 1 Diabetes Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affiliates JDRF Celebrity Ambassadors JDRF Logo Usage Contact Us Donate Events More Type 1 Diabetes Facts Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune ... about Insulin and T1D Learn More What Is Diabetes? Causes of T1D The Complexity of Diagnosing ... US CAREERS NEWSROOM FOR RESEARCHERS © JDRF 2018 • Privacy Policy • ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as well as the aged population. Patient Education Materials — Taking Care of Type 2 Diabetes This two-page introduction to type 2 diabetes is in PDF format so you can download it, print it, and hand it out to patients. You ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse over time – even if you don’t need medications at first, you may need to later on. Some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 ...

  8. Flash-Type Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  9. Tension type headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashish Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tension type headaches are common in clinical practice. Earlier known by various names, the diagnosis has had psychological connotations. Recent evidence has helped clarify the neurobiological basis and the disorder is increasingly considered more in the preview of neurologists. The classification, clinical features, differential diagnosis and treatment of tension type headache are discussed in this paper.

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... org > Diabetes Basics > Type 2 Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Facts ... Type 2 Education Series Hear audio clips and full recordings of past Q&A events at your ...

  11. Molecular Typing and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this chapter, general background and bench protocols are provided for a number of molecular typing techniques in common use today. Methods for the molecular typing and differentiation of microorganisms began to be widely adopted following the development of the polymerase chai...

  12. Beyond Type D personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelle, Aline J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Szabó, Balázs M

    2009-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important.......Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important....

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Honor Donation Donate by phone at 1-800-DIABETES (1-800-342-2383) Donate by mail Why Give? ... My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics ...

  15. Personality types of entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Günter F; Gappisch, Cathrin

    2005-06-01

    85 German entrepreneurs were psychometrically assessed on 12 primary trait characteristics. The sample consisted of 49 men and 36 women whose mean age was 45.6 yr. (SD= 10.3). Occupational domains were production (40%) and services (60%). The mean duration of entrepreneurship within these domains was 13.1 yr. (SD=9.3). By factor analysis five personality types of entrepreneurs could be identified: Creative Acquisitor, Controlled Perseverator, Distant Achiever, Rational Manager, and Egocentric Agitator. These types correspond with types found in research by Miner and with the Myer-Briggs Indicator. In addition, correlations between general type potential and both job and life satisfaction of entrepreneurs were found. The results are discussed with regard to intercultural stability of personality types and implications for research and application.

  16. Types Of Christian Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christian tourism is asub-type of tourism where pilgrims travel alone or in group as missionaries orpilgrims or to spend their free time to recollect; it attracts a large numberof travellers. Christian tourism can be practiced by religious young people,missionaries, participants to religious convents, amateurs of religiouscruises, religious camps, visitors of religious attractions, religiousadventurers. Christian tourism can be considered a sub-type of religioustourism because of the large number of people involved in this type of tourismworldwide. Christian tourism as a sub-category of religious tourism coversthree main sub-types: traditional pilgrimage practiced by most world religions,missionary travel to different areas in the world, and confessional voyage. Thestructure of hospitality industry is common to all types of tourism but, fortraditional pilgrimage, there must be special places for the pilgrims to sleep,eat and pray, because they belong, in most cases, to the medium-income touristcategory.

  17. Typed ψ-calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans

    2011-01-01

    A large variety of process calculi extend the pi-calculus with more general notions of messages. Bengtson et al. have shown that many of these pi-like calculi can be expressed as so-called psi-calculi. In this paper, we describe a simple type system for psi-calculi. The type system satisfies a su...... for the distributed pi-calculus of Hennessy and Riely and finally show how existing type systems for secrecy and authenticity in the spi calculus can be represented and shown to be safe.......A large variety of process calculi extend the pi-calculus with more general notions of messages. Bengtson et al. have shown that many of these pi-like calculi can be expressed as so-called psi-calculi. In this paper, we describe a simple type system for psi-calculi. The type system satisfies...... a subject reduction property and a general notion of channel safety. A number of existing systems are shown to be instances of our system, and other, new type systems can also be obtained. We first present a new type system for the calculus of explicit fusions by Wischik and Gardner, then one...

  18. Diabetes mellitus type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Tøraasen, Lisa Vangen; Al-Sultan, Zainab

    2014-01-01

    Bacheloroppgave i sykepleie, 2014 Hvert år blir rundt 600 nordmenn diagnostisert med sykdommen diabetes type 1, og Norge er et av landene i verden med størst andel av barnediabetes. I dag er det 15 000- 20 000 personer i Norge som har diabetes type 1, og antall barn som får diabetes har fordoblet seg de siste 30 årene (Diabetesforbundet, 2014). Problemstillingen vår gikk ut på hvordan sykepleiere kan veilede og undervise ungdom med nyoppdaget diabetes type på sykehus. Ut i fra litteraturst...

  19. Diabetes mellitus type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Tøraasen, Lisa Vangen; Al-Sultan, Zainab

    2014-01-01

    Hvert år blir rundt 600 nordmenn diagnostisert med sykdommen diabetes type 1, og Norge er et av landene i verden med størst andel av barnediabetes. I dag er det 15 000- 20 000 personer i Norge som har diabetes type 1, og antall barn som får diabetes har fordoblet seg de siste 30 årene (Diabetesforbundet, 2014). Problemstillingen vår gikk ut på hvordan sykepleiere kan veilede og undervise ungdom med nyoppdaget diabetes type på sykehus. Ut i fra litteraturstudiet har vi arbeidet oss frem for å ...

  20. Action Type Deontic Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2014-01-01

    A new deontic logic, Action Type Deontic Logic, is presented. To motivate this logic, a number of benchmark cases are shown, representing inferences a deontic logic should validate. Some of the benchmark cases are singled out for further comments and some formal approaches to deontic reasoning...... are evaluated with respect to the benchmark cases. After that follows an informal introduction to the ideas behind the formal semantics, focussing on the distinction between action types and action tokens. Then the syntax and semantics of Action Type Deontic Logic is presented and it is shown to meet...

  1. Type 2 diabetes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Dorte Xenia

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with type 2 diabetes in vivo models and techniques suitable for testing new anti-diabetic compounds. In particular, the testing of TRP antagonist for beneficial effects against type 2 diabetes is considered. There are many choices of both in vitro techniques and in vivo models......, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin secretion, and insulin resistance in vivo and should, thus, be sufficient to demonstrate preclinical proof of concept of a TRP antagonist in type 2 diabetes in rodents. The experiments are suggestions and could be replaced or supplemented by others....

  2. Parametric compositional data types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hvitved, Tom

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we have illustrated the benefits that compositional data types (CDTs) offer for implementing languages and in general for dealing with abstract syntax trees (ASTs). Based on Swierstra's data types \\'a la carte, CDTs are implemented as a Haskell library that enables the definition...... of recursive data types and functions on them in a modular and extendable fashion. Although CDTs provide a powerful tool for analysing and manipulating ASTs, they lack a convenient representation of variable binders. In this paper we remedy this deficiency by combining the framework of CDTs with Chlipala...

  3. Type I supernova models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canal, Ramon; Labay, Javier; Isern, Jordi

    1987-01-01

    We briefly describe the characteristics of Type I supernova outbursts and we present the theoretical models so far advanced to explain them. We especially insist on models based on the thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf in a close binary system, even regarding the recent division of Type I supernovae into the Ia and Ib subtypes. Together with models assuming explosive thermonuclear burning in a fluid interior, we consider in some detail those based on partially solid interiors. We finally discuss models that incorporate nonthermonuclear energy contributions, suggested in order to explain Type Ib outbursts. (Author)

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, ... starved for energy. Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools ...

  6. Making Type Inference Practical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Oxhøj, Nicholas; Palsberg, Jens

    1992-01-01

    We present the implementation of a type inference algorithm for untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. The algorithm significantly improves our previous one, presented at OOPSLA'91, since it can handle collection classes, such as List, in a useful way. Abo......, the complexity has been dramatically improved, from exponential time to low polynomial time. The implementation uses the techniques of incremental graph construction and constraint template instantiation to avoid representing intermediate results, doing superfluous work, and recomputing type information....... Experiments indicate that the implementation type checks as much as 100 lines pr. second. This results in a mature product, on which a number of tools can be based, for example a safety tool, an image compression tool, a code optimization tool, and an annotation tool. This may make type inference for object...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Right away, your cells may be starved for energy. Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt ... lwt2d-en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... medications or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse ...

  11. Treating Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health care team is there for you. Your child's diabetes management plan should be easy to understand, detailed, ... Can Diabetes Be Prevented? Monitoring Blood Sugar Your Child's Diabetes Health Care Team Medicines for Diabetes Type 2 ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future Without Diabetes Donate towards research today ... Donate Today We Can Help - we-can-help.html Chat Online Chat Closed engagement en -- Have Type ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood ... For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in the ... 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  15. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and ... html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from diabetes.org ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ... Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes education program Calendar of Events Wellness Lives Here Awareness ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with ... lwt2d-en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from ...

  20. Teaching Typing by Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Eleanor L.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to discussing the program for teaching typewriting to blind students using the auditory mode, the article presents a sample lesson in print, along with typing rates achieved by earlier classes. (DLS)

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... excused. 86 million Americans have prediabetes. Take the test. Know where you stand. More from diabetes.org ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose ... or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research ... 342-2383) Copyright 1995-2018. American Diabetes Association. All rights reserved. Use of this website constitutes acceptance ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future Without Diabetes Make your donation today ... Donate Today We Can Help - we-can-help.html Chat Online Chat Closed engagement en -- Have Type ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's ... going into cells, it can cause two problems: Right away, your cells may be starved for energy. ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home ... make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... A Day in the Life of Diabetes Famous People Working to Stop Diabetes Common Terms Diabetes Statistics ... hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ... EXPO Volunteer Opportunities Sponsorship and Exhibit Opportunities Camp Learning at Camp Find a Camp Fundraising Events Step ...

  11. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports ... binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of the ...

  12. Types of Crude Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The petroleum industry often classifies these types by geographical source, but the classification scheme here is more useful in a spill cleanup scenario. It indicates general toxicity, physical state, and changes caused by time and weathering.

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program In It Together We Can Help Center for Information Legal ... at School Tour de Cure Women's Series Do-It-Yourself Fundraising Become a Volunteer American Diabetes Month® ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know ... Cure Father of the Year Stop Diabetes at School Tour de Cure Women's Series Do-It-Yourself ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... Diabetes Basics > Type 2 Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Facts About ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk ... Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... hotelscom.html Ways to Give Vacation for Donations Travel bookings completed through Hotels.com give 5% back ... about type 2 diabetes. Recipes and More: Diabetes Food Hub - recipes-and-more-1.html Recipes and ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Program In It Together We Can Help Center for Information Legal Assistance Success Stories ... with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of ... our 2018 Tour de Cure events. Start your team today! More from diabetes.org Healthy Recipes: Delicious ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in the Life of Diabetes Famous People Working to Stop Diabetes ... CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, as well as the aged population. Patient Education Materials — Taking Care of Type ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... and Pacific Islanders American Indian/Alaska Native Programs Older ... may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I ... levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2 Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Day in the Life of Diabetes Famous People Working to Stop Diabetes Common Terms Diabetes Statistics Infographics Living with Diabetes Home Recently Diagnosed Where Do I Begin With Type2? ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ... and Care Blood Glucose Control Complications Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Enroll in the Living With Type 2 ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes ... 800-DIABETES (800-342-2383) Give by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Diabetes Basics > Type 2 Share: ...

  13. Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Anders; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2001-01-01

    Prediction of Type 1 diabetes at individual level is relevant for any possible intervention before clinical disease develops. Currently available markers of Type 1 diabetes include genetic specificities and immune markers, in addition to a positive family history. This chapter reviews the measures...... and methods of importance in predicting Type 1 diabetes. Based on numerical examples it is demonstrated that available markers have a low level of performance, even when combined. Even so, combined marker information may allow for the identification of the large majority of the general population who...... is at very low disease risk. The impact at population level of predicting Type 1 diabetes varies between societies because the performance of markers depends on levels of disease risk and distribution of markers within a population. The incorporation of the influence of non-genetic etiological factors may...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research Highlights Research Excellence Honorees How ... Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being ... 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Control Complications Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Enroll in the ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type ... time Give monthly Give in honor Give in memory Donate Now Why Give? Nearly 30 million battle ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up ... high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 ...

  19. Types of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Introduction Types of Heart Failure Classes of Heart Failure Heart Failure in Children Advanced Heart Failure • Causes and ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research Highlights Research Excellence Honorees How ... breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type ... Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We Can Help Enroll in ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes education program Calendar of Events Wellness Lives Here ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type ... 250 $500 Other Other Ways to Donate: In Memory Donation In Honor Donation Donate by phone at ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it can cause two problems: Right away, your cells may be starved for energy. Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... of Events Wellness Lives Here Awareness Programs Hispanic Heritage Month African American Programs Latino Programs Asian Americans, ... 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  6. Multilocus Sequence Typing

    OpenAIRE

    Belén, Ana; Pavón, Ibarz; Maiden, Martin C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was first proposed in 1998 as a typing approach that enables the unambiguous characterization of bacterial isolates in a standardized, reproducible, and portable manner using the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis as the exemplar organism. Since then, the approach has been applied to a large and growing number of organisms by public health laboratories and research institutions. MLST data, shared by investigators over the world via the Internet, have been ...

  7. Type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Mark A; Eisenbarth, George S; Michels, Aaron W

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, knowledge of the pathogenesis and natural history of type 1 diabetes has grown substantially, particularly with regard to disease prediction and heterogeneity, pancreatic pathology, and epidemiology. Technological improvements in insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors help patients with type 1 diabetes manage the challenge of lifelong insulin administration. Agents that show promise for averting debilitating disease-associated complications have also been identifi...

  8. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  9. Helical type vacuum container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owada, Kimio.

    1989-01-01

    Helical type vacuum containers in the prior art lack in considerations for thermal expansion stresses to helical coils, and there is a possibility of coil ruptures. The object of the present invention is to avoid the rupture of helical coils wound around the outer surface of a vacuum container against heat expansion if any. That is, bellows or heat expansion absorbing means are disposed to a cross section of a helical type vacuum container. With such a constitution, thermal expansion of helical coils per se due to temperature elevation of the coils during electric supply can be absorbed by expansion of the bellows or absorption of the heat expansion absorbing means. Further, this can be attained by arranging shear pins in the direction perpendicular to the bellows axis so that the bellows are not distorted when the helical coils are wound around the helical type vacuum container. (I.S.)

  10. Brauer type embedding problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ledet, Arne

    2005-01-01

    This monograph is concerned with Galois theoretical embedding problems of so-called Brauer type with a focus on 2-groups and on finding explicit criteria for solvability and explicit constructions of the solutions. The advantage of considering Brauer type embedding problems is their comparatively simple condition for solvability in the form of an obstruction in the Brauer group of the ground field. This book presupposes knowledge of classical Galois theory and the attendant algebra. Before considering questions of reducing the embedding problems and reformulating the solvability criteria, the

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in the Life of Diabetes Famous People Working to Stop Diabetes Common Terms Diabetes Statistics Infographics ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diabetes. » « Connect With Us Register for diabetes news, research and food & fitness tips. Email: Sign Up Thank you for ... Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning ... to Congress Research & Practice We Are Research Leaders We Support Your ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk ... Chat Closed engagement en -- So…Do You Have Prediabetes? - 2017-01-ad-council.html So…Do You ...

  14. Type VI secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Dor; Orth, Kim

    2015-03-30

    Bacteria employ a variety of tools to survive in a competitive environment. Salomon and Orth describe one such tool-the Type 6 Secretion Systems used by bacteria to deliver a variety of toxins into competing cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research Highlights Research Excellence Honorees How ... you for signing up ' + ' '); $('.survey-form').show(); }, success: function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group . ...

  16. Chemistry of Blood Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, William F.

    2005-01-01

    The molecule of December 2005 comes from the paper by Rose, Palcic and Evans on structural factors determining the blood type. The structure was previously reported by Palcic and Evans and is presented without the water molecule that is determined in the crystal structure.

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for ... But, your doctor may need to also prescribe oral medications or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets ... Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Gift Fundraising Events Donate Stocks Give by Phone 1-800-DIABETES (800-342-2383) Give by ... 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... first, you may need to later on. Some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 ... function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == ' ...

  1. TypeScript essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Nance, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The book introduces the TypeScript language and its features to anyone looking to develop rich web applications. Whether you are new to web development or are an experienced engineer with strong JavaScript skills, this book will get you writing code quickly. A basic understanding of JavaScript and its language features are necessary for this book.

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research ... survey-loading').remove(); $('#emailsurvey').hide(); $('#emailsurveythanks').show(); } } }; /* bind any forms with the "luminateApi" class */ luminateExtend.api.bind(); }); })( ...

