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Sample records for glucose-limited chemostat cultures

  1. Transport and metabolism of fumaric acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in aerobic glucose-limited chemostat culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mihir V; van Mastrigt, Oscar; Heijnen, Joseph J; van Gulik, Walter M

    2016-04-01

    Currently, research is being focused on the industrial-scale production of fumaric acid and other relevant organic acids from renewable feedstocks via fermentation, preferably at low pH for better product recovery. However, at low pH a large fraction of the extracellular acid is present in the undissociated form, which is lipophilic and can diffuse into the cell. There have been no studies done on the impact of high extracellular concentrations of fumaric acid under aerobic conditions in S. cerevisiae, which is a relevant issue to study for industrial-scale production. In this work we studied the uptake and metabolism of fumaric acid in S. cerevisiae in glucose-limited chemostat cultures at a cultivation pH of 3.0 (pH medium. The experiments were carried out with the wild-type S. cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D and an engineered S. cerevisiae ADIS 244 expressing a heterologous dicarboxylic acid transporter (DCT-02) from Aspergillus niger, to examine whether it would be capable of exporting fumaric acid. We observed that fumaric acid entered the cells most likely via passive diffusion of the undissociated form. Approximately two-thirds of the fumaric acid in the feed was metabolized together with glucose. From metabolic flux analysis, an increased ATP dissipation was observed only at high intracellular concentrations of fumarate, possibly due to the export of fumarate via an ABC transporter. The implications of our results for the industrial-scale production of fumaric acid are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Glucose uptake and growth of glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Aspergillus niger and a disruptant lacking MstA, a high-affinity glucose transporter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorgensen, T.R.; vanKuyk, P.A.; Poulsen, B.R.; Ruijter, G.J.G.; Visser, J.; Iversen, J.J.L.

    2007-01-01

    This is a study of high-affinity glucose uptake in Aspergillus niger and the effect of disruption of a high-affinity monosaccharide-transporter gene, mstA. The substrate saturation constant (K-s) of a reference strain was about 15 mu M in glucose-limited chemostat culture. Disruption of mstA

  3. Glucose uptake and growth of glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Aspergillus niger and a disruptant lacking MstA, a high-affinity glucose transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas R; vanKuyk, Patricia A; Poulsen, Bjarne R

    2007-01-01

    This is a study of high-affinity glucose uptake in Aspergillus niger and the effect of disruption of a high-affinity monosaccharide-transporter gene, mstA. The substrate saturation constant (K(s)) of a reference strain was about 15 microM in glucose-limited chemostat culture. Disruption of mst......-affinity uptake system of A. niger. The mstA disruptant and a reference strain were cultivated in glucose-limited chemostat cultures at low, intermediate and high dilution rate (D=0.07 h(-1), 0.14 h(-1) and 0.20 h(-1)). Mycelium harvested from steady-state cultures was subjected to glucose uptake assays...

  4. Regulation of glycolytic rate in Streptococcus sanguis grown under glucose-limited and glucose-excess conditions in a chemostat.

    OpenAIRE

    Iwami, Y; Yamada, T

    1985-01-01

    The biochemical mechanisms of the acidogenic potential of Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10556 grown in glucose-excess and glucose-limited continuous culture were studied. The rate of acid production during the glucose metabolism by the cells grown under glucose limitation (glucose-limited cells) was 2.1 to 2.6 times that by the cells grown in an excess of glucose (glucose-excess cells). When the glucose-limited cells were metabolizing glucose, intracellular concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate,...

  5. Generic and specific transcriptional responses to different weak organic acids in anaerobic chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, D.A.; Knijnenburg, T.A.; De Poorter, L.M.; Reinders, M.J.; Pronk, J.T.; Van Maris, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Transcriptional responses to four weak organic acids (benzoate, sorbate, acetate and propionate) were investigated in anaerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To enable quantitative comparison of the responses to the acids, their concentrations were chosen such that

  6. Effect of concentration of substrates and products on the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae in chemostat cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutgers, M; Balk, P A; van Dam, K

    1989-11-23

    Non-equilibrium thermodynamics (NET) can be used to describe microbial growth. In this description, the concentrations of products contribute to the driving forces of the metabolic processes (anabolism and catabolism). Thus, in contrast to the model of bacterial growth of Monod (Recherches sur la Croissance les Cultures Bactériennes (1942) Herman et Cie, Paris), it is predicted that the growth rate of a bacterial chemostat culture is, in principle, dependent on the concentration of the catabolic product (for instance HCO3-) during catabolite limitation and on the concentration of the anabolic product (for instance biomass) during anabolite limitation. In order to test this prediction, Klebsiella pneumoniae was grown in aerobic citrate-limited, glucose-limited or ammonia-limited chemostat cultures. Ammonia-limited cultures were considered to be essentially anabolite-limited, whereas citrate limitation was used as a representative for catabolite limitation. In ammonia-limited or in glucose-limited cultures it was found that the growth rate was independent of the biomass concentration present. In the NET description this means that the 'back' reaction (i.e., in the direction from biomass to substrates) is saturated with respect to biomass. On the other hand, in citrate-limited cultures, the steady-state concentration of citrate increased with the concentration of the catabolic product HCO3-. At relatively low concentrations of HCO3-, 'thermodynamic back-pressure' of growth (i.e., increase in product concentration was compensated by an increase in substrate concentration so that the driving force for growth remained almost constant) was demonstrated as predicted by the NET model. At concentrations above 40 mM, a kinetic (allosteric) effect of HCO3- was detected. This was concluded from a reduced growth yield on citrate, and from a significant decrease in the maximal growth rate and the maximal oxygen consumption rate after relief of the citrate limitation.

  7. Metabolic and energetic aspects of the growth of Clostridium butyricum on glucose in chemostat culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbendam, P M; Neijssel, O M; Tempest, D W

    1985-09-01

    The influence of a number of environmental parameters on the fermentation of glucose, and on the energetics of growth of Clostridium butyricum in chemostat culture, have been studied. With cultures that were continuously sparged with nitrogen gas, glucose was fermented primarily to acetate and butyrate with a fixed stoichiometry. Thus, irrespective of the growth rate, input glucose concentration, specific nutrient limitation and, within limits, the culture pH value, the acetate/butyrate molar ratio in the culture extracellular fluids was uniformly 0.74 +/- 0.07. Thus, the efficiency with which ATP was generated from glucose catabolism also was constant at 3.27 +/- 0.02 mol ATP/mol glucose fermented. However, the rate of glucose fermentation at a fixed growth rate, and hence the rate of ATP generation, varied markedly under some conditions, leading to changes in the Y glucose and YATP values. In general, glucose-sufficient cultures expressed lower yield values than a corresponding glucose-limited culture, and this was particularly marked with a potassium-limited culture. However, with a glucose-limited culture increasing the input glucose concentration above 40 g glucose X 1(-1) also led to a significant decrease in the yield values that could be partially reversed by increasing the sparging rate of the nitrogen gas. Finally glucose-limited cultures immediately expressed an increased rate of glucose fermentation when relieved of their growth limitation. Since the rate of cell synthesis did not increase instantaneously, again the yield values with respect to glucose consumed and ATP generated transiently decreased. Two conditions were found to effect a change in the fermentation pattern with a lowering of the acetate/butyrate molar ratio. First, a significant decrease in this ratio was observed when a glucose-limited culture was not sparged with nitrogen gas; and second, a substantial (and progressive) decrease was observed to follow addition of increasing amounts of

  8. EvoBot: Towards a Robot-Chemostat for Culturing and Maintaining Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodosiou, Pavlina; Faina, Andres; Nejatimoharrami, Farzad

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present EvoBot, a RepRap open-source 3D-printer modified to operate like a robot for culturing and maintaining Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs). EvoBot is a modular liquid handling robot that has been adapted to host MFCs in its experimental layer, gather data from the MFCs and react......, which is akin to a chemostat. The chemostat is a well-known microbiology method for culturing bacterial cells under controlled conditions with continuous nutrient supply. EvoBot is perhaps the first pioneering attempt at functionalizing the 3D printing technology by combining it with the chemostat...

  9. Respiratory capacities of mitochondria of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 8066 and Candida utilis CBS 621 grown under glucose limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urk, Hendrik van; Bruinenberg, Peter M.; Veenhuis, Marten; Scheffers, W. Alexander; Dijken, Johannes P. van

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the in vitro respiratory capacity of mitochondria isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis grown in glucose-limited chemostat cultures. An electron-microscopic analysis of whole cells revealed that the volume density of mitochondria was the same in

  10. Influence of the RelA Activity on E. coli Metabolism by Metabolite Profiling of Glucose-Limited Chemostat Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Carneiro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolite profiling of E. coli W3110 and the isogenic DrelA mutant cells was used to characterize the RelA-dependent stringent control of metabolism under different growth conditions. Metabolic profiles were obtained by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis and revealed significant differences between E. coli strains grown at different conditions. Major differences between the two strains were assessed in the levels of amino acids and fatty acids and their precursor metabolites, especially when growing at the lower dilution rates, demonstrating differences in their metabolic behavior. Despite the fatty acid biosynthesis being the most affected due to the lack of the RelA activity, other metabolic pathways involving succinate, lactate and threonine were also affected. Overall, metabolite profiles indicate that under nutrient-limiting conditions the RelA-dependent stringent response may be elicited and promotes key changes in the E. coli metabolism.

  11. Growth-rate dependency of de novo resveratrol production in chemostat cultures of an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Tim; de la Torre Cortés, Pilar; van Gulik, Walter M; Pronk, Jack T; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2015-09-14

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become a popular host for production of non-native compounds. The metabolic pathways involved generally require a net input of energy. To maximize the ATP yield on sugar in S. cerevisiae, industrial cultivation is typically performed in aerobic, sugar-limited fed-batch reactors which, due to constraints in oxygen transfer and cooling capacities, have to be operated at low specific growth rates. Because intracellular levels of key metabolites are growth-rate dependent, slow growth can significantly affect biomass-specific productivity. Using an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain expressing a heterologous pathway for resveratrol production as a model energy-requiring product, the impact of specific growth rate on yeast physiology and productivity was investigated in aerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures. Stoichiometric analysis revealed that de novo resveratrol production from glucose requires 13 moles of ATP per mole of produced resveratrol. The biomass-specific production rate of resveratrol showed a strong positive correlation with the specific growth rate. At low growth rates a substantial fraction of the carbon source was invested in cellular maintenance-energy requirements (e.g. 27 % at 0.03 h(-1)). This distribution of resources was unaffected by resveratrol production. Formation of the by-products coumaric, phloretic and cinnamic acid had no detectable effect on maintenance energy requirement and yeast physiology in chemostat. Expression of the heterologous pathway led to marked differences in transcript levels in the resveratrol-producing strain, including increased expression levels of genes involved in pathways for precursor supply (e.g. ARO7 and ARO9 involved in phenylalanine biosynthesis). The observed strong differential expression of many glucose-responsive genes in the resveratrol producer as compared to a congenic reference strain could be explained from higher residual glucose concentrations and higher

  12. Selective enrichment and production of highly urease active bacteria by non-sterile (open) chemostat culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2013-10-01

    In general, bioprocesses can be subdivided into naturally occurring processes, not requiring sterility (e.g., beer brewing, wine making, lactic acid fermentation, or biogas digestion) and other processes (e.g., the production of enzymes and antibiotics) that typically require a high level of sterility to avoid contaminant microbes overgrowing the production strain. The current paper describes the sustainable, non-sterile production of an industrial enzyme using activated sludge as inoculum. By using selective conditions (high pH, high ammonia concentration, and presence of urea) for the target bacterium, highly active ureolytic bacteria, physiologically resembling Sporosarcina pasteurii were reproducibly enriched and then continuously produced via chemostat operation of the bioreactor. When using a pH of 10 and about 0.2 M urea in a yeast extract-based medium, ureolytic bacteria developed under aerobic chemostat operation at hydraulic retention times of about 10 h with urease levels of about 60 μmol min⁻¹ ml⁻¹ culture. For cost minimization at an industrial scale the costly protein-rich yeast extract medium could be replaced by commercial milk powder or by lysed activated sludge. Glutamate, molasses, or glucose-based media did not result in the enrichment of ureolytic bacteria by the chemostat. The concentration of intracellular urease was sufficiently high such that the produced raw effluent from the reactor could be used directly for biocementation in the field.

  13. Growth yields, polysaccharide production and energy conservation in chemostat cultures of Rhizobium trifolii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hollander, J A; Bettenhaussen, C W; Stouthamer, A H

    1979-01-01

    Rhizobium trifolii was grown in a defined medium in chemostat cultures. Extracellular polysaccharide production was found in carbon-sufficient as well as in carbon-limited cultures. Extracellular polysaccharide production in carbon-limited cultures was strongly dependent on the growth rate. In mannitol-limited cultures, asparagine was always totally depleted from the culture medium. Only when the asparagine supply was not sufficient to meet the nitrogen need of the culture, ammonia assimilation took place. Excess organic nitrogen was excreted as ammonia. Whether ammonia assimilation or ammonia excretion took place was also dependent on the growth rate. Respiration-coupled proton translocation measurements showed the presence of three energy conserving sites in an electron transport chain which is branched. Assuming a H+/P ratio of 4, a P/O ratio of 2.33 was found. Growth yield calculations indicated a P/O ratio of approximately 2. Sulphate limitation in the chemostat culture resulted in a decrease in the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and in a less stringent coupling between growth and energy yielding processes.

  14. Characterization of microbial compositions in a thermophilic chemostat of mixed culture fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Yang, Jing-Hua; Dai, Kun; Chen, Yun; Li, Qiu-Rong; Gao, Fa-Ming; Zeng, Raymond J

    2016-02-01

    The microbial community compositions of a chemostat enriched in a thermophilic (55 °C) mixed culture fermentation (MCF) for hydrogen production under different operational conditions were revealed in this work by integrating denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing, and 16S rRNA clone library sequencing. The results showed that the community structure of the enriched cultures was relatively simple. Clones close to the genera of Thermoanaerobacter and/or Bacillus mainly dominated the bacteria. And homoacetogens and archaea were washed out and not detected even by Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing which supported the benefit for hydrogen production. On the other hand, the results revealed that the metabolic shift was clearly associated with the change of dominated bacterial groups. The effects of hydrogen partial pressure (PH2) and pH from 4.0 to 5.5 on the microbial compositions were not notable and Thermoanaerobacter was dominant, thus, the metabolites were also not changed. While Bacillus, Thermoanaerobacter and Propionispora hippei dominated the bacteria communities at neutral pH, or Bacillus and Thermoanaerobacter dominated at high influent glucose concentrations, consequently the main metabolites shifted to acetate, ethanol, propionate, or lactate. Thereby, the effect of microbial composition on the metabolite distribution and shift shall be considered when modeling thermophilic MCF in the future.

  15. Evolutionary Engineering in Chemostat Cultures for Improved Maltotriose Fermentation Kinetics in Saccharomyces pastorianus Lager Brewing Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickwedde, Anja; van den Broek, Marcel; Geertman, Jan-Maarten A; Magalhães, Frederico; Kuijpers, Niels G A; Gibson, Brian; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean-Marc G

    2017-01-01

    The lager brewing yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus , an interspecies hybrid of S. eubayanus and S. cerevisiae , ferments maltotriose, maltose, sucrose, glucose and fructose in wort to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Complete and timely conversion ("attenuation") of maltotriose by industrial S. pastorianus strains is a key requirement for process intensification. This study explores a new evolutionary engineering strategy for improving maltotriose fermentation kinetics. Prolonged carbon-limited, anaerobic chemostat cultivation of the reference strain S. pastorianus CBS1483 on a maltotriose-enriched sugar mixture was used to select for spontaneous mutants with improved affinity for maltotriose. Evolved populations exhibited an up to 5-fold lower residual maltotriose concentration and a higher ethanol concentration than the parental strain. Uptake studies with 14 C-labeled sugars revealed an up to 4.75-fold higher transport capacity for maltotriose in evolved strains. In laboratory batch cultures on wort, evolved strains showed improved attenuation and higher ethanol concentrations. These improvements were also observed in pilot fermentations at 1,000-L scale with high-gravity wort. Although the evolved strain exhibited multiple chromosomal copy number changes, analysis of beer made from pilot fermentations showed no negative effects on flavor compound profiles. These results demonstrate the potential of evolutionary engineering for strain improvement of hybrid, alloploid brewing strains.

  16. Evolutionary Engineering in Chemostat Cultures for Improved Maltotriose Fermentation Kinetics in Saccharomyces pastorianus Lager Brewing Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Brickwedde

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The lager brewing yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus, an interspecies hybrid of S. eubayanus and S. cerevisiae, ferments maltotriose, maltose, sucrose, glucose and fructose in wort to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Complete and timely conversion (“attenuation” of maltotriose by industrial S. pastorianus strains is a key requirement for process intensification. This study explores a new evolutionary engineering strategy for improving maltotriose fermentation kinetics. Prolonged carbon-limited, anaerobic chemostat cultivation of the reference strain S. pastorianus CBS1483 on a maltotriose-enriched sugar mixture was used to select for spontaneous mutants with improved affinity for maltotriose. Evolved populations exhibited an up to 5-fold lower residual maltotriose concentration and a higher ethanol concentration than the parental strain. Uptake studies with 14C-labeled sugars revealed an up to 4.75-fold higher transport capacity for maltotriose in evolved strains. In laboratory batch cultures on wort, evolved strains showed improved attenuation and higher ethanol concentrations. These improvements were also observed in pilot fermentations at 1,000-L scale with high-gravity wort. Although the evolved strain exhibited multiple chromosomal copy number changes, analysis of beer made from pilot fermentations showed no negative effects on flavor compound profiles. These results demonstrate the potential of evolutionary engineering for strain improvement of hybrid, alloploid brewing strains.

  17. Effects of end-product inhibition of Cellulomonas uda anaerobic growth on cellobiose chemostat culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermoun, Z; Gaudin, C; Belaich, J P

    1988-01-01

    Cellulomonas uda was grown anaerobically in a chemostat with 3.33 and 11.41 mM cellobiose in the feed medium at dilution rates varying from 0.017 to 0.29/h. Unusual results obtained were analyzed by using curves simulating the steady-state biomass. This unusual behavior could be accounted for by a classical growth model taking end-product inhibition into account. Acetate has been identified to be the major inhibitor in the experimental conditions used. Parameters calculated from experimental observations gave theoretical curves of biomass production versus dilution rate which fitted the experimental points very well. PMID:3131311

  18. Kinetic and bioenergetic studies of Spirulina platensis in chemostat and turbidostat culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.Y.; Erickson, L.E.; Scott, C.D. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    The growth kinetics and bioenergetics of S. platensis were investigated as a function of pH, temperature, light intensity, and HCO/sub 3/ concentration. The effects of pH and temperature on growth rate and bioenergetic yield were examined using turbidostat operation. The Arrhenius activation energy for growth appears to be independent of light intensity for the range of values that were investigated. Under light-limited growth conditions, the values of pH and temperature which provide for the maximum growth rate also correspond to the maximum bioenergetic yield. Chemostat operation was used to investigate C-limited growth.

