Regge behaviour of distribution functions and evolution of gluon ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
work we solved DGLAP evolution equation for gluon distribution function at low-x in next-to-leading order (NLO) and the t and x-evolutions of gluon distribution function thus obtained have been compared with global MRST2004 and GRV98 parametrizations. In PQCD, since the higher-order terms in the leading logarithmic.
Q2 evolution of a soft gluon distribution function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enkovskij, L.L.; Kotikov, A.V.; Pakkanoni, F.
1992-01-01
Model parameter dependence refferring to the function of gluon distribution linked with the exchange of a dipole pomeron from Q 2 is calculated within the framework of the Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equation (GLAP) both in the leading logarithm approximation and in the double logarithmic approximation. The behaviour of logarithmic parametrization ∼ (ln(1/x)) b appears to be unstable in relation to perturbative calculations
Analysis of the proton longitudinal structure function from the gluon distribution function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boroun, G.R.; Rezaei, B.
2012-01-01
We make a critical, next-to-leading order, study of the relationship between the longitudinal structure function F L and the gluon distribution proposed in Cooper-Sarkar et al. (Z. Phys. C 39:281, 1988; Acta Phys. Pol. B 34:2911 2003), which is frequently used to extract the gluon distribution from the proton longitudinal structure function at small x. The gluon density is obtained by expanding at particular choices of the point of expansion and compared with the hard Pomeron behavior for the gluon density. Comparisons with H1 data are made and predictions for the proposed best approach are also provided. (orig.)
Regge behaviour of structure function and gluon distribution at low-x in leading order
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarma, J.K.
2000-01-01
We present a method to find the gluon distribution from the F 2 proton structure function data at low-x assuming the Regge behaviour of the gluon distribution function at this limit. We use the leading order (LO) Altarelli-Parisi (AP) evolution equation in our analysis and compare our result with those of other authors. We also discuss the limitations of the Taylor expansion method in extracting the gluon distribution from the F 2 structure function used by those authors. (orig.)
Dynamical behavior connection of the gluon distribution and the proton structure function at small x
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boroun, G.R.
2014-01-01
We make a critical study of the relationship between the singlet structure function F 2 S and the gluon distribution G(x,Q 2 ) proposed in the past two decades, which is frequently used to extract the gluon distribution from the proton structure function. We show that a simple relation is not generally valid in the simplest state. We complete this relation by using a Laplace transform method and hard-pomeron behavior at LO and NLO at small x. Our study shows that this relation is dependent on the splitting functions and initial conditions at Q 2 =Q 2 0 and running coupling constant at NLO. The resulting analytic expression allows us to predict the proton structure function with respect to the gluon distributions and to compare the results with H1 data and a QCD analysis fit. Comparisons with other results are made and predictions for the proposed best approach are also provided. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Enterria, David, E-mail: dde@cern.ch [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); ICREA and ICC-UB, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Rojo, Juan [CERN, PH Department, TH Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
2012-07-21
The impact of isolated-photon data from proton-(anti)proton collisions at RHIC, Spp{sup Macron }S, Tevatron and LHC energies, on the parton distribution functions of the proton is studied using a recently developed Bayesian reweighting method. The impact on the gluon density of the 35 existing isolated-{gamma} measurements is quantified using next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD calculations complemented with the NNPDF2.1 parton densities. The NLO predictions are found to describe well most of the datasets from 200 GeV up to 7 TeV centre-of-mass energies. The isolated-photon spectra recently measured at the LHC are precise enough to constrain the gluon distribution and lead to a moderate reduction (up to 20%) of its uncertainties around fractional momenta x Almost-Equal-To 0.02. As a particular case, we show that the improved gluon density reduces the PDF uncertainty for the Higgs boson production cross section in the gluon-fusion channel by more than 20% at the LHC. We conclude that present and future isolated-photon measurements constitute an interesting addition to coming global PDF analyses.
d'Enterria, David
2012-01-01
The impact of isolated-photon data from proton-(anti)proton collisions at RHIC, SppbarS, Tevatron and LHC energies, on the parton distribution functions of the proton is studied using a recently developed Bayesian reweighting method. The impact on the gluon density of the 35 existing isolated-gamma measurements is quantified using next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD calculations complemented with the NNPDF2.1 parton densities. The NLO predictions are found to describe well most of the datasets from 200 GeV up to 7 TeV centre-of-mass energies. The isolated-photon spectra recently measured at the LHC are precise enough to constrain the gluon distribution and lead to a moderate reduction (up to 20%) of its uncertainties around fractional momenta x~0.02. As a particular case, we show that the improved gluon density reduces the PDF uncertainty for the Higgs boson production cross section in the gluon-fusion channel by more than 20% at the LHC. We conclude that present and future isolated-photon measuremen...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boroun, G.R.
2005-01-01
An approximation method based on Regge behavior is presented. This new method relates the reduced cross section derivative and the structure function Regge behavior at low x. With the use of this approximation method, the C and λ parameters are calculated from the HERA reduced cross section data taken at low-x. Also, we calculate the structure functions F 2 (x,Q 2 ) even for low-x values, which have not been investigated. To test the validity of calculated structure functions, we find the gluon distribution function in the Leading order approximation based on Regge behaviour of structure function and compare to the NLO QCD fit to H1 data and NLO parton distribution function.
Gluon field distribution in baryons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bissey, F.; Cao, F-G.; Kitson, A.; Lasscock, B.G.; Leinweber, D.B.; Signal, A.I.; Williams, A.G.; Zanotti, J.M.
2005-01-01
Methods for revealing the distribution of gluon fields within the three-quark static-baryon potential are presented. In particular, we outline methods for studying the sensitivity of the source on the emerging vacuum response for the three-quark system. At the same time, we explore the possibility of revealing gluon-field distributions in three-quark systems in QCD without the use of gauge-dependent smoothing techniques. Renderings of flux tubes from a preliminary high-statistics study on a 12 3 x 24 lattice are presented
Gluon quasidistribution function at one loop
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Wei; Zhao, Shuai [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, INPAC, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Ruilin [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, INPAC, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai (China); Nanjing Normal University, Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)
2018-02-15
We study the unpolarized gluon quasidistribution function in the nucleon at one loop level in the large momentum effective theory. For the quark quasidistribution, power law ultraviolet divergences arise in the cut-off scheme and an important observation is that they all are subjected to Wilson lines. However for the gluon quasidistribution function, we first point out that the linear ultraviolet divergences also exist in the real diagram which is not connected to any Wilson line. We then study the one loop corrections to parton distribution functions in both cut-off scheme and dimensional regularization to deal with the ultraviolet divergences. In addition to the ordinary quark and gluon distributions, we also include the quark to gluon and gluon to quark splitting diagrams. The complete one-loop matching factors between the quasi and light cone parton distribution functions are presented in the cut-off scheme. We derive the P{sup z} evolution equation for quasi parton distribution functions, and find that the P{sup z} evolution kernels are identical to the DGLAP evolution kernels. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Block, Martin M.; Durand, Loyal
2011-01-01
We recently derived a very accurate and fast new algorithm for numerically inverting the Laplace transforms needed to obtain gluon distributions from the proton structure function F 2 γp (x,Q 2 ). We numerically inverted the function g(s), s being the variable in Laplace space, to G(v), where v is the variable in ordinary space. We have since discovered that the algorithm does not work if g(s)→0 less rapidly than 1/s as s→∞, e.g., as 1/s β for 0 β-1 and a polynomial in v. We test the algorithm numerically for very small positive β, β=10 -6 obtaining numerical results that imitate the Dirac delta function δ(v). We also devolve the published MSTW2008LO gluon distribution at virtuality Q 2 =5 GeV 2 down to the lower virtuality Q 2 =1.69 GeV 2 . For devolution, β is negative, giving rise to inverse Laplace transforms that are distributions and not proper functions. This requires us to introduce the concept of Hadamard Finite Part integrals, which we discuss in detail. (orig.)
The Gluon Sivers Distribution: Status and Future Prospects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Jian; Boer, Daniël; Pisano, Cristian; Lorcé, Cédric
2015-01-01
We review what is currently known about the gluon Sivers distribution and what are the opportunities to learn more about it. Because single transverse spin asymmetries in p"↑p→πX provide only indirect information about the gluon Sivers function through the relation with the quark-gluon and tri-gluon Qiu-Sterman functions, current data from hadronic collisions at RHIC have not yet been translated into a solid constraint on the gluon Sivers function. SIDIS data, including the COMPASS deuteron data, allow for a gluon Sivers contribution of natural size expected from large N_c arguments, which is O(1/N_c) times the nonsinglet quark Sivers contribution. Several very promising processes to measure the gluon Sivers effect directly have been suggested, which besides RHIC investigations, would strongly favor experiments at AFTER@LHC and a possible future Electron-Ion Collider. Due to the inherent process dependence of TMDs, the gluon Sivers TMD probed in the various processes are different linear combinations of two universal gluon Sivers functions that have different behavior under charge conjugation and that therefore satisfy different theoretical constraints. For this reason both hadronic and DIS type of collisions are essential in the study of the role of gluons in transversely polarized protons.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Block, Martin M. [Northwestern University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Evanston, IL (United States); Durand, Loyal [University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics, Madison, WI (United States)
2011-11-15
We recently derived a very accurate and fast new algorithm for numerically inverting the Laplace transforms needed to obtain gluon distributions from the proton structure function F{sub 2}{sup {gamma}}{sup p}(x,Q{sup 2}). We numerically inverted the function g(s), s being the variable in Laplace space, to G(v), where v is the variable in ordinary space. We have since discovered that the algorithm does not work if g(s){yields}0 less rapidly than 1/s as s{yields}{infinity}, e.g., as 1/s{sup {beta}} for 0 <{beta}<1. In this note, we derive a new numerical algorithm for such cases, which holds for all positive and non-integer negative values of {beta}. The new algorithm is exact if the original function G(v) is given by the product of a power v{sup {beta}}{sup -1} and a polynomial in v. We test the algorithm numerically for very small positive {beta}, {beta}=10{sup -6} obtaining numerical results that imitate the Dirac delta function {delta}(v). We also devolve the published MSTW2008LO gluon distribution at virtuality Q{sup 2}=5 GeV{sup 2} down to the lower virtuality Q{sup 2}=1.69 GeV{sup 2}. For devolution, {beta} is negative, giving rise to inverse Laplace transforms that are distributions and not proper functions. This requires us to introduce the concept of Hadamard Finite Part integrals, which we discuss in detail. (orig.)
Heavy Flavour Production as Probe of Gluon Sivers Function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Godbole, Rohini M.; Kaushik, Abhiram; Misra, Anuradha; Rawoot, Vaibhav; Sonawane, Bipin
2017-01-01
Heavy flavour production like J/ψ and D-meson production in scattering of electrons/unpolarized protons off polarized proton target offer promising probes to investigate gluon Sivers function. In this talk, I will summarize our recent work on transverse single spin asymmetry in J/ψ-production and D-meson production in pp↑ scattering using a generalized parton model approach. We compare predictions obtained using different models of gluon Sivers function within this approach and then, taking into account the transverse momentum dependent evolution of the unpolarized parton distribution functions and gluon Sivers function, we study the effect of evolution on asymmetry. (author)
Calculation of parton fragmentation functions from jet calculus: gluon applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lassila, K.E.; Ng, A.
1985-01-01
A method is presented for calculation of general parton fragmentation functions based on jet calculus plus meson and baryon wave functions. Results for gluon fragmentation into mesons and baryons are discussed and related to recent information on upsilon decay into gluons. The expressions derived can be used directly in e + e - cross section predictions and will need to be folded in with baryon parton distribution functions when used in p-barp collisions. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Fan; Sun Weimin; Chen Xiangsong; Lu Xiaofu; Goldman, T.
2009-01-01
It is unavoidable to deal with the quark and gluon momentum and angular momentum contributions to the nucleon momentum and spin in the study of nucleon internal structure. However we never have the quark and gluon momentum, orbital angular momentum and gluon spin operators which satisfy both the gauge invariance and the canonical momentum and angular momentum commutation relation. The conflicts between the gauge invariance and canonical quantization requirement of these operators are discussed. A new set of quark and gluon momentum, orbital angular momentum and spin operators, which satisfy both the gauge invariance and canonical momentum and angular momentum commutation relation, are proposed. The key point to achieve such a proper decomposition is to separate the gauge field into the pure gauge and the gauge covariant parts. The same conflicts also exist in QED and quantum mechanics and have been solved in the same manner. The impacts of this new decomposition to the nucleon internal structure are discussed. (authors)
The gluon contribution to polarised nucleon structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ross, G.G.; Roberts, R.G.
1990-08-01
As with all parton distributions in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) the separation of polarised nucleon structure functions into gluon and quark contributions must be specified. We consider a definition of the gluon contribution to polarised nucleon structure functions based on exclusive processes which is explicitly gauge invariant, has no regularisation ambiguities, is insensitive to infrared singularities and can be related to other polarised scattering processes. We discuss the relationship of this gluon definition to others that have recently been used and to the estimates that have been made of the gluon contribution using current algebra and other methods. A quantitative analysis of the structure function g 1 (x,Q 2 ) for polarised deep inelastic scattering is carried out, with the aim of examining the importance of the gluon contribution. Using the positivity of parton distributions the magnitude of Δg(x,Q 2 ) is constrained by a realistic estimate of the unpolarised glue. With the appropriate choice of the hard scattering cross-section, Δσ γg , we find that even with a maximally polarised glue (for x > 0.1), some polarised strange quark contribution is still needed by the data of the EMC. (author)
Linearly Polarized Gluons and the Higgs Transverse Momentum Distribution
Boer, Daniel; den Dunnen, Wilco J.; Pisano, Cristian; Schlegel, Marc; Vogelsang, Werner
2012-01-01
We study how gluons carrying linear polarization inside an unpolarized hadron contribute to the transverse momentum distribution of Higgs bosons produced in hadronic collisions. They modify the distribution produced by unpolarized gluons in a characteristic way that could be used to determine
Gluon 2- and 3-Point Correlation Functions on the Lattice
Parrinello, Claudio
1993-01-01
I present some preliminary results, obtained in collaboration with C. Bernard and A. Soni, for the lattice evaluation of 2- and 3-point gluon correlation functions in momentum space, with emphasis on the amputated 3-gluon vertex function. The final goal of this approach is the study of the running QCD coupling constant as defined from the amputated 3-gluon vertex.
2- and 3-point gluon correlation functions on the lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parrinello, C. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom))
1994-04-01
I present some preliminary results, obtained in collaboration with C. Bernard and A. Soni, for the lattice evaluation of 2- and 3-point gluon correlation functions in momentum space, with emphasis on the amputated 3-gluon vertex function. The final goal of this approach is the study of the running QCD coupling constant as defined from the amputated 3-gluon vertex. (orig.)
Accessing the distribution of linearly polarized gluons in unpolarized hadrons
Boer, Daniël; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian
2011-01-01
Gluons inside unpolarized hadrons can be linearly polarized provided they have a nonzero transverse momentum. The simplest and theoretically safest way to probe this distribution of linearly polarized gluons is through cos(2 phi) asymmetries in heavy quark pair or dijet production in electron-hadron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Block, Martin M.; Durand, Loyal; McKay, Douglas W.
2008-01-01
We derive a second-order linear differential equation for the leading-order gluon distribution function G(x,Q 2 )=xg(x,Q 2 ) which determines G(x,Q 2 ) directly from the proton structure function F 2 p (x,Q 2 ). This equation is derived from the leading-order evolution equation for F 2 p (x,Q 2 ), and does not require knowledge of either the individual quark distributions or the gluon evolution equation. Given an analytic expression that successfully reproduces the known experimental data for F 2 p (x,Q 2 ) in a domain x min (Q 2 )≤x≤x max (Q 2 ), Q min 2 ≤Q 2 ≤Q max 2 of the Bjorken variable x and the virtuality Q 2 in deep inelastic scattering, G(x,Q 2 ) is uniquely determined in the same domain. We give the general solution and illustrate the method using the recently proposed Froissart-bound-type parametrization of F 2 p (x,Q 2 ) of E. L. Berger, M. M. Block and C.-I. Tan [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 242001 (2007)]. Existing leading-order gluon distributions based on power-law descriptions of individual parton distributions agree roughly with the new distributions for x > or approx. 10 -3 as they should, but are much larger for x -3 .
The gluon distribution at small x - a phenomenological analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harriman, P.N.; Martin, A.D.; Stirling, W.J.; Roberts, R.G.
1990-03-01
The size of the gluon distribution at small χ has important implications for phenomenology at future high energy hadron-hadron and lepton-hadron colliders. We extend a recent global parton distribution fit to investigate the constraints on the gluon from deep inelastic and prompt photon data. In particular, we estimate a band of allowed gluon distributions with qualitatively small-χ behaviour and study the implications of these on a variety of cross sections at high energy pp and ep colliders. (author)
Gluon Green functions free of quantum fluctuations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Athenodorou
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This letter reports on how the Wilson flow technique can efficaciously kill the short-distance quantum fluctuations of 2- and 3-gluon Green functions, remove the ΛQCD scale and destroy the transition from the confining non-perturbative to the asymptotically-free perturbative sector. After the Wilson flow, the behavior of the Green functions with momenta can be described in terms of the quasi-classical instanton background. The same behavior also occurs, before the Wilson flow, at low-momenta. This last result permits applications as, for instance, the detection of instanton phenomenological properties or a determination of the lattice spacing only from the gauge sector of the theory.
On the application of gluon to heavy quarkonium fragmentation function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qi Wei; Wang Jianxiong
2007-01-01
We analyze the uncertainties induced by different definitions of the momentum fraction z in the application of gluon to heavy quarkonium fragmentation function. We numerically calculate the initial g→J/ψ fragmentation functions by using the non-covariant definitions of z with finite gluon momentum and find that these fragmentation functions have strong dependence on the gluon momentum k. As |k|→∞, these fragmentation functions approach to the fragmentation function in the light-cone definition. We find that when |k| is small (for instance in the typical energy scale (about 4-20GeV) of the gluon production at the hadron colliders, such as Tevatron and LHC), large uncertainty remains while the in-covariant definitions of z are employed in the application of the fragmentation functions. (authors)
Mechanism of J/PSI production: determining gluon distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nandi, S.; Schneider, H.R.
1978-01-01
Assuming a generalised Drell-Yan type mechanism for hadronic PSI-production, the relative importance of the different possible contributions is estimated from the data. We find that about 80% of the pp → PSI X cross-section is due to gluons. Therefore, these data give some information on the gluon distribution G(x) in the proton. Assuming xG(x) approximately (1-x)sup(n), data restrict n to 4... 6, in agreement with dimensional counting rules. The energy dependence of sigma(anti p p → PSI X)/sigma(pp → PSIX) is predicted. (orig.) [de
Experiments to measure the gluon helicity distribution in protons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spinka, H.; Beddo, M.E.; Underwood, D.G.
1993-01-01
Several experiments are described that could obtain information about the gluon helicity distribution in protons. These experiments include inclusive direct-γ, direct-γ + jet, jet, and jet + jet production with colliding beams of longitudinally-polarized protons. Some rates and kinematics are also discussed
QCD evolution of (un)polarized gluon TMDPDFs and the Higgs q(T)-distribution
Garcia, M.; Kasemets, T.; Mulders, P.J.G.; Pisano, C.
2015-01-01
Abstract: We provide the proper definition of all the leading-twist (un)polarized gluon transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDPDFs), by considering the Higgs boson transverse momentum distribution in hadron-hadron collisions and deriving the factorization theorem in terms
Infra-red ghost contribution to the gluon Green's functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paccanoni, F.
1985-01-01
The Schwinger-Dyson equations for the ghost propagator and the ghost-ghost-gluon vertex function are studied in the Landau gauge. A confining infra-red singularity is assumed for the gluon propagator and a suitable approximation is devised for the solution of the integral equations. It is found that the bare values of the ghost propagator and coupling cannot be a consistent solution of either equation. It is determined a possible behaviour of the correction factor for the ghost propagator in the small-momentum limit and discussed the consistency of the approximation schemes for the gluon propagator that neglet Faddeev-Popov ghost
Non-perturbative inputs for gluon distributions in the hadrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ermolaev, B.I. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Troyan, S.I. [St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, Gatchina (Russian Federation)
2017-03-15
Description of hadronic reactions at high energies is conventionally done in the framework of QCD factorization. All factorization convolutions comprise non-perturbative inputs mimicking non-perturbative contributions and perturbative evolution of those inputs. We construct inputs for the gluon-hadron scattering amplitudes in the forward kinematics and, using the optical theorem, convert them into inputs for gluon distributions in the hadrons, embracing the cases of polarized and unpolarized hadrons. In the first place, we formulate mathematical criteria which any model for the inputs should obey and then suggest a model satisfying those criteria. This model is based on a simple reasoning: after emitting an active parton off the hadron, the remaining set of spectators becomes unstable and therefore it can be described through factors of the resonance type, so we call it the resonance model. We use it to obtain non-perturbative inputs for gluon distributions in unpolarized and polarized hadrons for all available types of QCD factorization: basic, K{sub T}-and collinear factorizations. (orig.)
Non-perturbative inputs for gluon distributions in the hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ermolaev, B.I.; Troyan, S.I.
2017-01-01
Description of hadronic reactions at high energies is conventionally done in the framework of QCD factorization. All factorization convolutions comprise non-perturbative inputs mimicking non-perturbative contributions and perturbative evolution of those inputs. We construct inputs for the gluon-hadron scattering amplitudes in the forward kinematics and, using the optical theorem, convert them into inputs for gluon distributions in the hadrons, embracing the cases of polarized and unpolarized hadrons. In the first place, we formulate mathematical criteria which any model for the inputs should obey and then suggest a model satisfying those criteria. This model is based on a simple reasoning: after emitting an active parton off the hadron, the remaining set of spectators becomes unstable and therefore it can be described through factors of the resonance type, so we call it the resonance model. We use it to obtain non-perturbative inputs for gluon distributions in unpolarized and polarized hadrons for all available types of QCD factorization: basic, K_T-and collinear factorizations. (orig.)
Bound-state quark and gluon contributions to structure functions in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.
1990-08-01
One can distinguish two types of contributions to the quark and gluon structure functions of hadrons in quantum chromodynamics: ''intrinsic'' contributions, which are due to the direct scattering on the bound-state constituents, and ''extrinsic'' contributions, which are derived from particles created in the collision. In this talk, I discussed several aspects of deep inelastic structure functions in which the bound-state structure of the proton plays a crucial role: the properties of the intrinsic gluon distribution associated with the proton bound-state wavefunction; the separation of the quark structure function of the proton onto intrinsic ''bound-valence'' and extrinsic ''non-valence'' components which takes into account the Pauli principle; the properties and identification of intrinsic heavy quark structure functions; and a theory of shadowing and anti-shadowing of nuclear structure functions, directly related to quark-nucleon interactions and the gluon saturation phenomenon. 49 refs., 5 figs
Bound-state quark and gluon contributions to structure functions in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.
1991-01-01
One can distinguish two types of contributions to the quark and gluon structure functions of hadrons in quantum chromodynamics: 'intrinsic' contributions, which are due to the direct scattering on the bound-state constituents, and 'extrinsic' contributions, which are derived from particles created in the collision. In this talk, I discuss several aspects of deep inealstic structure functions in which the bound-state structure of the proton plays a crucial role: (1) the properties of the intrinsic gluon distribution associated with the proton bound-state wavefunction; (2) the separation of the quark structure function of the proton into intrinsic 'bound-valence' and extrinsic 'non-valence' components which takes into account the Pauli principle; (3) the properties and identification of intrinsic heavy quark structure functions; and (4) a theory of shadowing and anti-shadowing of nuclear structure functions, directly related to quark-nucleon interactions and the gluon saturation phenomenon. (orig.)
Low-momentum ghost dressing function and the gluon mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boucaud, Ph.; Leroy, J. P.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Micheli, J.; Pene, O.; Gomez, M. E.; Rodriguez-Quintero, J.
2010-01-01
We study the low-momentum ghost propagator Dyson-Schwinger equation in the Landau gauge, assuming for the truncation a constant ghost-gluon vertex, as it is extensively done, and a simple model for a massive gluon propagator. Then, regular Dyson-Schwinger equation solutions (the zero-momentum ghost dressing function not diverging) appear to emerge, and we show the ghost propagator to be described by an asymptotic expression reliable up to the order O(q 2 ). That expression, depending on the gluon mass and the zero-momentum Taylor-scheme effective charge, is proven to fit pretty well some low-momentum ghost propagator data [I. L. Bogolubsky, E. M. Ilgenfritz, M. Muller-Preussker, and A. Sternbeck, Phys. Lett. B 676, 69 (2009); Proc. Sci., LAT2007 (2007) 290] from big-volume lattice simulations where the so-called ''simulated annealing algorithm'' is applied to fix the Landau gauge.
The Weizsäcker-Williams distribution of linearly polarized gluons (and its fluctuations) at small x
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dumitru, Adrian; Skokov, Vladimir
2017-09-11
The conventional and linearly polarized Weizsäcker-Williams gluon distributions at small x are defined from the two-point function of the gluon field in light-cone gauge. They appear in the cross section for dijet production in deep inelastic scattering at high energy. We determine these functions in the small-x limit from solutions of the JIMWLK evolution equations and show that they exhibit approximate geometric scaling. Also, we discuss the functional distributions of these WW gluon distributions over the JIMWLK ensemble at rapidity Y ~ 1/αs. These are determined by a 2d Liouville action for the logarithm of the covariant gauge function g2tr A+(q)A+(-q). For transverse momenta on the order of the saturation scale we observe large variations across configurations (evolution trajectories) of the linearly polarized distribution up to several times its average, and even to negative values.
TMD splitting functions in kT factorization. The real contribution to the gluon-to-gluon splitting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hentschinski, M.; Kusina, A.; Kutak, K.; Serino, M.
2018-01-01
We calculate the transverse momentum dependent gluon-to-gluon splitting function within k T -factorization, generalizing the framework employed in the calculation of the quark splitting functions in Hautmann et al. (Nucl Phys B 865:54-66, arXiv:1205.1759, 2012), Gituliar et al. (JHEP 01:181, arXiv:1511.08439, 2016), Hentschinski et al. (Phys Rev D 94(11):114013, arXiv:1607.01507, 2016) and demonstrate at the same time the consistency of the extended formalism with previous results. While existing versions of k T factorized evolution equations contain already a gluon-to-gluon splitting function i.e. the leading order Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) kernel or the Ciafaloni-Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini (CCFM) kernel, the obtained splitting function has the important property that it reduces both to the leading order BFKL kernel in the high energy limit, to the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) gluon-to-gluon splitting function in the collinear limit as well as to the CCFM kernel in the soft limit. At the same time we demonstrate that this splitting kernel can be obtained from a direct calculation of the QCD Feynman diagrams, based on a combined implementation of the Curci-Furmanski-Petronzio formalism for the calculation of the collinear splitting functions and the framework of high energy factorization. (orig.)
QCD evolution of (un)polarized gluon TMDPDFs and the Higgs q T -distribution
Echevarria, Miguel G.; Kasemets, Tomas; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian
2015-07-01
We provide the proper definition of all the leading-twist (un)polarized gluon transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDPDFs), by considering the Higgs boson transverse momentum distribution in hadron-hadron collisions and deriving the factorization theorem in terms of them. We show that the evolution of all the (un)polarized gluon TMDPDFs is driven by a universal evolution kernel, which can be resummed up to next-to-next-to-leading-logarithmic accuracy. Considering the proper definition of gluon TMDPDFs, we perform an explicit next-to-leading-order calculation of the unpolarized ( f {1/ g }), linearly polarized ( h {1/⊥ g }) and helicity ( g {1/L g }) gluon TMDPDFs, and show that, as expected, they are free from rapidity divergences. As a byproduct, we obtain the Wilson coefficients of the refactorization of these TMDPDFs at large transverse momentum. In particular, the coefficient of g {1/L g }, which has never been calculated before, constitutes a new and necessary ingredient for a reliable phenomenological extraction of this quantity, for instance at RHIC or the future AFTER@LHC or Electron-Ion Collider. The coefficients of f {1/ g } and h {1/⊥ g } have never been calculated in the present formalism, although they could be obtained by carefully collecting and recasting previous results in the new TMD formalism. We apply these results to analyze the contribution of linearly polarized gluons at different scales, relevant, for instance, for the inclusive production of the Higgs boson and the C-even pseudoscalar bottomonium state η b . Applying our resummation scheme we finally provide predictions for the Higgs boson q T -distribution at the LHC.
Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.
2017-12-01
We calculate at the leading order in αs the QCD amplitude for exclusive neutrino production of a D* or Ds* charmed vector meson on a nucleon. We work in the framework of the collinear QCD approach where generalized parton distributions (GPDs) factorize from perturbatively calculable coefficient functions. We include O (mc) terms in the coefficient functions and the O (mD) term in the definition of heavy meson distribution amplitudes. The show that the analysis of the angular distribution of the decay D(s) *→D(s )π allows us to access the transversity gluon GPDs.
Gluon distributions in nucleons and pions at a low resolution scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christiansen, H.R.
2000-10-01
In this paper we study the gluon distribution functions in nucleons and pions at a low resolution Q 2 scale. This is an important issue since parton densities at low Q 2 have always been taken as an external input which is adjusted through DGLAP evolution to fit the experimental data at higher scales. Here, in the framework of a model recently developed, it is shown that the hypothetical cloud of neutral pions surrounding nucleons and pions appears to be responsible for the characteristic valence-like gluon distributions needed at the initial low scale. As an additional result, we get the remarkable prediction that neutral and charged ions have different intrinsic sea flavor contents. (author)
Muoproduction of J/ψ and the gluon distribution of the nucleon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashman, J.; Combley, F.; Salmon, D.; Wheeler, S.; Bee, C.P.; Brown, S.C.; Court, G.; Francis, D.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hayman, P.; Holt, J.R.; Jones, T.; Matthews, M.; Wimpenny, S.J.; Coignet, G.; Toth, J.; Urban, L.; Drees, J.; Edwards, A.W.; Hamacher, K.; Korzen, B.; Kruener, U.; Moenig, K.; Pavel, N.; Peschel, H.; Nassalski, J.; Sandacz, A.; Windmolders, R.; Ernst, T.; Landgraf, U.; Schroeder, T.; Stier, H.E.; Stock, J.; Wallucks, W.
1992-01-01
Measurements are presented of the inclusive distributions of the J/ψ meson produced by muons of energy 200 GeV from an ammonia target. The gluon distribution of the nucleon has been derived from the data in the range 0.04< x<0.36 using a technique based on the colour singlet model. An arbitrary normalisation factor is required to obtain a reasonable integral of the gluon distribution. Some comments are made on the use of J/ψ production by virtual photons to extract the gluon distribution at HERA. (orig.)
Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Skokov, Vladimir V.
2018-05-01
We show that, in the saturation/color glass condensate framework, odd azimuthal harmonics of the two-gluon correlation function with a long-range separation in rapidity are generated by the higher-order saturation corrections in the interactions with the projectile and the target. At the very least, the odd harmonics require three scatterings in the projectile and three scatterings in the target. We derive the leading-order expression for the two-gluon production cross section which generates odd harmonics: the expression includes all-order interactions with the target and three interactions with the projectile. We evaluate the obtained expression both analytically and numerically, confirming that the odd-harmonics contribution to the two-gluon production in the saturation framework is nonzero.
Multiplicity distributions of gluon and quark jets and a test of QCD analytic calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gary, J. William
1999-01-01
Gluon jets are identified in e + e - hadronic annihilation events by tagging two quark jets in the same hemisphere of an event. The gluon jet is defined inclusively as all the particles in the opposite hemisphere. Gluon jets defined in this manner have a close correspondence to gluon jets as they are defined for analytic calculations, and are almost independent of a jet finding algorithm. The mean and first few higher moments of the gluon jet charged particle multiplicity distribution are compared to the analogous results found for light quark (uds) jets, also defined inclusively. Large differences are observed between the mean, skew and curtosis values of the gluon and quark jets, but not between their dispersions. The cumulant factorial moments of the distributions are also measured, and are used to test the predictions of QCD analytic calculations. A calculation which includes next-to-next-to-leading order corrections and energy conservation is observed to provide a much improved description of the separated gluon and quark jet cumulant moments compared to a next-to-leading order calculation without energy conservation. There is good quantitative agreement between the data and calculations for the ratios of the cumulant moments between gluon and quark jets. The data sample used is the LEP-1 sample of the OPAL experiment at LEP
Multiplicity distributions of gluon and quark jets and a test of QCD analytic calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gary, J. William
1999-03-01
Gluon jets are identified in e{sup +}e{sup -} hadronic annihilation events by tagging two quark jets in the same hemisphere of an event. The gluon jet is defined inclusively as all the particles in the opposite hemisphere. Gluon jets defined in this manner have a close correspondence to gluon jets as they are defined for analytic calculations, and are almost independent of a jet finding algorithm. The mean and first few higher moments of the gluon jet charged particle multiplicity distribution are compared to the analogous results found for light quark (uds) jets, also defined inclusively. Large differences are observed between the mean, skew and curtosis values of the gluon and quark jets, but not between their dispersions. The cumulant factorial moments of the distributions are also measured, and are used to test the predictions of QCD analytic calculations. A calculation which includes next-to-next-to-leading order corrections and energy conservation is observed to provide a much improved description of the separated gluon and quark jet cumulant moments compared to a next-to-leading order calculation without energy conservation. There is good quantitative agreement between the data and calculations for the ratios of the cumulant moments between gluon and quark jets. The data sample used is the LEP-1 sample of the OPAL experiment at LEP.
Multiplicity distributions of gluon and quark jets and a test of QCD analytic calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gary, J.W. [California Univ., Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
1999-03-01
Gluon jets are identified in e{sup +}e{sup -} hadronic annihilation events by tagging two quark jets in the same hemisphere of an event. The gluon jet is defined inclusively as all the particles in the opposite hemisphere. Gluon jets defined in this manner have a close correspondence to gluon jets as they are defined for analytic calculations, and are almost independent of a jet finding algorithm. The mean and first few higher moments of the gluon jet charged particle multiplicity distribution are compared to the analogous results found for light quark (uds) jets, also defined inclusively. Large differences are observed between the mean, skew and curtosis values of the gluon and quark jets, but not between their dispersions. The cumulant factorial moments of the distributions are also measured, and are used to test the predictions of QCD analytic calculations. A calculation which includes next-to-next-to-leading order corrections and energy conservation is observed to provide a much improved description of the separated gluon and quark jet cumulant moments compared to a next-to-leading order calculation without energy conservation. There is good quantitative agreement between the data and calculations for the ratios of the cumulant moments between gluon and quark jets. The data sample used is the LEP-1 sample of the OPAL experiment at LEP. (orig.) 6 refs.
Multiplicity distributions of gluon and quark jets and a test of QCD analytic calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gary, J.W.
1999-01-01
Gluon jets are identified in e + e - hadronic annihilation events by tagging two quark jets in the same hemisphere of an event. The gluon jet is defined inclusively as all the particles in the opposite hemisphere. Gluon jets defined in this manner have a close correspondence to gluon jets as they are defined for analytic calculations, and are almost independent of a jet finding algorithm. The mean and first few higher moments of the gluon jet charged particle multiplicity distribution are compared to the analogous results found for light quark (uds) jets, also defined inclusively. Large differences are observed between the mean, skew and curtosis values of the gluon and quark jets, but not between their dispersions. The cumulant factorial moments of the distributions are also measured, and are used to test the predictions of QCD analytic calculations. A calculation which includes next-to-next-to-leading order corrections and energy conservation is observed to provide a much improved description of the separated gluon and quark jet cumulant moments compared to a next-to-leading order calculation without energy conservation. There is good quantitative agreement between the data and calculations for the ratios of the cumulant moments between gluon and quark jets. The data sample used is the LEP-1 sample of the OPAL experiment at LEP. (orig.)
Multiplicity distributions of gluon and quark jets and a test of QCD analytic calculations
Gary, J. William
1999-03-01
Gluon jets are identified in e +e - hadronic annihilation events by tagging two quark jets in the same hemisphere of an event. The gluon jet is defined inclusively as all the particles in the opposite hemisphere. Gluon hets defined in this manner have a close correspondence to gluon jets as they are defined for analytic calculations, and are almost independent of a jet finding algorithm. The mean and first few higher moments of the gluon jet charged particle multiplicity distribution are compared to the analogous results found for light quark (uds) jets, also defined inclusively. Large differences are observed between the mean, skew and curtosis values of the gluon and quark jets, but not between their dispersions. The cumulant factorial moments of the distributions are also measured, and are used to test the predictions of QCD analytic calculations. A calculation which includes next-to-next-to-leading order corrections and energy conservation is observed to provide a much improved description of the separated gluon and quark jet cumulant moments compared to a next-to-leading order calculation without energy conservation. There is good quantitative agreement between the data and calculations for the ratios of the cumulant moments between gluon and quark jets. The data sample used is the LEP-1 sample of the OPAL experiment at LEP.
Structure functions and parton distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olness, F.; Tung, Wu-Ki
1991-04-01
Activities of the structure functions and parton distributions group is summarized. The impact of scheme-dependence of parton distributions (especially sea-quarks and gluons) on the quantitative formulation of the QCD parton model is highlighted. Recent progress on the global analysis of parton distributions is summarized. Issues on the proper use of the next-to-leading parton distributions are stressed
Structure functions and pair correlations of the quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thoma, Markus H.
2005-01-01
Recent experiments at RHIC and theoretical considerations indicate that the quark-gluon plasma, present in the fireball of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, might be in a liquid phase. The liquid state can be identified by characteristic correlation and structure functions. Here definitions of the structure functions and pair correlations of the quark-gluon plasma are presented as well as perturbative results. These definitions might be useful for verifying the quark-gluon-plasma liquid in QCD lattice calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greiner, M.; Hofmann, C.; Schaefer, A.; Soff, G.
1994-08-01
The photon-gluon fusion process into a pair of heavy quarks is studied for peripheral Pb+Pb collisions at LHC energies. The double differential cross section with respect to the invariant mass and the rapidity of the produced quark pair at zero rapidity is directly proportional to the gluon distribution in the nuclear medium. Differential cross sections for the b-quark production lie well in the μbarn/GeV regime which will allow the deduction of the gluon distribution at low x. Rapidity cuts for the actual detectors are also considered. (orig.)
Gluon structure function for deeply inelastic scattering with nucleus in QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ayala Filho, Alvaro L; Ducati, M.B. Gay [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Levin, Eugene [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation). Theory Dept.
1995-06-01
In this talk we present the first calculation of the gluon structure function for nucleus in QCD. We discuss the Glauber formula for the gluon structure function and the violation of this simple approach that we anticipate in QCD. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs.
Multiplicity distributions of gluon and quark jets and tests of QCD analytic predictions
OPAL Collaboration; Ackerstaff, K.; et al.
Gluon jets are identified in e+e^- hadronic annihilation events by tagging two quark jets in the same hemisphere of an event. The gluon jet is defined inclusively as all the particles in the opposite hemisphere. Gluon jets defined in this manner have a close correspondence to gluon jets as they are defined for analytic calculations, and are almost independent of a jet finding algorithm. The charged particle multiplicity distribution of the gluon jets is presented, and is analyzed for its mean, dispersion, skew, and curtosis values, and for its factorial and cumulant moments. The results are compared to the analogous results found for a sample of light quark (uds) jets, also defined inclusively. We observe differences between the mean, skew and curtosis values of gluon and quark jets, but not between their dispersions. The cumulant moment results are compared to the predictions of QCD analytic calculations. A calculation which includes next-to-next-to-leading order corrections and energy conservation is observed to provide a much improved description of the data compared to a next-to-leading order calculation without energy conservation. There is agreement between the data and calculations for the ratios of the cumulant moments between gluon and quark jets.
Multiplicity distributions of gluon and quark jets and tests of QCD analytic predictions
Ackerstaff, K; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Beeston, C; Behnke, T; Bell, A N; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bloomer, J E; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Bouwens, B T; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Clarke, P E L; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallapiccola, C; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; do Couto e Silva, E; Doucet, M; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Edwards, J E G; Estabrooks, P G; Evans, H G; Evans, M; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fischer, H M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fong, D G; Foucher, M; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Geddes, N I; Geich-Gimbel, C; Geralis, T; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giacomelli, R; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Goodrick, M J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Hargrove, C K; Hart, P A; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hobson, P R; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Hutchcroft, D E; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ingram, M R; Ishii, K; Jawahery, A; Jeffreys, P W; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Joly, A; Jones, C R; Jones, G; Jones, M; Jost, U; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kirk, J; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lahmann, R; Lai, W P; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markus, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mincer, A; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Morii, M; Müller, U; Mihara, S; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oh, A; Oldershaw, N J; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pearce, M J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Posthaus, A; Rees, D L; Rigby, D; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Rooke, A M; Ros, E; Rossi, A M; Routenburg, P; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Ruppel, U; Rust, D R; Rylko, R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schenk, P; Schieck, J; Schleper, P; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skillman, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Springer, R W; Sproston, M; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stockhausen, B; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Szymanski, P; Tafirout, R; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Utzat, P; Van Kooten, R; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Vokurka, E H; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilkens, B; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D
1999-01-01
Gluon jets are identified in e+e- hadronic annihilation events by tagging two quark jets in the same hemisphere of an event. The gluon jet is defined inclusively as all the particles in the opposite hemisphere. Gluon jets defined in this manner have a close correspondence to gluon jets as they are defined for analytic calculations, and are almost independent of a jet finding algorithm. The charged particle multiplicity distribution of the gluon jets is presented, and is analyzed for its mean, dispersion, skew, and curtosis values, and for its factorial and cumulant moments. The results are compared to the analogous results found for a sample of light quark (uds) jets, also defined inclusively. We observe differences between the mean, skew and curtosis values of gluon and quark jets, but not between their dispersions. The cumulant moment results are compared to the predictions of QCD analytic calculations. A calculation which includes next-to-next-to-leading order corrections and energy conservation is observe...
Gluon structure function of a color dipole in the light-cone limit of lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gruenewald, D.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Pirner, H. J.
2009-01-01
We calculate the gluon structure function of a color dipole in near-light-cone SU(2) lattice QCD as a function of x B . The quark and antiquark are external nondynamical degrees of freedom which act as sources of the gluon string configuration defining the dipole. We compute the color dipole matrix element of transversal chromo-electric and chromo-magnetic field operators separated along a direction close to the light cone, the Fourier transform of which is the gluon structure function. As vacuum state in the pure glue sector, we use a variational ground state of the near-light-cone Hamiltonian. We derive a recursion relation for the gluon structure function on the lattice similar to the perturbative Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi equation. It depends on the number of transversal links assembling the Schwinger string of the dipole. Fixing the mean momentum fraction of the gluons to the 'experimental value' in a proton, we compare our gluon structure function for a dipole state with four links with the next-to-leading-order MRST 2002 and the CTEQ AB-0 parametrizations at Q 2 =1.5 GeV 2 . Within the systematic uncertainty we find rather good agreement. We also discuss the low x B behavior of the gluon structure function in our model calculation.
Gluons and the Quark Sea at High Energies: Distributions, Polarization, Tomography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boer, Daniel; /Groningen U.; Diehl, Markus; /DESY; Milner, Richard; /MIT; Venugopalan, Raju; /Brookhaven; Vogelsang, Werner; /Tubingen U.; Kaplan, David; /Washington U., Seattle; Montgomery, Hugh; /Jefferson Lab; Vigdor, Steven; /Brookhaven; Accardi, A.; /Jefferson Lab; Aschenauer, E.C.; /Brookhaven; Burkardt, M.; /New Mexico State U.; Ent, R.; /Jefferson Lab; Guzey, V.; /Jefferson Lab; Hasch, D.; /Frascati; Kumar, K.; /Massachusetts U., Amherst; Lamont, M.A.C.; /Brookhaven; Li, Ying-chuan; /Brookhaven; Marciano, W.; /Brookhaven; Marquet, C.; /CERN; Sabatie, F.; /IRFU, SPhN, Saclay; Stratmann, M.; /Brookhaven /LBL, Berkeley /Buenos Aires U. /Antwerp U. /Pelotas U. /Moncton U. /Santa Maria U., Valparaiso /CCTVal, Valparaiso /Hefei, CUST /Shandong U., Weihai /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb /Zagreb U., Phys. Dept. /Jyvaskyla U. /Orsay, LPT /Paris U., VI-VII /Ecole Polytechnique, CPHT /IRFU, SPhN, Saclay /Saclay, SPhT /Ruhr U., Bochum /Giessen U. /DESY /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II /Heidelberg U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Regensburg U. /Tubingen U. /Wuppertal U. /DESY /Cagliari U. /INFN, Cagliari /Frascati /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; /more authors..
2012-06-07
This report on the science case for an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) is the result of a ten-week program at the Institute for Nuclear Theory (INT) in Seattle (from September 13-November 19, 2010), motivated by the need to develop a strong case for the continued study of the QCD description of hadron structure in the coming decades. Hadron structure in the valence quark region will be studied extensively with the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV science program, the subject of an INT program the previous year. The focus of the INT program was on understanding the role of gluons and sea quarks, the important dynamical degrees of freedom describing hadron structure at high energies. Experimentally, the most direct and precise way to access the dynamical structure of hadrons and nuclei at high energies is with a high luminosity lepton probe in collider mode. An EIC with optimized detectors offers enormous potential as the next generation accelerator to address many of the most important, open questions about the fundamental structure of matter. The goal of the INT program, as captured in the writeups in this report, was to articulate these questions and to identify golden experiments that have the greatest potential to provide definitive answers to these questions. At resolution scales where quarks and gluons become manifest as degrees of freedom, the structure of the nucleon and of nuclei is intimately connected with unique features of QCD dynamics, such as confinement and the self-coupling of gluons. Information on hadron sub-structure in DIS is obtained in the form of 'snapshots' by the 'lepton microscope' of the dynamical many-body hadron system, over different momentum resolutions and energy scales. These femtoscopic snapshots, at the simplest level, provide distribution functions which are extracted over the largest accessible kinematic range to assemble fundamental dynamical insight into hadron and nuclear sub-structure. For the proton, the EIC would be
Cross-channel analysis of quark and gluon generalized parton distributions with helicity flip
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pire, B.; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, K.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.
2014-01-01
Quark and gluon helicity flip generalized parton distributions (GPDs) address the transversity quark and gluon structure of the nucleon. In order to construct a theoretically consistent parametrization of these hadronic matrix elements, we work out the set of combinations of those GPDs suitable for the SO(3) partial wave (PW) expansion in the cross-channel. This universal result will help to build up a flexible parametrization of these important hadronic non-perturbative quantities, using, for instance, the approaches based on the conformal PW expansion of GPDs such as the Mellin-Barnes integral or the dual parametrization techniques. (orig.)
Cross-channel analysis of quark and gluon generalized parton distributions with helicity flip
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pire, B. [CNRS, CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Semenov-Tian-Shansky, K. [Universite de Liege, IFPA, Departement AGO, Liege (Belgium); Szymanowski, L. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S. [Universite de Paris-Sud, CNRS, LPT, Orsay (France); Universite Paris 06, Faculte de Physique, UPMC, Paris (France)
2014-05-15
Quark and gluon helicity flip generalized parton distributions (GPDs) address the transversity quark and gluon structure of the nucleon. In order to construct a theoretically consistent parametrization of these hadronic matrix elements, we work out the set of combinations of those GPDs suitable for the SO(3) partial wave (PW) expansion in the cross-channel. This universal result will help to build up a flexible parametrization of these important hadronic non-perturbative quantities, using, for instance, the approaches based on the conformal PW expansion of GPDs such as the Mellin-Barnes integral or the dual parametrization techniques. (orig.)
Pinning down the large-x gluon with NNLO top-quark pair differential distributions
Czakon, Michał; Hartland, Nathan P.; Mitov, Alexander; Nocera, Emanuele R.; Rojo, Juan
2016-01-01
Top-quark pair production at the LHC is directly sensitive to the gluon PDF at large x. While total cross-section data is already included in several PDF determinations, differential distributions are not, because the corresponding NNLO calculations have become available only recently. In this work
Muoproduction of J/ψ-mesons and the gluon distribution in nucleons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jong, Maarten de.
1991-01-01
The cross sections for production of J/ψ-mesons in muon-scattering at hydrogen and deuterium have been measured at a muon-energy of 280 GeV in order to extract from these the momentum distribution of gluons in the nucleon. These cross sections turned out to be equal for protons and neutrons within the experimental error. In the framework of the colour singlet model the gluon distribution has been determined from the cross section for the inelastic production of J/ψ mesons. At small gluon impulses the distribution obtained resembles a brems-strahlung spectrum. This distribution decreases, according to a simple description (counting rules) at larger impulses. The same model however underestimates the cross section for elastic production of J/ψ-mesons seriously. It is found that in inelastic production of J/ψ-mesons both helicities of the meson occur equally. Also a correlation has been observed between the scattering plane and the plane in which the J/ψ meson decays. The production of J/ψ-mesons and ψ'-mesons has been investigated in muon scattering at concrete at the same incoming energy. The measured ratio of their cross sections agrees with the colour singlet model but disagrees with the simplified description which characterizes the 'photon-gluon fusion model'. The possible nuclear-mass dependence of the cross section for J/ψ-meson production has been investigated in interactions of muons with tin and carbon at an energy of 280 GeV. This possible dependence turns out to be absent which means that on the basis of the colour singlet model the distributions of the gluons in the nucleon are equal in tin and carbon. (author). 103 refs.; 60 figs.; 19 tabs
Pinning down the large-x gluon with NNLO top-quark pair differential distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Czakon, Michał; Hartland, Nathan P.; Mitov, Alexander; Nocera, Emanuele R.; Rojo, Juan
2017-01-01
Top-quark pair production at the LHC is directly sensitive to the gluon PDF at large x. While total cross-section data is already included in several PDF determinations, differential distributions are not, because the corresponding NNLO calculations have become available only recently. In this work we study the impact on the large-x gluon of top-quark pair differential distributions measured by ATLAS and CMS at √s=8 TeV. Our analysis, performed in the NNPDF3.0 framework at NNLO accuracy, allows us to identify the optimal combination of LHC top-quark pair measurements that maximize the constraints on the gluon, as well as to assess the compatibility between ATLAS and CMS data. We find that differential distributions from top-quark pair production provide significant constraints on the large-x gluon, comparable to those obtained from inclusive jet production data, and thus should become an important ingredient for the next generation of global PDF fits.