  3. [Enterocin typing of enterococci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedov, V I

    1978-09-01

    The author worked out a method of enterocinotyping on enterococci. A possibility of enterococcus typing by means of a set of enterocinogenic enterococcus strains was shown. A mobile enterococcus 4 (10 p) strain, possessing a high antagonistic activity, is suggested for enterococcus identification. Differentiation of enterococcus species by the enterocine sensitivity proved to be impossible.

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to ... normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, oral medications (pills), and insulin. When glucose builds up ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? ... Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning ... Congress Research & Practice We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... August 1, 2013 Last Edited: October 27, 2015 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, . In ... today and help fund grants supporting next generation scientists. Donate Today We Can Help - we-can-help. ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can’t make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, ... may be starved for energy. Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer ... time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Pacific Islanders American Indian/Alaska Native Programs Older Adults Family Link Diabetes EXPO Upcoming Diabetes EXPOs EXPO ... Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, as well as the aged population. Patient Education Materials — Taking Care of Type 2 Diabetes This ... Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research Highlights Research Excellence Honorees How We Fund Research Funding the Next Generation of Brilliant Researchers Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Online We Support Your ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... isn’t able to keep up and can’t make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, oral medications (pills), and insulin. When glucose builds up in the blood instead of going into cells, it can cause two problems: Right away, your ...

  16. Compositional data types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hvitved, Tom

    2011-01-01

    -cut fusion style deforestation which yields considerable speedups. We demonstrate our framework in the setting of compiler construction, and moreover, we compare compositional data types with generic programming techniques and show that both are comparable in run-time performance and expressivity while our...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News & Events Advocacy News Call to Congress The Cost of Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 Research Highlights Research Excellence Honorees How We Fund Research Funding the Next Generation of Brilliant Researchers ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes ... Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness In My ...

  19. Type 1 narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Matilda; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness with unintentional sleep attacks and cataplexy. The disorder is caused by a loss of hypocretinergic neurons in the brain. The specific loss of these neurons in narcolepsy is thought to result from an autoimmune...

  20. Type B drum packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    The Type B drum packages (TBD) are conceptualized as a family of containers in which a single 208 L or 114 L (55 gal or 30 gal) drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material (RAM) can be packaged for shipment. The TBD containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy as no container packaging single drums of Type B RAM exists offering double containment. Several multiple-drum containers currently exist, as well as a number of shielded casks, but the size and weight of these containers present many operational challenges for single-drum shipments. As an alternative, the TBD containers will offer up to three shielded versions (light, medium, and heavy) and one unshielded version, each offering single or optional double containment for a single drum. To reduce operational complexity, all versions will share similar design and operational features where possible. The primary users of the TBD containers are envisioned to be any organization desiring to ship single drums of Type B RAM, such as laboratories, waste retrieval activities, emergency response teams, etc. Currently, the TBD conceptual design is being developed with the final design and analysis to be completed in 1995 to 1996. Testing and certification of the unshielded version are planned to be completed in 1996 to 1997 with production to begin in 1997 to 1998

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call to Congress The Cost of Diabetes Research & Practice Home We Are Research Leaders World's Largest Diabetes Meeting Recent Advances Type 1 ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & ... Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy ... form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Last Edited: October 27, 2015 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, . In this section Diabetes ... Use and Privacy Policy « American Diabetes Association Diabetes Forecast Stop Diabetes Step Out: Walk to Stop Diabetes ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at ... Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning ... to Congress Research & Practice We Are Research Leaders We Support Your ...

  5. Type Inference for Session Types in the Pi-Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Eva Fajstrup; Harbo, Jacob Buchreitz; Huttel, Hans

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a direct algorithm for session type inference for the π-calculus. Type inference for session types has previously been achieved by either imposing limitations and restriction on the π-calculus, or by reducing the type inference problem to that for linear types. Our approach...

  6. Types of planetary tori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, T.S.; Siscoe, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    While satellite tori are morphologically similar, they divide into dynamically distinct groups whose global balances of ions and neutrals are presently modeled in order to determine how a torus behaves as a consequence of whether it generates itself and whether it disperses or recombines in place. Six possible types of behavior result; attention is given to the equilibrium and stability of each type. The behavior of a perturbation is characterized by a trajectory in the two-dimensional space formed by the ion density and neutral density perturbations. The equilibrium is stable if a perturbation follows its trajectory toward the origin, but is unstable if the motion is away from it. An attempt is made to classify the Jupiter and Saturn tori in this light. 27 references

  7. Types, typologies, arguments

    OpenAIRE

    Plantin, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The concept of arguments schemes is fundamental for argumentation studies; but its implementation is not obvious. The first section of this contribution briefly starts from the concepts of argument scheme, typology of arguments schemes, and the foundational catalogue of 28 topoi from Aristotle's Rhetoric. The application of the "topical method" is first based on the knowledge of typologies of arguments, and then on the precise features defining an argument type. The practical question that re...

  8. Contract types - turnkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, G.

    1975-01-01

    Turnkey or the turnkey type of contract refers to a system of management according to which one organization accepts total responsibility for completing all parts and all phases of a project. In the case of a power project the turnkey contractor undertakes to design the plant, supply or procure and erect the equipment, build the station and put it into operation. (orig./FW) [de

  9. Nuclear reactor types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of different reactor types designed to exploit controlled fission reactions are explained. Reactors vary from low power research devices to high power devices especially designed to produce heat, either for direct use or to produce steam to drive turbines to generate electricity or propel ships. A general outline of basic reactors (thermal and fast) is given and then the different designs considered. The first are gas cooled, including the Magnox reactors (a list of UK Magnox stations and reactor performance is given), advanced gas cooled reactors (a list of UK AGRs is given) and the high temperature reactor. Light water cooled reactors (pressurized water [PWR] and boiling water [BWR] reactors) are considered next. Heavy water reactors are explained and listed. The pressurized heavy water reactors (including CANDU type reactors), boiling light water, steam generating heavy water reactors and gas cooled heavy water reactors all come into this category. Fast reactors (liquid metal fast breeder reactors and gas cooled fast reactors) and then water-cooled graphite-moderated reactors (RBMK) (the type at Chernobyl-4) are discussed. (U.K.)

  10. Tank type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Fumio.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention concerns a tank type reactor capable of securing reactor core integrity by preventing incorporation of gases to an intermediate heat exchanger, thgereby improving the reliability. In a conventional tank type reactor, since vortex flows are easily caused near the inlet of an intermediate heat exchanger, there is a fear that cover gases are involved into the coolant main streams to induce fetal accidents. In the present invention, a reactor core is suspended by way of a suspending body to the inside of a reactor vessel and an intermediate heat exchanger and a pump are disposed between the suspending body and the reactor vessel, in which a vortex current preventive plate is attached at the outside near the coolant inlet on the primary circuit of the intermediate heat exchanger. In this way vortex or turbulence near the inlet of the intermediate heata exchanger or near the surface of coolants can be prevented. Accordingly, the cover gases are no more involved, to insure the reactor core integrity and obtain a tank type nuclear reactor of high reliability. (I.S.)

  11. Type Families with Class, Type Classes with Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano, Alejandro; Hage, Jurriaan; Bahr, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Type classes and type families are key ingredients in Haskell programming. Type classes were introduced to deal with ad-hoc polymorphism, although with the introduction of functional dependencies, their use expanded to type-level programming. Type families also allow encoding type-level functions......, now as rewrite rules. This paper looks at the interplay of type classes and type families, and how to deal with shortcomings in both of them. Furthermore, we show how to use families to simulate classes at the type level. However, type families alone are not enough for simulating a central feature...... of type classes: elaboration, that is, generating code from the derivation of a rewriting. We look at ways to solve this problem in current Haskell, and propose an extension to allow elaboration during the rewriting phase....

  12. Play the Blood Typing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire The Blood Typing Game What happens if you get a blood ... learn about human blood types! Play the Blood Typing Game 28 September 2017 The mission based game ...

  13. Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Yoh; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2011-12-07

    Before the concept of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) was established, this form of pancreatitis had been recognized as lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis or non-alcoholic duct destructive chronic pancreatitis based on unique histological features. With the discovery in 2001 that serum IgG4 concentrations are specifically elevated in AIP patients, this emerging entity has been more widely accepted. Classical cases of AIP are now called type 1 as another distinct subtype (type 2 AIP) has been identified. Type 1 AIP, which accounts for 2% of chronic pancreatitis cases, predominantly affects adult males. Patients usually present with obstructive jaundice due to enlargement of the pancreatic head or thickening of the lower bile duct wall. Pancreatic cancer is the leading differential diagnosis for which serological, imaging, and histological examinations need to be considered. Serologically, an elevated level of IgG4 is the most sensitive and specific finding. Imaging features include irregular narrowing of the pancreatic duct, diffuse or focal enlargement of the pancreas, a peri-pancreatic capsule-like rim, and enhancement at the late phase of contrast-enhanced images. Biopsy or surgical specimens show diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration containing many IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. A dramatic response to steroid therapy is another characteristic, and serological or radiological effects are normally identified within the first 2 or 3 weeks. Type 1 AIP is estimated as a pancreatic manifestation of systemic IgG4-related disease based on the fact that synchronous or metachronous lesions can develop in multiple organs (e.g. bile duct, salivary/lacrimal glands, retroperitoneum, artery, lung, and kidney) and those lesions are histologically identical irrespective of the organ of origin. Several potential autoantigens have been identified so far. A Th2-dominant immune reaction and the activation of regulatory T-cells are assumed

  14. Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zen Yoh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Before the concept of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP was established, this form of pancreatitis had been recognized as lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis or non-alcoholic duct destructive chronic pancreatitis based on unique histological features. With the discovery in 2001 that serum IgG4 concentrations are specifically elevated in AIP patients, this emerging entity has been more widely accepted. Classical cases of AIP are now called type 1 as another distinct subtype (type 2 AIP has been identified. Type 1 AIP, which accounts for 2% of chronic pancreatitis cases, predominantly affects adult males. Patients usually present with obstructive jaundice due to enlargement of the pancreatic head or thickening of the lower bile duct wall. Pancreatic cancer is the leading differential diagnosis for which serological, imaging, and histological examinations need to be considered. Serologically, an elevated level of IgG4 is the most sensitive and specific finding. Imaging features include irregular narrowing of the pancreatic duct, diffuse or focal enlargement of the pancreas, a peri-pancreatic capsule-like rim, and enhancement at the late phase of contrast-enhanced images. Biopsy or surgical specimens show diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration containing many IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. A dramatic response to steroid therapy is another characteristic, and serological or radiological effects are normally identified within the first 2 or 3 weeks. Type 1 AIP is estimated as a pancreatic manifestation of systemic IgG4-related disease based on the fact that synchronous or metachronous lesions can develop in multiple organs (e.g. bile duct, salivary/lacrimal glands, retroperitoneum, artery, lung, and kidney and those lesions are histologically identical irrespective of the organ of origin. Several potential autoantigens have been identified so far. A Th2-dominant immune reaction and the activation of

  15. Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeFronzo, Ralph A; Ferrannini, Ele; Groop, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an expanding global health problem, closely linked to the epidemic of obesity. Individuals with T2DM are at high risk for both microvascular complications (including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (such as cardiovascular...... that multiple antidiabetic agents, used in combination, will be required to maintain normoglycaemia. The treatment must not only be effective and safe but also improve the quality of life. Several novel medications are in development, but the greatest need is for agents that enhance insulin sensitivity, halt...

  16. Tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor; Bendtsen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The substantial societal and individual burdens associated with tension-type headache (TTH) constitute a previously overlooked major public health issue. TTH is prevalent, affecting up to 78% of the general population, and 3% suffer from chronic TTH. Pericranial myofascial nociception probably...... is important for the pathophysiology of episodic TTH, whereas sensitization of central nociceptive pathways seems responsible for the conversion of episodic to chronic TTH. Headache-related disability usually can be reduced by identification of trigger factors combined with nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic...... treatments, but effective treatment modalities are lacking. Benefits can be gained by development of specific and effective treatment strategies....

  17. Desmoid-type fibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, S.; Moskovic, E.C.; Strauss, D.C.; Benson, C.; Miah, A.B.; Thway, K.; Messiou, C.

    2015-01-01

    Desmoid-type fibromatosis is a rare, locally infiltrative, mesenchymal neoplasm that is associated with high rates of local recurrence but lacks the potential to metastasise. The disease affects younger individuals, with a peak age of 30 years, and is the most common cause of an anterior abdominal wall mass in young women of childbearing age. It may, however, involve nearly every body part, including the extremities, head and neck, trunk, and abdominal cavity; as such, desmoid-type fibromatosis may present to a range of general and subspecialty radiologists. These rare tumours have a widely variable clinical presentation and unpredictable natural history, hence input from a soft-tissue tumour centre is recommended, although much of the imaging may be performed at the patient's local hospital. The consensus for treatment has changed over the past decade, with most centres moving away from primary radical surgery towards a front-line ‘watch-and-wait’ policy. Therefore, imaging has an increasingly important role to play in both the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. This review will discuss the typical imaging characteristics of these lesions and suggest diagnostic and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging protocols, with details of suitable sequences and scanning intervals

  18. BWR type nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toru.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain reactor core characteristics with less changes in the excess reactivity due to fuel burnup even when the operation period varies. Constitution: In a BWR type reactor where fuel assemblies containing fuel rods incorporated with burnable poisons are arranged, the fuel assemblies are grouped into first fuel assemblies and second fuel assemblies. Then, the number of fuel rods incorporated with burnable poisons within the first fuel assemblies is made greater than that of the second fuel rods, while the concentration of the burnable poisons in the fuel rods incorporated with the burnable poisons in the first fuel assemblies is made lower than that of the fuel rods incorporated with the burnable poisons in the second fuel assemblies. In the BWR type reactor constituted in this way, the reactor core characteristics can be improved by changing the ratio between the first fuel assemblies and the second fuel assemblies charged to the reactor core, thereby decreasing the changes in the burnup of the excess reactivity. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Domino Liver Transplantation from a Child with Propionic Acidemia to a Child with Idiopathic Fulminant Hepatic Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Moguilevitch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Domino liver transplant has emerged as a viable strategy to increase the number of grafts available for transplantation. In the domino transplant organs explanted from one patient are transplanted into another patient. The first successful domino liver transplant was performed in Portugal in 1995. Since then this innovative concept has been applied to several genetic or biochemical disorders that are treated by liver transplantation. An important consideration during this operation is that such livers can pose a risk of the de novo development of the disease in the recipient. That is why this surgical procedure requires careful planning, proper selection of the patients, and informed consent of both donor and recipient.

  20. Stack semantics of type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coquand, Thierry; Mannaa, Bassel; Ruch, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    We give a model of dependent type theory with one univalent universe and propositional truncation interpreting a type as a stack, generalizing the groupoid model of type theory. As an application, we show that countable choice cannot be proved in dependent type theory with one univalent universe...

  1. Session Types at the Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Padovani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We (redefine session types as projections of process behaviors with respect to the communication channels they use. In this setting, we give session types a semantics based on fair testing. The outcome is a unified theory of behavioral types that shares common aspects with conversation types and that encompass features of both dyadic and multi-party session types. The point of view we provide sheds light on the nature of session types and gives us a chance to reason about them in a framework where every notion, from well-typedness to the subtyping relation between session types, is semantically -rather than syntactically- grounded.

  2. Types for DSP Assembler Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ken

    2006-01-01

    for reuse, and a procedure that computes point-wise vector multiplication. The latter uses a common idiom of prefetching memory resulting in out-of-bounds reading from memory. I present two extensions to the baseline type system: The first extension is a simple modification of some type rules to allow out......-ofbounds reading from memory. The second extension is based on two major modifications of the baseline type system: • Abandoning the type-invariance principle of memory locations and using a variation of alias types instead. • Introducing aggregate types, making it possible to have different views of a block...... of memory, thus enabling type checking of programs that directly manage and reuse memory. I show that both the baseline type system and the extended type system can be used to give type annotations to handwritten DSP assembler code, and that these annotations precisely and succinctly describe...