  19. A chemostat culture as a tool for the improvement of a recombinant E.coli strain over-producing penicillin G acylase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marešová, Helena; Štěpánek, Václav; Kyslík, Pavel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 1 (2001), s. 46-52 ISSN 0006-3592 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : Escherichia coli * penicillin G acylase * chemostat culture Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.037, year: 2001

  20. Exploration of the hydrogen producing potential of Rhodobacter capsulatus chemostat cultures: The application of deceleration-stat and gradient-stat methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, S.; Breukelen, van F.R.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the dependency of the volumetric hydrogen production rate of ammonium-limited Rhodobacter capsulatus chemostat cultures on their imposed biomass concentration and dilution rate was investigated. A deceleration-stat experiment was performed by lowering the dilution rate from 1.0 d-1 to

  1. Metabolic flux analysis of Escherichia coli in glucose-limited continuous culture. I. Growth-rate-dependent metabolic efficiency at steady state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Anke; Weber, Jan; Hecht, Volker; Rinas, Ursula

    2005-03-01

    The Escherichia coli K-12 strain TG1 was grown at 28 degrees C in aerobic glucose-limited continuous cultures at dilution rates ranging from 0.044 to 0.415 h(-1). The rates of biomass formation, the specific rates of glucose, ammonium and oxygen uptake and the specific carbon dioxide evolution rate increased linearly with the dilution rate up to 0.3 h(-1). At dilution rates between 0.3 h(-1) and 0.4 h(-1), a strong deviation from the linear increase to lower specific oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide evolution rates occurred. The biomass formation rate and the specific glucose and ammonium uptake rates did not deviate that strongly from the linear increase up to dilution rates of 0.4 h(-1). An increasing percentage of glucose carbon flow towards biomass determined by a reactor mass balance and a decreasing specific ATP production rate concomitant with a decreasing adenylate energy charge indicated higher energetic efficiency of carbon substrate utilization at higher dilution rates. Estimation of metabolic fluxes by a stoichiometric model revealed an increasing activity of the pentose phosphate pathway and a decreasing tricarboxylic acid cycle activity with increasing dilution rates, indicative of the increased NADPH and precursor demand for anabolic purposes at the expense of ATP formation through catabolic activities. Thus, increasing growth rates first result in a more energy-efficient use of the carbon substrate for biomass production, i.e. a lower portion of the carbon substrate is channelled into the respiratory, energy-generating pathway. At dilution rates above 0.4 h(-1), close to the wash-out point, respiration rates dropped sharply and accumulation of glucose and acetic acid was observed. Energy generation through acetate formation yields less ATP compared with complete oxidation of the sugar carbon substrate, but is the result of maximized energy generation under conditions of restrictions in the tricarboxylic acid cycle or in respiratory NADH turnover

  2. Reproducibility of oligonucleotide microarray transcriptome analyses - An interlaboratory comparison using chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piper, M.D.W.; Daran-Lapujade, P.; Bro, Christoffer

    2002-01-01

    . In each of the laboratories, three independent replicate cultures were grown aerobically as well as anaerobically. Although variations introduced by in vitro handling steps were small and unbiased, greater variation from replicate cultures underscored that, to obtain reliable information, experimental...... replication is essential. Under aerobic conditions, 86% of the most highly expressed yeast genes showed an average intra-laboratory coefficient of variation of 0.23. This is significantly lower than previously reported for shake-flask-culture transcriptome analyses and probably reflects the strict control...... that exhibited laboratory bias....

  3. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated rht-PA Processing in CHO Cells: Influence of Mild Hypothermia and Specific Growth Rates in Batch and Chemostat Cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Vergara

    Full Text Available Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells are the main host for producing recombinant proteins with human therapeutic applications mainly because of their capability to perform proper folding and glycosylation processes. In addition, mild hypothermia is one of the main strategies for maximising the productivity of these systems. However, little information is available on the effect of culture temperature on the folding and degradation processes of recombinant proteins that takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum.In order to evaluate the effect of the mild hypothermia on processing/endoplasmatic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD processes, batch cultures of CHO cells producing recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (rht-PA were carried out at two temperatures (37°C and 33°C and treated with specific inhibitors of glycosylation and ERAD I (Ubiquitin/Proteasome system or ERAD II (Autophagosoma/Lisosomal system pathways. The effect of mild hypothermia was analysed separately from its indirect effect on specific cell growth rate. To do this, chemostat cultures were carried out at the same incubation conditions as the batch cultures, controlling cell growth at high (0.017 h-1 and low (0.012 h-1 dilution rates. For a better understanding of the investigated phenomenon, cell behaviour was also analysed using principal component analysis (PCA.Results suggest that rht-PA is susceptible to degradation by both ERAD pathways studied, revealing that processing and/or ERAD processes are sensitive to temperature cultivation in batch culture. Moreover, by isolating the effect of culture temperature from the effect of cell growth rate verifyed by using chemostat cultures, we have found that processing and/or ERAD processes are more sensitive to reduction in specific growth rate than low temperature, and that temperature reduction may have a positive effect on protein processing. Interestingly, PCA indicated that the integrated performance displayed by CHO

  4. Transcriptome and proteome dynamics in chemostat culture reveal how Campylobacter jejuni modulates metabolism, stress responses and virulence factors upon changes in oxygen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guccione, Edward J; Kendall, John J; Hitchcock, Andrew; Garg, Nitanshu; White, Michael A; Mulholland, Francis; Poole, Robert K; Kelly, David J

    2017-10-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, the most frequent cause of food-borne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, is a microaerophile that has to survive high environmental oxygen tensions, adapt to oxygen limitation in the intestine and resist host oxidative attack. Here, oxygen-dependent changes in C. jejuni physiology were studied at constant growth rate using carbon (serine)-limited continuous chemostat cultures. We show that a perceived aerobiosis scale can be calibrated by the acetate excretion flux, which becomes zero when metabolism is fully aerobic (100% aerobiosis). Transcriptome changes in a downshift experiment from 150% to 40% aerobiosis revealed many novel oxygen-regulated genes and highlighted re-modelling of the electron transport chains. A label-free proteomic analysis showed that at 40% aerobiosis, many proteins involved in host colonisation (e.g., PorA, CadF, FlpA, CjkT) became more abundant. PorA abundance increased steeply below 100% aerobiosis. In contrast, several citric-acid cycle enzymes, the peptide transporter CstA, PEB1 aspartate/glutamate transporter, LutABC lactate dehydrogenase and PutA proline dehydrogenase became more abundant with increasing aerobiosis. We also observed a co-ordinated response of oxidative stress protection enzymes and Fe-S cluster biogenesis proteins above 100% aerobiosis. Our approaches reveal key virulence factors that respond to restricted oxygen availability and specific transporters and catabolic pathways activated with increasing aerobiosis. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Characterization of a three bacteria mixed culture in a chemostat: evaluation and application of a quantitative terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis for absolute and species specific cell enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Julia K; König, Brigitte; Reichl, Udo

    2007-03-01

    Growth dynamics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, and Staphylococcus aureus in a batch and chemostat, were investigated as a laboratory model system for persistent infections in cystic fibrosis. Most species-specific enumeration methods for mixed cultures are laborious or only qualitative, and therefore impede generation of quantitative data required for validation of mathematical models. Here, a quantitative T-RFLP method was evaluated and applied for specific and absolute cell number enumerations. The method was tested to be unbiased by quantitative sample composition and allowed reproducible enumerations of mixed cultures. For assay validation, samples of defined concentration containing one, two or three species were quantified. Logarithmically transformed absolute cell numbers of single-species dilutions were linear within a lower working range of 10(4)-10(6) cfu/mL (species-dependent) and an upper working range of 10(10) cfu/mL. Quantifications of single species (10(6)-10(10) cfu/mL) spiked with one or two other species agreed well with single species controls. Differences between slopes of first order linear regression of spiked and pure dilution series were insignificant. Coefficient of variation of defined mixed replicates was maximum 4.39%, of a three-species chemostat it was maximum 1.76%. T-RFLP monitoring of pure cultures in parallel shake flasks and of a three-species mixed chemostat gave very consistent results. Coexistence of at least two species after a time period equivalent to more than 33 volume exchanges was found. This result was not predicted from pure cultures clearly indicating the need for quantitative mixed culture experiments to better understand microbial growth dynamics and for mathematical model validation.

  6. Chemostat cultivation as a tool for studies on sugar transport in yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weusthuis, R.A.; Pronk, J.T.; Broek, van den P.J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Chemostat cultivation enables investigations into the effects of individual environmental parameters on sugar transport in yeasts. Various means are available to manipulate the specific rate of sugar uptake (q(s)) in sugar-limited chemostat cultures. A straightforward way to manipulate q, is

  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated rht-PA Processing in CHO Cells: Influence of Mild Hypothermia and Specific Growth Rates in Batch and Chemostat Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara, Mauricio; Berrios, Julio; Mart?nez, Irene; D?az-Barrera, Alvaro; Acevedo, Cristian; Reyes, Juan G.; Gonzalez, Ramon; Altamirano, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Background Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the main host for producing recombinant proteins with human therapeutic applications mainly because of their capability to perform proper folding and glycosylation processes. In addition, mild hypothermia is one of the main strategies for maximising the productivity of these systems. However, little information is available on the effect of culture temperature on the folding and degradation processes of recombinant proteins that takes place in ...

  8. Chemostat-based proteomic analysis of toluene-affected Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkers, R.J.M.; Jong, A.L. de; Hulst, A.G.; Baar, B.L.M. van; Bont, J.A.M. de; Wery, J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cellular response of the solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12 to toluene as the single effector. Proteomic analysis (two-dimensional difference-in-gel-electrophoresis) was used to assess the response of P. putida S12 cultured in chemostats. This approach

  9. Periodic solution for the stochastic chemostat with general response function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Jiang, Daqing

    2017-11-01

    This paper addresses a stochastic chemostat model with periodic dilution rate and general class of response functions. The general functional response is assumed to satisfy two classifications of conditions, and these assumptions on the functional response are relative weak that are valid for many forms of growth response. For the chemostat with periodic dilution rate, we derive the sufficient criteria for the existence of the stochastic nontrivial positive periodic solution, by utilizing Khasminskii's theory on periodic Markov process.

  10. Species Coexistence in Nitrifying Chemostats: A Model of Microbial Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Dumont

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, the two nitrifying functions (ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB or nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB of a nitrification reactor—operated continuously over 525 days with varying inputs—were assigned using a mathematical modeling approach together with the monitoring of bacterial phylotypes. Based on these theoretical identifications, we develop here a chemostat model that does not explicitly include only the resources’ dynamics (different forms of soluble nitrogen but also explicitly takes into account microbial inter- and intra-species interactions for the four dominant phylotypes detected in the chemostat. A comparison of the models obtained with and without interactions has shown that such interactions permit the coexistence of two competing ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and two competing nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in competition for ammonium and nitrite, respectively. These interactions are analyzed and discussed.

  11. Properties of the chemostat model with aggregated biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Rapaport , Alain

    2018-01-01

    International audience; We revisit the well-known chemostat model, considering that bacteria can be attached together in aggregates or flocs. We distinguish explicitly free and attached compartments in the model and give sufficient conditions for coexistence of these two forms. We then study the case of fast attachment and detachment and shows how it is related to density-dependent growth functions. Finally, we give some insights concerning the cases of multi-specific flocs and different remo...

  12. Degeneration of penicillin production in ethanol-limited chemostat cultivations of Penicillium chrysogenum: A systems biology approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daran Jean-Marc

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In microbial production of non-catabolic products such as antibiotics a loss of production capacity upon long-term cultivation (for example chemostat, a phenomenon called strain degeneration, is often observed. In this study a systems biology approach, monitoring changes from gene to produced flux, was used to study degeneration of penicillin production in a high producing Penicillium chrysogenum strain during prolonged ethanol-limited chemostat cultivations. Results During these cultivations, the biomass specific penicillin production rate decreased more than 10-fold in less than 22 generations. No evidence was obtained for a decrease of the copy number of the penicillin gene cluster, nor a significant down regulation of the expression of the penicillin biosynthesis genes. However, a strong down regulation of the biosynthesis pathway of cysteine, one of the precursors of penicillin, was observed. Furthermore the protein levels of the penicillin pathway enzymes L-α-(δ-aminoadipyl-L-α-cystenyl-D-α-valine synthetase (ACVS and isopenicillin-N synthase (IPNS, decreased significantly. Re-cultivation of fully degenerated cells in unlimited batch culture and subsequent C-limited chemostats did only result in a slight recovery of penicillin production. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the observed degeneration is attributed to a significant decrease of the levels of the first two enzymes of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway, ACVS and IPNS. This decrease is not caused by genetic instability of the penicillin amplicon, neither by down regulation of the penicillin biosynthesis pathway. Furthermore no indications were obtained for degradation of these enzymes as a result of autophagy. Possible causes for the decreased enzyme levels could be a decrease of the translation efficiency of ACVS and IPNS during degeneration, or the presence of a culture variant impaired in the biosynthesis of functional proteins of these enzymes

  13. Production of fungal alpha-amylase by Saccharomyces kluyveri in glucose-limited cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kasper; Sharif, M.Z.; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    and S. cerevisiae were transformed with the same plasmid, which led to secretion of active alpha-amylase in both cases. The S. cerevisiae 2 mu plasmid was found to be stable in S. kluyveri as evaluated by a constant alpha-amylase productivity in a continuous cultivation for more than 40 generations. S......Heterologous protein production by the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri was investigated under aerobic glucose-limited conditions. alpha-Amylase from Aspergillus oryzae was used as model protein and the gene was expressed from a S. cerevisiae 2 mu plasmid. For comparison, strains of both S. kluyveri....... kluyveri and S. cerevisiae secreted alpha-amylase with similar yields during continuous cultivations at dilution rates of 0.1 and 0.2 h(-1) (4.8-5.7 mg (g dry weight)(-1)). At a dilution rate of 0.3 h(-1) the metabolism of S. kluyveri was fully respiratory, whereas S. cerevisiae produced significant...

  14. Production of fungal alpha-amylase by Saccharomyces kluyveri in glucose-limited cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kasper; Sharif, M.Z.; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    Heterologous protein production by the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri was investigated under aerobic glucose-limited conditions. alpha-Amylase from Aspergillus oryzae was used as model protein and the gene was expressed from a S. cerevisiae 2 mu plasmid. For comparison, strains of both S. kluyveri...... and S. cerevisiae were transformed with the same plasmid, which led to secretion of active alpha-amylase in both cases. The S. cerevisiae 2 mu plasmid was found to be stable in S. kluyveri as evaluated by a constant alpha-amylase productivity in a continuous cultivation for more than 40 generations. S....... kluyveri and S. cerevisiae secreted alpha-amylase with similar yields during continuous cultivations at dilution rates of 0.1 and 0.2 h(-1) (4.8-5.7 mg (g dry weight)(-1)). At a dilution rate of 0.3 h(-1) the metabolism of S. kluyveri was fully respiratory, whereas S. cerevisiae produced significant...

  15. Yeast biomass production: a new approach in glucose-limited feeding strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Durão Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to implement experimentally a simple glucose-limited feeding strategy for yeast biomass production in a bubble column reactor based on a spreadsheet simulator suitable for industrial application. In biomass production process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, one of the constraints is the strong tendency of these species to metabolize sugars anaerobically due to catabolite repression, leading to low values of biomass yield on substrate. The usual strategy to control this metabolic tendency is the use of a fed-batch process in which where the sugar source is fed incrementally and total sugar concentration in broth is maintained below a determined value. The simulator presented in this work was developed to control molasses feeding on the basis of a simple theoretical model in which has taken into account the nutritional growth needs of yeast cell and two input data: the theoretical specific growth rate and initial cell biomass. In experimental assay, a commercial baker's yeast strain and molasses as sugar source were used. Experimental results showed an overall biomass yield on substrate of 0.33, a biomass increase of 6.4 fold and a specific growth rate of 0.165 h-1 in contrast to the predicted value of 0.180 h-1 in the second stage simulation.

  16. A defined, glucose-limited mineral medium for the cultivation of Listeria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneebeli, Rudolf; Egli, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Members of the genus Listeria are fastidious bacteria with respect to their nutritional requirements, and several minimal media described in the literature fail to support growth of all Listeria spp. Furthermore, strict limitation by a single nutrient, e.g., the carbon source, has not been demonstrated for any of the published minimal media. This is an important prerequisite for defined studies of growth and physiology, including "omics." Based on a theoretical analysis of previously published mineral media for Listeria, an improved, well-balanced growth medium was designed. It supports the growth, not only of all tested Listeria monocytogenes strains, but of all other Listeria species, with the exception of L. ivanovii. The growth performance of L. monocytogenes strain Scott A was tested in the newly designed medium; glucose served as the only carbon and energy source for growth, whereas neither the supplied amino acids nor the buffering and complexing components (MOPS [morpholinepropanesulfonic acid] and EDTA) supported growth. Omission of amino acids, trace elements, or vitamins, alone or in combination, resulted in considerably reduced biomass yields. Furthermore, we monitored the specific growth rates of various Listeria strains cultivated in the designed mineral medium and compared them to growth in complex medium (brain heart infusion broth [BHI]). The novel mineral medium was optimized for the commonly used strain L. monocytogenes Scott A to achieve optimum cell yields and maximum specific growth rates. This mineral medium is the first published synthetic medium for Listeria that has been shown to be strictly carbon (glucose) limited.

  17. Modeling lipid accumulation in oleaginous fungi in chemostat cultures: I. Development and validation of a chemostat model for Umbelopsis isabellina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwse, P.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2011-01-01

    Lipid-accumulating fungi may be able to produce biodiesel precursors from agricultural wastes. As a first step in understanding and evaluating their potential, a mathematical model was developed to describe growth, lipid accumulation and substrate consumption of the oleaginous fungus Umbelopsis

  18. Tracing Aquatic Priming Effect During Microbial Decomposition of Terrestrial Dissolved Organic Carbon in Chemostat Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morling, Karoline; Raeke, Julia; Kamjunke, Norbert; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Tittel, Jörg

    2017-10-01

    Microbial decomposition of terrestrial carbon may be enhanced by the addition of easily decomposable compounds, a phenomenon referred to as priming effect. We investigated the microbial decomposition of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in one-stage and two-stage flow-through cultures (chemostats) in the absence and presence of growing phytoplankton as phytoplankton-derived organic matter might facilitate the mineralization of more refractory terrestrial compounds. Peat water and soil leachate were used as terrestrial substrates, and only slight DOC decomposition was observed in the absence of phytoplankton for both substrates. A priming effect was revealed via 14 C data. Priming was more pronounced for the peat water substrate than for the soil leachate. The total DOC concentrations increased for both substrates in the presence of phytoplankton due to exudation and cell lysis. Samples from the soil leachate experiments were analyzed using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Predominantly, the same saturated, aliphatic molecules with H/C ratios >1.5 were completely decomposed in the absence and in the presence of phytoplankton. The decomposition of more stable molecules differed in their intensity. Oxidized and unsaturated molecules with H/C ratios 0.4 were more strongly decomposed in phytoplankton presence (i.e., under priming). We conclude that an aquatic priming effect is not easily detectable via net concentration changes alone, and that qualitative investigations of the DOC processed by bacterial decomposition are necessary to detect aquatic priming.