Pinning down the large-x gluon with NNLO top-quark pair differential distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Czakon, Michał [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University,D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Hartland, Nathan P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, VU University Amsterdam,De Boelelaan 1081, NL-1081, HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nikhef,Science Park 105, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mitov, Alexander [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge,Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Nocera, Emanuele R. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, OX1 3NP, Oxford (United Kingdom); Rojo, Juan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, VU University Amsterdam,De Boelelaan 1081, NL-1081, HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nikhef,Science Park 105, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2017-04-10
Top-quark pair production at the LHC is directly sensitive to the gluon PDF at large x. While total cross-section data is already included in several PDF determinations, differential distributions are not, because the corresponding NNLO calculations have become available only recently. In this work we study the impact on the large-x gluon of top-quark pair differential distributions measured by ATLAS and CMS at √s=8 TeV. Our analysis, performed in the NNPDF3.0 framework at NNLO accuracy, allows us to identify the optimal combination of LHC top-quark pair measurements that maximize the constraints on the gluon, as well as to assess the compatibility between ATLAS and CMS data. We find that differential distributions from top-quark pair production provide significant constraints on the large-x gluon, comparable to those obtained from inclusive jet production data, and thus should become an important ingredient for the next generation of global PDF fits.
Heavy-quark hadroproduction in kT-factorization approach with unintegrated gluon distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shabelski, Yu.M.; Shuvaev, A.G.
2006-01-01
The processes of heavy-quark production using the unintegrated gluon distributions are considered. The numerical predictions for high-energy nucleon-nucleon and photon-nucleon collisions of the k T -factorization approach (semihard theory) are compared with the experimental data from Tevatron collider and HERA. The total production cross sections and p T distributions are considered and they are in reasonable agreement with the data for reasonable values of QCD scale [ru
Resummation of soft gluon logarithms in the DGLAP evolution of fragmentation functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albino, S.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kramer, G.; Ochs, W.
2005-10-01
We define a general scheme for the evolution of fragmentation functions which resums both soft gluon logarithms and mass singularities in a consistent manner and to any order, and requires no additional theoretical assumptions. Using the Double Logarithmic Approximation and the known perturbative results for the splitting functions, we present our scheme with the complete contribution from the double logarithms, being the largest soft gluon logarithms. We show that the resulting approximation is more complete than the Modified Leading Logarithm Approximation even with the fixed order contribution calculated to leading order only, and find, after using it to fit quark and gluon fragmentation functions to experimental data, that this approximation in our scheme gives a good description of the data from the largest χ p values to the peak region in ξ=ln(1/χ p ), in contrast to other approximations. In addition, we develop a treatment of hadron mass effects which gives additional improvements at large ξ. (orig.)
The role of three-gluon correlation functions in the single spin asymmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beppu Hiroo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We study the twist-3 three-gluon contribution to the single spin asymmetry in the light-hadron production in pp collision in the framework of the collinear factorization. We derive the corresponding cross section formula in the leading order with respect to the QCD coupling constant. We also present a numerical calculation of the asymmetry at the RHIC energy, using a model for the three-gluon correlation functions suggested by the asymmetry for the D-meson production at RHIC. We found that the asymmetries for the light-hadron and the jet productions are very useful to constrain the magnitude and form of the correlation functions. Since the three-gluon correlation functions shift the asymmetry for all kinds of hadrons in the same direction, it is unlikely that they become a main source of the asymmetry.
Gluon field strength correlation functions within a constrained instanton model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorokhov, A.E.; Esaibegyan, S.V.; Maximov, A.E.; Mikhailov, S.V.
2000-01-01
We suggest a constrained instanton (CI) solution in the physical QCD vacuum which is described by large-scale vacuum field fluctuations. This solution decays exponentially at large distances. It is stable only if the interaction of the instanton with the background vacuum field is small and additional constraints are introduced. The CI solution is explicitly constructed in the ansatz form, and the two-point vacuum correlator of the gluon field strengths is calculated in the framework of the effective instanton vacuum model. At small distances the results are qualitatively similar to the single instanton case; in particular, the D 1 invariant structure is small, which is in agreement with the lattice calculations. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koller, K.; Krasemann, H.
1979-08-01
We investigate the Dalitz plot population and thrust angular distribution for the Orthoquarkonium decay Q anti Q → 3 scalar gluons. The Dalitz plot for scalar gluons is populated in corners where events are 2 jet like and this disagrees with existing Upsilon data. The scalar gluon thrust angular distribution is also in striking disagreement with the UPSILON data and so scalar gluons are completely ruled out. (orig.)
Gluon and ghost correlation functions of 2-color QCD at finite density
Hajizadeh, Ouraman; Boz, Tamer; Maas, Axel; Skullerud, Jon-Ivar
2018-03-01
2-color QCD, i. e. QCD with the gauge group SU(2), is the simplest non-Abelian gauge theory without sign problem at finite quark density. Therefore its study on the lattice is a benchmark for other non-perturbative approaches at finite density. To provide such benchmarks we determine the minimal-Landau-gauge 2-point and 3-gluon correlation functions of the gauge sector and the running gauge coupling at finite density. We observe no significant effects, except for some low-momentum screening of the gluons at and above the supposed high-density phase transition.
Soft gluon resummation of Drell-Yan rapidity distributions: Theory and phenomenology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonvini, Marco; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni
2011-01-01
We examine critically the theoretical underpinnings and phenomenological implications of soft gluon (threshold) resummation of rapidity distributions at a hadron collider, taking Drell-Yan production at the Tevatron and the LHC as a reference test case. First, we show that in perturbative QCD soft gluon resummation is necessary whenever the partonic (rather the hadronic) center-of-mass energy is close enough to threshold, and we provide tools to assess when resummation is relevant for a given process. Then, we compare different prescriptions for handling the divergent nature of the series of resummed perturbative corrections, specifically the minimal and Borel prescriptions. We assess the intrinsic ambiguities of resummed results, both due to the asymptotic nature of their perturbative expansion, and to the treatment of subleading terms. Turning to phenomenology, we introduce a fast and accurate method for the implementation of resummation with the minimal and Borel prescriptions using an expansion on a basis of Chebyshev polynomials. We then present results for W and Z production as well as both high- and low-mass dilepton pairs at the LHC, and show that soft gluon resummation effects are generally comparable in size to NNLO corrections, but sometimes affected by substantial ambiguities.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kanki, T [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Coll. of General Education
1976-12-01
We present a quark-gluon-parton model in which quark-partons and gluons make clusters corresponding to two or three constituent quarks (or anti-quarks) in the meson or in the baryon, respectively. We explicitly construct the constituent quark state (cluster), by employing the Kuti-Weisskopf theory and by requiring the scaling. The quark additivity of the hadronic total cross sections and the quark counting rules on the threshold powers of various distributions are satisfied. For small x (Feynman fraction), it is shown that the constituent quarks and quark-partons have quite different probability distributions. We apply our model to hadron-hadron inclusive reactions, and clarify that the fragmentation and the diffractive processes relate to the constituent quark distributions, while the processes in or near the central region are controlled by the quark-partons. Our model gives the reasonable interpretation for the experimental data and much improves the usual ''constituent interchange model'' result near and in the central region (x asymptotically equals x sub(T) asymptotically equals 0).
Rapidity distribution of photons from an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharya, Lusaka; Roy, Pradip
2010-01-01
We calculate rapidity distribution of photons due to Compton and annihilation processes from quark gluon plasma with pre-equilibrium momentum-space anisotropy. We also include contributions from hadronic matter with late-stage transverse expansion. A phenomenological model has been used for the time evolution of hard momentum scale, p hard (τ), and anisotropy parameter, ξ(τ). As a result of pre-equilibrium momentum-space anisotropy, we find significant modification of photons rapidity distribution. For example, with the fixed initial condition (FIC) free-streaming (δ=2) interpolating model we observe significant enhancement of photon rapidity distribution at fixed p T , where as for FIC collisionally broadened (δ=2/3) interpolating model the yield increases till y∼1. Beyond that suppression is observed. With fixed final multiplicity (FFM) free-streaming interpolating model we predict enhancement of photon yield which is less than the case of FIC. Suppression is always observed for FFM collisionally broadened interpolating model.
Baryon scattering at high energies. Wave function, impact factor, and gluon radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartels, J.; Motyka, L.; Jagellonian Univ., Krakow
2007-11-01
The scattering of a baryon consisting of three massive quarks is investigated in the high energy limit of perturbative QCD. A model of a relativistic proton-like wave function, dependent on valence quark longitudinal and transverse momenta and on quark helicities, is proposed, and we derive the baryon impact factors for two, three and four t-channel gluons. We find that the baryonic impact factor can be written as a sum of three pieces: in the first one a subsystem consisting of two of the three quarks behaves very much like the quark-antiquark pair in γ * scattering, whereas the third quark acts as a spectator. The second term belongs to the odderon, whereas in the third (C-even) piece all three quarks participate in the scattering. This term is new and has no analogue in γ * scattering. We also study the small x evolution of gluon radiation for each of these three terms. The first term follows the same pattern of gluon radiation as the γ * -initiated quark-antiquark dipole, and, in particular, it contains the BFKL evolution followed by the 2→4 transition vertex (triple Pomeron vertex). The odderon-term is described by the standard BKP evolution, and the baryon couples to both known odderon solutions, the Janik-Wosiek solution and the BLV solution. Finally, the t-channel evolution of the third term starts with a three reggeized gluon state which then, via a new 3→4 transition vertex, couples to the four gluon (two-Pomeron) state. We briefly discuss a few consequences of these findings, in particular the pattern of unitarization of high energy baryon scattering amplitudes. (orig.)
Baryon scattering at high energies. Wave function, impact factor, and gluon radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bartels, J. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Motyka, L. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Jagellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Physics
2007-11-15
The scattering of a baryon consisting of three massive quarks is investigated in the high energy limit of perturbative QCD. A model of a relativistic proton-like wave function, dependent on valence quark longitudinal and transverse momenta and on quark helicities, is proposed, and we derive the baryon impact factors for two, three and four t-channel gluons. We find that the baryonic impact factor can be written as a sum of three pieces: in the first one a subsystem consisting of two of the three quarks behaves very much like the quark-antiquark pair in {gamma}{sup *} scattering, whereas the third quark acts as a spectator. The second term belongs to the odderon, whereas in the third (C-even) piece all three quarks participate in the scattering. This term is new and has no analogue in {gamma}{sup *} scattering. We also study the small x evolution of gluon radiation for each of these three terms. The first term follows the same pattern of gluon radiation as the {gamma}{sup *}-initiated quark-antiquark dipole, and, in particular, it contains the BFKL evolution followed by the 2{yields}4 transition vertex (triple Pomeron vertex). The odderon-term is described by the standard BKP evolution, and the baryon couples to both known odderon solutions, the Janik-Wosiek solution and the BLV solution. Finally, the t-channel evolution of the third term starts with a three reggeized gluon state which then, via a new 3{yields}4 transition vertex, couples to the four gluon (two-Pomeron) state. We briefly discuss a few consequences of these findings, in particular the pattern of unitarization of high energy baryon scattering amplitudes. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jamil, U.; Sarma, J.K.
2011-01-01
Evolution of gluon structure function from Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) evolution equations upto next-to-leading order at low-x is presented assuming the Regge behaviour of structure functions. We compare our results of gluon structure function with GRV 98 global parameterization and show the compatibility of Regge behaviour of structure functions with PQCD. (author)
The four-loop six-gluon NMHV ratio function
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Dixon, Lance J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Stanford, CA (United States); California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); von Hippel, Matt [Perimeter Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); McLeod, Andrew J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Stanford, CA (United States)
2016-01-11
We use the hexagon function bootstrap to compute the ratio function which characterizes the next-to-maximally-helicity-violating (NMHV) six-point amplitude in planar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory at four loops. A powerful constraint comes from dual superconformal invariance, in the form of a Q^{-} differential equation, which heavily constrains the first derivatives of the transcendental functions entering the ratio function. At four loops, it leaves only a 34-parameter space of functions. Constraints from the collinear limits, and from the multi-Regge limit at the leading-logarithmic (LL) and next-to-leading-logarithmic (NLL) order, suffice to fix these parameters and obtain a unique result. We test the result against multi- Regge predictions at NNLL and N^{3}LL, and against predictions from the operator product expansion involving one and two flux-tube excitations; all cross-checks are satisfied. We also study the analytical and numerical behavior of the parity-even and parity-odd parts on various lines and surfaces traversing the three-dimensional space of cross ratios. As part of this program, we characterize all irreducible hexagon functions through weight eight in terms of their coproduct. Furthermore, we provide representations of the ratio function in particular kinematic regions in terms of multiple polylogarithms.
The four-loop six-gluon NMHV ratio function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dixon, Lance J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hippel, Matt von [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); McLeod, Andrew J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94309 (United States)
2016-01-11
We use the hexagon function bootstrap to compute the ratio function which characterizes the next-to-maximally-helicity-violating (NMHV) six-point amplitude in planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory at four loops. A powerful constraint comes from dual superconformal invariance, in the form of a Q̄ differential equation, which heavily constrains the first derivatives of the transcendental functions entering the ratio function. At four loops, it leaves only a 34-parameter space of functions. Constraints from the collinear limits, and from the multi-Regge limit at the leading-logarithmic (LL) and next-to-leading-logarithmic (NLL) order, suffice to fix these parameters and obtain a unique result. We test the result against multi-Regge predictions at NNLL and N{sup 3}LL, and against predictions from the operator product expansion involving one and two flux-tube excitations; all cross-checks are satisfied. We study the analytical and numerical behavior of the parity-even and parity-odd parts on various lines and surfaces traversing the three-dimensional space of cross ratios. As part of this program, we characterize all irreducible hexagon functions through weight eight in terms of their coproduct. We also provide representations of the ratio function in particular kinematic regions in terms of multiple polylogarithms.
The Higgs transverse momentum distribution in gluon fusion as multiscale problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagnaschi, E.; Vicini, A.
2015-05-01
We consider Higgs production in gluon fusion and in particular the prediction of the Higgs transverse momentum distribution. We discuss the ambiguities affecting the matching procedure between fixed order matrix elements and the resummation to all orders of the terms enhanced by log(p H T /m H ) factors. Following a recent proposal (Grazzini et al., hep-ph/1306.4581), we argue that the gluon fusion process, computed considering two active quark flavors, is a multiscale problem from the point of view of the resummation of the collinear singular terms. We perform an analysis at parton level of the collinear behavior of the real emission amplitudes and we derive an upper limit to the range of transverse momenta where the collinear approximation is valid. This scale is then used as the value of the resummation scale in the analytic resummation framework or as the value of the h parameter in the POWHEG-BOX code. Finally, we provide a phenomenological analysis in the Standard Model, in the Two Higgs Doublet Model and in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. In the two latter cases, we provide an ansatz for the central value of the matching parameters not only for a Standard Model-like Higgs boson, but also for heavy scalars and in scenarios where the bottom quark may play the dominant role.
The gluon Green's function in the BFKL approach at next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersen, Jeppe R.; Sabio Vera, Agustin
2004-01-01
We investigate the gluon Green's function in the high energy limit of QCD using a recently proposed iterative solution of the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) equation at next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) accuracy. To establish the applicability of this method in the NLL approximation we solve the BFKL equation as originally written by Fadin and Lipatov, and compare the results with previous studies in the leading logarithmic (LL) approximation
Unintegrated gluon distributions in D*± and dijet associated photoproduction at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipatov, A.V.; Zotov, N.P.
2006-01-01
We consider the photoproduction of D *± mesons associated with two hadron jets at HERA collider in the framework of the k T -factorization approach. The unintegrated gluon densities in a proton are obtained from the full CCFM, from unified BFKL-DGLAP evolution equations as well as from the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. Resolved photon contributions are reproduced by the initial-state gluon radiation. We investigate different production rates and make a comparison with the recent experimental data taken by the ZEUS collaboration. Special attention is given to the specific dijet correlations which can provide unique information about non-collinear gluon evolution dynamics. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiler, T.
1981-01-01
An overview is presented of the attributes of gluons, deducible from experimental data. Particular attention is given to the photon-gluon fusion model of charm leptoproduction. The agreement with QCD and theoretical prejudice is qualitatively good
Modelling the gluon propagator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leinweber, D.B.; Parrinello, C.; Skullerud, J.I.; Williams, A.G
1999-03-01
Scaling of the Landau gauge gluon propagator calculated at {beta} = 6.0 and at {beta} = 6.2 is demonstrated. A variety of functional forms for the gluon propagator calculated on a large (32{sup 3} x 64) lattice at {beta} = 6.0 are investigated.
Gluon saturation in a saturated environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan
2011-01-01
A bootstrap equation for self-quenched gluon shadowing leads to a reduced magnitude of broadening for partons propagating through a nucleus. Saturation of small-x gluons in a nucleus, which has the form of transverse momentum broadening of projectile gluons in pA collisions in the nuclear rest frame, leads to a modification of the parton distribution functions in the beam compared with pp collisions. In nucleus-nucleus collisions all participating nucleons acquire enhanced gluon density at small x, which boosts further the saturation scale. Solution of the reciprocity equations for central collisions of two heavy nuclei demonstrate a significant, up to several times, enhancement of Q sA 2 , in AA compared with pA collisions.
Gluons and the quark sea at high energies : distributions, polarization, tomography
Boer, D.; Diehl, M.; Milner, R.; Venugopalan, R.; Vogelsang, W.; Accardi, A.; Aschenauer, E.; Burkardt, M.; Ent, R.; Guzey, V.; Hasch, D.; Kumar, K.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Li, Y.; Marciano, W. J.; Marquet, C.; Sabatie, F.; Stratmann, M.; Yuan, F.; Abeyratne, S.; Ahmed, S.; Aidala, C.; Alekhin, S.; Anselmino, M.; Avakian, H.; Bacchetta, A.; Bartels, J.; H., BC; Beebe-Wang, J.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Beuf, G.; Blumlein, J.; Blaskiewicz, M .; Bogacz, A.; Brodsky, S. J.; Burton, T.; Calaga, R.; Chang, X.; Cherednikov, I. O.; Chevtsov, P.; Chirilli, G. A.; Atti, C. Ciofi degli; Cloet, I. C.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.; Debbe, R.; Derbenev, Ya; Deshpande, A.; Dominguez, F.; Dumitru, A.; Dupre, R.; Erdelyi, B.; Faroughy, C.; Fazio, S.; Fedotov, A.; Forshaw, J. R.; Geraud, R.; Gallmeister, K.; Gamberg, L.; Gao, J. -H.; Gassner, D.; Gelis, F.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Goldstein, G.; Golec-Biernat, K.; Goncalves, V. P.; Gonderinger, M.; Guzzi, M.; Hagler, P.; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.; Hao, Y.; He, P.; Horn, T.; Horowitz, W. A.; Huang, M.; Hutton, A.; Jager, B.; Jackson, W.; Jain, A.; Johnson, E. C.; Kang, Z. -B.; Kaptari, L. P.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Koike, Y.; Kondratenko, A.; Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Kovchegov, Y. V.; Krafft, G.; Kroll, P.; Kumano, S.; Kumericki, K.; Lappi, T.; Lautenschlager, T.; Li, R.; Liang, Z. -T.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Liuti, S.; Luo, Y.; Muller, D.; Mahler, G.; Majumder, A.; Manikonda, S.; Marhauser, F.; McIntyre, G.; Meskauskas, M.; Meng, W.; Metz, A.; Mezzetti, C. B.; Miller, G. A.; Minty, M.; Moch, S. -O.; Morozov, V.; Mosel, U.; Motyka, L.; Moutarde, H.; Mulders, P. J.; Musch, B.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nadolsky, P.; Olness, F.; Ostrumov, P. N.; Parker, B.; Pasquini, B.; Passek-Kumericki, K.; Pikin, A.; Pilat, F.; Pire, B.; Pirner, H.; Pisano, C.; Pozdeyev, E.; Prokudin, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Qian, X.; Qiu, J. -W.; Radici, M.; Radyushkin, A.; Rao, T.; Rimmer, R.; Ringer, F.; Riordan, S.; Rogers, T.; Rojo, J.; Roser, T.; Sandapen, R.; Sassot, R.; Satogata, T.; Sayed, H.; Schafer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schweitzer, P.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Soyez, G.; Spata, M.; Spiesberger, H.; Stasto, A. M.; Stefanis, N. G.; Strikman, M.; Sullivan, M.; Szymanowski, L.; Tanaka, K.; Taneja, S.; Tepikian, S.; Terzic, B.; Than, Y.; Toll, T.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsentalovich, E.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuchin, K.; Tuozzolo, J.; Ullrich, T.; Vossen, A.; Wallon, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, X. -N.; Webb, S.; Weiss, C.; Wu, Q.; Xiao, B. -W.; Xu, W.; Yunn, B.; Zelenski, A.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; Zurita, P.
2011-01-01
This report is based on a ten-week program on "Gluons and the quark sea at high-energies", which took place at the Institute for Nuclear Theory in Seattle in Fall 2010. The principal aim of the program was to develop and sharpen the science case for an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), a facility that
Are the gluon distributions different in π- and K-mesons?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batunin, A.V.; Likhoded, A.K.; Kiselev, V.V.
1988-01-01
The experimental data an excess of D-meson production in K - -beam as compared with π - one (NA32 collaboration) is discussed. Such a situation is shown to be possible at larger total number of gluons in K-meson only. However, this is in a disagreemtn with other charm production experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmieden, Kristof
2013-04-01
The measurement of the effective weak mixing angle with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is presented. It is extracted from the forward-backward asymmetry in the polar angle distribution of the muons originating from Z boson decays in the reaction pp→Z/γ * +X→ μ + μ - +X. In total 4.7 fb -1 of proton-proton collisions at √(s)=7 TeV are analysed. In addition, the full polar and azimuthal angular distributions are measured as a function of the transverse momentum of the Z/γ * system and are compared to several simulations as well as recent results obtained in p anti p collisions. Finally, the angular distributions are used to confirm the spin of the gluon using the Lam-Tung relation.
Charmonia enhancement in quark-gluon plasma with improved description of c-quarks phase distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gossiaux, Pol Bernard; Guiho, Vincent; Aichelin, Joerg
2005-01-01
We present a dynamical model of heavy quark evolution in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) based on the Fokker-Planck equation. We then apply this model to the case of central ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions performed at RHIC and estimate the component of J/ψ production (integrated and differential) stemming from c-c-bar pairs that are initially uncorrelated
Finite-temperature gluon spectral functions from N{sub f} = 2+1+1 lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ilgenfritz, Ernst-Michael; Trunin, Anton [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Pawlowski, Jan M. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Rothkopf, Alexander [Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg (Germany)
2018-02-15
We investigate gluon correlation functions and spectral functions at finite temperature in Landau gauge on lattice QCD ensembles with N{sub f} = 2+1+1 dynamical twisted-mass quarks flavors, generated by the tmfT collaboration. They cover a temperature range from 0.8 ≤ T/T{sub C} ≤ 4 using the fixed-scale approach. Our study of spectral properties is based on a novel Bayesian approach for the extraction of non-positive-definite spectral functions. For each binned spatial momentum we take into account the gluon correlation functions at all available discrete imaginary frequencies. Clear indications for the existence of a well defined quasi-particle peak are obtained. Due to a relatively small number of imaginary frequencies available, we focus on the momentum and temperature dependence of the position of this spectral feature. The corresponding dispersion relation reveals different in-medium masses for longitudinal and transversal gluons at high temperatures, qualitatively consistent with weak coupling expectations. (orig.)
Phenomenology of gluon TMDs at NNLL
Garcia, M.
2015-01-01
All the leading-Twist (un)polarized gluon transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions have the same evolution, once they are properly defined in order to cancel spurious rapidity divergences. Currently known perturbative ingredients can be used to resum large logarithms up to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelis, Francois
1998-12-01
The general framework of this work is thermal field theory, and more precisely the perturbative calculation of thermal Green's functions. In a first part, I consider the problems closely related to the formalism itself. After two introductory chapters devoted to set up the framework and the notations used afterwards, a chapter is dedicated to a clarification of certain aspects of the justification of the Feynman rules of the real time formalism. Then, I consider in the chapter 4 the problem of cutting rules in the real time formalisms. In particular, after solving a controversy on this subject, I generalize these cutting rules to the 'retarded-advanced' version of this formalism. Finally, the last problem considered in this part is that of the pion decay into two photons in a thermal bath. I show that the discrepancies found in the literature are due to peculiarities of the analytical properties of the thermal Green's functions. The second part deals with the calculations of the photons or dilepton (virtual photon) production rate by a quark gluon plasma. The framework of this study is the effective theory based on the resummation of hard thermal loops. The first aspects of this study is related to the production of virtual photons, where we show that important contributions arise at two loops, completing the result already known at one loop. In the case of real photon production, we show that extremely strong collinear singularities make two loop contributions dominant compared to one loop ones. In both cases, the importance of two loop contributions can be interpreted as weaknesses of the hard thermal loop approximation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bu Yanyan; Yang Jinmin
2011-01-01
Motivated by recent studies of deep inelastic scattering off the N=4 super-Yang-Mills (SYM) plasma, holographically dual to an AdS 5 xS 5 black hole, we use the spacelike flavor current to probe the internal structure of one holographic quark-gluon plasma, which is described by the Sakai-Sugimoto model at high temperature phase (i.e., the chiral-symmetric phase). The plasma structure function is extracted from the retarded flavor current-current correlator. Our main aim in this paper is to explore the effect of nonconformality on these physical quantities. As usual, our study is under the supergravity approximation and the limit of large color number. Although the Sakai-Sugimoto model is nonconformal, which makes the calculations more involved than the well-studied N=4 SYM case, the result seems to indicate that the nonconformality has little essential effect on the physical picture of the internal structure of holographic plasma, which is consistent with the intuition from the asymptotic freedom of QCD at high energy. While the physical picture underlying our investigation is same as the deep inelastic scattering off the N=4 SYM plasma with(out) flavor, the plasma structure functions are quantitatively different, especially their scaling dependence on the temperature, which can be recognized as model dependent. As a comparison, we also do the same analysis for the noncritical version of the Sakai-Sugimoto model which is conformal in the sense that it has a constant dilaton vacuum. The result for this noncritical model is quite similar to the conformal N=4 SYM plasma. We therefore attribute the above difference to the effect of nonconformality of the Sakai-Sugimoto model.
ATLAS, Collaboration
2013-01-01
Expected distributions of the test statistics q=log(L(0^+)/L(2^+)) for the spin-0 and spin-2 (produced by gluon fusion) hypotheses. The observed value is indicated by a vertical line. The coloured areas correspond to the integrals of the expected distributions used to compute the p-values for the rejection of each hypothesis.
Inclusive gluon production in deep inelastic scattering at high parton density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Tuchin, Kirill
2002-01-01
We calculate the cross section of single inclusive gluon production in deep inelastic scattering at very high energies in the saturation regime, where the parton densities inside hadrons and nuclei are large and the evolution of structure functions with energy is nonlinear. The expression we obtain for the inclusive gluon production cross section is generated by this nonlinear evolution. We analyze the rapidity distribution of the produced gluons as well as their transverse momentum spectrum given by the derived expression for the inclusive cross section. We propose an ansatz for the multiplicity distribution of gluons produced in nuclear collisions which includes the effects of nonlinear evolution in both colliding nuclei
On the zero-crossing of the three-gluon Green's function from lattice simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Athenodorou, Andreas [Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus; Boucaud, Philippe [Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); de Soto, Feliciano [Univ. Pablo de Olavide, 41013 Sevilla; Spain; Univ. of Granada (Spain); Rodriguez-Quintero, Jose [Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva; Spain; Univ. of Granada (Spain); Zafeiropoulos, Savvas [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Theoretische Physik
2018-04-01
We report on some efforts recently made in order to gain a better understanding of some IR properties of the 3-point gluon Green’s function by exploiting results from large-volume quenched lattice simulations. These lattice results have been obtained by using both tree-level Symanzik and the standard Wilson action, in the aim of assessing the possible impact of effects presumably resulting from a particular choice for the discretization of the action. The main resulting feature is the existence of a negative log-aritmic divergence at zero-momentum, which pulls the 3-gluon form factors down at low momenta and, consequently, yields a zero-crossing at a given deep IR momentum. The results can be correctly explained by analyzing the relevant Dyson-Schwinger equations and appropriate truncation schemes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.P. Gonçalves
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The exclusive vector meson production cross section is one of the most promising observables to probe the high energy regime of the QCD dynamics. In particular, the squared momentum transfer (t distributions are an important source of information about the spatial distribution of the gluons in the hadron and about fluctuations of the color fields. In this paper we complement previous studies on exclusive vector meson photoproduction in hadronic collisions presenting a comprehensive analysis of the t-spectrum measured in exclusive ρ, ϕ and J/Ψ photoproduction in pp and PbPb collisions at the LHC. We compute the differential cross sections taking into account gluon saturation effects and compare the predictions with those obtained in the linear regime of the QCD dynamics. Our results show that gluon saturation suppresses the magnitude of the cross sections and shifts the position of the dips towards smaller values of t.
Phenomenological Evidence for Gluon Depletion in pA Collisions
Hwa, R. C.; Pisut, J.; Pisutova, N.
2000-01-01
The data of J/psi suppression at large x_F in pA collisions are used to infer the existence of gluon depletion as the projectile proton traverses the nucleus. The modification of the gluon distribution is studied by use of a convolution equation whose non-perturbative splitting function is determined phenomenologically. The depletion factor at x_1=0.8 is found to be about 25% at A=100.
Gluons and the quark sea at high energies: distributions, polarization, tomography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boer, D.; Venugopalan, R.; Diehl, M.; Milner, R.; Vogelsang, W.; et al.
2011-09-30
This report is based on a ten-week program on Gluons and the quark sea at high-energies, which took place at the Institute for Nuclear Theory (INT) in Seattle in Fall 2010. The principal aim of the program was to develop and sharpen the science case for an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), a facility that will be able to collide electrons and positrons with polarized protons and with light to heavy nuclei at high energies, offering unprecedented possibilities for in-depth studies of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). This report is organized around the following four major themes: (i) the spin and flavor structure of the proton, (ii) three dimensional structure of nucleons and nuclei in momentum and configuration space, (iii) QCD matter in nuclei, and (iv) Electroweak physics and the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. Beginning with an executive summary, the report contains tables of key measurements, chapter overviews for each of the major scientific themes, and detailed individual contributions on various aspects of the scientific opportunities presented by an EIC.
Gluons and the quark sea at high energies: distributions, polarization, tomography
Boer, D; Milner, Richard; Venugopalan, Raju; Vogelsang, Werner; Kaplan, David; Montgomery, Hugh; Vigdor, Steven; Accardi, A.; Aschenauer, E.C.; Burkardt, M.; Ent, R.; Guzey, V.; Hasch, D.; Kumar, K.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Li, Ying-chuan; Marciano, W.; Marquet, C.; Sabatie, F.; Stratmann, M.; Yuan, F.; Sassot, R.; Zurita, P.; Cherednikov, I.O.; Goncalves, V.P.; Sandapen, R.; Kopeliovich, B.Z.; Gao, J.-H.; Liang, Z.-T.; Passek-Kumericki, K.; Kumericki, K.; Lappi, T.; Wallon, S.; Pire, B.; Geraud, R.; Moutarde, H.; Gelis, F.; Soyez, G.; Meskauskas, M.; Mueller, Dieter; Stefanis, N.G.; Gallmeister, K.; Mosel, U.; Diehl, M.; Bartels, J.; Pirner, H.J.; Hagler, P.; Jager, B.; Spiesberger, H.; Lautenschlager, T.; Schafer, A.; Ringer, F.; Vogelsang, W.; Kroll, P.; Alekhin, S.; Blumlein, J; Moch, S.-O.; Pisano, C.; Rojo, J.; Bacchetta, A.; Pasquini, B.; Radici, M.; Ciofi degli Atti, C.; Mezzetti, C.B.; Kaptari, L.P.; Anselmino, M.; Tanaka, K.; Koike, Y.; Kumano, S.; Motyka, L.; Golec-Biernat, K.; Stasto, A.M.; Golec-Biernat, K.; Szymanowski, L.; Cherednikov, I.O.; Kaptari, L.P.; Radyushkin, A.; Alekhin, S.; Kondratenko, A.; Horowitz, W.A.; Schnell, G.; Chevtsov, P.; Mulders, P.J.; Rogers, T.C.; Boer, D.; Forshaw, J.R.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.; Chirilli, G.A.; Muller, D.; Wang, X.-N.; Yuan, F.; Qian, X.; Brodsky, S.J.; Schweitzer, P.; Horn, T.; Tuchin, K.; Dupre, R.; Erdelyi, B.; Manikonda, S.; Ostrumov, P.N.; Abeyratne, S.; Erdelyi, B.; Vossen, A.; Riordan, S.; Tsentalovich, E.; Goldstein, G.R.; Pozdeyev, E.; Huang, M.; Aidala, C.; Dumitru, A.; Dominguez, F.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Deshpande, A.; Faroughy, C.; Hammons, L.; Hao, Y.; Johnson, E.C.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Taneja, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Webb, S.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Blaskiewicz, M.M.; Calaga, R.; Chang, X.; Fedotov, A.; Gassner, D.; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.; Hao, Y.; He, P.; Jackson, W.; Jain, A.; Johnson, E.C.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Luo, Y.; Mahler, G.; McIntyre, G.; Meng, W.; Minty, M.; Parker, B.; Pikin, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Rao, T.; Roser, T.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Tepikian, S.; Than, Y.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; Webb, S.; Wu, Q.; Xu, W.; Zelenski, A.; Beuf, G.; Burton, T.; Debbe, R.; Fazio, S.; Marciano, W.J.; Qiu, J.-W.; Toll, T.; Ullrich, T.; Deshpande, A.; Dumitru, A.; Kang, Z.-B.; Stasto, A.M.; Yuan, F.; Kovchegov, Y.V.; Majumder, A; Metz, A.; Zhou, J.; Gamberg, L.; Stasto, A.M.; Strikman, M.; Xiao, B.-W.; Guzzi, M.; Nadolsky, P.; Olness, F.; BC, H.; Liuti, S.; Ahmed, S.; Bogacz, A.; Derbenev, Ya.; Hutton, A.; Krafft, G.; Li, R.; Marhauser, F.; Morozov, V.; Pilat, F.; Rimmer, R.; Satogata, T.; Sullivan, M.; Spata, M.; Terzic, B.; Wang, H.; Yunn, B.; Zhang, Y.; Avakian, H.; Musch, B.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Prokudin, A.; Radyushkin, A.; Weiss, C.; Krafft, G.; Radyushkin, A.; Sayed, H.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Cloet, I.C.; Miller, G.; Gonderinger, M.
2011-01-01
This report is based on a ten-week program on "Gluons and the quark sea at high-energies", which took place at the Institute for Nuclear Theory in Seattle in Fall 2010. The principal aim of the program was to develop and sharpen the science case for an Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), a facility that will be able to collide electrons and positrons with polarized protons and with light to heavy nuclei at high energies, offering unprecedented possibilities for in-depth studies of quantum chromodynamics. This report is organized around four major themes: i) the spin and flavor structure of the proton, ii) three-dimensional structure of nucleons and nuclei in momentum and configuration space, iii) QCD matter in nuclei, and iv) Electroweak physics and the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. Beginning with an executive summary, the report contains tables of key measurements, chapter overviews for each of the major scientific themes, and detailed individual contributions on various aspects of the scientific op...
Production and recombination of gluons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Temiraliev, A.T.
2006-01-01
Full text: Nonlinear Markov process of parton production has been considered. The Kolmogorov equation is applied for the evolution equation based on the approximation of independent gluons production in every decay act. We introduced a 'crossing' parameter and used the combination relations to obtain nonlinear recombination equation for the evolution of gluon structure function. (author)
A solution of the DGLAP equation for gluon at low x
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Using (43) we will estimate the logarithmic slope of the structure function from the proposed gluon distribution at several points of expansion and compare with data [19] at. Q2 =20 GeV2 where the data on the slope are available. 3. Results and discussion. In the present paper, we have obtained a new description of gluon ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khadkikar, S.B.; Vinodkumar, P.C.
1987-04-01
Confinement model for gluons using a 'colour super current' is formulated. An attempt has been made to derive a suitable dielectric function corresponding to the current confinement model. A simple inhomogeneous dielectric confinement model for gluons is studied for comparison. The model Hamiltonians are second quantized and the glueball states are constructed. The spurious motion of the centre of confinement is accounted for. The results of the current confinement scheme are found to be in good agreement with the experimental candidates for glueballs. (author). 16 refs, 3 tabs
Regge behaviour of distribution functions and t and x-evolutions of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We also discuss the limitations of Taylor series expansion method used earlier to solve DGLAP evolution .... F s. 2 (x/ω, t). ] , and Af = 36/(33 − 2Nf ). As the gluons are expected to be dominant at low-x, we can neglect the quark contribution to the evolution equation of gluon distribution function and we get the amount of ...
dftools: Distribution function fitting
Obreschkow, Danail
2018-05-01
dftools, written in R, finds the most likely P parameters of a D-dimensional distribution function (DF) generating N objects, where each object is specified by D observables with measurement uncertainties. For instance, if the objects are galaxies, it can fit a mass function (D=1), a mass-size distribution (D=2) or the mass-spin-morphology distribution (D=3). Unlike most common fitting approaches, this method accurately accounts for measurement in uncertainties and complex selection functions.
The gluon structure of hadrons and nuclei from lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shanahan, Phiala A. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
2018-04-01
I discuss recent lattice QCD studies of the gluon structure of hadrons and light nuclei. After very briefly highlighting new determinations of the gluon contributions to the nucleon's momentum and spin, presented by several collaborations over the last year, I describe first calculations of gluon generalised form factors. The generalised transversity gluon distributions are of particular interest since they are purely gluonic; they do not mix with quark distributions at leading twist. In light nuclei they moreover provide a clean signature of non-nucleonic gluon degrees of freedom, and I present the first evidence for such effects, based on lattice QCD calculations. The planned Electron-Ion Collider, designed to access gluon structure quantities, will have the capability to test this prediction, and measure a range of gluon observables including generalised gluon distributions and transverse momentum dependent gluon distributions, within the next decade.
The gluon structure of hadrons and nuclei from lattice QCD
Shanahan, Phiala
2018-03-01
I discuss recent lattice QCD studies of the gluon structure of hadrons and light nuclei. After very briefly highlighting new determinations of the gluon contributions to the nucleon's momentum and spin, presented by several collaborations over the last year, I describe first calculations of gluon generalised form factors. The generalised transversity gluon distributions are of particular interest since they are purely gluonic; they do not mix with quark distributions at leading twist. In light nuclei they moreover provide a clean signature of non-nucleonic gluon degrees of freedom, and I present the first evidence for such effects, based on lattice QCD calculations. The planned Electron-Ion Collider, designed to access gluon structure quantities, will have the capability to test this prediction, and measure a range of gluon observables including generalised gluon distributions and transverse momentum dependent gluon distributions, within the next decade.
Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Ambrogi, Federico; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Flechl, Martin; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Krammer, Natascha; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Madlener, Thomas; Mikulec, Ivan; Rad, Navid; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Spanring, Markus; Spitzbart, Daniel; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Johannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Zarucki, Mateusz; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; De Wolf, Eddi A; Di Croce, Davide; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Pieters, Maxim; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Clercq, Jarne; Deroover, Kevin; Flouris, Giannis; Lontkovskyi, Denys; Lowette, Steven; Marchesini, Ivan; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Beghin, Diego; Bilin, Bugra; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Dorney, Brian; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Lenzi, Thomas; Luetic, Jelena; Postiau, Nicolas; Starling, Elizabeth; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Wang, Qun; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Roskas, Christos; Trocino, Daniele; Tytgat, Michael; Verbeke, Willem; Vermassen, Basile; Vit, Martina; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caputo, Claudio; David, Pieter; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Saggio, Alessia; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Zobec, Joze; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Correia Silva, Gilson; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Coelho, Eduardo; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Melo De Almeida, Miqueias; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Sanchez Rosas, Luis Junior; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Thiel, Mauricio; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Calligaris, Luigi; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Misheva, Milena; Rodozov, Mircho; Shopova, Mariana; Sultanov, Georgi; Dimitrov, Anton; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Yuan, Li; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Sijing; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Levin, Andrew; Li, Jing; Li, Linwei; Li, Qiang; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Wang, Yi; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Segura Delgado, Manuel Alejandro; Courbon, Benoit; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Starodumov, Andrei; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Kolosova, Marina; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Ayala, Edy; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Abdalla, Hassan; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ehataht, Karl; Kadastik, Mario; Raidal, Martti; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Kirschenmann, Henning; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Havukainen, Joona; Heikkilä, Jaana Kristiina; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Laurila, Santeri; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Siikonen, Hannu; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Leloup, Clément; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Negro, Giulia; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Amendola, Chiara; Antropov, Iurii; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Kucher, Inna; Lobanov, Artur; Martin Blanco, Javier; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Pigard, Philipp; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Jansová, Markéta; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Tonon, Nicolas; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lattaud, Hugues; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Rauch, Max Philip; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Teroerde, Marius; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Albert, Andreas; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Ghosh, Saranya; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Keller, Henning; Knutzen, Simon; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Schmidt, Alexander; Teyssier, Daniel; Flügge, Günter; Hlushchenko, Olena; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Roy, Dennis; Sert, Hale; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Babounikau, Illia; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bermúdez Martínez, Armando; Bertsche, David; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Botta, Valeria; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Danilov, Vladyslav; De Wit, Adinda; Defranchis, Matteo Maria; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Damiani, Daniela; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eichhorn, Thomas; Elwood, Adam; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Geiser, Achim; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Guthoff, Moritz; Haranko, Mykyta; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Knolle, Joscha; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Meyer, Mareike; Missiroli, Marino; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Myronenko, Volodymyr; Pflitsch, Svenja Karen; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Savitskyi, Mykola; Saxena, Pooja; Schütze, Paul; Schwanenberger, Christian; Shevchenko, Rostyslav; Singh, Akshansh; Tholen, Heiner; Turkot, Oleksii; Vagnerini, Antonio; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wen, Yiwen; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wissing, Christoph; Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Aggleton, Robin; Bein, Samuel; Benato, Lisa; Benecke, Anna; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hinzmann, Andreas; Karavdina, Anastasia; Kasieczka, Gregor; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Kutzner, Viktor; Lange, Johannes; Marconi, Daniele; Multhaup, Jens; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Perieanu, Adrian; Reimers, Arne; Rieger, Oliver; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Troendle, Daniel; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baselga, Marta; Baur, Sebastian; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; El Morabit, Karim; Faltermann, Nils; Freund, Benedikt; Giffels, Manuel; Harrendorf, Marco Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Katkov, Igor; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mitra, Soureek; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Paspalaki, Garyfallia; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Karathanasis, George; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kontaxakis, Pantelis; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Papavergou, Ioanna; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Vellidis, Konstantinos; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Papakrivopoulos, Ioannis; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Gianneios, Paraskevas; Katsoulis, Panagiotis; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Mallios, Stavros; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Triantis, Frixos A; Tsitsonis, Dimitrios; Bartók, Márton; Csanad, Mate; Filipovic, Nicolas; Major, Péter; Nagy, Marton Imre; Pasztor, Gabriella; Surányi, Olivér; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Hunyadi, Ádám; Sikler, Ferenc; Vámi, Tamás Álmos; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Tiwari, Praveen Chandra; Bahinipati, Seema; Kar, Chandiprasad; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chauhan, Sushil; Chawla, Ridhi; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Rajat; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Amandeep; Kaur, Manjit; Kaur, Sandeep; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Lohan, Manisha; Mehta, Ankita; Sandeep, Kaur; Sharma, Sandeep; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Gola, Mohit; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ashok; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Priyanka, Priyanka; Ranjan, Kirti; Shah, Aashaq; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Bhardwaj, Rishika; Bharti, Monika; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Bhowmik, Debabrata; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Mondal, Kuntal; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Rout, Prasant Kumar; Roy, Ashim; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Saha, Gourab; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Singh, Bipen; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Bhat, Muzamil Ahmad; Dugad, Shashikant; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Ravindra Kumar Verma, Ravindra; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhattacharya, Soham; Chatterjee, Suman; Das, Pallabi; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Karmakar, Saikat; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Di Florio, Adriano; Errico, Filippo; Fiore, Luigi; Gelmi, Andrea; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Ince, Merve; Lezki, Samet; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Borgonovi, Lisa; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Ciocca, Claudia; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Iemmi, Fabio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Latino, Giuseppe; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferro, Fabrizio; Ravera, Fabio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Beschi, Andrea; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Zuolo, Davide; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Crescenzo, Antonia; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Galati, Giuliana; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Khan, Wajid Ali; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Voevodina, Elena; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Bragagnolo, Alberto; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Hoh, Siew Yan; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lujan, Paul; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Simonetto, Franco; Tiko, Andres; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Cecchi, Claudia; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Manoni, Elisa; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Boccali, Tommaso; Borrello, Laura; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Fiori, Francesco; Giannini, Leonardo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Manca, Elisabetta; Mandorli, Giulio; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Daci, Nadir; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Cometti, Simona; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Soldi, Dario; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Vazzoler, Federico; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Moon, Chang-Seong; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Kim, Hyunchul; Moon, Dong Ho; Oh, Geonhee; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Kim, Hyunsoo; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Haneol; Lee, Kyeongpil; Nam, Kyungwook; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Jeon, Dajeong; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Choi, Young-Il; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Duran-Osuna, Cecilia; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Ramirez-Sanchez, Gabriel; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Rabadán-Trejo, Raúl Iraq; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Reyes-Almanza, Rogelio; Ramírez García, Mateo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Eysermans, Jan; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Bheesette, Srinidhi; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Traczyk, Piotr; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Araujo, Mariana; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Galinhas, Bruno; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Strong, Giles; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Golunov, Alexey; Golutvin, Igor; Karjavine, Vladimir; Korenkov, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Mitsyn, Valeri Valentinovitch; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Smirnov, Vitaly; Trofimov, Vladimir; Yuldashev, Bekhzod S; Zarubin, Anatoli; Zhiltsov, Victor; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sosnov, Dmitry; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stepennov, Anton; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Chadeeva, Marina; Parygin, Pavel; Philippov, Dmitry; Polikarpov, Sergey; Popova, Elena; Rusinov, Vladimir; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kaminskiy, Alexandre; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Barnyakov, Alexander; Blinov, Vladimir; Dimova, Tatyana; Kardapoltsev, Leonid; Skovpen, Yuri; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Godizov, Anton; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Mandrik, Petr; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitskii, Sergei; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Babaev, Anton; Baidali, Sergei; Okhotnikov, Vitalii; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Álvarez Fernández, Adrian; Bachiller, Irene; Barrio Luna, Mar; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Moran, Dermot; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Triossi, Andrea; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Rodríguez Bouza, Víctor; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chazin Quero, Barbara; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Fernández Manteca, Pedro José; García Alonso, Andrea; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Prieels, Cédric; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Akgun, Bora; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Bianco, Michele; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Brondolin, Erica; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Yi; Cucciati, Giacomo; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Roeck, Albert; Deelen, Nikkie; Dobson, Marc; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fallavollita, Francesco; Fasanella, Daniele; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gilbert, Andrew; Gill, Karl; Glege, Frank; Guilbaud, Maxime; Gulhan, Doga; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jafari, Abideh; Janot, Patrick; Karacheban, Olena; Kieseler, Jan; Kornmayer, Andreas; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pantaleo, Felice; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pitters, Florian Michael; Rabady, Dinyar; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Selvaggi, Michele; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Stakia, Anna; Steggemann, Jan; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Caminada, Lea; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Backhaus, Malte; Bäni, Lukas; Berger, Pirmin; Chernyavskaya, Nadezda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dorfer, Christian; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Klijnsma, Thomas; Lustermann, Werner; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marionneau, Matthieu; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Pigazzini, Simone; Quittnat, Milena; Ruini, Daniele; Sanz Becerra, Diego Alejandro; Schönenberger, Myriam; Shchutska, Lesya; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Vesterbacka Olsson, Minna Leonora; Wallny, Rainer; Zhu, De Hua; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Brzhechko, Danyyl; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Del Burgo, Riccardo; Donato, Silvio; Galloni, Camilla; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Neutelings, Izaak; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Schweiger, Korbinian; Seitz, Claudia; Takahashi, Yuta; Zucchetta, Alberto; Chang, Yu-Hsiang; Cheng, Kai-yu; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kumar, Arun; Li, You-ying; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Steen, Arnaud; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Bat, Ayse; Boran, Fatma; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dolek, Furkan; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Isik, Candan; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Tok, Ufuk Guney; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Atakisi, Ismail Okan; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Tekten, Sevgi; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Agaras, Merve Nazlim; Atay, Serhat; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Komurcu, Yildiray; Sen, Sercan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Davignon, Olivier; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Penning, Bjoern; Sakuma, Tai; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Taylor, Joseph; Titterton, Alexander; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Linacre, Jacob; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Auzinger, Georg; Bainbridge, Robert; Bloch, Philippe; Borg, Johan; Breeze, Shane; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Komm, Matthias; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Martelli, Arabella; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Palladino, Vito; Pesaresi, Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Shtipliyski, Antoni; Singh, Gurpreet; Stoye, Markus; Strebler, Thomas; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Virdee, Tejinder; Wardle, Nicholas; Winterbottom, Daniel; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Mackay, Catherine Kirsty; Morton, Alexander; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Zahid, Sema; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Madrid, Christopher; Mcmaster, Brooks; Pastika, Nathaniel; Smith, Caleb; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Coubez, Xavier; Cutts, David; Hadley, Mary; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Lee, Jangbae; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Usai, Emanuele; Yu, David; Band, Reyer; Brainerd, Christopher; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Ko, Winston; Kukral, Ota; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Stolp, Dustin; Taylor, Devin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Wang, Zhangqier; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Regnard, Simon; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Si, Weinan; Wang, Long; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Gilbert, Dylan; Hashemi, Bobak; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Kole, Gouranga; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Masciovecchio, Mario; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Citron, Matthew; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Gouskos, Loukas; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Wang, Sicheng; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bornheim, Adolf; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Newman, Harvey B; Nguyen, Thong; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhang, Zhicai; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Mudholkar, Tanmay; Paulini, Manfred; Sun, Menglei; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; MacDonald, Emily; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Cheng, Yangyang; Chu, Jennifer; Datta, Abhisek; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Quach, Dan; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Alyari, Maral; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Apyan, Aram; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Canepa, Anadi; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cremonesi, Matteo; Duarte, Javier; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Freeman, Jim; Gecse, Zoltan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Pena, Cristian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schneider, Basil; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Cadamuro, Luca; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Field, Richard D; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Joshi, Bhargav Madhusudan; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Shi, Kun; Sperka, David; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Joshi, Yagya Raj; Linn, Stephan; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Martinez, German; Perry, Thomas; Prosper, Harrison; Saha, Anirban; Schiber, Catherine; Sharma, Varun; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Rahmani, Mehdi; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Dittmer, Susan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Mills, Corrinne; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Tonjes, Marguerite; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wang, Xiao; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Alhusseini, Mohammad; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Hung, Wai Ting; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Bylinkin, Alexander; Castle, James; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Rogan, Christopher; Sanders, Stephen; Schmitz, Erich; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Duric, Senka; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Kim, Doyeong; Maravin, Yurii; Mendis, Dalath Rachitha; Mitchell, Tyler; Modak, Atanu; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Feng, Yongbin; Ferraioli, Charles; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonwar, Suresh C; Wong, Kak; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Azzolini, Virginia; Baty, Austin; Bauer, Gerry; Bi, Ran; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Harris, Philip; Hsu, Dylan; Hu, Miao; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lee, Yen-Jie; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zhaozhong, Shi; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Turkewitz, Jared; Wadud, Mohammad Abrar; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Golf, Frank; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Mclean, Christine; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Barberis, Emanuela; Freer, Chad; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Morse, David Michael; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Wamorkar, Tanvi; Wang, Bingran; Wisecarver, Andrew; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Bucci, Rachael; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Li, Wenzhao; Loukas, Nikitas; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Siddireddy, Prasanna; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wightman, Andrew; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Ji, Weifeng; Ling, Ta-Yung; Luo, Wuming; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; 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2018-01-01
The pseudorapidity distributions of dijets as a function of their average transverse momentum ($ p_{\\mathrm{T}}^{text{ave}} $) are measured in proton-lead (pPb) and proton-proton (pp) collisions. The data samples were collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC, at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. A significant modification of the pPb spectra with respect to the pp spectra is observed in all $p_{\\mathrm{T}}^{text{ave}}$ intervals investigated. The ratios of the pPb and pp distributions are compared to next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations with unbound nucleon and nuclear parton distribution functions (PDFs). These results give the first evidence that the gluon PDF at large Bjorken $x$ in lead ions is strongly suppressed with respect to the PDF in unbound nucleons.