  3. Biomechanically acquired foot types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    Over the years, orthopedics of the foot has gone through many stages and phases, each of which has spawned a whole vocabulary of its own. According the author, today we are in the biomechanical age, which represents a step forward in understanding the mechanisms governing the functions of the lower extremity. A great deal of scientific research on the various foot types and pathological entities is now being performed. This paper discusses how, from a radiographic point of view, a knowledge of certain angular relationships must be achieved before one can perform a biomechanical evaluation. In order to validate the gross clinical findings, following an examination of a patient, a biomechanical evaluation can be performed on the radiographs taken. It must be remembered, however, that x-rays are never the sole means of making a diagnosis. They are just one of many findings that must be put together to arrive at a pertinent clinical assessment or diagnosis

  4. Enteroendocrine cell types revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelstoft, Maja S; Egerod, Kristoffer Lihme; Lund, Mari L

    2013-01-01

    The GI-tract is profoundly involved in the control of metabolism through peptide hormones secreted from enteroendocrine cells scattered throughout the gut mucosa. A large number of recently generated transgenic reporter mice have allowed for direct characterization of biochemical and cell...... biological properties of these previously highly elusive enteroendocrine cells. In particular the surprisingly broad co-expression of six functionally related hormones in the intestinal enteroendocrine cells indicates that it should be possible to control not only the hormone secretion but also the type...... and number of enteroendocrine cells. However, this will require a more deep understanding of the factors controlling differentiation, gene expression and specification of the enteroendocrine cells during their weekly renewal from progenitor cells in the crypts of the mucosa....

  5. Pressure tube type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komada, Masaoki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the safety of pressure tube type reactors by providing an additional ECCS system to an ordinary ECCS system and injecting heavy water in the reactor core tank into pressure tubes upon fractures of the tubes. Constitution: Upon fractures of pressure tubes, reduction of the pressure in the fractured tubes to the atmospheric pressure in confirmed and the electromagnetic valve is operated to completely isolate the pressure tubes from the fractured portion. Then, the heavy water in the reactor core tank flows into and spontaneously recycles through the pressure tubes to cool the fuels in the tube to prevent their meltdown. By additionally providing the separate ECCS system to the ordinary ECCS system, fuels can be cooled upon loss of coolant accidents to improve the safety of the reactors. (Moriyama, K.)

  6. Type 1 Tyrosinaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mannion, MA

    2016-06-01

    Tyrosinaemia type 1 (TYR1, OMIM# 276700) is a rare autosomal recessive disease that results from an enzyme defect that leads to a deficiency in fumarylacetoacetase (FAH)1. We present 3 cases of TYR1 in the Irish population over a 9 year period, the only cases known to have been diagnosed in Ireland since 1989. The common presenting symptom was hypoglycaemia and the diagnosis was made by the identification of the pathognomonic biomarker succinylacetone on urine organic acid analysis. We discuss the clinical presentation, biochemical and genetic results including one novel mutation. We also highlight the importance of early initiation of Nitisinone (NTBC), which reduces the complications of TYR1 and the incidence of liver transplantation in this population2.

  7. BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Ryoichi; Sato, Takashi; Osaki, Masahiko; Hirayama, Fumio; Watabe, Atsushi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively eliminate radioactive substances released upon loss of coolant accidents in BWR type reactors. Constitution: A high pressure gas jetting device having a plurality of small aperture nozzles is provided above a spray nozzle, that is, at the top of a dry well. The jetting device is connected to a vacuum breaker provided in a pressure suppression chamber. Upon loss of coolant accident, coolants are sprayed from the spray nozzle and air or nitrogen is jetted from the gas jetting device as well. Then, the gases in the dry well are disturbed, whereby radioactive iodine at high concentration liable to be accumulated in the dry well is forced downwardly, dissolved in the spray water and eliminated. (Ikeda, J.)

  8. Types of collapse calderas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre-Diaz, Gerardo J [Centro de Geociencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Queretaro, Qro., 76230 (Mexico)], E-mail: ger@geociencias.unam.mx

    2008-10-01

    Three main types of collapse calderas can be defined, 1) summit caldera: those formed at the top of large volcanoes, 2) classic caldera: semi-circular to irregular-shaped large structures, several km in diameter and related to relatively large-volume pyroclastic products, and 3) graben caldera: explosive volcano-tectonic collapse structures from which large-volume, ignimbrite-forming eruptions occurred through several fissural vents along the graben master faults and the intra-graben block faults. These in turn can collapse at least with three styles: 1) Piston: when the collapse occurs as a single crustal block; 2) Trap-door: when collapse occurs unevenly along one side while the opposite side remains with no collapse; 3) Piece-meal: when collapse occurs as broken pieces of the crust on top of the magma chamber.

  9. Mechanoluminescent Contact Type Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Yefremov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanoluminescent sensing elements convert mechanical stress into optical radiation. Advantages of such sensors are the ability to generate an optical signal, solid-state, simple structure, and resistance to electromagnetic interference. Mechanoluminescent sensor implementations can possess the concentrated and distributed sensitivity, thereby allowing us to detect the field of mechanical stresses distributed across the area and in volume. Most modern semiconductor photo-detectors can detect mechanoluminescent radiation, so there are no difficulties to provide its detection when designing the mechanoluminescent sensing devices. Mechanoluminescent substances have especial sensitivity to shock loads, and this effect can be used to create a fuse the structure of which includes a target contact type sensor with a photosensitive actuator. The paper briefly describes the theoretical basics of mechanoluminiscence: a light signal emerges from the interaction of crystalline phosphor luminescence centers with electrically charged dislocations, moving due to the deformation of the crystal. A mathematical model of the mechanoluminescent conversion is represented as a functional interaction between parameters of the mechanical shock excitation and the sensor light emission. Examples of computing the optical mechanoluminescent output signal depending on the duration and peak level of impulse load are given. It is shown that the luminous flux, generated by mechanoluminescent sensing element when there is an ammunition-target collision causes the current emerging in photo-detector (photodiode that is sufficient for a typical actuator of the fuse train to operate. The potential possibility to create a contact target type sensor based on the light-sensitive mechanoluminescent sensor was proved by the calculation and simulation results.

  10. Disease-causing missense mutations affect enzymatic activity, stability and oligomerization of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyser, B.; Muhlhausen, C.; Dickmanns, A.

    2008-01-01

    Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder caused by mutations in the glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase gene (GCDH), leading to an accumulation and high excretion of glutaric acid and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid. Considerable variation in severity of the clinical phenotype......Da GCDH complexes. Molecular modeling of mutant GCDH suggests that Met263 at the surface of the GCDH protein might be part of the contact interface to interacting proteins. These results indicate that reduced intramitochondrial stability as well as the impaired formation of homo- and heteromeric GCDH...

  11. EXPERIMENTAL PNEUMONIA (FRIEDLANDER TYPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, W R; Walker, I C

    1915-12-01

    The foregoing experiments show that in cats a definite lobar pneumonia may be caused by Bacillus mucosus capsulatus. Judging both from the clinical course and from the pathological findings, this form of pulmonary infection differs from the usual pneumococcus types of pneumonia and closely resembles the so called Friedländer's bacillus or Bacillus pneumonioe in man. In all instances in which a lobar pneumonia was found after the injection of the bacillus, a similar organism was recovered from the lung, and in no case was this associated with other organisms. The course of the disease in cats is very short, the animals developing early symptoms of profound toxemia. In 87 per cent of the animals showing a lobar pneumonia positive blood cultures were obtained. The pathological findings, judging from the early stages of the disease, are subject to considerable variation. In some instances the process may suggest a pseudolobar or confluent lobular distribution. In these cases the lung has a mottled, marble-like appearance. In the majority of cases, however, the process gave a more homogeneous appearance, suggesting a diffuse and uniform distribution. Foci of hemorrhage were not uncommon in both. Such areas cause the mottled appearance sometimes found. In all instances the consolidated lung presents a greater infiltration of tissue than is usually seen in other types of experimental pneumonia. Although the exudate as seen on the cut surface may be abundant and especially viscid in character, this is not present in most cases. The cut surface of the consolidated lung does not present a granular appearance. The histological findings are also subject to considerable variation. In most instances the infundibular and alveolar spaces are completely filled with an exudate made up chiefly of polymorphonuclear cells. Associated with these are the capsulated bacilli, large vacuolated mononuclear phagocytic cells, and red blood cells, and occasionally small amounts of fibrin. The

  12. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity...

  13. Pediatric obesity & type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dea, Tara L

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on (a) identifying obesity and other risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes, (b) differentiating between pediatric type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, and (c) treating pediatric type 2 diabetes. Obesity has significant implications on a child's health, including an increased risk for insulin resistance and progression to type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes in children, characterized by insulin resistance and relative pancreatic b-cell failure due to the increased demand for insulin production, has now reached epidemic proportions. Longitudinal research on pediatric type 2 diabetes, however, is lacking because this epidemic is relatively new. Treatment of type 2 diabetes in children is focused on lifestyle modification with weight management/increased physical activity, and pharmacological management through oral medication or insulin therapy. Because children with type 2 diabetes are at risk for developing diabetes-related complications earlier in life, they need to be closely monitored for comorbidities.

  14. Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Pregnancy Articles Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes and Pregnancy Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Problems of Diabetes in Pregnancy Blood sugar that is not well ...

  15. FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kimitaka; Fukuie, Ken; Iijima, Tooru; Shimpo, Masakazu.

    1994-01-01

    In an FBR type reactor for exchanging fuels by pulling up reactor core upper mechanisms, a connection mechanism is disposed for connecting the top of the reactor core and the lower end of the reactor core upper mechanisms. In addition, a cylindrical body is disposed surrounding the reactor core upper mechanisms, and a support member is disposed to the cylindrical body for supporting an intermediate portion of the reactor core upper mechanisms. Then, the lower end of the reactor core upper mechanisms is connected to the top of the reactor core. Same displacements are caused to both of them upon occurrence of earthquakes and, as a result, it is possible to eliminate mutual horizontal displacement between a control rod guide hole of the reactor core upper mechanisms and a control rod insertion hole of the reactor core. In addition, since the intermediate portion of the reactor core upper mechanisms is supported by the support member disposed to the cylindrical body surrounding the reactor core upper mechanisms, deformation caused to the lower end of the reactor core upper mechanisms is reduced, so that the mutual horizontal displacement with respect to the control rod insertion hole of the reactor core can be reduced. As a result, performance of control rod insertion upon occurrence of the earthquakes is improved, so that reactor shutdown is conducted more reliably to improve reactor safety. (N.H.)

  16. BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shoichi

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to remove water not by way of mechanical operation in a reactor core and improve the fuel economy in BWR type reactors. Constitution: A hollow water removing rod of a cross-like profile made of material having a smaller neutron absorption cross section than the moderator is disposed to the water gap for each of unit structures composed of four fuel assemblies, and water is charged and discharged to and from the water removing rod. Water is removed from the water removing rod to decrease the moderators in the water gap to carry out neutron spectrum shift operation from the initial to the medium stage of reactor core cycles. At the final stage of the cycle, airs in the water removing rod are extracted and the moderator is introduced. The moderator is filled and the criticality is maintained with the accumulated nuclear fission materials. The neutron spectrum shift operation can be attained by eliminating hydrothermodynamic instability and using a water removing rod of a simple structure. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. Tornado type wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting

    1984-01-01

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  18. FBR type reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamiya, Tadashi; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Fujimura, Koji; Murakami, Tomoko.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron reflectors are disposed at the periphery of a reactor core fuel region and a blanket region, and a neutron shielding region is disposed at the periphery of them. The neutron reflector has a hollow duct structure having a sealed upper portion, a lower portion opened to cooling water, in which a gas and coolants separately sealed in the inside thereof. A driving pressure of a primary recycling pump is lowered upon reduction of coolant flow rate, then the liquid level of coolants in the neutron reflector is lowered due to imbalance between the driving pressure and a gas pressure, so that coolants having an effect as a reflector are eliminated from the outer circumference of the reactor core. Therefore, the amount of neutrons leaking from the reactor core is increased, and negative reactivity is charged to the reactor core. The negative reactivity of the neutron reflector is made greater than a power compensation reactivity. Since this enables reactor scram by using an inherent performance of the reactor core, the reactor core safety of an LMFBR-type reactor can be improved. (I.N.)

  19. FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinbo, Masakazu; Kawakami, Hiroto; Nagaoka, Kazuhito.

    1996-01-01

    In a LMFBR type reactor, a liquid level control means is disposed for lowering a level of liquid metal present in an annular gap along with temperature elevation of the liquid metal after the level is once elevated upon start-up of the reactor. In addition, a liquid level measuring means is disposed for measuring the level of the liquid metal present in the annular gap so as to intermittently lower the liquid level. Thus, temperature gradient in the vertical direction of the container can be moderated compared with the case where the liquid level is not changed or the case where temperature is changed together with the elevation of the liquid level. As a result, the change of difference of thermal expansion is decreased to reduce stresses generated in the circumferential direction thereby preventing occurrence of a liquid level heat ratchet phenomenon. Even if the liquid level control means should stop during operation, the liquid level lowers and does not cause a sharp heat gradient as in the case where the liquid level is elevated, and since the temperature of the liquid level is lowered even after shut down of the reactor, generated stresses are not increased. Safety of an intermediate heat exchanger vessel is ensured and observation from a control chamber is enabled. (N.H.)

  20. LMFBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumi, Ryoji; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To flatten the power distribution while maintaining the flattening in the axial power distribution in LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: Main system control rods are divided into control rods used for the operation and starting rods used for the starting of the reactor, and the starting rods are disposed in the radial periphery of the reactor core, while the control rods are disposed to the inside of the starting rods. With such a constitution, adjusting rods can be disposed in the region where the radial power peaking is generated to facilitate the flattening of the power distribution even in such a design that the ratio of the number of control rods to that of fuel assemblies is relatively large. That is, in this reactor, the radial power peaking is reduced by about 10% as compared with the conventional reactor core. As a result, the maximum linear power density during operation is reduced by about 10% to increase the thermal margin of the reactor core. If the maximum linear power density is set identical, the number of the fuel assemblies can be decreased by about 10%, to thereby reduce the fuel production cost. (K.M.)

  1. PWR type reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Tsuyoshi.

    1993-01-01

    A water chamber of a horizontal U-shaped pipe type steam generator is partitioned to an upper high temperature water chamber portion and a lower low temperature water chamber portion. An exit nozzle of a reactor container containing a reactor core therein is connected to a suction port of a coolant pump by way of first high temperature pipelines. The exit port of the coolant pump is connected to the high temperature water chamber portion of the steam generator by way of second high temperature pipelines. The low temperature water chamber portion of the steam generator is connected to an inlet nozzle of the reactor container by way of the low temperature pipelines. The low temperature water chamber portion of the steam generator is positioned lower than the high temperature water chamber portion, but upper than the reactor core. Accordingly, all of the steam generator for a primary coolant system, coolant pumps as well as high temperature pipelines and low temperature pipelines connecting them are disposed above the reactor core. With such a constitution, there is no worry of interrupting core cooling even upon occurrence of an accident, to improve plant safety. (I.N.)

  2. FBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tsugio.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure the thermal integrity of a reactor vessel in FBR type reactors by preventing sodium vapors or the likes from intruding into a shielding chamber and avoiding spontaneous convection thereof. Constitution: There are provided a shielding plug for shielding the upper opening of a reactor container, an annular thermal member disposed to the circumferential side in the container, a shielding member for shielding upper end of the shielding chamber and a plurality of convection preventive plates suspended from the thermal member into the shielding chamber, and the shielding chamber is communicated by way of the relatively low temperature portion of the container with a gas communication pipe. That is, by closing the upper end of the shielding chamber with the shielding member, coolant vapors, etc. can be prevented from intruding into the shielding chamber. Further, the convection preventive plates prevent the occurrence of spontaneous convection in the shielding chamber. Further, the gas communication pipe absorbs the expansion and contraction of gases in the shielding chamber to effectively prevent the deformation or the like for each of the structural materials. In this way, the thermal integrity of the reactor container can surely be maintained. (Horiuchi, T.)

  3. FBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuoki, Akira; Yamakawa, Masanori.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safety and reliable after-heat removal from a reactor core. Constitution: During ordinary operation of a FBR type reactor, sodium coolants heated to a high temperature in a reactor core are exhausted therefrom, collide against the reactor core upper mechanisms to radially change the flowing direction and then enter between each of the guide vanes. In the case if a main recycling pump is failed and stopped during reactor operation and the recycling force is eliminated, the swirling stream of sodium that has been resulted by the flow guide mechanism during normal reactor operation is continuously maintained within a plenum at a high temperature. Accordingly, the sodium recycling force in the coolant flow channels within the reactor vessel can surely be maintained for a long period of time due to the centrifugal force of the sodium swirling stream. In this way, since the reactor core recycling flow rate can be secured even after the stopping of the main recycling pump, after-heat from the reactor core can safely and surely be removed. (Seki, T.)