  19. Development of Antibiotic Resistance during Simulated Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Chemostats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanfang; Hodiamont, Caspar J; van Hest, Reinier M; Brul, Stanley; Schultsz, Constance; Ter Kuile, Benno H

    2016-01-01

    During treatment of infections with antibiotics in critically ill patients in the intensive care resistance often develops. This study aims to establish whether under those conditions this resistance can develop de novo or that genetic exchange between bacteria is by necessity involved. Chemostat cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were exposed to treatment regimes with ceftazidime and meropenem that simulated conditions expected in patient plasma. Development of antibiotic resistance was monitored and mutations in resistance genes were searched for by sequencing PCR products. Even at the highest concentrations that can be expected in patients, sufficient bacteria survived in clumps of filamentous cells to recover and grow out after 3 to 5 days. At the end of a 7 days simulated treatment, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) had increased by a factor between 10 and 10,000 depending on the antibiotic and the treatment protocol. The fitness costs of resistance were minimal. In the resistant strains, only three mutations were observed in genes associated with beta-lactam resistance. The development of resistance often observed during patient treatment can be explained by de novo acquisition of resistance and genetic exchange of resistance genes is not by necessity involved. As far as conclusions based on an in vitro study using P. aeruginosa and only two antibiotics can be generalized, it seems that development of resistance can be minimized by treating with antibiotics in the highest concentration the patient can endure for the shortest time needed to eliminate the infection.

  20. Steady state characteristics of acclimated hydrogenotrophic methanogens on inorganic substrate in continuous chemostat reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Olga Y; Kitamura, Y; Intabon, K; Satake, T

    2008-09-01

    A Monod model has been used to describe the steady state characteristics of the acclimated mesophilic hydrogenotrophic methanogens in experimental chemostat reactors. The bacteria were fed with mineral salts and specific trace metals and a H(2)/CO(2) supply was used as a single limited substrate. Under steady state conditions, the growth yield (Y(CH4)) reached 11.66 g cells per mmol of H(2)/CO(2) consumed. The daily cells generation average was 5.67 x 10(11), 5.25 x 10(11), 4.2 x 10(11) and 2.1 x 10(11) cells/l-culture for the dilutions 0.071/d, 0.083/d, 0.1/d and 0.125/d, respectively. The maximum specific growth rate (mu(max)) and the Monod half-saturation coefficient (K(S)) were 0.15/d and 0.82 g/L, respectively. Using these results, the reactor performance was simulated. During the steady state, the simulation predicts the dependence of the H(2)/CO(2) concentration (S) and the cell concentration (X) on the dilution rate. The model fitted the experimental data well and was able to yield a maximum methanogenic activity of 0.24 L CH(4)/g VSS.d. The dilution rate was estimated to be 0.1/d. At the dilution rate of 0.14/d, the exponential cells washout was achieved.

  1. A Computational Study of Amensalistic Control of Listeria monocytogenes by Lactococcus lactis under Nutrient Rich Conditions in a Chemostat Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Khassehkhan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We study a previously introduced mathematical model of amensalistic control of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes by the generally regarded as safe lactic acid bacteria Lactococcus lactis in a chemostat setting under nutrient rich growth conditions. The control agent produces lactic acids and thus affects pH in the environment such that it becomes detrimental to the pathogen while it is much more tolerant to these self-inflicted environmental changes itself. The mathematical model consists of five nonlinear ordinary differential equations for both bacterial species, the concentration of lactic acids, the pH and malate. The model is algebraically too involved to allow a comprehensive, rigorous qualitative analysis. Therefore, we conduct a computational study. Our results imply that depending on the growth characteristics of the medium in which the bacteria are cultured, the pathogen can survive in an intermediate flow regime but will be eradicated for slower flow rates and washed out for higher flow rates.

  2. Combinatorial effects of environmental parameters on transcriptional regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A quantitative analysis of a compendium of chemostat-based transcriptome data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Winde Johannes H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microorganisms adapt their transcriptome by integrating multiple chemical and physical signals from their environment. Shake-flask cultivation does not allow precise manipulation of individual culture parameters and therefore precludes a quantitative analysis of the (combinatorial influence of these parameters on transcriptional regulation. Steady-state chemostat cultures, which do enable accurate control, measurement and manipulation of individual cultivation parameters (e.g. specific growth rate, temperature, identity of the growth-limiting nutrient appear to provide a promising experimental platform for such a combinatorial analysis. Results A microarray compendium of 170 steady-state chemostat cultures of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is presented and analyzed. The 170 microarrays encompass 55 unique conditions, which can be characterized by the combined settings of 10 different cultivation parameters. By applying a regression model to assess the impact of (combinations of cultivation parameters on the transcriptome, most S. cerevisiae genes were shown to be influenced by multiple cultivation parameters, and in many cases by combinatorial effects of cultivation parameters. The inclusion of these combinatorial effects in the regression model led to higher explained variance of the gene expression patterns and resulted in higher function enrichment in subsequent analysis. We further demonstrate the usefulness of the compendium and regression analysis for interpretation of shake-flask-based transcriptome studies and for guiding functional analysis of (uncharacterized genes and pathways. Conclusion Modeling the combinatorial effects of environmental parameters on the transcriptome is crucial for understanding transcriptional regulation. Chemostat cultivation offers a powerful tool for such an approach.

  3. Differential proteomic analysis highlights metabolic strategies associated with balhimycin production in Amycolatopsis balhimycina chemostat cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallo, Giuseppe; Alduina, Rosa; Renzone, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Background Proteomics was recently used to reveal enzymes whose expression is associated with the production of the glycopeptide antibiotic balhimycin in Amycolatopsis balhimycina batch cultivations. Combining chemostat fermentation technology, where cells proliferate with constant parameters....../l) concentrations and the other one with high Pi (1.8 mM) and limiting (6 g/l; LG) glucose concentrations, were developed to promote and repress antibiotic production, respectively, in A. balhimycina chemostat cultivations. Applying the same dilution rate (0.03 h-1), both LG and LP chemostat cultivations showed...... a stable steady-state where biomass production yield coefficients, calculated on glucose consumption, were 0.38 ± 0.02 and 0.33 ± 0.02 g/g (biomass dry weight/glucose), respectively. Notably, balhimycin was detected only in LP, where quantitative RT-PCR revealed upregulation of selected bal genes, devoted...

  4. How to determine control of growth rate in a chemostat. Using metabolic control analysis to resolve the paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoep, Jacky L.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Groeneveld, Philip

    1994-01-01

    how, paradoxically, one can determine control of growth rate, of growth yield and of other fluxes in a chemostat. We develop metabolic control analysis for the chemostat. this analysis does not depend on the particular way in which specific growth rate varies with the concentration of the growth...

  5. Threshold Dynamics of a Stochastic Chemostat Model with Two Nutrients and One Microorganism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new stochastic chemostat model with two substitutable nutrients and one microorganism is proposed and investigated. Firstly, for the corresponding deterministic model, the threshold for extinction and permanence of the microorganism is obtained by analyzing the stability of the equilibria. Then, for the stochastic model, the threshold of the stochastic chemostat for extinction and permanence of the microorganism is explored. Difference of the threshold of the deterministic model and the stochastic model shows that a large stochastic disturbance can affect the persistence of the microorganism and is harmful to the cultivation of the microorganism. To illustrate this phenomenon, we give some computer simulations with different intensity of stochastic noise disturbance.

  6. Algal defenses, population stability and the risk of herbivore extinctions: A chemostat model and experiment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    v.d. Stap, I.; Vos, M.; Kooi, B.W.; Mulling, B.T.; van Donk, E..; Mooij, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of inducible defenses and constitutive defenses on population dynamics were investigated in a freshwater plankton system with rotifers as predators and different algal strains as prey. We made predictions for these systems using a chemostat predator-prey model and focused on population

  7. Cross-site comparisons of concentration-discharge relationships reveal climate-driven chemostatic set points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsey, S.; Kirchner, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Streamflow solute concentrations often vary predictably with flows, providing insight into processes controlling solute generation and export. Previous work by the authors showed that log-transformed concentration-discharge relationships of weathering-derived solutes in 59 headwater catchments had relatively low slopes, implying that these watersheds behaved almost like chemostats. That is, their rates of solute production and/or mobilization were nearly proportional to water fluxes, on both event and inter-annual time scales. Here we re-examine these findings using data from roughly 1000 catchments, ranging from ˜10 to >1,000,000 sq. km in drainage area, and spanning a wide range of lithologic and climatic settings.Concentration-discharge relationships among this much larger set of much larger catchments are broadly consistent with the chemostatic behavior described above. However, site-to-site variations in mean concentrations among these catchments are negatively correlated with long-term average precipitation and discharge, suggesting dilution of stream concentrations under long-term leaching of the critical zone. Thus, on event and inter-annual time scales, stream solute concentrations are chemostatically buffered by groundwater storage and fast chemical reactions (such as ion exchange), but on much longer time scales, the catchment's chemostatic "set point" is determined by climatically driven critical zone evolution. We present examples illustrating short-term and long-term controls on water quality consistent with variations in weather and climate, and discuss their implications.

  8. Transcriptome-based characterization of interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in lactose-grown chemostat cocultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Filipa; Sieuwerts, Sander; de Hulster, Erik; Almering, Marinka J H; Luttik, Marijke A H; Pronk, Jack T; Smid, Eddy J; Bron, Peter A; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2013-10-01

    Mixed populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and lactic acid bacteria occur in many dairy, food, and beverage fermentations, but knowledge about their interactions is incomplete. In the present study, interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, two microorganisms that co-occur in kefir fermentations, were studied during anaerobic growth on lactose. By combining physiological and transcriptome analysis of the two strains in the cocultures, five mechanisms of interaction were identified. (i) Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus hydrolyzes lactose, which cannot be metabolized by S. cerevisiae, to galactose and glucose. Subsequently, galactose, which cannot be metabolized by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, is excreted and provides a carbon source for yeast. (ii) In pure cultures, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus grows only in the presence of increased CO2 concentrations. In anaerobic mixed cultures, the yeast provides this CO2 via alcoholic fermentation. (iii) Analysis of amino acid consumption from the defined medium indicated that S. cerevisiae supplied alanine to the bacterium. (iv) A mild but significant low-iron response in the yeast transcriptome, identified by DNA microarray analysis, was consistent with the chelation of iron by the lactate produced by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. (v) Transcriptome analysis of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in mixed cultures showed an overrepresentation of transcripts involved in lipid metabolism, suggesting either a competition of the two microorganisms for fatty acids or a response to the ethanol produced by S. cerevisiae. This study demonstrates that chemostat-based transcriptome analysis is a powerful tool to investigate microbial interactions in mixed populations.

  9. Effect of delayed response in growth on the dynamics of a chemostat model with impulsive input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Jianjun; Yang Xiaosong; Chen Lansun; Cai Shaohong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a chemostat model with delayed response in growth and impulsive perturbations on the substrate is considered. Using the discrete dynamical system determined by the stroboscopic map, we obtain a microorganism-extinction periodic solution, further, the globally attractive condition of the microorganism-extinction periodic solution is obtained. By the use of the theory on delay functional and impulsive differential equation, we also obtain the permanent condition of the investigated system. Our results indicate that the discrete time delay has influence to the dynamics behaviors of the investigated system, and provide tactical basis for the experimenters to control the outcome of the chemostat. Furthermore, numerical analysis is inserted to illuminate the dynamics of the system affected by the discrete time delay.

  10. A stochastic chemostat model with an inhibitor and noise independent of population sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shulin; Zhang, Xiaolu

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a stochastic chemostat model with an inhibitor is considered, here the inhibitor is input from an external source and two organisms in chemostat compete for a nutrient. Firstly, we show that the system has a unique global positive solution. Secondly, by constructing some suitable Lyapunov functions, we investigate that the average in time of the second moment of the solutions of the stochastic model is bounded for a relatively small noise. That is, the asymptotic behaviors of the stochastic system around the equilibrium points of the deterministic system are studied. However, the sufficient large noise can make the microorganisms become extinct with probability one, although the solutions to the original deterministic model may be persistent. Finally, the obtained analytical results are illustrated by computer simulations.

  11. Asymptotic Behavior of a Chemostat Model with Stochastic Perturbation on the Dilution Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqun Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a stochastic simple chemostat model in which the dilution rate was influenced by white noise. The long time behavior of the system is studied. Mainly, we show how the solution spirals around the washout equilibrium and the positive equilibrium of deterministic system under different conditions. Furthermore, the sufficient conditions for persistence in the mean of the stochastic system and washout of the microorganism are obtained. Numerical simulations are carried out to support our results.

  12. Cellular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at near-zero growth rates: transcriptome analysis of anaerobic retentostat cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boender, Léonie G M; van Maris, Antonius J A; de Hulster, Erik A F; Almering, Marinka J H; van der Klei, Ida J; Veenhuis, Marten; de Winde, Johannes H; Pronk, Jack T; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2011-12-01

    Extremely low specific growth rates (below 0.01 h(-1) ) represent a largely unexplored area of microbial physiology. In this study, anaerobic, glucose-limited retentostats were used to analyse physiological and genome-wide transcriptional responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cultivation at near-zero specific growth rates. While quiescence is typically investigated as a result of carbon starvation, cells in retentostat are fed by small, but continuous carbon and energy supply. Yeast cells cultivated near-zero specific growth rates, while metabolically active, exhibited characteristics previously associated with quiescence, including accumulation of storage polymers and an increased expression of genes involved in exit from the cell cycle into G(0) . Unexpectedly, analysis of transcriptome data from retentostat and chemostat cultures showed, as specific growth rate was decreased, that quiescence-related transcriptional responses were already set in at specific growth rates above 0.025 h(-1) . These observations stress the need for systematic dissection of physiological responses to slow growth, quiescence, ageing and starvation and indicate that controlled cultivation systems such as retentostats can contribute to this goal. Furthermore, cells in retentostat do not (or hardly) divide while remaining metabolically active, which emulates the physiological status of metazoan post-mitotic cells. We propose retentostat as a powerful cultivation tool to investigate chronological ageing-related processes. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tailor-made PAT platform for safe syngas fermentations in batch, fed-batch and chemostat mode with Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmann, Stephanie; Follonier, Stéphanie; Egger, Daniel; Hebel, Dirk; Panke, Sven; Zinn, Manfred

    2017-11-01

    Recently, syngas has gained significant interest as renewable and sustainable feedstock, in particular for the biotechnological production of poly([R]-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). PHB is a biodegradable, biocompatible polyester produced by some bacteria growing on the principal component of syngas, CO. However, working with syngas is challenging because of the CO toxicity and the explosion danger of H 2 , another main component of syngas. In addition, the bioprocess control needs specific monitoring tools and analytical methods that differ from standard fermentations. Here, we present a syngas fermentation platform with a focus on safety installations and process analytical technology (PAT) that serves as a basis to assess the physiology of the PHB-producing bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. The platform includes (i) off-gas analysis with an online quadrupole mass spectrometer to measure CO consumption and production rates of H 2 and CO 2 , (ii) an at-line flow cytometer to determine the total cell count and the intracellular PHB content and (iii) different online sensors, notably a redox sensor that is important to confirm that the culture conditions are suitable for the CO metabolization of R. rubrum. Furthermore, we present as first applications of the platform a fed-batch and a chemostat process with R. rubrum for PHB production from syngas. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Transcriptome-Based Characterization of Interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in Lactose-Grown Chemostat Cocultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Filipa; Sieuwerts, Sander; de Hulster, Erik; Almering, Marinka J. H.; Luttik, Marijke A. H.; Pronk, Jack T.; Smid, Eddy J.; Bron, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and lactic acid bacteria occur in many dairy, food, and beverage fermentations, but knowledge about their interactions is incomplete. In the present study, interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, two microorganisms that co-occur in kefir fermentations, were studied during anaerobic growth on lactose. By combining physiological and transcriptome analysis of the two strains in the cocultures, five mechanisms of interaction were identified. (i) Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus hydrolyzes lactose, which cannot be metabolized by S. cerevisiae, to galactose and glucose. Subsequently, galactose, which cannot be metabolized by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, is excreted and provides a carbon source for yeast. (ii) In pure cultures, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus grows only in the presence of increased CO2 concentrations. In anaerobic mixed cultures, the yeast provides this CO2 via alcoholic fermentation. (iii) Analysis of amino acid consumption from the defined medium indicated that S. cerevisiae supplied alanine to the bacterium. (iv) A mild but significant low-iron response in the yeast transcriptome, identified by DNA microarray analysis, was consistent with the chelation of iron by the lactate produced by Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. (v) Transcriptome analysis of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in mixed cultures showed an overrepresentation of transcripts involved in lipid metabolism, suggesting either a competition of the two microorganisms for fatty acids or a response to the ethanol produced by S. cerevisiae. This study demonstrates that chemostat-based transcriptome analysis is a powerful tool to investigate microbial interactions in mixed populations. PMID:23872557

  15. Mechanisms for chemostatic behavior in catchments: implications for CO2 consumption by mineral weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, David W.; Mast, M. Alisa

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of weathering products in streams often show relatively little variation compared to changes in discharge, both at event and annual scales. In this study, several hypothesized mechanisms for this “chemostatic behavior” were evaluated, and the potential for those mechanisms to influence relations between climate, weathering fluxes, and CO2 consumption via mineral weathering was assessed. Data from Loch Vale, an alpine catchment in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, indicates that cation exchange and seasonal precipitation and dissolution of amorphous or poorly crystalline aluminosilicates are important processes that help regulate solute concentrations in the stream; however, those processes have no direct effect on CO2 consumption in catchments. Hydrograph separation analyses indicate that old water stored in the subsurface over the winter accounts for about one-quarter of annual streamflow, and almost one-half of annual fluxes of Na and SiO2 in the stream; thus, flushing of old water by new water (snowmelt) is an important component of chemostatic behavior. Hydrologic flushing of subsurface materials further induces chemostatic behavior by reducing mineral saturation indices and increasing reactive mineral surface area, which stimulate mineral weathering rates. CO2 consumption by carbonic acid mediated mineral weathering was quantified using mass-balance calculations; results indicated that silicate mineral weathering was responsible for approximately two-thirds of annual CO2 consumption, and carbonate weathering was responsible for the remaining one-third. CO2 consumption was strongly dependent on annual precipitation and temperature; these relations were captured in a simple statistical model that accounted for 71% of the annual variation in CO2 consumption via mineral weathering in Loch Vale.

  16. Break-even concentration and periodic behavior of a stochastic chemostat model with seasonal fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dianli; Yuan, Sanling

    2017-05-01

    This paper formulates a single-species stochastic chemostat model with periodic coefficients due to seasonal fluctuation. When the noise is small, a modified break-even concentration is identified, whose value below or above the averaged concentration of the input nutrient can completely determine whether the microorganism will persist or not, where an accuracy decay rate is given for extinction. In case of persistence, existence of the random positive periodic solution is proved for the considered model. Further, the random periodic solution is shown to be globally attractive under some mild extra condition. The periodic dynamics obtained in this paper are supported by computer simulations.