Godbole, Rohini M.; Kaushik, Abhiram; Misra, Anuradha
2018-04-01
We study the low-virtuality inclusive leptoproduction of open charm, p↑l →D0+X as a probe of the gluon Sivers function. We perform the analysis in a generalized parton model framework. At leading order, this process is sensitive only to the gluon content of the proton. Hence any detection of a transverse single-spin asymmetry in this process would be clear indication of a non-zero gluon Sivers function (GSF). Considering COMPASS and a future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), we present predictions for asymmetry using fits for the GSF available in literature. Predictions for peak asymmetry values lie in the range of 0.8% to 13%. We also present estimates of the upper bound on the asymmetry as obtained with a maximal gluon Sivers function. Further, for the case of the Electron-Ion Collider, we evaluate the asymmetry in the muons decaying from the D -meson and find that the asymmetry is well preserved in the kinematics of the muons. Peak values of the muon asymmetry are close to those obtained for the D -meson and lie in the range 0.75% to 11%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayala, A.L.
1996-01-01
In this talk we present our detailed study (theory and numbers) on the shadowing corrections to the gluon structure functions for nuclei. Starting from rather controversial information on the nucleon structure function which is originated by the recent HERA data, we develop the Glauber approach for the gluon density in a nucleus based on Mueller formula and estimate the value of the shadowing corrections in this case. Then we calculate the first corrections to the Glauber approach and show that these corrections are big. Based on this practical observation we suggest the new evolution equation which takes into account the shadowing corrections and solve it. We hope to convince you that the new evolution equation gives a good theoretical tool to treat the shadowing corrections for the gluons density in a nucleus and, therefore, it is able to provide the theoretically reliable initial conditions for the time evolution of the nucleus-nucleus cascade. The initial conditions should be fixed both theoretically and phenomenologically before to attack such complicated problems as the mixture of hard and soft processes in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energy or the theoretically reliable approach to hadron or/and parton cascades for high energy nucleus-nucleus interaction. 35 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab
The quark-gluon model for particle production processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkovitskij, P.E.
1983-01-01
The quark-gluon model for hadronization of strings produced in soft and hard processes is suggested. The model is based on the distribution functions of valence quarks in hadrons which have correct Regge behaviour. The simplest case is discussed in which only the longitudinal degrees of freedom are taken into account
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmieden, Kristof
2013-04-15
The measurement of the effective weak mixing angle with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is presented. It is extracted from the forward-backward asymmetry in the polar angle distribution of the muons originating from Z boson decays in the reaction pp{yields}Z/{gamma}{sup *}+X{yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}+X. In total 4.7 fb{sup -1} of proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV are analysed. In addition, the full polar and azimuthal angular distributions are measured as a function of the transverse momentum of the Z/{gamma}{sup *} system and are compared to several simulations as well as recent results obtained in p anti p collisions. Finally, the angular distributions are used to confirm the spin of the gluon using the Lam-Tung relation.
Quarks and gluons in hadrons and nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Close, F.E.
1989-12-01
These lectures discuss the particle-nuclear interface -- a general introduction to the ideas and application of colored quarks in nuclear physics, color, the Pauli principle, and spin flavor correlations -- this lecture shows how the magnetic moments of hadrons relate to the underlying color degree of freedom, and the proton's spin -- a quark model perspective. This lecture reviews recent excitement which has led some to claim that in deep inelastic polarized lepton scattering very little of the spin of a polarized proton is due to its quarks. This lecture discusses the distribution functions of quarks and gluons in nucleons and nuclei, and how knowledge of these is necessary before some quark-gluon plasma searches can be analyzed. 56 refs., 2 figs
The tensor distribution function.
Leow, A D; Zhu, S; Zhan, L; McMahon, K; de Zubicaray, G I; Meredith, M; Wright, M J; Toga, A W; Thompson, P M
2009-01-01
Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful tool that can be employed to study white matter microstructure by examining the 3D displacement profile of water molecules in brain tissue. By applying diffusion-sensitized gradients along a minimum of six directions, second-order tensors (represented by three-by-three positive definite matrices) can be computed to model dominant diffusion processes. However, conventional DTI is not sufficient to resolve more complicated white matter configurations, e.g., crossing fiber tracts. Recently, a number of high-angular resolution schemes with more than six gradient directions have been employed to address this issue. In this article, we introduce the tensor distribution function (TDF), a probability function defined on the space of symmetric positive definite matrices. Using the calculus of variations, we solve the TDF that optimally describes the observed data. Here, fiber crossing is modeled as an ensemble of Gaussian diffusion processes with weights specified by the TDF. Once this optimal TDF is determined, the orientation distribution function (ODF) can easily be computed by analytic integration of the resulting displacement probability function. Moreover, a tensor orientation distribution function (TOD) may also be derived from the TDF, allowing for the estimation of principal fiber directions and their corresponding eigenvalues.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rindani, S.D.
2002-01-01
QCD corrections to order α s in the soft-gluon approximation to angular distributions of decay charged leptons in the process e + e - → t t-bar, followed by semileptonic decay of t or t-bar, are obtained in the e + e - centre-of-mass frame. As compared to distributions in the top rest frame, these have the advantage that they would allow direct comparison with experiment without the need to reconstruct the top rest frame. The results also do not depend on the choice of a spin quantization axis for t or t-bar. Analytic expression for the triple distribution in the polar angle of t and polar and azimuthal angles of the lepton is obtained. Analytic expression is also derived for the distribution in the charged-lepton polar angle. Numerical values are discussed for √s = 400, 800 and 1500 GeV. (author)
Global study of nuclear modifications on parton distribution functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rong Wang
2017-07-01
Full Text Available A global analysis of nuclear medium modifications of parton distributions is presented using deeply inelastic scattering data of various nuclear targets. Two obtained data sets are provided for quark and gluon nuclear modification factors, referred as nIMParton16. One is from the global fit only to the experimental data of isospin-scalar nuclei (Set A, and the other is from the fit to all the measured nuclear data (Set B. The scale-dependence is described by DGLAP equations with nonlinear corrections in this work. The Fermi motion and off-shell effect, nucleon swelling, and parton–parton recombination are taken into account together for modeling the complicated x-dependence of nuclear modification. The nuclear gluon shadowing in this paper is dynamically generated by the QCD evolution of parton splitting and recombination processes with zero gluon density at the input scale. Sophisticated nuclear dependence of nuclear medium effects is studied with only two free parameters. With the obtained free parameters from the global analysis, the nuclear modifications of parton distribution functions of unmeasured nuclei can be predicted in our model. Nuclear modification of deuteron is also predicted and shown with recent measurement at JLab.
Auroal electron distribution function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaufmann, R.L.; Dusenbery, P.B.; Thomas, B.J.; Arnoldy, R.L.
1978-01-01
The electron velocity distribution function is presented in the energy range 25 eV 8 cm/s (E=300 eV) are nearly isotropic in pitch angle throughout the flight. Upgoing electrons show almost no pitch angle dependence beyond 120 0 , and their fluxes decline smoothly as energy increases, with little or no evidence of a plateau. Preliminary results of numerical integrations, to study bulk properties and stability of the plasma are presented
Gluons from logarithmic slopes of F2 in the NLL approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golec-Biernat, K.
1994-02-01
We make a critical, next-to-leading order, study of the accuracy of the ''Prytz'' relation, which is frequently used to extract the gluon distribution at small x from the logarithmic slopes of the structure function F 2 . We find that the simple relation is not generally valid in the HERA regime, but show that it is a reasonable approximation for gluons which are sufficiency singular at small x. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koller, K.; Walsh, T.
1978-03-01
We discuss what can be learned of the 3 S 1 quarkonium decay QantiQ → 3 gluoans QantiQ → γ + 2 gluons. The former is a way to find gluon jets and test QCD. The latter also allows us to measure gluoan + gluon → hadrons and look for pure gluonic resonances (glueballs). (orig.) [de
Study of gluon condensates using the Bogolyubov transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iracane, Daniel
1985-01-01
We describe the ground state of non-perturbative QCD as a gluon condensate. In the framework of the Coulomb gauge Hamiltonian, we introduce an effective interaction between infrared gluons by removing high-momentum gluons. The Bogoliubov transformation provides us with our variational space. The minimisation over this Fock subspace leads to a non-perturbative vacuum and its excitations. The minimum functional space for a boson dynamic is a distribution set. We find two kinds of condensation. The first one occurs only for zero-momentum states and looks like the Bose Condensation. In the second one, the quasiparticle spectrum shows a finite gap and the vacuum is a superconducting state. We give constraints on the interaction so that the superconducting phase is more bounded than the Bose one. (author) [fr
One gluon, two gluon: multigluon production via high energy evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael
2006-01-01
We develop an approach for calculating the inclusive multigluon production within the JIMWLK high energy evolution. We give a formal expression of multigluon cross section in terms of a generating functional for arbitrary number of gluons n. In the dipole limit the expression simplifies dramatically. We recover the previously known results for single and double gluon inclusive cross section and generalize those for arbitrary multigluon amplitude in terms of Feynman diagramms of Pomeron - like objects coupled to external rapidity dependent field s(η). We confirm the conclusion that the AGK cutting rules in general are violated in multigluon production. However we present an argument to the effect that for doubly inclusive cross section the AGK diagramms give the leading contribution at high energy, while genuine violation only occurs for triple and higher inclusive gluon production. We discuss some general properties of our expressions and suggest a line of argument to simplify the approach further
Ward identities for amplitudes with reggeized gluons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartles, J.; Vacca, G.P.
2012-05-01
Starting from the effective action of high energy QCD we derive Ward identities for Green's functions of reggeized gluons. They follow from the gauge invariance of the effective action, and allow to derive new representations of amplitudes containing physical particles as well as reggeized gluons. We explicitly demonstrate their validity for the BFKL kernel, and we present a new derivation of the kernel.
Unifying distribution functions: some lesser known distributions.
Moya-Cessa, J R; Moya-Cessa, H; Berriel-Valdos, L R; Aguilar-Loreto, O; Barberis-Blostein, P
2008-08-01
We show that there is a way to unify distribution functions that describe simultaneously a classical signal in space and (spatial) frequency and position and momentum for a quantum system. Probably the most well known of them is the Wigner distribution function. We show how to unify functions of the Cohen class, Rihaczek's complex energy function, and Husimi and Glauber-Sudarshan distribution functions. We do this by showing how they may be obtained from ordered forms of creation and annihilation operators and by obtaining them in terms of expectation values in different eigenbases.
Unbiased Polarised Parton Distribution Functions and their Uncertainties
Nocera, Emanuele R.; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Rojo, Juan
2012-01-01
We present preliminary results on the determination of spin-dependent, or polarised, Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) from all relevant inclusive polarised DIS data. The analysis is performed within the NNPDF approach, which provides a faithful and statistically sound representation of PDFs and their uncertainties. We describe how the NNPDF methodology has been extended to the polarised case, and compare our results with other recent polarised parton sets. We show that polarised PDF uncertainties can be sizeably underestimated in standard determinations, most notably for the gluon.
Charmed quark production as a gluon probe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phillips, R.J.N.
1980-09-01
The lowest-order QCD mechanisms for producing cc or other heavy quarks depend on the gluon distributions in hadrons; hence the latter can be extracted directly from experiment. Recent results are described. (author)
Frixione, Stefano; Ridolfi, G
1999-01-01
We consider the resummation of soft-gluon emission in the transverse-momentum distribution of vector mesons in hadronic collisions. We find that the resummed expression in the impact-parameter formulation has an expansion in $\\as$ with factorially growing terms with oscillating signs. These diverging terms arise from the small impact-parameter region of integration, and are of a subleading nature. We also obtain a closed expression for the next-to-leading logarithm resummation in $\\qt$-space, and we study its analytic structure. We find in this case that, although no factorially growing terms are present, there are geometrical singularities that severely restrict the range of applicability of the resummation formula.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugano, K.
1987-01-01
The properties of gluon jets are reviewed, and the measured characteristics are compared to the theoretical expectations. Although neither data nor models for the gluon jets are in the mature stage, in general the agreement between experiment and theory is remarkable. There are some intriguing differences. Since the properties of gluon jets are deeply rooted in the basic structure of non-Abelian gauge theory, the study of gluon jets casts further light on our understanding of QCD. Finally, the future prospects are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugano, K.
1988-01-01
The properties of gluon jets are reviewed from an experimental point of view. The measured characteristics are compared to theoretical expectations. Although neither data nor models for the gluon jets are in the mature stage, there are remarkable agreements and also intriguing disagreements between experiment and theory. Since much interesting data have begun to emerge from various experiments and the properties of gluon jets are deeply rooted in the basic structure of non-Abelian gauge theory, the study of gluon jets casts further light on understanding of QCD. The future prospects are discussed
Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, Niels T.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija
Flavour inclusive, udsc and b fragmentation functions in unbiased jets, and flavour inclusive, udsc, b and gluon fragmentation functions in biased jets are measured in e+e- annihilations from data collected at centre-of-mass energies of 91.2, and 183-209 GeV with the OPAL detector at LEP. The unbiased jets are defined by hemispheres of inclusive hadronic events, while the biased jet measurements are based on three-jet events selected with jet algorithms. Several methods are employed to extract the fragmentation functions over a wide range of scales. Possible biases are studied in the results are obtained. The fragmentation functions are compared to results from lower energy e+e- experiments and with earlier LEP measurements and are found to be consistent. Scaling violations are observed and are found to be stronger for the fragmentation functions of gluon jets than for those of quarks. The measured fragmentation functions are compared to three recent theoretical next-to-leading order calculations and to the p...
Two theoretical treatments of the quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carrington, M.E.
1989-01-01
The study of the quark-gluon plasma is of direct relevance to questions about the confinement properties of QCD and the validity of the standard theory of QCD in a different physical regime. Part 1 of this work contains a brief discussion of the theoretical and numerical evidence for the existence of the quark-gluon plasma. In the next two sections, two different approaches are discussed. In Part 2, the problem is presented in the general framework of kinetic theory. A definition of the Wigner distribution operator is introduced for quarks and a set of kinetic equations are derived for the momentum moments of this operator. A Wigner distribution operator is defined for gluons and the momentum of this operator are calculated and related to physical quantities. In Part 3, a calculation of linear response functions in a hot gluon plasma is presented. Problems related to gauge invariance and to the definition of a thermal ensemble in the presence of unphysical degrees of freedom are discussed. Results in different gauges and with different ensembles are compared, and the implications of the results for plasma oscillations are discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Feng; Chen, Junlong; Liu, Jueping, E-mail: jpliu@whu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, School of Physics Science and Technology, Wuhan University, 430072, Wuhan (China)
2015-09-28
Based on a correction from instanton–gluon interference to the correlation function, the properties of the 0{sup -+} pseudoscalar glueball are investigated in a family of finite-width Gaussian sum rules. In the framework of a semiclassical expansion for quantum chromodynamics in the instanton liquid background, the contribution arising from the interference between instantons and the quantum gluon fields is calculated, and it is included in the correlation function together with a pure-classical contribution from instantons and the perturbative one. The interference contribution turns out to be gauge-invariant, to be free from an infrared divergence, and to have a great role to play in restoring the positivity of the spectra of the full correlation function. The negligible contribution from vacuum condensates is excluded in our correlation function to avoid double counting. Instead of the usual zero-width approximation for the resonances, the usual Breit–Wigner form with a suitable threshold behavior for the spectral function of the finite-width resonances is adopted. Consistency between the subtracted and unsubtracted sum rules is very well justified. The values of the mass, decay width, and coupling constants for the 0{sup -+} resonance in which the glueball fraction is dominant are obtained, and they agree with the phenomenological analysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Feng; Chen, Junlong; Liu, Jueping [Wuhan University, Department of Physics, School of Physics Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)
2015-09-15
Based on a correction from instanton-gluon interference to the correlation function, the properties of the 0{sup -+} pseudoscalar glueball are investigated in a family of finite-width Gaussian sum rules. In the framework of a semiclassical expansion for quantum chromodynamics in the instanton liquid background, the contribution arising from the interference between instantons and the quantum gluon fields is calculated, and it is included in the correlation function together with a pure-classical contribution from instantons and the perturbative one. The interference contribution turns out to be gauge-invariant, to be free from an infrared divergence, and to have a great role to play in restoring the positivity of the spectra of the full correlation function. The negligible contribution from vacuum condensates is excluded in our correlation function to avoid double counting. Instead of the usual zero-width approximation for the resonances, the usual Breit-Wigner form with a suitable threshold behavior for the spectral function of the finite-width resonances is adopted. Consistency between the subtracted and unsubtracted sum rules is very well justified. The values of the mass, decay width, and coupling constants for the 0{sup -+} resonance in which the glueball fraction is dominant are obtained, and they agree with the phenomenological analysis. (orig.)
Soft gluon resummation in the infrared region and the Froissart bound
Pancheri, Giulia; Godbole, Rohini M; Srivastava, Yogendra N
2010-01-01
We describe the taming effect induced by soft gluon $k_t$-resummation on the rapid rise of QCD mini-jet contributions to the total cross-sections.This results from an eikonal model in which the rise of the total cross-section is due to mini-jet contribution. We perform the calculation with current Parton Density Functions (PDFs). The impact parameter distribution we use is obtained as the Fourier transform of the resummed $k_t$-distribution of soft gluons emitted from the initial state during the collision.The emission, which is energy dependent, destroys the initial collinearity of partons.In this model, the strong power-like rise due to the increasing number of low-x gluon collisions is tamed by the acollinearity induced by soft gluon kt-resummation down to zero gluon momenta. It explicitly links a singular soft gluon coupling in the infrared region to the behaviour dictated by the Froissart bound for the total cross-section. The model describes well both proton and photon processes at present accelerator e...
Analysis of the logarithmic slope of F2 from the Regge gluon density behavior at small x
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boroun, G. R.
2010-01-01
We study the accuracy of the Regge behavior of the gluon distribution function for an approximate relation that is frequently used to extract the logarithmic slopes of the structure function from the gluon distribution at small x. We show that the Regge behavior analysis results are comparable with HERA data and are also better than other methods that expand the gluon density at distinct points of expansion. We also show that for Q 2 = 22.4 GeV 2 , the x dependence of the data is well described by gluon shadowing corrections to the GLR-MQ equation. The resulting analytic expression allows us to predict the logarithmic derivative ∂F 2 (x, Q 2 )/∂lnQ 2 and to compare the results with the H1 data and a QCD analysis fit with the MRST parameterization input.
Ball, R D; Ridolfi, G
1996-01-01
We perform a full next-to-leading analysis of the the available experimental data on the polarized structure function g_1 of the nucleon, and give a precise determination of its singlet axial charge together with a thorough assessment of the theoretical uncertainties. We find that the data are now sufficient to separately determine first moments of the polarized quark and gluon distributions and show in particular that the gluon contribution is large and positive.
The gluon Sivers asymmetry measurements at COMPASS
Szabelski, Adam
2018-01-01
The Sivers function describes the correlation between the transverse spin of a nucleon and the transverse motion of its partons. As such, a nonzero Sivers effect for gluons could be a signature of their nonzero orbital angular momentum inside the nucleon. COMPASS has collected data of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering by impinging 160 GeV/$c$ muons on transversely polarised proton and deuteron targets. The gluon Sivers asymmetry is extracted from a high-$p_T$ hadron pair sample with the use of monte carlo simulations and the a neural network approach. The results of a similar analysis for a Collins-like asymmetry for gluons will also be given.
The gluon Sivers asymmetry measurements at COMPASS
Szabelski, Adam
2017-01-01
The Sivers function describes the correlation between the transverse spin of a nucleon and the transverse motion of its partons. As such, a nonzero Sivers effect for gluons could be a signature of their nonzero orbital angular momentum inside the nucleon. COMPASS has collected data of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering by impinging 160 GeV/$c$ muons on transversely polarised proton and deuteron targets. The gluon Sivers asymmetry is extracted from a high-$p_T$ hadron pair sample with the use of monte carlo simulations and the a neural network approach. The results of a similar analysis for a Collins-like asymmetry for gluons will also be given.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gelis, Francois [Savoie Univ., 73 - Chambery (France)
1998-12-01
The general framework of this work is thermal field theory, and more precisely the perturbative calculation of thermal Green`s functions. In a first part, I consider the problems closely related to the formalism itself. After two introductory chapters devoted to set up the framework and the notations used afterwards, a chapter is dedicated to a clarification of certain aspects of the justification of the Feynman rules of the real time formalism. Then, I consider in the chapter 4 the problem of cutting rules in the real time formalisms. In particular, after solving a controversy on this subject, I generalize these cutting rules to the `retarded-advanced` version of this formalism. Finally, the last problem considered in this part is that of the pion decay into two photons in a thermal bath. I show that the discrepancies found in the literature are due to peculiarities of the analytical properties of the thermal Green`s functions. The second part deals with the calculations of the photons or dilepton (virtual photon) production rate by a quark gluon plasma. The framework of this study is the effective theory based on the resummation of hard thermal loops. The first aspects of this study is related to the production of virtual photons, where we show that important contributions arise at two loops, completing the result already known at one loop. In the case of real photon production, we show that extremely strong collinear singularities make two loop contributions dominant compared to one loop ones. In both cases, the importance of two loop contributions can be interpreted as weaknesses of the hard thermal loop approximation. (author) 366 refs., 109 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chandra, Vinod [Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Sreekanth, V. [Indian Institute of Science, Centre for High Energy Physics, Bangalore (India)
2017-06-15
Momentum anisotropy present during the hydrodynamic evolution of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) in RHIC may lead to the chromo-Weibel instability and turbulent chromo-fields.The dynamics of the quark and gluon momentum distributions in this case is governed by an effective diffusive Vlasov equation (linearized). The solution of this linearized transport equation for the modified momentum distribution functions lead to the mathematical form of non-equilibrium momentum distribution functions of quarks/antiquarks and gluons. The modifications to these distributions encode the physics of turbulent color fields and momentum anisotropy. In the present manuscript, we employ these distribution functions to estimate the thermal dilepton production rate in the QGP medium. The production rate is seen to have appreciable sensitivity to the strength of the anisotropy. (orig.)
Three gluon jets as a test of QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koller, K.; Walsh, T.F.
1977-10-01
As a test of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), we suggest looking for gluon jets in the decay of a heavy quark-antiquark bound state produced in e + e - -annihilation, Q anti Q → 3 gluons → 3 gluon jets. In particular, we point out that these events form a jet Dalitz plot, and we calculate the gluon or jet distributions (including the effect of polarized e + e - -beams). This process affords a test of the gluon spin. It is the analogue of two-jet angular distributions in e + e - %→ q anti q → 2 quark jets. We also estimate multiplicities and momentum distributions of hadrons in Q anti Q → 3 gluons → hadrons, using the recently discovered UPSILON (9.4) as an example. (orig.) [de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sichtermann, Ernst
2016-12-15
The fundamental structure of nucleons and nuclear matter is described by the properties and dynamics of quarks and gluons in quantum chromodynamics. Electron-nucleon collisions are a powerful method to study this structure. As one increases the energy of the collisions, the interaction process probes regions of progressively higher gluon density. This density must eventually saturate. An high-energy polarized Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) has been proposed to observe and study the saturated gluon density regime. Selected measurements will be discussed, following a brief introduction.
Multiplicities of $\\pi^{0}$, $\\eta$, $K^{0}$ and of charged particles in quark and gluon jets
Abbiendi, G.; Ainsley, C.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boeriu, O.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Cammin, J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Cooke, O.C.; Couchman, J.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; de Roeck, A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanti, M.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauke, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hocker, James Andrew; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; Lillich, J.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schmitt, S.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Tarem, S.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trefzger, T.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.
2000-01-01
We compared the multiplicities of pizero, eta, Kzero and of charged particles in quark and gluon jets in 3-jet events, as measured by the OPAL experiment at LEP. The comparisons were performed for distributions unfolded to 100% pure quark and gluon jets, at an effective scale Qjet which took into account topological dependences of the 3-jet environment. The ratio of particle multiplicity in gluon jets to that in quark jets as a function of Qjet for pizero, eta and Kzero was found to be independent of the particle species. This is consistent with the QCD prediction that the observed enhancement in the mean particle rate in gluon jets with respect to quark jets should be independent of particle species. In contrast to some theoretical predictions and previous observations, we observed no evidence for an enhancement of eta meson production in gluon jets with respect to quark jets, beyond that observed for charged particles. We measured the ratio of the slope of the average charged particle multiplicity in gluon ...
Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kormos, Laura L.; Kramer, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.J.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Rick, H.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija
2004-01-01
We present the first experimental results based on the jet boost algorithm, a technique to select unbiased samples of gluon jets in e+e- annihilations, i.e. gluon jets free of biases introduced by event selection or jet finding criteria. Our results are derived from hadronic Z0 decays observed with the OPAL detector at the LEP e+e- collider at CERN. First, we test the boost algorithm through studies with Herwig Monte Carlo events and find that it provides accurate measurements of the charged particle multiplicity distributions of unbiased gluon jets for jet energies larger than about 5 GeV, and of the jet particle energy spectra (fragmentation functions) for jet energies larger than about 14 GeV. Second, we apply the boost algorithm to our data to derive unbiased measurements of the gluon jet multiplicity distribution for energies between about 5 and 18 GeV, and of the gluon jet fragmentation function at 14 and 18 GeV. In conjunction with our earlier results at 40 GeV, we then test QCD calculations for the en...
Soft Gluon Radiation off Heavy Quarks beyond Eikonal Approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazumder, Surasree; Bhattacharyya, Trambak; Abir, Raktim
2016-01-01
We calculate the soft gluon radiation spectrum off heavy quarks (HQs) interacting with light quarks (LQs) beyond small angle scattering (eikonality) approximation and thus generalize the dead-cone formula of heavy quarks extensively used in the literatures of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) phenomenology to the large scattering angle regime which may be important in the energy loss of energetic heavy quarks in the deconfined Quark-Gluon Plasma medium. In the proper limits, we reproduce all the relevant existing formulae for the gluon radiation distribution off energetic quarks, heavy or light, used in the QGP phenomenology.
Gluon radiation in diffractive electroproduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchmueller, W.; McDermott, M.F.; Hebecker, A.
1996-07-01
Order α s -correlations to the diffractive structure functions F L D and F 2 D at large Q 2 and small x are evaluated in the semiclassical approach, where the initial proton is treated as a classical colour field. The diffractive final state contains a fast gluon in addition to a quark-antiquark pair. Two of these partons may have large transverse momentum. Our calculations lead to an intuitive picture of deep-inelastic diffractive processes which is very similar to Bjorken's aligned-jet model. Both diffractive structure functions contain leading twist contributions from high-p perpendicular to jets. (orig.)
Chala, Mikael; Perez, Gilad; Santiago, Jose
2015-01-01
We study the phenomenology of vector resonances in the context of natural composite Higgs models. A mild hierarchy between the fermionic partners and the vector resonances can be expected in these models based on the following arguments. Both direct and indirect (electroweak and flavor precision) constraints on fermionic partners are milder than the ones on spin one resonances. Also the naturalness pressure coming from the top partners is stronger than that induced by the gauge partners. This observation implies that the search strategy for vector resonances at the LHC needs to be modified. In particular, we point out the importance of heavy gluon decays (or other vector resonances) to top partner pairs that were overlooked in previous experimental searches at the LHC. These searches focused on simplified benchmark models in which the only new particle beyond the Standard Model was the heavy gluon. It turns out that, when kinematically allowed, such heavy-heavy decays make the heavy gluon elusive, and the bou...
The Mellin transform technique for the extraction of the gluon density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graudenz, D.
1995-06-01
A new method is presented to determine the gluon density in the proton from jet production in deeply inelastic scattering. By using the technique of Mellin transforms not only for the solution of the scale evolution equation of the parton densities but also for the evaluation of scattering cross sections, the gluon density can be extracted in next-to-leading order QCD. The method described in this paper is, however, more general, and can be used in situations where a repeated fast numerical evaluation of scattering cross sections for varying parton distribution functions is required. (orig.)
Distribution functions of probabilistic automata
Vatan, F.
2001-01-01
Each probabilistic automaton M over an alphabet A defines a probability measure Prob sub(M) on the set of all finite and infinite words over A. We can identify a k letter alphabet A with the set {0, 1,..., k-1}, and, hence, we can consider every finite or infinite word w over A as a radix k expansion of a real number X(w) in the interval [0, 1]. This makes X(w) a random variable and the distribution function of M is defined as usual: F(x) := Prob sub(M) { w: X(w) automata in detail. Automata with continuous distribution functions are characterized. By a new, and much more easier method, it is shown that the distribution function F(x) is an analytic function if it is a polynomial. Finally, answering a question posed by D. Knuth and A. Yao, we show that a polynomial distribution function F(x) on [0, 1] can be generated by a prob abilistic automaton iff all the roots of F'(x) = 0 in this interval, if any, are rational numbers. For this, we define two dynamical systems on the set of polynomial distributions and study attracting fixed points of random composition of these two systems.
Gluon and quark jets in a recursive model motivated by quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sukhatme, U.P.
1979-01-01
We compute observable quantities like the multiplicity and momentum distributions of hadrons in gluon and quark jets in the framework of a recursive cascade model, which is strongly motivated by the fundamental interactions of QCD. Fragmentation occurs via 3 types of breakups: quark → meson + quark, gluon → meson + gluon, gluon → quark + antiquark. In our model gluon jets are softer than quark jets. The ratio of gluon jet to quark jet multiplicity is found to be 2 asymptotically, but much less at lower energies. Some phenomenological consequences for γ decay are discussed. (orig.)
χc charmonium - a tool to investigate gluon polarization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batunin, A.V.; Slabospitskij, S.R.
1986-01-01
Production of particles with a hidden charm Χ C in polarized parton beams (quarks or gluons) is studied. Parton polarization is shown to cause the changes of angular distributions of Χ C meson decay products, which allows one to investigate possible gluon polarization in hadrons
EXPLORING THE POLARIZATION OF GLUONS IN THE NUCLEON.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
STRATMANN,M.; VOGELSANG,W.
2007-10-22
We give an overview of the current status of investigations of the polarization of gluons in the nucleon. We describe some of the physics of the spin-dependent gluon parton distribution and its phenomenology in high-energy polarized hadronic scattering. We also review the recent experimental results.
Structure functions and parton distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, A.D.; Stirling, W.J.; Roberts, R.G.
1995-01-01
The MRS parton distribution analysis is described. The latest sets are shown to give an excellent description of a wide range of deep-inelastic and other hard scattering data. Two important theoretical issues-the behavior of the distributions at small x and the flavor structure of the quark sea-are discussed in detail. A comparison with the new structure function data from HERA is made, and the outlook for the future is discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Granier de Cassagnac, R.
2010-01-01
The quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is a state of matter in which the universe was expected to be a few micro-seconds after the big-bang. Violent collisions of heavy ions are supposed to re-create this state in particle accelerators. Numerous signatures of this fugacious state have already been observed at the RHIC (relativistic heavy ion collider). The first evidence of the violence of collisions is the number of generated particles: about 6000 per collision, mostly hadrons. This figure seems high but in fact is less than theoretically expected and is the first sign of the formation of a QGP that saturates the density of gluons. Another sign, observed at the RHIC is the damping of the particle jets that are produced in the collision. This damping is consistent with the crossing of a medium whose density is so high that it can not be made of hadrons but of partons. In the RHIC experiments the collective behaviour of quarks and gluons shows that they are strongly interacting with one another. This fact supports the idea that the QGP is more a perfect liquid rather than an ideal gas in which quarks and gluons move freely. (A.C.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anselmino, M.; Avakian, H.; Boer, D.; Bradamante, F.; Burkardt, M.; Chen, J.P.; Cisbani, E.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crabb, D.; Dutta, D.; Gamberg, L.; Gao, H.; Hasch, D.; Huang, J.; Huang, M.; Kang, Z.; Keppel, C.; Laskaris, G.; Liang, Z.-T.; Liu, M.X.; Makins, N.; Mckeown, R.D.; Metz, A.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Musch, B.; Peng, J.-C.; Prokudin, A.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Qiu, J.W.; Rossi, P.; Schweitzer, P.; Soffer, J.; Sulkosky, V.; Wang, Y.; Xiao, B.; Ye, Q.; Ye, Q.-J.; Yuan, F.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, W.; Zhou, J.
2011-01-01
We present a summary of a recent workshop held at Duke University on Partonic Transverse Momentum in Hadrons: Quark Spin-Orbit Correlations and Quark-Gluon Interactions. The transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs), parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, and multi-parton correlation functions, were discussed extensively at the Duke workshop. In this paper, we summarize first the theoretical issues concerning the study of partonic structure of hadrons at a future electron-ion collider (EIC) with emphasis on the TMDs. We then present simulation results on experimental studies of TMDs through measurements of single spin asymmetries (SSA) from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS) processes with an EIC, and discuss the requirement of the detector for SIDIS measurements. The dynamics of parton correlations in the nucleon is further explored via a study of SSA in D ((bar D)) production at large transverse momenta with the aim of accessing the unexplored tri-gluon correlation functions. The workshop participants identified the SSA measurements in SIDIS as a golden program to study TMDs in both the sea and valence quark regions and to study the role of gluons, with the Sivers asymmetry measurements as examples. Such measurements will lead to major advancement in our understanding of TMDs in the valence quark region, and more importantly also allow for the investigation of TMDs in the sea quark region along with a study of their evolution.
Gluon amplitudes as 2 d conformal correlators
Pasterski, Sabrina; Shao, Shu-Heng; Strominger, Andrew
2017-10-01
Recently, spin-one wave functions in four dimensions that are conformal primaries of the Lorentz group S L (2 ,C ) were constructed. We compute low-point, tree-level gluon scattering amplitudes in the space of these conformal primary wave functions. The answers have the same conformal covariance as correlators of spin-one primaries in a 2 d CFT. The Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion relation between three- and four-point gluon amplitudes is recast into this conformal basis.
Infrared behaviour of three and four gluon vertices in Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandt, F.T.; Frenkel, J.
1985-01-01
The structure of the 3-point function with one and two external gluons on-shell is studied in a general covariant gauge. The contributions which result in one loop approximation are expressed in terms of simple functions containing collinear and soft singularities. Furthermore, the contributions associated with the 4-point vertex when all external gluons are on-shell are analysed. As an application of these results, the infrared structure of gluon-gluon scattering amplitude is studied. (Author) [pt
Distribution function of dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, N. Wyn; An, Jin H.
2006-01-01
There is good evidence from N-body simulations that the velocity distribution in the outer parts of halos is radially anisotropic, with the kinetic energy in the radial direction roughly equal to the sum of that in the two tangential directions. We provide a simple algorithm to generate such cosmologically important distribution functions. Introducing r E (E), the radius of the largest orbit of a particle with energy E, we show how to write down almost trivially a distribution function of the form f(E,L)=L -1 g(r E ) for any spherical model - including the 'universal' halo density law (Navarro-Frenk-White profile). We in addition give the generic form of the distribution function for any model with a local density power-law index α and anisotropy parameter β and provide limiting forms appropriate for the central parts and envelopes of dark matter halos. From those, we argue that, regardless of the anisotropy, the density falloff at large radii must evolve to ρ∼r -4 or steeper ultimately
Differences between quark and gluon jets as seen at LEP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tasevsky, M.
2001-01-01
The differences between quark and gluon jets are studied using LEP results on jet widths, scale dependent multiplicities, ratios of multiplicities, slopes and curvatures and fragmentation functions. It is emphasized that the observed differences stem primarily from the different quark and gluon colour factors
Differences between Quark and Gluon jets as seen at LEP
Tasevsky, Marek
2001-01-01
The differences between quark and gluon jets are studied using LEP results on jet widths, scale dependent multiplicities, ratios of multiplicities, slopes and curvatures and fragmentation functions. It is emphasized that the observed differences stem primarily from the different quark and gluon colour factors.
1990-01-01
This volume contains 14 review articles on the theory and phenomenology of the creation and diagnosis of quark-gluon plasma. They are written by active investigators of in the various research topics, which range from the QCD foundation through transport theory and thermalization models to the examination of possible signatures. The monograph should be useful not only to the experienced researchers in the subject but also to newcomers.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chala, Mikael [Granada Univ. (Spain). CAFPE; Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Juknevich, Jose [International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy); Perez, Gilad [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics; Santiago, Jose [Granada Univ. (Spain). CAFPE; Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos; European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)
2014-11-15
We study the phenomenology of vector resonances in the context of natural composite Higgs models. A mild hierarchy between the fermionic partners and the vector resonances can be expected in these models based on the following arguments. Both direct and indirect (electroweak and flavor precision) constraints on fermionic partners are milder than the ones on spin one resonances. Also the naturalness pressure coming from the top partners is stronger than that induced by the gauge partners. This observation implies that the search strategy for vector resonances at the LHC needs to be modified. In particular, we point out the importance of heavy gluon decays (or other vector resonances) to top partner pairs that were overlooked in previous experimental searches at the LHC. These searches focused on simplified benchmark models in which the only new particle beyond the Standard Model was the heavy gluon. It turns out that, when kinematically allowed, such heavy-heavy decays make the heavy gluon elusive, and the bounds on its mass can be up to 2 TeV milder than in the simpler models considered so far for the LHC14. We discuss the origin of this difference and prospects for dedicated searches.
Nayak, Tapan; Sarkar, Sourav
2014-01-01
At extremely high temperatures and densities, protons and neutrons may dissolve into a "soup" of quarks and gluons, called the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). For a few microseconds, shortly after the Big Bang, the Universe was filled with the QGP matter. The search and study of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is one of the most fundamental research topics of our times. The QGP matter has been probed by colliding heavy ions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva. By colliding heavy-ions at a speed close to that of light, scientists aim to obtain - albeit over a tiny volume of the size of a nucleus and for an infinitesimally short instant - a QGP state. This QGP state can be observed by dedicated experiments, as it reverts to hadronic matter through expansion and cooling. This volume presents some of the current theoretical and experimental understandings in the field of QGP.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chala, Mikael; Juknevich, Jose; Perez, Gilad
2014-11-01
We study the phenomenology of vector resonances in the context of natural composite Higgs models. A mild hierarchy between the fermionic partners and the vector resonances can be expected in these models based on the following arguments. Both direct and indirect (electroweak and flavor precision) constraints on fermionic partners are milder than the ones on spin one resonances. Also the naturalness pressure coming from the top partners is stronger than that induced by the gauge partners. This observation implies that the search strategy for vector resonances at the LHC needs to be modified. In particular, we point out the importance of heavy gluon decays (or other vector resonances) to top partner pairs that were overlooked in previous experimental searches at the LHC. These searches focused on simplified benchmark models in which the only new particle beyond the Standard Model was the heavy gluon. It turns out that, when kinematically allowed, such heavy-heavy decays make the heavy gluon elusive, and the bounds on its mass can be up to 2 TeV milder than in the simpler models considered so far for the LHC14. We discuss the origin of this difference and prospects for dedicated searches.
Gluon saturation and baryon stopping in the SPS, RHIC, and LHC energy regions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Shuang; Feng Shengqin
2012-01-01
A new geometrical scaling method with a gluon saturation rapidity limit is proposed to study the gluon saturation feature of the central rapidity region of relativistic nuclear collisions. The net-baryon number is essentially transported by valence quarks that probe the saturation regime in the target by multiple scattering. We take advantage of the gluon saturation model with geometric scaling of the rapidity limit to investigate net baryon distributions, nuclear stopping power and gluon saturation features in the SPS and RHIC energy regions. Predictions for net baryon rapidity distributions, mean rapidity loss and gluon saturation feature in central Pb + Pb collisions at the LHC are made in this paper. (authors)
Gluon asymmetries in the leptoproduction of J/Ψ
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Godbole, R.M.; Gupta, S.; Sridhar, K.
1990-07-01
We study J/Ψ production, in deep inelastic scattering experiments with polarised beams and polarised targets. The spin asymmetries are seen to depend strongly on the particular form of the spin dependent gluon distributions used. Therefore, it should be possible in these experiments, to discriminate between different parametrizations of polarised gluon distributions, and hence between the distinctly different physical pictures of the proton spin underlying these parametrizations. (author). 18 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab
Quantum Simulations of Strongly Coupled Quark-Gluon Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filinov, V.S.; Bonitz, M.; Ivanov, Yu.B.
2013-01-01
particles. This method has been successfully applied to strongly coupled electrodynamic plasmas (EMP). A strongly correlated behavior of the QGP is expected to show up in long-ranged spatial correlations of quarks and gluons which, in fact, may give rise to liquid-like and, possibly, solid-like structures. This expectation is based on a very similar behavior observed in electrodynamic plasmas. We have done already the first calculation of the QGP equation of state, spatial and color pair distribution functions, diffusion coefficients and shear viscosity. The preliminary results has already been reported and discussed at the international conferences and meetings and are accepted for publications. (author)
Determination of size distribution function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teshome, A.; Spartakove, A.
1987-05-01
The theory of a method is outlined which gives the size distribution function (SDF) of a polydispersed system of non-interacting colloidal and microscopic spherical particles, having sizes in the range 0-10 -5 cm., from a gedanken experimental scheme. It is assumed that the SDF is differentiable and the result is obtained for rotational frequency in the order of 10 3 (sec) -1 . The method may be used independently, but is particularly useful in conjunction with an alternate method described in a preceding paper. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs
An Empirical Mass Function Distribution
Murray, S. G.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Power, C.
2018-03-01
The halo mass function, encoding the comoving number density of dark matter halos of a given mass, plays a key role in understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies. As such, it is a key goal of current and future deep optical surveys to constrain the mass function down to mass scales that typically host {L}\\star galaxies. Motivated by the proven accuracy of Press–Schechter-type mass functions, we introduce a related but purely empirical form consistent with standard formulae to better than 4% in the medium-mass regime, {10}10{--}{10}13 {h}-1 {M}ȯ . In particular, our form consists of four parameters, each of which has a simple interpretation, and can be directly related to parameters of the galaxy distribution, such as {L}\\star . Using this form within a hierarchical Bayesian likelihood model, we show how individual mass-measurement errors can be successfully included in a typical analysis, while accounting for Eddington bias. We apply our form to a question of survey design in the context of a semi-realistic data model, illustrating how it can be used to obtain optimal balance between survey depth and angular coverage for constraints on mass function parameters. Open-source Python and R codes to apply our new form are provided at http://mrpy.readthedocs.org and https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/tggd/index.html respectively.
Quantum distribution function of nonequilibrium system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sogo, Kiyoshi; Fujimoto, Yasushi.
1990-03-01
A path integral representation is derived for the Wigner distribution function of a nonequilibrium system coupled with heat bath. Under appropriate conditions, the Wigner distribution function approaches an equilibrium distribution, which manifests shifting and broadening of spectral lines due to the interaction with heat bath. It is shown that the equilibrium distribution becomes the quantum canonical distribution in the vanishing coupling constant limit. (author)
The gluon condensation at high energy hadron collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu, Wei, E-mail: weizhu@mail.ecnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Lan, Jiangshan [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)
2017-03-15
We report that the saturation/CGC model of gluon distribution is unstable under action of the chaotic solution in a nonlinear QCD evolution equation, and it evolves to the distribution with a sharp peak at the critical momentum. We find that this gluon condensation is caused by a new kind of shadowing–antishadowing effects, and it leads to a series of unexpected effects in high energy hadron collisions including astrophysical events. For example, the extremely intense fluctuations in the transverse-momentum and rapidity distributions of the gluon jets present the gluon-jet bursts; a sudden increase of the proton–proton cross sections may fill the GZK suppression; the blocking QCD evolution will restrict the maximum available energy of the hadron–hadron colliders.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weinzierl, Stefan, E-mail: weinzierl@uni-mainz.de
2017-03-13
This report is centred around tree-level scattering amplitudes in pure Yang–Mills theories, the most prominent example is given by the tree-level gluon amplitudes of QCD. I will discuss several ways of computing these amplitudes, illustrating in this way recent developments in perturbative quantum field theory. Topics covered in this review include colour decomposition, spinor and twistor methods, off- and on-shell recursion, MHV amplitudes and MHV expansion, the Grassmannian and the amplituhedron, the scattering equations and the CHY representation. At the end of this report there will be an outlook on the relation between pure Yang–Mills amplitudes and scattering amplitudes in perturbative quantum gravity.
Hadronization of the quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, B.; Sano, M.; Sato, H.; Schaefer, A.
1986-11-01
We construct a model for hadronization of the quark-gluon plasma, based on the relativistic coalescence model. We relate the coalescence amplitude to the one-particle Wigner function for quarks in the plasma. The relation between the Wigner function and the nucleon structure function is pointed out. We derive explicit expressions for the production of mesons and baryons in the framework of the relativistic harmonic oscillator model of hadronic structure. (author)
Quark and Gluon Relaxation in Quark-Gluon Plasmas
Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.
1993-01-01
The quasiparticle decay rates for quarks and gluons in quark-gluon plasmas are calculated by solving the kinetic equation. Introducing an infrared cutoff to allow for nonperturbative effects, we evaluate the quasiparticle lifetime at momenta greater than the inverse Debye screening length to leading order in the coupling constant.
Rapidity evolution of gluon TMD from low to moderate x
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balitsky, I.
2016-01-01
I discuss how the rapidity evolution of gluon transverse momentum dependent distribution (TMD) changes from nonlinear evolution at small x << 1 to linear evolution at moderate x ∼ 1. I have described the rapidity evolution of gluon TMD in the whole range of Bjorken x B and the whole range of transverse momentum. It should be emphasized that with our definition of rapidity cutoff the leading-order matrix elements of TMD operators are UV-finite so the rapidity evolution is the only evolution and it describes all the dynamics of gluon TMDs in the leading-log approximation
Quantum chromodynamics as effective theory of quarks and composite gluons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuss, T.
2004-01-01
The dynamics of quarks is described by a nonperturbatively regularized NJL model which is canonically quantized and fulfil a probability interpretation. The quantum field theory of this model is formulated in a functional space. The wave functions of the quarks and gluons are calculated as eigenstates of Hard-Core equations and the gluons are considered as relativistic bound states of colored quark-antiquark pairs. The effective dynamics of the quarks and gluons is derived from weak mapping in functional space. This leads to the functional formulation of the phenomenological SU(3) local gauge invariant quark-gluon equations in temporal gauge. This means that the local gauge symmetry is a dynamical effect resulting from the quark model
Basic features of the pion valence-quark distribution function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Lei [CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Mezrag, Cédric; Moutarde, Hervé [Centre de Saclay, IRFU/Service de Physique Nucléaire, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Roberts, Craig D. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Rodríguez-Quintero, Jose [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, Huelva E-21071 (Spain); Tandy, Peter C. [Center for Nuclear Research, Department of Physics, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 (United States)
2014-10-07
The impulse-approximation expression used hitherto to define the pion's valence-quark distribution function is flawed because it omits contributions from the gluons which bind quarks into the pion. A corrected leading-order expression produces the model-independent result that quarks dressed via the rainbow–ladder truncation, or any practical analogue, carry all the pion's light-front momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale. Corrections to the leading contribution may be divided into two classes, responsible for shifting dressed-quark momentum into glue and sea-quarks. Working with available empirical information, we use an algebraic model to express the principal impact of both classes of corrections. This enables a realistic comparison with experiment that allows us to highlight the basic features of the pion's measurable valence-quark distribution, q{sup π}(x); namely, at a characteristic hadronic scale, q{sup π}(x)∼(1−x){sup 2} for x≳0.85; and the valence-quarks carry approximately two-thirds of the pion's light-front momentum.