  4. Loop type LMFBR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    In conventional FBR type reactors, primary coolants at high temperature uprise at a great flow rate and, due to the dynamic pressure thereof, the free surface is raised or sodium is partially jetted upwardly and then fallen again. Then, a wave killing plate comprising a buffer plate and a deflection plate is disposed to the liquid surface of coolants. Most of primary sodium uprising from the reactor core along the side of the upper mechanism during operation collide against the buffer plate of the wave killing plate to moderate the dynamic pressure and, further, disperse radially of the reactor vessel. On the other hand, primary sodium passing through flowing apertures collides against the deflection plate opposed to the flowing apertures to moderate the dynamic pressure, by which the force of raising the free surface is reduced. Thus, uprising and waving of the free surface can effectively be suppressed to reduce the incorporation of cover gases into the primary sodium, so that it is possible to prevent in injury of the recycling pump, abrupt increase of the reactor core reactivity and reduction of the heat efficiency of intermediate heat exchangers. (N.H.)

  5. BWR type reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatemichi, Shin-ichiro.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate the variation in the power distribution of a BWR type reactor core in the axial direction even if the flow rate is increased or decreased by providing a difference in the void coefficient between the upper part and the lower parts of the reactor core, and increasing the void coefficient at the lower part of the reactor core. Constitution: The void coefficient of the lower region from the center to the lower part along the axial direction of a nuclear fuel assembly is increased to decrease the dependence on the flow rate of the axial power distribution of the nuclear fuel assembly. That is, a water/fuel ratio is varied, the water in non-boiled region is increased or the neutron spectrum is varied so as to vary the void coefficient. In order to exemplify it, the rate of the internal pellets of the fuel rod of the nuclear fuel assembly or the shape of the channel box is varied. Accordingly, the power does not considerably vary even if the flow rate is altered since the power is varied in the power operation. (Yoshihara, H.)

  6. FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayase, Tamotsu.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns an FBR type reactor in which transuranium elements are eliminated by nuclear conversion. There are loaded reactor core fuels being charged with mixed oxides of plutonium and uranium, and blanket fuels mainly comprising depleted uranium. Further, liquid sodium is used as coolants. As transuranium elements, isotope elements of neptunium, americium and curium contained in wastes taken out from light water reactors or the composition thereof are used. The reactor core comprises a region with a greater mixing ratio and a region with a less mixing ratio of the transuranium elements. The mixing ratio of the transuranium elements is made greater for the fuels in the reactor core region at the boundary with the blanket of great neutron leakage. With such a constitution, since the positive reactivity value at the reactor core central portion is small in the Na void reactivity distribution in the reactor core, the positive reactivity is small upon Na boiling in the reactor core central region upon occurrence of imaginable accident, to attain reactor safety. (I.N.)

  7. BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Shigeru.

    1992-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, control rod drives are disposed in the upper portion of a reactor pressure vessel, and a control rod guide tube is disposed in adjacent with a gas/liquid separator at a same height, as well as a steam separator is disposed in the control rod guide tube. The length of a connection rod can be shortened by so much as the control rod guide tube and the gas/liquid separator overlapping with each other. Since the control rod guide tube and the gas/liquid separator are at the same height, the number of the gas/liquid separators to be disposed is decreased and, accordingly, even if the steam separation performance by the gas/liquid separator is lowered, it can be compensated by the steam separator of the control rod guide tube. In view of the above, since the direction of emergent insertion of the control rod is not against gravitational force but it is downward direction utilizing the gravitational force, reliability for the emergent insertion of the control rod can be further improved. Further, the length of the connection rod can be minimized, thereby enabling to lower the height of the reactor pressure vessel. The construction cost for the nuclear power plant can be reduced. (N.H.)

  8. Tank type nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Kesahiro; Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro; Yokota, Norikatsu; Takahashi, Kazuo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the seismic proofness and the radiation shielding of LMFBR type reactors by providing the reactor with a structure reduced in the size and the weight, excellent in satisfactory heat insulating property and having radioactive material capturing performance. Constitution: Two sheets of ceramic plate members (for instance, mullite, steatite, beryllium ceramics or the like) which can be fabricated into plate-like shape and have high heat insulating property are overlapped with each other, between which magnetic heat-insulating material with magnetizing magnetic ceramics (for example, Lisub(0.5)Fesub(2.5)O 4 , Ni-Fe 2 O 4 , Fe-Fe 2 O 4 ) are sandwiched and the whole assembly is covered with metal coating material (for example, stainless steels). The inside of the coating material is evacuated or filled with an inert gas with low heat-conductivity (argon) at a pressure less than 1 kg/cm 2 abs, considering that the temperature goes higher and the inner pressure increases upon operation. In this way, the size of the laminated structure can be reduced to about 1/7 of the conventional case. The magnetic heat insulating materials can capture the magnetic impurities in sodium. (Kawakami, Y.)

  9. Updating signal typing in voice: addition of type 4 signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Alicia; Olszewski, Aleksandra; Jiang, Jack J; Zhang, Yu

    2010-06-01

    The addition of a fourth type of voice to Titze's voice classification scheme is proposed. This fourth voice type is characterized by primarily stochastic noise behavior and is therefore unsuitable for both perturbation and correlation dimension analysis. Forty voice samples were classified into the proposed four types using narrowband spectrograms. Acoustic, perceptual, and correlation dimension analyses were completed for all voice samples. Perturbation measures tended to increase with voice type. Based on reliability cutoffs, the type 1 and type 2 voices were considered suitable for perturbation analysis. Measures of unreliability were higher for type 3 and 4 voices. Correlation dimension analyses increased significantly with signal type as indicated by a one-way analysis of variance. Notably, correlation dimension analysis could not quantify the type 4 voices. The proposed fourth voice type represents a subset of voices dominated by noise behavior. Current measures capable of evaluating type 4 voices provide only qualitative data (spectrograms, perceptual analysis, and an infinite correlation dimension). Type 4 voices are highly complex and the development of objective measures capable of analyzing these voices remains a topic of future investigation.

  10. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity......Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late...... are provided for BOPL. Throughout, the results are related to the languages on which BOPL is based. This text offers advanced undergraduates and professional software developers a sound understanding of the key aspects of object-oriented type systems. All algorithms are implemented in a freely available...

  11. Treatise on intuitionistic type theory

    CERN Document Server

    Granström, Johan Georg

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic type theory can be described, somewhat boldly, as a fulfillment of the dream of a universal language for science.  In particular, intuitionistic type theory is a foundation for mathematics and a programming language.

  12. Types of Cancer Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the several types of cancer clinical trials, including treatment trials, prevention trials, screening trials, supportive and palliative care trials. Each type of trial is designed to answer different research questions.

  13. Computing effects for correspondence types

    OpenAIRE

    Hüttel, Hans

    2010-01-01

    We show that type and effect inference is possible for a type and  effect system for authenticity using non-injective correspondences, opponent  types and a spi-calculus with symmetric encryption. We do this by a general  account of how effects can be computed given knowledge of how and where they  appear in type judgments. 

  14. Computing effects for correspondence types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans

    2010-01-01

    We show that type and effect inference is possible for a type and  effect system for authenticity using non-injective correspondences, opponent  types and a spi-calculus with symmetric encryption. We do this by a general  account of how effects can be computed given knowledge of how and where they......  appear in type judgments. ...

  15. Lectin typing of Campylobacter concisus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hynes, Sean O; Permin, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    A total of 44 clinical isolates and the type strain of the putative pathogen Campylobacter concisus were grouped based on their reactions with plant lectins. The optimized lectin typing system used C. concisus strains proteolytically pretreated and subsequently typed by using a panel of four...... lectins. The system grouped all 45 strains into 13 lectin reaction patterns, leaving no strain untypeable due to autoagglutination. Lectin types were both stable and reproducible....

  16. Parameters in pure type systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloo, C.J.; Kamareddine, F.; Laan, T.D.L.; Nederpelt, R.P.; Rajsbaum, S.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we study the addition of parameters to typed ¿-calculus with definitions. We show that the resulting systems have nice properties and illustrate that parameters allow for a better fine-tuning of the strength of type systems as well as staying closer to type systems used in practice in

  17. Case 22:Type II diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. It is composed of two types depending on the pathogenesis. Type I diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency and usually has its onset during childhood or teenage years. This is also called ketosis-prone diabetes. Type II diab...

  18. Computable Types for Dynamic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Collins (Pieter); K. Ambos-Spies; B. Loewe; W. Merkle

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we develop a theory of computable types suitable for the study of dynamic systems in discrete and continuous time. The theory uses type-two effectivity as the underlying computational model, but we quickly develop a type system which can be manipulated abstractly, but for

  19. TypePad For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    TypePad for Dummies will be on guiding readers through the technical tasks necessary for starting, using and customizing a TypePad blog. It will comprehensively explain choosing the right TypePad membership plan, singing up, configuring, using and customizing a blog using the TypePad system. It will also include: Illustrations from real-world blogs with screenshots and specific examples that bring the book's concepts and ideas to life.; Step-by-step tutorials that will walk readers through the process of signing up for a new TypePad blog and getting down the business of publishing their conten

  20. Hand functions in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpinar Pinar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Hand functions have an enormous impact on activities of daily living in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM, such as self-care, administering insulin injections, and preparing and eating meals. The aim of the study was to evaluate hand functions and grip strength in patients with type 1 and type 2 DM. Methods. This was an observational case-control study investigating the hand functions and grip strength in patients with type 1 and type 2 DM. The study comprised 41 patients with type 1 DM aged 25–50 years sex- and age-matched, 40 non-diabetic controls, and 91 patients with type 2 DM aged 40–65 years sex- and age-matched 60 non-diabetic controls. Patients with documented history of diabetic sensorimotor neuropathy and adhesive capsulitis were excluded. The Duruoz Hand Index was used to assess the functional hand disability. Grip strength was tested with a calibrated Jamar dynamometer. Results. The Duruoz Hand Index scores in patients with type 2 DM were significantly higher than in persons in the control group (p 0.05. Grip strength values of patients with type 1 DM were significantly lower compared to those in the control group (p < 0.05, whereas there was no significant difference between patients with type 2 DM and their control group. There was a negatively significant correlation between grip strength and the Duruoz Hand Index scores in patients with both type 1 and type 2 DM (p < 0.05. Conclusion. Patients with type 1 DM and type 2 DM have different degrees of hand disability as compared to healthy control groups.

  1. Composing and decomposing data types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    restrictive, disallowing subtypings that lead to more than one possible injection and should therefore be considered programming errors. Furthermore, from this refined subtyping constraint we derive a new constraint to express type isomorphism. We show how this isomorphism constraint allows us to decompose......Wouter Swierstra's data types à la carte is a technique to modularise data type definitions in Haskell. We give an alternative implementation of data types à la carte that offers more flexibility in composing and decomposing data types. To achieve this, we refine the subtyping constraint, which...... is at the centre of data types à la carte. On the one hand this refinement is more general, allowing subtypings that intuitively should hold but were not derivable beforehand. This aspect of our implementation removes previous restrictions on how data types can be combined. On the other hand our refinement is more...

  2. Typing is writing: Linguistic properties modulate typing execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinet, Svetlana; Ziegler, Johannes C; Alario, F-Xavier

    2016-12-01

    Typing is becoming our preferred way of writing. Perhaps because of the relative recency of this change, very few studies have investigated typing from a psycholinguistic perspective. In addition, and despite obvious similarities between typing and handwriting, typing research has remained rather disconnected from handwriting research. The current study aimed at bridging this gap by evaluating how typing is affected by a number of psycholinguistic variables defined at the word, syllable, and letter levels. In a writing-to-dictation task, we assessed typing performance by measuring response accuracy, onset latencies - an index of response preparation and initiation - and interkeystroke intervals (IKIs) - an index of response execution processes. The lexical and sublexical factors revealed a composite pattern of effects. Lexical frequency improved response latencies and accuracy, while bigram frequency speeded up IKIs. Sound-spelling consistency improved latencies, but had an inhibitory effect on IKI. IKIs were also longer at syllable boundaries. Together, our findings can be fit within a framework for typed production that combines the previously developed theories of spelling and typing execution. At their interface, we highlight the need for an intermediate hierarchical stage, perhaps in the form of a graphemic buffer for typing.

  3. Identification of the human mitochondrial FAD transporter and its potential role in multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, András N.; Ijlst, Lodewijk; van Roermund, Carlo W. T.; Wijburg, Frits A.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Waterham, Hans R.

    2005-01-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) or glutaric aciduria type II (GAII) is most often caused by mutations in the genes encoding the alpha- or beta-subunit of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETF-DH). Since not all patients have

  4. Types for BioAmbients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capecchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues. Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  5. Early onset type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, A; Thomsen, R W; Nielsen, J S

    2018-01-01

    was more frequent and meeting physical activity recommendations less likely in persons with early-onset type 2 DM. CONCLUSIONS: We found a clear age-gradient, with increasing prevalence of clinical and behavioural risk factors the younger the onset age of type 2 DM. Younger persons with early-onset type 2......AIM: To examine the association between early onset of type 2 diabetes (DM) and clinical and behavioural risk factors for later diabetes complications. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5115 persons with incident type 2 DM enrolled during 2010-2015 in the Danish Centre for Strategic...... Research in Type 2 Diabetes-cohort. We compared risk factors at time of diagnosis among those diagnosed at ≤45 years (early-onset) with diagnosis age 46-55, 56-65 (average-onset = reference), 66-75, and >75 years (late-onset). Prevalence ratios (PRs) were computed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Poor...

  6. Blood typing South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W J; Hollander, P J; Franklin, W L

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary blood typing tests were made on New World camelids, guanacos, llamas, and two hybrids. Erythrocyte samples were tested against a battery of cattle blood typing reagents. Three different reagents were prepared from rabbit anti-erythrocyte sera. Transferrin variation and lectin polymorphism also were observed. No naturally occurring isoantibodies were found. Blood typing tests of New World camelids were shown to be feasible for studies of taxonomic relationships.

  7. A Type System For Certified Runtime Type Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    1999 ACM SIGPLAN International Conf. on Functional Pro- gramming (ICFP’99), pages 183–196. ACM Press, September 1999. [Min97] Yasuhiko Minamide. Full...lifting of type parameters. Technical report, RIMS, Kyoto University, 1997. [MMH96] Yasuhiko Minamide, Greg Morrisett, and Robert Harper. Typed

  8. A Type System for Tom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Kirchner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Extending a given language with new dedicated features is a general and quite used approach to make the programming language more adapted to problems. Being closer to the application, this leads to less programming flaws and easier maintenance. But of course one would still like to perform program analysis on these kinds of extended languages, in particular type checking and inference. In this case one has to make the typing of the extended features compatible with the ones in the starting language. The Tom programming language is a typical example of such a situation as it consists of an extension of Java that adds pattern matching, more particularly associative pattern matching, and reduction strategies. This paper presents a type system with subtyping for Tom, that is compatible with Java's type system, and that performs both type checking and type inference. We propose an algorithm that checks if all patterns of a Tom program are well-typed. In addition, we propose an algorithm based on equality and subtyping constraints that infers types of variables occurring in a pattern. Both algorithms are exemplified and the proposed type system is showed to be sound and complete.

  9. Florence Nightingale: her personality type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossey, Barbara M

    2010-03-01

    This article casts new and refreshing light on Florence Nightingale's life and work by examining her personality type. Using the theory-based Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the author examines Nightingale's personality type and reveals that she was an introverted-intuitive-thinking-judging type. The merit of using the MBTI is that it allows us to more clearly understand three major areas of Nightingale's life that have been partially unacknowledged or misunderstood: her spiritual development as a practicing mystic, her management of her chronic illness to maintain her prodigious work output, and her chosen strategies to transform her visionary ideas into new health care and social realities.

  10. Type-safe pattern combinators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Macros still haven't made their way into typed higher-order programming languages such as Haskell and Standard ML. Therefore, to extend the expressiveness of Haskell or Standard ML, one must express new linguistic features in terms of functions that fit within the static type systems of these lan...... of these languages. This is particularly challenging when introducing features that span across multiple types and that bind variables. We address this challenge by developing, in a step by step manner, mechanisms for encoding patterns and pattern matching in Haskell in a type-safe way....

  11. Linear contextual modal type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that gives...... a mathematical account of the nature of logic variables. Our type theory is conservative over intuitionistic contextual modal type theory proposed by Nanevski, Pfenning, and Pientka. Our main contributions include a mechanically checked proof of soundness and a working implementation....