  17. Genomic resequencing combined with quantitative proteomic analyses elucidate the survival mechanisms of Lactobacillus plantarum P-8 in a long-term glucose-limited experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiuwen; Cao, Chenxia; Hui, Wenyan; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Heping; Zhang, Wenyi

    2018-03-30

    Lactobacillus plantarum, commonly isolated from plant material, is widely used to produce various types of fermented foods. However, nutrient-limiting conditions are often encountered during industrial applications. The present study aimed to investigate the response of L. plantarum P-8 to glucose-limited conditions in a long-term experiment. Genotypic and proteomic changes in L. plantarum P-8 were monitored over 3 years in glucose-limited and glucose-normal media using whole-genome resequencing and tandem mass tag-based quantitative proteomic analysis. Results showed that L. plantarum employed numerous survival mechanisms, including alteration of the cell envelope, activation of the PTS system, accumulation and consumption of amino acids, increase in the metabolism of carbohydrates (via glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and pyruvate metabolism), and increase in the production of ATP in response to glucose starvation. This study demonstrates the feasibility of experimental evolution of L. plantarum P-8, while whole-genome resequencing of adapted isolates provided clues toward bacterial functions involved and a deeper mechanistic understanding of the adaptive response of L. plantarum to glucose-limited conditions. We have conducted a 3-year experiment monitoring genotypic and proteomic changes in Lactobacillus plantarum P-8 in glucose-limited and glucose-normal media. Whole-genome resequencing and tandem mass tag-based quantitative proteomics were performed for analyzing genomic evolution of L. plantarum P-8 in glucose-limited and glucose-normal conditions. In addition, differential expressed proteins in all generations between these two conditions were identified and functions of these proteins specific to L group were predicted. L. plantarum employed numerous survival mechanisms, including alteration of the cell envelope, activation of the PTS system, accumulation and consumption of amino acids, increase in the metabolism of carbohydrates (glycolysis, citric acid

  18. Chemostat modeling of Escherichia coli persistence in conventionalized mono-associated and streptomycin-treated mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rang, C.; Midtvedt, T.; Molin, Søren

    2001-01-01

    We have previously shown that Escherichia coli BJ4 has similar doubling time in mice that are mono-associated (having only the inoculated E. coli BJ4) or streptomycin-treated (having mainly gram-positive bacteria plus the inoculated E. coli BJ4). We also showed that when the mice were conventiona......We have previously shown that Escherichia coli BJ4 has similar doubling time in mice that are mono-associated (having only the inoculated E. coli BJ4) or streptomycin-treated (having mainly gram-positive bacteria plus the inoculated E. coli BJ4). We also showed that when the mice were...... the decrease in colony counts, we analyzed our previous results by a chemostat model. The analysis shows that the increasing doubling time alone is sufficient to explain the decrease in colony counts in mono- associated mice, but not in the streptomycin-treated mice. The observed decreasing rate in colony...... counts in streptomycin- treated mice is slower than predicted. Furthermore, whereas the model predicted a decrease to extinction in both mice, the E. coli persist at a frequency 10-80 times higher in streptomycin- treated mice than in mono-associated mice. Thus, while a chemostat model is able to explain...

  19. Degeneration of penicillin production in ethanol-limited chemostat cultivations of Penicillium chrysogenum : A systems biology approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Rutger D.; Batista, Joana M.; Touw, Kai M.; Kiel, Jan A. K. W.; Zhao, Zheng; Veiga, Tania; Klaassen, Paul; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Daran, Jean-Marc; van Gulik, Walter M.; Heijnen, J.J.; Krikken, Arjen

    2011-01-01

    Background: In microbial production of non-catabolic products such as antibiotics a loss of production capacity upon long-term cultivation (for example chemostat), a phenomenon called strain degeneration, is often observed. In this study a systems biology approach, monitoring changes from gene to

  20. Glucoamylase production in batch, chemostat and fed-batch cultivations by an industrial strain of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Beyer, Michael; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The Aspergillus niger strain BO-1 was grown in batch, continuous (chemostat) and fed-batch cultivations in order to study the production of the extracellular enzyme glucoamylase under different growth conditions. In the pH range 2.5-6.0, the specific glucoamylase productivity and the specific...

  1. Evolutionary engineering in chemostat cultures for improved maltotriose fermentation kinetics in saccharomyces pastorianus lager brewing yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brickwedde, A.; van den Broek, M.A.; Geertman, Jan Maarten A.; Magalhães, Frederico; Kuijpers, Niels G.A.; Gibson, Brian; Pronk, J.T.; Daran, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    The lager brewing yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus, an interspecies hybrid of S. eubayanus and S. cerevisiae, ferments maltotriose, maltose, sucrose, glucose and fructose in wort to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Complete and timely conversion ("attenuation") of maltotriose by industrial S.

  2. Energetics of binary mixed culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioenergetic analysis of the growth of the binary mixed culture (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescence) on phenol chemostat culture was carried out. The data were checked for consistency using carbon and available electron balances. When more than the minimum number of variables are measured, ...

  3. Species coexistence under resource competition with intraspecific and interspecific direct competition in a chemostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yasuhisa; Miki, Takeshi

    2010-11-01

    Competition theory has developed separately for direct competition and for exploitative competition. However, the combined effects of the two types of competition on species coexistence remain unclear. To examine how intraspecific and interspecific direct competition contributes to the coexistence of species competing for a single resource, we constructed a chemostat-type resource competition model. With general functions for intraspecific and interspecific direct competition, we derived necessary and sufficient conditions (except for a critical case that rarely occurs in a biological sense) that determine the number of stably coexisting species. From these conditions, we found that the number of coexisting species is determined just by the invasibility of each species into subcommunities with a smaller number of species. In addition, using a combination of rigorous mathematical theory and a simple graphical method, we can demonstrate how the stronger intraspecific direct competition facilitates species invasion, leading to a larger number of coexisting species. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemostat modeling of Escherichia coli persistence in conventionalized mono-associated and streptomycin-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rang, C; Midtvedt, T; Molin, S; Chao, L

    2001-01-01

    We have previously shown that Escherichia coli BJ4 has similar doubling time in mice that are mono-associated (having only the inoculated E. coli BJ4) or streptomycin-treated (having mainly gram-positive bacteria plus the inoculated E. coli BJ4). We also showed that when the mice were conventionalized (fed cecum homogenate from conventional mice or ones with a complete microbial flora), the introduction of complete flora in both cases increased the in vivo doubling time, while decreasing the colony counts in fecal samples. To determine whether the increase in doubling time could explain the decrease in colony counts, we analyzed our previous results by a chemostat model. The analysis shows that the increasing doubling time alone is sufficient to explain the decrease in colony counts in mono-associated mice, but not in the streptomycin-treated mice. The observed decreasing rate in colony counts in streptomycin-treated mice is slower than predicted. Furthermore, whereas the model predicted a decrease to extinction in both mice, the E. coli persist at a frequency 10-80 times higher in streptomycin-treated mice than in mono-associated mice. Thus, while a chemostat model is able to explain some of the population dynamics of intestinal bacteria in mice, additional factors not included in the model are stabilizing the system. Because we find that E. coli declines more slowly and to a higher stabilization frequency in streptomycin-treated mice, which have a more diverse flora before conventionalization, we take these results to suggest that the persistence of E. coli populations is promoted by species diversity. We propose that a mechanism for the persistence may be the presence of new E. coli niches created by keystone species in the more diverse flora.

  5. Understanding watershed hydrogeochemistry: 2. Synchronized hydrological and geochemical processes drive stream chemostatic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Bao, Chen; Sullivan, Pamela L.; Brantley, Susan; Shi, Yuning; Duffy, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Why do solute concentrations in streams remain largely constant while discharge varies by orders of magnitude? We used a new hydrological land surface and reactive transport code, RT-Flux-PIHM, to understand this long-standing puzzle. We focus on the nonreactive chloride (Cl) and reactive magnesium (Mg) in the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO). Simulation results show that stream discharge comes from surface runoff (Qs), soil lateral flow (QL), and deeper groundwater (QG), with QL contributing >70%. In the summer, when high evapotranspiration dries up and disconnects most of the watershed from the stream, Cl is trapped along planar hillslopes. Successive rainfalls connect the watershed and mobilize trapped Cl, which counteracts dilution effects brought about by high water storage (Vw) and maintains chemostasis. Similarly, the synchronous response of clay dissolution rates (Mg source) to hydrological conditions, maintained largely by a relatively constant ratio between "wetted" mineral surface area Aw and Vw, controls Mg chemostatic behavior. Sensitivity analysis indicates that cation exchange plays a secondary role in determining chemostasis compared to clay dissolution, although it does store an order-of-magnitude more Mg on exchange sites than soil water. Model simulations indicate that dilution (concentration decrease with increasing discharge) occurs only when mass influxes from soil lateral flow are negligible (e.g., via having low clay surface area) so that stream discharge is dominated by relatively constant mass fluxes from deep groundwater that are unresponsive to surface hydrological conditions.

  6. Bioenergetic Consequences of Lactose Starvation for Continuously Cultured Streptococcus cremoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poolman, Bert; Smid, Eddy J.; Veldkamp, H.; Konings, Wil N.

    Streptococcus cremoris cells that had been grown in a chemostat were starved for lactose. The viability of the culture remained essentially constant in the first hours of starvation and subsequently declined logarithmically. The viability pattern during starvation varied with the previously imposed

  7. Formation of ethyl acetate by Kluyveromyces marxianus on whey during aerobic batch and chemostat cultivation at iron limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Förster, Sylvia; Stukert, Anton; Bley, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    The ability of Kluyveromyces marxianus to convert lactose into ethyl acetate offers a chance for an economic reuse of whey. Former experiments with K. marxianus DSM 5422 proved limitation of growth by iron (Fe) or copper as a precondition for significant ester synthesis. Several aerobic batch and chemostat cultivations were done with whey-borne media of a variable Fe content for exploring the effect of Fe on growth, the Fe content of biomass, and metabolite synthesis. At low Fe doses, Fe was the growth-limiting factor, the available Fe was completely absorbed by the yeasts, and the biomass formation linearly depended on the Fe dose governed by a minimum Fe content in the yeasts, x (Fe,min). At batch conditions, x (Fe,min) was 8.8 μg/g, while during chemostat cultivation at D = 0.15 h(-1), it was 23 μg/g. At high Fe doses, sugar was the growth-limiting factor, Fe was more or less absorbed, and the formed biomass became constant. Significant amounts of ethyl acetate were only formed at Fe limitation while high Fe doses suppressed ester formation. Analysis of formed metabolites such as glycerol, pyruvate, acetate, ethanol, ethyl acetate, isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, and malate during chemostat cultivation allowed some interpretation of the Fe-dependent mechanism of ester synthesis; formation of ethyl acetate from acetyl-SCoA and ethanol is obviously initiated by a diminished metabolic flux of acetyl-SCoA into the citrate cycle and by a limited oxidation of NADH in the respiratory chain since Fe is required for the function of aconitase, succinate dehydrogenase, and the electron-transferring proteins.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a novel ε-caprolactam-degrading microbe, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, from industrial wastewater by chemostat-enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajoo, Sasikumar; Ahn, Jung Oh; Lee, Hong Weon; Jung, Joon Ki

    2013-12-01

    For the isolation of a ε-caprolactam-degrading microbe from wastewaters of a factory producing caprolactam, we applied a chemostat-enrichment technique with a selective medium containing caprolactam as sole source of carbon and nitrogen. This allowed for the isolation of a novel caprolactam-degrading microbe, identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. The strain had a critical tolerance of 19 g caprolactam l(-1) in minimal medium, which is higher than any previously reported caprolactam-degrading microbe. A. calcoaceticus also decreased the caprolactam content in medium by 65 % within 72 h despite the high caprolactam content (10 g l(-1)). This study highlights the potential use of A. calcoaceticus strain for the bioremediation of recalcitrant synthetic polymers, such as caprolactam.

  9. Transcriptomic Profiling of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Response to Quinine Reveals a Glucose Limitation Response Attributable to Drug-Induced Inhibition of Glucose Uptake▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Sandra C.; Tenreiro, Sandra; Palma, Margarida; Becker, Jorg; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Quinine has been employed in the treatment of malaria for centuries and is still used against severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, its interactions with the parasite remain poorly understood and subject to debate. In this study, we used the Saccharomyces cerevisiae eukaryotic model to better understand quinine's mode of action and the mechanisms underlying the cell response to the drug. We obtained a transcriptomic profile of the yeast's early response to quinine, evidencing a marked activation of genes involved in the low-glucose response (e.g., CAT8, ADR1, MAL33, MTH1, and SNF3). We used a low inhibitory quinine concentration with no detectable effect on plasma membrane function, consistent with the absence of a general nutrient starvation response and suggesting that quinine-induced glucose limitation is a specific response. We have further shown that transport of [14C]glucose is inhibited by quinine, with kinetic data indicating competitive inhibition. Also, tested mutant strains deleted for genes encoding high- and low-affinity hexose transporters (HXT1 to HXT5, HXT8, and HXT10) exhibit resistance phenotypes, correlating with reduced levels of quinine accumulation in the mutants examined. These results suggest that the hexose transporters are facilitators of quinine uptake in S. cerevisiae, possibly through a competitive inhibition mechanism. Interestingly, P. falciparum is highly dependent on glucose uptake, which is mediated by the single-copy transporter PfHT1, a protein with high homology to yeast's hexose transporters. We propose that PfHT1 is an interesting candidate quinine target possibly involved in quinine import in P. falciparum, an uptake mechanism postulated in recent studies to occur through a still-unidentified importer(s). PMID:19805573

  10. Metabolic engineering of ?-oxidation in Penicillium chrysogenum for improved semi-synthetic cephalosporin biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veiga, T.; Gombert, A.K.; Landes, N.; Verhoeven, M.D.; Kiel, J.A.K.W.; Krikken, A.; Nijland, J.G.; Touw, H.; Luttik, M.A.H.; Van der Toorn, J.C.; Driessen, A.J.M.; Bovenberg, R.A.L.; Van den Berg, M.A.; Van der Klei, I.J.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial production of semi-synthetic cephalosporins by Penicillium chrysogenum requires supplementation of the growth media with the side-chain precursor adipic acid. In glucose-limited chemostat cultures of P. chrysogenum, up to 88% of the consumed adipic acid was not recovered in

  11. Metabolic engineering of beta-oxidation in Penicillium chrysogenum for improved semi-synthetic cephalosporin biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veiga, Tânia; Gombert, Andreas K; Landes, Nils; Verhoeven, Maarten D; Kiel, Jan A K W; Krikken, Arjen M; Nijland, Jeroen G; Touw, Hesselien; Luttik, Marijke A H; van der Toorn, John C; Driessen, Arnold J M; Bovenberg, Roel A L; van den Berg, Marco A; van der Klei, Ida J; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean-Marc

    Industrial production of semi-synthetic cephalosporins by Penicillium chrysogenum requires supplementation of the growth media with the side-chain precursor adipic acid. In glucose-limited chemostat cultures of P. chrysogenum, up to 88% of the consumed adipic acid was not recovered in

  12. Comparative study between chemostat and batch reactors to quantify membrane permeability changes on bacteria exposed to silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anaya, Nelson M.; Faghihzadeh, Fatemeh [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 1 Lippitt Rd., Bliss Hall 203, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States); Ganji, Nasim; Bothun, Geoff [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 16 Greenhouse Rd., Crawford Hall, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States); Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka, E-mail: craver@uri.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 1 Lippitt Rd., Bliss Hall 203, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Continuous and batch reactors were used to assess the effect of the exposure of casein-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on Escherichia coli (E. coli). Additionally, E. coli membrane extracts, membrane permeability and Langmuir film balance assays were used to determine integrity and changes in lipid composition in response to AgNPs exposure. Results showed that batch conditions were not appropriate for the tests due to the production of exopolymeric substances (EPS) during the growth phase. After 5 h of contact between AgNPs and the used growth media containing EPS, the nanoparticles increased in size from 86 nm to 282 nm reducing the stability and thus limiting cell-nanoparticle interactions. AgNPs reduced E. coli growth by 20% at 1 mg/L, in terms of Optical Density 670 (OD670), while no effect was detected at 15 mg/L. At 50 mg/L of AgNPs was not possible to perform the test due to aggregation and sedimentation of the nanoparticles. Membrane extract assays showed that at 1 mg/L AgNPs had a greater change in area (− 4.4cm{sup 2}) on bacteria compared to 15 mg/L (− 4.0cm{sup 2}). This area increment suggested that membrane disruption caused by AgNPs had a stabilizing/rigidifying effect where the cells responded by shifting their lipid composition to more unsaturated lipids to counteract membrane rigidification. In chemostats, the constant inflow of fresh media and aeration resulted in less AgNPs aggregation, thus increased the AgNPs-bacteria interactions, in comparison to batch conditions. AgNPs at 1 mg/L, 15 mg/L, and 50 mg/L inhibited the growth (OD670 reduction) by 0%, 11% and 16.3%, respectively. Membrane extracts exposed to 1 mg/L, 15 mg/L, and 50 mg/L of AgNPs required greater changes in area by − 0.5 cm{sup 2}, 2.7 cm{sup 2} and 3.6 cm{sup 2}, respectively, indicating that the bacterial membranes were disrupted and bacteria responded by synthesizing lipids that stabilize or strengthen membranes. This study showed that the chemostat is more

  13. Multi-stage Continuous Culture Fermentation of Glucose-Xylose Mixtures to Fuel Ethanol using Genetically Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-stage continuous (chemostat) culture fermentation (MCCF) with variable fermentor volumes was carried out to study utilizing glucose and xylose for ethanol production by means of mixed sugar fermentation (MSF). Variable fermentor volumes were used to enable enhanced sugar u...

  14. Cultural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur F. LaPage

    1971-01-01

    A critical look at outdoor recreation research and some underlying premises. The author focuses on the concept of culture as communication and how it influences our perception of problems and our search for solutions. Both outdoor recreation and science are viewed as subcultures that have their own bodies of mythology, making recreation problems more difficult to...