Effective gluon interactions from superstring disk amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oprisa, D.
2006-05-15
In this thesis an efficient method for the calculation of the N-point tree-level string amplitudes is presented. Furthermore it is shown that the six-gluon open-superstring disk amplitude can be expressed by a basis of six triple hypergeometric functions, which encode the full {alpha}' dependence. In this connection material for obtaining the {alpha}' expansion of these functions is derived. Hereby many Euler-Zagier sums are calculated including multiple harmonic series. (HSI)
Effective gluon interactions from superstring disk amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oprisa, D.
2006-05-01
In this thesis an efficient method for the calculation of the N-point tree-level string amplitudes is presented. Furthermore it is shown that the six-gluon open-superstring disk amplitude can be expressed by a basis of six triple hypergeometric functions, which encode the full α' dependence. In this connection material for obtaining the α' expansion of these functions is derived. Hereby many Euler-Zagier sums are calculated including multiple harmonic series. (HSI)
From Color Fields to Quark Gluon Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fries, Rainer J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MN 55455 (United States); Kapusta, Joseph I. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MN 55455 (United States); Li, Yang [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MN 55455 (United States)
2006-08-07
We discuss a model for the energy distribution and the early space-time evolution of a heavy ion collision. We estimate the gluon field generated in the wake of hard processes and through primordial fluctuations of the color charges in the nuclei. Without specifying the dynamical mechanism of thermalization we calculate the energy momentum tensor of the following plasma phase. The results of this model can be used as initial conditions for a further hydrodynamic evolution.
Quark and gluon jet properties in symmetric three-jet events
Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G
1996-01-01
Quark and gluon jets with the same energy, 24GeV, are compared in symmetric three-jet configurations from hadronic Z decays observed by the ALEPH detector. Jets are defined using the Durham algorithm. Gluon jets are identified using an anti-tag on b jets, based on either a track impact parameter method or a high transverse momentum lepton tag. The comparison of gluon and mixed flavour quark jets shows that gluon jets have a softer fragmentation function, a larger angular width and a higher particle multiplicity. Evidence is also presented which shows that the corresponding differences between gluon and heavy flavour jets are significantly smaller.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fredriksson, S.
1984-01-01
The Stockholm diquark is a very small (0.1-0.2 fm), bound pair of two unequal quarks in spin 0 and colour 3*. If it exists, it is expected to simulate many of the trends presently attributed to perturbative gluon processes. The Stockholm group (S. Ekelin, M. Jaendel, T.I. Larson and myself) is therefore looking for reactions where the non-perturbative QCD phenomenon of diquark formation would give signatures completely different from those of perturbative gluonic contributions. I report here on some new suggestions for diquark effects in deep inelastic scattering, with emphasis on neutron-proton differences, proton production in the current fragmentation region and nuclear target (''EMC'') effects
The SU(3) running coupling from lattice gluons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parrinello, C. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Phys. and Astron.; UKQCD Collaboration
1995-04-01
We provide numerical results for the running coupling in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory as determined from an analysis of lattice two and three-point gluon correlation functions. The coupling is evaluated directly, from first principles, by defining suitable renormalisation constants from the lattice triple gluon vertex and gluon propagator. For momenta larger than 2GeV, the coupling is found to run according to the 2-loop asymptotic formula. The influence of lattice artifacts on the results appears negligible within the precision of our measurements, although further work on this point is in progress. ((orig.)).
Quark and gluon propagators in the spherical bag model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kulish, Yu V [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst., Kharkov
1983-12-01
The quark and gluon propagators in a spherical cavity have been obtained by summation of the quark field modes (J-1/2, J is the total moment) and gluon field modes (J=1). The requirements for the spatial components of the gluon propagator Gsub(ik)(x, x') and the quark propagator S(x, x') to be Green functions of the wave equations result in the coincidence of directions for anti x and anti x' vectors. Relations have been derived which allow verification of the self-consistency of approximations used to calculate dynamic values.
Quark and gluon propagators in the spherical bag model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulish, Yu.V.
1983-01-01
The quark and gluon propagators in a spherical cavity have been obtained by summation of the quark field modes (J-1/2, J is the total moment) and gluon field modes (J=1). The requirements for the spatial components of the gluon propagator Gsub(ik)(x, x') and the quark propagator S(x, x') to be Green functions of the wave equations result in the coincidence of directions for anti x and anti x' vectors. Relations have been derived which allow verification of the self-consistency of approximations used to calculate dynamic values
Quark jets, gluon jets and the three-gluon vertex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fodor, Z.
1989-11-01
Using hadronic jets in electron-positron annihilation, we suggest a simple and model-independent method to see the differences between quark and gluon jets. We define and analyse special energy dependent moments of jets and choose those which are the most characteristic to the jet type. The method handles the energy of a jet in an adequate way. We discuss new methods using jet flavor tagging, ordinary flavor tagging of a definite quark jet or discrimination between quark and gluon jets, to test the triple-gluon vertex in electron-positron annihilation. An enriched sample of gluon jets, jets with the smallest energy in four-jet events, as well as a continuous tagging variable are also studied. 21 refs., 6 figs. (Author)
Signatures of quark-gluon plasma production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gyulassy, M.
1985-01-01
A critical analysis of a variety of proposed signatures for quark-gluon formation in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions is given. The authors emphasize that longitudinal growth rather than the nuclear radius controls the time scales for expansion. The author pointed out the qualitative difference of the evolution of the plasma produced in the stopping regime E approx. 10 GeV/nucleon and the scaling regime E > 1 TeV/nucleon. This difference reflects itself in the the rmal profile function
COVAL, Compound Probability Distribution for Function of Probability Distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Astolfi, M.; Elbaz, J.
1979-01-01
1 - Nature of the physical problem solved: Computation of the probability distribution of a function of variables, given the probability distribution of the variables themselves. 'COVAL' has been applied to reliability analysis of a structure subject to random loads. 2 - Method of solution: Numerical transformation of probability distributions
Bootstrapping quarks and gluons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chew, G.F.
1979-04-01
Dual topological unitarization (DTU) - the approach to S-matrix causality and unitarity through combinatorial topology - is reviewed. Amplitudes associated with triangulated spheres are shown to constitute the core of particle physics. Each sphere is covered by triangulated disc faces corresponding to hadrons. The leading current candidate for the hadron-face triangulation pattern employs 3-triangle basic subdiscs whose orientations correspond to baryon number and topological color. Additional peripheral triangles lie along the hadron-face perimeter. Certain combinations of peripheral triangles with a basic-disc triangle can be identified as quarks, the flavor of a quark corresponding to the orientation of its edges that lie on the hadron-face perimeter. Both baryon number and flavor are additively conserved. Quark helicity, which can be associated with triangle-interior orientation, is not uniformly conserved and interacts with particle momentum, whereas flavor does not. Three different colors attach to the 3 quarks associated with a single basic subdisc, but there is no additive physical conservation law associated with color. There is interplay between color and quark helicity. In hadron faces with more than one basic subdisc, there may occur pairs of adjacent flavorless but colored triangles with net helicity +-1 that are identifiable as gluons. Broken symmetry is an automatic feature of the bootstrap. T, C and P symmetries, as well as up-down flavor symmetry, persist on all orientable surfaces.
Bootstrapping quarks and gluons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chew, G.F.
1979-04-01
Dual topological unitarization (DTU) - the approach to S-matrix causality and unitarity through combinatorial topology - is reviewed. Amplitudes associated with triangulated spheres are shown to constitute the core of particle physics. Each sphere is covered by triangulated disc faces corresponding to hadrons. The leading current candidate for the hadron-face triangulation pattern employs 3-triangle basic subdiscs whose orientations correspond to baryon number and topological color. Additional peripheral triangles lie along the hadron-face perimeter. Certain combinations of peripheral triangles with a basic-disc triangle can be identified as quarks, the flavor of a quark corresponding to the orientation of its edges that lie on the hadron-face perimeter. Both baryon number and flavor are additively conserved. Quark helicity, which can be associated with triangle-interior orientation, is not uniformly conserved and interacts with particle momentum, whereas flavor does not. Three different colors attach to the 3 quarks associated with a single basic subdisc, but there is no additive physical conservation law associated with color. There is interplay between color and quark helicity. In hadron faces with more than one basic subdisc, there may occur pairs of adjacent flavorless but colored triangles with net helicity +-1 that are identifiable as gluons. Broken symmetry is an automatic feature of the bootstrap. T, C and P symmetries, as well as up-down flavor symmetry, persist on all orientable surfaces
Electron distribution function in laser heated plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fourkal, E.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Rozmus, W.; Sydora, R.; Kirkby, C.; Capjack, C. E.; Glenzer, S. H.; Baldis, H. A.
2001-01-01
A new electron distribution function has been found in laser heated homogeneous plasmas by an analytical solution to the kinetic equation and by particle simulations. The basic kinetic model describes inverse bremsstrahlung absorption and electron--electron collisions. The non-Maxwellian distribution function is comprised of a super-Gaussian bulk of slow electrons and a Maxwellian tail of energetic particles. The tails are heated due to electron--electron collisions and energy redistribution between superthermal particles and light absorbing slow electrons from the bulk of the distribution function. A practical fit is proposed to the new electron distribution function. Changes to the linear Landau damping of electron plasma waves are discussed. The first evidence for the existence of non-Maxwellian distribution functions has been found in the interpretation, which includes the new distribution function, of the Thomson scattering spectra in gold plasmas [Glenzer , Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 97 (1999)
Asymptotic functions and multiplication of distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todorov, T.D.
1979-01-01
Considered is a new type of generalized asymptotic functions, which are not functionals on some space of test functions as the Schwartz distributions. The definition of the generalized asymptotic functions is given. It is pointed out that in future the particular asymptotic functions will be used for solving some topics of quantum mechanics and quantum theory
Soft gluon resummation formulae for hard proton processes in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Craigie, N.S.; Jones, H.F.
1980-01-01
We briefly review the treatment of leading logarithmic behaviour of the parton distributions in QCD within the Bethe-Salpeter framework by analysing directly parton hadron Green functions in the limit of parton four-momentum k 2 → - infinitely in a special light-like gauge involving a spectator vector. This technique allows us to derive the factorization of parton probabilities in leading logarithmic order in QCD in the various inclusive processes involving a single short-distance scale. The proof requires us to show that the use of planar gauges eta = psub(A) + psub(B) + ..., where psub(A), psub(B)... are the observed hadron momenta, reduces to choosing the appropriate light-like gauge for each hadron-parton BS channel, after demonstrating a Bloch-Nordsieck cancellation of the real and virtual soft left-over gluons. In the case where two large momentum scales appear, by restricting the transverse phase space into which the gluons are radiated, we derive the double logarithmic eikonal renormalization of the hard scattering formula of the type proposed recently by Parisi and Petronzio. (orig.)
Numerical estimates of the evolution of quark and gluon populations inside QCD jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garetto, M.
1980-01-01
The system of first order differential equations for the probabilities of producing nsub(g) gluons and nsub(q) quarks in a single gluon or quark jet are solved numerically for a convenient choice of the parameters A, A-tilde, B. Relevant branching ratios as the evolution parameter Y increases are shown. The different behaviour of the distributions in the quark- and in the gluon-jet is discussed. (author)
Casimir meets Poisson: improved quark/gluon discrimination with counting observables
Frye, Christopher; Larkoski, Andrew J.; Thaler, Jesse; Zhou, Kevin
2017-09-01
Charged track multiplicity is among the most powerful observables for discriminating quark- from gluon-initiated jets. Despite its utility, it is not infrared and collinear (IRC) safe, so perturbative calculations are limited to studying the energy evolution of multiplicity moments. While IRC-safe observables, like jet mass, are perturbatively calculable, their distributions often exhibit Casimir scaling, such that their quark/gluon discrimination power is limited by the ratio of quark to gluon color factors. In this paper, we introduce new IRC-safe counting observables whose discrimination performance exceeds that of jet mass and approaches that of track multiplicity. The key observation is that track multiplicity is approximately Poisson distributed, with more suppressed tails than the Sudakov peak structure from jet mass. By using an iterated version of the soft drop jet grooming algorithm, we can define a "soft drop multiplicity" which is Poisson distributed at leading-logarithmic accuracy. In addition, we calculate the next-to-leading-logarithmic corrections to this Poisson structure. If we allow the soft drop groomer to proceed to the end of the jet branching history, we can define a collinear-unsafe (but still infrared-safe) counting observable. Exploiting the universality of the collinear limit, we define generalized fragmentation functions to study the perturbative energy evolution of collinear-unsafe multiplicity.
Gluon fragmentation into 3 PJ quarkonium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, J.P.
1995-01-01
The functions of the gluon fragmentation into 3 P j quarkonium are calculated to order α 2 s . With the recent progress in analysing quarkonium systems in QCD it is possible show how the so called divergence in the limit of the zero-binding energy, which is related to P-wave quarkonia, is treated correctly in the case of fragmentation functions. The obtained fragmentation functions satisfy explicitly at the order of α 2 s the Altarelli-Parisi equation and when z → 0 they behave as z -1 as expected. 19 refs., 7 figs
Empirical distribution function under heteroscedasticity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Víšek, Jan Ámos
2011-01-01
Roč. 45, č. 5 (2011), s. 497-508 ISSN 0233-1888 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) GA402/09/0557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Robustness * Convergence * Empirical distribution * Heteroscedasticity Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics , Operational Research Impact factor: 0.724, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/SI/visek-0365534.pdf
Positivity of time-frequency distribution functions
Janssen, A.J.E.M.
1988-01-01
This paper deals with the question how various 'natural' conditions posed on time-frequency distribution functions prevent them to be nonnegative everywhere for all signals. The attention is restricted mainly to distribution functions that involve the signal bilinearly. This paper summarizes and
Quasi-particle model for lattice QCD: quark-gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandra, Vinod; Ravishankar, V.
2009-01-01
We propose a quasi-particle model to describe the lattice QCD equation of state for pure SU(3) gauge theory in its deconfined state, for T≥1.5T c . The method involves mapping the interaction part of the equation of state to an effective fugacity of otherwise non-interacting quasi-gluons. We find that this mapping is exact. Using the quasi-gluon distribution function, we determine the energy density and the modified dispersion relation for the single particle energy, in which the trace anomaly is manifest. As an application, we first determine the Debye mass, and then the important transport parameters, viz., the shear viscosity, η, and the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, η/S. We find that both η and η/S are sensitive to the interactions, and that the interactions significantly lower both η and η/S. (orig.)
Quark self-energy in an ellipsoidally anisotropic quark-gluon plasma
Kasmaei, Babak S.; Nopoush, Mohammad; Strickland, Michael
2016-12-01
We calculate the quark self-energy in a quark-gluon plasma that possesses an ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy in the local rest frame. By introducing additional transverse-momentum anisotropy parameters into the parton distribution functions, we generalize previous results which were obtained for the case of a spheroidal anisotropy. Our results demonstrate that the presence of anisotropies in the transverse directions affects the real and imaginary parts of quark self-energy and, consequently, the self-energy depends on both the polar and azimuthal angles in the local rest frame of the matter. Our results for the quark self-energy set the stage for the calculation of the effects of ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy on quark-gluon plasma photon spectra and collective flow.
Quark charges and colour gluon mass from deep-inelastic bremsstrahlung
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pandita, P.N.
1978-01-01
Sum rules are derived for the structure function V(x) for the 'three-photon' process e +- + p →e +- + γ +X which can distinguish between various colour models below colour threshold, independently of the quark and gluon distributions. A careful study of the sum rule for V(x) in the broken colour gauge theory model can in principle be used to determine the colour gluon mass. Invoking the specific assumptions of the dominance of p-type quarks and neglecting the sea of quark-antiquark pairs, bounds for V(x) are obtained in terms of νW 2 (x) which can distinguish between various colour models below colour threshold. (author)
Asymptotic numbers, asymptotic functions and distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todorov, T.D.
1979-07-01
The asymptotic functions are a new type of generalized functions. But they are not functionals on some space of test-functions as the distributions of Schwartz. They are mappings of the set denoted by A into A, where A is the set of the asymptotic numbers introduced by Christov. On its part A is a totally-ordered set of generalized numbers including the system of real numbers R as well as infinitesimals and infinitely large numbers. Every two asymptotic functions can be multiplied. On the other hand, the distributions have realizations as asymptotic functions in a certain sense. (author)
Vertex of three and four gluons in the Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandt, F.T.C.
1986-01-01
In a general covariant gauge, the structure of the three-point function with one and two external gluons on shell is studied. The contributions which result in the one-loop approximation are expressed in terms of simple functions containing collinear and soft singularities. Furthermore, the contributions asociated with the four-point vertex when all external gluons are on-sheel, are analysed. As an application of these results, the infrared structure of the gluon-gluon scattering amplitude, is studied. (author) [pt
Gluon Polarisation Measurements at COMPASS
Silva, Luís
2012-01-01
One of the missing keys in the present understanding of the spin structure of the nucleon is the contribution from the gluons: the so-called gluon polarisation. This quantity can be determined in DIS through the photon-gluon fusion process, in which two analysis methods may be used: (i) identifying open charm events or (ii) selecting events with high $p_{T}$ hadrons. The data used in the present work were collected in the COMPASS experiment, where a 160 GeV/c naturally polarised muon beam, impinging on a polarised nucleon fixed target is used. Preliminary results for the gluon polarisation from high $p_{T}$ and open charm analyses are presented. The gluon polarisation result for high $p_{T}$ hadrons is divided, for the first time, into three statistically independent measurements at LO. The result from open charm analysis is obtained at LO and NLO. In both analyses a new weighted method based on a neural network approach is used.
Two-Loop Gluon to Gluon-Gluon Splitting Amplitudes in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bern, Z.
2004-01-01
Splitting amplitudes are universal functions governing the collinear behavior of scattering amplitudes for massless particles. We compute the two-loop g → gg splitting amplitudes in QCD, N = 1, and N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theories, which describe the limits of two-loop n-point amplitudes where two gluon momenta become parallel. They also represent an ingredient in a direct x-space computation of DGLAP evolution kernels at next-to-next-to-leading order. To obtain the splitting amplitudes, we use the unitarity sewing method. In contrast to the usual light-cone gauge treatment, our calculation does not rely on the principal-value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt prescriptions, even though the loop integrals contain some of the denominators typically encountered in light-cone gauge. We reduce the integrals to a set of 13 master integrals using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. The master integrals are computed with the aid of differential equations in the splitting momentum fraction z. The ε-poles of the splitting amplitudes are consistent with a formula due to Catani for the infrared singularities of two-loop scattering amplitudes. This consistency essentially provides an inductive proof of Catani's formula, as well as an ansatz for previously-unknown 1/ε pole terms having non-trivial color structure. Finite terms in the splitting amplitudes determine the collinear behavior of finite remainders in this formula
A QCD derivation of the additive quark model from two and three gluon exchanges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipkin, H.J.
1982-06-01
The contributions to the Pomeron from two and three gluon exchanges are shown to give the correct combinatorial factors for the additive quark model relation between meson and baryon Pomeron couplings, even though two-quark and three-quark operators are involved. Similar results hold for the contributions to hadron masses from three-gluon vertices as well as one-gluon exchange. The color algebra reduces the multiquark couplings to a linear function of quark number. (author)
The PLUTO experiment at DORIS (DESY) and the discovery of the gluon (A recollection)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stella, Bruno R. [Rome-3 Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Meyer, Hans-Juergen
2010-08-15
With the aim of determining the contribution of the PLUTO experiment at the DORIS e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring to the discovery of the gluon, as members of this former collaboration we have reconsidered all the scientific material produced by PLUTO in 1978 and the first half of 1979. It is clear that the experiment demonstrated the main decay of the Y(9.46 GeV) resonance to be mediated by 3 gluons, by providing evidence for the agreement of this hypothesis with average values and differential distributions of all possible experimental variables and by excluding all other possible alternative models. Moreover PLUTO measured in June 1979 the matrix element of the 3-gluon decay to be quantitatively as expected by QCD (even after hadronization) and, having checked the possibility to correctly trace the gluons' directions, demonstrated the spin 1 nature of the gluon by excluding spin 0 and spin 1/2. The hadronization of the gluon like a quark jet, hypothesized in the 3-gluon jet Monte Carlo simulation, was compatible with the topological data at this energy and was shown to be an approximation at 10% level for the multiplicity ({approx} < p {sub vertical} {sub stroke} {sub vertical} {sub stroke} {sub >}{sup -1}); the right expected gluon fragmentation was needed for the inclusive distributions; this was the first experimental study of (identified) gluon jets. In the following measurements at the PETRA storage ring, these results were confirmed by PLUTO and by three contemporaneous experiments by evidencing at higher energies the gluon radiation (''bremsstrahlung''), the softer one, by jet broadening, and the hard one, by the emission of (now clearly visible) gluon jets by quarks. The gluon's spin 1 particle nature was also confirmed. The PLUTO results on Y decays had been confirmed both by contemporaneous experiments at DORIS (partially) and later (also partially) were confirmed by more sophisticated detectors. (orig.)
The PLUTO experiment at DORIS (DESY) and the discovery of the gluon (A recollection)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stella, Bruno R.; Meyer, Hans-Juergen
2010-08-01
With the aim of determining the contribution of the PLUTO experiment at the DORIS e + e - storage ring to the discovery of the gluon, as members of this former collaboration we have reconsidered all the scientific material produced by PLUTO in 1978 and the first half of 1979. It is clear that the experiment demonstrated the main decay of the Y(9.46 GeV) resonance to be mediated by 3 gluons, by providing evidence for the agreement of this hypothesis with average values and differential distributions of all possible experimental variables and by excluding all other possible alternative models. Moreover PLUTO measured in June 1979 the matrix element of the 3-gluon decay to be quantitatively as expected by QCD (even after hadronization) and, having checked the possibility to correctly trace the gluons' directions, demonstrated the spin 1 nature of the gluon by excluding spin 0 and spin 1/2. The hadronization of the gluon like a quark jet, hypothesized in the 3-gluon jet Monte Carlo simulation, was compatible with the topological data at this energy and was shown to be an approximation at 10% level for the multiplicity (∼ vertical stroke vertical stroke > -1 ); the right expected gluon fragmentation was needed for the inclusive distributions; this was the first experimental study of (identified) gluon jets. In the following measurements at the PETRA storage ring, these results were confirmed by PLUTO and by three contemporaneous experiments by evidencing at higher energies the gluon radiation (''bremsstrahlung''), the softer one, by jet broadening, and the hard one, by the emission of (now clearly visible) gluon jets by quarks. The gluon's spin 1 particle nature was also confirmed. The PLUTO results on Y decays had been confirmed both by contemporaneous experiments at DORIS (partially) and later (also partially) were confirmed by more sophisticated detectors. (orig.)
A new prescription for soft gluon resummation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abbate, Riccardo; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni
2007-01-01
We present a new prescription for the resummation of the divergent series of perturbative corrections, due to soft gluon emission, to hard processes near threshold in perturbative QCD (threshold resummation). This prescription is based on Borel resummation, and contrary to the commonly used minimal prescription, it does not introduce a dependence of resummed physical observables on the kinematically unaccessible x→0 region of parton distributions. We compare results for resummed deep-inelastic scattering obtained using the Borel prescription and the minimal prescription and exploit the comparison to discuss the ambiguities related to the resummation procedure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaempfer, B.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Pavlenko, O.P.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev; Gorenstein, M.I.; Peshier, A.; Soff, G.
1994-07-01
The influence of a non-vanishing baryon charge on the rapidity distribution of dileptons produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions is studied. We employ a frozen motion model with scaling invariant expansion of the hadronizing quark-gluon plasma as well as a realistic rapidity distribution of secondary particles (i.e., pions and baryons) expected for RHIC energies. We find a considerable suppression of the dilepton production yield at large rapidities due to the finite baryon density. To discriminate the thermal dileptons from Drell-Yan background we propose to utilize the dilepton yield scaled suitably by the pion multiplicity as function of rapidity. (orig.)
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
Emissions of soft gluons from energetic particles play an important role in collider processes. While the basic physics of soft emissions is simple, it gives rise to a variety of interesting and intricate phenomena (non-global logs, Glauber phases, super-leading logs, factorization breaking). After an introduction, I will review progress in resummation methods such as Soft-Collinear Effective Theory driven by a better understanding of soft emissions. I will also show some new results for computations of soft-gluon effects in gap-between-jets and isolation-cone cross sections.
The unconfined quarks and gluons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdus Salam
1977-01-01
The consequences of the lepton-hadron gauge unification hypothesis with unconfined quarks and gluons being the hall-mark are discussed. Quark and gluon decays into leptons are shown to provide a new source of multileptonic production in NN, νN and μN collisions. A theorem is stated and proved which highlights the differences between the dynamics of gauge versus non-gauge 1 - particles. Empirical manifestations of gauge coloured mesons are discussed. The question of exact confinement or not is concluded to be in the end an empirical one and must be settled in the laboratory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Speltz, J.
2006-10-01
In this work, we characterize the production of the multi-strange baryons Xi and Omega in Au+Au collisions at RHIC, where the possible formation of a matter of deconfined quarks and gluons (QGP) is expected. We analyze with the STAR experiment, the collisions obtained at an energy of 62 GeV, intermediate between the one reached at the SPS (17 GeV) and the nominal energy of RHIC (200 GeV). Transverse momentum spectra, yields and elliptic flow are measured with different methods allowing for a relevant estimation of systematic errors. The results are compared to statistical and hydrodynamic models that we have adapted for their use at 62 GeV. The so obtained chemical and dynamic properties of the created medium indicate the formation of a thermalized, at least partially, medium and suggests the formation of a comparable matter at 62 GeV and at 200 GeV. (author)
Quark and gluon fragmentation in high energy e+e- annihilation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saxon, D.H.
1986-07-01
The paper on quark and gluon fragmentation in high energy e + e - annihilation is based on lectures given at the International School of High Energy Physics, Yugoslavia, 1986. Fragmentation Models, charged particle multiplicity, Bose-Einstein correlations, single particle inclusive distributions, hadrons in jets, leading particle effects, baryon production, comparison of quark and gluon jets, and the string effect, are all discussed. (UK)
Scaling function, spectral function and nucleon momentum distribution in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antonov, A.N.; Ivanov, M.V.; Caballero, J.A.; Barbaro, M.B.; Udias, J.M.; Moya de Guerra, E.; Donnelly, T.W.
2010-01-01
The aim of the study is to find a good simultaneous description of the spectral function and the momentum distribution in relation to the realistic scaling function obtained from inclusive electron-nuclei scattering experiments. We start with a modified Hartree-Fock spectral function in which the energy dependent part (δ-function) is replaced by the Gaussian distributions with hole state widths as free parameters. We calculate the scaling function and the nucleon momentum distribution on the basis of the spectral function constructed in this way, trying to find a good description of the experimental data. The obtained scaling function has a weak asymmetry and the momentum distribution has not got a high-momentum tail in the case when harmonic-oscillator single-particle wave functions are used. So, to improve the behavior of the momentum distribution we used the basis of natural orbitals (NO) in which short-range correlations are partly incorporated. The results for the scaling function show again a weak asymmetry, but in this case the momentum distribution has a high-momentum tail. As a next step we include final-state interactions (FSI) in the calculations to reproduce the experimentally observed asymmetry of the scaling function. (author)
Fragmentation of quarks and gluons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soeding, P.
1983-10-01
The author presents a review about quark and gluon jets. He describes the particle contents of the different types of jets. Finally he considers the hadronization mechanism with special regards to three-jet events in e + e - annihilation and hadronization in nuclear matter. (HSI)
1995-01-01
This is a sequel to the review volume Quark-Gluon Plasma. There are 13 articles contributed by leading investigators in the field, covering a wide range of topics about the theoretical approach to the subject. These contributions are timely reviews of nearly all the actively pursued problems, written in a pedagogical style suitable for beginners as well as experienced researchers.
Vogt, Ramona
1998-01-01
Aspects of quark-gluon plasma signatures that can be measured by CMS are discussed. First the initial conditions of the system from minijet production are introduced, including shadowing effects. Color screening of the Upsilon family is then presented, followed by energy loss effects on charm and bottom hadrons, high Pt jets and global observables.
Soft Probes of the Quark-Gluon Plasma in ATLAS
Wozniak, K W; The ATLAS collaboration
2014-01-01
Measurements of low-$p_{_{\\rm T}}$ ($<$ 5 GeV) particles in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC provide valuable insight in the production and evolution of the quark-gluon plasma. In particular, measurements of the elliptic and higher order collective flow imprinted on the azimuthal angle distributions of low-$p_{T}$ particles directly probe the strongly-coupled dynamics of the quark gluon plasma and test hydrodynamic model descriptions of its evolution. The large acceptance of detectors like ATLAS makes it possible to measure flow event-by-event and to determine the correlations between different event planes and different flow harmonics.
Quark and gluon tagging in dijet mass resonance search
Kellermann, Edgar
2013-01-01
Several models beyond the Standard Model predict new phenomena in particle physics, which would appear as resonant signals in dijet mass distributions. An example for such a resonance is the excited quark q, which is a consequence of Compositeness Models postulating that quarks and leptons are build by more fundamental particles. The main signature of an excited quark would be a dijet event, originated from the radiation of a gluon from the original excited quark when going back to its non-excited state, leading to a quark and a gluon in the final state (with a branching ratio of 83%) . Other examples are the heavy vector bosonsW0 decaying to two quarks and colour octet scalar S8 decaying to two gluons.
Phenomenological relation between distribution and fragmentation functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Boqiang; Schmidt, Ivan; Soffer, Jacques; Yang Jianjun
2002-01-01
We study the relation between the quark distribution function q(x) and the fragmentation function D q (z) based on a general form D q (x)=C(z)z α q(z) for valence and sea quarks. By adopting two known parametrizations of quark distributions for the proton, we find three simple options for the fragmentation functions that can provide a good description of the available experimental data on proton production in e + e - inelastic annihilation. These three options support the revised Gribov-Lipatov relation D q (z)=zq(z) at z→1, as an approximate relation for the connection between distribution and fragmentation functions. The three options differ in the sea contributions and lead to distinct predictions for antiproton production in the reaction p+p→p-bar+X, thus they are distinguishable in future experiments at RHIC-BNL
Convolution of Distribution-Valued Functions. Applications.
BARGETZ, CHRISTIAN
2011-01-01
In this article we examine products and convolutions of vector-valued functions. For nuclear normal spaces of distributions Proposition 25 in [31,p. 120] yields a vector-valued product or convolution if there is a continuous product or convolution mapping in the range of the vector-valued functions. For specific spaces, we generalize this result to hypocontinuous bilinear maps at the expense of generality with respect to the function space. We consider holomorphic, meromorphic and differentia...
Certain exclusive processes in QCD taking into account two-gluon states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baier, V.N.; Grozin, A.G.
1982-01-01
The wave functions and evolution equations for mesons are classified completely taking into account two-gluon states and then are compared to the Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations. The form factors of completely neutral mesons and the probabilities for exclusive decays of quarkonium states are found taking into account two-gluon states
Renormalizability of a quark-gluon model with soft BRST breaking in the infrared region
Baulieu, L; Gomez, A J; Lemes, V E R; Sobreiro, R F; Sorella, S P
2010-01-01
We prove the renormalizability of a quark-gluon model with a soft breaking of the BRST symmetry, which accounts for the modification of the large distance behavior of the quark and gluon correlation functions. The proof is valid to all orders of perturbation theory, by making use of softly broken Ward identities.
Gluon mass generation without seagull divergences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguilar, Arlene C.; Papavassiliou, Joannis
2010-01-01
Dynamical gluon mass generation has been traditionally plagued with seagull divergences, and all regularization procedures proposed over the years yield finite but scheme-dependent gluon masses. In this work we show how such divergences can be eliminated completely by virtue of a characteristic identity, valid in dimensional regularization. The ability to trigger the aforementioned identity hinges crucially on the particular Ansatz employed for the three-gluon vertex entering into the Schwinger-Dyson equation governing the gluon propagator. The use of the appropriate three-gluon vertex brings about an additional advantage: one obtains two separate (but coupled) integral equations, one for the effective charge and one for the gluon mass. This system of integral equations has a unique solution, which unambiguously determines these two quantities. Most notably, the effective charge freezes in the infrared, and the gluon mass displays power-law running in the ultraviolet, in agreement with earlier considerations.
Wigner distribution function for an oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davies, R.W.; Davies, K.T.R.
1975-01-01
We present two new derivations of the Wigner distribution function for a simple harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian. Both methods are facilitated using a formula which expresses the Wigner function as a simple trace. The first method of derivation utilizes a modification of a theorem due to Messiah. An alternative procedure makes use of the coherent state representation of an oscillator. The Wigner distribution function gives a semiclassical joint probability for finding the system with given coordinates and momenta, and the joint probability is factorable for the special case of an oscillator. An important application of this result occurs in the theory of nuclear fission for calculating the probability distributions for the masses, kinetic energies, and vibrational energies of the fission fragments at infinite separation. (U.S.)
Distribution function of faint galaxy numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fesenko, L.M.
1981-01-01
The Lick observatory counts of galaxies are considered. The distribution of number of galaxies in elementary regions (ER) of 1 degx1 deg is investigated. Each field of 6 degx6 deg was treated separately At b>40 deg the probab+lity to observe of n galaxies in ER is an exponential decreasing function of n, if unequality n> were fulfilled. The mean apparent multiplicity of a galaxy (2.8+-0.9) was derived. The galaxy number distribution was simple model for the number of various systems of galaxies. The supperclustering of galaxies was not introduced. Based on that model the approximate expression for galaxy number distribution was considered and was compared with observed distributions. The agreement between these distributions become better with reducing of the interstellar absorption of light
New generalized functions and multiplication of distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colombeau, J.F.
1984-01-01
Since its conception, Quantum Field Theory is based on 'heuristic' computations (in particular products of distributions) that, despite lots of effort, remained meaningless from a mathematical viewpoint. In this book the author presents a new mathematical theory giving a rigorous mathematical sense to these heuristic computations and, from a mathematical viewpoint, to all products of distributions. This new mathematical theory is a new theory of Generalized Functions defined on any open subset Ω of Rsup(n), which are much more general than the distributions on Ω. (Auth.)
Equilibrium distribution function in collisionless systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pergamenshchik, V.M.
1988-01-01
Collisionless systems of a large number of N particles interacting by Coulomb forces are widely spread in cosmic and laboratory plasma. A statistical theory of equilibrium state of collisionless Coulomb systems which evolution obeys Vlasov equation is proposed. The developed formalism permits a sequential consideration of such distributed in one-particle six-dimensional phase space of a system and to obtain a simple result: equilibrium distribution function has the form of Fermi-Dirac distribution and doesn't depend on initial state factors
'' Ideal Gas '' gluon plasma with medium dependent dispersion relation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorenstein, M.I.
1995-01-01
An '' ideal gas '' model with temperature dependent particle mass is constructed for the gluon plasma equation of state. This simple model gives us an example of a system with temperature dependent effective Hamiltonian. To satisfy thermodynamical relations in these systems, standard statistical mechanics formulas have to be supplemented by special requirements which are considered in details. A self-consistent '' ideal gas '' formulation is used to describe Monte Carlo lattice data for the thermodynamical functions of SU(2) and SU(3) gluon plasma. 14 refs., 8 figs
Proposal for Modified Damage Probability Distribution Functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Hansen, Peter Friis
1996-01-01
Immidiately following the Estonia disaster, the Nordic countries establishe a project entitled "Safety of Passenger/RoRo Vessels" As part of this project the present proposal for modified damage stability probability distribution functions has been developed. and submitted to "Sub-committee on st......Immidiately following the Estonia disaster, the Nordic countries establishe a project entitled "Safety of Passenger/RoRo Vessels" As part of this project the present proposal for modified damage stability probability distribution functions has been developed. and submitted to "Sub...
Regularization of the light-cone gauge gluon propagator singularities using sub-gauge conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chirilli, Giovanni A.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Wertepny, Douglas E. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University,191 W Woodruff Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)
2015-12-21
Perturbative QCD calculations in the light-cone gauge have long suffered from the ambiguity associated with the regularization of the poles in the gluon propagator. In this work we study sub-gauge conditions within the light-cone gauge corresponding to several known ways of regulating the gluon propagator. Using the functional integral calculation of the gluon propagator, we rederive the known sub-gauge conditions for the θ-function gauges and identify the sub-gauge condition for the principal value (PV) regularization of the gluon propagator’s light-cone poles. The obtained sub-gauge condition for the PV case is further verified by a sample calculation of the classical Yang-Mills field of two collinear ultrarelativistic point color charges. Our method does not allow one to construct a sub-gauge condition corresponding to the well-known Mandelstam-Leibbrandt prescription for regulating the gluon propagator poles.
Shadowing of gluons in perturbative QCD: A comparison of different models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Wang, Xin-Nian
2001-01-01
We investigate the different perturbative QCD-based models for nuclear shadowing of gluons. We show that, in the kinematic region appropriate to the BNL relativistic heavy ion collider experiment, all models give similar estimates for the magnitude of gluon shadowing. At scales relevant to CERN large hadron collider (LHC), there is a sizable difference between the predictions of the different models. However, the uncertainties in gluon shadowing coming from a different parametrization of the gluon distribution in nucleons, are larger than those due to different perturbative QCD models of gluon shadowing. We also investigate the effect of initial nonperturbative shadowing on the magnitude of perturbative shadowing and show that the magnitudes of perturbative and nonperturbative shadowing are comparable at RHIC but perturbative shadowing dominates over nonperturbative shadowing at smaller values of x reached at LHC
Forward gluon production in hadron-hadron scattering with Pomeron loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iancu, E.
2006-01-01
We discuss new physical phenomena expected in particle production in hadron-hadron collisions at high energy, as a consequence of Pomerons loop effects in the evolution equations for the Color Glass Condensate. We focus on gluon production in asymmetric, 'dilute-dense', collisions: a dilute projectile scatters off a dense hadronic target, whose gluon distribution is highly evolved. This situation is representative for particle production in proton-proton collisions at forward rapidities (say, at LHC) and admits a dipole factorization similar to that of deep inelastic scattering (DIS). We show that at sufficiently large forward rapidities, where the Pomerons loop effects become important in the evolution of the target wavefunction, gluon production is dominated by 'black spots' (saturated gluon configurations) up to very large values of the transverse momentum, well above the average saturation momentum in the target. In this regime, the produced gluon spectrum exhibits diffusive scaling, so like DIS at sufficiently high energy. (authors)
Electron distribution functions in Io plasma torus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boev, A.G.
2003-01-01
Electron distribution functions measured by the Voyager 1 in different shares of the Io plasma torus are explained. It is proved that their suprathermal tails are formed by the electrical field induced by the 'Jupiter wind'. The Maxwellian parts of all these spectra characterize thermal equilibrium populations of electrons and the radiation of exited ions
Electron energy-distribution functions in gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pitchford, L.C.
1981-01-01
Numerical calculation of the electron energy distribution functions in the regime of drift tube experiments is discussed. The discussion is limited to constant applied fields and values of E/N (ratio of electric field strength to neutral density) low enough that electron growth due to ionization can be neglected
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barik, N.; Mishra, R.N.
2001-01-01
Considering the nucleon as consisting entirely of its valence quarks confined independently in a scalar-vector harmonic potential; unpolarized structure functions F 1 (x, μ 2 ) and F 2 (x, μ 2 ) are derived in the Bjorken limit under certain simplifying assumptions; from which valence quark distribution functions u v (x, μ 2 ) and d v (x, μ 2 ) are appropriately extracted satisfying the normalization constraints. QCD-evolution of these input distributions from a model scale of μ 2 = 0.07 GeV 2 to a higher Q 2 scale of Q 0 2 = 15 GeV 2 yields xu v (x, Q 0 2 ) and xd v (x, Q 0 2 ) in good agreement with experimental data. The gluon and sea-quark distributions such as G (x, Q 0 2 ) and q s (x, Q 0 2 ) are dynamically generated with a reasonable qualitative agreement with the available data; using the leading order renormalization group equations with appropriate valence-quark distributions as the input. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barik, N [Dept. of Physics, Utkal Univ., Bhubaneswar (India); Mishra, R N [Dept. of Physics, Dhenkanal College, Dhenkanal (India)
2001-04-01
Considering the nucleon as consisting entirely of its valence quarks confined independently in a scalar-vector harmonic potential; unpolarized structure functions F{sub 1} (x, {mu}{sup 2}) and F{sub 2} (x, {mu}{sup 2}) are derived in the Bjorken limit under certain simplifying assumptions; from which valence quark distribution functions u{sub v} (x, {mu}{sup 2}) and d{sub v} (x, {mu}{sup 2}) are appropriately extracted satisfying the normalization constraints. QCD-evolution of these input distributions from a model scale of {mu}{sup 2} = 0.07 GeV{sup 2} to a higher Q{sup 2} scale of Q{sub 0}{sup 2} = 15 GeV{sup 2} yields xu{sub v} (x, Q{sub 0}{sup 2}) and xd{sub v} (x, Q{sub 0}{sup 2}) in good agreement with experimental data. The gluon and sea-quark distributions such as G (x, Q{sub 0}{sup 2}) and q{sub s} (x, Q{sub 0}{sup 2}) are dynamically generated with a reasonable qualitative agreement with the available data; using the leading order renormalization group equations with appropriate valence-quark distributions as the input. (author)
QCD coherence in the structure function and associated distributions at small x
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marchesini, G.
1995-01-01
We recall the origin of angular ordering in soft parton emission and show that at small x this coherent structure is masked in the structure function while it can be detected in the associated distributions. This is due to the fact that collinear singularities cancel completely in the structure function at fixed transverse momentum for x →0. In this limit the dependence on the hard scale is lost, the angular ordered region becomes equivalent to the multi-Regge region in which all transverse momenta are of the same order, and one derives the BFKL equation. For the associated distributions at small x such a complete cancellation of collinear singularities does not hold in general, thus large singular contributions are neglected if angular ordering is replaced by multi-Regge phase space. The deduction of these features requires an analysis without any collinear approximations which is done by extending to small x the soft gluon factorization techniques typically used in the region of large x. Since the coherent structure of parton emission is the same in the small and large x regions, one can formulate a unified evolution equation for the structure function, a unified coherent branching and jet algorithm which allows the calculation of associated distributions in all x regions. Such a unified formulation, valid for all x, is presented and compared with usual treatments. ((orig.))
Gluon exchange in elastic hadron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jenkovszky, L.L.; Paccanoni, F.; Chikovani, Z.E.
1991-01-01
It is generally accepted that the Pomeron, which determines the long-range component of the strong interaction, corresponds to exchange of gluons with the corresponding quantum numbers (the minimum number of such gluons is two). The C-odd partner of the Pomeron, the odderon, corresponds to exchange of an odd number of gluons (three or more). By means of a model of the nonperturbative gluon propagator, restrictions are obtained on the parameters of two-gluon (Pomeron) and three-gluon (odderon) exchange in hadron scattering. In the framework of this model an interpretation is proposed for the various asymptotic regimes in the behavior of the total cross section and of the differential cross section of elastic scattering at high energies
Quark Loop Effects on Dressed Gluon Propagator in Framework of Global Color Symmetry Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZONG Hong-Shi; SUN Wei-Min
2006-01-01
Based on the global color symmetry model (GCM), a method for obtaining the quark loop effects on the dressed gluon propagator in GCM is developed. In the chiral limit, it is found that the dressed gluon propagator containing the quark loop effects in the Nambu-Goldstone and Wigner phases are quite different. In solving the quark self-energy functions in the two different phases and subsequent study of bag constant one should use the above dressed gluon propagator as input. The above approach for obtaining the current quark mass effects on the dressed gluon propagator is quite general and can also be used to calculate the chemical potential dependence of the dressed gluon propagator.
Quark and gluon jet properties in symmetric three-jet events
Buskulic, D.; Casper, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Palla, F.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Gelao, G.; Girone, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A. O.; Bonvicini, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Moneta, L.; Oest, T.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Wäänänen, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Delfino, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, F.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Abbaneo, D.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Whelan, E. P.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Nicod, D.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Abt, I.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Denis, R. St.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Park, I. C.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Johnson, D. L.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Edwards, M.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Beddall, A.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Rankin, C.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Feigl, E.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Ragusa, F.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Bellantoni, L.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Grahl, J.; Greening, T. C.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I. J.; Sharma, V.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration
1996-02-01
Quark and gluon jets with the same energy, 24 GeV, are compared in symmetric three-jet configurations from hadronic Z decays observed by the ALEPH detector. Jets are defined using the Durham algorithm. Gluon jets are identified using an anti-tag on b jets, based on a track impact parameter method. The comparison of gluon and mixed flavour quark jets shows that gluon jets have a softer fragmentation function, a larger angular width and a higher particle multiplicity, Evidence is presented which shows that the corresponding differences between gluon and b jets are significantly smaller. In a statistically limited comparison the multiplicity in c jets was found to be comparable with that observed for the jets of mixed quark flavour.
High energy evolution of soft gluon cascades
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shuvaev, A.; Wallon, S.
2006-01-01
In this paper we derive an evolution equation for the gluon density in soft gluon cascades emitted from any colored source, in the leading logarithmic approximation of perturbative QCD. We show that this equation has the same form as the BFKL equation in the forward case. An explicit expression for the total cascade wavefunction involving an arbitrary number of soft gluons is obtained. Renormalization of the colored source wavefunction turns out to be responsible for the reggeization of the source. (orig.)
High energy evolution of soft gluon cascades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shuvaev, A. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg district (Russian Federation); Wallon, S. [Universite Paris XI, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Orsay Cedex (France)
2006-04-15
In this paper we derive an evolution equation for the gluon density in soft gluon cascades emitted from any colored source, in the leading logarithmic approximation of perturbative QCD. We show that this equation has the same form as the BFKL equation in the forward case. An explicit expression for the total cascade wavefunction involving an arbitrary number of soft gluons is obtained. Renormalization of the colored source wavefunction turns out to be responsible for the reggeization of the source. (orig.)
Quark ACM with topologically generated gluon mass
Choudhury, Ishita Dutta; Lahiri, Amitabha
2016-03-01
We investigate the effect of a small, gauge-invariant mass of the gluon on the anomalous chromomagnetic moment (ACM) of quarks by perturbative calculations at one-loop level. The mass of the gluon is taken to have been generated via a topological mass generation mechanism, in which the gluon acquires a mass through its interaction with an antisymmetric tensor field Bμν. For a small gluon mass ( ACM at momentum transfer q2 = -M Z2. We compare those with the ACM calculated for the gluon mass arising from a Proca mass term. We find that the ACM of up, down, strange and charm quarks vary significantly with the gluon mass, while the ACM of top and bottom quarks show negligible gluon mass dependence. The mechanism of gluon mass generation is most important for the strange quarks ACM, but not so much for the other quarks. We also show the results at q2 = -m t2. We find that the dependence on gluon mass at q2 = -m t2 is much less than at q2 = -M Z2 for all quarks.
Distribution functions and thermodynamic functions of many particle systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isihara, A.; Rosa Junior, S.G.
1976-01-01
A method is given of determining and upper bound of the entropy of a classical interacting system. A family of gaussian trial distribution functions is introduced for an electron gas. It was found that the ring diagram energy corresponds to the minimum free energy which the family produces. In contrast to the ring diagram method, the new approach is extremely simple and general [pt
Distributed Function Calculation over Noisy Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhidun Zeng
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Considering any connected network with unknown initial states for all nodes, the nearest-neighbor rule is utilized for each node to update its own state at every discrete-time step. Distributed function calculation problem is defined for one node to compute some function of the initial values of all the nodes based on its own observations. In this paper, taking into account uncertainties in the network and observations, an algorithm is proposed to compute and explicitly characterize the value of the function in question when the number of successive observations is large enough. While the number of successive observations is not large enough, we provide an approach to obtain the tightest possible bounds on such function by using linear programing optimization techniques. Simulations are provided to demonstrate the theoretical results.
DISTRIBUTED RC NETWORKS WITH RATIONAL TRANSFER FUNCTIONS,
A distributed RC circuit analogous to a continuously tapped transmission line can be made to have a rational short-circuit transfer admittance and...one rational shortcircuit driving-point admittance. A subcircuit of the same structure has a rational open circuit transfer impedance and one rational ...open circuit driving-point impedance. Hence, rational transfer functions may be obtained while considering either generator impedance or load
Survival Function Analysis of Planet Size Distribution
Zeng, Li; Jacobsen, Stein B.; Sasselov, Dimitar D.; Vanderburg, Andrew
2018-01-01
Applying the survival function analysis to the planet radius distribution of the Kepler exoplanet candidates, we have identified two natural divisions of planet radius at 4 Earth radii and 10 Earth radii. These divisions place constraints on planet formation and interior structure model. The division at 4 Earth radii separates small exoplanets from large exoplanets above. When combined with the recently-discovered radius gap at 2 Earth radii, it supports the treatment of planets 2-4 Earth rad...
Wireless distributed functional electrical stimulation system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jovičić Nenad S
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of movement in humans is hierarchical and distributed and uses feedback. An assistive system could be best integrated into the therapy of a human with a central nervous system lesion if the system is controlled in a similar manner. Here, we present a novel wireless architecture and routing protocol for a distributed functional electrical stimulation system that enables control of movement. Methods The new system comprises a set of miniature battery-powered devices with stimulating and sensing functionality mounted on the body of the subject. The devices communicate wirelessly with one coordinator device, which is connected to a host computer. The control algorithm runs on the computer in open- or closed-loop form. A prototype of the system was designed using commercial, off-the-shelf components. The propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves and the distributed nature of the system were considered during the development of a two-hop routing protocol, which was implemented in the prototype’s software. Results The outcomes of this research include a novel system architecture and routing protocol and a functional prototype based on commercial, off-the-shelf components. A proof-of-concept study was performed on a hemiplegic subject with paresis of the right arm. The subject was tasked with generating a fully functional palmar grasp (closing of the fingers. One node was used to provide this movement, while a second node controlled the activation of extensor muscles to eliminate undesired wrist flexion. The system was tested with the open- and closed-loop control algorithms. Conclusions The system fulfilled technical and application requirements. The novel communication protocol enabled reliable real-time use of the system in both closed- and open-loop forms. The testing on a patient showed that the multi-node system could operate effectively to generate functional movement.