  12. Discriminating the reaction types of plant type III polyketide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yugo; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Goto, Susumu

    2017-07-01

    Functional prediction of paralogs is challenging in bioinformatics because of rapid functional diversification after gene duplication events combined with parallel acquisitions of similar functions by different paralogs. Plant type III polyketide synthases (PKSs), producing various secondary metabolites, represent a paralogous family that has undergone gene duplication and functional alteration. Currently, there is no computational method available for the functional prediction of type III PKSs. We developed a plant type III PKS reaction predictor, pPAP, based on the recently proposed classification of type III PKSs. pPAP combines two kinds of similarity measures: one calculated by profile hidden Markov models (pHMMs) built from functionally and structurally important partial sequence regions, and the other based on mutual information between residue positions. pPAP targets PKSs acting on ring-type starter substrates, and classifies their functions into four reaction types. The pHMM approach discriminated two reaction types with high accuracy (97.5%, 39/40), but its accuracy decreased when discriminating three reaction types (87.8%, 43/49). When combined with a correlation-based approach, all 49 PKSs were correctly discriminated, and pPAP was still highly accurate (91.4%, 64/70) even after adding other reaction types. These results suggest pPAP, which is based on linear discriminant analyses of similarity measures, is effective for plant type III PKS function prediction. pPAP is freely available at ftp://ftp.genome.jp/pub/tools/ppap/. goto@kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Solar Type II Radio Bursts and IP Type II Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, H. V.; Erickson, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined radio data from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft in conjunction with ground-based data in order to investigate the relationship between the shocks responsible for metric type II radio bursts and the shocks in front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The bow shocks of fast, large CMEs are strong interplanetary (IP) shocks, and the associated radio emissions often consist of single broad bands starting below approx. 4 MHz; such emissions were previously called IP type II events. In contrast, metric type II bursts are usually narrowbanded and display two harmonically related bands. In addition to displaying complete dynamic spectra for a number of events, we also analyze the 135 WAVES 1 - 14 MHz slow-drift time periods in 2001-2003. We find that most of the periods contain multiple phenomena, which we divide into three groups: metric type II extensions, IP type II events, and blobs and bands. About half of the WAVES listings include probable extensions of metric type II radio bursts, but in more than half of these events, there were also other slow-drift features. In the 3 yr study period, there were 31 IP type II events; these were associated with the very fastest CMEs. The most common form of activity in the WAVES events, blobs and bands in the frequency range between 1 and 8 MHz, fall below an envelope consistent with the early signatures of an IP type II event. However, most of this activity lasts only a few tens of minutes, whereas IP type II events last for many hours. In this study we find many examples in the radio data of two shock-like phenomena with different characteristics that occur simultaneously in the metric and decametric/hectometric bands, and no clear example of a metric type II burst that extends continuously down in frequency to become an IP type II event. The simplest interpretation is that metric type II bursts, unlike IP type II events, are not caused by shocks driven in front of CMEs.

  14. Object-Oriented Type Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1991-01-01

    We present a new approach to inferring types in untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. It guarantees that all messages are understood, annotates the program with type information, allows polymorphic methods, and can be used as the basis of an op...

  15. Pure type systems with subtyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwanenburg, J.; Girard, J.-Y.

    1999-01-01

    We extend the framework of Pure Type Systems with subtyping, as found in F = ¿ . This leads to a concise description of many existing systems with subtyping, and also to some new interesting systems. We develop the meta-theory for this framework, including Subject Reduction and Minimal Typing. The

  16. Brauer algebras of type B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.M.; Liu, S.

    2011-01-01

    For each n>0, we define an algebra having many properties that one might expect to hold for a Brauer algebra of type Bn. It is defined by means of a presentation by generators and relations. We show that this algebra is a subalgebra of the Brauer algebra of type Dn+1 and point out a cellular

  17. Paranormal weighted conditional type operators

    OpenAIRE

    Estaremi, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, some sub-classes of paranormal weighted conditional expectation type operators, such as *-paranormal, quasi-*-paranormal and (n; k)-quasi-*-paranormal weighted conditional expectation type opera- tors on $L^2(\\Sigma)$ are investigated. Also, some applications about the spectrum, point spectrum, joint point spectrum, approximate point spectrum and joint approximate point spectrum of these classes are presented.

  18. Type 1 Diabetes and Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Farabi, Sarah S.

    2016-01-01

    IN BRIEF In people with type 1 diabetes, sleep may be disrupted as a result of both behavioral and physiological aspects of diabetes and its management. This sleep disruption may negatively affect disease progression and development of complications. This review highlights key research findings regarding sleep in people with type 1 diabetes.

  19. Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendroth-Asmussen, Lisa; Aksglaede, Lise; Gernow, Anne B

    2016-01-01

    molecular genetic analyses confirmed glycogen storage disease Type IV with the finding of compound heterozygosity for 2 mutations (c.691+2T>C and c.1570C>T, p.R524X) in the GBE1 gene. We conclude that glycogen storage disease Type IV can cause early miscarriage and that diagnosis can initially be made...

  20. Type studies in Basidiomycetes. X

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, R.

    1961-01-01

    For the first time a systematic study of the types and authentic specimens of agarics and boletes preserved in the Persoon Herbarium has been carried out. Some aspects of the possibilities of type analysis with regard to specimens over 130 year old are discussed. 137 species were analyzed. The

  1. Tension type headaches: a review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Location of the pain:There is often a typical location for tension- type headaches, as ... Cranial nerve abnormalities, including papilloedema. • Signs of ... peripheral and central mechanisms underlie tension-type ... Physiotherapy has been shown to be an effective management option for .... Acupuncture in primary headache.

  2. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML...

  3. Moment Distributions of Phase Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2011-01-01

    Moment distributions of phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions are shown to remain within their respective classes. We provide a probabilistic phase-type representation for the former case and an alternative representation, with an analytically appealing form, for the latter. First order...

  4. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of ...

  5. Type Inference of Turbo Pascal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Ole Ildsgaard; Schwartzbach, Michael I; Askari, Hosein

    1995-01-01

    of Turbo Pascal. It has the form of a preprocessor that analyzes programs in which the type annotations are only partial or even absent. The resulting program has full type annotations, will be accepted by the standard Turbo Pascal compiler, and has polymorphic use of procedures resolved by means of code...

  6. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.I.; Davis, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    World-class sandstone-type uranium deposits are defined as epigenetic concentrations of uranium minerals occurring as uneven impregnations and minor massive replacements primarily in fluvial, lacustrine, and deltaic sandstone formations. The main purpose of this introductory paper is to define, classify, and introduce to the general geologic setting for sandstone-type uranium deposits

  7. DNA typing by capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, N.

    1997-10-08

    Capillary electrophoresis is becoming more and more important in nucleic acid analysis including DNA sequencing, typing and disease gene measurements. This work summarized the background of DNA typing. The recent development of capillary electrophoresis was also discussed. The second part of the thesis showed the principle of DNA typing based on using the allelic ladder as the absolute standard ladder in capillary electrophoresis system. Future work will be focused on demonstrating DNA typing on multiplex loci and examples of disease diagnosis in the on-line format of PCR-CE. Also capillary array electrophoresis system should allow high throughput, fast speed DNA typing. Only the introduction and conclusions for this report are available here. A reprint was removed for separate processing.

  8. Intersection Types and Related Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Parys

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach to the following meta-problem: given a quantitative property of trees, design a type system such that the desired property for the tree generated by an infinitary ground lambda-term corresponds to some property of a derivation of a type for this lambda-term, in this type system. Our approach is presented in the particular case of the language finiteness problem for nondeterministic higher-order recursion schemes (HORSes: given a nondeterministic HORS, decide whether the set of all finite trees generated by this HORS is finite. We give a type system such that the HORS can generate a tree of an arbitrarily large finite size if and only if in the type system we can obtain derivations that are arbitrarily large, in an appropriate sense; the latter condition can be easily decided.

  9. Theoretical models for Type I and Type II supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent theoretical progress in understanding the origin and nature of Type I and Type II supernovae is discussed. New Type II presupernova models characterized by a variety of iron core masses at the time of collapse are presented and the sensitivity to the reaction rate 12 C(α,γ) 16 O explained. Stars heavier than about 20 M/sub solar/ must explode by a ''delayed'' mechanism not directly related to the hydrodynamical core bounce and a subset is likely to leave black hole remnants. The isotopic nucleosynthesis expected from these massive stellar explosions is in striking agreement with the sun. Type I supernovae result when an accreting white dwarf undergoes a thermonuclear explosion. The critical role of the velocity of the deflagration front in determining the light curve, spectrum, and, especially, isotopic nucleosynthesis in these models is explored. 76 refs., 8 figs

  10. Type-II Weyl semimetals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluyanov, Alexey A; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, QuanSheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, B Andrei

    2015-11-26

    Fermions--elementary particles such as electrons--are classified as Dirac, Majorana or Weyl. Majorana and Weyl fermions had not been observed experimentally until the recent discovery of condensed matter systems such as topological superconductors and semimetals, in which they arise as low-energy excitations. Here we propose the existence of a previously overlooked type of Weyl fermion that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets in a new phase of matter. This particle was missed by Weyl because it breaks the stringent Lorentz symmetry in high-energy physics. Lorentz invariance, however, is not present in condensed matter physics, and by generalizing the Dirac equation, we find the new type of Weyl fermion. In particular, whereas Weyl semimetals--materials hosting Weyl fermions--were previously thought to have standard Weyl points with a point-like Fermi surface (which we refer to as type-I), we discover a type-II Weyl point, which is still a protected crossing, but appears at the contact of electron and hole pockets in type-II Weyl semimetals. We predict that WTe2 is an example of a topological semimetal hosting the new particle as a low-energy excitation around such a type-II Weyl point. The existence of type-II Weyl points in WTe2 means that many of its physical properties are very different to those of standard Weyl semimetals with point-like Fermi surfaces.

  11. Wild type measles virus attenuation independent of type I IFN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat Branka

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles virus attenuation has been historically performed by adaptation to cell culture. The current dogma is that attenuated virus strains induce more type I IFN and are more resistant to IFN-induced protection than wild type (wt. Results The adaptation of a measles virus isolate (G954-PBL by 13 passages in Vero cells induced a strong attenuation of this strain in vivo. The adapted virus (G954-V13 differs from its parental strain by only 5 amino acids (4 in P/V/C and 1 in the M gene. While a vaccine strain, Edmonston Zagreb, could replicate equally well in various primate cells, both G954 strains exhibited restriction to the specific cell type used initially for their propagation. Surprisingly, we observed that both G954 strains induced type I IFN, the wt strain inducing even more than the attenuated ones, particularly in human plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. Type I IFN-induced protection from the infection of both G954 strains depended on the cell type analyzed, being less efficient in the cells used to grow the viral strain. Conclusion Thus, mutations in M and P/V/C proteins can critically affect MV pathogenicity, cellular tropism and lead to virus attenuation without interfering with the α/β IFN system.

  12. CT findings of muscular dystrophy; Limb girdle type (LG), myotonic type (MYD) and Duchenne type (DMD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Hiroshi (Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-07-01

    CT scans of muscles in patients with limb girdle type (LG), myotonic type (MYD) and Duchenne type (DMD) dystrophies were obtained at five different body levels: the neck, L3 vertebral body, pelvic girdle, thigh and lower leg. CT numbers, cross sectional areas (CSA) and %CSA of muscle or fat were evaluated in each muscle. The characteristic CT patterns for each type of muscular dystrophy were obtained. Compared with DMD, the gracilis and soleus were more severely damaged in LG and the biceps femoris remained relatively preserved among the hamstrings. In addition, the multifidus of the neck and sternocleidomastoid also were more severely damaged in MYD. This study suggests that CT scan will be useful in the differential diagnosis of these types of muscular dystrophy as well as in planning appropriate rehabilitation and detecting damaged muscles. (author).

  13. Types and Forms of Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For the study of tourism, the most suitable method from the geographic point of view is typify it, because it allows the delimitation oftourist areas. Tourist areas are characterized by a specific type of travel or by a reunion of some types that may vary dynamically over time. Thetypes of tourism result mainly from the different motivations of the journey, i.e. the purpose of doing. Each type of tourism is distinguished by suchspecific purpose and it is specific to those regions where fixed purpose can be achieved by the existence of some specific facilities.

  14. Three types of generalized synchronization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Junzhong [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecomunications, Beijing 100876 (China)]. E-mail: jzyang@bupt.edu.cn; Hu Gang [China Center for Advanced Science and Technology (CCAST) (World Laboratory), PO Box 8730, Beijing 100080 (China) and Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)]. E-mail: ganghu@bnu.edu.cn

    2007-02-05

    The roles played by drive and response systems on generalized chaos synchronization (GS) are studied. And the generalized synchronization is classified, based on these roles, to three distinctive types: the passive GS which is mainly determined by the response system and insensitive to the driving signal; the resonant GS where phase synchronization between the drive and response systems is preceding GS; and the interacting GS where both the drive and response have influences on the status of GS. The features of these GS types and the possible changes from one types to others are investigated.

  15. Three types of generalized synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Junzhong; Hu Gang

    2007-01-01

    The roles played by drive and response systems on generalized chaos synchronization (GS) are studied. And the generalized synchronization is classified, based on these roles, to three distinctive types: the passive GS which is mainly determined by the response system and insensitive to the driving signal; the resonant GS where phase synchronization between the drive and response systems is preceding GS; and the interacting GS where both the drive and response have influences on the status of GS. The features of these GS types and the possible changes from one types to others are investigated

  16. Outcome of tyrosinaemia type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, C J; Holme, E; Standing, S; Preece, M A; Green, A; Ploechl, E; Ugarte, M; Trefz, F K; Leonard, J V

    2001-12-01

    Tyrosinaemia type III is a rare disorder caused by a deficiency of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, the second enzyme in the catabolic pathway of tyrosine. The majority of the nine previously reported patients have presented with neurological symptoms after the neonatal period, while others detected by neonatal screening have been asymptomatic. All have had normal liver and renal function and none has skin or eye abnormalities. A further four patients with tyrosinaemia type III are described. It is not clear whether a strict low tyrosine diet alters the natural history of tyrosinaemia type III, although there remains a suspicion that treatment may be important, at least in infancy.

  17. User Types in Online Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Online applications are presented in the context of information society. Online applications characteristics are analyzed. Quality characteristics are presented in relation to online applications users. Types of users for AVIO application are presented. Use cases for AVIO application are identified. The limitations of AVIO application are defined. Types of users in online applications are identified. The threedimensional matrix of access to the online application resources is built. The user type-oriented database is structured. Access management of the fields related to the database tables is analyzed. The classification of online applications users is done.

  18. Modalities in homotopy type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijke, Egbert; Shulman, Michael; Spitters, Bas

    2017-01-01

    Univalent homotopy type theory (HoTT) may be seen as a language for the category of ∞-groupoids. It is being developed as a new foundation for mathematics and as an internal language for (elementary) higher toposes. We develop the theory of factorization systems, reflective subuniverses......, and modalities in homotopy type theory, including their construction using a "localization" higher inductive type. This produces in particular the (n-connected, n-truncated) factorization system as well as internal presentations of subtoposes, through lex modalities. We also develop the semantics...

  19. Type I Glycogen Storage Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Glycogen Storage Disease Type ...

  20. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  1. A new type of achondrogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, K.; Tsuruta, T.; Naki, N.; Tsunoda, I.; Ozawa, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Sillence, D.; National Tachikawa Hospital, Tokyo; National Tachikawa Hospital, Tokyo; National Central Hospital, Tokyo; Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Sydney

    1986-01-01

    A new type of neonatal death dwarfism, resembling the achondrogenesis syndromes on clinical examination but presenting distinctive radiographic and microscopic features has been described. It presents another, new form of achondrogenesis. (orig.)

  2. Types of Treatment: Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease type and stage; your age, gender and race; and other treatments you've used. Your doctor ... Drug Listings Radiation Therapy Immunotherapy Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-Cell Therapy Vaccine Therapy Stem Cell Transplantation ...

  3. [Surgery for diabetes type 2?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Markus K; Nocito, A; Schiesser, M

    2010-02-17

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a chronic disease with increasing prevalence in western society. Obesity represents a well established risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus type 2. Several studies on surgical procedures for the treatment of obesity have shown a postoperative reduction of obesity-related co-morbidities. Thus, diabetes mellitus type 2 was shown to resolve or improve in more than 75% of morbidly obese patients (BMI >35) after bariatric surgery. These insights paved the way for the advent of metabolic surgery - a novel field with the goal to improve glucose metabolism in patients with a BMI of less than 35. Encouraging results from mostly observational studies have sparked the interest in the surgical management of diabetes mellitus type 2.

  4. Radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duszanski, M.; Pankow, A.; Skwarczynski, B.

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe a radioisotope indicator, type BETA 2, constructed in the ZKMPW Works to be employed in mines for counting, checking, signalling the presence and positioning of cars, as well as monitoring the state of some other equipment. (author)

  5. Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  6. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types th......-style intensional models; we build, as simply as we can, hybrid logicover Henkin’s logic...