  15. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  16. Development and validation of a chemostat gut model to study both planktonic and biofilm modes of growth of Clostridium difficile and human microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace S Crowther

    Full Text Available The human gastrointestinal tract harbours a complex microbial community which exist in planktonic and sessile form. The degree to which composition and function of faecal and mucosal microbiota differ remains unclear. We describe the development and characterisation of an in vitro human gut model, which can be used to facilitate the formation and longitudinal analysis of mature mixed species biofilms. This enables the investigation of the role of biofilms in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI. A well established and validated human gut model of simulated CDI was adapted to incorporate glass rods that create a solid-gaseous-liquid interface for biofilm formation. The continuous chemostat model was inoculated with a pooled human faecal emulsion and controlled to mimic colonic conditions in vivo. Planktonic and sessile bacterial populations were enumerated for up to 46 days. Biofilm consistently formed macroscopic structures on all glass rods over extended periods of time, providing a framework to sample and analyse biofilm structures independently. Whilst variation in biofilm biomass is evident between rods, populations of sessile bacterial groups (log10 cfu/g of biofilm remain relatively consistent between rods at each sampling point. All bacterial groups enumerated within the planktonic communities were also present within biofilm structures. The planktonic mode of growth of C. difficile and gut microbiota closely reflected observations within the original gut model. However, distinct differences were observed in the behaviour of sessile and planktonic C. difficile populations, with C. difficile spores preferentially persisting within biofilm structures. The redesigned biofilm chemostat model has been validated for reproducible and consistent formation of mixed species intestinal biofilms. This model can be utilised for the analysis of sessile mixed species communities longitudinally, potentially providing information of the role of biofilms

  17. Development and validation of a chemostat gut model to study both planktonic and biofilm modes of growth of Clostridium difficile and human microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Grace S; Chilton, Caroline H; Todhunter, Sharie L; Nicholson, Scott; Freeman, Jane; Baines, Simon D; Wilcox, Mark H

    2014-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract harbours a complex microbial community which exist in planktonic and sessile form. The degree to which composition and function of faecal and mucosal microbiota differ remains unclear. We describe the development and characterisation of an in vitro human gut model, which can be used to facilitate the formation and longitudinal analysis of mature mixed species biofilms. This enables the investigation of the role of biofilms in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). A well established and validated human gut model of simulated CDI was adapted to incorporate glass rods that create a solid-gaseous-liquid interface for biofilm formation. The continuous chemostat model was inoculated with a pooled human faecal emulsion and controlled to mimic colonic conditions in vivo. Planktonic and sessile bacterial populations were enumerated for up to 46 days. Biofilm consistently formed macroscopic structures on all glass rods over extended periods of time, providing a framework to sample and analyse biofilm structures independently. Whilst variation in biofilm biomass is evident between rods, populations of sessile bacterial groups (log10 cfu/g of biofilm) remain relatively consistent between rods at each sampling point. All bacterial groups enumerated within the planktonic communities were also present within biofilm structures. The planktonic mode of growth of C. difficile and gut microbiota closely reflected observations within the original gut model. However, distinct differences were observed in the behaviour of sessile and planktonic C. difficile populations, with C. difficile spores preferentially persisting within biofilm structures. The redesigned biofilm chemostat model has been validated for reproducible and consistent formation of mixed species intestinal biofilms. This model can be utilised for the analysis of sessile mixed species communities longitudinally, potentially providing information of the role of biofilms in CDI.

  18. Structured model of bacterial growth and tests with activated sludge in a one-stage and two-stage chemostat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harder, A.

    1979-01-01

    A kinetic model for a growing culture of micro-organisms was developed that correlated the biochemical structure of cells with quantitative physiological behaviour. The three-compartment model was adequate for simulation of continuous, batch and transient experiments with activated sludge fed on

  19. Recoding of the stop codon UGA to glycine by a BD1-5/SN-2 bacterium and niche partitioning between Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria in a tidal sediment microbial community naturally selected in a laboratory chemostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanke, Anna [Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology; Hamann, Emmo [Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology; Sharma, Ritin [ORNL; Geelhoed, Jeanine [Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology; Hargesheimer, Theresa [Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology; Kraft, Beate [Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology; Meyer, Volker [Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology; Lenk, Sabine [Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology; Osmers, Harald [Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology; Wu, Rong [Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands; Makinwa, Kofi [Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Banfield, Jillian F. [University of California, Berkeley; Tegetmeyer, Halina [Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology; Strouss, Marc [University of Calgary, ALberta, Canada

    2014-01-01

    Sandy coastal sediments are global hot spots for microbial mineralization of organic matter and denitrification. These sediments are characterized by advective pore water flow, tidal cycling and an active and complex microbial community. Metagenomic sequencing of microbial communities sampled from such sediments showed that potential sulfuroxidizing Gammaproteobacteria and members of the enigmaticBD1-5/ SN-2 candidatephylumwereabundantinsitu (>10% and 2% respectively). By mimicking the dynamic oxic/anoxic environmental conditions of the sedimentin a laboratory chemostat, a simplified microbial community was selected from the more complex inoculum. Metagenomics, proteomics and fluorescenceinsituhybridization showed that this simplified community contained both a potential sulfuroxidizing Gamma proteobacteria (at 24 2% abundance) and a member of the BD1-5 / SN-2candidatephylum (at 7 6%abundance). Despite the abundant supply of organic substrates to the chemostat, proteomic analysis suggested that the selected gamma proteobacterium grew partially auto trophically and performed hydrogen/formate oxidation. The enrichment of a member of the BD1-5/SN-2candidatephylum enabled, for the first time, direct microscopic observation by fluorescent insitu hybridization and the experimental validation of the previously predicted translation of the stop codon UGA into glycine.

  20. Recoding of the stop codon UGA to glycine by a BD1-5/SN-2 bacterium and niche partitioning between Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria in a tidal sediment microbial community naturally selected in a laboratory chemostat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eHanke

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sandy coastal sediments are global hotspots for microbial mineralization of organic matter and denitrification. These sediments are characterized by advective porewater flow, tidal cycling and an active and complex microbial community. Metagenomic sequencing of microbial communities sampled from such sediments showed that potential sulfur oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria and members of the enigmatic BD1-5/SN-2 candidate phylum were abundant in situ (>10% and ~2% respectively. By mimicking the dynamic oxic/anoxic environmental conditions of the sediment in a laboratory chemostat, a simplified microbial community was selected from the more complex inoculum. Metagenomics, proteomics and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that this simplified community contained both a potential sulfur oxidizing Gammaproteobacterium (at 24±2% abundance and a member of the BD1-5/SN-2 candidate phylum (at 7±6% abundance. Despite the abundant supply of organic substrates to the chemostat, proteomic analysis suggested that the selected gammaproteobacterium grew partially autotrophically and performed hydrogen/formate oxidation. The enrichment of a member of the BD1-5/SN-2 candidate phylum enabled, for the first time, direct microscopic observation by fluorescent in situ hybridization and the experimental validation of the previously predicted translation of the stop codon UGA into glycine.

  1. Lipase production by recombinant strains of Aspergillus niger expressing a lipase-encoding gene from Thermomyces lanuginosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathumpai, Wai; Flitter, Simon J; McIntyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-11-01

    Two recombinant strains of Aspergillus niger (NW 297-14 and NW297-24) producing a heterologous lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus were constructed. The heterologous lipase was expressed using the TAKA amylase promoter from Aspergillus oryzae. The production kinetics of the two strains on different carbon sources in batch and carbon-limited chemostat cultivations were evaluated. In batch cultivations, the highest total product yield coefficient (Y(xp total)), given as the sum of extracellular and intracellular yields, was obtained during growth on glucose for the transformant strain NW297-24 (5.7+/-0.65 KU/g DW), whereas the highest total product yield coefficient was obtained during growth on maltose for the transformant strain NW297-14 (6.3+/-0.02 KU/g DW). Both transformants were evaluated in glucose-limited chemostat cultures. Strain NW297-14 was found to be the best producer and was thus employed for further analysis of the influence of carbon source in chemostat cultures. Here, the highest total specific lipase productivity (r(p total), the sum of extracellular and intracellular lipase productivity) was found to be 1.60+/-0.81 KU/g DW/h in maltose-limited chemostats at a dilution rate of 0.08 h(-1), compared with a total specific lipase productivity of 1.10+/-0.41 KU/g DW/h in glucose-limited chemostats. At the highest specific productivity obtained in this study, the heterologous enzyme accounted for about 1% of all cellular protein being produced by the cells, which shows that it is possible to obtain high productivities of heterologous fungal enzymes in A. niger. However, SDS-PAGE analysis showed that most of the produced lipase was bound to the cell wall.

  2. Continuous cultivations of a Penicillium chrysogenum strain expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus: Growth yields and morphological characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robin, Jarno Jacky Christian; Lettier, G.; Mcintyre, Mhairi

    2003-01-01

    The growth stoichiometry of a Penicillium chrysogenum strain expressing the expandase gene from Streptomyces clavuligerus was determined in glucose-limited chemostat cultivations using a chemically defined medium. This strain produces adipoyl-7-aminocleacetoxycephalosporanic acid (ad-7-ADCA) when...

  3. CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF POLY(3-HYDROXYALKANOATES) BY PSEUDOMONAS-OLEOVORANS IN A HIGH-CELL-DENSITY, 2-LIQUID-PHASE CHEMOSTAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preusting, H.; HAZENBERG, W; Witholt, B.

    When Pseudomonas oleovorans is continuously cultured on a two-phase medium consisting of an aqueous minimal salts medium phase with growth-limiting amounts of ammonium (16.7 mM) and an n-octane phase as carbon and energy source, the cells reach a steady-state density of about 2-3 g l-1 and

  4. Twofold reduction of phosphofructokinase activity in Lactococcus lactis results in strong decreases in growth rate and in glycolytic flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi Winterberg; Solem, Christian; Hammer, Karin

    2001-01-01

    reduced. Surprisingly, the mutants still showed homolactic fermentation, which indicated that the limitation was different from standard glucose-limited conditions, One explanation could be that the reduced activity of phosphofructokinase resulted in the accumulation of sugar-phosphates. Indeed, when one...... kinase and lactate dehydrogenase remained closer to the wild-type level. In defined medium supplemented with glucose, the growth rate of the mutants was reduced to 57 to 70% of wild-type levels and the glycolytic flux was reduced to 62 to 76% of wild-type levels. In complex medium growth was even further...... of the mutants was starved for glucose in glucose-limited chemostat, the growth rate could gradually be increased to 195% of the growth fate observed in glucose-saturated batch culture, suggesting that phosphofructokinase does affect the concentration of upstream metabolites. The pools of glucose-6- phosphate...

  5. Macromolecular composition of a Cellulomonas sp. cultivated in continuous culture under glucose and zinc limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, R J; Srinivasan, V R

    1979-01-01

    The mutant strain of Cellulomonas sp. (ATCC 21399) was cultivated under glucose and zinc limitation at a variety of growth rates in continuous culture. The growth characteristics and macromolecular composition of the population varied with the limitation imposed and the growth rate. Glucose- and zinc-limited cultures maintained a constant relative protein content. The relative ribonucleic acid content increased, whereas the carbohydrate and deoxyribonucleic acid contents decreased with an increase in the population growth rate in glucose-limited cultures. Free unbound lipid remained constant. The maximum population growth rate in zinc-limited cultures was directly proportional to the zinc concentration and demonstrated a traditional steady-state function. The nucleic acid content increased with increased growth rate; however, the relative nucleic acid content was significantly depressed when compared to glucose limited cells. This manner of cultivation may prove to be a useful tool for the production of single cell protein with lowered nucleic acid content and the elucidation of micronutrient involvement in growth-related processes. PMID:114114

  6. Responses and recovery assessment of continuously cultured Nitrosomonas europaea under chronic ZnO nanoparticle stress: Effects of dissolved oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junkang; Chang, Yan; Gao, Huan; Liang, Geyu; Yu, Ran; Ding, Zhen

    2018-03-01

    Although the antibacterial performances of emerging nanoparticles (NPs) have been extensively explored in the nitrifying systems, the impacts of dissolved oxygen (DO) levels on their bio-toxicities to the nitrifiers and the impaired cells' recovery potentials have seldom been addressed yet. In this study, the physiological and transcriptional responses of the typical ammonia oxidizers - Nitrosomonas europaea in a chemostat to the chronic ZnO NP exposure under different DO conditions were investigated. The results indicated that the cells in steady-growth state in the chemostat were more persevering than batch cultured ones to resist ZnO NP stress despite the dose-dependent NP inhibitory effects were observed. In addition, the occurred striking over-expressions of amoA and hao genes at the initial NP exposure stage suggested the cells' self-regulation potentials at the transcriptional level. The low DO (0.5 mg/L) cultured cells displayed higher sensitivity to NP stress than the high DO (2.0 mg/L) cultured ones, probably owning to the inefficient oxygen-dependent electron transfer from ammonia oxidation for energy conversion/production. The following 12-h NP-free batch recovery assays revealed that both high and low DO cultured cells possessed the physiological and metabolic activity recovery potentials, which were in negative correlation with the NP exposure time. The duration of NP stress and the resulting NP dissolution were critical for the cells' damage levels and their performance recoverability. The membrane preservation processes and the associated metabolism regulations were expected to actively participate in the cells' self-adaption to NP stress and thus be responsible for their metabolic activities recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fecal culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parasites exam Alternative Names Stool culture; Culture - stool; Gastroenteritis fecal culture Images Salmonella typhi organism Yersinia enterocolitica organism Campylobacter jejuni organism Clostridium difficile organism References Beavis, KG, ...

  8. Effects of oxygen on Propionibacterium shermanii grown in continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, G G; Wimpenny, J W; Morris, H A; Lewis, M W; Hughes, D E

    1977-10-01

    Growth yields, enzyme activities, cytochrome concentrations and the rates of product formation were determined in Propionibacterium shermanii cultures grown in a chemostat with lactate as the energy source at various concentrations of oxygen. Oxygen was toxic when its partial pressure in the inflowing gas was just sufficient to give measurable dissolved oxygen concentration in the culture, when it inhibited lactate oxidation and NADH oxidase activity. Below this oxygen concentration, P. shermanii behaved as a facultative anaerobe. The adaptation from anaerobic metabolism to aerobic metabolism, however, was complex. Low partial pressures of oxygen led to decreased cytochrome and membrane-bound dehydrogenase activities and molar growth yield. Above an oxygen partial pressure of 42 mmHg in the inflowing gas stream, these changes were reversed, leading to an aerobic type of metabolism. At the highest subtoxic concentration of oxygen used (330 mmHg in the input gas), lactate was oxidized mainly to acetate and carbon dioxide and the rate of propionate formation was very low. The high molar growth yield obtained under these conditions suggested that lactate and NADH oxidation via the cytochrome electron transport system was coupled to ATP synthesis.

  9. Evaluation of gene expression and alginate production in response to oxygen transfer in continuous culture of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Díaz-Barrera

    Full Text Available Alginates are polysaccharides used as food additives and encapsulation agents in biotechnology, and their functional properties depend on its molecular weight. In this study, different steady-states in continuous cultures of A. vinelandii were established to determine the effect of the dilution rate (D and the agitation rate on alginate production and expression of genes involved in alginate polymerization and depolymerization. Both, the agitation and dilution rates, determined the partitioning of the carbon utilization from sucrose into alginate and CO2 under oxygen-limiting conditions. A low D (0.07 h(-1 and 500 rpm resulted in the highest carbon utilization into alginate (25%. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the transcription level of six genes involved in alginate polymerization and depolymerization. In chemostat cultures at 0.07 h(-1, the gene expression was affected by changes in the agitation rate. By increasing the agitation rate from 400 to 600 rpm, the algE7 gene expression decreased tenfold, whereas alyA1, algL and alyA2 gene expression increased between 1.5 and 2.8 times under similar conditions evaluated. Chemostat at 0.07 h(-1 showed a highest alginate molecular weight (580 kDa at 500 rpm whereas similar molecular weights (480 kDa were obtained at 400 and 600 rpm. The highest molecular weight was not explained by changes in the expression of alg8 and alg44 (genes involved in alginate polymerization. Nonetheless, a different expression pattern observed for lyases could explain the highest alginate molecular weight obtained. Overall, the results suggest that the control of alginate molecular weight in A. vinelandii cells growing in continuous mode is determined by a balance between the gene expression of intracellular and extracellular lyases in response to oxygen availability. These findings better our understanding of the biosynthesis of bacterial alginate and help us progress toward obtain

  10. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  11. Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  12. Organizational Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian HUDREA

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultural orientations of an organization can be its greatest strength, providing the basis for problem solving, cooperation, and communication. Culture, however, can also inhibit needed changes. Cultural changes typically happen slowly – but without cultural change, many other organizational changes are doomed to fail. The dominant culture of an organization is a major contributor to its success. But, of course, no organizational culture is purely one type or another. And the existence of secondary cultures can provide the basis for change. Therefore, organizations need to understand the cultural environments and values.

  13. Culture matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Zeba

    Zebaa Arif reflects on changes during her career as a mental health nurse in relation to cultural care issues: Cultural awareness is becoming embedded in patient care. All aspects of care are influenced by cultural beliefs and should form part of assessment. Leadership is essential in influencing cultural care, as is organisational commitment.

  14. Cultural entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Klamer (Arjo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCultural entrepreneurship is a new character in the cultural sector. This paper characterizes the cultural entrepreneur paying homage to the hermeneutic approach of Don Lavoie and others. The challenge is to render the "cultural" meaningful. An invention is the highlighting of the

  15. Cultural Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Daniel L.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience issues from the apparently incompatible combination of neuroscience and cultural psychology. A brief literature sampling suggests, instead, several preliminary topics that demonstrate proof of possibilities: cultural differences in both lower-level processes (e.g. perception, number representation) and higher-order processes (e.g. inferring others’ emotions, contemplating the self) are beginning to shed new light on both culture and cognition. Candidates for future cultural neuroscience research include cultural variations in the default (resting) network, which may be social; regulation and inhibition of feelings, thoughts, and actions; prejudice and dehumanization; and neural signatures of fundamental warmth and competence judgments. PMID:23874143

  16. Culturing Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  17. Bile culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - bile ... is placed in a special dish called a culture medium to see if bacteria, viruses, or fungi ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Body fluid - anaerobic culture. In: ... . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:225-226. Kim AY, ...

  18. Cultural tourism and tourism cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Presenting a comprehensive and dynamic understanding of cultural tourism, this volume examines cultural mediators and how they help tourists appreciate foreign cultures. It also shows how tourism experiences are strategically crafted by mediators, the complexity of the mediation process, and how...... various products are mediated differently. A number of different products are investigated, including destination brand identities, "living" cultures and everyday life, art and history. The author illustrates his arguments by comparing the tourism strategies of Copenhagen and Singapore, and demonstrates...

  19. Culture evolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A.; Laland, Kevin N.; Stringer, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to facilitate cross-disciplinary fertilization. Each approach emphasizes important linkages between culture and evolutionary biology rather than quarantining one from the other. Recent studies reveal that processes important in cultural transmission are more widespread and significant across the animal kingdom than earlier recognized, with important implications for evolutionary theory. Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed back the origins of human culture to much more ancient times than traditionally thought. These developments suggest previously unidentified continuities between animal and human culture. A third new array of discoveries concerns the later diversification of human cultures, where the operations of Darwinian-like processes are identified, in part, through scientific methods borrowed from biology. Finally, surprising discoveries have been made about the imprint of cultural evolution in the predispositions of human minds for cultural transmission. PMID:21357216

  20. Culture evolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A; Laland, Kevin N; Stringer, Christopher B

    2011-04-12

    Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to facilitate cross-disciplinary fertilization. Each approach emphasizes important linkages between culture and evolutionary biology rather than quarantining one from the other. Recent studies reveal that processes important in cultural transmission are more widespread and significant across the animal kingdom than earlier recognized, with important implications for evolutionary theory. Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed back the origins of human culture to much more ancient times than traditionally thought. These developments suggest previously unidentified continuities between animal and human culture. A third new array of discoveries concerns the later diversification of human cultures, where the operations of Darwinian-like processes are identified, in part, through scientific methods borrowed from biology. Finally, surprising discoveries have been made about the imprint of cultural evolution in the predispositions of human minds for cultural transmission.