Wireless distributed functional electrical stimulation system.
Jovičić, Nenad S; Saranovac, Lazar V; Popović, Dejan B
2012-08-09
The control of movement in humans is hierarchical and distributed and uses feedback. An assistive system could be best integrated into the therapy of a human with a central nervous system lesion if the system is controlled in a similar manner. Here, we present a novel wireless architecture and routing protocol for a distributed functional electrical stimulation system that enables control of movement. The new system comprises a set of miniature battery-powered devices with stimulating and sensing functionality mounted on the body of the subject. The devices communicate wirelessly with one coordinator device, which is connected to a host computer. The control algorithm runs on the computer in open- or closed-loop form. A prototype of the system was designed using commercial, off-the-shelf components. The propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves and the distributed nature of the system were considered during the development of a two-hop routing protocol, which was implemented in the prototype's software. The outcomes of this research include a novel system architecture and routing protocol and a functional prototype based on commercial, off-the-shelf components. A proof-of-concept study was performed on a hemiplegic subject with paresis of the right arm. The subject was tasked with generating a fully functional palmar grasp (closing of the fingers). One node was used to provide this movement, while a second node controlled the activation of extensor muscles to eliminate undesired wrist flexion. The system was tested with the open- and closed-loop control algorithms. The system fulfilled technical and application requirements. The novel communication protocol enabled reliable real-time use of the system in both closed- and open-loop forms. The testing on a patient showed that the multi-node system could operate effectively to generate functional movement.
Gluon chains and multiquark hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jadach, S.; Jezabek, M.
1979-01-01
A monopole approximation to the confining potential is proposed. In this approximation spatially separated groups of quarks carry a definite total colour charge. The potentials which lead to the formation of gluon chains are discussed. The generalization of a (3,3bar) chain notion, studied by Tiktopoulos, to the case of arbitrary colour charges is given. It is argued that these generalized chains may be unstable with respect to splitting into a system of weakly interacting chains of the (3,3bar) type. A unified picture of the high energy hadronic collisions, based on the gluon chain notion and the monopole approximation is proposed. In the meson-meson sector this picture is equivalent to the topological approach. For the other processes it is similar to the approach of Rossi and Veneziano. However, it is argued that the introduction of the junction line into the quark frame is superfluous. The results are expressed in the language of the coloured dual diagrams which provide a generalization of those of Harari and Rosner. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adloff, C.; Anderson, M.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Arkadov, V.; Arndt, C.; Ayyaz, I.; Babaev, A.; Baehr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Bate, P.; Beck, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Behrend, H.-J.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bernardi, G.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Biddulph, P.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Brown, D.P.; Brueckner, W.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Buerger, J.; Buesser, F.W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Calvet, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Carli, T.; Chabert, E.; Charlet, M.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Contreras, J.G.; Cormack, C.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Davidsson, M.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; Diaconu, C.; Dirkmann, M.; Dixon, P.; Dlugosz, W.; Donovan, K.T.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Ebert, J.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Elsen, E.; Enzenberger, M.; Erdmann, M.; Fahr, A.B.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Fleischer, M.; Fluegge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Gaede, F.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Gorelov, I.; Grab, C.; Graessler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Griffiths, R.K.; Grindhammer, G.; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, T.; Hampel, M.; Haustein, V.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herynek, I.; Hewitt, K.; Hiller, K.H.; Hilton, C.D.; Hladky, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C.; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Jansen, D.M.; Joensson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.; Jung, H.; Kaestli, H.K.; Kander, M.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnik, O.; Katzy, J.; Kaufmann, O.; Kausch, M.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Koehne, J.H.; Kolanoski, H.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Kraemerkaemper, T.; Krasny, M.W.; Krehbiel, H.; Kruecker, D.; Krueger, K.; Kuepper, A.; Kuester, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Langenegger, U.; Lebedev, A.; Lehner, F.; Lemaitre, V.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobo, G.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, S.; Lueke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Magnussen, N.; Mahlke-Krueger, H.; Malinovski, E.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martin, G.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; McMahon, T.R.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Metlica, F.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.-O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Moeck, J.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Moreau, F.; Morris, J.V.; Mueller, D.; Mueller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Negri, I.; Newman, P.R.; Nguyen, H.K.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Niedzballa, Ch.; Niggli, H.; Nikitin, D.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Oberlack, H.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Palmen, P.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Passaggio, S.; Patel, G.D.; Pawletta, H.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pieuchot, A.; Pitzl, D.; Poeschl, R.; Pope, G.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Rick, H.; Riess, S.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rosenbauer, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rouse, F.; Royon, C.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Schacht, P.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schleif, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, D.; Schoeffel, L.; Schroeder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwab, B.; Sefkow, F.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Siegmon, G.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, M.; Solochenko, V.; Soloviev, Y.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Spiekermann, J.; Spitzer, H.; Squinabol, F.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Stellberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J.P.; Swart, M.; Tapprogge, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Tchernshov, V.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Theissen, J.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Todenhagen, R.; Truoel, P.; Tsipolitis, G.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Esch, P.; Van Haecke, A.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Villet, G.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Walter, T.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wengler, T.; Werner, M.; West, L.R.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Willard, S.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wittek, C.; Wittmann, E.; Wobisch, M.; Wollatz, H.; Wuensch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zini, P.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zurNedden, M.
1999-01-01
With the H1 detector at the ep collider HERA, D * meson production cross sections have been measured in deep inelastic scattering with four-momentum transfers Q 2 > 3 GeV 2 and in photoproduction at energies around W γp ∼ 88 GeV and 194 GeV. Next-to-Leading Order QCD calculations are found to describe the differential cross sections within theoretical and experimental uncertainties. Using these calculations, the NLO gluon momentum distribution in the proton, x g g(x g ), has been extracted in the momentum fraction range 7.5 x 10 -4 g -2 at average scales μ 2 = 25 to 50 GeV 2 . The gluon momentum fraction x g has been obtained from the measured kinematics of the scattered electron and the D * meson in the final state. The results compare well with the gluon distribution obtained from the analysis of scaling violations of the proton structure function F 2
Soft gluon resummation for gluon-induced Higgs Strahlung
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harlander, Robert; Zirke, Tom [Fachbereich C, Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal (Germany); Kulesza, Anna; Theeuwes, Vincent [Institute for Theoretical Physics, WWU Muenster (Germany)
2015-07-01
We study the effect of soft gluon emission on the total cross section predictions for the gg → HZ associated Higgs production process at the LHC. To this end, we perform resummation of threshold corrections at the NLL accuracy in the absolute threshold production limit and in the threshold limit for production of a ZH system with a given invariant mass. Analytical results and numerical predictions for various possible LHC collision energies are presented. The perturbative stability of the results is verified by including universal NNLL effects. We find that resummation significantly reduces the scale uncertainty of the gg → HZ contribution, which is the dominant source of perturbative uncertainty to ZH production. We use our results to evaluate updated numbers for the total inclusive cross section of associated pp → ZH production at the LHC. The reduced scale uncertainty of the gg → HZ component translates into a decrease of the overall scale error by about a factor of two.
Baryonic decay of the J/psi and gluon spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pallin, D.
1985-04-01
A study of the J/psi state of the charmomium (c antic state) was performed at the D.C.I. collider in Orsay with the DM2 detector. 9 millions of J/psi have been produced, corresponding to more than one half of the actual world statistics. The very simple mecanism of the e +- annihilation into baryon-antibaryon via the J/psi state, allows measurements of the gluon spin through the emitted baryon angular distribution. The analyse of the channels J/psi → p antip and Λ antiΛ, permits to obtain parameters for the angular distributions. These experimental values favour very clearly a vectorial gluon hypothesis, as postulated by the quantum Chromodynamics [fr
Tree-level gluon amplitudes on the celestial sphere
Schreiber, Anders Ø.; Volovich, Anastasia; Zlotnikov, Michael
2018-06-01
Pasterski, Shao and Strominger have recently proposed that massless scattering amplitudes can be mapped to correlators on the celestial sphere at infinity via a Mellin transform. We apply this prescription to arbitrary n-point tree-level gluon amplitudes. The Mellin transforms of MHV amplitudes are given by generalized hypergeometric functions on the Grassmannian Gr (4 , n), while generic non-MHV amplitudes are given by more complicated Gelfand A-hypergeometric functions.
Duality and multi-gluon scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mangano, M.; Parke, S.; Xu Zhan
1988-01-01
For the six-gluon scattering process we give explicit and simple expressions for the amplitude and its square. To achieve this we use an analogy with string theories to identify a unique procedure for writing the multi-gluon scattering amplitudes in terms of a sum of gauge invariant dual sub-amplitudes multiplied by an appropriate color (Chan-Paton) factor. The sub-amplitudes defined in this way are invariant under cyclic permutations, satisfy powerful identities which relate different non-cyclic permutations and factorize in the soft gluon limit, the two-gluon collinear limit and on multi-gluon poles. Also, to leading order in the number of colors these sub-amplitudes sum incoherently in the square of the full matrix element. The results contained here are important for Monte Carlo studies of multi-jet processes at hadron colliders as well as for understanding the general structure of QCD. (orig.)
HUNTING THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
LUDLAM, T.; ARONSON, S.
2005-04-11
The U.S. Department of Energy's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) construction project was completed at BNL in 1999, with the first data-taking runs in the summer of 2000. Since then the early measurements at RHIC have yielded a wealth of data, from four independent detectors, each with its international collaboration of scientists: BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS, and STAR [1]. For the first time, collisions of heavy nuclei have been carried out at colliding-beam energies that have previously been accessible only for high-energy physics experiments with collisions of ''elementary'' particles such as protons and electrons. It is at these high energies that the predictions of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the fundamental theory that describes the role of quarks and gluons in nuclear matter, come into play, and new phenomena are sought that may illuminate our view of the basic structure of matter on the sub-atomic scale, with important implications for the origins of matter on the cosmic scale. The RHIC experiments have recorded data from collisions of gold nuclei at the highest energies ever achieved in man-made particle accelerators. These collisions, of which hundreds of millions have now been examined, result in final states of unprecedented complexity, with thousands of produced particles radiating from the nuclear collision. All four of the RHIC experiments have moved quickly to analyze these data, and have begun to understand the phenomena that unfold from the moment of collision as these particles are produced. In order to provide benchmarks of simpler interactions against which to compare the gold-gold collisions, the experiments have gathered comparable samples of data from collisions of a very light nucleus (deuterium) with gold nuclei, as well as proton-proton collisions, all with identical beam energies and experimental apparatus. The early measurements have revealed compelling evidence for the existence of a new form of nuclear
HUNTING THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
LUDLAM, T.; ARONSON, S.
2005-01-01
The U.S. Department of Energy's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) construction project was completed at BNL in 1999, with the first data-taking runs in the summer of 2000. Since then the early measurements at RHIC have yielded a wealth of data, from four independent detectors, each with its international collaboration of scientists: BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS, and STAR [1]. For the first time, collisions of heavy nuclei have been carried out at colliding-beam energies that have previously been accessible only for high-energy physics experiments with collisions of ''elementary'' particles such as protons and electrons. It is at these high energies that the predictions of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the fundamental theory that describes the role of quarks and gluons in nuclear matter, come into play, and new phenomena are sought that may illuminate our view of the basic structure of matter on the sub-atomic scale, with important implications for the origins of matter on the cosmic scale. The RHIC experiments have recorded data from collisions of gold nuclei at the highest energies ever achieved in man-made particle accelerators. These collisions, of which hundreds of millions have now been examined, result in final states of unprecedented complexity, with thousands of produced particles radiating from the nuclear collision. All four of the RHIC experiments have moved quickly to analyze these data, and have begun to understand the phenomena that unfold from the moment of collision as these particles are produced. In order to provide benchmarks of simpler interactions against which to compare the gold-gold collisions, the experiments have gathered comparable samples of data from collisions of a very light nucleus (deuterium) with gold nuclei, as well as proton-proton collisions, all with identical beam energies and experimental apparatus. The early measurements have revealed compelling evidence for the existence of a new form of nuclear matter at extremely high
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hautmann, F. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom); Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Antwerpen Univ. (Belgium). Elementaire Deeltjes Fysica; Jung, H.; Lelek, A.; Zlebcik, R. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Radescu, V. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)
2017-08-15
We study parton-branching solutions of QCD evolution equations and present a method to construct both collinear and transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton densities from this approach. We work with next-to-leading-order (NLO) accuracy in the strong coupling. Using the unitarity picture in terms of resolvable and non-resolvable branchings, we analyze the role of the soft-gluon resolution scale in the evolution equations. For longitudinal momentum distributions, we find agreement of our numerical calculations with existing evolution programs at the level of better than 1 percent over a range of five orders of magnitude both in evolution scale and in longitudinal momentum fraction. We make predictions for the evolution of transverse momentum distributions. We perform fits to the high-precision deep inelastic scattering (DIS) structure function measurements, and we present a set of NLO TMD distributions based on the parton branching approach.
Quark condensate contributions to the gluon self-energy and the ρ meson sum rule
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steele, T.G.
1989-01-01
The operator-product expansion will be employed to obtain the lowest-order, quark condensate component of both the gluon self-energy and the ρ meson correlation function to all orders in the quark mass parameter. Field-theoretic aspects of the self-energy and correlation function will be considered, and physical effects to the quark condensate upon gluon mass generation will be examined. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zenaiev, O.; Geiser, A.; Lipka, K.; Bluemlein, J.; Kuprash, O.; Placakyte, R.; Starovoitov, P. [DESY Hamburg and Zeuthen, Hamburg (Germany); Cooper-Sarkar, A. [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Garzelli, M.V.; Moch, S.O. [Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Guzzi, M. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); Nadolsky, P. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX (United States); Rabbertz, K. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany); Schienbein, I. [LPSC Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Collaboration: PROSA Collaboration
2015-08-15
The impact of recent measurements of heavy-flavour production in deep inelastic ep scattering and in pp collisions on parton distribution functions is studied in a QCD analysis in the fixed-flavour number scheme at next-to-leading order. Differential cross sections of charm- and beauty-hadron production measured by LHCb are used together with inclusive and heavy-flavour production cross sections in deep inelastic scattering at HERA. The heavy-flavour data of the LHCb experiment impose additional constraints on the gluon and the sea-quark distributions at low partonic fractions x of the proton momentum, down to x ∝ 5 x 10{sup -6}. This kinematic range is currently not covered by other experimental data in perturbative QCD fits. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zenaiev, O.; Geiser, A.; Lipka, K.
2015-03-01
The impact of recent measurements of heavy-flavour production in deep inelastic ep scattering and in pp collisions on parton distribution functions is studied in a QCD analysis in the fixed-flavour number scheme at next-to-leading order. Differential cross sections of charm- and beauty-hadron production measured by LHCb are used together with inclusive and heavy-flavour production cross sections in deep inelastic scattering at HERA. The heavy-flavour data of the LHCb experiment impose additional constraints on the gluon and the sea-quark distributions at low partonic fractions x of the proton momentum, down to x∝5 x 10 -6 . This kinematic range is currently not covered by other experimental data in perturbative QCD fits.
Impact of LHCb heavy-quark production cross sections on parton distribution functions at very low x
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zenaiev, Oleksandr [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg 22607 (Germany)
2015-07-01
The impact of recent measurements of heavy-flavour production in deep inelastic ep scattering and in pp collisions on parton distribution functions is studied in a QCD analysis in the fixed-flavour-number scheme at next-to-leading order. Differential cross sections of charm- and beauty-quark production measured by LHCb are used together with inclusive and heavy-flavour production cross sections in deep inelastic scattering at HERA. The heavy-flavour data of the LHCb experiment impose additional constraints on the gluon and the sea-quark distributions at very low partonic fractions of the proton momenta, x < 10{sup -4}. This kinematic range is currently not covered by other experimental data in perturbative QCD fits.
Dilepton spectrum from quark-gluon plasma in second Born approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makhlin, A.N.
1989-01-01
The real time temperature Keldysh technique has been used to calculate the rate of dilepton emission from quark-gluon plasma in the first order with respect to strong coupling constant. This approximation us shown to be inconsistent. The radiative corrections turned to be of the same order as the contribution of real processes with gluons. Nevertheless the general properties inherent in dilepton emission from continuous media can be verified by measuring the lepton distribution inside the dilepton. 11 refs.; 2 figs
Hadronic total cross-sections through soft gluon summation in impact parameter space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grau, A.
1999-01-01
IThe Bloch-Nordsieck model for the parton distribution of hadrons in impact parameter space, constructed using soft gluon summation, is investigated in detail. Its dependence upon the infrared structure of the strong coupling constant α s is discussed, both for finite as well as singular, but integrable, α s . The formalism is applied to the prediction of total proton-proton and proton-antiproton cross-sections, where screening, due to soft gluon emission from the initial valence quarks, becomes evident
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cipriano, P.; Dooling, S.; Grebenyuk, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Katsas, P.; Hautmann, F.; Oxford Univ.; Jung, H.; Antwerpen Univ.
2013-08-01
In the forthcoming high-luminosity phase at the LHC many of the most interesting QCD measurements so far become prohibitively difficult due to the high pile-up. We suggest a program of QCD measurements based on the observed Higgs boson which can be started now and can be carried through also in the large pile-up environment at high luminosity. It focuses on gluonic processes at high mass scales, and their distinctive QCD features compared to classic probes such as Drell-Yan. It explores the strong-interaction sector of the Standard Model both at high transverse momenta and at low transverse momenta, by investigating issues on gluon fusion processes which have never been addressed experimentally before. We discuss a few specific examples and present results of Monte Carlo simulations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cipriano, P.; Dooling, S.; Grebenyuk, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Katsas, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hautmann, F. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Jung, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Antwerpen Univ. (Belgium). Elementaire Deeltjes Fysica
2013-08-15
In the forthcoming high-luminosity phase at the LHC many of the most interesting QCD measurements so far become prohibitively difficult due to the high pile-up. We suggest a program of QCD measurements based on the observed Higgs boson which can be started now and can be carried through also in the large pile-up environment at high luminosity. It focuses on gluonic processes at high mass scales, and their distinctive QCD features compared to classic probes such as Drell-Yan. It explores the strong-interaction sector of the Standard Model both at high transverse momenta and at low transverse momenta, by investigating issues on gluon fusion processes which have never been addressed experimentally before. We discuss a few specific examples and present results of Monte Carlo simulations.
MBOK: ITS DISTRIBUTION, MEANING, AND FUNCTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ajar Pradika A. Tur
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Mbok, in Javanese language, has not only a ’mother’ in meaning. As a lexicon in the language, mbok in one side truly means a ‘mother’ and still has the same meaning although it experiences the morphological process to be, at least, embok, simbok, or mboke. The variations exist and are spoken by Javanese native speakers throughout the Javanese dialects such as Suroboyoan, Solo, Yogyakarta, Bagelen, and Banyumasan dialects spread from the East Java, Yogyakarta, and Central Java. However, mbok, as a particle has different meaning, even different various meanings relying on its distribution in a sentence. Then the meanings bear its different various functions as well in the sentence based on the context of the sentence (grammatical-semantics meaning. Through Teknik Balik (Converse Technique the data gained was analyzed to distinguish the position of the particle in the sentence in order to reach its significant different meanings and functions. At least, from the analysis, we have three positions of mbok in the sentences, that are in the initial, middle, and the end of the sentences. These positions affect the meanings and functions that can be seen as follows; ‘, is not it?’ (Tag Question and ‘is/are” (Verbal Question for emphasizing, ‘please’ for requesting a help, ‘may be’ and ‘in case’ for expressing possibility, and ‘causing’ for expressing cause-effect. Keywords: mbok, semantics, Banyumasan dialect
Time evolution of distribution functions in dissipative environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Li-Yun; Chen Fei; Wang Zi-Sheng; Fan Hong-Yi
2011-01-01
By introducing the thermal entangled state representation, we investigate the time evolution of distribution functions in the dissipative channels by bridging the relation between the initial distribution function and the any time distribution function. We find that most of them are expressed as such integrations over the Laguerre—Gaussian function. Furthermore, as applications, we derive the time evolution of photon-counting distribution by bridging the relation between the initial distribution function and the any time photon-counting distribution, and the time evolution of R-function characteristic of nonclassicality depth. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Constituent gluon interpretation of glueballs and gluelumps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boulanger, N.; Buisseret, F.; Mathieu, V.; Semay, C.
2008-01-01
Arguments are given that support the interpretation of the lattice QCD glueball and gluelump spectra in terms of bound states of massless constituent gluons with helicity 1. In this scheme, we show that the mass hierarchy of the currently known gluelumps and glueballs is mainly due to the number of constituent gluons and can be understood within a simple flux tube model. It is also argued that the lattice QCD 0 +- glueball should be seen as a four-gluon bound state. We finally predict the mass of the 0 - state, not yet computed in lattice QCD. (orig.)
Multiple production of hadrons at high energies in the model of quark-gluon strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaidalov, A.B.; Ter-Martirosyan, K.A.
1983-01-01
Multiple production of hadrons at high energies is considered in the framework of the approach based on a picture of formation and subsequent fission of the quark-gluon strings, corresponding to the Pomeron with αsub(P)(0) > 1. The topological (1/nsub(f))-expansion and the colour-tube model is used. Inclusive cross-sections are expressed in therms of the structure functions and fragmentation functions of quarks and their limiting values are in an agreement with the results of the reggeon theory. It is pointed out that an account of rapidity fluctuations of the ends of the quark-gluon strings, connected to valence or sea quarks, allows one to explain a number of characteristic features of the multiple production of hadrons. In particular the model, which takes into account multipomeron configurations, reproduces the experimentally observed rise of inclusive spectra in a central region and well describes both rapidity and multiplicity distributions of charged particles up to energies of the SPS-collider. It is shown that in this approach the KNO-scaling is only approximately satisfied and the pattern of its violation at energies √ s approximately 10 3 GeV is predicted. Inclusive spectra are investigated in the whole region 0 or approximately 0.1) Feynman scaling is violated only logarithmically and deviations from it are very rsmall at s 3 +10 4 GeV
Audio feature extraction using probability distribution function
Suhaib, A.; Wan, Khairunizam; Aziz, Azri A.; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman A., B.
2015-05-01
Voice recognition has been one of the popular applications in robotic field. It is also known to be recently used for biometric and multimedia information retrieval system. This technology is attained from successive research on audio feature extraction analysis. Probability Distribution Function (PDF) is a statistical method which is usually used as one of the processes in complex feature extraction methods such as GMM and PCA. In this paper, a new method for audio feature extraction is proposed which is by using only PDF as a feature extraction method itself for speech analysis purpose. Certain pre-processing techniques are performed in prior to the proposed feature extraction method. Subsequently, the PDF result values for each frame of sampled voice signals obtained from certain numbers of individuals are plotted. From the experimental results obtained, it can be seen visually from the plotted data that each individuals' voice has comparable PDF values and shapes.
Superconvergent gluon propagator and the quark-antiquark potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oehme, R.; Chicago Univ., IL; Chicago Univ., IL
1989-01-01
Superconvergence of the gluon propagator, together with the asymptotically negative sign of the discontinuity, imply that the structure function has a representation which corresponds to an approximately linear quark-antiquark potential, provided the number of flavors is less than ten. For more than ten flavors, there is no indication for a linear potential within this framework. The connection with metric confinement is emphasized. Possible dipole terms are considered briefly. (orig.)
Gluon cascades and amplitudes in light-front perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cruz-Santiago, C.A.; Staśto, A.M.
2013-01-01
We construct the gluon wave functions, fragmentation functions and scattering amplitudes within the light-front perturbation theory. Recursion relations on the light-front are constructed for the wave functions and fragmentation functions, which in the latter case are the light-front analogs of the Berends–Giele recursion relations. Using general relations between wave functions and scattering amplitudes it is demonstrated how to obtain the maximally-helicity violating amplitudes, and explicit verification of the results is based on simple examples.
The strong running coupling from an approximate gluon Dyson-Schwinger equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alkofer, R.; Hauck, A.
1996-01-01
Using Mandelstam's approximation to the gluon Dyson-Schwinger equation we calculate the gluon self-energy in a renormalisation group invariant fashion. We obtain a non-perturbative Β function. The scaling behavior near the ultraviolet stable fixed point is in good agreement with perturbative QCD. No further fixed point for positive values of the coupling is found: α S increases without bound in the infrared
The Wigner distribution function in modal characterisation
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Mredlana, Prince
2016-07-01
Full Text Available function in modal characterisation P. MREDLANA1, D. NAIDOO1, C MAFUSIRE2, T. KRUGER2, A. DUDLEY1,3, A. FORBES1,3 1CSIR National Laser Centre, PO BOX 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. 2Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural..., the Wigner distribution of ð ð¥ is an integral of the correlation function ð ð¥ + 1 2 ð¥â² ð â ð¥ + 1 2 ð¥â² represented as: ðð ð¥, ð = ð ð¥ + 1 2 ð¥â² ð â ð¥ + 1 2 ð¥â² ðâððð¥â²ðð...
Measurements of the structure of quark and gluon jets in hadronic Z decays
Barate, R; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Pietrzyk, B; Alemany, R; Boix, G; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Graugès-Pous, E; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Becker, U; Bright-Thomas, P G; Casper, David William; Cattaneo, M; Ciulli, V; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Lehraus, Ivan; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Moneta, L; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Rousseau, D; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Tomalin, I R; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Badaud, F; Chazelle, G; Deschamps, O; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Cerutti, F; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Halley, A W; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Buchmüller, O L; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Goodsir, S M; Martin, E B; Marinelli, N; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Spagnolo, P; Williams, M D; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Buck, P G; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Williams, M I; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Etienne, F; Leroy, O; Motsch, F; Payre, P; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Antonelli, M; Ragusa, F; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Mannert, C; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stenzel, H; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Schune, M H; Tournefier, E; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Boccali, T; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Chambers, J T; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Kelly, M S; Lehto, M H; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Charles, E; Elmer, P; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Zobernig, G
2000-01-01
An experimental investigation of the structure of identified quark and gluon jets is presented. Observables related to both the global and internal structure of jets are measured; this allows for tests of QCD over a wide range of transverse momentum scales. The observables include distributions of jet-shape variables, the mean and standard deviation of the subjet multiplicity distribution and the fragmentation function for charged particles. The data are compared with predictions of perturbative QCD as well as QCD-based Monte Carlo models. In certain kinematic regions the measurements are sensitive mainly to perturbatively calculable effects, allowing for a test of QCD. The comparisons are also extended into regions where nonperturbative effects become large, and in this way the transition from hard to soft QCD is investigated. It is found that by including leading and next-to-leading logarithmic contributions in the QCD predictions, the agreement with the data can be extended to lower transverse momentum sca...
Theoretical method for determining particle distribution functions of classical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, E.
1980-01-01
An equation which involves the triplet distribution function and the three-particle direct correlation function is obtained. This equation was derived using an analogue of the Ornstein--Zernike equation. The new equation is used to develop a variational method for obtaining the triplet distribution function of uniform one-component atomic fluids from the pair distribution function. The variational method may be used with the first and second equations in the YBG hierarchy to obtain pair and triplet distribution functions. It should be easy to generalize the results to the n-particle distribution function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koller, K.; Zerwas, P.M.; Walsh, T.F.
1978-12-01
We show how the Q 2 evolution of gluon jets can be used to provide indirect but strong evidence for the 3 gluon vertex of QCD. We propose looking for this evolution in the QantiQ → 3G → hadrons decay of successive 1 3 S 1 quarkonium states. The results apply to other processes if G jets can be isolated. (orig.) [de
The structure of the gluon propagator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leinweber, D.B.; Parrinello, C.; Skullerud, J.I.; Williams, A.G
1999-03-01
The gluon propagator has been calculated for quenched QCD in the Landau gauge at {beta} = 6.0 for volumes 16{sup 3} x 48 and 32{sup 3} x 64, and at {beta} 6.2 for volume 24{sup 3} x 48. The large volume and different lattice spacings allow us to identify and minimise finite volume and finite lattice spacing artefacts. We also study the tensor structure of the gluon propagator, confirming that it obeys the lattice Landau gauge condition.
Describing gluons at zero and finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maas, A.
2010-01-01
Any description of gluons requires a well-defined gauge. This is complicated non-perturbatively by Gribov copies. A possible method-independent gauge definition to resolve this problem is presented and afterwards used to study the properties of gluons at any temperature. It is found that only chromo-electric properties reflect the phase transition. From these the gauge-invariant phase transition temperature is determined for SU(2) and SU(3) Yang-Mills theory independently. (author)
Identified particles in quark and gluon jets
Abreu, P; Adye, T; Ajinenko, I; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbi, M S; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djama, F; Djannati, A; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Durand, J D; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katargin, A; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Mahon, J R; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Merk, M; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Novák, M; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Pain, R; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Podobnik, T; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Rybicki, K; Rybin, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sahr, O; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schimmelpfennig, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Serbelloni, L; Shellard, R C; Siegrist, P; Silvestre, R; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stampfer, D; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wlodek, T; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G
1997-01-01
A sample of about 1.4 million hadronic \\z decays, selected among the data recorded by the DELPHI detector at LEP during 1994, was used to measure for the first time the momentum spectra of \\kp, \\ko, \\p, \\l and their antiparticles in gluon and quark jets. As observed for inclusive charged particles, the production spectra of identified particles were found to be softer in gluon jets than in quark jets, with a higher total multiplicity.
Sensitivity of the LHC isolated-gamma+jet data to the parton distribution functions of the proton
Carminati, L.; D'Enterria, D.; Koletsou, I.; Marchiori, G.; Rojo, J.; Stockton, M.; Tartarelli, F.
2013-01-01
We study the impact of differential isolated-photon+jet cross sections measured in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of sqrt{s} = 7 TeV on the parton distribution functions (PDF) of the proton. Next-to-leading order perturbative QCD (pQCD) calculations complemented with the NNPDF2.1 parton densities, and a Bayesian PDF reweighting method are employed. We find that although the current data provide only mild constraints to the parton densities, future gamma-jet measurements with reduced experimental uncertainties can improve our knowledge of the gluon density over a wide range of parton fractional momenta x as well as of the quarks at low-x.
Soft probes of the quark gluon plasma in ATLAS
Wozniak, K W; The ATLAS collaboration
2014-01-01
Measurements of low-$p_{T}$ (< 5 GeV) particle production have provided valuable insight on the production and evolution of the quark-gluon plasma in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC. In particular, measurements of elliptic and higher order collective flow imprinted on the azimuthal angle distributions of low-$p_{T}$ particles directly probe the strongly-coupled dynamics of the quark gluon plasma and test hydrodynamic model descriptions of its evolution. The large acceptance of detectors like ATLAS have made it possible to measure flow event-by-event and to determine the correlations between different harmonics. Recent measurements of low-$p_{T}$ particle production and multi-particle correlations in proton-lead collisions have shown features similar to the collective flow observed in Pb+Pb collisions. Results will be presented from a variety of single and multi-particle measurements in Pb+Pb and proton-Pb collisions that probe the collective dynamics of the quark gluon plasma and possibly provide evidence for ...
Gluon density determination from open charm events at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woudenberg, R. van; Ould-Saada, F.; Eisenberg, Y.; Glasman, C.; Karshon, U.; Montag, A.; Egli, S.
1992-01-01
We study some prospects of measuring the gluon density in the proton using charm events at HERA for the ep center of mass energy √s = 314 GeV. We invoke the QCD-improved boson-gluon fusion model and find the following cross-section: σ(ep → ecanti cX) ≅ O(0.6 μb). This cross-section would provide O(10 8 ) events/year, for an integrated luminosity of 100 pb -1 . We have investigated two traditional methods for tagging of charm, namely, D *± reconstruction using the process D *± → D 0 π ± → (K -+ π ± )π ± , and dileptonic decays of charmed hadrons (canti c → l + l - X). The inclusive cross-sections after full detector simulation are 10 3 pb and 10 2 pb, respectively. In both cases the background was strongly reduced. By using these events, the gluon distribution in the proton can be measured in the range 10 -3 ≤ x g ≤ 10 -1 . We conclude that an adequate discrimination among the present theoretical parametrizations can be achieved at HERA. (orig.)
Experimental study of rapidity gaps in gluon jets
Gary, J W
2003-01-01
Gluon jets are selected from hadronic Z/sup 0/ decay events produced in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilations, collected with the OPAL detector at LEP. A subsample of these jets is identified which exhibit a large gap in the rapidity distribution of particles within the jet. These jets are observed to demonstrate a high degree of sensitivity to the presence of color reconnection, i.e. higher order QCD processes affecting the underlying color structure. We test two QCD Monte Carlo programs which implement color reconnection: one in the Ariadne Monte Carlo and the other by Rathsman in the Pythia Monte Carlo. We find these models can describe our gluon jet measurements only if very large values are used for the cutoff parameters which serve to terminate the parton showers, and conclude that color reconnection as implemented in these models is disfavored. Further, we use our data on gluon jets with a rapidity gap to search for glueball-like objects in the leading part of those jets. We do not find any clear evidence for...
Dynamical gluon masses in perturbative calculations at the loop level
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Machado, Fatima A.; Natale, Adriano A.
2013-01-01
Full text: In the phenomenology of strong interactions one always has to deal at some extent with the interplay between perturbative and non-perturbative QCD. On one hand, the former has quite developed tools, yielded by asymptotic freedom. On the other, concerning the latter, we nowadays envisage the following scenario: 1) There are strong evidences for a dynamically massive gluon propagator and infrared finite coupling constant; 2) There is an extensive and successful use of an infrared finite coupling constant in phenomenological calculations at tree level; 3) The infrared finite coupling improves the perturbative series convergence; 4) The dynamical gluon mass provides a natural infrared cutoff in the physical processes at the tree level. Considering this scenario it is natural to ask how these non-perturbative results can be used in perturbative calculations of physical observables at the loop level. Recent papers discuss how off-shell gauge and renormalization group invariant Green functions can be computed with the use of the Pinch Technique (PT), with IR divergences removed by the dynamical gluon mass, and using a well defined effective charge. In this work we improve the former results by the authors, which evaluate 1-loop corrections to some two- and three-point functions of SU(3) pure Yang-Mills, investigating the dressing of quantities that could account for an extension of loop calculations to the infrared domain of the theory, in a way applicable to phenomenological calculations. One of these improvements is maintaining the gluon propagator transverse in such a scheme. (author)
Development of pair distribution function analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vondreele, R.; Billinge, S.; Kwei, G.; Lawson, A.
1996-01-01
This is the final report of a 3-year LDRD project at LANL. It has become more and more evident that structural coherence in the CuO 2 planes of high-T c superconducting materials over some intermediate length scale (nm range) is important to superconductivity. In recent years, the pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of powder diffraction data has been developed for extracting structural information on these length scales. This project sought to expand and develop this technique, use it to analyze neutron powder diffraction data, and apply it to problems. In particular, interest is in the area of high-T c superconductors, although we planned to extend the study to the closely related perovskite ferroelectric materials andother materials where the local structure affects the properties where detailed knowledge of the local and intermediate range structure is important. In addition, we planned to carry out single crystal experiments to look for diffuse scattering. This information augments the information from the PDF
Inclusive observables and hard gluon emission in neutrino deep inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouchiat, C.; Meyer, P.; Mezard, M.
1980-01-01
We derive the predictions of perturbative QCD together with non-perturbative corrections for a set of inclusive observables connected with the angular distribution of light-cone energy in deep inelastic neutrino scattering. Our particular choice of observables has been made in order to meet important physical requirements besides the necessary condition of infrared regularity. Our inclusive observables receive their dominant contribution from the quark fragmentation region. The non-perturbative contribution is calculable in a rather model-independent way and stays at an acceptable level in realistic experimental conditions. The QCD perturbative contribution, which takes the simple form of a convolution product, exhibits a strongly decreasing behaviour as a function of the Bjorken scaling variable x, superimposed on a constant background associated with the non-perturbative terms, allowing a rather clean separation of the two effects. The perturbative term being dominated by the process of hard-gluon emission, an experimental investigation of the observables discussed here may be a good way to detect the effect of gluon emission in deep inelastic neutrino scattering. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bund, G W; Tijero, M C
2004-01-01
The mapping of the Wigner distribution function (WDF) for a given bound state onto a semiclassical distribution function (SDF) satisfying the Liouville equation introduced previously by us is applied to the ground state of the Morse oscillator. The purpose of the present work is to obtain values of the potential parameters represented by the number of levels in the case of the Morse oscillator, for which the SDF becomes a faithful approximation of the corresponding WDF. We find that for a Morse oscillator with one level only, the agreement between the WDF and the mapped SDF is very poor but for a Morse oscillator of ten levels it becomes satisfactory. We also discuss the limit ℎ → 0 for fixed potential parameters
Scale dependence and small x behaviour of polarized parton distributions
Ball, R D; Ridolfi, G; Forte, S; Ridolfi, G
1995-01-01
We discuss perturbative evolution of the polarized structure function g_1 in the (x,Q^2) plane, with special regard to the small-x region. We determine g_1 in terms of polarized quark and gluon distributions using coefficient functions to order alpha_s. At small x g_1 then displays substantial scale dependence, which necessarily implies a corresponding scale dependence in the large-x region. This scale dependence has significant consequences for the extraction of the first moment from the experimental data, reducing its value while increasing the error. Conversely, the scale dependence may be used to constrain the size of the polarized gluon distribution.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Speltz, J
2006-10-15
In this work, we characterize the production of the multi-strange baryons Xi and Omega in Au+Au collisions at RHIC, where the possible formation of a matter of deconfined quarks and gluons (QGP) is expected. We analyze with the STAR experiment, the collisions obtained at an energy of 62 GeV, intermediate between the one reached at the SPS (17 GeV) and the nominal energy of RHIC (200 GeV). Transverse momentum spectra, yields and elliptic flow are measured with different methods allowing for a relevant estimation of systematic errors. The results are compared to statistical and hydrodynamic models that we have adapted for their use at 62 GeV. The so obtained chemical and dynamic properties of the created medium indicate the formation of a thermalized, at least partially, medium and suggests the formation of a comparable matter at 62 GeV and at 200 GeV. (author)
Pair distribution function and structure factor of spherical particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howell, Rafael C.; Proffen, Thomas; Conradson, Steven D.
2006-01-01
The availability of neutron spallation-source instruments that provide total scattering powder diffraction has led to an increased application of real-space structure analysis using the pair distribution function. Currently, the analytical treatment of finite size effects within pair distribution refinement procedures is limited. To that end, an envelope function is derived which transforms the pair distribution function of an infinite solid into that of a spherical particle with the same crystal structure. Distributions of particle sizes are then considered, and the associated envelope function is used to predict the particle size distribution of an experimental sample of gold nanoparticles from its pair distribution function alone. Finally, complementing the wealth of existing diffraction analysis, the peak broadening for the structure factor of spherical particles, expressed as a convolution derived from the envelope functions, is calculated exactly for all particle size distributions considered, and peak maxima, offsets, and asymmetries are discussed
Possibility of determining gluon polarization via polarized top pairs in gamma-proton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atag, S.; Billur, A.A.
2009-01-01
We study the possibility for directly measuring the polarized gluon distribution in the process γp→t-bar t. It is shown that polarization asymmetry of the final top quarks is proportional to the gluon polarization. With available energy and luminosity, the collision of a polarized proton beam and a Compton backscattered photon beam can create polarized top quarks which carry the spin information of the process. Energy dependence and angular distributions of the polarization asymmetry of the top pairs has been discussed including statistical uncertainty.
The exclusive J/ψ process at the LHC tamed to probe the low x gluon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jones, S.P. [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Martin, A.D. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom); Ryskin, M.G. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC Kurchatov Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Teubner, T. [University of Liverpool, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Liverpool (United Kingdom)
2016-11-15
The perturbative QCD expansion for J/ψ photoproduction appears to be unstable: the NLO correction is large (and of opposite sign) to the LO contribution. Moreover, the predictions are very sensitive to the choice of factorisation and renormalisation scales. Here we show that perturbative stability is greatly improved by imposing a 'Q{sub 0} cut' on the NLO coefficient functions; a cut which is required to avoid double counting. Q{sub 0} is the input scale used in the parton DGLAP evolution. This result opens the possibility of high precision exclusive J/ψ data in the forward direction at the LHC being able to determine the low x gluon distribution at low scales. (orig.)
Gluon Bremsstrahlung in Weakly-Coupled Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnold, Peter
2009-01-01
I report on some theoretical progress concerning the calculation of gluon bremsstrahlung for very high energy particles crossing a weakly-coupled quark-gluon plasma. (i) I advertise that two of the several formalisms used to study this problem, the BDMPS-Zakharov formalism and the AMY formalism (the latter used only for infinite, uniform media), can be made equivalent when appropriately formulated. (ii) A standard technique to simplify calculations is to expand in inverse powers of logarithms ln(E/T). I give an example where such expansions are found to work well for ω/T≥10 where ω is the bremsstrahlung gluon energy. (iii) Finally, I report on perturbative calculations of q.
Gluon bremsstrahlung and elastic scattering of hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Povh, B.
2001-01-01
The differential and the total cross sections in high energy hadron-proton interactions give a beautiful insight in the low Q 2 structure of the nucleon. The cross section is composed of two parts: a large energy independent part corresponding to the interaction of the valence quark with the target without gluon radiation and an energy dependent part caused by gluon bremsstrahlung. The gluons are located at small transverse distances of about 0.3 fm from the valence quarks. The model with two scales, the size of the hadron (R 2 ∼ 1 fm 2 ) and the size of the gluonic cloud (r 0 2 ∼ 0.1 fm 2 ), correctly predicts the total and the differential cross sections and the behaviour of diffractive dissociation in hadronic and deep inelastic events. (orig.)
Constituent gluons and the static quark potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Greensite, Jeff [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States); Szczepaniak, Adam P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-04-01
We suggest that Hamiltonian matrix elements between physical states in QCD might be approximated, in Coulomb gauge, by "lattice-improved" tree diagrams; i.e. tree diagram contributions with dressed ghost, transverse gluon, and Coulomb propagators obtained from lattice simulations. Such matrix elements can be applied to a variational treatment of hadronic states which include constituent gluons. As an illustration and first application of this hybrid approach, we derive a variational estimate of the heavy quark potential for distances up to 2.5 fm. The Coulomb string tension in SU(3) gauge theory is about a factor of four times greater than the asymptotic string tension. In our variational approach, using for simplicity a single variational parameter, we can reduce this overshoot by nearly the factor required. The building blocks of our approach are Coulomb gauge propagators, and in this connection we present new lattice results for the ghost and transverse gluon propagators in position space.
Quark vs Gluon Jet Tagging at ATLAS
Rubbo, Francesco; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Distinguishing quark-initiated from gluon-initiated jets is useful for many measurements and searches at the LHC. We present a quark-initiated versus gluon-initiated jet tagger from the ATLAS experiment using the number of reconstructed charged particles inside the jet. The measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity inside jets from Run 1 is used to derive uncertainties on the tagger performance for Run 2. With an efficiency of 60% to select quark-initiated jets, the efficiency to select gluon-initiated jets is between 10 and 20% across a wide range in jet pT up to 1.5 TeV with about an absolute 5% systematic uncertainty on the efficiencies. In addition, we also present preliminary studies on a tagger for the ATLAS experiment using the full radiation pattern inside a jet processed as images in deep neural network classifiers.
Experimental properties of gluon and quark jets from a point source
Abbiendi, G.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; de Roeck, A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hobson, P.R.; Hoch, M.; Hocker, James Andrew; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klier, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lee, A.M.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.
1999-01-01
Gluon jets are identified in hadronic Z0 decays as all the particles in a hemisphere opposite to a hemisphere containing two tagged quark jets. Gluon jets defined in this manner are equivalent to gluon jets produced from a color singlet point source and thus correspond to the definition employed for most theoretical calculations. In a separate stage of the analysis, we select quark jets in a manner to correspond to calculations, as the particles in hemispheres of flavor tagged light quark (uds) events. We present the distributions of rapidity, scaled energy, the logarithm of the momentum, and transverse momentum with respect to the jet axes, for charged particles in these gluon and quark jets. We also examine the charged particle multiplicity distributions of the jets in restricted intervals of rapidity. For soft particles at large transverse momentum, we observe the charged particle multiplicity ratio of gluon to quark jets to be 2.29 +- 0.09 +- 0.15 in agreement with the prediction that this ratio should ap...
Monte Carlo study on the properties of gluon and quark jets
Kun Shi Zhang; Mei Ling Yu; Lian Shou Liu
2002-01-01
The 3-jet events produced in e/sup +/e/sup -/ collisions at 91.2 GeV have been studied using Monte Carlo method. After applying two angular cuts the three angles between the jets are used to identify the individual jet in 3-jet events. The energy distributions of the three jets, the mean particle multiplicities, mean transverse momenta of the three jets in equal energy bins and their distributions have been analyzed. Comparing with the corresponding results from the quark jets in 2-jet events, a simple method to select gluon and quark jets from 3-jet events is obtained. The properties of the gluon and quark jets being selected using the introduced method are in qualitative agreement with the expectations of perturbative QCD. The ratio of the mean multiplicity between quark and gluon jets, /sub gluon///sub quark/, has been calculated. The results, again, agree with the experimental results from SLD, OPAL, ALEPH, and DELPHI Collaborations, indicating that the method proposed to select gluon and quark jets from ...
Gluon fragmentation in T(1S) decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bienlein, J.K.
1983-05-01
In T(1S) decays most observables (sphericity, charged multiplicity, photonic energy fraction, inclusive spectra) can be understood assuming that gluons fragment like quarks. New results from LENA use the (axis-independent) Fox-Wolfram moments for the photonic energy deposition. Continuum reactions show 'standard' Field-Feynman fragmentation. T(1S) decays show a significant difference in the photonic energy topology. It is more isotropic than with the Field-Feynman fragmentation scheme. Gluon fragmentation into isoscalar mesons (a la Peterson and Walsh) is excluded. But if one forces the leading particle to be isoscalar, one gets good agreement with the data. (orig.)
Effects of gluon radiation in hadronic collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gustafson, Goesta.
1989-10-01
In this talk I discuss effects of gluon emission in soft collisions, the so-called 'soft radiation' in the Fritjof model. It is seen e.g. that the pT in the fragmentation regions, the seagull effect, increases with energy in fair agreement with experiments. I also discuss the content of strange and heavier quarks in high-pT gluon jets. Within the dipole scheme for QCD cascades on finds a larger production of heavier quarks than in previous approaches. Qualitative agreement with data is obtained for the K/π ratio and D meson production
Quark-gluon plasma, and strangeness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rafelski, Johann; Letessier, Jean
2002-01-01
In order to recognize the new form of matter created at RHIC and SPS as the deconfined quark-gluon plasma state (QGP), we need to understand the expected properties of this phase near to the conditions of its formation and disintegration. Thus, we first develop a model of QGP considering the constrains arising from QCD properties and lattice results, and explore its properties. In the second part, we describe the kinetic theory of strangeness production in the QGP phase. We show that gluon fusion dominate and evaluate the degree of equilibration expected at RHIC
High energy multi-gluon exchange amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaroszewicz, T.
1980-11-01
We examine perturbative high energy n-gluon exchange amplitudes calculated in the Coulomb gauge. If n exceeds the minimum required by the t-channel quantum numbers, such amplitudes are non-leading in lns. We derive a closed system of coupled integral equations for the corresponding two-particle n-gluon vertices, obtained by summing the leading powers of ln(N μ psup(μ)), where psup(μ) is the incident momentum and Nsup(μ) the gauge-defining vector. Our equations are infra-red finite, provided the external particles are colour singlets. (author)
Parametric Probability Distribution Functions for Axon Diameters of Corpus Callosum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farshid eSepehrband
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Axon diameter is an important neuroanatomical characteristic of the nervous system that alters in the course of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Axon diameters vary, even within a fiber bundle, and are not normally distributed. An accurate distribution function is therefore beneficial, either to describe axon diameters that are obtained from a direct measurement technique (e.g., microscopy, or to infer them indirectly (e.g., using diffusion-weighted MRI. The gamma distribution is a common choice for this purpose (particularly for the inferential approach because it resembles the distribution profile of measured axon diameters which has been consistently shown to be non-negative and right-skewed. In this study we compared a wide range of parametric probability distribution functions against empirical data obtained from electron microscopy images. We observed that the gamma distribution fails to accurately describe the main characteristics of the axon diameter distribution, such as location and scale of the mode and the profile of distribution tails. We also found that the generalized extreme value distribution consistently fitted the measured distribution better than other distribution functions. This suggests that there may be distinct subpopulations of axons in the corpus callosum, each with their own distribution profiles. In addition, we observed that several other distributions outperformed the gamma distribution, yet had the same number of unknown parameters; these were the inverse Gaussian, log normal, log logistic and Birnbaum-Saunders distributions.
Automatic Functionality Assignment to AUTOSAR Multicore Distributed Architectures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maticu, Florin; Pop, Paul; Axbrink, Christian
2016-01-01
The automotive electronic architectures have moved from federated architectures, where one function is implemented in one ECU (Electronic Control Unit), to distributed architectures, where several functions may share resources on an ECU. In addition, multicore ECUs are being adopted because...... of better performance, cost, size, fault-tolerance and power consumption. In this paper we present an approach for the automatic software functionality assignment to multicore distributed architectures. We consider that the systems use the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). The functionality...
Distribution function in the description of relaxation phenomena
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brecht, M.; Klösgen, B.; Reichle, C.
1999-01-01
adjacent to cell membranes, a distribution of correlation times has to be taken into account to describe the experimentally found additional line broadening in the absorption, the less steep slope in the dispersion curves and the loss of symmetry. Appropiate distribution functions are introduced...... and discussed as to their physical relevance. The application of these selected distribution functions results in transformed Debye equations. Thus, analogous analytical expressions are obtained that are well adapted for a numerical fitting of the parameters containing both the width and the asymmetry...... of the distribution functions....