  7. Research into basic rocks types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) has carried out research into basic rock types in Finland. The research programme has been implemented in parallel with the preliminary site investigations for radioactive waste disposal in 1991-1993. The program contained two main objectives: firstly, to study the properties of the basic rock types and compare those with the other rock types under the investigation; secondly, to carry out an inventory of rock formations consisting of basic rock types and suitable in question for final disposal. A study of environmental factors important to know regarding the final disposal was made of formations identified. In total 159 formations exceeding the size of 4 km 2 were identified in the inventory. Of these formations 97 were intrusive igneous rock types and 62 originally extrusive volcanic rock types. Deposits consisting of ore minerals, industrial minerals or building stones related to these formations were studied. Environmental factors like natural resources, protected areas or potential for restrictions in land use were also studied

  8. Qualification of Type IP-2, Type IP-3 and Type A packages for radioactive liquid shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcu, L.; Sullivan, G.; Lo, K.K.

    2006-01-01

    Commercial products such as pails, drums or bulk containers can be used for radioactive materials transportation if they can be shown to meet the regulatory requirements. Ontario Power Generation (OPG) has successfully tested and qualified several off-the-shelf containers as Type IP-2, Type IP-3 and Type A packages for liquids in accordance with the International and Canadian Regulations. This paper describes the testing and qualification of these commercial products, and discusses the problems encountered and lessons learned during this process. (author)

  9. Vein-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, R.A.; Holland, H.D.; Petersen, U.

    1975-01-01

    A critical review is presented of published data bearing on the mineralogy, paragenesis, geochemistry, and origin of veiw-type uranium deposits. Its aim is to serve as a starting point for new research and as a basis for the development of new exploration strategies. During the formation of both vein and sandstone types of deposits uranium seems to have been dissolved by and transported in rather oxidized solutions, and deposited where these solutions encountered reducing agents such as carbon, sulfides, ferrous minerals and hydrocarbons. Granitic rocks abnormally enriched in uranium have apparently been the most common source for uranium in vein-type deposits. Oxidizing solutions have been derived either from the surface or from depth. Surface solutions saturated with atmospheric oxygen have frequently passed through red bed or clean sandstone conduits on their way to and from uranium source rocks. Deep solutions of non-surface origin have apparently become sufficiently oxidizing by passage through and equilibration with red beds. The common association of clean sandstones or red beds with uranium-rich granites in the vicinity of vein-type uranium deposits is probably not fortuitous, and areas where these rock types are found together are considered particularly favorable targets for uranium exploration

  10. Different collagen types define two types of idiopathic epiretinal membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Kritzenberger , Michaela; Junglas , Benjamin; Framme , Carsten; Helbig , Horst; Gabel , Veit-Peter; Fuchshofer , Rudolf; Tamm , Ernst R; Hillenkamp , Jost

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To identify differences in extracellular matrix contents between idiopathic epiretinal membranes (IEM) of cellophane macular reflex (CMRM) or preretinal macular fibrosis (PMFM) type. Methods and results: IEM were analyzed by light and quantitative transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Substantial differences between CMRM and PMFM were observed regarding the nature of extracellular fibrils. In CMRM, the fibrils were thin with...

  11. New type of natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubchenya, V.A.; Chechev, V.P.; Yavshits, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Consideration is being given in popular form to investigations of a new type of natural radioactivity - spontaneous emission of fragments, more massive than α-particles, by heavy element nuclei, called f-decay by analogy with known α and γ decays. Some data on radioactivity, origin of the decay are presented. Possibilities of f-decay, predictions and hypotheses are discussed. The reason of late discovery of f-decay lies in low f-decay probability 10 -9 with respect to α-decay and in a certain sluggishness of settled knowledge about possible types of radioactive decay. The idea of f-decay is presented. It differs from the idea about a new type of decay as modification of asymmetric fission and contains an attempt to explain the intermediate position of f-decay between α-decay and

  12. Jansen type of spondylometaphyseal dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.B.; Kozlowski, K.; Lejman, T.; Sulko, J.

    2000-01-01

    Metaphyseal dysplasia, type Jansen (JMD), is a rare skeletal dysplasia with characteristic radiographic abnormalities. Of the various types of metaphyseal dysplasia, JMD shows the most severe alteration in metaphyseal architecture. All of the long tubular bones, including those of the hands and feet, show metaphyseal irregularity with a fragmented appearance and slight widening. The adjacent physes are abnormally widened, while the epiphyses tend to be slightly enlarged, rounded but otherwise normal. The spine in infancy and childhood usually appears normal. This report describes a young girl with metaphyseal changes typical of JMD except for the hands and feet, which appeared normal. She also showed very unusual abnormalities of the spine. This appears, therefore, to represent a unique osteochondrodysplasia for which we propose the term spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, type Jansen. (orig.)

  13. Ion source of discharge type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enchevich, I.B. [TRIUMF, Cyclotron Div., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Korenev, S.A. [JINR, Hihg Energy Physics Lab., Dubna, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1992-07-01

    A new scheme of ion source based on a dielectric surface sliding discharge is described. The conditions to form this type of discharge are analyzed and experimental results are shown. The main parameters of this ion source are: accelerating voltage U = 1/20kV; continuous extracted ion beam; current density j = 0.01/0.5 A/cm{sup 2}; ions of Cl, F, C, H; residual gas pressure P = 10{sup -6} Torr. A magnetic system is used to separate the different types of ions. The dielectric material in the discharge circuit (anode plasma emitter) defines the type of ions. The emission characteristics of plasma emitter and the discharge parameters are presented. The ion current yield satisfies the Child-Langmuir law. (author)

  14. Ion source of discharge type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enchevich, I.B.; Korenev, S.A.

    1992-07-01

    A new scheme of ion source based on a dielectric surface sliding discharge is described. The conditions to form this type of discharge are analyzed and experimental results are shown. The main parameters of this ion source are: accelerating voltage U = 1/20kV; continuous extracted ion beam; current density j = 0.01/0.5 A/cm 2 ; ions of Cl, F, C, H; residual gas pressure P = 10 -6 Torr. A magnetic system is used to separate the different types of ions. The dielectric material in the discharge circuit (anode plasma emitter) defines the type of ions. The emission characteristics of plasma emitter and the discharge parameters are presented. The ion current yield satisfies the Child-Langmuir law. (author)

  15. Glucagon and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asger; Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    In normal physiology, glucagon from pancreatic alpha cells plays an important role in maintaining glucose homeostasis via its regulatory effect on hepatic glucose production. Patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from fasting and postprandial hyperglucagonemia, which stimulate hepatic glucose...... production and, thus, contribute to the hyperglycemia characterizing these patients. Although this has been known for years, research focusing on alpha cell (patho)physiology has historically been dwarfed by research on beta cells and insulin. Today the mechanisms behind type 2 diabetic hyperglucagonemia...... or antagonization of the glucagon receptor constitutes potentially effective treatment strategies for patients with type 2 diabetes. In this review, we focus on the regulation of glucagon secretion by the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GIP. Furthermore, potential advantages and limitations...

  16. Type-2 fuzzy granular models

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Mauricio A; Castro, Juan R

    2017-01-01

    In this book, a series of granular algorithms are proposed. A nature inspired granular algorithm based on Newtonian gravitational forces is proposed. A series of methods for the formation of higher-type information granules represented by Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets are also shown, via multiple approaches, such as Coefficient of Variation, principle of justifiable granularity, uncertainty-based information concept, and numerical evidence based. And a fuzzy granular application comparison is given as to demonstrate the differences in how uncertainty affects the performance of fuzzy information granules.

  17. Interpretations of Recursive Type Definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    1992-01-01

    A system of hierarchical imperative types is extended to allow infinite values. The general structure of value assignments to types in the context of a hierarchy is considered, and it is shown that both a minimal and a maximal value assignment exist. We give two different characterizations...... of intermediate value assignments: In terms of the predicates that describe them as subsets of the maximal values, and in terms of computational stability. As an application we introduce rational infinite values in our system. Programs can then work on infinite imperative data structures which are allocated...

  18. Blood types in Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, G.L.; Klontz, G.W.

    1961-01-01

    Intraspecific differences in erythrocyte antigens (blood types) were shown to occur in four species of Pacific salmon, the sockeye or red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), the chinook or king salmon (0. tshawytscha), the chum salmon (O. keta), and the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Antisalmon-erythrocyte sera prepared in rabbits and chickens were used after absorption of species-specific antibodies. Some of these blood types were shown to differ in their frequency of occurrence between different geographic races. In addition, isoimmunizations were conducted on one race of sockeye salmon. Antisera of seven different specificities were prepared and at least eight different patterns of antigenic composition were displayed by the cells tested.

  19. Five types of organizational strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly

    2014-01-01

    Models in the strategy field defining the strategy concept emphasize schools of thought or strategy perspectives, but not how to define the idiosyncratic composition of an organization’s strategy content. Based on a literature review in which meanings have been attached to the concept, this paper...... presents a new model including five types of organizational strategy. The model emphasizes that key influencers may make heterogeneous contributions to an organization’s strategy and also that significant effects may result from interaction between types of strategy....

  20. Experimental studies of minienvironment types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissler, W.; Schneider, H.

    1994-01-01

    Various minienvironment types are available offering different features at quite different costs. MEISSNER+WURST performed in its JESSI project experimental tests to examine the isolation capabilities and the recovery time of minienvironments and the influence of manual handling and maintenance on the minienvironment cleanliness. An isolation factor up to 1 million was measured in the experiments. The Custom Tailored Minienvironment has the best protection against external and internal particle sources. Critical points in the design and the installation of minienvironments were identified. The results of air flow visualization studies were confirmed by airflow simulations. The result of the studies allow a classification of minienvironment types according to their cleanliness achievements

  1. Blood metals concentration in type 1 and type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice; Peruzzu, Angela; Tolu, Francesco; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Oggiano, Riccardo; Madeddu, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Mechanisms for the onset of diabetes and the development of diabetic complications remain under extensive investigations. One of these mechanisms is abnormal homeostasis of metals, as either deficiency or excess of metals, can contribute to certain diabetic outcomes. Therefore, this paper will report the blood levels of chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in subjects with type 1 diabetes (n = 192, mean age 48.8 years, mean disease duration 20.6 years), type 2 diabetes (n = 68, mean age 68.4 years, mean disease duration 10.2 years), and in control subjects (n = 59, mean age 57.2 years), and discuss the results indicating their possible role in diabetes. The metal concentrations were measured by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave-induced acid digestion of blood samples. The accuracy was checked using a blood-based certified reference material, and recoveries of all elements were in the range of 92-101 % of certified values. Type 1 diabetes was found to be associated with Cr (p = 0.02), Mn (p < 0.001), Ni (p < 0.001), Pb (p = 0.02), and Zn (p < 0.001) deficiency, and type 2 diabetes with Cr (p = 0.014), Mn (p < 0.001), and Ni (p < 0.001) deficiency. These deficiencies were appreciated also subdividing the understudied patients for gender and age groups. Furthermore, in type 1 diabetes, there was a positive correlation between Pb and age (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.400) and Pb and BMI (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.309), while a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.002, ρ = -0.218). In type 2 diabetes, there was a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.017, ρ = -0.294) and Fe and BMI (p = 0.026, ρ = -0.301). Thus, these elements may play a role in both forms of diabetes and combined mineral supplementations could have beneficial effects.

  2. Type 2-diabetes i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2012-01-01

    Our vision is that the opportunistic screening system will be improved in order to find patients with occult type 2 diabetes (T2D), since an early treatment based on a correct phenotyping is the goal. Individual goals for HbA1c, blood pressure and lipids must be set up, and the number of drugs used...

  3. Smoothing type buffer memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podorozhnyj, D.M.; Yashin, I.V.

    1990-01-01

    The layout of the micropower 4-bit smoothing type buffer memory device allowing one to record without counting the sequence of input randomly distributed pulses in multi-channel devices with serial poll, is given. The power spent by a memory cell for one binary digit recording is not greater than 0.15 mW, the device dead time is 10 mus

  4. High conversion burner type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Shin-ichi; Kawashima, Masatoshi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To simply and easily dismantle and reassemble densified fuel assemblies taken out of a high conversion ratio area thereby improve the neutron and fuel economy. Constitution: The burner portion for the purpose of fuel combustion is divided into a first burner region in adjacent with the high conversion ratio area at the center of the reactor core, and a second burner region formed to the outer circumference thereof and two types of fuels are charged therein. Densified fuel assemblies charged in the high conversion ratio area are separatably formed as fuel assemblies for use in the two types of burners. In this way, dense fuel assembly is separated into two types of fuel assemblies for use in burner of different number and arranging density of fuel elements which can be directly charged to the burner portion and facilitate the dismantling and reassembling of the fuel assemblies. Further, since the two types of fuel assemblies are charged in the burner portion, utilization factor for the neutron fuels can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Living with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... elements: blood glucose control and insulin management, exercise, nutrition and support. Medication A diagnosis of type 1 diabetes means ... crucial part of your daily routine. Learn more: Nutrition How foods ... meal plans Support Emotional support, while not often initially considered, plays ...

  6. Types of Blood Pressure Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Types of Blood Pressure Medications Updated:Nov 6,2017 Prescription blood pressure ... This content was last reviewed October 2017. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  7. Imagery of Errors in Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Martina; Martinez, Fanny; Wenke, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    Using a typing task we investigated whether insufficient imagination of errors and error corrections is related to duration differences between execution and imagination. In Experiment 1 spontaneous error imagination was investigated, whereas in Experiment 2 participants were specifically instructed to imagine errors. Further, in Experiment 2 we…

  8. Personality and personal network type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeven-Eggens, Lilian; De Fruyt, Filip; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn; Bosker, Roel J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2008-01-01

    The association between personality and personal relationships is mostly studied within dyadic relationships. We examined these variables within the context of personal network types. We used Latent Class Analysis to identify groups Of Students with similar role relationships with three focal

  9. Organ Type and Waiting Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... There are many financial resources for transplants. Living donation increases the existing organ supply. It’s important to get to know your ...

  10. ENTERPRISE RESTRUCTURING AIM AND TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Baranenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise restructuring is aimed at adapting it to market conditions and improving its competitiveness through selection of most effective model of using material, technical, technological, organizational, commercial, economical, financial, tax-related and other resources with due account of the demand. Restructuring classification signs and types as well as restructuring aims specific for industrial enterprises are provided for.

  11. Vacuum type D initial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Parrado Gómez-Lobo, Alfonso

    2016-09-01

    A vacuum type D initial data set is a vacuum initial data set of the Einstein field equations whose data development contains a region where the space–time is of Petrov type D. In this paper we give a systematic characterisation of a vacuum type D initial data set. By systematic we mean that the only quantities involved are those appearing in the vacuum constraints, namely the first fundamental form (Riemannian metric) and the second fundamental form. Our characterisation is a set of conditions consisting of the vacuum constraints and some additional differential equations for the first and second fundamental forms These conditions can be regarded as a system of partial differential equations on a Riemannian manifold and the solutions of the system contain all possible regular vacuum type D initial data sets. As an application we particularise our conditions for the case of vacuum data whose data development is a subset of the Kerr solution. This has applications in the formulation of the nonlinear stability problem of the Kerr black hole.

  12. An Imperative Type Hierarchy with Partial Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1989-01-01

    notation for defining recursive types, that is superior to traditional type sums and products. We show how the ordering on types extends to an ordering on types with invariants. We allow the use of least upper bounds in type definitions and show how to compute upper bounds of invariants.......A type hierarchy for a programming language defines an ordering on the types such that any application for small types may be reused for all larger types. The imperative facet makes this non-trivial; the straight-forward definitions will yield an inconsistent system. We introduce a new type...... constructor, the partial product, and show how to define a consistent hierarchy in the context of fully recursive types. A simple polymorphism is derived by introducing a notion of placeholder types. By extending the partial product types to include structural invariants we obtain a particularly appropriate...

  13. Hardy type inequalities on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi P; Saker, Samir H

    2016-01-01

    The book is devoted to dynamic inequalities of Hardy type and extensions and generalizations via convexity on a time scale T. In particular, the book contains the time scale versions of classical Hardy type inequalities, Hardy and Littlewood type inequalities, Hardy-Knopp type inequalities via convexity, Copson type inequalities, Copson-Beesack type inequalities, Liendeler type inequalities, Levinson type inequalities and Pachpatte type inequalities, Bennett type inequalities, Chan type inequalities, and Hardy type inequalities with two different weight functions. These dynamic inequalities contain the classical continuous and discrete inequalities as special cases when T = R and T = N and can be extended to different types of inequalities on different time scales such as T = hN, h > 0, T = qN for q > 1, etc.In this book the authors followed the history and development of these inequalities. Each section in self-contained and one can see the relationship between the time scale versions of the inequalities and...