  1. Characterizing steady states of genome-scale metabolic networks in continuous cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-de-Cossio-Diaz, Jorge; Leon, Kalet; Mulet, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    In the continuous mode of cell culture, a constant flow carrying fresh media replaces culture fluid, cells, nutrients and secreted metabolites. Here we present a model for continuous cell culture coupling intra-cellular metabolism to extracellular variables describing the state of the bioreactor, taking into account the growth capacity of the cell and the impact of toxic byproduct accumulation. We provide a method to determine the steady states of this system that is tractable for metabolic networks of arbitrary complexity. We demonstrate our approach in a toy model first, and then in a genome-scale metabolic network of the Chinese hamster ovary cell line, obtaining results that are in qualitative agreement with experimental observations. We derive a number of consequences from the model that are independent of parameter values. The ratio between cell density and dilution rate is an ideal control parameter to fix a steady state with desired metabolic properties. This conclusion is robust even in the presence of multi-stability, which is explained in our model by a negative feedback loop due to toxic byproduct accumulation. A complex landscape of steady states emerges from our simulations, including multiple metabolic switches, which also explain why cell-line and media benchmarks carried out in batch culture cannot be extrapolated to perfusion. On the other hand, we predict invariance laws between continuous cell cultures with different parameters. A practical consequence is that the chemostat is an ideal experimental model for large-scale high-density perfusion cultures, where the complex landscape of metabolic transitions is faithfully reproduced.

  2. INFLUENCE OF HYDRAULIC RETENTION TIME ON EXTENT OF PCE DECHLORINATION AND PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ENRICHMENT CULTURE. (R826694C703)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extent of tetrachloroethene (PCE) dechlorination in two chemostats was evaluated as a function of hydraulic retention time (HRT). The inoculum of these chemostats was from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor that rapidly converts PCE to vinyl chloride (VC) an...

  3. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture...... and modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long been...

  4. Manuscript Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What do Mesoamerica, Greece, Byzantium, Island, Chad, Ethiopia, India, Tibet, China and Japan have in common? Like many other cultures of the world, they share a particular form of cultural heritage: ancient handwritten documents. In 2007, scholars from some20 countries around the world gathered...... at the University of Copenhagen for a workshop on manuscripts to compare notes. This event led to the publication of this volume, which brings together16 articles on philological, cultural, and material aspects of manuscripts in search for a common ground across disciplines and cultures....

  5. Skin or nail culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  6. Cultural Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jose

    It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

  7. Connecting Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugegaard, Rikke; Mynster Christensen, Maya

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of cultural dynamics in the area of operations is essential in to the accomplishment of military missions in international operations. The aim of this handbook is to introduce a tool enabling the use of culture as part of the military operational planning process....

  8. Culture Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2007-01-01

    by certain representations and embedded in certain norms and values. The analytical framework is applied on a case of cultural urban branding. The case is the harbour front in Aalborg, Denmark where a number of flagship architecture projects and cultural institutions are being planned. It is shown how...

  9. Cultural probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation.......The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation....

  10. Culture Clash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Sheila; Olson, Hope

    1996-01-01

    Discusses two basic cultures within the library science field, one that emphasizes "soft-edged" traditional service and the other newer culture which has evolved around information technology and entrepreneurial drive. Topics include historical background; university pressures on library schools to be "tech-oriented";…

  11. Avatar Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koda, Tomoko; Ishida, Toru; Rehm, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Avatars are increasingly used to express our emotions in our online communications. Such avatars are used based on the assumption that avatar expressions are interpreted universally among all cultures. This paper investigated cross-cultural evaluations of avatar expressions designed by Japanese...... and Western designers. The goals of the study were: (1) to investigate cultural differences in avatar expression evaluation and apply findings from psychological studies of human facial expression recognition, (2) to identify expressions and design features that cause cultural differences in avatar facial...... expression interpretation. The results of our study confirmed that (1) there are cultural differences in interpreting avatars’ facial expressions, and the psychological theory that suggests physical proximity affects facial expression recognition accuracy is also applicable to avatar facial expressions, (2...

  12. CULTURAL TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana POP

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will try to analyse the cultural tourism. We will start by referring to the complex concepts of tourism and culture and to the synergies existing between them. We will define cultural tourism and present its appearance and evolution as well as its importance as a modern form of tourism. We will present the various types of cultural tourism with their characteristics and the specific features of cultural tourists according to their interests. We will also mention that there are advantages and disadvantages for any kind of tourism depending on the position – local communities, companies or tourists. For the future we will refer to the new partnership between UNWTO and UNESCO.

  13. Cyanuric acid biodegradation by a mixed bacterial culture of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Acinetobacter sp. in a packed bed biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galíndez-Nájera, S P; Llamas-Martínez, M A; Ruiz-Ordaz, N; Juárez-Ramírez, C; Mondragón-Parada, M E; Ahuatzi-Chacón, D; Galíndez-Mayer, J

    2009-02-01

    Cyanuric acid (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triol [OOOT]) is a common biodegradation byproduct of triazinic herbicides, frequently accumulated in soils or water when supplementary carbon sources are absent. A binary bacterial culture able to degrade OOOT was selected through a continuous selection process accomplished in a chemostat fed with a mineral salt (MS) medium containing cyanuric acid as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. By sequence comparison of their 16S rDNA amplicons, bacterial strains were identified as Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and Acinetobacter sp. When the binary culture immobilized in a packed bed reactor (PBR) was fed with MS medium containing OOOT (50 mg L(-1)), its removal efficiencies were about 95%; when it was fed with OOOT plus glucose (120 mg L(-1)) as a supplementary carbon source, its removal efficiencies were closer to 100%. From sessile cells, attached to PBR porous support, or free cells present in the outflowing medium, DNA was extracted and used for Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA analysis. Electrophoretic patterns obtained were compared to those of pure bacterial strains, a clear predominance of A. tumefaciens in PBR was observed. Although in continuous suspended cell culture, a stable binary community could be maintained, the attachment capability of A. tumefaciens represented a selective advantage over Acinetobacter sp. in the biofilm reactor, favoring its predominance in the porous stone support.

  14. Culture Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Warner-Søderholm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether managers are concerned with financial issues, marketing, or human resource management (HRM, cultural values and practices do matter. The purpose of this article is to understand Norwegian managers’ cultural values within the cross-cultural landscape of her neighbors in the “Scandinavian cluster.” Clearly, subtle but disturbing differences may surface even when representatives from similar cultures work together. As a follow on from the GLOBE project, data based on the GLOBE instrument were collected on culture and communication values in Norway from 710 Norwegian middle managers for this present study. Although the Scandinavian cultures appear ostensibly similar, the results illustrate that research can reveal subtle but important cultural differences in nations that are similar yet dissimilar. All three Scandinavian societies appear intrinsically egalitarian; they appear to value low Power Distance, directness, and consensus in decision making and to promote Gender Egalitarianism. Nevertheless, there are significant differences in the degrees of commitment to these values by each individual Scandinavian partner. These differences need to be understood and appreciated to avoid misunderstandings.

  15. Digging culture and doing culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andries van den Broek; Jos de Haan; Frank Huysmans

    2009-01-01

    Original title: Cultuurbewonderaars en cultuurbeoefenaars. There are people who love art and culture and there are people who practise it; people who enjoy it and people who are themselves creative in their leisure time. Who are these culture-lovers and practitioners? How has participation in

  16. Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukraroff, C.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of Safety Culture was defined after Chernobyl's nuclear accident in 1986. It has not been exempt from discussion interpretations, adding riders, etc..., over the last 24 years because it has to do with human behavior and performance in the organizations. Safety Culture is not an easy task to define, assess and monitor. The proof of it is that today we still discussing and writing about it. How has been the evolution of Safety Culture at the Juzbado Factory since 1985 to today?. What is the strategy that we will be following in the future. (Author)

  17. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  18. Rectal culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have an infection of the rectum, such as gonorrhea . It may also be done instead of a ... infection. This may be: Bacterial infection Parasitic enterocolitis Gonorrhea Sometimes a culture shows that you are a ...

  19. Stool Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... illness by producing toxins . These bacteria may be cultured , but many of the tests used to detect ... been contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, such as undercooked meat or raw eggs, or the same food that ...

  20. Cultural tourism and tourism cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Presenting a comprehensive and dynamic understanding of cultural tourism, this volume examines cultural mediators and how they help tourists appreciate foreign cultures. It also shows how tourism experiences are strategically crafted by mediators, the complexity of the mediation process, and how...... various products are mediated differently. A number of different products are investigated, including destination brand identities, "living" cultures and everyday life, art and history. The author illustrates his arguments by comparing the tourism strategies of Copenhagen and Singapore, and demonstrates...... how tourism is an agent for social change. The author also offers an original and refreshing way of understanding tourist behaviour through the concept of the "versatile tourist". The book's empirical cases and dialogic framework provide new and deep insights into tourism activities. In his...

  1. A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandermeersch, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    P. Vandermeersch, A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture? In: F. VAN DE VIJVER & G. HUTSCHEMAEKERS (ed.), The Investigation of Culture. Current Issues in Cultural Psychology, Tilburg, Tilburg University Press, 1990, 43-58.

  2. Advertising cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malefyt, Timothy de Waal; Moeran, Brian

    to the relationship between advertizing and anthropology. The link between them may come as a surprise to those who consider advertizing to be firmly rooted in commerce and anthropology in culture. Through the lens of anthropologists, this book not only shows how anthropology and advertizing are connected...... and how anthropology can be used to give an informed cultural understanding of the consumer. From constructing a "Japaneseness" that appeals to two very different Western audiences, to tracking the changes, in the post World War II period, in advertizing, and considering how people can be influenced...... by language and symbols, this book is an innovative mix of business strategy and cultural theory. Its pioneering work should provide a valuable guide to consumer behaviour for practitioners and students alike, and should pave the way for a new and exciting area of research....

  3. Lipid production by the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica using industrial by-products under different culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakicka, Magdalena; Lazar, Zbigniew; Dulermo, Thierry; Fickers, Patrick; Nicaud, Jean Marc

    2015-01-01

    Microbial lipid production using renewable feedstock shows great promise for the biodiesel industry. In this study, the ability of a lipid-engineered Yarrowia lipolytica strain JMY4086 to produce lipids using molasses and crude glycerol under different oxygenation conditions and at different inoculum densities was evaluated in fed-batch cultures. The greatest lipid content, 31% of CDW, was obtained using a low-density inoculum, a constant agitation rate of 800 rpm, and an oxygenation rate of 1.5 L/min. When the strain was cultured for 450 h in a chemostat containing a nitrogen-limited medium (dilution rate of 0.01 h(-1); 250 g/L crude glycerol), volumetric lipid productivity was 0.43 g/L/h and biomass yield was 60 g CDW/L. The coefficient of lipid yield to glycerol consumption (Y L/gly) and the coefficient of lipid yield to biomass yield (Y L/X ) were equal to 0.1 and 0.4, respectively. These results indicate that lipids may be produced using renewable feedstock, thus providing a means of decreasing the cost of biodiesel production. Furthermore, using molasses for biomass production and recycling glycerol from the biodiesel industry should allow biolipids to be sustainably produced.

  4. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    , the notion of aesthetics (taken in the original signification of aisthesis: sensory perception) helped to map the relations between city, human experience, and various forms of art and culture. Delving into our simultaneously optical and tactical reception of space (a dialectics pointed out by Walter...... Benjamin), studies in urbanity and aesthetics may highlight mul-tisensory everyday practices that pass unnoticed in the current era of visual domination. A humanistic approach to urban and spatial cultures should also learn from German sociologist and philosopher Georg Simmel’s hypothesis of a modern need......: Memory”, and ”Staging and Interpretation: Places”....

  5. Mayan Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter Bent

    1992-01-01

    The social categories « Maya » and « mestizo » habe been applied to denote the Yucatec Mayan people in Mexico. The A. examines the cluster of perceived attributes (schemata) evoked by the terms and how they relate to each other. He shows that there is an incongruency between them along the lines ...... of local and academic categorization, which is an implication of the different social spaces in which they arise. In spite of the incongruency and the cultural plurality evoked by their usage, the A. argues that the people of Yucatec share a single culture....

  6. Information cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouvig, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest a genealogy of the concept of information beyond the 20th century. The article discusses how the concept of information culture might provide a way of formulating such a genealogic strategy. The article approaches this purpose by providing a general...... narrative of premodern information cultures, examining works on early-modern scholars and 18th century savants and discussion of what seems to be a Foucauldian rupture in the conceptualization of information in 19th century England. The findings of the article are situated in the thinking that a genealogy...

  7. Cultural Usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Qingxin

    2007-01-01

    Culture has already played an important role in the global market. It not only affects products, but also impacts on usability evaluation methods. This project aims to examine in the established thinking aloud usability evaluation method (TA UEM), how does the evaluator build a supportive...... relationship and communicate effectively with the user in order to find relevant usability problems in culturally localized applications. It includes three parts, pilot study, field study and experiments, to get both qualitative data and quantitative data. From this project, we hope to find an effective way...

  8. Cultural Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotsky, Sandra

    1991-01-01

    Multicultural education has at least two faces--an academic one and an ideological one. Encouraging the balkanization of U.S. culture threatens to undermine the academic integrity of the social studies curriculum. Offers suggestions to make sure that schools are offering an academically rigorous multicultural curriculum, not political…

  9. Grindr Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    2018-01-01

    intersections of sexuality with other socio-cultural categories such as race and migration background, but also gender and ability. I find that user experiences with exclusion and discrimination can be related to Grindr’s interface, such as its drop-down menus, the discourses circulated by Grindr users...

  10. Black Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks passed down a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  11. Culture Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  12. callus culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    steve

    capacity in comparison to those of grown on 75%. NH4NO3 depleted media under the same light regime. Light dependent secondary metabolite production. Initially, we have cultured wounded grape leaf explants in the dark for callus induction and monitoring possible pigmentation and phenolics accumulation. Supplemen-.

  13. Cultural Usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Qingxin

    2007-01-01

    Culture has already played an important role in the global market. It not only affects products, but also impacts on usability evaluation methods. This project aims to examine in the established thinking aloud usability evaluation method (TA UEM), how does the evaluator build a supportive...

  14. Hydroponic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steucek, G. L.; Yurkiewicz, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a hydroponic culture technique suitable for student exercises in biology. This technique of growing plants in nutrient solutions enhances plant growth, and is an excellent way to obtain intact plants with root systems free of soil or other particulate matter. (JR)

  15. Cultured Trash, Not Trash Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Taufiqurrohman, Taufiqurrohman; Utomo, Setyo; Wibowo, Purwo Adi

    2017-01-01

    As civilized creature, human actually can manage trash as well as possible although it is often stereotyped as a vain thing. This article gives the proof that trash can be cultured as well so that a society can take benefits from the existence of it. This article parses ways of orderly managing it at schools, in this case two schools in Jepara. The results say that trash can be cultured by having an organization to manage the Trash Bank at schools and to train students to classify and recycle...

  16. Incorporation of tritium into planctonic algae in a continuous culture under dynamic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strack, S.; Kistner, G.; Emeis, C.C.

    1979-01-01

    For the purpose of modelling the ecologic behaviour of organically bound tritium (OBT) in aquatic food chains under dynamic conditions (i.e. by changing tritium concentrations), a continuous culture of algae was chosen to which tritium was added by a single injection as tritiated water (HTO). The culture was working according to the chemostatic principle where the concentration of cells is in a steady state. Therefore, according to the growth of algae, tritium is incorporated into the organic substance, while in a parallel process HTO and algae are eliminated from the system at the same rate. From these two processes of first-order kinetics, a special function resulted for the concentration process of OBT in the fermenter that is well known in the field of drug kinetics. Initially it increases until it reaches a maximum value where it intersects the elimination curve of HTO, then decreases and asymptotically approaches the time axis - in the same manner as the elimination curve - only at a superior level. A comparison of this theoretically calculated function with the concentration actually found shows that also under dynamic conditions tritium is undergoing discrimination because of isotopic effects up to a ratio of I=0.80. The calculation of the ratios R=(OBT)/(HTO) in the continuous culture by comparing the function for OBT with the elimination curve for HTO shows a linear increase of R-values during the experiment. At maximum tritium concentration in the algae, the ratio becomes greater than one, and at the end of the experiment it reaches a value of about 6. However, by extrapolating to a time of 40 half-lives, when the absolute concentration of HTO has already decreased by a factor of 10 -12 , a ratio of about 25 was found. The discrimination enters the estimation of R-values at a constant factor of 0.80. (author)

  17. Talking Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    When Danish businesses move production abroad, ‘culture’ is often seen as a huge challenge to the successful outcome of cross-border collaboration. Therefore, business leaders often seek information and guidelines of how to cope in the vast amount of literature on culture and intercultural...... communication. Much of this literature is based on functionalist approaches providing the dos and don’ts of intercultural encounters. This involves inter alia conceptualising ‘culture’ as a relatively fixed, homogeneous entity of values, attitudes and norms shared by members of a group, often leading readers...... to adopt dichotomised understandings and discourses about other cultures (see e.g. Hofstede 2001; Jandt 1998; Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner 1997). However, experience shows that the world in which intercultural encounters take place is not as simple and easy to categorise as these approaches may suggest...

  18. MARKETING CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gómez Ramírez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la definición de "Marketing" Cultural y la adaptación y beneficios del "marketing" tradicional respecto al conjunto de manifestaciones artísticas de las diversas industrias involucradas en el sector cultural o artístico; asimismo, se desagregan los conceptos básicos que lo componen como factor de éxito en dichas empresas. Se hace uso de la exposición de casos específicos para ilustrar la articulación de estos dos conceptos aparentemente contrapuestos, cultura y "marketing", y registra algunas reflexiones para que el lector se involucre en la construcción del concepto aquí presentado.

  19. Cultural neurolinguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui; Mei, Leilei; Chen, Chunhui; Dong, Qi

    2009-01-01

    As the only species that evolved to possess a language faculty, humans have been surprisingly generative in creating a diverse array of language systems. These systems vary in phonology, morphology, syntax, and written forms. Before the advent of modern brain-imaging techniques, little was known about how differences across languages are reflected in the brain. This chapter aims to provide an overview of an emerging area of research - cultural neurolinguistics - that examines systematic cross...

  20. Cultural neurolinguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui; Mei, Leilei; Chen, Chunhui; Dong, Qi

    2009-01-01

    As the only species that evolved to possess a language faculty, humans have been surprisingly generative in creating a diverse array of language systems. These systems vary in phonology, morphology, syntax, and written forms. Before the advent of modern brain-imaging techniques, little was known about how differences across languages are reflected in the brain. This chapter aims to provide an overview of an emerging area of research - cultural neurolinguistics - that examines systematic cross-cultural/crosslinguistic variations in the neural networks of languages. We first briefly describe general brain networks for written and spoken languages. We then discuss language-specific brain regions by highlighting differences in neural bases of different scripts (logographic vs. alphabetic scripts), orthographies (transparent vs. nontransparent orthographies), and tonality (tonal vs. atonal languages). We also discuss neural basis of second language and the role of native language experience in second-language acquisition. In the last section, we outline a general model that integrates culture and neural bases of language and discuss future directions of research in this area.