Wigner Function of Density Operator for Negative Binomial Distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Xinglei; Li Hongqi
2008-01-01
By using the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operator we derive Wigner function of density operator for negative binomial distribution of radiation field in the mixed state case, then we derive the Wigner function of squeezed number state, which yields negative binomial distribution by virtue of the entangled state representation and the entangled Wigner operator
Bilinear phase-plane distribution functions and positivity
Janssen, A.J.E.M.
1985-01-01
There is a theorem of Wigner that states that phase-plane distribution functions involving the state bilinearly and having correct marginals must take negative values for certain states. The purpose of this paper is to support the statement that these phase-plane distribution functions are for
Distribution function of excitations in systems with fractional statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Protogenov, A.P.
1992-08-01
The distribution function of low-energy excitations in 2+1D systems has been considered. It is shown that in these systems the quantum distribution function differs from the usual one by having a finite value of the entropy of linked braids. (author). 47 refs
The Wigner distribution function applied to optical signals and systems
Bastiaans, M.J.
1978-01-01
In this paper the Wigner distribution function has been introduced for optical signals and systems. The Wigner distribution function of an optical signal appears to be in close resemblance to the ray concept in geometrical optics. This resemblance reaches even farther: although derived from Fourier
Application of the Wigner distribution function in optics
Bastiaans, M.J.; Mecklenbräuker, W.; Hlawatsch, F.
1997-01-01
This contribution presents a review of the Wigner distribution function and of some of its applications to optical problems. The Wigner distribution function describes a signal in space and (spatial) frequency simultaneously and can be considered as the local frequency spectrum of the signal.
Optical properties (bidirectional reflectance distribution function) of shot fabric
Lu, Rong; Koenderink, Jan J.; Kappers, Astrid M L
2000-01-01
To study the optical properties of materials, one needs a complete set of the angular distribution functions of surface scattering from the materials. Here we present a convenient method for collecting a large set of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) samples in the hemispherical
Squeezed colour states in gluon jet
Kilin, S. YA.; Kuvshinov, V. I.; Firago, S. A.
1993-01-01
The possibility of the formation of squeezed states of gluon fields in quantum chromodynamics due to nonlinear nonperturbative self interaction during jet evolution in the process of e(+)e(-) annihilation into hadrons, which are analogous to the quantum photon squeezed states in quantum electrodynamics, is demonstrated. Additionally, the squeezing parameters are calculated.
Gluon gas viscosity in nonperturbative region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Il'in, S.V.; Mogilevskij, O.A.; Smolyanskij, S.A.; Zinov'ev, G.M.
1992-01-01
Using the Green-Kubo-type formulae and the cutoff model motivated by Monte Carlo lattice gluodynamics simulations we find the temperature behaviour of shear viscosity of gluon gas in the region of deconfinement phase transition. 22 refs.; 1 fig. (author)
Electromagnetic signals of quark gluon plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Successive equilibration of quark degrees of freedom and its effects on electromagnetic signals of quark gluon plasma are discussed. The effects of the variation of vector meson masses and decay widths on photon production from hot strongly interacting matter formed after Pb + Pb and S + Au collisions at CERN SPS ...
Inflating metastable quark-gluon plasma universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jenkovszky, L.L.; Kaempfer, B.; Sysoev, V.M.
1990-01-01
We show within the Friedmann model with the equation of state p(T)=aT 4 -AT that our universe has expanded exponentially when it was in a metastable quark-gluon plasma state. The scale factor during that epoch increased by many orders of magnitude. 13 refs.; 5 figs
Bosonization with inclusion of the gluon condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebert, D.; Volkov, M.K.
1994-01-01
The effects of the gluon condensate on the quark condensate and on masses and coupling constants of composite mesons are discussed within a QCD-motivated Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model for zero temperature as well as for the case of finite temperature and baryon number density. (orig.)
Quark-gluon plasma (Selected Topics)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakharov, V. I.
2012-01-01
Introductory lectures to the theory of (strongly interacting) quark-gluon plasma given at the Winter School of Physics of ITEP (Moscow, February 2010). We emphasize theoretical issues highlighted by the discovery of the low viscosity of the plasma. The topics include relativistic hydrodynamics, manifestations of chiral anomaly in hydrodynamics, superfluidity, relativistic superfluid hydrodynamics, effective stringy scalars, holographic models of Yang-Mills theories.
Polarized photons from quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goloviznin, V.V.; Snigirev, A.M.; Zinov'ev, G.M.
1988-01-01
The degree of polarization of magnetic bremsstrahlung radiation resulting from the interaction of escaping quarks with a collective confining color field is calculated. For a wide rapidity interval the angle at which the photon is registered and constitutes about 25%. This could signal about quark-gluon plasma formation
Exploring Quarks, Gluons and the Higgs Boson
Johansson, K. Erik
2013-01-01
With real particle collision data available on the web, the amazing dynamics of the fundamental particles of the standard model can be explored in classrooms. Complementing the events from the ATLAS experiment with animations of the fundamental processes on the quark and gluon level makes it possible to better understand the invisible world of…
Soft gluon contributions to hard processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciafaloni, M.
1981-10-01
The main concern of this paper is in trying to elucidate the origin of large QCD perturbative corrections and explain how to deal with them to all orders. They come essentially from the phase space regions close to the kinematical boundary of a hard process, in which one or many gluons become soft
Searching for the quarks and gluons plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerschel, C.; Kluberg, L.
1989-01-01
Some investigations involving quark matter, at CERN, are discussed. The CERN available oxygen and sulfur beams, with energy about 200 GeV/nuclei, allow the obtention of high energy densities, never reached before. The possibilities of investigating (at CERN) the quarks and gluons plasma are considered. The first and unexpected results obtained from the NA38 experiment are overviewed [fr
Distribution functions for fluids in random media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Madden, W.G.; Glandt, E.D.
1988-01-01
A random medium is considered, composed of identifiable interactive sites or obstacles equilibrated at a high temperature and then quenched rapidly to form a rigid structure, statistically homogeneous on all but molecular length scales. The equilibrium statistical mechanics of a fluid contained inside this quenched medium is discussed. Various particle-particle and particle-obstacle correlation functions, which differ form the corresponding functions for a fully equilibrated binary mixture, are defined through an averaging process over the static ensemble of obstacle configurations and applications of topological reduction techniques. The Ornstein-Zernike equations also differ from their equilibrium counterparts
Threshold region for Higgs boson production in gluon fusion.
Bonvini, Marco; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni
2012-09-07
We provide a quantitative determination of the effective partonic kinematics for Higgs boson production in gluon fusion in terms of the collider energy at the LHC. We use the result to assess, as a function of the Higgs boson mass, whether the large m(t) approximation is adequate and Sudakov resummation advantageous. We argue that our results hold to all perturbative orders. Based on our results, we conclude that the full inclusion of finite top mass corrections is likely to be important for accurate phenomenology for a light Higgs boson with m(H)~125 GeV at the LHC with √s=14 TeV.
Probing Quark-Gluon Interactions with Transverse Polarized Scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rondon, Oscar A.
2011-01-01
Transverse polarized inelastic scattering extends the power of the electromagnetic interaction as a probe of nucleon dynamics beyond the leading order regime explored with longitudinally polarized DIS. In transverse polarized scattering, the twist-3 g 2 spin structure function contributes at the same order as the longitudinal, twist-2, g 1 , so interactions between quarks and gluons can be studied, opening a window on the mechanisms of confinement. This talk reports the results of Jefferson Lab's Resonances Spin Structure experiment measurement of g 2 and the d 2 twist-3 quark matrix element at a four-momentum transfer of 1.3 GeV 2 .
Meson interferometry and the quest for quark-gluon matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soff, Sven
2001-01-01
We point out what we may learn from the investigation of identical two-particle interferometry in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions if we assume a particular model scenario by the formation of a thermalized quark-gluon plasma hadronizing via a first-order phase transition to an interacting hadron gas. The bulk properties of the two-pion correlation functions are dominated by these late and soft resonance gas rescattering processes. However, we show that kaons at large transverse momenta have several advantages and a bigger sensitivity to the QCD phase transition parameters
Wigner's function and other distribution functions in mock phase spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balazs, N.L.; Jennings, B.K.
1983-06-01
This review deals with the methods of associating functions with quantum mechanical operators in such a manner that these functions should furnish conveniently semiclassical approximations. We present a unified treatment of methods and result which usually appear under the expressions Wigner's functions, Weyl's association, Kirkwood's expansion, Glauber's coherent state representation, etc.; we also construct some new associations. The mathematical paraphernalia are collected in the appendices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondrashova, Nataliia
2016-04-01
A measurement of the differential cross-section of pp→Z/γ * (→e + e - )+jet production and a study of the jet quark-gluon decomposition are presented. The data of 21.3 fb -1 collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2012 at the centre-of-mass energy √(s)=8 TeV are used. The double-differential pp→Zγ * (→e + e - )+jet cross-section is measured as a function of the absolute rapidity and the transverse momentum of jets. The jet quark-gluon decomposition study is performed in bins of the transverse momentum and the absolute rapidity of the highest-p T jet. The possibility to distinguish between quark-initiated and gluon-initiated jets is especially important for beyond Standard Mode searches, where a lot of signal processes have quarks in the final states, while background processes in Quantum Chromodynamic have mostly gluons. The performance of the discrimination between these two types of jets using different jet properties is studied using data-driven techniques with purified quark-like and gluon-like jet samples. The pp→Z/γ * (→e + e - )+jet production provides an important test of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics and is an important background for many Standard Model processes and beyond Standard Model searches. In addition, the measurement of the pp→Z/γ * (→e + e - )+jet cross section as a function of the absolute rapidity and the transverse momentum of inclusive jets provides constraints on the uncertainties on the parton distribution functions. The rapidity of jets provides the information on the fraction of the initial proton's momentum carried by the interacting partons, which provides the sensitivity to the parton distribution functions, while the transverse momentum of jets allows to probe different transfer momentum scales.The measured cross-section is compared to the predictions from Monte Carlo generators based on leading order matrix elements and supplemented by parton showers, where the predictions
Analysis of the fragmentation properties of quark and gluon jets at the CERN SPS panti p collider
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnison, G.; Albrow, M.G.; Denby, B.; Flynn, P.; Grayer, G.; Haynes, W.; Roberts, C.; Scott, W.; Shah, T.P.; Allkofer, O.C.; Dau, D.; Leuchs, R.; Levegrun, S.; Astbury, A.; Fincke Keeler, M.; Keeler, R.; Sobie, R.; Zanello, L.; Aubert, B.; Catz, P.; Della Negra, M.; Ghez, P.; Gonidec, A.; Linglin, D.; Minard, M.N.; Mours, B.; Perault, C.; Vialle, J.P.; Wingerter, I.; Yvert, M.; Bacci, C.; Ceradini, F.; Ciapetti, G.; Diaccio, A.; Lacava, F.; Moricca, M.; Paoluzi, L.; Piano Mortari, G.; Salvini, G.; Batley, J.R.; Buckley, E.; Eisenhandler, E.; Gibson, W.R.; Honma, A.; Kalmus, P.I.P.; Kyberd, P.; Nandi, A.; Thompson, G.; Bauer, G.; Geer, S.; Goodman, M.; Rohlf, J.; Sumorok, K.; Centro, S.; Bezaguet, A.; Bock, R.K.; Cennini, P.; Cittolin, S.; Demoulin, M.; Hofmann, H.; Jank, W.; Jorat, G.; Levi, M.; Maurin, G.; Meyer, O.; Meyer, T.; Muller, T.; Naumann, L.; Norton, A.; Pauss, F.; Placci, A.; Porte, J.P.; Rich, J.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rubbia, C.; Sass, J.; Sadoulet, B.; Schinzel, D.; Vuillemin, V.; Wilke, R.; Wyatt, T.; Leveque, A.; Dorenbosch, J.; Holthuizen, D.J.; Eijk, B. van; Cline, D.; Markiewicz, T.; Mohammadi, M.; Cochet, C.; Debeer, M.; Denegri, D.; Givernaud, A.; Laugier, J.P.; Locci, E.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Verecchia, P.; Corden, M.; Dowell, J.D.; Edgecock, R.; Ellis, N.; Garvey, J.; Homer, R.J.; Kenyon, I.; McMahon, T.; Streets, J.; Watkins, P.; Wilson, J.; Dallman, D.; Fruehwirth, R.; Markytan, M.; Strauss, J.; Szonczo, F.; Wahl, H.D.; Wulz, C.E.; Dobrzynski, L.; Fontaine, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Kryn, D.; Martin, T.; Mendiburu, J.P.; Sajot, G.; Tao, C.; Vrana, J.; Eggert, K.; Erhard, P.; Faissner, H.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Radermacher, E.; Redelberger, T.; Reithler, H.; Tscheslog, E.; Frey, R.; Guryn, W.; Kernan, A.; Kozanecki, W.; Morgan, K.; Pitman, D.; Ransdell, J.; Sheer, I.; Smith, D.; Karimaeki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Pietarinen, E.; Pimiae, M.; Tuominiemi, J.; Revol, J.P.; Calvetti, M.; Dibitonto, D.; Ghesquiere, C.; Giboni, K.L.; Hertzberger, L.O.; Hoffmann, D.; Lees, J.P.; Lehmann, H.; Rossi, P.; Stenzler, M.; Timmer, J.; Colas, J.; Kinnunen, R.
1986-01-01
A sample of two-jet events from the UA1 experiment at the CERN panti p Collider has been used to study the fragmentation of high-energy quark and gluon jets into charged hadrons. Compared with lower-energy jets observed in e + e - and pp collisions, the fragmentation function measured in the present experiment is softer (i.e. peaked to smaller values of z) and the mean internal transverse momentum is larger, mainly because of the effects of the QCD scaling violations. Using our knowledge of the quark and gluon structure functions in the proton, together with the QCD matrix elements, a statistical separation of quark and gluon jets is achieved within the present experiment. The fragmentation function for the gluon jets is found to be softer, and the angular spread of the fragmentation products larger, than is the case for quark jets. (orig.)
Two-gluon correlations in heavy–light ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wertepny, Douglas E.
2014-01-01
We derive the cross-section for two-gluon production in heavy–light ion collisions in the saturation/Color Glass Condensate framework. This calculation includes saturation effects to all orders in one of the nuclei (heavy ion) along with a single saturation correction in the projectile (light ion). The calculation of the correlation function predicts (qualitatively) two identical ridge-like correlations, near- and away-side. This prediction was later supported by experimental findings in p + A collisions at the LHC. Concentrating on the energy and geometry dependence of the correlation functions we find that the correlation function is nearly center-of-mass energy independent. The geometry dependence of the correlation function leads to an enhancement of near- and away-side correlations for the tip-on-tip U + U collisions when compared with side-on-side U + U collisions, an exactly opposite behavior from the correlations generated by the elliptic flow of the quark–gluon plasma
Forward gluon production in hadron-hadron scattering with Pomeron loops
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iancu, E. [CEA Saclay, Service de Physique Th orique (DSM/SPhT), Unite de recherche associ e au CNRS (URA D2306), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere; Marquet, C.; Soyez, G. [CEA Saclay, Service de Physique Th orique (DSM/SPhT), Unite de recherche associ e au CNRS (URA D2306), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere; Liege Univ., Fundamental Theoretical Physics Group (Belgium)
2006-07-01
We discuss new physical phenomena expected in particle production in hadron-hadron collisions at high energy, as a consequence of Pomerons loop effects in the evolution equations for the Color Glass Condensate. We focus on gluon production in asymmetric, 'dilute-dense', collisions: a dilute projectile scatters off a dense hadronic target, whose gluon distribution is highly evolved. This situation is representative for particle production in proton-proton collisions at forward rapidities (say, at LHC) and admits a dipole factorization similar to that of deep inelastic scattering (DIS). We show that at sufficiently large forward rapidities, where the Pomerons loop effects become important in the evolution of the target wavefunction, gluon production is dominated by 'black spots' (saturated gluon configurations) up to very large values of the transverse momentum, well above the average saturation momentum in the target. In this regime, the produced gluon spectrum exhibits diffusive scaling, so like DIS at sufficiently high energy. (authors)
Deciphering the quark-gluon structure of the photon in electronγ collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eboli, O.J.P.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.C.; Halzen, F.; Novaes, S.F.
1992-11-01
The capability of an electron γ collider to unravel the hadronic content of the photon is investigated. The experimental problem for probing the gluonic structure of the photon is that small-x triggers overwhelmingly select soft photons rather than soft gluons in hard photons. It is showed that the problem can be finessed in experiments where laser back-scattering is used to prepare a source of very hard photons. It is illustrated their power for studying the parton distribution of the photon and, specifically, for separating the quark and gluon components in events where dijets, jet-γ pairs, and heavy quark pairs are produced. (author)
Diffractive J/ψ photoproduction as a probe of the gluon density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryskin, M.G.; Roberts, R.G.; Martin, A.D.; Levin, E.M.
1995-11-01
We use perturbative QCD beyond the leading Ln Q 2 approximation, to show how measurements of diffractive J/ψ production at HERA can provide a sensitive probe of the gluon density of the proton at small values of Bjorken x. We estimate both the effect of the relativistic motion of the c and c within the J/ψ and of the rescattering of the cc quark pair on the proton. We find that the available data for diffractive J/ψ photoproduction can discriminate between the gluon distributions of the most recent sets of partons. (author). 18 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab
Tight Bounds for Distributed Functional Monitoring
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Woodruff, David P.; Zhang, Qin
2011-01-01
$, our bound resolves their main open question. Our lower bounds are based on new direct sum theorems for approximate majority, and yield significant improvements to problems in the data stream model, improving the bound for estimating $F_p, p > 2,$ in $t$ passes from $\\tilde{\\Omega}(n^{1-2/p}/(\\eps^{2/p......} t))$ to $\\tilde{\\Omega}(n^{1-2/p}/(\\eps^{4/p} t))$, giving the first bound for estimating $F_0$ in $t$ passes of $\\Omega(1/(\\eps^2 t))$ bits of space that does not use the gap-hamming problem, and showing a distribution for the gap-hamming problem with high external information cost or super...
The impact of PDF and alphas uncertainties on Higgs Production in gluon fusion at hadron colliders
Demartin, Federico; Forte, Stefano; Mariani, Elisa; Rojo, Juan; Vicini, Alessandro
2010-01-01
We present a systematic study of uncertainties due to parton distributions and the strong coupling on the gluon-fusion production cross section of the Standard Model Higgs at the Tevatron and LHC colliders. We compare procedures and results when three recent sets of PDFs are used, CTEQ6.6, MSTW08
Impact of gluon polarization on Higgs boson plus jet production at the LHC
Boer, Daniel; Pisano, Cristian
2015-01-01
In this paper we consider Higgs boson plus jet production as a process that is sensitive to the linear polarization of gluons inside the unpolarized protons of the LHC. The leading order expressions for the transverse momentum distribution of the Higgs boson plus jet pair are provided in terms of
Wigner's function and other distribution functions in mock phase space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balazs, N.L.
1984-01-01
This review deals with the methods of associating functions with quantum mechanical operators in such a manner that these functions should furnish conveniently semiclassical approximations. We present a unified treatment of methods and results which usually appear under expressions such as Wigner's function. Weyl's association, Kirkwood's expansion, Glauber's coherent state representation, etc.; we also construct some new associations. Section 1 gives the motivation by discussing the Thomas-Fermi theory of an atom with this end in view. Section 2 introduce new operators which resemble Dirac delta functions with operator arguments, the operators being the momenta and coordinates. Reasons are given as to why this should be useful. Next we introduce the notion of an operator basis, and discuss the possibility and usefulness of writing an operator as a linear combination of the basis operators. The coefficients in the linear combination are c-numbers and the c-numbers are associated with the operator (in that particularly basis). The delta function type operators introduced before can be used as a basis for the dynamical operators, and the c-numbers obtained in this manner turn out to be the c-number functions used by Wigner, Weyl, Krikwood, Glauber, etc. New bases and associations can now be invented at will. One such new basis is presented and discussed. The reason and motivations for choosing different bases is then explained. The copious and seemingly random mathematical relations between these functions are then nothing else but the relations between the expansion coefficients engendered by the relations between bases. These are shown and discussed in this light. A brief discussion is then given to possible transformation of the p, q labels. Section 3 gives examples of how the semiclassical expansions are generated for these functions and exhibits their equivalence. The mathematical paraphernalia are collected in the appendices. (orig.)
New Function of Seaports: Logistics and Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igor Jakomin
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The globalization process occurs in all the spheres of ourlife and its quantitative and spatial dimensions affect theworld's development. These trends lead the enterprises to concentrateon their core business and outsource some auxilimy oradditional parts of their production or se1vices. It is vital for theoperation in such conditions that the logistics functionssmoothly and reliably in all its segments.To provide an answer to the given hypothesis, I have dealtwith all the major questions linked to the phenomenon of seaportsand their role in the development of new logistical anddistributional function.
Elaiophores: their taxonomic distribution, morphology and functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Clivia Carolina Fiorilo Possobom
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Elaiophores are floral glands that secrete non-volatile oils as a reward for their pollinators. Their secretions mediate a specialized interaction between oil-producing plants and a few species of oil-collecting bees - Apidae and Melittidae. The present review focuses on the morphological and functional aspects of these secretory structures. We also provide information on their chemistry and pollination ecology. Our survey is organized taxonomically among the plant families for which elaiophore occurrence has been confirmed -for the monocots, Iridaceae and Orchidaceae, and for the eudicots, Calceolariaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Krameriaceae, Malpighiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Primulaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae and Stilbaceae. Most oil flowers are zygomorphic, bisexual, nectarless and present their elaiophores on the protective whorls or on the androecium. Trichomal elaiophores are reported in all of these families except Krameriaceae and Malpighiaceae, and they vary in the density and morphology of the trichomes. Epithelial elaiophores occur in some monocot representatives and in Krameriaceae and Malpighiaceae, and are similar among species. An intermediate type of elaiophore is reported in some species of Orchidaceae. Regardless of elaiophore type, these glands have similar subcellular features and secretion-release mechanisms. Finally, we note the dearth of information on elaiophore ultrastructure and functioning for several plant families.
Experimental properties of gluon and quark jets from a point source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abbiendi, G.; Ackerstaff, K.; Alexander, G.
1999-01-01
Gluon jets are identified in hadronic Z 0 decays as all the particles in a hemisphere opposite to a hemisphere containing two tagged quark jets. Gluon jets defined in this manner are equivalent to gluon jets produced from a color singlet point source and thus correspond to the definition employed for most theoretical calculations. In a separate stage of the analysis, we select quark jets in a manner to correspond to calculations, as the particles in hemispheres of flavor tagged light quark (uds) events. We present the distributions of rapidity, scaled energy, the logarithm of the momentum, and transverse momentum with respect to the jet axes, for charged particles in these gluon and quark jets. We also examine the charged particle multiplicity distributions of the jets in restricted intervals of rapidity. For soft particles at large p T , we observe the charged particle multiplicity ratio of gluon to quark jets to be 2.29±0.09(stat.)±0.15(syst.), in agreement with the prediction that this ratio should approximately equal the ratio of QCD color factors, C A /C F =2.25. The intervals used to define soft particles and large p T for this result, p T < 3.0 GeV/c, are motivated by the predictions of the Herwig Monte Carlo multihadronic event generator. Additionally, our gluon jet data allow a sensitive test of the phenomenon of non-leading QCD terms known as color reconnection. We test the model of color reconnection implemented in the Ariadne Monte Carlo multihadronic event generator and find it to be disfavored by our data. (orig.)
On positivity of parton distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altarelli, G.; Forte, S.; Ridolfi, G.
1998-01-01
We discuss the bounds on polarized parton distributions which follow from their definition in terms of cross section asymmetries. We spell out how the bounds obtained in the naive parton model can be derived within perturbative QCD at leading order when all quark and gluon distributions are defined in terms of suitable physical processes. We specify a convenient physical definition for the polarized and unpolarized gluon distributions in terms of Higgs production from gluon fusion. We show that these bounds are modified by subleading corrections, and we determine them up to NLO. We examine the ensuing phenomenological implications, in particular in view of the determination of the polarized gluon distribution. (orig.)
On positivity of parton distributions
Altarelli, Guido; Ridolfi, G; Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni
1998-01-01
We discuss the bounds on polarized parton distributions which follow from their definition in terms of cross section asymmetries. We spell out how the bounds obtained in the naive parton model can be derived within perturbative QCD at leading order when all quark and gluon distributions are defined in terms of suitable physical processes. We specify a convenient physical definition for the polarized and unpolarized gluon distributions in terms of Higgs production from gluon fusion. We show that these bounds are modified by subleading corrections, and we determine them up to NLO. We examine the ensuing phenomenological implications, in particular in view of the determination of the polarized gluon distribution.
First measurement of the Sivers asymmetry for gluons using SIDIS data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Adolph
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The Sivers function describes the correlation between the transverse spin of a nucleon and the transverse motion of its partons. For quarks, it was studied in previous measurements of the azimuthal asymmetry of hadrons produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering of leptons off transversely polarised nucleon targets, and it was found to be non-zero. In this letter the evaluation of the Sivers asymmetry for gluons is presented. The contribution of the photon–gluon fusion subprocess is enhanced by requiring two high transverse-momentum hadrons. The analysis method is based on a Monte Carlo simulation that includes three hard processes: photon–gluon fusion, QCD Compton scattering and the leading-order virtual-photon absorption process. The Sivers asymmetries of the three processes are simultaneously extracted using the LEPTO event generator and a neural network approach. The method is applied to samples of events containing at least two hadrons with large transverse momentum from the COMPASS data taken with a 160 GeV/c muon beam scattered off transversely polarised deuterons and protons. With a significance of about two standard deviations, a negative value is obtained for the gluon Sivers asymmetry. The result of a similar analysis for a Collins-like asymmetry for gluons is consistent with zero.
Rocket measurement of auroral partial parallel distribution functions
Lin, C.-A.
1980-01-01
The auroral partial parallel distribution functions are obtained by using the observed energy spectra of electrons. The experiment package was launched by a Nike-Tomahawk rocket from Poker Flat, Alaska over a bright auroral band and covered an altitude range of up to 180 km. Calculated partial distribution functions are presented with emphasis on their slopes. The implications of the slopes are discussed. It should be pointed out that the slope of the partial parallel distribution function obtained from one energy spectra will be changed by superposing another energy spectra on it.
Scale dependence and small-x behaviour of polarized parton distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ball, R.D.; Forte, S.; Ridolfi, G.
1995-01-01
We discuss perturbative evolution of the polarized structure function g 1 in the (x, Q 2 ) plane, with special regard to the small-x region. We determine g 1 in terms of polarized quark and gluon distributions using coefficient functions to order α s . At small x g 1 then displays substantial scale dependence, which necessarily implies a corresponding scale dependence in the large-x region. This scale dependence has significant consequences for the extraction of the first moment from the experimental data, reducing its value while increasing the error. Conversely, the scale dependence may be used to constrain the size of the polarized gluon distribution. ((orig.))
Leveraging Distributions in Physical Unclonable Functions
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Wenjie Che
2017-10-01
Full Text Available A special class of Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs referred to as strong PUFs can be used in novel hardware-based authentication protocols. Strong PUFs are required for authentication because the bit strings and helper data are transmitted openly by the token to the verifier, and therefore are revealed to the adversary. This enables the adversary to carry out attacks against the token by systematically applying challenges and obtaining responses in an attempt to machine learn, and later predict, the token’s response to an arbitrary challenge. Therefore, strong PUFs must both provide an exponentially large challenge space and be resistant to machine-learning attacks in order to be considered secure. We investigate a transformation called temperature–voltage compensation (TVCOMP, which is used within the Hardware-Embedded Delay PUF (HELP bit string generation algorithm. TVCOMP increases the diversity and unpredictability of the challenge–response space, and therefore increases resistance to model-building attacks. HELP leverages within-die variations in path delays as a source of random information. TVCOMP is a linear transformation designed specifically for dealing with changes in delay introduced by adverse temperature–voltage (environmental variations. In this paper, we show that TVCOMP also increases entropy and expands the challenge–response space dramatically.
Quark-gluon plasma tomography by vector mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lovas, I.
2001-01-01
Full text: The most important aim of relativistic heavy ion experiments is the observation f the quark-gluon plasma formation. In order to detect the transition into the plasma state it is desirable to map the density profile of the fireball formed in the collision. Here we investigate the possibility of this mapping by tomography. The fireball is characterized by the impact parameter vector b, which can be determined from the multiplicity and the angular distribution of the reaction products. By appropriate rotations the b vectors of each collision can be aligned into a fixed direction. Using the measured values of the momentum distributions independent integral equations can be formulated for the unknown emission densities (EM(r) and for the unknown absorption densities (Δ μ M (r)) of the different vector mesons M(≡ ω 0 , ρ 0 , φ 0 , ψ 0 , ψ 0' , Υ). At a fixed value of M and b the number of detected mesons N M (p,b) with momentum p, can be expressed by the following formula: N M (p,b) = ∫ V(b) dr EM(r) exp[-μ M (p)L(r,p o )] V(b) R(r, po)] exp[- ∫ from r until R(r,p 0 ) dl ' Δ μ M (r ' ,p)], where the average value of the absorption coefficient having no r dependence is denoted by μ(p), while Δ μM is defined as Δ μM = μ M - μ- M . The meson arrives to the surface of the fireball at R(r, p 0 ). The length of the path between r and R is denoted by L(r, po). The equation given above can be considered as an integral equation. Unfortunately it can not be transformed into an exact system of linear equations. However an iterative procedure can be constructed in such a way that in every iterative step a linear system of equations must be solved. N M (p,b) = ∫ V(b) dr exp[- μ M (p) L(r,p o )] [E M n (r) Σ from k=O until (n-1) (1/k !) (- ∫ from r until R (r, p 0 ) dl ' Δ μM n-1 (r ' , p) k + E M n-1 (r) (1/n !) (- ∫ from r until R(r, p 0 ) dl ' Δ μM n-1 (r ' , p)) (n-1) (- ∫ from r until R(r, p 0 ) dl ' Δ μM (n) (r ' , p))]. Since
Soft gluon approach for diffractive photoproduction of J/ψ
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, J.P.; Xu Jiasheng
2002-01-01
We study diffractive photoproduction of J/ψ by taking the charm quark as a heavy quark. A description of nonperturbative effect related to J/ψ can be made by using NRQCD. In the forward region of the kinematics, the interaction between the cc-bar-pair and the initial hadron is due to exchange of soft gluons. The effect of the exchange can be studied by using the expansion in the inverse of the quark mass m c . At the leading order we find that the nonperturbative effect related to the initial hadron is represented by a matrix element of field strength operators, which are separated in the moving direction of J/ψ in the spacetime. The S-matrix element is then obtained without using perturbative QCD and the results are not based on any model. Corrections to the results can be systematically added. Keeping the dominant contribution of the S-matrix element in the large energy limit we find that the imaginary part of the S-matrix element is related to the gluon distribution for x→0 with a reasonable assumption, the real part can be obtained with another approximation or with dispersion relation. Our approach is different than previous approaches and also our results are different than those in these approaches. The differences are discussed in detail. A comparison with experiment is also made and a qualitative agreement is found. (author)
Infrared behavior of gluons and ghosts in ghost-antighost symmetric gauges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alkofer, R.; Fischer, C.S.; Reinhardt, H.; Smekal, L. von
2003-01-01
To investigate the possibility of a ghost-antighost condensate, the coupled Dyson-Schwinger equations for the gluon and ghost propagators in Yang-Mills theories are derived in general covariant gauges, including ghost-antighost symmetric gauges. The infrared behavior of these two-point functions is studied in a bare-vertex truncation scheme which has proven to be successful in the Landau gauge. In all linear covariant gauges the same infrared behavior as in the Landau gauge is found: The gluon propagator is infrared-suppressed whereas the ghost propagator is infrared-enhanced. This infrared singular behavior provides an indication against a ghost-antighost condensate. In the ghost-antighost symmetric gauges we find that the infrared behavior of the gluon and ghost propagators cannot be determined when replacing all dressed vertices by bare ones. The question of a BRS invariant dimension-2 condensate remains to be further studied
Higgs production in gluon fusion beyond NNLO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ball, Richard D. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). Tait Inst.; Bonvini, Marco [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Forte, Stefano [Milano Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Sezione di Milano (Italy); Marzani, Simone [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Ridolfi, Giovanni [Genova Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Sezione di Genova (Italy)
2013-03-15
We construct an approximate expression for the cross section for Higgs production in gluon fusion at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N{sup 3}LO) in {alpha}{sub s} with finite top mass. We argue that an accurate approximation can be constructed by exploiting the analiticity of the Mellin space cross section, and the information on its singularity structure coming from large N (soft gluon, Sudakov) and small N (high energy, BFKL) all order resummation. We support our argument with an explicit comparison of the approximate and the exact expressions up to the highest (NNLO) order at which the latter are available. We find that the approximate N{sup 3}LO result amounts to a correction of 17% to the NNLO QCD cross section for production of a 125 GeV Higgs at the LHC (8 TeV), larger than previously estimated, and it significantly reduces the scale dependence of the NNLO result.
Higgs production in gluon fusion beyond NNLO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ball, Richard D.; Bonvini, Marco; Forte, Stefano; Marzani, Simone; Ridolfi, Giovanni
2013-01-01
We construct an approximate expression for the cross section for Higgs production in gluon fusion at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N 3 LO) in α s with finite top mass. We argue that an accurate approximation can be constructed by exploiting the analyticity of the Mellin space cross section, and the information on its singularity structure coming from large N (soft gluon, Sudakov) and small N (high energy, BFKL) all order resummation. We support our argument with an explicit comparison of the approximate and the exact expressions up to the highest (NNLO) order at which the latter are available. We find that the approximate N 3 LO result amounts to a correction of 17% to the NNLO QCD cross section for production of a 125 GeV Higgs at the LHC (8 TeV), larger than previously estimated, and it significantly reduces the scale dependence of the NNLO result
Higgs production in gluon fusion beyond NNLO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ball, Richard D. [Tait Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Bonvini, Marco [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchroton, DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Forte, Stefano, E-mail: forte@mi.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Marzani, Simone [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, England (United Kingdom); Ridolfi, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova and INFN, Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy)
2013-09-21
We construct an approximate expression for the cross section for Higgs production in gluon fusion at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N{sup 3}LO) in α{sub s} with finite top mass. We argue that an accurate approximation can be constructed by exploiting the analyticity of the Mellin space cross section, and the information on its singularity structure coming from large N (soft gluon, Sudakov) and small N (high energy, BFKL) all order resummation. We support our argument with an explicit comparison of the approximate and the exact expressions up to the highest (NNLO) order at which the latter are available. We find that the approximate N{sup 3}LO result amounts to a correction of 17% to the NNLO QCD cross section for production of a 125 GeV Higgs at the LHC (8 TeV), larger than previously estimated, and it significantly reduces the scale dependence of the NNLO result.
Higgs production in gluon fusion beyond NNLO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ball, Richard D.; Forte, Stefano; Marzani, Simone
2013-03-01
We construct an approximate expression for the cross section for Higgs production in gluon fusion at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N 3 LO) in α s with finite top mass. We argue that an accurate approximation can be constructed by exploiting the analiticity of the Mellin space cross section, and the information on its singularity structure coming from large N (soft gluon, Sudakov) and small N (high energy, BFKL) all order resummation. We support our argument with an explicit comparison of the approximate and the exact expressions up to the highest (NNLO) order at which the latter are available. We find that the approximate N 3 LO result amounts to a correction of 17% to the NNLO QCD cross section for production of a 125 GeV Higgs at the LHC (8 TeV), larger than previously estimated, and it significantly reduces the scale dependence of the NNLO result.
Deep inelastic lepton-hadron processes in gauge models with massive vector gluons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morozov, P.T.; Stamenov, D.B.
1978-01-01
Considered is a class of strong interaction models in which the interactions between coloured quarks are mediated by massive neutral vector gluons. All the vector gluons acquire masses by the Higgs mechanism. These models are not asymptotically free. The effective gauge coupling constant anti α vanishes asymptotically, and the effective quartic coupling constant anti h tends to a finite asymptotic value. The behaviour of the moments of the deep inelastic lepton-hadron structure functions is analyzed. It is shown that the Bjorken scaling is violated by powers of logarithms
New control system: distribution of the GANICIEL functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
David, L.; Lecorche, E.
1992-01-01
This report describes the material configurations of the various processors, and of the distribution between them of the different software functions which constitute the GANICIEL. (A.B.). 9 refs., 4 figs
Transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions : status and prospects
Angeles-Martinez, R.; Bacchetta, A.; Balitsky, I.I.; Boer, D.; Boglione, M.; Boussarie, R.; Ceccopieri, F.A.; Cherednikov, I.O.; Connor, P.; Echevarria, M. G.; Ferrera, G.; Luyando, J. Grados; Hautmann, F.; Jung, H.; Kasemets, T.; Kutak, K.; Lansberg, J.P.; Lelek, A.; Lykasov, G.; Martinez, J. D. Madrigal; Mulders, P. J.; Nocera, Emanuele R.; Petreska, E.; Pisano, C.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Radici, M.; Schnell, G.; Scimemi, I.; Signori, A.; Szymanowski, L.; Monfared, S. Taheri; van der Veken, F.F.; van Haevermaet, H.J.; van Mechelen, P.; Vladimirov, A.; Wallon, S.
2015-01-01
We review transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, their application to topical issues in high-energy physics phenomenology, and their theoretical connections with QCD resummation, evolution and factorization theorems. We illustrate the use of TMDs via examples of
On relation between distribution functions in hard and soft processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kisselev, A.V.; Petrov, V.A.
1992-10-01
It is shown that in the particle-exchange model the hadron-hadron scattering amplitude admits parton-like representation with the distribution functions coinciding with those extracted from deep inelastic processes. (author). 13 refs
The structure of gluon radiation in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parke, S.; Mangano, M.
1989-08-01
For massless QCD the hard scattering amplitudes are naturally written in terms of the dual color expansion. here I present this expansion for purely gluonic processes and processes involving quark-antiquark pairs and gluons. The properties of the sub-amplitudes as well as explicit algebraic expressions are given for a number of these processes. Also, I demonstrate how to recover massless QED amplitudes from the dual expansion of massless QCD. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab
Gluon saturation beyond (naive) leading logs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beuf, Guillaume
2014-12-15
An improved version of the Balitsky–Kovchegov equation is presented, with a consistent treatment of kinematics. That improvement allows to resum the most severe of the large higher order corrections which plague the conventional versions of high-energy evolution equations, with approximate kinematics. This result represents a further step towards having high-energy QCD scattering processes under control beyond strict Leading Logarithmic accuracy and with gluon saturation effects.
The gluon propagator in momentum space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernard, C. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Parrinello, C. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Soni, A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)
1992-12-31
We consider quenched QCD on a 16{sup 3}{times}40 lattice at {beta}=6.0. We give preliminary numerical results for the lattice gluon propagator evaluated both in coordinate and momentum space. Our findings are compared with earlier results in the literature at zero momentum. In addition, by considering nonzero momenta we attempt to extract the form of the propagator and compare it to continuum predictions formulated by Gribov and others.
The gluon propagator in momentum space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernard, C. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics); Parrinello, C. (New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Soni, A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))
1992-01-01
We consider quenched QCD on a 16[sup 3][times]40 lattice at [beta]=6.0. We give preliminary numerical results for the lattice gluon propagator evaluated both in coordinate and momentum space. Our findings are compared with earlier results in the literature at zero momentum. In addition, by considering nonzero momenta we attempt to extract the form of the propagator and compare it to continuum predictions formulated by Gribov and others.
The gluon propagator in momentum space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bernard, C. (Dept. of Physics, Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Parrinello, C. (Physics Dept., New York Univ., NY (United States) Physics Dept., Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Soni, A. (Physics Dept., Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))
1993-03-01
We consider quenched QCD on a 16[sup 3] x 40 lattice at [beta] = 6.0. We give preliminary numerical results for the lattice gluon propagator evaluated both in coordinate and momentum space. Our findings are compared with earlier results in the literature at zero momentum. In addition, by considering nonzero momenta we attempt to extract the form of the propagator and compare it to continuum predictions formulated by Gribov and others. (orig.)
Physics of the quark-gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polonyi, J.; Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules; Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest
1995-01-01
Some features of the high temperature gluonic matter, such as the breakdown of the fundamental group symmetry by the kinetic energy, the screening of test quarks by some unusual gluon states and the explanation of the absence of isolated quarks in the vacuum without the help of infinities are presented in this talk. Special attention is paid to separate the dynamical input inferred from the numerical results of lattice gauge theory from the kinematics. (author)
The structure of gluon radiation in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parke, S.; Mangano, M.
1990-01-01
For massless QCD the hard scattering amplitudes are naturally written in terms of the dual color expansion. Here I present this expansion for purely gluonic processes and processes involving quark-antiquark pairs and gluons. The properties of the sub-amplitudes as well as explicit algebraic expressions are given for a number of these processess. Finally, I demonstrate how to recover massless QED amplitudes from the dual expansion of massless QCD
Soft gluon emission in coloured quark scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frenkel, J.; Meuldemans, R.; Mohammad, I.; Taylor, J.C.
1977-01-01
In order to investigate the infrared behaviour of non-Abelian gauge theories the leading logarithms in the bremsstrahlung of two soft gluons by a coloured quark scattered in an external colourless potential have been calculated. In the calculations only diagrams containing exactly one Yang-Mills vertex have been used alongside with the dimensional infrared regularization. An expression is obtained exhibiting a crucial difference between QCD and QED
The gluon propagator in momentum space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernard, C.; Soni, A.
1992-01-01
We consider quenched QCD on a 16 3 x40 lattice at β=6.0. We give preliminary numerical results for the lattice gluon propagator evaluated both in coordinate and momentum space. Our findings are compared with earlier results in the literature at zero momentum. In addition, by considering nonzero momenta we attempt to extract the form of the propagator and compare it to continuum predictions formulated by Gribov and others
Quark-gluon mixing in scalar mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eremyan, Sh.S.; Nazaryan, A.E.
1986-01-01
Scalar mesons are considered within the quark-gluon mixing model. It is shown that there exists decouplet of scalar particles consisting of S* (975), ε (1400), S*' (1700), δ (980) and κ (1350) resonances. It has turned out that the long ago known S* (975)-resonance is a nearly pure glouball. A good description of all available experimental data on scalar meson decays is obtained
Numerical distribution functions of fractional unit root and cointegration tests
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
MacKinnon, James G.; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard
We calculate numerically the asymptotic distribution functions of likelihood ratio tests for fractional unit roots and cointegration rank. Because these distributions depend on a real-valued parameter, b, which must be estimated, simple tabulation is not feasible. Partly due to the presence...
The hadron to quark/gluon transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, G.E.; Bethe, H.A.; Pizzochero, P.M.
1991-01-01
In this paper we are concerned with the hadron to quark/gluon transition. We describe the equilibrium states of hadronic matter by a Hagedorn spectrum; introducing scaling masses, as dictated by the restoration of chiral invariance with increasing temperature, we show that in the chiral SU(2) f limit there is a maximum hadron temperature (T H ) max ≅ 128 MeV. Since the quark/gluon perturbative phase involves restoration of conformal invariance, we take the bag constant to be the conformal anomaly, i.e. the gluon condensate. The stability condition P QG > 0 for the pressure requires that there is a minimum temperature; we find (T QG ) min ≅ 172 MeV for SU(2) f . According to the simple Hagedorn model, there appears to be a region of temperature between (T H ) max and (T QG ) min in which no admissible equilibrium states exist. Since the two phases cannot exist at a common temperature, in this model there is no QCD phase transition. (orig.)
Quark and gluon condensate in vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vajnshtejn, A.I.; Zakharov, V.I.; Shifman, M.A.
1979-01-01
The mechanism of quark confinement has been reviewed. The fact that coloured particles in a free state cannot be observed is connected with specific properties of vacuum in quantum chromodynamics. The basic hypothesis consists in the existence of vacuum fields, quark and gluon condensates, which affect the coloured objects. The vacuum transparent relative to noncharged ''white'' states serves as a source of the force acting upon the coloured particles. It has been a sucess to examine strictly the action of the vacuum fields on quarks when the distance between them is relatively small and the force of the vacuum fields on quarks is relatively small too. It is shown that the interaction with the vacuum fields manifests itself earlier than the forces connected with the gluon exchange do. It is assumed that the vacuum condensate of quarks and gluons and its relation to properties of resonances and to the bag model exist in reality. The dispersion sum rules are used for calculating masses and lepton widths of resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galilo, Bogdan V.; Nedelko, Sergei N.
2011-01-01
The one-loop quark contribution to the QCD effective potential for the homogeneous Abelian gluon field in the presence of an external strong electromagnetic field is evaluated. The structure of extrema of the potential as a function of the angles between chromoelectric, chromomagnetic, and electromagnetic fields is analyzed. In this setup, the electromagnetic field is considered as an external one while the gluon field represents domain structured nonperturbative gluon configurations related to the QCD vacuum in the confinement phase. Two particularly interesting gluon configurations, (anti-)self-dual and crossed orthogonal chromomagnetic and chromoelectric fields, are discussed specifically. Within this simplified framework it is shown that the strong electromagnetic fields can play a catalyzing role for a deconfinement transition. At the qualitative level, the present consideration can be seen as a highly simplified study of an impact of the electromagnetic fields generated in relativistic heavy ion collisions on the strongly interacting hadronic matter.
Generalised partition functions: inferences on phase space distributions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. A. Treumann
2016-06-01
Full Text Available It is demonstrated that the statistical mechanical partition function can be used to construct various different forms of phase space distributions. This indicates that its structure is not restricted to the Gibbs–Boltzmann factor prescription which is based on counting statistics. With the widely used replacement of the Boltzmann factor by a generalised Lorentzian (also known as the q-deformed exponential function, where κ = 1∕|q − 1|, with κ, q ∈ R both the kappa-Bose and kappa-Fermi partition functions are obtained in quite a straightforward way, from which the conventional Bose and Fermi distributions follow for κ → ∞. For κ ≠ ∞ these are subject to the restrictions that they can be used only at temperatures far from zero. They thus, as shown earlier, have little value for quantum physics. This is reasonable, because physical κ systems imply strong correlations which are absent at zero temperature where apart from stochastics all dynamical interactions are frozen. In the classical large temperature limit one obtains physically reasonable κ distributions which depend on energy respectively momentum as well as on chemical potential. Looking for other functional dependencies, we examine Bessel functions whether they can be used for obtaining valid distributions. Again and for the same reason, no Fermi and Bose distributions exist in the low temperature limit. However, a classical Bessel–Boltzmann distribution can be constructed which is a Bessel-modified Lorentzian distribution. Whether it makes any physical sense remains an open question. This is not investigated here. The choice of Bessel functions is motivated solely by their convergence properties and not by reference to any physical demands. This result suggests that the Gibbs–Boltzmann partition function is fundamental not only to Gibbs–Boltzmann but also to a large class of generalised Lorentzian distributions as well as to the
On a Functional Equation for the Generating Function of the Logarithmic Series Distribution
Panaretos, John
1987-01-01
This note deals with finding the solution of a functional equation, where the function involved has the additional property of being a probability generating function. It turns out that the unique solution of this particular functional equation is the probability generating function of the logarithmic series distribution
Exact probability distribution function for the volatility of cumulative production
Zadourian, Rubina; Klümper, Andreas
2018-04-01
In this paper we study the volatility and its probability distribution function for the cumulative production based on the experience curve hypothesis. This work presents a generalization of the study of volatility in Lafond et al. (2017), which addressed the effects of normally distributed noise in the production process. Due to its wide applicability in industrial and technological activities we present here the mathematical foundation for an arbitrary distribution function of the process, which we expect will pave the future research on forecasting of the production process.
Advanced Inverter Functions and Communication Protocols for Distribution Management
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagarajan, Adarsh; Palmintier, Bryan; Baggu, Murali
2016-05-05
This paper aims at identifying the advanced features required by distribution management systems (DMS) service providers to bring inverter-connected distributed energy resources into use as an intelligent grid resource. This work explores the standard functions needed in the future DMS for enterprise integration of distributed energy resources (DER). The important DMS functionalities such as DER management in aggregate groups, including the discovery of capabilities, status monitoring, and dispatch of real and reactive power are addressed in this paper. It is intended to provide the industry with a point of reference for DER integration with other utility applications and to provide guidance to research and standards development organizations.
Rationalisation of distribution functions for models of nanoparticle magnetism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Hilo, M.; Chantrell, R.W.
2012-01-01
A formalism is presented which reconciles the use of different distribution functions of particle diameter in analytical models of the magnetic properties of nanoparticle systems. For the lognormal distribution a transformation is derived which shows that a distribution of volume fraction transforms into a lognormal distribution of particle number albeit with a modified median diameter. This transformation resolves an apparent discrepancy reported in Tournus and Tamion [Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 323 (2011) 1118]. - Highlights: ► We resolve a problem resulting from the misunderstanding of the nature. ► The nature of dispersion functions in models of nanoparticle magnetism. ► The derived transformation between distributions will be of benefit in comparing models and experimental results.
Electron and ion distribution functions in magnetopause reconnection
Wang, S.; Chen, L. J.; Bessho, N.; Hesse, M.; Kistler, L. M.; Torbert, R. B.; Mouikis, C.; Pollock, C. J.
2015-12-01
We investigate electron and ion velocity distribution functions in dayside magnetopause reconnection events observed by the Cluster and MMS spacecraft. The goal is to build a spatial map of electron and ion distribution features to enable the indication of the spacecraft location in the reconnection structure, and to understand plasma energization processes. Distribution functions, together with electromagnetic field structures, plasma densities, and bulk velocities, are organized and compared with particle-in-cell simulation results to indicate the proximities to the reconnection X-line. Anisotropic features in the distributions of magnetospheric- and magnetosheath- origin electrons at different locations in the reconnection inflow and exhaust are identified. In particular, parallel electron heating is observed in both the magnetosheath and magnetosphere inflow regions. Possible effects of the guide field strength, waves, and upstream density and temperature asymmetries on the distribution features will be discussed.