  14. Denotational semantics for guarded dependent type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizjak, Aleš; Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers

    2018-01-01

    We present a new model of Guarded Dependent Type Theory (GDTT), a type theory with guarded recursion and multiple clocks in which one can program with, and reason about coinductive types. Productivity of recursively defined coinductive programs and proofs is encoded in types using guarded recursion......, crucial for programming with coinductive types, types must be interpreted as presheaves orthogonal to the object of clocks. In the case of dependent types, this translates to a unique lifting condition similar to the one found in homotopy theoretic models of type theory. Since the universes defined...... by inclusions of clock variable contexts commute on the nose with type operations on the universes....

  15. Separated type nuclear superheating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hida, Kazuki.

    1993-01-01

    In a separated type nuclear superheating reactor, fuel assemblies used in a reactor core comprise fuel rods made of nuclear fuel materials and moderator rods made of solid moderating materials such as hydrogenated zirconium. Since the moderating rods are fixed or made detachable, high energy neutrons generated from the fuel rods are moderated by the moderating rods to promote fission reaction of the fuel rods. Saturated steams supplied from the BWR type reactor by the fission energy are converted to high temperature superheated steams while passing through a steam channel disposed between the fuel rods and the moderating rods and supplied to a turbine. Since water is not used but solid moderating materials sealed in a cladding tube are used as moderation materials, isolation between superheated steams and water as moderators is not necessary. Further, since leakage of heat is reduced to improve a heat efficiency, the structure of the reactor core is simplified and fuel exchange is facilitated. (N.H.)

  16. Exercise and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with metabolic dysregulation and chronic inflammation, and regular exercise may provide a strong stimulus for improving both. In this review, we first discuss the link between inflammation and metabolism. Next, we give an update on the clinical metabo...... of long-term randomized clinical training studies with hard end points, it should be emphasized that physical activity represents a natural strong anti-inflammatory and metabolism-improving strategy with minor side effects.......Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with metabolic dysregulation and chronic inflammation, and regular exercise may provide a strong stimulus for improving both. In this review, we first discuss the link between inflammation and metabolism. Next, we give an update on the clinical...

  17. Some new protonated ternary complexes of rare-earths with CDTA/DTPA and keto-glutaric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, S.P.; Chaturvedi, G.K.; Sharma, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Potentiometric evidences have been cited for the formation of 1:1:1, M(III)-CDTA/DTPA-H 2 KGA ternary complexes in the solution equilibria (where M(III)=LA(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Gd(III) or Dy(III); CDTA=1,2-diaminocyclohexanetetra-acetic acid; DTPA=diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid and H 2 KGA= β-ketoglutaric acid). Indications have been cited for the formation of protonated mixed ligand complexes at low pH as intermediate products, which undergo deprotonation at comparatively high pH forming 1:1:1, ternary species. The formation constants (log Ksub(MLL')) for the protonated ternary species, formed by simultaneous addition of both the ligands to metal ion and their deprotonation constants - log Ksub(A)sup(H) have been evaluated. The following order in the relative stabilities of the resulting complexes in terms of metal ions, La(III) < Pr(III) < Nd(III) < Gd(III) < Dy(III), has been observed. (author)

  18. Saxagliptin for type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Chacra,

    2010-01-01

    Antonio R Chacra, MDDiabetes Center, Federal University of São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Saxagliptin (Onglyza™) is a potent, selective, once-daily dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor indicated for improving glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). By blocking DPP-4, saxagliptin increases and prolongs the effects of incretins, a group of peptide hormones released by intestinal cells after meals, which stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion to lower...

  19. Familial colorectal cancer type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Da Silva, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Heredity is a major cause of colorectal cancer, but although several rare high-risk syndromes have been linked to disease-predisposing mutations, the genetic mechanisms are undetermined in the majority of families suspected of hereditary cancer. We review the clinical presentation, histopathologic...... features, and the genetic and epigenetic profiles of the familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) syndrome with the aim to delineate tumor characteristics that may contribute to refined diagnostics and optimized tumor prevention....

  20. Types of Leader in Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Aurelian Bârgău

    2015-01-01

    Besides leading theories of people in one way or another from different angles reveal the types of leaders who can meet in business management literature contains classifications of management styles, which take into account different criteria or viewpoints. The word “leadership‟ has been used in various aspects of human endeavor such as politics, businesses, academics, social works, etc. Previous views about leadership show it as personal ability. The individual leader traits dep...

  1. Repair Types, Procedures - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Affordable Combat Aircraft, AGARD - CP -600, 1997. [17] Helbling J, Grover R and Ratwani M. M “Analysis and Structural Test of Composite Reinforcement to...considered suitable for the composite patch repair of aluminum structure. Ductile adhesives such as FM- 73 are preferred over brittle adhesives Repair Types...zone. A proper cure cycle is followed as prescribed by the adhesive manufacturer. For FM- 73 adhesive cure at 2500F (1210C) for 120 minutes is

  2. Moment Distributions of Phase Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    In this paper we prove that the class of distributions on the positive reals with a rational Laplace transform, also known as matrix-exponential distributions, is closed under formation of moment distributions. In particular, the results are hence valid for the well known class of phase-type dist...... alternative representation in terms of sub{intensity matrices. Finally we are able to nd explicit expressions for both the Lorenz curve and the Gini index....

  3. FRANCHISOR TYPES IN PORTUGUESE FRANCHISING

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Navarro García; Enrique Carlos Díez de Castro; Francisco Javier Rondán Cataluña

    2006-01-01

    The identification of the existence of strategic groups within Portuguese franchising constitutes the main aim of the present paper. An empirical study starting from 128 franchising chains operating in Portugal was carried out. The results reveal the existence of five perfectly differentiated strategic groups {franchisor types), which are described starting from the strategic variables that define them. Our main contribution is that the results obtained in the Portuguese franchising sy...

  4. Session Types in Abelian Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Hirai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There was a PhD student who says "I found a pair of wooden shoes. I put a coin in the left and a key in the right. Next morning, I found those objects in the opposite shoes." We do not claim existence of such shoes, but propose a similar programming abstraction in the context of typed lambda calculi. The result, which we call the Amida calculus, extends Abramsky's linear lambda calculus LF and characterizes Abelian logic.

  5. Herpes simplex type 2 pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calore Edenilson Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive reviews of pulmonary infections in AIDS have reported few herpetic infections. Generally these infections are due to Herpes simplex type 1. Pneumonia due to herpes type 2 is extremely rare. We describe a 40 year-old HIV positive woman who complained of fever, cough and dyspnea for seven years. She had signs of heart failure and the appearance of her genital vesicles was highly suggestive of genital herpes. Echocardiography showed marked pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy and tricuspid insufficiency. After a few days of hospitalization she was treated with Aciclovir and later with Ganciclovir. An open pulmonary biopsy revealed an interstitial inflammation, localized in the alveolar walls. Some pulmonary arteries had widened walls and focal hyaline degeneration. Immunohistochemistry indicated that the nuclei had herpes simplex virus type 2 in many endothelial cells (including vessels with widened walls, macrophages in the alveolar septa and pneumocytes. There was clinical improvement after treatment for herpes. We concluded that as a consequence of herpes infection, endothelial involvement and interstitial inflammation supervene, with thickening of vascular walls and partial obliteration of the vessel lumen. A direct consequence of these changes in pulmonary vasculature was pulmonary hypertension followed by heart failure.

  6. Herpes simplex type 2 pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilson Eduardo Calore

    Full Text Available Extensive reviews of pulmonary infections in AIDS have reported few herpetic infections. Generally these infections are due to Herpes simplex type 1. Pneumonia due to herpes type 2 is extremely rare. We describe a 40 year-old HIV positive woman who complained of fever, cough and dyspnea for seven years. She had signs of heart failure and the appearance of her genital vesicles was highly suggestive of genital herpes. Echocardiography showed marked pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy and tricuspid insufficiency. After a few days of hospitalization she was treated with Aciclovir and later with Ganciclovir. An open pulmonary biopsy revealed an interstitial inflammation, localized in the alveolar walls. Some pulmonary arteries had widened walls and focal hyaline degeneration. Immunohistochemistry indicated that the nuclei had herpes simplex virus type 2 in many endothelial cells (including vessels with widened walls, macrophages in the alveolar septa and pneumocytes. There was clinical improvement after treatment for herpes. We concluded that as a consequence of herpes infection, endothelial involvement and interstitial inflammation supervene, with thickening of vascular walls and partial obliteration of the vessel lumen. A direct consequence of these changes in pulmonary vasculature was pulmonary hypertension followed by heart failure.

  7. New type fuel exchange system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshii, Toshio; Maita, Yasushi; Hirota, Koichi; Kamishima, Yoshio.

    1988-01-01

    When the reduction of the construction cost of FBRs is considered from the standpoint of the machinery and equipment, to make the size small and to heighten the efficiency are the assigned mission. In order to make a reactor vessel small, it is indispensable to decrease the size of the equipment for fuel exchange installed on the upper part of a core. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. carried out the research on the development of a new type fuel exchange system. As for the fuel exchange system for FBRs, it is necessary to change the mode of fuel exchange from that of LWRs, such as handling in the presence of chemically active sodium and inert argon atmosphere covering it and handling under heavy shielding against high radiation. The fuel exchange system for FBRs is composed of a fuel exchanger which inserts, pulls out and transfers fuel and rotary plugs. The mechanism adopted for the new type fuel exchange system that Mitsubishi is developing is explained. The feasibility of the mechanism on the upper part of a core was investigated by water flow test, vibration test and buckling test. The design of the mechanism on the upper part of the core of a demonstration FBR was examined, and the new type fuel exchange system was sufficiently applicable. (Kako, I.)

  8. Light echoes - Type II supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    Type II supernovae (SNs) light curves show a remarkable range of shapes. Data have been collected for the 12 Type II SNs that have light curve information for more than four months past maximum. Contrary to previous reports, it is found that (1) the decay rate after 100 days past maximum varies by almost an order of magnitude and (2) the light curve shapes are not bimodally distributed, but actually form a continuum. In addition, it is found that the extinctions to the SNs are related to the light curve shapes. This implies that the absorbing dust is local to the SNs. The dust is likely to be part of a circumstellar shell emitted by the SN progenitor that Dwek (1983) has used to explain infrared echoes. The optical depth of the shell can get quite large. In such cases, it is found that the photons scattered and delayed by reflection off dust grains will dominate the light curve several months after peak brightness. This light echo offers a straightforward explanation of the diversity of Type II SN light curves. 22 references

  9. Sandstone-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, S.R.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Three overall factors are necessary for formation of uranium deposits in sandstone: a source of uranium, host rocks capable of transmitting uranium-bearing solutions, and a precipitant. Possible sources of uranium in sandstone-type deposits include groundwaters emanating from granitic highlands, arkosic sediments, tuffaceous material within or overlying the host rocks, connate fluids, and overlying black shales. The first three sources are considered the most likely. Host rocks are generally immature sandstones deposited in alluvial-fan, intermontane-basin or marginal-marine environments, but uranium deposits do occur in well-winnowed barrier-bar or eolian sands. Host rocks for uranium deposits generally show coefficients of permeability on the order of 1 to 100 gal/day/ft 2 . Precipitants are normally agents capable of reducing uranium from the uranyl to the uranous state. The association of uranium with organic matter is unequivocal; H 2 S, a powerful reductant, may have been present at the time of formation of some deposits but may go unnoticed today. Vanadium can serve to preserve the tabular characteristics of some deposits in the near-surface environment, but is considered an unlikely primary precipitant for uranium. Uranium deposits in sandstone are divided into two overall types: peneconcordant deposits, which occur in locally reducing environments in otherwise oxidized sandstones; and roll-type deposits, which occur at the margin of an area where an oxidized groundwater has permeated an otherwise reduced sandstone. Uranium deposits are further broken down into four subclasses; these are described

  10. A new type of spondylo-metaphyseal dysplasia - Algerian type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, K.; Bacha, L.; Massen, R.; Ayati, M.; Sator, S.; Brahimi, L.

    1988-01-01

    A new, dominantly inherited, severe form of spondylometaphyseal dysplasia in five members of an Algerian family is reported. Another child, not investigated, was also probably affected. The disease is characterised by a unique clinical and radiological set of features: dwarfism, genu valgum deformity, progressive kypho-scoliosis, wrist deformity, myopia and severe metaphyseal dysplasia, with moderate spinal changes and minimal changes in the hands and feet. In view of the geographical localisation of the disorder and the anatomical distribution we propose the name Algerian type of spondylo-metaphyseal dysplasia. (orig.)

  11. Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En español Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Diabetes ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: Types of Diabetes What is diabetes? Diabetes means you have glucose ( ...

  12. What Type of Project Leader Are You?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Pedersen, Carsten; Ritter, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Everyone has their own way of organising a project. Read about the four types of leadership, and why a diversity of types is good for any organisation. And take the quiz: What type of project leader are you?......Everyone has their own way of organising a project. Read about the four types of leadership, and why a diversity of types is good for any organisation. And take the quiz: What type of project leader are you?...

  13. Recent Concepts of Ovarian Carcinogenesis: Type I and Type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Koshiyama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type I ovarian tumors, where precursor lesions in the ovary have clearly been described, include endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous, low grade serous, and transitional cell carcinomas, while type II tumors, where such lesions have not been described clearly and tumors may develop de novo from the tubal and/or ovarian surface epithelium, comprise high grade serous carcinomas, undifferentiated carcinomas, and carcinosarcomas. The carcinogenesis of endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma (CCC arising from endometriotic cysts is significantly influenced by the free iron concentration, which is associated with cancer development through the induction of persistent oxidative stress. A subset of mucinous carcinomas develop in association with ovarian teratomas; however, the majority of these tumors do not harbor any teratomatous component. Other theories of their origin include mucinous metaplasia of surface epithelial inclusions, endometriosis, and Brenner tumors. Low grade serous carcinomas are thought to evolve in a stepwise fashion from benign serous cystadenoma to a serous borderline tumor (SBT. With regard to high grade serous carcinoma, the serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs of the junction of the fallopian tube epithelium with the mesothelium of the tubal serosa, termed the “tubal peritoneal junction” (TPJ, undergo malignant transformation due to their location, and metastasize to the nearby ovary and surrounding pelvic peritoneum. Other theories of their origin include the ovarian hilum cells.

  14. P -type transparent conducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kelvin H L; Xi, Kai; Blamire, Mark G; Egdell, Russell G

    2016-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxides constitute a unique class of materials combining properties of electrical conductivity and optical transparency in a single material. They are needed for a wide range of applications including solar cells, flat panel displays, touch screens, light emitting diodes and transparent electronics. Most of the commercially available TCOs are n -type, such as Sn doped In 2 O 3 , Al doped ZnO, and F doped SnO 2 . However, the development of efficient p -type TCOs remains an outstanding challenge. This challenge is thought to be due to the localized nature of the O 2 p derived valence band which leads to difficulty in introducing shallow acceptors and large hole effective masses. In 1997 Hosono and co-workers (1997 Nature 389 939) proposed the concept of ‘chemical modulation of the valence band’ to mitigate this problem using hybridization of O 2 p orbitals with close-shell Cu 3 d 10 orbitals. This work has sparked tremendous interest in designing p -TCO materials together with deep understanding the underlying materials physics. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive review on traditional and recently emergent p -TCOs, including Cu + -based delafossites, layered oxychalcogenides, nd 6 spinel oxides, Cr 3+ -based oxides (3 d 3 ) and post-transition metal oxides with lone pair state (ns 2 ). We will focus our discussions on the basic materials physics of these materials in terms of electronic structures, doping and defect properties for p -type conductivity and optical properties. Device applications based on p -TCOs for transparent p – n junctions will also be briefly discussed. (topical review)

  15. Nuclear Zpif-type plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yugang

    2000-01-01

    Isospin dependent classical molecular dynamics model is used to investigate the nuclear disassembly of 129 Xe. Zpif-type plot in the field of linguistics is tested for the rank-classified cluster arrangement from this nuclear disassembly. It is found that the average cluster charge (or mass) of rank n in the charge (or mass) list is exactly inverse to its rank, i.e. there exists Zpif's law at the point of the liquid gas phase transition. This novel criterion can be used to diagnose the nuclear liquid gas phase transition experimentally and theoretically

  16. Infrastructure: concept, types and value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Lantsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches of influence of infrastructure on the economic growth and development of the countries gained currency. However the majority of authors drop the problem of definition of accurate concept of studied object and its criteria out. In the given article various approaches in the definition of «infrastructure» concept, criterion and the characteristics of infrastructure distinguishing it from other capital assets are presented. Such types of infrastructure, as personal, institutional, material, production, social, etc. are considered. Author’s definition of infrastructure is given.