  1. Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Samani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated the concept of “Cultural Robotics” with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. According to the importance of the embodiment of robots in the sense of presence, the influence of robots in communication culture is anticipated. The sustainability of robotics culture based on diversity for cultural communities for various acceptance modalities is explored in order to anticipate the creation of different attributes of culture between robots and humans in the future.

  2. La arquitectura cultural. / Cultural architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobos, Jorge

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo releva la Arquitectura Cultural, que es plural y diversa en términos estéticos y conceptuales. Sugiere la apertura a otras dinámicas de comprensión de lo arquitectónico, a otras lógicas de construcción de las ciudades. Para aclarar el concepto se expone un breve ejemplo práctico./This article points out the "cultural architecture", which is plural and diverse in concept and aesthetic terms. It suggests the opening to other dinamics of comprehention of the architectural issue and the building of cities. The article presents a brief empirical example that clarifies the conceptual approach.

  3. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  4. Culture Jamming Versus Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardia Acynthia Putri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This literature study researched Adbusters, the anti-commercial organization, and described the organization’s activities and media usage, mainly in the period of 2007-2010, which critized the populer culture. Adbusters is an organization which performs “Culture Jamming”; a rebellious act reacting towards commercialism domination in many aspects including popular culture. Compared to other similar organizations, Adbusters has been executing more various activisms using several media which other organizations do not use. This study used the Adbusters’ official website and blogs as main data sources. The data of Adbusters’ activities and media usage were categorized and analyzed, thus the tendency of its development can be described. This study also analyzed Adbusters’ activity using Media Hegemony Theory and Political Economy Media Theory. The media has been dominated by a certain group that owns politic and economic power, so the information flow has been dominated by them. Media and its contents have been commercialized, thus capitalism and commercialism have been considered as a common system that should run the world. Adbusters has been trying to stop the domination and change the society’s way of thinking into a more critical way of thinking.   Abstrak: Studi literatur ini meneliti tentang Adbusters, sebuah organisasi anti komersial, dengan mendeskripsikan aktivitas serta penggunaan media organisasi tersebut dari tahun 2007-2010 dalam mengkritisi budaya populer. Adbusters adalah organisasi yang melakukan Culture Jamming, aksi perlawanan terhadap dominasi komersialisme di segala aspek termasuk popular culture. Dibandingkan dengan organisasi lain yang serupa, aktivitas Adbusters lebih bervariasi dan menggunakan media-media yang tidak biasa digunakan organisasi lain. Penelitian ini menggunakan situs online resmi Adbusters sebagai sumber data utama. Data mengenai aktivitas dan

  5. Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Samani, Hooman; Saadatian, Elham; Pang, Natalie; Polydorou, Doros; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton; Nakatsu, Ryohei; Koh, Jeffrey Tzu Kwan Valino

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the concept of “Cultural Robotics” with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. Ac...

  6. Culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David

    2012-01-01

    Culture collections no matter their size, form, or institutional objectives play a role in underpinning microbiology, supplying the resources for study, innovation, and discovery. Their basic roles include providing a mechanism for ex situ conservation of organisms; they are repositories for strains subject to publication, taking in safe, confidential, and patent deposits from researchers. They supply strains for use; therefore, the microorganisms provided must be authentic and preserved well, and any associated information must be valid and sufficient to facilitate the confirmation of their identity and to facilitate their use. The organisms must be collected in compliance with international conventions, international and national legislation and distributed to users indicating clearly the terms and conditions under which they are received and can be used. Collections are harmonizing approaches and characterizing strains to meet user needs. No one single collection can carry out this task alone, and therefore, it is important that output and strategy are coordinated to ensure culture collections deliver the basic resources and services microbiological innovation requires. This chapter describes the types of collection and how they can implement quality management systems and operate to deliver their basic functions. The links to information sources given not only provide support for the practitioners within collections but also provide guidance to users on accessing the huge resource available and how they can help ensure microbiology has the resources and a solid platform for future development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. BACTERIOPHAGE T4 MULTIPLICATION IN A GLUCOSE-LIMITED ESCHERICHIA COLI BIOFILM. (R825503)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  8. Culture-lovers and Culture-leavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank Huysmans; Andries van den Broek; Jos de Haan

    2005-01-01

    Who are the people in the Netherlands with an active interest in cultural heritage and the performing arts, and who prefer to leave these forms of culture alone? Have the size and composition of the groups of 'culture-lovers' and 'culture-leavers' changed since the end of the 1970s? These are the

  9. Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xi; Tian, Xianghong

    2012-01-01

    Academic culture of universities mainly consists of academic outlooks, academic spirits, academic ethics and academic environments. Campus culture in a university is characterized by individuality, academic feature, opening, leading, variety and creativity. The academic culture enhances the construction of campus culture. The campus culture…

  10. Cultural Humility and Hospital Safety Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Joshua N; Boan, David; Davis, Don E; Aten, Jamie D; Ruiz, John M; Maryon, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Hospital safety culture is an integral part of providing high quality care for patients, as well as promoting a safe and healthy environment for healthcare workers. In this article, we explore the extent to which cultural humility, which involves openness to cultural diverse individuals and groups, is related to hospital safety culture. A sample of 2011 hospital employees from four hospitals completed measures of organizational cultural humility and hospital safety culture. Higher perceptions of organizational cultural humility were associated with higher levels of general perceptions of hospital safety, as well as more positive ratings on non-punitive response to error (i.e., mistakes of staff are not held against them), handoffs and transitions, and organizational learning. The cultural humility of one's organization may be an important factor to help improve hospital safety culture. We conclude by discussing potential directions for future research.

  11. CONNECTION BETWEEN ECONOMICS, CULTURE AND CULTURAL DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agil Valiyev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Today, culture is one of the main feeble factors of economic development.  The leading role of culture in economic development should be argued as multiplied: so, on firstly, as domestic value, on secondly, as a main factor of regional economic development advanced to raised gravity of different regions for residents, tourists and investors, on thirdly, as major parameters of social development based on tolerance, creativity and knowledge. To the different international experiences, culture is main part of economic development in our life. Cultural diversities are combined into a main reason economic development model. The article consist of explainations about the understanding of culture, cultural diplomacy and economics, approach on conflicts between culture and economics, to find how affecting of culture to economic development, the role of culture in economic development of Azerbaijan. The article can be considered as a useful resource  for experts and researchers conducting research in this field.

  12. Cultural Analysis - towards cross-cultural understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullestrup, Hans

    The book considers intercultural understanding and co-action, partly by means of general insight into concept of culture and the dimensions which bring about cultural differences, and partly as a methodology to analyse a certain culture - whether one's own or others'. This leads towards...... an understanding of cultural complexity and cultural differences among people. Furthermore, the book provides a discussion of a number of ethical issues, which almost invariably will arise when people meet and co-act across cultural boundaries. Cultural Analysis consists of four parts. The first part offers...... a theoretical/abstract proposal for cultural understanding. The second part presents a theoretical/abstract proposal for under-standing intercultural plurality and complexity. The third part provides an empirical model for the analysis of intercultural co-action. Finally, the fourth part present and discusses...

  13. Exploring Culture : Exercises, Stories and Synthetic Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    A unique training book containing over 100 culture awareness exercises, dialogues, stories incidents and simulations that bring to life Geert Hofstede's five dimensions of culture. These dimensions are: power distance, collectivism versus individualism, femininity versus masculinity, uncertainly

  14. Revisiting cultural awareness and cultural relevancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi-Hashem, Naji

    2015-10-01

    Comments on the original article by Christopher et al. (see record 2014-20055-001) regarding critical cultural awareness. The more insights and exploration of the meaning and influence of culture we receive, the better. There is no single treatment of any personal or collective culture(s) that can be inherently complete or totally exhaustive. New hermeneutics and skills are always needed, appreciated, and refreshing. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Dehistoricized Cultural Identity and Cultural Othering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiguo, Qu

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that each culture has its own distinctive identity has been generally accepted in the discussion of cultural identities. Quite often identity formation is not perceived as a dynamic and interactive ongoing process that engages other cultures and involves change in its responses to different challenges at different times. I will…

  16. Cultural Understanding Through Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Jean-Francois

    1986-01-01

    A college course used an explicit intercultural approach and collective research activities to compare French and American cultures and to examine the reasons for cultural attitudes and culture conflict. Class assignments dealt with contrastive analyses of American and French institutions like advertising, cinema, feminism, etc. (MSE)

  17. Microalgal Culture Collection Transfers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Milford Microalgal culture Collection holds over 200 live cultures representing 13 classes of of algae. The cultures are maintained in three different growing...

  18. Urethral discharge culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genital exudate culture; Culture - genital discharge or exudate; Urethritis - culture ... Augenbraun MH, McCormack WM. Urethritis. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ed. ...

  19. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... Normal values depend on the test being performed. Normal results are reported as "no growth" and are a sign ...

  20. Organizations, projects and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Cleeff; Pieter van Nispen tot Pannerden

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: to explore and demonstrate the effects of organizational culture on projects, in particular project culture and project management style. Methodology/approach: descriptive and explorative; through students’ groups. Findings: the cultural relationship between organizations, their projects

  1. Lymph node culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

  2. Routine sputum culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sputum culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Culture, routine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ... . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:409- ...

  3. Cross-cultural awareness

    OpenAIRE

    БУРЯК Н.Ю.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the importance of cultural awareness for businesspeople when they go abroad. It also gives some cultural advice and factors which are thought to be the most important in creating a culture.

  4. Developing cultural sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruddock, Heidi; Turner, deSalle

    2007-01-01

    Title. Developing cultural sensitivity: nursing students’ experiences of a study abroad programme Aim. This paper is a report of a study to explore whether having an international learning experience as part of a nursing education programme promoted cultural sensitivity in nursing students....... Background. Many countries are becoming culturally diverse, but healthcare systems and nursing education often remain mono-cultural and focused on the norms and needs of the majority culture. To meet the needs of all members of multicultural societies, nurses need to develop cultural sensitivity...... on the deliver of culturally sensitive care. Keywords: cultural sensitivity, nursing students, empirical research, report, interviews, study abroad programmes, phenomenology...

  5. Safeguards Culture: Analogies from Safety Culture and Security Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, K.

    2013-01-01

    The terminology of 'safeguards culture' has been used loosely by safeguards experts as an essential element for establishing an organizational environment of stakeholders for the effective and efficient implementation of international safeguards. However, unlike the other two triplet brothers/ sisters of 3S's (Safety, Security, Safeguards), there is no formally established definition of safeguards culture. In the case of safety culture, INSAG (the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) has extensively dealt with its concept, elaborating its definition and key characteristics, and published its report, INSAG-4, as the IAEA Safety Series 75. On the other hand, security culture has also been defined by AdSec (the Advisory Group on Nuclear Security). In this paper, a provisional definition of safeguards culture is made on the analogies of safety culture and security culture, and an effort is made to describe essential elements of safeguards culture. It is proposed for SAGSI (the Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation) to formally consider the definition of safeguards culture and its characteristics. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  6. FROM CULTURAL IMPOTENCE TO CULTURAL AMPUTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вячеслав Владимирович Суханов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cultural space of any state is formed by a population that is within its borders. In this article, the author introduces a new cultural definitions «cultural impotence» and «cultural amputation», justifying their use, both in terms of population of the Russian Federation and the European Union and America. The article analyzes the state of society and the cultural factors that influence the development of society in Russia, there are options to bring the country out of a deep cultural crisis. Also established a close relationship between the domestic policy of the state and development of culture.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-1

  7. Many Forms of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…

  8. HPT: The Culture Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Roger M.; Wittkuhn, Klaus D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the challenges in managing performance across national cultures and within changing corporate cultures. Describes two human performance technology tools that can help performance consultants understand different cultures and provide the basis for successful management action: the culture audit and the systems model that can be adapted…

  9. Journal of Cultural Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of Cultural Studies was established in 1999 as an independent tool for research development in Africa. It is published by the Nigerian Group for the Study of African Cultures (NIGSAC), a non-profit organisation which focuses on cultural and development issues in Africa. The journal aims to explore the varied socio-cultural ...

  10. Reflections on Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lisette

    1999-01-01

    Examines aspects of cross-cultural studies, delineates a concept of culture, explores the interplay of culture and ethics, and analyzes the shifting cultural and economic values as issues that either the economists or the humanists will deal with under the banner of the future global village. (Author/VWL)

  11. Aging in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the empirical studies that test socioemotional aging across cultures. The review focuses on comparisons between Western (mostly North Americans and Germans) and Eastern cultures (mostly Chinese) in areas including age-related personality, social relationships, and cognition. Based on the review, I argue that aging is a meaning-making process. Individuals from each cultural context internalize cultural values with age. These internalized cultural values become goals that guide adult development. When individuals from different cultures each pursue their own goals with age, cultural differences in socioemotional aging occur.

  12. Conceptualizing cultures of violence and cultural change

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, J. Carter

    2007-01-01

    The historiography of violence has undergone a distinct cultural turn as attention has shifted from examining violence as a clearly defined (and countable) social problem to analysing its historically defined 'social meaning'. Nevertheless, the precise nature of the relationship between 'violence' and 'culture' is still being established. How are 'cultures of violence' formed? What impact do they have on violent behaviour? How do they change? This essay examines some of the conceptual aspects...

  13. Athletes’ careers across cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryba, Tatiana; Stambulova, Natalia

    in this symposium continue the initiated dialogue of the relevance of culture and cultural issues in their analyses of how social and cultural discourses shape career development and career transitions of athletes in different countries. Opening the foundations of sport psychological knowledge to culturally diverse...... and, perhaps, unfamiliar intellectual traditions, perspectives and concerns, the symposium will demonstrate how local knowledge of problems enables researchers and practitioners to better understand the dynamics of cultural diversity within the topic of athlete career development and assistance....

  14. Organizational Culture and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth A. Martinez; Nancy Beaulieu; Robert Gibbons; Peter Pronovost; Thomas Wang

    2015-01-01

    Organizations are all around us. Culture is trickier—to analyze and even to see. We consider both the effect of management on culture and the effect of culture on performance. We begin by describing an intervention that dramatically improved outcomes and conspicuously included a culture-change component. We then use details from this intervention to describe potential empirical analyses of the association between organizational culture and performance in this and similar settings. Finally, we...

  15. Family, alcohol, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, L A

    1989-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s a small but rich tradition of anthropological and sociological studies of family culture, cultural context, and alcohol has developed. Ideally, ethnographic analysis of a cultural group and in-depth holistic examination of family process are incorporated in such research. In conducting family, culture, and alcohol investigations, researchers are encouraged to reexamine some conceptual assumptions: (1) their working definition of culture; (2) their relative emphasis on family culture or cultural context; (3) their attention to socialization as an active process in the transmission of culture within and across generations; and (4) their adoption of a holistic and cross-generational perspective. To apply this line of research to preventive and intervention strategies, two questions are especially relevant: Why are particular alcohol traditions established and maintained within families? What incentives and constraints from the family's cultural context help create, preserve, and/or terminate particular drinking practices?

  16. Cultural Literacy: Negotiating Language, Culture, and Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ellen Riojas; Flores, Belinda Bustos

    2007-01-01

    Our schools see increasing numbers of students who reflect the wide diversity of this country's population, but too often these differences--culture, language, socioeconomic backgrounds, ethnicity are viewed from negative or deficit perspectives when they are, in fact, the cultural capital that enriches discussion, broadens viewpoints, and…

  17. What Is so "Cultural" About Cultural Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Albinsson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The term “cultural entrepreneurship” has been increasingly used during the new millennium, mirroring the rapidly growing importance of the “quaternary sector of the economy,” i.e. knowledge-based industries, including culture. Exploration of the literature in which the term “cultural entrepreneurship” is used does not bring a solid, clear-cut, and unambiguous understanding of its definition or meaning. The aim of this paper is to present various uses of the concept and to bring about some clarity in how the concept can be understood. Two overarching uses of the cultural entrepreneurship concept have been found: 1. the anthropologist’s and institutional economist’s use, which indicates the dynamic development of intangible cultural features such as symbols, myths, languages, beliefs, values, norms, rituals, and attitudes in and between societies, and 2. the arts development use, which indicates the dynamic development of cultural services, tangible goods, and individual or collective career promotion. Most authors use a cultural entrepreneurship concept without defining it. Authors could apply more precise definitions by using a quadruple bottom-line framework to position themselves in the nexus of financial, social, artistic, and cultural perspectives.

  18. Cultural commodity chains, cultural clusters, or cultural production chains?

    OpenAIRE

    Andy C. Pratt

    2008-01-01

    The paper begins with a discussion of the definition of cultural industries. The paper's three main themes are concerned with, first: 1) a contestation of the generic application of the global commodity chain concept, 2) the need for a unique focus on cultural industries associated with the particular nature of its production process, and 3) the role of embedded judgments of quality is an integral part of this process. Second, the paper suggests that a restyled focus on production chains (inv...

  19. Robotic art, culture and cultural imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romic, Bojana

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years there has been an ongoing debate about the notion and (possible) function of robotic culture; with the development of the new generation of drones, as well as the advancement in social and health robotics, questions about robot culture seem to open a variety of discussions...... – beginning with the inquiry of how can we grasp the notion of culture, as an umbrella term for the range of habitual and technological practices, in relation to equally heterogeneous field of robotics. This article aims to accentuate the importance of cultural imagination of robots in situating the robotic...... research, observing it 'as a mixed register of fantasy and an actual practice' (Kakoudaki, 2007). The emphasis will be put on the robotic art which, I argue, is in the fluid state of exchange with other areas of robotic research, equally benefiting from the larger context of cultural imagination of robots...

  20. Culture Wars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2016-01-01

    In the 1960s high and low culture were brought into sharp conflict i Denmark. In 1961 a Ministry of Culture was established for the first time. The first minister of culture, the social democrat Julius Bomholt, saw art and culture as an important part of education for democracy that should be made...... available to everyone. The general public, however, raised demands for more popular and relaxing entertainment. The confrontation between the cultural elite and popular opinion escalated to a series of veritable culture wars....

  1. Culture as Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and, ultimat......A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and...

  2. Nordic cultural policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity......A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity...

  3. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  4. Naval Aviation Culture Workshops

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubio, Robert V

    2008-01-01

    .... Organizational culture impacts a unit's performance -- for better or for worse. This research defines organizational culture and describes the dynamic relationships among individuals, groups, and leaders. Two case studies (NASA and U.S. Airways...

  5. Armenian Cultural Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Cultural Astronomy is the reflection of sky events in various fields of nations' culture. In foreign literature this field is also called "Astronomy in Culture" or "Astronomy and Culture". Cultural astronomy is the set of interdisciplinary fields studying the astronomical systems of current or ancient societies and cultures. It is manifested in Religion, Mythology, Folklore, Poetry, Art, Linguistics and other fields. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to this sphere, particularly international organizations were established, conferences are held and journals are published. Armenia is also rich in cultural astronomy. The present paper focuses on Armenian archaeoastronomy and cultural astronomy, including many creations related to astronomical knowledge; calendars, rock art, mythology, etc. On the other hand, this subject is rather poorly developed in Armenia; there are only individual studies on various related issues (especially many studies related to Anania Shirakatsi) but not coordinated actions to manage this important field of investigation.