Kaon quark distribution functions in the chiral constituent quark model
Watanabe, Akira; Sawada, Takahiro; Kao, Chung Wen
2018-04-01
We investigate the valence u and s ¯ quark distribution functions of the K+ meson, vK (u )(x ,Q2) and vK (s ¯)(x ,Q2), in the framework of the chiral constituent quark model. We judiciously choose the bare distributions at the initial scale to generate the dressed distributions at the higher scale, considering the meson cloud effects and the QCD evolution, which agree with the phenomenologically satisfactory valence quark distribution of the pion and the experimental data of the ratio vK (u )(x ,Q2)/vπ (u )(x ,Q2) . We show how the meson cloud effects affect the bare distribution functions in detail. We find that a smaller S U (3 ) flavor symmetry breaking effect is observed, compared with results of the preceding studies based on other approaches.
Energy and enthalpy distribution functions for a few physical systems.
Wu, K L; Wei, J H; Lai, S K; Okabe, Y
2007-08-02
The present work is devoted to extracting the energy or enthalpy distribution function of a physical system from the moments of the distribution using the maximum entropy method. This distribution theory has the salient traits that it utilizes only the experimental thermodynamic data. The calculated distribution functions provide invaluable insight into the state or phase behavior of the physical systems under study. As concrete evidence, we demonstrate the elegance of the distribution theory by studying first a test case of a two-dimensional six-state Potts model for which simulation results are available for comparison, then the biphasic behavior of the binary alloy Na-K whose excess heat capacity, experimentally observed to fall in a narrow temperature range, has yet to be clarified theoretically, and finally, the thermally induced state behavior of a collection of 16 proteins.
Ray tracing the Wigner distribution function for optical simulations
Mout, B.M.; Wick, Michael; Bociort, F.; Petschulat, Joerg; Urbach, Paul
2018-01-01
We study a simulation method that uses the Wigner distribution function to incorporate wave optical effects in an established framework based on geometrical optics, i.e., a ray tracing engine. We use the method to calculate point spread functions and show that it is accurate for paraxial systems
Uniform convergence of the empirical spectral distribution function
Mikosch, T; Norvaisa, R
1997-01-01
Let X be a linear process having a finite fourth moment. Assume F is a class of square-integrable functions. We consider the empirical spectral distribution function J(n,X) based on X and indexed by F. If F is totally bounded then J(n,X) satisfies a uniform strong law of large numbers. If, in
Spin-dependent parton distributions and structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bentz, W.; Ito, T.; Cloet, I.C.; Thomas, A.W.; Yazaki, K.
2008-01-01
Nuclear parton distributions and structure functions are determined in an effective chiral quark theory. We also discuss an extension of our model to fragmentation functions. Presented at the 20th Few-Body Conference, Pisa, Italy, 10-14 September 2007. (author)
Comparison of parton distributions and structure functions for the proton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abramowicz, H.; Charchula, K.; Krawczyk, M.; Levy, A.
1990-09-01
A comparative study of the most popular parton parametrizations is presented. The individual parton distributions as well as the F 2 structure function are discussed with a particular emphasis on the low x region, 10 -4 -2 . The predictions of these parametrizations for the F 2 structure function have a wide spread which persists also in the HERA kinematical region. (orig.)
The ratio of the beauty structure functions Rb=(FLb)/(F2b) at low x
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boroun, G.R.
2014-01-01
We study the structure functions F k b (x,Q 2 ) (k=2,L) and the reduced cross section σ r b (x,Q 2 ) for small values of Bjorken's x variable with respect to the hard (Lipatov) pomeron for the gluon distribution and provide a compact formula for the ratio R b that is useful to extract the beauty structure function from the beauty reduced cross section, in particular at DESY HERA. Also we show that the effects of the nonlinear corrections to the gluon distribution tame the behavior of the beauty structure function and the beauty reduced cross section at low x
Phase pupil functions for focal-depth enhancement derived from a Wigner distribution function.
Zalvidea, D; Sicre, E E
1998-06-10
A method for obtaining phase-retardation functions, which give rise to an increase of the image focal depth, is proposed. To this end, the Wigner distribution function corresponding to a specific aperture that has an associated small depth of focus in image space is conveniently sheared in the phase-space domain to generate a new Wigner distribution function. From this new function a more uniform on-axis image irradiance can be accomplished. This approach is illustrated by comparison of the imaging performance of both the derived phase function and a previously reported logarithmic phase distribution.
Dynamical gluon mass in the instanton vacuum model
Musakhanov, M.; Egamberdiev, O.
2018-04-01
We consider the modifications of gluon properties in the instanton liquid model (ILM) for the QCD vacuum. Rescattering of gluons on instantons generates the dynamical momentum-dependent gluon mass Mg (q). First, we consider the case of a scalar gluon, no zero-mode problem occurs and its dynamical mass Ms (q) can be found. Using the typical phenomenological values of the average instanton size ρ = 1 / 3 fm and average inter-instanton distance R = 1 fm we get Ms (0) = 256 MeV. We then extend this approach to the real vector gluon with zero-modes carefully considered. We obtain the following expression Mg2 (q) = 2 Ms2 (q). This modification of the gluon in the instanton media will shed light on nonperturbative aspect on heavy quarkonium physics.
Thermal radiation from an evolving viscous quark gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitra, Sukanya; Mohanty, Payal; Sarkar, Sourav; Alam, Jan-E
2013-01-01
The effects of viscosity on the space-time evolution of quark gluon plasma produced in nuclear collisions at relativistic heavy ion collider energies have been studied. The entropy generated due to the viscous motion of the fluid has been taken into account in constraining the initial temperature by the final multiplicity (measured at the freeze-out point). The viscous effects on the photon spectra has been introduced consistently through the evolution dynamics and phase space factors of all the participating partons/hadrons in the production process. In contrast to some of the recent calculations the present work includes the contribution from the hadronic phase. A small change in the transverse momentum (p T ) distribution of photons is observed due to viscous effects. (author)
Stand diameter distribution modelling and prediction based on Richards function.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ai-guo Duan
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to introduce application of the Richards equation on modelling and prediction of stand diameter distribution. The long-term repeated measurement data sets, consisted of 309 diameter frequency distributions from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in the southern China, were used. Also, 150 stands were used as fitting data, the other 159 stands were used for testing. Nonlinear regression method (NRM or maximum likelihood estimates method (MLEM were applied to estimate the parameters of models, and the parameter prediction method (PPM and parameter recovery method (PRM were used to predict the diameter distributions of unknown stands. Four main conclusions were obtained: (1 R distribution presented a more accurate simulation than three-parametric Weibull function; (2 the parameters p, q and r of R distribution proved to be its scale, location and shape parameters, and have a deep relationship with stand characteristics, which means the parameters of R distribution have good theoretical interpretation; (3 the ordinate of inflection point of R distribution has significant relativity with its skewness and kurtosis, and the fitted main distribution range for the cumulative diameter distribution of Chinese fir plantations was 0.4∼0.6; (4 the goodness-of-fit test showed diameter distributions of unknown stands can be well estimated by applying R distribution based on PRM or the combination of PPM and PRM under the condition that only quadratic mean DBH or plus stand age are known, and the non-rejection rates were near 80%, which are higher than the 72.33% non-rejection rate of three-parametric Weibull function based on the combination of PPM and PRM.
Dynamic radial distribution function from inelastic neutron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McQueeney, R.J.
1998-01-01
A real-space, local dynamic structure function g(r,ω) is defined from the dynamic structure function S(Q,ω), which can be measured using inelastic neutron scattering. At any particular frequency ω, S(Q,ω) contains Q-dependent intensity oscillations which reflect the spatial distribution and relative displacement directions for the atoms vibrating at that frequency. Information about local and dynamic atomic correlations is obtained from the Fourier transform of these oscillations g(r,ω) at the particular frequency. g(r,ω) can be formulated such that the elastic and frequency-summed limits correspond to the average and instantaneous radial distribution function, respectively, and is thus called the dynamic radial distribution function. As an example, the dynamic radial distribution function is calculated for fcc nickel in a model which considers only the harmonic atomic displacements due to phonons. The results of these calculations demonstrate that the magnitude of the atomic correlations can be quantified and g(r,ω) is a well-defined correlation function. This leads to a simple prescription for investigating local lattice dynamics. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Semirelativistic potential model for three-gluon glueballs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathieu, Vincent; Semay, Claude; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard
2008-01-01
The three-gluon glueball states are studied with the generalization of a semirelativistic potential model giving good results for two-gluon glueballs. The Hamiltonian depends only on 3 parameters fixed on two-gluon glueball spectra: the strong coupling constant, the string tension, and a gluon size which removes singularities in the potential. The Casimir scaling determines the structure of the confinement. Our results are in good agreement with other approaches and lattice calculation for the odderon trajectory but differ strongly from lattice in the J +- sector. We propose a possible explanation for this problem.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fowler, G.N.; Navarra, F.S.; Plumer, M.; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, California 94720); Vourdas, A.; Weiner, R.M.
1989-01-01
The interacting gluon model developed to describe the inelasticity distribution in hadron-nucleon collisions has been generalized and applied to hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions. Leading particle spectra and energy distributions in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are calculated
Unbiased estimators for spatial distribution functions of classical fluids
Adib, Artur B.; Jarzynski, Christopher
2005-01-01
We use a statistical-mechanical identity closely related to the familiar virial theorem, to derive unbiased estimators for spatial distribution functions of classical fluids. In particular, we obtain estimators for both the fluid density ρ(r) in the vicinity of a fixed solute and the pair correlation g(r) of a homogeneous classical fluid. We illustrate the utility of our estimators with numerical examples, which reveal advantages over traditional histogram-based methods of computing such distributions.
Free energy distribution function of a random Ising ferromagnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dotsenko, Victor; Klumov, Boris
2012-01-01
We study the free energy distribution function of a weakly disordered Ising ferromagnet in terms of the D-dimensional random temperature Ginzburg–Landau Hamiltonian. It is shown that besides the usual Gaussian 'body' this distribution function exhibits non-Gaussian tails both in the paramagnetic and in the ferromagnetic phases. Explicit asymptotic expressions for these tails are derived. It is demonstrated that the tails are strongly asymmetric: the left tail (for large negative values of the free energy) is much slower than the right one (for large positive values of the free energy). It is argued that at the critical point the free energy of the random Ising ferromagnet in dimensions D < 4 is described by a non-trivial universal distribution function which is non-self-averaging
Specification of optical components using Wigner distribution function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Jiancheng; Li Haibo; Xu Qiao; Chai Liqun; Fan Changjiang
2010-01-01
In order to characterize and specify small-scale local wavefront deformation of optical component, a method based on Wigner distribution function has been proposed, which can describe wavefront deformation in spatial and spatial frequency domain. The relationship between Wigner distribution function and power spectral density is analyzed and thus the specification of small-scale local wavefront deformation is obtained by Wigner distribution function. Simulation and experiment demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed method can not only identify whether the optical component meets the requirement of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), but also determine t he location where small-scale wavefront deformation is unqualified. Thus it provides an effective guide to the revision of unqualified optical components. (authors)
Nonclassicality indicator for the real phase-space distribution functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadeghi, Parvin; Khademi, Siamak; Nasiri, Sadollah
2010-01-01
Benedict et al. and Kenfack et al. advocated nonclassicality indicators based on the measurement of negativity of the Wigner distribution functions. These indicators have some applications in quantum mechanics and quantum optics. In this paper we define a nonclassicality indicator in terms of the interference in phase space, which is applicable to some real distribution functions including those of Wigner. As a special case one may reproduce the previous results using our indicator for the Wigner distribution functions. This indicator is examined for cases of the Schroedinger cat state and the thermal states and the results are compared with those obtained by previous methods. It seems that the physical behavior of nonclassicality indicators originates in the uncertainty principle. This is shown by an onto correspondence between these indicators and the uncertainty principle.
The Theory of Quark and Gluon Interactions
Ynduráin, Francisco J
2006-01-01
F. J. Ynduráin's book on Quantum Chromodynamics has become a classic among advanced textbooks. First published in 1983, and translated into Russian in 1986, it now sees its fourth edition. It addresses readers with basic knowledge of field theory and particle phenomenology. The author presents the basic facts of quark and gluon physics in pedagogical form. Theory is always confronted with experimental findings. The reader will learn enough to be able to follow modern research articles. This fourth edition presents a new section on heavy quark effective theories, more material on lattice QCD and on chiral perturbation theory.
Quarks, gluons, colour: facts or fiction?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchholz, D.
1996-01-01
A general method is presented that allows one to determine from the local gauge invariant observables of a quantum field theory the underlying particle and symmetry structures appearing at the lower (ultraviolet) end of the spatio-temporal scale. Particles that are confined to small scales, i.e. do not appear in the physical spectrum, can be uncovered in this way without taking recourse to gauge fields or indefinite metric spaces. In this way notions such as quark, gluon, colour symmetry and confinement acquire a new and intrinsic meaning which is stable under gauge or duality transformations. The method is illustrated by the example of the Schwinger model. (orig.)
Hydrodynamics of quark-gluon plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaizot, J.P.
1986-06-01
This paper reviews some aspects of the hydrodynamics of quark-gluon plasmas. Various stages of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions are described. Several estimates of the maximum energy density expected to be achieved in these collisions are compared. Discontinuities which may be induced in the hydrodynamic flow by a phase transition are described and a convenient numerical method designed to deal with such discontinuous flows is briefly presented. Finally, the correlations between particle transverse momenta and multiplicities are analyzed and one discusses to which extent these correlations could signal the occurrence of a phase transition in heavy ion collisions
Effective gluon operators and neutron dipole moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bigi, I.; Ural'tsev, N.G.
1991-01-01
The role of the purely gluon CP odd six-dimension effective arising in various CP-breaking models is discussed. This operators of most interest in the nonminimal Higgs sector models, the right W models and supersymmetric theories, where it may induce the neutron dipole moment at the level of the experimental restriction. The method for evaluating the magnitude d n is proposed and the reasons are given in favor that the original Weiberg's estimate based on the naive Dimensional Analysis is overdone significantly. The Peccei -Quinn mechanism, impact on the magnitude of d n , which generally may be very essential, is discussed
Electric and magnetic properties of hot gluons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansson, T.H.; Zahed, I.
1987-01-01
The dielectric constant ε and magnetic permeability μ for gluon plasma are calculated from the one-loop gauge-invariant effective action. The real parts are gauge-fixing independent and agree with earlier work. The imaginary part of μ/sup -1/ is zero in any covariant background-field gauge, while the imaginary part of ε is gauge-fixing dependent and negative definite. This result indicates that there is no consistent perturbative description of gluonic plasmons on scale ≥(g 2 T)/sup -1/
The quark gluon plasma; Le plasma de quarks et de gluons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Granier de Cassagnac, R. [Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. Leprince-Ringuet, 91 - Palaiseau (France)
2010-05-15
The quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is a state of matter in which the universe was expected to be a few micro-seconds after the big-bang. Violent collisions of heavy ions are supposed to re-create this state in particle accelerators. Numerous signatures of this fugacious state have already been observed at the RHIC (relativistic heavy ion collider). The first evidence of the violence of collisions is the number of generated particles: about 6000 per collision, mostly hadrons. This figure seems high but in fact is less than theoretically expected and is the first sign of the formation of a QGP that saturates the density of gluons. Another sign, observed at the RHIC is the damping of the particle jets that are produced in the collision. This damping is consistent with the crossing of a medium whose density is so high that it can not be made of hadrons but of partons. In the RHIC experiments the collective behaviour of quarks and gluons shows that they are strongly interacting with one another. This fact supports the idea that the QGP is more a perfect liquid rather than an ideal gas in which quarks and gluons move freely. (A.C.)
The use of generalized functions and distributions in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steinbauer, R; Vickers, J A
2006-01-01
We review the extent to which one can use classical distribution theory in describing solutions of Einstein's equations. We show that there are a number of physically interesting cases which cannot be treated using distribution theory but require a more general concept. We describe a mathematical theory of nonlinear generalized functions based on Colombeau algebras and show how this may be applied in general relativity. We end by discussing the concept of singularity in general relativity and show that certain solutions with weak singularities may be regarded as distributional solutions of Einstein's equations. (topical review)
On the distribution functions in the quantum mechanics and Wigner functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuz'menkov, L.S.; Maksimov, S.G.
2002-01-01
The problem on the distribution functions, leading to the similar local values of the particles number, pulse and energy, as in the quantum mechanics, is formulated and solved. The method is based on the quantum-mechanical determination of the probability density. The derived distribution function coincides with the Wigner function only for the spatial-homogeneous systems. The Bogolyubov equations chain, the Liouville equation for the distribution quantum functions by any number of particles in the system, the general expression for the tensor of the dielectric permittivity of the plasma electron component are obtained [ru
Fitting the Probability Distribution Functions to Model Particulate Matter Concentrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Shanshoury, Gh.I.
2017-01-01
The main objective of this study is to identify the best probability distribution and the plotting position formula for modeling the concentrations of Total Suspended Particles (TSP) as well as the Particulate Matter with an aerodynamic diameter<10 μm (PM 10 ). The best distribution provides the estimated probabilities that exceed the threshold limit given by the Egyptian Air Quality Limit value (EAQLV) as well the number of exceedance days is estimated. The standard limits of the EAQLV for TSP and PM 10 concentrations are 24-h average of 230 μg/m 3 and 70 μg/m 3 , respectively. Five frequency distribution functions with seven formula of plotting positions (empirical cumulative distribution functions) are compared to fit the average of daily TSP and PM 10 concentrations in year 2014 for Ain Sokhna city. The Quantile-Quantile plot (Q-Q plot) is used as a method for assessing how closely a data set fits a particular distribution. A proper probability distribution that represents the TSP and PM 10 has been chosen based on the statistical performance indicator values. The results show that Hosking and Wallis plotting position combined with Frechet distribution gave the highest fit for TSP and PM 10 concentrations. Burr distribution with the same plotting position follows Frechet distribution. The exceedance probability and days over the EAQLV are predicted using Frechet distribution. In 2014, the exceedance probability and days for TSP concentrations are 0.052 and 19 days, respectively. Furthermore, the PM 10 concentration is found to exceed the threshold limit by 174 days
Electron distribution function in electron-beam-excited plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brau, C.A.
1976-01-01
In monatomic plasmas excited by high-intensity relativistic electron beams, the electron secondary distribution function is dominated by elastic electron-electron collisions at low electron energies and by inelastic electron-atom collisions at high electron energies (above the excitation threshold). Under these conditions, the total rate of excitation by inelastic collisions is limited by the rate at which electron-electron collisions relax the distribution function in the neighborhood of the excitation threshold. To describe this effect quantitatively, an approximate analytic solution of the electron Boltzmann equation is obtained, including both electron-electron and inelastic collisions. The result provides a simple formula for the total rate of excitation
Distribution functions and moments in the theory of coagulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pich, J.
1990-04-01
Different distribution functions and their moments used in the Theory of coagulation are summarized and analysed. Relations between the moments of these distribution functions are derived and the physical meaning of individual moments is briefly discussed. The time evolution of the moment of order zero (total number concentration) during the coagulation process is analysed for the general kernel of the Smoluchowski equation. On this basis the time evolution of certain physically important quantities related to this moment such as mean particle size, surface and volume as well as surface concentration is described. Equations for the half time of coagulation for the general collision frequency factor are derived. (orig.) [de
On the use of the KMR unintegrated parton distribution functions
Golec-Biernat, Krzysztof; Staśto, Anna M.
2018-06-01
We discuss the unintegrated parton distribution functions (UPDFs) introduced by Kimber, Martin and Ryskin (KMR), which are frequently used in phenomenological analyses of hard processes with transverse momenta of partons taken into account. We demonstrate numerically that the commonly used differential definition of the UPDFs leads to erroneous results for large transverse momenta. We identify the reason for that, being the use of the ordinary PDFs instead of the cutoff dependent distribution functions. We show that in phenomenological applications, the integral definition of the UPDFs with the ordinary PDFs can be used.
Quantum mechanics with non-negative quantum distribution function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zorin, A.V.; Sevastianov, L.A.
2010-01-01
Full text: (author)Among numerous approaches to probabilistic interpretation of the conventional quantum mechanics the most close to the N. Bohr idea of the correspondence principle is the D.I. Blokhintzev - Ya.P. Terletsky approach using the quantum distribution function on the coordinate- momentum space. The detailed investigation of this approach has lead to the correspondence rule of V.V. Kuryshkin. Quantum mechanics of Kuryshkin (QMK) embody the program proposed by Yu.M. Shirokov for unifying classical and quantum mechanics in similar mathematical models. QMK develops and enhances Wigner's proposal concerning the calculation of quantum corrections to classical thermodynamic parameters using a phase distribution function. The main result of QMK is the possibility of description by mean of a positively-valued distribution function. This represents an important step towards a completely statistical model of quantum phenomena, compared with the quasi-probabilistic nature of Wigner distribution. Wigner's model does not permit to perform correctly the classical limit in quantum mechanics as well. On the other hand, QMK has a much more complex structure of operators of observables. One of the unsolved problems of QMK is the absence of a priori rules for establishing of auxiliary functions. Nevertheless, while it is impossible to overcome the complex form of operators, we find it quite possible to derive some methods of filing sets of auxiliary functions
Function allocation in distributed safeguards and security systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barlich, G.L.
1991-01-01
Computerized distributed systems are being used to collect and manage data for activities such as nuclear materials accounting, process control, laboratory coordination, and security. Poor choices made in allocating functions to individual processors can make a system unusable by burdening machines with excessive network retrievals and updates. During system design phases, data allocation algorithms based on operation frequencies, field sizes, security information, and reliability requirements can be applied in sensitivity studies to mathematically ensure processor efficiency. The Los Alamos Network Design System (NDS) implements such an allocation algorithm. The authors analyzed a large, existing distributed system to test the cost functions and to compare actual network problems with NDS results. Several common configurations were also designed and studied using the software. From these studies, some basic principles for allocating functions emerged. In this paper recommendations for function allocation in generic systems and related design options are discussed
On the Hierarchy of Functioning Rules in Distributed Computing
Bui , Alain; Bui , Marc; Lavault , Christian
1999-01-01
International audience; In previous papers, we used a Markovian model to determine the optimal functioning rules of a distributed system in various settings. Searching optimal functioning rules amounts to solve an optimization problem under constraints. The hierarchy of solutions arising from the above problem is called the “first order hierarchy”, and may possibly yield equivalent solutions. The present paper emphasizes a specific technique for deciding between two equivalent solutions, whic...
Ray tracing the Wigner distribution function for optical simulations
Mout, Marco; Wick, Michael; Bociort, Florian; Petschulat, Joerg; Urbach, Paul
2018-01-01
We study a simulation method that uses the Wigner distribution function to incorporate wave optical effects in an established framework based on geometrical optics, i.e., a ray tracing engine. We use the method to calculate point spread functions and show that it is accurate for paraxial systems but produces unphysical results in the presence of aberrations. The cause of these anomalies is explained using an analytical model.
Progress on Bayesian Inference of the Fast Ion Distribution Function
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stagner, L.; Heidbrink, W.W,; Chen, X.
2013-01-01
. However, when theory and experiment disagree (for one or more diagnostics), it is unclear how to proceed. Bayesian statistics provides a framework to infer the DF, quantify errors, and reconcile discrepant diagnostic measurements. Diagnostic errors and weight functions that describe the phase space...... sensitivity of the measurements are incorporated into Bayesian likelihood probabilities. Prior probabilities describe physical constraints. This poster will show reconstructions of classically described, low-power, MHD-quiescent distribution functions from actual FIDA measurements. A description of the full...
Quarks and gluons in the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Welzbacher, Christian Andreas
2016-07-14
In this dissertation we study the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter by approaching the theory of quantum chromodynamics in the functional approach of Dyson-Schwinger equations. With these quantum (field) equations of motions we calculate the non-perturbative quark propagator within the Matsubara formalism. We built up on previous works and extend the so-called truncation scheme, which is necessary to render the infinite tower of Dyson-Schwinger equations finite and study phase transitions of chiral symmetry and the confinement/deconfinement transition. In the first part of this thesis we discuss general aspects of quantum chromodynamics and introduce the Dyson-Schwinger equations in general and present the quark Dyson-Schwinger equation together with its counterpart for the gluon. The Bethe-Salpeter equation is introduced which is necessary to perform two-body bound state calculations. A view on the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics is given, including the discussion of order parameter for chiral symmetry and confinement. Here we also discuss the dependence of the phase structure on the masses of the quarks. In the following we present the truncation and our results for an unquenched N{sub f} = 2+1 calculation and compare it to previous studies. We highlight some complementary details for the quark and gluon propagator and discus the resulting phase diagram, which is in agreement with previous work. Results for an equivalent of the Columbia plot and the critical surface are discussed. A systematically improved truncation, where the charm quark as a dynamical quark flavour is added, will be presented in Ch. 4. An important aspect in this investigation is the proper adjustment of the scales. This is done by matching vacuum properties of the relevant pseudoscalar mesons separately for N{sub f} = 2+1 and N f = 2+1+1 via a solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. A comparison of the resulting N{sub f} = 2+1 and N{sub f} = 2+1+1 phase diagram indicates
Anomalous quark and gluon contents of light hadrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatsuda, T. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory); Kunihiro, T. (Ryukoku Univ., Otsu-City (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology)
1992-09-14
The sea-quark contents such as anti ss, anti cc, anti bb... of the low-lying baryons in the octet and decuplet are calculated with a combined use of the trace anomaly of QCD and a chiral quark model. We find (i) the empirical value of the [pi]-N sigma term ([proportional to] 45 MeV) can be reproduced with a rather small anti ss content of nucleon consistently with the Gell-Mann-Okubo mass formula, (ii) the probability to find a charm quark in nucleon is found to be 0.5% which is consistent with the experimental analysis of the charm structure function of the proton and is necessary to account for the J/[psi]-production in proton-nucleous collisions and (iii) both strange and heavy quarks are equally important for the Higgs-nucleon coupling. The heavy-quark and gluon contents of pion and kaon are briefly mentioned. (orig.).
Fourier transform distribution function of relaxation times; application and limitations
Boukamp, Bernard A.
2015-01-01
A simple Fourier transform (FT) method is presented for obtaining a Distribution Function of Relaxation Times (DFRT) for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data. By using a special data extension procedure the FT is performed over the range from -∞ ≤ lnω ≤ + ∞. The integration procedure is
Score Function of Distribution and Revival of the Moment Method
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fabián, Zdeněk
2016-01-01
Roč. 45, č. 4 (2016), s. 1118-1136 ISSN 0361-0926 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12020 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : characteristics of distributions * data characteristics * general moment method * Huber moment estimator * parametric methods * score function Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics , Operational Research Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2016
Numerical Loading of a Maxwellian Probability Distribution Function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewandowski, J.L.V.
2003-01-01
A renormalization procedure for the numerical loading of a Maxwellian probability distribution function (PDF) is formulated. The procedure, which involves the solution of three coupled nonlinear equations, yields a numerically loaded PDF with improved properties for higher velocity moments. This method is particularly useful for low-noise particle-in-cell simulations with electron dynamics
Three-dimensional coupled double-distribution-function lattice ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ruo-Fan Qiu
2017-11-14
Nov 14, 2017 ... Abstract. Two three-dimensional (3D) lattice Boltzmann models in the framework of coupled double-distribution- function approach for compressible flows, in which specific-heat ratio and Prandtl number can be adjustable, are developed in this paper. The main differences between the two models are ...
Photon distribution function for stocks wave for stimulated Raman scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Man'ko, O.V.; Tcherniega, N.V.
1997-04-01
New time-dependent integrals of motion are found for stimulated Raman scattering. Explicit formula for the photon-number probability distribution as a function of the laser-field intensity and the medium parameters is obtained in terms of Hermite polynomials of two variables. (author). 29 refs
Wigner distribution function of circularly truncated light beams
Bastiaans, M.J.; Nijhawan, O.P.; Gupta, A.K.; Musla, A.K.; Singh, Kehar
1998-01-01
Truncating a light beam is expressed as a convolution of its Wigner distribution function and the WDF of the truncating aperture. The WDF of a circular aperture is derived and an approximate expression - which is exact in the space and the spatial-frequency origin and whose integral over the spatial
Electron-cyclotron-resonant-heated electron distribution functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuda, Y.; Nevins, W.M.; Cohen, R.H.
1981-01-01
Recent studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) with a bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck code indicate that the energetic electron tail formed by electron-cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) at the second harmonic is not Maxwellian. We present the results of our bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck code along with some simple analytic models of hot-electron distribution functions
A new setup to measure bidirectional reflectance distribution functions
Roosjen, P.P.J.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Bartholomeus, H.
2012-01-01
The Plant Facility, a new laboratory goniometer system, built by the Wageningen University has been tested in order to take bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements. An ASD FieldSpec 3 spectroradiometer mounted on an industrial robot arm is able to measure small targets
Belcour, Laurent; Pacanowski, Romain; Delahaie, Marion; Laville-Geay, Aude; Eupherte, Laure
2014-12-01
We compare the performance of various analytical retroreflecting bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) models to assess how they reproduce accurately measured data of retroreflecting materials. We introduce a new parametrization, the back vector parametrization, to analyze retroreflecting data, and we show that this parametrization better preserves the isotropy of data. Furthermore, we update existing BRDF models to improve the representation of retroreflective data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goncalves, V.P. [Lund University, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund (Sweden); Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Martins, L.A.S.; Sauter, W.K. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)
2016-02-15
The current uncertainty on the gluon density extracted from the global parton analysis is large in the kinematical range of small values of the Bjorken-x variable and low values of the hard scale Q{sup 2}. An alternative to reduces this uncertainty is the analysis of the exclusive vector meson photoproduction in photon-hadron and hadron-hadron collisions. This process offers a unique opportunity to constrain the gluon density of the proton, since its cross section is proportional to the gluon density squared. In this paper we consider current parametrisations for the gluon distribution and estimate the exclusive vector meson photoproduction cross section at HERA and LHC using the leading logarithmic formalism. We perform a fit of the normalisation of the γh cross section and the value of the hard scale for the process and demonstrate that the current LHCb experimental data are better described by models that assume a slow increasing of the gluon distribution at small x and low Q{sup 2}. (orig.)
Parton distribution functions in the context of parton showers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagy, Zoltán; Soper, Davison E.
2014-01-01
When the initial state evolution of a parton shower is organized according to the standard “backward evolution” prescription, ratios of parton distribution functions appear in the splitting probabilities. The shower thus organized evolves from a hard scale to a soft cutoff scale. At the end of the shower, one expects that only the parton distributions at the soft scale should affect the results. The other effects of the parton distributions should have cancelled. This means that the kernels for parton evolution should be related to the shower splitting functions. If the initial state partons can have non-zero masses, this requires that the evolution kernels cannot be the usual (MS)-bar kernels. We work out what the parton evolution kernels should be to match the shower evolution contained in the parton shower event generator DEDUCTOR, in which the b and c quarks have non-zero masses.
Inclusive gluon production in the QCD Reggeon field theory: Pomeron loops included
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altinoluk, Tolga; Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael
2009-01-01
We continue the study of hadronic scattering amplitudes at high energy by systematically including nonlinear effects of finite partonic density in hadronic wave function as well as the effects of multiple rescatterings in the scattering process. In this paper we derive expressions for a single inclusive gluon production amplitude and multigluon inclusive production amplitudes when the rapidities of all observed gluons are not very different. We show that at leading order these observables exhibit a semiclassical structure. Beyond the semiclassical result, we find that the gluon emission has some characteristic features different from the JIMWLK and KLWMIJ limits in that the gluons are not emitted independently in rapidity space, but have a correlated component with correlation length (in rapidity space) of order one. We demonstrate the consistency between this feature of the multigluon observables and the Hamiltonian of the QCD Reggeon Field Theory (H RFT ) derived in the companion paper [1]. We also show that the evolution of these observables with total rapidity of the process is generated by H RFT of [1]. We discuss whether this evolution is equivalent to evolution with H JIMWLK as far as this set of observables is concerned.
First measurement of the gluon polarisation in the nucleon using D mesons at COMPASS
von Hodenberg, Martin
2005-01-01
The complicated structure of the nucleon has been studied with great success in deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering (DIS) experiments at CERN, SLAC and DESY. As a result the unpolarised structure functions have been measured accurately over a wide kinematic range. From these measurements it is possible to determine the gluon density in the nucleon with good accuracy via a so-called QCD fit. In the case of the spin structure of the nucleon the situation is different. Even after decades of experimental and theoretical efforts it remains to be understood how the spin of the nucleon of 1/2 in units of h-bar is to be accounted for in terms of contributions from the quarks and gluons inside the nucleon. Of particular interest is the question whether the polarised gluon density can explain the unexpected smallness of the quark contribution to the nucleon spin. The QCD fit, which worked well in the unpolarised case, yields a polarised gluon density Delta G which is only badly constrained. This is due to the fact...
Production of $K^{0}_{S}$ and $\\Lambda$ in Quark and Gluon Jets from $Z^{0}$ Decay
Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; de Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Doucet, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Evans, H.G.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.A.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.
1999-01-01
The production of K^0_S mesons and Lambda baryons in quark and gluon jets has been investigated using two complementary techniques. In the first approach, which provides high statistical accuracy, jets were selected using different jet finding algorithms and ordered according to their energy. Production rates were determined taking into account the dependences of quark and gluon compositions as a function of jet energy as predicted by Monte Carlo models. Selecting three-jet events with the k_perp (Durham) jet finder (y_cut = 0.005), the ratios of K^0_S and Lambda production rates in gluon and quark jets relative to the mean charged particle multiplicity were found to be 1.10 +/- 0.02 +/- 0.02 and 1.41 +/- 0.04 +/- 0.04, respectively, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. In the second approach, a new method of identifying quark jets based on the collimation of energy flow around the jet axis is introduced and was used to anti-tag gluon jets in symmetric (Y-shaped) three-jet ...
Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Strickland, Michael
2015-07-01
We compute dilepton production from the deconfined phase of the quark-gluon plasma using leading-order (3 +1 )-dimensional anisotropic hydrodynamics. The anisotropic hydrodynamics equations employed describe the full spatiotemporal evolution of the transverse temperature, spheroidal momentum-space anisotropy parameter, and the associated three-dimensional collective flow of the matter. The momentum-space anisotropy is also taken into account in the computation of the dilepton production rate, allowing for a self-consistent description of dilepton production from the quark-gluon plasma. For our final results, we present predictions for high-energy dilepton yields as a function of invariant mass, transverse momentum, and pair rapidity. We demonstrate that high-energy dilepton production is extremely sensitive to the assumed level of initial momentum-space anisotropy of the quark-gluon plasma. As a result, it may be possible to experimentally constrain the early-time momentum-space anisotropy of the quark-gluon plasma generated in relativistic heavy-ion collisions using high-energy dilepton yields.
Proton-proton elastic scattering with massive gluons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sauter, Werner K.; Ducati, M.B. Gay
2001-01-01
In this contribution different approaches to generate a gluon mass are discussed. More specially a recent result for the gluon propagator with a dynamical mass, proposal by Gorbar and Natale, is used in connection with the Landshoff-Nachtmann model for the Pomeron to describe the elastic differential cross section for pp scattering, with good agreement. (author)
Dynamical instabilities in quark-gluon plasma with hard jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlenko, O.P.
1990-01-01
The dynamical instabilities, whose development can be expected under the hard jet propagating through the quark-gluon plasma, are analyzed. The possible signals of the quark-gluon plasma formation in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions connected with the development of the plasma-jet instabilities are discussed. 10 refs
Gluon condensate from lattice caculations: SU(3) pure gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kripfganz, J.
1981-01-01
A short distance expansion of Wilson loops is used to define and isolate vacuum expectation values of composite gluon operators. It is applied to available lattice Monte Carlo data for SU(3) pure gauge theory. The value obtained for the gluon condensate is consistent with the ITEP estimate. (author)
Effective-gluon model description of inclusive meson production in π+- p and pp collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Look, G.W.; Fischbach, E.
1977-01-01
The recently introduced effective-gluon (EG) model is applied to inclusive meson production at large transverse momentum (p/sub t)/from π +- p and pp interactions. In the EG model the dependence of the inclusive differential cross section on p/ sub t/ and center-of-momentum energy √s is characterized by a single universal constant B = 18 GeV 2 ; this constant is obtained by fitting to the inclusive data for pp → cX with c = π +- π 0 , K +- p, and p-bar. Since the EG model requires that the inclusive differential cross sections for π +- p → X/should be characterized by the same constant B, the dependence of these cross sections on p/sub t/and √s should follow from the previous analysis of pp → cX without the introduction of any additional parameters. The only new information required is the form of the momentum distribution function for partons in the incident pion. Several models for this function are considered and it it shown that all of the alternatives lead to approximately the same predictions. Comparison of theory and experiment indicates that the EG model description of the recent Fermilab data of Donaldson et al. is good to approximately 15--20 % per data point over a range of more than 10 5 in the magnitude of the inclusive cross section
Plasma dispersion function for a Fermi-Dirac distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melrose, D. B.; Mushtaq, A.
2010-01-01
A plasma dispersion function (PDF) is defined for a nonrelativistic Fermi-Dirac distribution and its properties are explored. The degree of degeneracy is described by a parameter ξ=e μ e /T e , for electrons, with μ e /T e large and negative in the nondegenerate limit, and large and positive in the completely degenerate limit. The PDF is denoted Z(y,ξ), where the variable y=ω/√(2)kV e , is the argument of the conventional PDF, Z(y)=Z(y,0), for a Maxwellian distribution. In the completely degenerate limit, Z(y,ξ) approaches a logarithmic function that depends on the Fermi temperature and is independent of T e . Analytic approximations to Z(y,ξ) are derived in terms of polylogarithmic functions for y 2 >>1 and for y 2 <<1.
The Mixed Quark-Gluon Condensate from the Global Color Symmetry Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZONG Hong-Shi; PING Jia-Lun; LU Xiao-Fu; WANG Fan; ZHAO En-Guang
2002-01-01
The mixed quark-gluon condensate from the global color symmetry model is derived. It is shown that themixed quark-gluon condensate depends explicitly on the gluon propagator. This interesting feature may be regarded asan additional constraint on the model of gluon propagator. The values of the mixed quark-gluon condensate from someansatz for the gluon propagator are compared with those determined from QCD sum rules.
Equation of state of quasi-free gluon gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakrabarty, Somenath; Syam, Debapriyo
1993-01-01
The object of this work is to derive an equation of state for a system of gluons beyond the deconfining temperature (∼200 MeV) with phenomenological applications in mind. Our starting point is the relativistic virial theorem. We assume that the non-Abelian nature of QCD (especially the confirming gluon-gluon interaction), as far as the gluon gas is concerned, can be accounted for by postulating a bag pressure (B), while the residual interaction among the gluons can be treated as if the problem is Abelian. Near the 'critical' temperature the residual interactions are seen to play an important role. Also the Stefan-Boltzmann constant is required to be replaced by an effective constant having a somewhat smaller value. (Author)
Selection of Photon Gluon Fusion Events in DIS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kowalik, K.; Rondio, E.; Sulej, R.; Zaremba, K.
2001-01-01
A selection of the Photon Gluon Fusion (PGF) process with light quarks for deep inelastic scattering events is presented. This process is directly sensitive to gluon polarization and our goal is to find out the most effective selection on a sample of events simulated for the SMC experiment. We compare two general multi-class classification methods - Bayes method and neural network with a conventional selection procedure. The neural network algorithm presented here is a modification of method belonging to the family of directional minimization algorithms. This method is convenient and effective for photon gluon fusion selection and determination of gluon polarization. Finally we present the estimation for precision of gluon polarization for neural network method. (author)
Bound states of quarks and gluons and hadronic transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castro, Antonio Soares de.
1990-05-01
A potential which incorporates the concepts of confinement and asymptotic freedom, previously utilized in the description of the spectroscopy of mesons and baryons, is extended to the gluon sector. The mass spectroscopy of glueballs and hybrids is analyzed considering only pairwise potentials and massive constituent gluons. The mass spectrum of the color octet two-gluon system is adopted as a suitable description of the intermediate states of hadronic transitions, within the framework of the multipole expansion for quantum chromodynamics. The spin-dependent effects in the gluonium spectrum, associated with the Coulombian potential, are calculated through the inverted first Born approximation for the gluon-gluon scattering. (author). 102 refs, 1 fig, 13 tabs
Are Parton Distributions Positive?
Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni
1999-01-01
We show that the naive positivity conditions on polarized parton distributions which follow from their probabilistic interpretation in the naive parton model are reproduced in perturbative QCD at the leading log level if the quark and gluon distribution are defined in terms of physical processes. We show how these conditions are modified at the next-to-leading level, and discuss their phenomenological implications, in particular in view of the determination of the polarized gluon distribution
Are parton distributions positive?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forte, Stefano; Altarelli, Guido; Ridolfi, Giovanni
1999-01-01
We show that the naive positivity conditions on polarized parton distributions which follow from their probabilistic interpretation in the naive parton model are reproduced in perturbative QCD at the leading log level if the quark and gluon distribution are defined in terms of physical processes. We show how these conditions are modified at the next-to-leading level, and discuss their phenomenological implications, in particular in view of the determination of the polarized gluon distribution
Fractal based observables to probe jet substructure of quarks and gluons
Davighi, Joe; Harris, Philip
2018-04-01
New jet observables are defined which characterize both fractal and scale-dependent contributions to the distribution of hadrons in a jet. These infrared safe observables, named Extended Fractal Observables (EFOs), have been applied to quark-gluon discrimination to demonstrate their potential utility. The EFOs are found to be individually discriminating and only weakly correlated to variables used in existing discriminators. Consequently, their inclusion improves discriminator performance, as here demonstrated with particle level simulation from the parton shower.
Decomposing Wage Distributions Using Recentered Influence Function Regressions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergio P. Firpo
2018-05-01
Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed exposition of an extension of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method that can be applied to various distributional measures. The two-stage procedure first divides distributional changes into a wage structure effect and a composition effect using a reweighting method. Second, the two components are further divided into the contribution of each explanatory variable using recentered influence function (RIF regressions. We illustrate the practical aspects of the procedure by analyzing how the polarization of U.S. male wages between the late 1980s and the mid 2010s was affected by factors such as de-unionization, education, occupations, and industry changes.
Universal Probability Distribution Function for Bursty Transport in Plasma Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandberg, I.; Benkadda, S.; Garbet, X.; Ropokis, G.; Hizanidis, K.; Castillo-Negrete, D. del
2009-01-01
Bursty transport phenomena associated with convective motion present universal statistical characteristics among different physical systems. In this Letter, a stochastic univariate model and the associated probability distribution function for the description of bursty transport in plasma turbulence is presented. The proposed stochastic process recovers the universal distribution of density fluctuations observed in plasma edge of several magnetic confinement devices and the remarkable scaling between their skewness S and kurtosis K. Similar statistical characteristics of variabilities have been also observed in other physical systems that are characterized by convection such as the x-ray fluctuations emitted by the Cygnus X-1 accretion disc plasmas and the sea surface temperature fluctuations.
Multi-Functional Distributed Generation Unit for Power Quality Enhancement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zeng, Zheng; Yang, Huan; Guerrero, Josep M.
2015-01-01
A multi-functional distributed generation unit (MFDGU) and its control strategy are proposed in this paper for the purpose of enhancing power quality in low-voltage networks. By using the 3H-bridge converter structure, an MFDGU can be applied in 3-phase 4-wire low-voltage distribution networks...... reference of the MFDGU, which can be easily implemented in three-phase networks. A 15kVA prototype consisting of three full bridge converters has been built and tested. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed topology and control strategy....
Electrical Distribution System Functional Inspection (EDSFI) data base program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gautam, A.
1993-01-01
This document describes the organization, installation procedures, and operating instructions for the database computer program containing inspection findings from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Electrical Distribution System Functional Inspections (EDSFIs). The program enables the user to search and sort findings, ascertain trends, and obtain printed reports of the findings. The findings include observations, unresolved issues, or possible deficiencies in the design and implementation of electrical distribution systems in nuclear plants. This database will assist those preparing for electrical inspections, searching for deficiencies in a plant, and determining the corrective actions previously taken for similar deficiencies. This database will be updated as new EDSFIs are completed
Effects of perfluorochemical distribution and elimination dynamics on cardiopulmonary function.
Miller, T F; Milestone, B; Stern, R; Shaffer, T H; Wolfson, M R
2001-03-01
Based on a physicochemical property profile, we tested the hypothesis that different perfluorochemical (PFC) liquids may have distinct effects on intrapulmonary PFC distribution, lung function, and PFC elimination kinetics during partial liquid ventilation (PLV). Young rabbits were studied in five groups [healthy, PLV with perflubron (PFB) or with perfluorodecalin (DEC); saline lavage injury and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV); saline lavage injury PLV with PFB or with DEC]. Arterial blood chemistry, respiratory compliance (Cr), quantitative computed tomography of PFC distribution, and PFC loss rate were assessed for 4 h. Initial distribution of PFB was more homogenous than that of DEC; over time, PFB redistributed to dependent regions whereas DEC distribution was relatively constant. PFC loss rate decreased over time in all groups, was higher with DEC than PFB, and was lower with injury. In healthy animals, arterial PO(2) (Pa(O(2))) and Cr decreased with either PFC; the decrease was greater and sustained with DEC. Lavaged animals treated with either PFC demonstrated increased Pa(O(2)), which was sustained with PFB but deteriorated with DEC. Lavaged animals treated with PFB demonstrated increased Cr, higher Pa(O(2)), and lower arterial PCO(2) than with CMV or PLV with DEC. The results indicate that 1) initial distribution and subsequent intrapulmonary redistribution of PFC are related to PFC properties; 2) PFC distribution influences PFC elimination, gas exchange, and Cr; and 3) PFC elimination, gas exchange, and Cr are influenced by PFC properties and lung condition.
Higher order and heavy quark mass effects in the determination of parton distribution functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertone, Valerio
2013-07-01
The present thesis was devoted to the study of the inclusion of higher-order corrections and heavy quark mass effects in a PDF determination. This has been carried out in the NNPDF framework resulting originally in the NNPDF2.1 sets, which were at a later stage supplemented by the first LHC data leading to the most recent NNPDF2.3 sets. In Chapter 1 the concept of Parton Distribution Function (PDF) was introduced. We have shown how the analytical computation of the Deep-Inelastic-Scattering (DIS) process at order α{sub s} in QCD leads to initial-stale collinear divergences which, using the factorization theorem, can be reabsorbed into the PDFs. The energy dependence of PDFs is fully determined and the task is then reduced to the determination of the x (Bjorken variable) dependence. In Chapter 2 a detailed discussion of the factorization schemes presently available to include heavy quark mass effects into DIS structure functions has been given. It emerged that there are two possible basic approaches to the calculation of the DIS structure functions. In the first approach, the so-called Fixed-Flavour-Number Scheme (FFNS), the calculation is performed retaining the quark mass of the heavy flavours which provide a ''natural'' regulator for the infrared divergences. In the second approach, called Zero-Mass Variable-Flavour-Number Scheme (ZM-VFNS), the heavy quark masses are instead set to zero and this gives rise to the usual final-state collinear divergences that are absorbed into the PDFs. In addition, in the ZM-VFNS, the number of active flavours is assumed to increase by one unity as the energy of the process crosses the energy threshold of a given heavy quark. In order to obtain a factorization scheme that is accurate both at large and low energies, several prescriptions that interpolate between FFNS at low energy and ZM-VFNS at large energy have been proposed and implemented in as many PDF fits. In Chapter 2 they have been described showing how they behave for
Higher order and heavy quark mass effects in the determination of parton distribution functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertone, Valerio
2013-07-01
The present thesis was devoted to the study of the inclusion of higher-order corrections and heavy quark mass effects in a PDF determination. This has been carried out in the NNPDF framework resulting originally in the NNPDF2.1 sets, which were at a later stage supplemented by the first LHC data leading to the most recent NNPDF2.3 sets. In Chapter 1 the concept of Parton Distribution Function (PDF) was introduced. We have shown how the analytical computation of the Deep-Inelastic-Scattering (DIS) process at order α{sub s} in QCD leads to initial-stale collinear divergences which, using the factorization theorem, can be reabsorbed into the PDFs. The energy dependence of PDFs is fully determined and the task is then reduced to the determination of the x (Bjorken variable) dependence. In Chapter 2 a detailed discussion of the factorization schemes presently available to include heavy quark mass effects into DIS structure functions has been given. It emerged that there are two possible basic approaches to the calculation of the DIS structure functions. In the first approach, the so-called Fixed-Flavour-Number Scheme (FFNS), the calculation is performed retaining the quark mass of the heavy flavours which provide a ''natural'' regulator for the infrared divergences. In the second approach, called Zero-Mass Variable-Flavour-Number Scheme (ZM-VFNS), the heavy quark masses are instead set to zero and this gives rise to the usual final-state collinear divergences that are absorbed into the PDFs. In addition, in the ZM-VFNS, the number of active flavours is assumed to increase by one unity as the energy of the process crosses the energy threshold of a given heavy quark. In order to obtain a factorization scheme that is accurate both at large and low energies, several prescriptions that interpolate between FFNS at low energy and ZM-VFNS at large energy have been proposed and implemented in as many PDF fits. In Chapter 2 they have been described showing
Higher order and heavy quark mass effects in the determination of parton distribution functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertone, Valerio
2013-01-01
The present thesis was devoted to the study of the inclusion of higher-order corrections and heavy quark mass effects in a PDF determination. This has been carried out in the NNPDF framework resulting originally in the NNPDF2.1 sets, which were at a later stage supplemented by the first LHC data leading to the most recent NNPDF2.3 sets. In Chapter 1 the concept of Parton Distribution Function (PDF) was introduced. We have shown how the analytical computation of the Deep-Inelastic-Scattering (DIS) process at order α s in QCD leads to initial-stale collinear divergences which, using the factorization theorem, can be reabsorbed into the PDFs. The energy dependence of PDFs is fully determined and the task is then reduced to the determination of the x (Bjorken variable) dependence. In Chapter 2 a detailed discussion of the factorization schemes presently available to include heavy quark mass effects into DIS structure functions has been given. It emerged that there are two possible basic approaches to the calculation of the DIS structure functions. In the first approach, the so-called Fixed-Flavour-Number Scheme (FFNS), the calculation is performed retaining the quark mass of the heavy flavours which provide a ''natural'' regulator for the infrared divergences. In the second approach, called Zero-Mass Variable-Flavour-Number Scheme (ZM-VFNS), the heavy quark masses are instead set to zero and this gives rise to the usual final-state collinear divergences that are absorbed into the PDFs. In addition, in the ZM-VFNS, the number of active flavours is assumed to increase by one unity as the energy of the process crosses the energy threshold of a given heavy quark. In order to obtain a factorization scheme that is accurate both at large and low energies, several prescriptions that interpolate between FFNS at low energy and ZM-VFNS at large energy have been proposed and implemented in as many PDF fits. In Chapter 2 they have been described showing how
Quarkonium decays: Testing the 3-gluon vertex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koller, K.; Walsh, T.F.; Zerwas, P.M.; Technische Hochschule Aachen
1980-12-01
We study the 3-jet decays of S and P-wave quarkonia with C = +. If observed, some of these will offer a way of seeing the 3G vertex of QCD via 1 Ssub(o), 3 Psub(o), 3 P 2 (Qanti Q) → GGG + Gqanti q → 3 jets. (As is well-known, cancellations reduce 3 P 1 (anti Q) → GGG.) We elaborate in detail the S-wave decay as it is expected to show all the characteristic features of orthoquarkonium decays into 4 jets, 3 S 1 (Qanti Q) → GGGG + GGqanti q → 4 jets which we will comment upon. These quarkonium decays offer a very clear signal for QCD as a non-abelian local gauge field theory with color-charged gluons. (orig.)