  17. Barn og diabetes type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Ramstad, Marte Elise; Sagbakken, Sina Bekkelund

    2017-01-01

    Bacheloroppgave sykepleie, 2017 Bakgrunn: Vi har valgt denne problemstillingen fordi diabetes type 1 er svært utbredt hos barn i Norge. Videre har vi lite erfaringer med barn og ønsket å lære mer om denne pasientgruppen. Vi ønsket videre å se på hvordan vi kan undervise og veilede for å gi god og hensiktsmessig sykepleie til barn og deres familier. Hensikt: Finne ut hvordan sykepleier kan fremme egenomsorg hos barn med diabetes gjennom veiledning og undervisning. Dette er noe som sykepl...

  18. Type B Hepatitis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabarestani

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B surface antigen CHBsAg was found in 1% of controls, 2.1% of professional blood donors, 2.0% of leprosy patients and 76.1% of acute hepatitis in Tehran and Mashhad, Iran. All HBsAg positive samples also possessed antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen and all were subtype ayw. Type B hepatitis and the HBsAg state aloe frequent in Iran, but most must be accounted for by u nonparenter- al" or "rnapparent'' parenteral exposure.

  19. WWER-440 type reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizov, J.; Svec, P.; Rajci, T.

    1987-01-01

    Assemblies with patly spent fuel of enrichment within 5 and 36 MWd/kg U or lower than the maximum enrichment of freshly charged fuel are placed in at least one of the peripheral positions of each hexagonal sector of the WWER-440 reactor type core. This increases fuel availability and reduces the integral neutron dose to the reactor vessel. The duration is extended of the reactor campaign and/or the mean fuel enrichment necessary for the required duration of the period between refuellings is reduced. Thus, fuel costs are reduced by 1 up to 3%. The results obtained in the experiment are tabulated. (J.B.). 1 fig., 3 tabs

  20. Adiabatic Wankel type rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, R.; Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

    1988-01-01

    This SBIR Phase program accomplished the objective of advancing the technology of the Wankel type rotary engine for aircraft applications through the use of adiabatic engine technology. Based on the results of this program, technology is in place to provide a rotor and side and intermediate housings with thermal barrier coatings. A detailed cycle analysis of the NASA 1007R Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engine was performed which concluded that applying thermal barrier coatings to the rotor should be successful and that it was unlikely that the rotor housing could be successfully run with thermal barrier coatings as the thermal stresses were extensive.

  1. Fusion-fission type collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeschler, H.

    1980-01-01

    Three examples of fusion-fission type collisions on medium-mass nuclei are investigated whether the fragment properties are consistent with fission from equilibrated compound nuclei. Only in a very narrow band of angular momenta the data fulfill the necessary criteria for this process. Continuous evolutions of this mechnism into fusion fission and into a deep-inelastic process and particle emission prior to fusion have been observed. Based on the widths of the fragment-mass distributions of a great variety of data, a further criterion for the compound-nucleus-fission process is tentatively proposed. (orig.)

  2. A Simple Solution to Type Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Partial evaluation specializes terms, but traditionally this specialization does not apply to the type of these terms. As a result, specializing, e.g., an interpreter written in a typed language, which requires a “universal” type to encode expressible values, yields residual programs with type tags...... all over. Neil Jones has stated that getting rid of these type tags was an open problem, despite possible solutions such as Torben Mogensen's “constructor specialization.” To solve this problem, John Hughes has proposed a new paradigm for partial evaluation, “Type Specialization”, based on type...... inference instead of being based on symbolic interpretation. Type Specialization is very elegant in principle but it also appears non-trivial in practice. Stating the problem in terms of types instead of in terms of type encodings suggests a very simple type-directed solution, namely, to use a projection...

  3. Type A dissection following endovascular repair of type B dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juszkat, R.; Zabicki, M.; Jemielity, M.; Buczkowski, P.; Urbanowicz, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We present a patient, who was treated with thoracic stentgraft implantation, because of acute type B aortic dissection (according to Stanford classification). The endovascular procedure was performed without any complications. Case Report: The patient was discharged in the 3 rd postprocedural day and was transferred to another hospital for further recovery. Nine days after the procedure, the patient was readmitted in cardiogenic shock to the Cardiac Surgery Department. The patient was immediately operated on, after dissection of the ascending aorta and pericardial tamponade had been diagnosed in transthoracic echocardiography. Conclusions: Total replacement of the aortic arch and its ascending part was performed successfully. The surgery was carried out in deep hypothermia with temporary circulatory arrest. The patient was discharged from the Cardiac Surgery Unit 15 days after the surgery, and transferred to another unit for further recovery. (authors)

  4. Rapid typing of Coxiella burnetii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidie M Hornstra

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii has the potential to cause serious disease and is highly prevalent in the environment. Despite this, epidemiological data are sparse and isolate collections are typically small, rare, and difficult to share among laboratories as this pathogen is governed by select agent rules and fastidious to culture. With the advent of whole genome sequencing, some of this knowledge gap has been overcome by the development of genotyping schemes, however many of these methods are cumbersome and not readily transferable between institutions. As comparisons of the few existing collections can dramatically increase our knowledge of the evolution and phylogeography of the species, we aimed to facilitate such comparisons by extracting SNP signatures from past genotyping efforts and then incorporated these signatures into assays that quickly and easily define genotypes and phylogenetic groups. We found 91 polymorphisms (SNPs and indels among multispacer sequence typing (MST loci and designed 14 SNP-based assays that could be used to type samples based on previously established phylogenetic groups. These assays are rapid, inexpensive, real-time PCR assays whose results are unambiguous. Data from these assays allowed us to assign 43 previously untyped isolates to established genotypes and genomic groups. Furthermore, genotyping results based on assays from the signatures provided here are easily transferred between institutions, readily interpreted phylogenetically and simple to adapt to new genotyping technologies.

  5. Phage typing of Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Pereira, A.; Melo Cristino, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    This study included 502 staphylococcus strains; Staphylococcus saprophyticus (297 strains) S. cohnii (47), S. xylosus (10), S. epidermidis (67) and S. aureus (81). Mitomycin C induction was performed on 100 isolates of S. saprophyticus and all induced strains were reacted with each other. Twenty-six strains proved to be lysogenic. Phages were propagated and titrated. With 12 of the phages there were three frequent associations, named lytic groups A, B and C, which included 75% of all typable strains. Typability of the system was 45% and reproducibility was between 94.2% and 100%. Phages did not lyse S. aureus and S. epidermidis strains, but they lysed S. saprophyticus and only rare strains of other novobiocin resistant species. Effective S. saprophyticus typing serves ecological purposes and tracing the origin of urinary strains from the skin or mucous membranes. Phage typing in association with plasmid profiling previously described, are anticipated as complementary methods with strong discriminatory power for differentiating among S. saprophyticus strains. PMID:1752305

  6. RIA type tests in ACPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preda, Marin; Stefan, Violeta; Ancuta, Mirela; Negut, Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    For a better NPP operation fuel behavior in accidental conditions (LOCA) is of great interest. Irradiation tests in ACPR can give interesting data on the CANDU fuel behavior in such kind of accidents. These data can be used for simulation, calibration and validation of fuel computer codes. The tests were accomplished in the TRIGA Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR). Reactivity insertion accidents are not specific for the CANDU reactors but this type of test can contribute to a better understanding of CANDU type fuel behavior during various conditions.The tests were accomplished in the ambient pressure and temperature with fresh fuel probes. These tests gave similar results on the clad-fuel, and clad-coolant interactions which occur in LOCA accidents. The tests will be continued with instrumentation improvements what will give better statistics and information on fuel behavior in accident conditions. The structure of the paper is the following: - 1. Introduction; - 2. Irradiation device description; - 2.1. Capsule main parameters; - 2.1.1. Initial conditions; - 2.1.2. Test conditions; - 3. Tests objectives; - 4. Test of fuel; - 5. Results; - 5.1. Temperature effects; - 5.2. Pressure effects; - 6. Conclusion

  7. New type radiation management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogi, Kenichi; Uranaka, Yasuo; Fujita, Kazuhiko

    2001-01-01

    The radiation management system is a system to carry out entrance and leaving room management of peoples into radiation management area, information management on radiation obtained from a radiation testing apparatus, and so on. New type radiation management system developed by the Mitsubishi Electric Corp. is designed by concepts of superior maintenance and system practice by using apparatus and its interface with standard specification, upgrading of processing response by separating exposure management processing from radiation monitoring processing on a computer, and a backup system not so as to lose its function by a single accident of the constructed computer. Therefore, the system is applied by the newest hardware, package software, and general use LAN, and can carry out a total system filled with requirements and functions for various radiation management of customers by preparing a basic system from radiation testing apparatus to entrance and leaving room management system. Here were described on outline of the new type management system, concept of the system, and functions of every testing apparatus. (G.K.)

  8. New type of metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukharov, A.V.; Ankudinov, V.B.; Ogorodnikov, V.P.; Marukhin, Y.A.

    2014-01-01

    Now the technologies based on interaction of high-intensity beams with substance of a target are being intensively developed. As a target it is possible to use the new type of monodisperse metal targets. The principal advantages of new targets type are: target cooling isn't required; there is no induced activity: the target can be used many times; small dispersion on the speed, the size and interaction points with a beam. The basis of a target is the jet of molten metal, following in the vacuum chamber .Under the influence of the special disturbance superimposed on the liquid jet, the jet disintegrated into identical drops. In the vacuum chamber the drops freeze and form into the solid granules. It is possible to receive monodisperse targets from different metals, alloys and salts (diameter of targets is from 30 .m to 1.5 mm). Dispersion by the sizes and speed is less than 1%. The technique allows to receive not only continuous targets, but also hollow targets with dispersion on thickness of wall within 1...2%.

  9. Fixed type incore measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Naotaka; Ito, Hitoshi; Maeda, Hiroyuki

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a measuring device using gamma thermometers to be used in a BWR type reactor. An input switch is inserted to the vicinity of a detection signal input portion of a signal cable connecting GT with the detection signal input portion of a fixed type incore measuring device, and a loop resistance measuring means is disposed to the input switch on the side of the GT by way of a measurement switch. Upon measuring loop resistance, the GT measuring circuit is switched from the detection signal input portion to the loop resistance measuring means by a switching operation of the input switch and the measurement switch thereby enabling to confirm the value of the loop resistance. In addition, the lowering of the voltage in the loop resistance is compensated to confirm the accurate measurement values to be used thereby enabling to measure GT detection signals accurately. A diagnosing means for diagnosing the state of GT based on the results of the measurement for the loop resistance is disposed, and the results are reported to an operator. (N.H.)

  10. Types of Leader in Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Aurelian Bârgău

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Besides leading theories of people in one way or another from different angles reveal the types of leaders who can meet in business management literature contains classifications of management styles, which take into account different criteria or viewpoints. The word “leadership‟ has been used in various aspects of human endeavor such as politics, businesses, academics, social works, etc. Previous views about leadership show it as personal ability. The individual leader traits depend not only on personal abilities and his characteristics, but in special on the characteristics of the situation and environment in which he finds himself. People could become members of an organization in other to achieve certain personal objectives, the extent to which they are active members depends on how they are convinced that their membership will enable them to achieve their predetermined objectives. The leader will support an organization if he believes that through it his personal objectives and goals could be met otherwise the person’s interest will decline. The type leader or style of leading in an organization is one of the factors that play significant role in enhancing or retarding the interest and commitment of the individuals in the organization.

  11. Verifying Process Algebra Proofs in Type Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sellink, M.P.A.

    In this paper we study automatic verification of proofs in process algebra. Formulas of process algebra are represented by types in typed λ-calculus. Inhabitants (terms) of these types represent proofs. The specific typed λ-calculus we use is the Calculus of Inductive Constructions as implemented

  12. 14 CFR 21.31 - Type design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Type design. 21.31 Section 21.31... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.31 Type design. The type design consists of— (a) The... configuration and the design features of the product shown to comply with the requirements of that part of this...

  13. Type Checking with XML Schema in XACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders

    to support XML Schema as type formalism. The technique is able to model advanced features, such as type derivations and overloaded local element declarations, and also datatypes of attribute values and character data. Moreover, we introduce optional type annotations to improve modularity of the type checking...

  14. Memorization in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    We use a code generator—type-directed partial evaluation— to verify conversions between isomorphic types, or more precisely to verify that a composite function is the identity function at some complicated type. A typed functional language such as ML provides a natural support to express the funct...

  15. Psychological Type of Person-Centered Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Mandy; Turley, Joanne

    2016-02-01

    There are various models and approaches to counseling and psychotherapy. Important characteristics of therapists include psychological type. This study aimed to investigate the psychological type profile of person-centered counselors. The psychological type of 85 counselors (63 women, 22 men) was measured with the Francis Psychological Type Scales (FPTS). Results indicate that the FPTS can reliably measure psychological type among counselors, and the most common psychological type was introvert, intuitive, feeling, and judging (INFJ). The relation of these psychological types with a person-centered approach is further discussed.

  16. Quantum games as quantum types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbecque, Yannick

    In this thesis, we present a new model for higher-order quantum programming languages. The proposed model is an adaptation of the probabilistic game semantics developed by Danos and Harmer [DH02]: we expand it with quantum strategies which enable one to represent quantum states and quantum operations. Some of the basic properties of these strategies are established and then used to construct denotational semantics for three quantum programming languages. The first of these languages is a formalisation of the measurement calculus proposed by Danos et al. [DKP07]. The other two are new: they are higher-order quantum programming languages. Previous attempts to define a denotational semantics for higher-order quantum programming languages have failed. We identify some of the key reasons for this and base the design of our higher-order languages on these observations. The game semantics proposed in this thesis is the first denotational semantics for a lambda-calculus equipped with quantum types and with extra operations which allow one to program quantum algorithms. The results presented validate the two different approaches used in the design of these two new higher-order languages: a first one where quantum states are used through references and a second one where they are introduced as constants in the language. The quantum strategies presented in this thesis allow one to understand the constraints that must be imposed on quantum type systems with higher-order types. The most significant constraint is the fact that abstraction over part of the tensor product of many unknown quantum states must not be allowed. Quantum strategies are a new mathematical model which describes the interaction between classical and quantum data using system-environment dialogues. The interactions between the different parts of a quantum system are described using the rich structure generated by composition of strategies. This approach has enough generality to be put in relation with other

  17. A simple solution to type specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Partial evaluation specializes terms, but traditionally this specialization does not apply to the type of these terms. As a result, specializing, e.g., an interpreter written in a typed language, which requires a “universal” type to encode expressible values, yields residual programs with type tags...... all over. Neil Jones has stated that getting rid of these type tags was an open problem, despite possible solutions such as Torben Mogensen's “constructor specialization.” To solve this problem, John Hughes has proposed a new paradigm for partial evaluation, “Type Specialization”, based on type...... from the universal type to the specific type of the residual program. Standard partial evaluation then yields a residual program without type tags, simply and efficiently....

  18. What causes type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buschard, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    To study type 1 diabetes (T1D), excellent animal models exist, both spontaneously diabetic and virus-induced. Based on knowledge from these, this review focuses on the environmental factors leading to T1D, concentrated into four areas which are: (1) The thymus-dependent immune system: T1D is a T...... T cell reaction and less autoimmunity. Glycolipids presented by CD1 molecules are central in this stimulation. (4) Importance of the intestine and gliadin intake: Gluten-free diet dramatically inhibits T1D in animal models, and epidemiological data are supportive of such an effect in humans....... The mechanisms include less subclinical intestinal inflammation and permeability, and changed composition of bacterial flora, which can also be obtained by intake of probiotics. Gluten-free diet is difficult to implement, and short-term intake has no effect. Regarding the onset of the T1D disease process, slow...

  19. An Abel type cubic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary R. Nicklason

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider center conditions for plane polynomial systems of Abel type consisting of a linear center perturbed by the sum of 2 homogeneous polynomials of degrees n and 2n-1 where $n \\ge 2$. Using properties of Abel equations we obtain two general systems valid for arbitrary values on n. For the cubic n=2 systems we find several sets of new center conditions, some of which show that the results in a paper by Hill, Lloyd and Pearson which were conjectured to be complete are in fact not complete. We also present a particular system which appears to be a counterexample to a conjecture by Zoladek et al. regarding rational reversibility in cubic polynomial systems.

  20. Life history types and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, Mikkel

    strategies and types in migratory freshwater fish, using brown trout and alewife as study organisms. Firstly, we investigated underlying mechanisms of resident and migratory life history strategies of salmonids, using indicators for nutritional status, stress, tissue damage and smoltification. Secondly...... III the minimum predation from cormorants and herons was estimated over a three year period on the brown trout population of of Lake Hald. The magnitude of the predation pressure from both bird species were very similar and when summed up, the avian predation accounted for an average minimum of 37.......2 % of the annual brown trout mortality in the lake and 10.1 % in the tributaries. This result illustrates that avian predation in the lake can be quite substantial and potentially plays an important role in the population dynamics of brown trout. Cormorants alone were responsible 21.2% in the lake and the arrival...