Very boosted Higgs in gluon fusion
Grojean, Christophe; Schlaffer, Matthias; Weiler, Andreas
2014-01-01
The Higgs production and decay rates offer a new way to probe new physics beyond the Standard Model. While dynamics aiming at alleviating the hierarchy problem generically predict deviations in the Higgs rates, the current experimental analyses cannot resolve the long- and short-distance contributions to the gluon fusion process and thus cannot access directly the coupling between the Higgs and the top quark. We investigate the production of a boosted Higgs in association with a high-transverse momentum jet as an alternative to the $t\\bar{t}h$ channel to pin down this crucial coupling. Presented first in the context of an effective field theory, our analysis is then applied to models of partial compositeness at the TeV scale and of natural supersymmetry.
Quark-gluon plasma: experimental signatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drapier, O.
1995-01-01
The existence of a deconfining phase transition of nuclear matter is a clear prediction of lattice quantum chromodynamics calculations. The signatures of this quark-gluon plasma (QGP) have been searched for, since the first high energy ion beams became available at BNL and CERN in 1986, and gold and lead beams are now accelerated at 11 and 160 GeV per nucleon by the AGS and SPS. An overview of the main signatures expected in case of QGP formation is presented here. Although some recent results have been found in agreement with the predictions of the QGP scenario, no clear evidence for its formation has been observed at present. Nevertheless, new high statistics results are expected from CERN lead beams. In addition, future experiments are being prepared at RHIC and LHCC, providing an increase by two orders of magnitude of the c.m.s. energy within a few years. (author). 66 refs., 28 figs
Soft gluons and superleading logarithms in QCD
Forshaw, J R
2009-01-01
After a brief introduction to the physics of soft gluons in QCD we present a surprising prediction. Dijet production in hadron-hadron collisions provides the paradigm, i.e. h_1 +h_2 \\to jj+X. In particular, we look at the case where there is a restriction placed on the emission of any further jets in the region in between the primary (highest p_T) dijets. Logarithms in the ratio of the jet scale to the veto scale can be summed to all orders in the strong coupling. Surprisingly, factorization of collinear emissions fails at scales above the veto scale and triggers the appearance of double logarithms in the hard sub-process. The effect appears first at fourth order relative to the leading order prediction and is subleading in the number of colours.
Very boosted Higgs in gluon fusion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grojean, C. [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain). ICREA at IFAE; Salvioni, E. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Padova Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica e Astronomica; INFN, Sezione di Padova (Italy); Schlaffer, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Weiler, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2013-12-15
The Higgs production and decay rates offer a new way to probe new physics beyond the Standard Model. While dynamics aiming at alleviating the hierarchy problem generically predict deviations in the Higgs rates, the current experimental analyses cannot resolve the long- and short-distance contributions to the gluon fusion process and thus cannot access directly the coupling between the Higgs and the top quark. We investigate the production of a boosted Higgs in association with a high-transverse momentum jet as an alternative to the t anti th channel to pin down this crucial coupling. Presented rst in the context of an effective field theory, our analysis is then applied to models of partial compositeness at the TeV scale and of natural supersymmetry.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castro, Antonio Soares de
1990-05-01
A potential which incorporates the concepts of confinement and asymptotic freedom, previously utilized in the description of the spectroscopy of mesons and baryons, is extended to the gluon sector. The mass spectroscopy of glueballs and hybrids is analyzed considering only pairwise potentials and massive constituent gluons. The mass spectrum of the color octet two-gluon system is adopted as a suitable description of the intermediate states of hadronic transitions, within the framework of the multipole expansion for quantum chromodynamics. The spin-dependent effects in the gluonium spectrum, associated with the Coulombian potential, are calculated through the inverted first Born approximation for the gluon-gluon scattering. (author). 102 refs, 1 fig, 13 tabs.
Gluon and ghost propagator studies in lattice QCD at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aouane, Rafik
2013-01-01
Gluon and ghost propagators in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) computed in the infrared momentum region play an important role to understand quark and gluon confinement. They are the subject of intensive research thanks to non-perturbative methods based on Dyson-Schwinger (DS) and functional renormalization group (FRG) equations. Moreover, their temperature behavior might also help to explore the chiral and deconfinement phase transition or crossover within QCD at non-zero temperature. Our prime tool is the lattice discretized QCD (LQCD) providing a unique ab-initio non-perturbative approach to deal with the computation of various observables of the hadronic world. We investigate the temperature dependence of Landau gauge gluon and ghost propagators in pure gluodynamics and in full QCD. Regarding the gluon propagator, we compute its longitudinal D L as well its transversal D T components. The aim is to provide a data set in terms of fitting formulae which can be used as input for DS (or FRG) equations. We deal with full (N f =2) LQCD with the twisted mass fermion discretization. We employ gauge field configurations provided by the tmfT collaboration for temperatures in the crossover region and for three fixed pion mass values in the range [300,500] MeV. Finally, within SU(3) pure gauge theory (at T=0) we compute the Landau gauge gluon propagator according to different gauge fixing criteria. Our goal is to understand the influence of gauge copies with minimal (non-trivial) eigenvalues of the Faddeev-Popov operator.
Gluon and ghost propagator studies in lattice QCD at finite temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aouane, Rafik
2013-04-29
Gluon and ghost propagators in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) computed in the infrared momentum region play an important role to understand quark and gluon confinement. They are the subject of intensive research thanks to non-perturbative methods based on Dyson-Schwinger (DS) and functional renormalization group (FRG) equations. Moreover, their temperature behavior might also help to explore the chiral and deconfinement phase transition or crossover within QCD at non-zero temperature. Our prime tool is the lattice discretized QCD (LQCD) providing a unique ab-initio non-perturbative approach to deal with the computation of various observables of the hadronic world. We investigate the temperature dependence of Landau gauge gluon and ghost propagators in pure gluodynamics and in full QCD. Regarding the gluon propagator, we compute its longitudinal D{sub L} as well its transversal D{sub T} components. The aim is to provide a data set in terms of fitting formulae which can be used as input for DS (or FRG) equations. We deal with full (N{sub f}=2) LQCD with the twisted mass fermion discretization. We employ gauge field configurations provided by the tmfT collaboration for temperatures in the crossover region and for three fixed pion mass values in the range [300,500] MeV. Finally, within SU(3) pure gauge theory (at T=0) we compute the Landau gauge gluon propagator according to different gauge fixing criteria. Our goal is to understand the influence of gauge copies with minimal (non-trivial) eigenvalues of the Faddeev-Popov operator.
Physics of the quark - gluon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2001-09-01
This document gathers 31 contributions to the workshop on the physics of quark-gluon plasma that took place in Palaiseau in september 2001: 1) gamma production in heavy collisions, 2) BRAHMS, 3) experimental conference summary, 4) modelling relativistic nuclear collisions, 5) microscopic reaction dynamics at SPS and RHIC, 6) direct gamma and hard scattering at SPS, 7) soft physics at RHIC, 8) results from the STAR experiment, 9) quarkonia: experimental possibilities, 10) elliptic flow measurements with PHENIX, 11) charmonium production in p-A collisions, 12) anisotropic flow at the SPS and RHIC, 13) deciphering the space-time evolution of heavy ion collisions with correlation measurements, 14) 2-particle correlation at RHIC, 15) particle spectra at AGS, SPS and RHIC, 16) strangeness production in STAR, 17) strangeness production in Pb-Pb collisions at SPS, 18) heavy ion physics at CERN after 2000 and before LHC, 19) NEXUS guideline and theoretical consistency, 20) introduction to high p T physics at RHIC, 21) a novel quasiparticle description of the quark-gluon plasma, 22) dissociation of excited quarkonia states, 23) high-mass dimuon and B → J/Ψ production in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions, 24) strange hyperon production in p + p and p + Pb interactions from NA49, 25) heavy quarkonium hadron cross-section, 26) a new method of flow analysis, 27) low mass dilepton production and chiral symmetry restoration, 28) classical initial conditions for nucleus-nucleus collisions, 29) numerical calculation of quenching weights, 30) strangeness enhancement energy dependence, and 31) heavy quarkonium dissociation
Physics of the quark - gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2001-09-01
This document gathers 31 contributions to the workshop on the physics of quark-gluon plasma that took place in Palaiseau in september 2001: 1) gamma production in heavy collisions, 2) BRAHMS, 3) experimental conference summary, 4) modelling relativistic nuclear collisions, 5) microscopic reaction dynamics at SPS and RHIC, 6) direct gamma and hard scattering at SPS, 7) soft physics at RHIC, 8) results from the STAR experiment, 9) quarkonia: experimental possibilities, 10) elliptic flow measurements with PHENIX, 11) charmonium production in p-A collisions, 12) anisotropic flow at the SPS and RHIC, 13) deciphering the space-time evolution of heavy ion collisions with correlation measurements, 14) 2-particle correlation at RHIC, 15) particle spectra at AGS, SPS and RHIC, 16) strangeness production in STAR, 17) strangeness production in Pb-Pb collisions at SPS, 18) heavy ion physics at CERN after 2000 and before LHC, 19) NEXUS guideline and theoretical consistency, 20) introduction to high p{sub T} physics at RHIC, 21) a novel quasiparticle description of the quark-gluon plasma, 22) dissociation of excited quarkonia states, 23) high-mass dimuon and B {yields} J/{psi} production in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions, 24) strange hyperon production in p + p and p + Pb interactions from NA49, 25) heavy quarkonium hadron cross-section, 26) a new method of flow analysis, 27) low mass dilepton production and chiral symmetry restoration, 28) classical initial conditions for nucleus-nucleus collisions, 29) numerical calculation of quenching weights, 30) strangeness enhancement energy dependence, and 31) heavy quarkonium dissociation.
Baryonic hybrids: Gluons as beads on strings between quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cornwall, John M.
2005-01-01
In this paper we analyze the ground state of the heavy-quark qqqG system using standard principles of quark confinement and massive constituent gluons as established in the center-vortex picture. The known string tension K F and approximately-known gluon mass M lead to a precise specification of the long-range nonrelativistic part of the potential binding the gluon to the quarks with no undetermined phenomenological parameters, in the limit of large interquark separation R. Our major tool (also used earlier by Simonov) is the use of proper-time methods to describe gluon propagation within the quark system, along with some elementary group theory describing the gluon Wilson-line as a composite of colocated q and q lines. We show that (aside from color-Coulomb and similar terms) the gluon potential energy in the presence of quarks is accurately described (for small gluon fluctuations) via attaching these three strings to the gluon, which in equilibrium sits at the Steiner point of the Y-shaped string network joining the three quarks. The gluon undergoes small harmonic fluctuations that slightly stretch these strings and quasiconfine the gluon to the neighborhood of the Steiner point. To describe nonrelativistic ground-state gluonic fluctuations at large R we use the Schroedinger equation, ignoring mixing with l=2 states. Available lattice data and real-world hybrids require consideration of R values small enough for significant relativistic corrections, which we apply using a variational principle for the relativistic harmonic-oscillator. We also consider the role of color-Coulomb contributions. In terms of interquark separations R, we find leading nonrelativistic large-R terms in the gluon excitation energy of the form ε(R)→M+ξ[K F /(MR)] 1/2 -ζα c /R where ξ,ζ are calculable numerical coefficients and α c ≅ 0.15 is the color-Coulomb qq coupling. When the gluon is relativistic, ε∼(K F /R) 1/3 . We get an acceptable fit to lattice data with M=500 Me
Spatial distribution measured by the modulation transfer function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rossi, P.; Brice, D.K.; Doyle, B.L.
2003-01-01
Spatial distributions in ion micro-beam and IBA experimental practice are regularly characterized through the parameters of FWHM and tail area percentage (TF, tail fraction). Linear and stationary transducer theory allows these distributions to be described in the Fourier-dual frequency space, and provides an indirect method to evaluate them through measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF). We suggest direct measurement of MTF by employing bar pattern grids, similar to those used for calibration of radiological equipment. Assuming spatial distributions of the form exp(-(|αx|) η ), we are able to relate the MTF measurements to the more popular FWHM and TF. This new approach to determine spatial resolution can become a standard for use by the micro-beam community
Transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions in lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Engelhardt, Michael G. [New Mexico State University; Musch, Bernhard U. [Tech. University Munich; Haegler, Philipp G. [Tech. University Munich; Negele, John W. [MIT; Schaefer, Andreas [Regensburg
2013-08-01
A fundamental structural property of the nucleon is the distribution of quark momenta, both parallel as well as perpendicular to its propagation. Experimentally, this information is accessible via selected processes such as semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and the Drell-Yan process (DY), which can be parametrized in terms of transversemomentum-dependent parton distributions (TMDs). On the other hand, these distribution functions can be extracted from nucleon matrix elements of a certain class of bilocal quark operators in which the quarks are connected by a staple-shaped Wilson line serving to incorporate initial state (DY) or final state (SIDIS) interactions. A scheme for evaluating such matrix elements within lattice QCD is developed. This requires casting the calculation in a particular Lorentz frame, which is facilitated by a parametrization of the matrix elements in terms of invariant amplitudes. Exploratory results are presented for the time-reversal odd Sivers and Boer-Mulders transverse momentum shifts.
Parton distribution functions with QED corrections in the valon model
Mottaghizadeh, Marzieh; Taghavi Shahri, Fatemeh; Eslami, Parvin
2017-10-01
The parton distribution functions (PDFs) with QED corrections are obtained by solving the QCD ⊗QED DGLAP evolution equations in the framework of the "valon" model at the next-to-leading-order QCD and the leading-order QED approximations. Our results for the PDFs with QED corrections in this phenomenological model are in good agreement with the newly related CT14QED global fits code [Phys. Rev. D 93, 114015 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.114015] and APFEL (NNPDF2.3QED) program [Comput. Phys. Commun. 185, 1647 (2014), 10.1016/j.cpc.2014.03.007] in a wide range of x =[10-5,1 ] and Q2=[0.283 ,108] GeV2 . The model calculations agree rather well with those codes. In the latter, we proposed a new method for studying the symmetry breaking of the sea quark distribution functions inside the proton.
Strict calculation of electron energy distribution functions in inhomogeneous plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winkler, R.
1996-01-01
It is objective of the paper to report on strict calculations of the velocity or energy distribution function function and related macroscopic properties of the electrons from appropriate electron kinetic equations under various plasma conditions and to contribute to a better understanding of the electron behaviour in inhomogeneous plasma regions. In particular, the spatial relaxation of plasma electrons acted upon by uniform electric fields, the response of plasma electrons on spatial disturbances of the electric field, the electron kinetics under the impact of space charge field confinement in the dc column plasma and the electron velocity distribution is stronger field as occurring in the electrode regions of a dc glow discharge is considered. (author)
Water distribution function across the curved lipid bilayer: SANS study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiselev, M.A.; Zemlyanaya, E.V.; Ryabova, N.Y.; Hauss, T.; Dante, S.; Lombardo, D.
2008-01-01
The neutron scattering length density across the membrane is simulated on the basis of fluctuated model of lipid bilayer. The use of a separated form factors method has been applied for the identification of the structural features of the polydispersed unilamellar DMPC vesicle system. The hydration of vesicle is described by sigmoid distribution function of the water molecules. The application of the model to the obtained SANS spectra allow the determination of the main parameters of the system, such as the average vesicle radius (and its polydispersity), the membrane thickness, the thickness of hydrocarbon chain region, the number of water molecules located per lipid molecule, and the phospholipid surface area. Moreover the approach allow the calculation of some relevant parameters connected with the water distribution function across the bilayer system. The main features of the obtained results furnish an explanation of why lipid membrane is easily penetrated by the water molecules of the solution
Sequential function approximation on arbitrarily distributed point sets
Wu, Kailiang; Xiu, Dongbin
2018-02-01
We present a randomized iterative method for approximating unknown function sequentially on arbitrary point set. The method is based on a recently developed sequential approximation (SA) method, which approximates a target function using one data point at each step and avoids matrix operations. The focus of this paper is on data sets with highly irregular distribution of the points. We present a nearest neighbor replacement (NNR) algorithm, which allows one to sample the irregular data sets in a near optimal manner. We provide mathematical justification and error estimates for the NNR algorithm. Extensive numerical examples are also presented to demonstrate that the NNR algorithm can deliver satisfactory convergence for the SA method on data sets with high irregularity in their point distributions.
Charge symmetry breaking in parton distribution functions from lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J.M. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Center for Computational Sciences; Pleiter, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum fuer Informationstechnik Berlin (Germany); Thomas, A.W.; Young, R.D. [Adelaide Univ. SA (Australia). School of Physics and Chemistry; Winter, F. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2010-12-15
By determining the quark momentum fractions of the octet baryons from N{sub f}=2+1 lattice simulations, we are able to predict the degree of charge symmetry violation in the parton distribution functions of the nucleon. This is of importance, not only as a probe of our understanding of the non-perturbative structure of the proton but also because such a violation constrains the accuracy of global ts to parton distribution functions and hence the accuracy with which, for example, cross sections at the LHC can be predicted. A violation of charge symmetry may also be critical in cases where symmetries are used to guide the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. (orig.)
Charge symmetry breaking in parton distribution functions from lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J.M.; Rakow, P.E.L.; Stueben, H.; Thomas, A.W.; Young, R.D.; Winter, F.; Regensburg Univ.
2010-12-01
By determining the quark momentum fractions of the octet baryons from N f =2+1 lattice simulations, we are able to predict the degree of charge symmetry violation in the parton distribution functions of the nucleon. This is of importance, not only as a probe of our understanding of the non-perturbative structure of the proton but also because such a violation constrains the accuracy of global ts to parton distribution functions and hence the accuracy with which, for example, cross sections at the LHC can be predicted. A violation of charge symmetry may also be critical in cases where symmetries are used to guide the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. (orig.)
Beam brightness calculation for analytical and empirical distribution functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myers, T.J.; Boulais, K.A.; O, Y.S.; Rhee, M.J.
1992-01-01
The beam brightness, a figure of merit for a beam quality useful for high-current low-emittance beams, was introduced by van Steenbergen as B = I/V 4 , where I is the beam current and V 4 is the hypervolume in the four-dimensional trace space occupied by the beam particles. Customarily, the brightness is expressed in terms of the product of emittances ε x ε y as B = ηI/(π 2 ε x ε y ), where η is a form factor of order unity which depends on the precise definition of emittance and hypervolume. Recently, a refined definition of the beam brightness based on the arithmetic mean value defined in statistics is proposed. The beam brightness is defined as B triple-bond 4 > = I -1 ∫ ρ 4 2 dxdydx'dy', where I is the beam current given by I ∫ ρ 4 dxdydx'dy'. Note that in this definition, neither the hypervolume V 4 nor the emittance, are explicitly used; the brightness is determined solely by the distribution function. Brightnesses are unambiguously calculated and expressed analytically in terms of the respective beam current and effective emittance for a few commonly used distribution functions, including Maxwellian and water-bag distributions. Other distributions of arbitrary shape frequently encountered in actual experiments are treated numerically. The resulting brightnesses are expressed in the form B = ηI/(π 2 ε x ε y ), and η is found to be weakly dependent on the form of velocity distribution as well as spatial distribution
Confronting species distribution model predictions with species functional traits.
Wittmann, Marion E; Barnes, Matthew A; Jerde, Christopher L; Jones, Lisa A; Lodge, David M
2016-02-01
Species distribution models are valuable tools in studies of biogeography, ecology, and climate change and have been used to inform conservation and ecosystem management. However, species distribution models typically incorporate only climatic variables and species presence data. Model development or validation rarely considers functional components of species traits or other types of biological data. We implemented a species distribution model (Maxent) to predict global climate habitat suitability for Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). We then tested the relationship between the degree of climate habitat suitability predicted by Maxent and the individual growth rates of both wild (N = 17) and stocked (N = 51) Grass Carp populations using correlation analysis. The Grass Carp Maxent model accurately reflected the global occurrence data (AUC = 0.904). Observations of Grass Carp growth rate covered six continents and ranged from 0.19 to 20.1 g day(-1). Species distribution model predictions were correlated (r = 0.5, 95% CI (0.03, 0.79)) with observed growth rates for wild Grass Carp populations but were not correlated (r = -0.26, 95% CI (-0.5, 0.012)) with stocked populations. Further, a review of the literature indicates that the few studies for other species that have previously assessed the relationship between the degree of predicted climate habitat suitability and species functional traits have also discovered significant relationships. Thus, species distribution models may provide inferences beyond just where a species may occur, providing a useful tool to understand the linkage between species distributions and underlying biological mechanisms.
Distribution functions of sections and projections of convex bodies
Kim, Jaegil; Yaskin, Vladyslav; Zvavitch, Artem
2015-01-01
Typically, when we are given the section (or projection) function of a convex body, it means that in each direction we know the size of the central section (or projection) perpendicular to this direction. Suppose now that we can only get the information about the sizes of sections (or projections), and not about the corresponding directions. In this paper we study to what extent the distribution function of the areas of central sections (or projections) of a convex body can be used to derive ...
The Wigner distribution function for squeezed vacuum superposed state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zayed, E.M.E.; Daoud, A.S.; AL-Laithy, M.A.; Naseem, E.N.
2005-01-01
In this paper, we construct the Wigner distribution function for a single-mode squeezed vacuum mixed-state which is a superposition of the squeezed vacuum state. This state is defined as a P-representation for the density operator. The obtained Wigner function depends, beside the phase-space variables, on the mean number of photons occupied by the coherent state of the mode. This mean number relates to the mean free path through a given relation, which enables us to measure this number experimentally by measuring the mean free path
Probabilistic Q-function distributions in fermionic phase-space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosales-Zárate, Laura E C; Drummond, P D
2015-01-01
We obtain a positive probability distribution or Q-function for an arbitrary fermionic many-body system. This is different to previous Q-function proposals, which were either restricted to a subspace of the overall Hilbert space, or used Grassmann methods that do not give probabilities. The fermionic Q-function obtained here is constructed using normally ordered Gaussian operators, which include both non-interacting thermal density matrices and BCS states. We prove that the Q-function exists for any density matrix, is real and positive, and has moments that correspond to Fermi operator moments. It is defined on a finite symmetric phase-space equivalent to the space of real, antisymmetric matrices. This has the natural SO(2M) symmetry expected for Majorana fermion operators. We show that there is a physical interpretation of the Q-function: it is the relative probability for observing a given Gaussian density matrix. The distribution has a uniform probability across the space at infinite temperature, while for pure states it has a maximum value on the phase-space boundary. The advantage of probabilistic representations is that they can be used for computational sampling without a sign problem. (fast track communication)
The electron energy distribution function of noble gases with flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karditsas, P.J.
1989-01-01
The treatment of the Boltzmann equation by several investigators, for the determination of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in noble gases was restricted to static discharges. It is of great interest to magnetoplasmadynamic power generation to develop the Boltzmann equation to account for the effect of the bulk fluid flow on the EEDF. The two term expansion of the Boltzmann equation, as given, results in additional terms introduced to the equations due to the bulk fluid flow, with velocity u
Brookhaven Reactor Experiment Control Facility, a distributed function computer network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimmler, D.G.; Greenlaw, N.; Kelley, M.A.; Potter, D.W.; Rankowitz, S.; Stubblefield, F.W.
1975-11-01
A computer network for real-time data acquisition, monitoring and control of a series of experiments at the Brookhaven High Flux Beam Reactor has been developed and has been set into routine operation. This reactor experiment control facility presently services nine neutron spectrometers and one x-ray diffractometer. Several additional experiment connections are in progress. The architecture of the facility is based on a distributed function network concept. A statement of implementation and results is presented
Efremov, A. V.; Ivanov, N. Ya.; Teryaev, O. V.
2018-05-01
We study the Callan-Gross ratio R = dσL / dσT in heavy-quark pair leptoproduction, lN →l‧ Q Q bar X, as a probe of linearly polarized gluons inside unpolarized proton, where dσT (dσL) is the differential cross section of the γ* N → Q Q bar X process initiated by a transverse (longitudinal) virtual photon. Note first that the maximal value for the quantity R allowed by the photon-gluon fusion with unpolarized gluons is large, about 2. We calculate the contribution of the transverse-momentum dependent gluonic counterpart of the Boer-Mulders function, h1 ⊥g , describing the linear polarization of gluons inside unpolarized proton. Our analysis shows that the maximum value of the ratio R depends strongly on the gluon polarization; it varies from 0 to Q2/4m2 depending on h1⊥g . We conclude that the Callan-Gross ratio in heavy-quark pair leptoproduction is predicted to be large and very sensitive to the contribution of linearly polarized gluons. For this reason, future measurements of the longitudinal and transverse components of the charm and bottom production cross sections at the proposed EIC and LHeC colliders seem to be very promising for determination of the linear polarization of gluons inside unpolarized proton.
Shear and bulk viscosity of high-temperature gluon plasma
Zhang, Le; Hou, De-Fu
2018-05-01
We calculate the shear viscosity (η) and bulk viscosity (ζ) to entropy density (s) ratios η/s and ζ/s of a gluon plasma system in kinetic theory, including both the elastic {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} forward scattering and the inelastic soft gluon bremsstrahlung {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} processes. Due to the suppressed contribution to η and ζ in the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} forward scattering and the effective g≤ftrightarrow {gg} gluon splitting, Arnold, Moore and Yaffe (AMY) and Arnold, Dogan and Moore (ADM) have got the leading order computations for η and ζ in high-temperature QCD matter. In this paper, we calculate the correction to η and ζ in the soft gluon bremsstrahlung {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} process with an analytic method. We find that the contribution of the collision term from the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} soft gluon bremsstrahlung process is just a small perturbation to the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} scattering process and that the correction is at ∼5% level. Then, we obtain the bulk viscosity of the gluon plasma for the number-changing process. Furthermore, our leading-order result for bulk viscosity is the formula \\zeta \\propto \\tfrac{{α }s2{T}3}{ln}{α }s-1} in high-temperature gluon plasma. Supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MSTC) under the “973” Project (2015CB856904(4)) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11735007, 11521064)
Functional brain networks develop from a "local to distributed" organization.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Damien A Fair
2009-05-01
Full Text Available The mature human brain is organized into a collection of specialized functional networks that flexibly interact to support various cognitive functions. Studies of development often attempt to identify the organizing principles that guide the maturation of these functional networks. In this report, we combine resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI, graph analysis, community detection, and spring-embedding visualization techniques to analyze four separate networks defined in earlier studies. As we have previously reported, we find, across development, a trend toward 'segregation' (a general decrease in correlation strength between regions close in anatomical space and 'integration' (an increased correlation strength between selected regions distant in space. The generalization of these earlier trends across multiple networks suggests that this is a general developmental principle for changes in functional connectivity that would extend to large-scale graph theoretic analyses of large-scale brain networks. Communities in children are predominantly arranged by anatomical proximity, while communities in adults predominantly reflect functional relationships, as defined from adult fMRI studies. In sum, over development, the organization of multiple functional networks shifts from a local anatomical emphasis in children to a more "distributed" architecture in young adults. We argue that this "local to distributed" developmental characterization has important implications for understanding the development of neural systems underlying cognition. Further, graph metrics (e.g., clustering coefficients and average path lengths are similar in child and adult graphs, with both showing "small-world"-like properties, while community detection by modularity optimization reveals stable communities within the graphs that are clearly different between young children and young adults. These observations suggest that early school age children and adults
Functional brain networks develop from a "local to distributed" organization.
Fair, Damien A; Cohen, Alexander L; Power, Jonathan D; Dosenbach, Nico U F; Church, Jessica A; Miezin, Francis M; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Petersen, Steven E
2009-05-01
The mature human brain is organized into a collection of specialized functional networks that flexibly interact to support various cognitive functions. Studies of development often attempt to identify the organizing principles that guide the maturation of these functional networks. In this report, we combine resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI), graph analysis, community detection, and spring-embedding visualization techniques to analyze four separate networks defined in earlier studies. As we have previously reported, we find, across development, a trend toward 'segregation' (a general decrease in correlation strength) between regions close in anatomical space and 'integration' (an increased correlation strength) between selected regions distant in space. The generalization of these earlier trends across multiple networks suggests that this is a general developmental principle for changes in functional connectivity that would extend to large-scale graph theoretic analyses of large-scale brain networks. Communities in children are predominantly arranged by anatomical proximity, while communities in adults predominantly reflect functional relationships, as defined from adult fMRI studies. In sum, over development, the organization of multiple functional networks shifts from a local anatomical emphasis in children to a more "distributed" architecture in young adults. We argue that this "local to distributed" developmental characterization has important implications for understanding the development of neural systems underlying cognition. Further, graph metrics (e.g., clustering coefficients and average path lengths) are similar in child and adult graphs, with both showing "small-world"-like properties, while community detection by modularity optimization reveals stable communities within the graphs that are clearly different between young children and young adults. These observations suggest that early school age children and adults both have
Probing the Quark Gluon Plasma with Heavy Flavours: recent results from ALICE
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
The study of open heavy-flavour physics allows us to investigate the key properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) and the microscopic processes ongoing in the medium produced in heavy-ion collisions at relativistic energies. Heavy quarks are produced in the early stages of heavy-ion collisions and their further production and annihilation rates in the medium are expected to be very small throughout the evolution of the system. Therefore, they serve as penetrating probes that traverse the hot and dense medium, interact with the partonic constituents of the plasma and lose energy. Understanding the interactions of heavy quarks with the medium requires precise measurements over a wide momentum range in heavy-ion collisions, but also in smaller systems like pp collisions, which also test next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations, and proton-nucleus collisions, which are sensitive to Cold Nuclear Matter effects (CNM), such as the modification of the parton distribution functions of nuclei, and parton ...
T -matrix approach to quark-gluon plasma
Liu, Shuai Y. F.; Rapp, Ralf
2018-03-01
A self-consistent thermodynamic T -matrix approach is deployed to study the microscopic properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), encompassing both light- and heavy-parton degrees of freedom in a unified framework. The starting point is a relativistic effective Hamiltonian with a universal color force. The input in-medium potential is quantitatively constrained by computing the heavy-quark (HQ) free energy from the static T -matrix and fitting it to pertinent lattice-QCD (lQCD) data. The corresponding T -matrix is then applied to compute the equation of state (EoS) of the QGP in a two-particle irreducible formalism, including the full off-shell properties of the selfconsistent single-parton spectral functions and their two-body interaction. In particular, the skeleton diagram functional is fully resummed to account for emerging bound and scattering states as the critical temperature is approached from above. We find that the solution satisfying three sets of lQCD data (EoS, HQ free energy, and quarkonium correlator ratios) is not unique. As limiting cases we discuss a weakly coupled solution, which features color potentials close to the free energy, relatively sharp quasiparticle spectral functions and weak hadronic resonances near Tc, and a strongly coupled solution with a strong color potential (much larger than the free energy), resulting in broad nonquasiparticle parton spectral functions and strong hadronic resonance states which dominate the EoS when approaching Tc.
Numerical Study of the Ghost-Ghost-Gluon Vertex on the Lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihara, A.; Cucchieri, A.; Mendes, T.
2004-01-01
It is well known that, in Landau gauge, the renormalization function of the ghost-ghost-gluon vertex Z-tilde1 (p2) is finite and constant, at least to all orders of perturbation theory. On the other hand, a direct non-perturbative verification of this result using numerical simulations of lattice QCD is still missing. Here we present a preliminary numerical study of the ghost-ghost-gluon vertex and of its corresponding renormalization function using Monte Carlo simulations in SU(2) lattice Landau gauge. Data were obtained in 4 dimensions for lattice couplings β = 2.2, 2.3, 2.4 and lattice sides N = 4, 8, 16
Numerical study of the ghost-ghost-gluon vertex on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihara, A.; Cucchieri, A.; Mendes, T.
2004-01-01
It is well known that, in Landau gauge, the renormalization function of the ghost-ghost-gluon vertex Z∼ 1 1(p 2 ) is finite and constant, at least to all orders of perturbation theory. On the other hand, a direct non-perturbative verification of this result using numerical simulations of lattice QCD is still missing. Here we present a preliminary numerical study of the ghost-ghost-gluon vertex and of its corresponding renormalization function using Monte Carlo simulations in SU(2) lattice Landau gauge. Data were obtained in 4 dimensions for lattice couplings β= 2.2, 2.3, 2.4 and lattice sides N = 4, 8, 16. (author)
Theoretical derivation of wind power probability distribution function and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altunkaynak, Abdüsselam; Erdik, Tarkan; Dabanlı, İsmail; Şen, Zekai
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Derivation of wind power stochastic characteristics are standard deviation and the dimensionless skewness. ► The perturbation is expressions for the wind power statistics from Weibull probability distribution function (PDF). ► Comparisons with the corresponding characteristics of wind speed PDF abides by the Weibull PDF. ► The wind power abides with the Weibull-PDF. -- Abstract: The instantaneous wind power contained in the air current is directly proportional with the cube of the wind speed. In practice, there is a record of wind speeds in the form of a time series. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a formulation that takes into consideration the statistical parameters of such a time series. The purpose of this paper is to derive the general wind power formulation in terms of the statistical parameters by using the perturbation theory, which leads to a general formulation of the wind power expectation and other statistical parameter expressions such as the standard deviation and the coefficient of variation. The formulation is very general and can be applied specifically for any wind speed probability distribution function. Its application to two-parameter Weibull probability distribution of wind speeds is presented in full detail. It is concluded that provided wind speed is distributed according to a Weibull distribution, the wind power could be derived based on wind speed data. It is possible to determine wind power at any desired risk level, however, in practical studies most often 5% or 10% risk levels are preferred and the necessary simple procedure is presented for this purpose in this paper.
Quark-gluon mixing in pseudoscalar and tensor mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eremyan, Sh.S.; Nazaryan, A.E.
1986-01-01
A mixing model of quark-antiquark ang gluonium states in η, η', i(1440) pseudoscalar and f, f', Θ(1690) tensor mesons is considered. Description of and predictions for 68 two-particle decays with these particles taking part in them are obtained. It is shown that i(1440) by 85% consists of gluonium and Θ(1690) is a pure gluonic state. The quark-gluon and gluon-gluon couplings in the pseudoscalar sector are obtained to be stronger as compared to the corresponding ones in the tensor case
Monte Carlo study on the properties of gluon and quark jets
Zhang Kun Shi; Yu Mei Ling; LianShouLiu
2002-01-01
The 3-jet events produced in e sup + e sup - collisions at 91.2 GeV have been studied using Monte Carlo method. After applying two angular cuts the three angles between the jets are used to identify the individual jet in 3-jet events. The energy distributions of the three jets, the mean particle multiplicities, mean transverse momenta of the three jets in equal energy bins and their distributions have been analyzed. Comparing with the corresponding results from the quark jets in 2-jet events, a simple method to select gluon and quark jets from 3-jet events is obtained. The properties of the gluon and quark jets being selected using the introduced method are in qualitative agreement with the expectations of perturbative QCD. The ratio of the mean multiplicity between quark and gluon jets, sub g sub l sub u sub o sub n / sub q sub u sub q sub r sub k , has been calculated. The results, again, agree with the experimental results from SLD, OPAL, ALEPH and DELPHI Collaborations, indicating that the method propose...
Study on the coherent emission of gluons in QCD jets from electron-positron annihilation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kreutzmann, H.
1990-11-01
The inclusive momentum distribution of charged particles is studied with the OPAL detector at LEP in multihadronic events produced in e + e - -annihilations at E cm ≅ M(Z 0 ). Agreement is found with analytical formulae for gluon production that include the phenomena of soft gluon interference. Using data from c.m. energies between 14 GeV and 91 GeV, the dependence of the inclusive momentum distribution on the centre of momentum energy E cm is investigated. The analytic predictions derived from perturbative energy E cm ≅ M(Z 0 ) and its change with E cm are also described by QCD shower Monte Carlo programs which include either coherent gluon branchings or string fragmentation. Simple incoherent models with independent fragmentation fail to reproduce the energy dependence and the momentum spectra. A detailed simulation of the OPAL Jet Chamber and a reconstruction program for jet chamber tracks were developed and applied in this analysis. The essential features of both programs are presented. (orig.) [de
Spin asymmetry in proton-proton collisions as a probe of sea and gluon polarization in a proton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, H.; Lai, S.
1990-01-01
Quark and gluon spin densities in a proton are phenomenologically parametrized based on the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) data and on some plausible theoretical arguments. Four different characteristic values of gluon and sea polarizations suggested by various theoretical conjectures are considered. The sea polarization in a proton is probed by measuring the spin-spin asymmetry A LL DY in the Drell-Yan process, while the helicity asymmetry A LL γ in direct photon production at high p T is employed to test the gluon spin content. Helicity asymmetries in both processes are quite sizable. A LL DY is positive and of order 10 -1 if the sea is polarized opposite to the proton spin, as suggested by the EMC data. However, even in the absence of the sea polarization at the EMC energies, we find A LL DY to be large and negative. Experimental measurements of A LL DY and A LL γ together will not only provide a clean probe of sea and gluon polarizations, but also test whether the combination Δs-(α s /4π)ΔG inferred from the EMC data is valid, i.e., whether gluons contribute to the spin-dependent structure function g 1 p (x,Q 2 ) via the triangular anomaly
Generation of Optimal Basis Functions for Reconstruction of Power Distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Moonghu [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
This study proposes GMDH to find not only the best functional form but also the optimal parameters those describe the power distribution most accurately. A total of 1,060 cases of axially 1-dimensional core power distributions of 20-nodes are generated by 3-dimensional core analysis code covering BOL to EOL core burnup histories to validate the method. Axially five-point box powers at in-core detectors are considered as measurements. The reconstructed axial power shapes using GMDH method are compared to the reference power shapes. The results show that the proposed method is very robust and accurate compared with spline fitting method. It is shown that the GMDH analysis can give optimal basis functions for core power shape reconstruction. The in-core measurements are the 5 detector snapshots and the 20-node power distribution is successfully reconstructed. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by comparing the results of spline fitting for BOL, saddle and top-skewed power shapes.
Quasilinear ion distribution function during first harmonic ion cyclotron heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brambilla, M.
1993-12-01
The quasilinear modification of the ion distribution function during first harmonic ion cyclotron (FHIC) heating is investigated both with a simple already well established analytic one-dimensional approach, and with a new two dimensional steady state solver of the quasilinear kinetic equation, SSFPQL. By accepting to disregard the effects of ion trapping in banana orbits, but including finite Larmor radius effects, the latter code has been made much faster than full surface-averaged codes; yet it can provide most of the relevant information on the suprathermal ion tail produced by this heating method. With SSFPQL we confirm that the one-dimensional model gives fair approximations for global properties of the distribution function, such as the average energy content of the tail and the fusion reactivity. On the other hand the tail is found to be very anisotropic, the increase of the parallel effective temperature being a small fraction of the total energy increase. Information on the anisotropy is essential to study the feedback of the fast ion tail on wave propagation and absorption, which is quite sensitive to the distribution of parallel velocities. The insight gained in the derivation and discussion of this model can be used to build a selfconsistent description of this heating scenario, whose implementation requires only a reasonable numerical effort. (orig.)
Measurement and application of bidirectional reflectance distribution function
Liao, Fei; Li, Lin; Lu, Chengwen
2016-10-01
When a beam of light with certain intensity and distribution reaches the surface of a material, the distribution of the diffused light is related to the incident angle, the receiving angle, the wavelength of the light and the types of the material. Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) is a method to describe this distribution. For an optical system, the optical and mechanical materials' BRDF are unique, and if we want to calculate stray light of the system we should know the correct BRDF data of the whole materials. There are fundamental significances in the area of space remote sensor where BRDF is needed in the precise radiation calibration. It is also important in the military field where BRDF can be used in the object identification and target tracking, etc. In this paper, 11 kinds of aerospace materials' BRDF are measured and more than 310,000 groups of BRDF data are achieved , and also a BRDF database is established in China for the first time. With the BRDF data of the database, we can create the detector model, build the stray light radiation surface model in the stray light analysis software. In this way, the stray radiation on the detector can be calculated correctly.
Melatonin membrane receptors in peripheral tissues: Distribution and functions
Slominski, Radomir M.; Reiter, Russel J.; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; Ostrom, Rennolds S.; Slominski, Andrzej T.
2012-01-01
Many of melatonin’s actions are mediated through interaction with the G-protein coupled membrane bound melatonin receptors type 1 and type 2 (MT1 and MT2, respectively) or, indirectly with nuclear orphan receptors from the RORα/RZR family. Melatonin also binds to the quinone reductase II enzyme, previously defined the MT3 receptor. Melatonin receptors are widely distributed in the body; herein we summarize their expression and actions in non-neural tissues. Several controversies still exist regarding, for example, whether melatonin binds the RORα/RZR family. Studies of the peripheral distribution of melatonin receptors are important since they are attractive targets for immunomodulation, regulation of endocrine, reproductive and cardiovascular functions, modulation of skin pigmentation, hair growth, cancerogenesis, and aging. Melatonin receptor agonists and antagonists have an exciting future since they could define multiple mechanisms by which melatonin modulates the complexity of such a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes. PMID:22245784
The very hot soup of quarks and gluons; La tres chaude soupe de quarks et de gluons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ter Minassian, V.
2010-05-15
The Phenix collaboration at the RHIC collider (Usa) has measured directly, for the first time, the temperature just after 2 gold nuclei have collided. All the experimental conditions were taken to assure that the temperature measured was that of the quark-gluon plasma. The value of this temperature is 4000*10{sup 9} K, which is 1.20 as high as the theoretical temperature threshold for the existence of the quark-gluon plasma. It is a proof that the quark-gluon plasma can be created within the operating conditions of the RHIC. (A.C.)
Role of the QCD induced gluon-gluon coupling to gauge boson pairs in the multitev region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ametller, L.; Gava, E.; Paver, N.; Treleani, D.
1985-02-01
We discuss the production of γγ and Zsup(O)γ pairs induced by the gluon-gluon fusion mechanism at typical supercollider energies. Due to the large flux of gluons with small fractional momenta, it is found that in certain kinematical configurations that subprocess, although of order (αsub(S)/π) 2 with respect to the leading quark annihilation, can give an appreciable contribution to the cross-section for Zsup(O)γ and even a larger one for the γγ production. (author)
DISTRIBUTION OF PARASTATISTICS FUNCTIONS: AN OVERVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS PROPERTIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Yosi Aprian Sari
2016-05-01
Full Text Available This study aims to determine the thermodynamic properties of the parastatistics system of order two. The thermodynamic properties to be searched include the Grand Canonical Partition Function (GCPF Z, and the average number of particles N. These parastatistics systems is in a more general form compared to quantum statistical distribution that has been known previously, i.e.: the Fermi-Dirac (FD and Bose-Einstein (BE. Starting from the recursion relation of grand canonical partition function for parastatistics system of order two that has been known, recuresion linkages for some simple thermodynamic functions for parastatistics system of order two are derived. The recursion linkages are then used to calculate the thermodynamic functions of the model system of identical particles with limited energy levels which is similar to the harmonic oscillator. From these results we concluded that from the Grand Canonical Partition Function (GCPF, Z, the thermodynamics properties of parastatistics system of order two (paraboson and parafermion can be derived and have similar shape with parastatistics system of order one (Boson and Fermion. The similarity of the graph shows similar thermodynamic properties. Keywords: parastatistics, thermodynamic properties
A case study of quark-gluon discrimination at NNLL{sup '} in comparison to parton showers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mo, Jonathan; Waalewijn, Wouter J. [University of Amsterdam, Institute for Theoretical Physics Amsterdam and Delta Institute for Theoretical Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nikhef, Theory Group, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tackmann, Frank J. [Theory Group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2017-11-15
Predictions for our ability to distinguish quark and gluon jets vary by more than a factor of two between different parton showers. We study this problem using analytic resummed predictions for the thrust event shape up to NNLL{sup '} using e{sup +}e{sup -} → Z → q anti q and e{sup +}e{sup -} → H → gg as proxies for quark and gluon jets. We account for hadronization effects through a nonperturbative shape function, and include an estimate of both perturbative and hadronization uncertainties. In contrast to previous studies, we find reasonable agreement between our results and predictions from both Pythia and Herwig parton showers. We find that this is due to a noticeable improvement in the description of gluon jets in the newest Herwig 7.1 compared to previous versions. (orig.)
A case study of quark-gluon discrimination at NNLL{sup '} in comparison to parton showers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mo, Jonathan; Waalewijn, Wouter [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Delta Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Theory Group; Tackmann, Frank J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group
2017-08-15
Predictions for our ability to distinguish quark and gluon jets vary by more than a factor of two between different parton showers. We study this problem using analytic resummed predictions for the thrust event shape up to NNLL{sup '} using e{sup +}e{sup -}→Z→q anti q and e{sup +}e{sup -}→H→gg as proxies for quark and gluon jets. We account for hadronization effects through a nonperturbative shape function, and include an estimate of both perturbative and hadronization uncertainties. In contrast to previous studies, we find reasonable agreement between our results and predictions from both PYTHIA and HERWIG parton showers. We find that this is due to a noticeable improvement in the description of gluon jets in the newest Herwig 7.1 compared to previous versions.
Quark imaging in the proton via quantum phase-space distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belitsky, A.V.; Ji Xiangdong; Yuan Feng
2004-01-01
We develop the concept of quantum phase-space (Wigner) distributions for quarks and gluons in the proton. To appreciate their physical content, we analyze the contraints from special relativity on the interpretation of elastic form factors, and examine the physics of the Feynman parton distributions in the proton's rest frame. We relate the quark Wigner functions to the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions and generalized parton distributions, emphasizing the physical role of the skewness parameter. We show that the Wigner functions allow us to visualize quantum quarks and gluons using the language of classical phase space. We present two examples of the quark Wigner distributions and point out some model-independent features
Strangeness and the quark-gluon plasma: An experimenter's perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Odyniec, G.
1994-02-01
Current status of experimental results on strange particle production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the relevance to the hypothetical quark-gluon plasma formation and the origin of the Universe
The LPM effect in sequential bremsstrahlung: 4-gluon vertices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arnold, Peter; Chang, Han-Chih [Department of Physics, University of Virginia,382 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904-4714 (United States); Iqbal, Shahin [National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad, 45320 (Pakistan)
2016-10-24
The splitting processes of bremsstrahlung and pair production in a medium are coherent over large distances in the very high energy limit, which leads to a suppression known as the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect. In this paper, we continue study of the case when the coherence lengths of two consecutive splitting processes overlap (which is important for understanding corrections to standard treatments of the LPM effect in QCD), avoiding soft-gluon approximations. In particular, this paper completes the calculation of the rate for real double gluon bremsstrahlung from an initial gluon with various simplifying assumptions (thick media; q̂ approximation; and large N{sub c}) by now including processes involving 4-gluon vertices.
Resummation and the gluon damping rate in hot QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pisarski, R.D.
1990-08-01
At high temperature a consistent perturbative expansion requires the resummation of an infinite subset of loop corrections into an effective expansion. This effective exansion is used to compute the gluon damping rate at leading order. 25 refs
Differences between quark and gluon jets at LEP1
Boutemeur, Madjid
1997-01-01
A report is ven here on the differences between quark and gluon initiated jets as measured in LEPl. Various measurements, agree qualitatively on the differences between quark and gluon jets. However a direct quantitative comparison among the measurements as well as comparisons between the measurements and analytical calculations are difficult. This is due to the dependence of the results on the selected event topologies and used jet finding algorithms. Topology dependence of the charged particle multiplicity in quark and gluon jets is studied by ALEPH and transverse momentum-like scales are proposed to account for it. OPAL produced the first quantitative test of QCD analytic prediction for the ratio of the mean particle multiplicity between gluon and quark jets valid, at least, for 39 GeV jets.
A new method for computing the quark-gluon vertex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguilar, A C
2015-01-01
In this talk we present a new method for determining the nonperturbative quark-gluon vertex, which constitutes a crucial ingredient for a variety of theoretical and phenomenological studies. This new method relies heavily on the exact all-order relation connecting the conventional quark-gluon vertex with the corresponding vertex of the background field method, which is Abelian-like. The longitudinal part of this latter quantity is fixed using the standard gauge technique, whereas the transverse is estimated with the help of the so-called transverse Ward identities. This method allows the approximate determination of the nonperturbative behavior of all twelve form factors comprising the quark-gluon vertex, for arbitrary values of the momenta. Numerical results are presented for the form factors in three special kinematical configurations (soft gluon and quark symmetric limit, zero quark momentum), and compared with the corresponding lattice data. (paper)