  6. Developing Cultural Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Fırat Altay

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at emphasizing the issue of teaching of culture in foreign languageteaching. In this respect, the reasons of teaching culture in foreign language classes arefocused on initially. So, the justifications of teaching culture are considered and explainedand by the help of a dialogue. Right after this, ways of developing cultural awareness is takeninto account. At this step, types of courses to develop cultural awareness are dealt with.Developing cultural awareness in class is another aspect to handle. Besides, ways ofdeveloping cultural awareness outside the class are worked on. Whether there are dangers ofusing culture in foreign language class is explained in dangers and problems part. In theconclusion, ideas of the writer on the subject as final remarks are clarified.

  7. Culture and social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuri

    2017-12-01

    A large body of research in Western cultures has demonstrated the psychological and health effects of social class. This review outlines a cultural psychological approach to social stratification by comparing psychological and health manifestations of social class across Western and East Asian cultures. These comparisons suggest that cultural meaning systems shape how people make meaning and respond to material/structural conditions associated with social class, thereby leading to culturally divergent manifestations of social class. Specifically, unlike their counterparts in Western cultures, individuals of high social class in East Asian cultures tend to show high conformity and other-orientated psychological attributes. In addition, cultures differ in how social class impacts health (i.e. on which bases, through which pathways, and to what extent). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Culture in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medin, Douglas L.; Bang, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Culture plays a large but often unnoticeable role in what we teach and how we teach children. We are a country of immense diversity, but in classrooms the dominant European-American culture has become the language of learning.

  9. Rectal culture (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rectal culture test is performed by inserting a cotton swab in the rectum. The swab is rotated gently, and withdrawn. A smear of the swab is placed in culture media to encourage the growth of microorganisms. The ...

  10. The Politics of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Storey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview over the evolution of thinking about "culture" in the work of Raymond Williams. With the introduction of Antonio Gramsci's concept of hegemony culture came to be understood as consisting of not only shared, but contested meanings as well. On the basis of this redefinition by Williams, cultural studies was able to delineate culture as the production, circulation, and consumption of meanings that become embodied and embedded in social practice.

  11. Organizational culture & employee behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tianya

    2015-01-01

    Organizations are among the key units of the society. During their establishment and development, a specific kind of organizational culture eventually appears. The purpose of organizational culture is to improve solidarity and cohesion, and to stimulate employees' enthusiasm and creativity to improve the organization’s economic efficiency. In addition, organizational culture greatly influences employee behavior. The aim of this study is to find out how organizational culture affects employ...

  12. Urine, faeces and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, M.

    This article looks upon the importance of considering cultural aspects in relation to toilet technologies. It is outlined how culture theoretically can be seen as an integrated part of every day actions and technology.......This article looks upon the importance of considering cultural aspects in relation to toilet technologies. It is outlined how culture theoretically can be seen as an integrated part of every day actions and technology....

  13. Culture as Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and...

  14. Personal Space Across Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh-Olesen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    —constitutes one of the main areas of interest, dividing cultures into either contact or low-contact cultures. Examples of proxetics—human spatial behavior studied in terms of universal spacing patterns and cultural similarities—are presented. Finally, future directions for the study of PS in the digital age...

  15. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cultural Exploration through Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Janine M.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing diversity in the United States means that all students must understand multiple cultural perspectives and identities. Educators need to facilitate learning engagements that highlight the complexities of culture and cultural identity, going beyond surface characteristics such as foods, holidays, and clothing that are often the focus in…

  17. Sport and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Andries van den Broek

    2016-01-01

    Oringinal title: Sport en cultuur Many people derive enjoyment from sport and culture in their free time: attending matches, performances, exhibitions or festivals, following sport and culture via the media or participating in a sport or cultural activity. Who takes part in which activities? Does

  18. Cross-Cultural Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    A two-part presentation on cross-cultural communication consists of a discussion of cultural differences in interpersonal communication and an article from a Greek English-language publication concerning telephone use skills in a foreign country. Cultural differences in communication are divided into eight types and illustrated: (1) when to talk;…

  19. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slider, J.E.; Patterson, M.

    1993-01-01

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of open-quotes safety culture.close quotes This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to open-quotes do the right thingclose quotes even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants

  20. Bio-Culturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2007-01-01

    The article argues on the basis of analyses of successful films for children that not only cultural determinants but also innate determinats are important, and that film studies should combine cultural studies with cognitive theory, evolutionary theory and neuroscience, an approach that is called...... Bio-culturalism....

  1. TESOL and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight

    1999-01-01

    Looks at the question of how culture is understood in the Teaching English as a Second/Other-Language (TESOL) profession. Examines the perspectives toward culture implicitly or explicitly expressed in recent "TESOL Quarterly" articles, and concludes that different views of culture exist in the field. (Author/VWL)

  2. Extending Cultural Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecken, Ted J.; Court, Deborah

    1992-01-01

    Advocates defining cultural literacy to recognize the mass media's role in transmitting and maintaining cultural stereotypes and shaping values and beliefs. Distinguishes between ideational and material aspects of culture. Advocates teaching critical thinking and respect for persons in light of questionable moral perspectives in certain media…

  3. Information and Corporate Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Miriam A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper defines "corporate culture" (set of values and beliefs shared by people working in an organization which represents employees' collective judgments about future) and discusses importance of corporate culture, nature of corporate cultures in business and academia, and role of information in shaping present and future corporate…

  4. Culture and Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractDiscourses on culture and development vary according to their conceptions of culture and of development and according to their standpoint. The ‘culture and development’ problematic has typically: (1) arisen from a conception of ‘culture’ as a relatively fixed, homogeneous set of mental

  5. Peritoneal fluid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... The peritoneal fluid culture may be negative, even if you have ... diagnosis of peritonitis is based on other factors, in addition ...

  6. Selling cultural heritage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores the value of cultural and archaeological heritage through a focus on multinational corporations (MNCs) across industries and their involvement with cultural heritage. Research to date has focused mainly on industries where MNCs have a direct impact on cultural or archaeological

  7. Culture Differences and English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Language is a part of culture, and plays a very important role in the development of the culture. Some sociologists consider it as the keystone of culture. They believe, without language, culture would not be available. At the same time, language is influenced and shaped by culture, it reflects culture. Therefore, culture plays a very important…

  8. Culture-sensitive psychotraumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schnyder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there is some evidence of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD construct's cross cultural validity, trauma-related disorders may vary across cultures, and the same may be true for treatments that address such conditions. Experienced therapists tailor psychotherapy to each patient's particular situation, to the nature of the patient's psychopathology, to the stage of therapy, and so on. In addition, culture-sensitive psychotherapists try to understand how culture enhances the meaning of their patient's life history, the cultural components of their illness and help-seeking behaviors, as well as their expectations with regard to treatment. We cannot take for granted that all treatment-seeking trauma survivors speak our language or share our cultural values. Therefore, we need to increase our cultural competencies. Methods: The authors of this article are clinicians and/or researchers from across the globe, working with trauma survivors in various settings. Each author focused on one or more specific cultural aspects of working with trauma survivors and highlighted the following aspects. Results: As a result of culture-specific individual and collective meanings linked to trauma and trauma-related disorders survivors may be exposed to (self-stigma in the aftermath of trauma. Patients who are reluctant to talk about their traumatic experiences may instead be willing to write or use other ways of accessing the painful memories such as drawing. In other cultures, community and family cohesion are crucial elements of recovery. While awareness of culture-specific aspects is important, we also need to beware of premature cultural stereotyping. When disseminating empirically supported psychotherapies for PTSD across cultures, a number of additional challenges need to be taken into account: many low and middle income countries have very limited resources available and suffer from a poor health infrastructure. Conclusions: In summary

  9. Maintenance-energy requirements and robustness of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at aerobic near-zero specific growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Tim; Hakkaart, Xavier D V; de Hulster, Erik A F; van Maris, Antonius J A; Pronk, Jack T; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2016-06-17

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an established microbial platform for production of native and non-native compounds. When product pathways compete with growth for precursors and energy, uncoupling of growth and product formation could increase product yields and decrease formation of biomass as a by-product. Studying non-growing, metabolically active yeast cultures is a first step towards developing S. cerevisiae as a robust, non-growing cell factory. Microbial physiology at near-zero growth rates can be studied in retentostats, which are continuous-cultivation systems with full biomass retention. Hitherto, retentostat studies on S. cerevisiae have focused on anaerobic conditions, which bear limited relevance for aerobic industrial processes. The present study uses aerobic, glucose-limited retentostats to explore the physiology of non-dividing, respiring S. cerevisiae cultures, with a focus on industrially relevant features. Retentostat feeding regimes for smooth transition from exponential growth in glucose-limited chemostat cultures to near-zero growth rates were obtained by model-aided experimental design. During 20 days of retentostats cultivation, the specific growth rate gradually decreased from 0.025 h(-1) to below 0.001 h(-1), while culture viability remained above 80 %. The maintenance requirement for ATP (mATP) was estimated at 0.63 ± 0.04 mmol ATP (g biomass)(-1) h(-1), which is ca. 35 % lower than previously estimated for anaerobic retentostats. Concomitant with decreasing growth rate in aerobic retentostats, transcriptional down-regulation of genes involved in biosynthesis and up-regulation of stress-responsive genes resembled transcriptional regulation patterns observed for anaerobic retentostats. The heat-shock tolerance in aerobic retentostats far exceeded previously reported levels in stationary-phase batch cultures. While in situ metabolic fluxes in retentostats were intentionally low due to extreme caloric restriction, off-line measurements

  10. Culture and Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Anne Marie; Kumar, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    The literature on cross-cultural negotiation has expanded considerably over the past few decades, but the findings are often ambiguous and sometimes even contradictory. This introduction highlights the critical areas where objections are commonly raised about the relevance of national culture......, the applicability of typologies that treat cultures as static, and the problem of ambiguous terminology. It may not be surprising that studies contradict each other given the ambiguity of the national cultural construct and variations in the context of the negotiating situations that are studied. The articles...... in this issue contribute to deepening our understanding about cross-cultural negotiation processes....

  11. Managing culture in IJVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dao, Li

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to extend a cultural sense-making perspective to the context of international joint ventures. The dominant literature on cultural issues in this inter-firm setting has been criticized for relying on a narrow view of culture mainly as a country-level construct. The paper...... argues that dynamic aspects of culture as enacted by key individual actors and constructed in a given context are far more relevant and critical for the joint venture’s managerial process. With evidence from four Danish – Vietnamese joint ventures, the paper proposes a way of managing culture in IJVs...

  12. Development of an economical, autonomous pHstat system for culturing phytoplankton under steady state or dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golda, Rachel L; Golda, Mark D; Hayes, Jacqueline A; Peterson, Tawnya D; Needoba, Joseph A

    2017-05-01

    Laboratory investigations of physiological processes in phytoplankton require precise control of experimental conditions. Chemostats customized to control and maintain stable pH levels (pHstats) are ideally suited for investigations of the effects of pH on phytoplankton physiology, for example in context of ocean acidification. Here we designed and constructed a simple, flexible pHstat system and demonstrated its operational capabilities under laboratory culture conditions. In particular, the system is useful for simulating natural cyclic pH variability within aquatic ecosystems, such as diel fluctuations that result from metabolic activity or tidal mixing in estuaries. The pHstat system operates in two modes: (1) static/set point pH, which maintains pH at a constant level, or (2) dynamic pH, which generates regular, sinusoidal pH fluctuations by systematically varying pH according to user-defined parameters. The pHstat is self-regulating through the use of interchangeable electronically controlled reagent or gas-mediated pH-modification manifolds, both of which feature flow regulation by solenoid valves. Although effective pH control was achieved using both liquid reagent additions and gas-mediated methods, the liquid manifold exhibited tighter control (±0.03pH units) of the desired pH than the gas manifold (±0.10pH units). The precise control provided by this pHstat system, as well as its operational flexibility will facilitate studies that examine responses by marine microbiota to fluctuations in pH in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

    2005-09-08

    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  14. Cultural effects on mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Zapata, Daniel; Slaughter, Virginia; Henry, Julie D

    2016-01-01

    People from other cultural backgrounds sometimes seem inscrutable. We identified a potential cause of this phenomenon in two experiments demonstrating that adults' mental state inferences are influenced by the cultural identity of the target. We adapted White, Hill, Happé, and Frith's (2009) Strange Stories to create matched intra-cultural and cross-cultural mindreading and control conditions. Experiment 1 showed that Australian participants were faster to respond and received higher scores in the intra-cultural mindreading condition relative to the cross-cultural mindreading condition, but performance in the control conditions was equivalent. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern in independent samples of Australian and Chilean participants. These findings have important implications for cross-cultural communication and understanding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Influence of Growth Rate on 2H/1H Fractionation in Continuous Cultures of the Coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi and the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian P Sachs

    Full Text Available The hydrogen isotope (2H/1H ratio of lipids from phytoplankton is a powerful new tool for reconstructing hydroclimate variations in the geologic past from marine and lacustrine sediments. Water 2H/1H changes are reflected in lipid 2H/1H changes with R2 > 0.99, and salinity variations have been shown to cause about a 1‰ change in lipid δ2H values per unit (ppt change in salinity. Less understood are the effects of growth rate, nutrient limitation and light on 2H/1H fractionation in phytoplankton. Here we present the first published study of growth rate effects on 2H/1H fractionation in the lipids of coccolithophorids grown in continuous cultures. Emiliania huxleyi was cultivated in steady state at four growth rates and the δ2H value of individual alkenones (C37:2, C37:3, C38:2, C38:3, fatty acids (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, and 24-methyl cholest-5,22-dien-3β-ol (brassicasterol were measured. 2H/1H fractionation increased in all lipids as growth rate increased by 24‰ to 79‰ (div d-1-1. We attribute this response to a proportional increase in the fraction of NADPH from Photosystem I (PS1 of photosynthesis relative to NADPH from the cytosolic oxidative pentose phosphate (OPP pathway in the synthesis of lipids as growth rate increases. A 3-endmember model is presented in which lipid hydrogen comes from NADPH produced in PS1, NADPH produced by OPP, and intracellular water. With published values or best estimates of the fractionation factors for these sources (αPS1 = 0.4, αOPP = 0.75, and αH2O = 0 and half of the hydrogen in a lipid derived from water the model indicates αlipid = 0.79. This value is within the range measured for alkenones (αalkenone = 0.77 to 0.81 and fatty acids (αFA = 0.75 to 0.82 in the chemostat cultures, but is greater than the range for brassicasterol (αbrassicasterol = 0.68 to 0.72. The latter is attributed to a greater proportion of hydrogen from NADPH relative to water in isoprenoid lipids. The model successfully

  16. Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2009-05-27

    Abstract: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper builds on that theoretical discussion to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Paper: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop on “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges,” in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper, coauthored by Karyn R. Durbin and Andrew Van Duzer, described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper updates that theoretical discussion, and seeks to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Implicit in this discussion is an understanding that improving a culture is not an end in itself, but is one method of improving the underlying discipline, that is safety, security, or safeguards. Culture can be defined as a way of life, or general customs and beliefs of a particular group of people at a particular time. There are internationally accepted definitions of safety culture and nuclear security culture. As yet, there is no official agreed upon definition of safeguards culture. At the end of the paper I will propose my definition. At the Santa Fe Workshop the summary by the Co-Chairs of Working Group 1, “The Further Evolution of Safeguards,” noted: “It is clear that ‘safeguards culture

  17. Making Safety Culture a Corporate Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svenningsson, J.

    2016-01-01

    Safety Culture is something that we have actively worked with in the nuclear industry for a long time. Formally, it has been on the agenda since the Chernobyl accident. However, the work with creating a safe organizational culture can of course be traced back even further in time. Over the years a lot has happened in how we are approaching the concept of safety culture and especially how we look upon the human being as a part of the system and how we as humans interact with the organization and technology. For an organization to have a culture that promotes safety it is essential to create an ownership of safety with all workers within the site. To create this ownership it is vital to have the undivided commitment of the management. It all starts with the fundamental values of the organization. These values must then be concluded in firm expectations of behaviors that apply to all workers and management. This could be referred to as expectation of a Professional Behavior that allows us to live up to the company values. At OKG nuclear power plant, a successful Business Improvement Program was recently carried out with intention to develop and contribute to the maturity of the organization in terms of safety. One of the sub-programs of the program was called Professional Behavior - With purpose of making safety into a corporate culture. At OKG, Safety culture is something that systematically been addressed and worked with since 2004. Even though the Safety Culture program could be considered to already have reached a certain level of maturity the Business Improvement program helped the organization to lay the foundation for further development by clarify expected behaviors that was firmly cemented in to the corporate values.

  18. Cross-Cultural Impression Management: A Cultural Knowledge Audit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Abigail; Kamau, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many people moving into a new culture for work or study do so without prior cross-cultural training, yet successful cultural adaptation has important ramifications. The purpose of this paper is to focus on cross-cultural impression management as an element of cultural adaptation. Does cultural adaptation begin by paying strong attention…

  19. Characterizing European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Levers, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural intensifi......Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural...... intensification and land abandonment. To prevent the loss of cultural landscapes, knowledge on the location of different types of cultural landscapes is needed. In this paper, we present a characterization of European cultural landscapes based on the prevalence of three key dimensions of cultural landscapes......: landscape structure, management intensity, and value and meaning. We mapped these dimensions across Europe at a 1-km resolution by combining proxies on management intensity and landscape structure with new indicators such as social media usage and registered traditional food products. We integrated...

  20. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 APA*

  1. Cultural Influences on Intertemporal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    literature (in English) on Arab culture is explored to contrast how that culture reasons about time and events, with respect to Western cultures. A number...concepts about risk that are prevalent in Western culture, and applying these concepts to existing literature (in English) on Arab culture that...identifies how cultural factors influence intertemporal reasoning, with a focus on Arab culture. Two additional cultures, Pashtun and Somali, were studied

  2. Economic impact of cultural tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Zadel, Zrinka; Bogdan, Sinisa

    2013-01-01

    The subject of analysis in the paper is economic impact of cultural tourism and identification of the main factors which directly affect cultural tourism revenues. Most countries do not have a statistical system of monitoring and analysing individual factors of cultural tourism such as the number of arrivals of cultural tourists and consumption of cultural tourists. Therefore, it is hard to assess the economic impact of cultural tourism. In cultural tourism, cultural assets are prepared and p...

  3. Updating cultural capital theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    2011-01-01

    than absolute terms, and that a field analytic perspective provides the means of understanding cultural capital as such a relative entity. Second, the move from the empirical observation of oppositions to the conceptualisation of cultural capital also demands that the functioning of features......This paper considers how the analysis of cultural engagement can be elaborated through a reworking of the concept of cultural capital, as originally derived from Bourdieu’s (1984) Distinction. Drawing on detailed studies of the UK and Aalborg, Denmark, we show that despite the weakening......, and art); and (c) an international and a local or national orientation stand out as the most important. We discuss whether these oppositions can usefully be conceptualised as cultural capital. We argue that such a conceptualisation demands, first, that cultural capital is understood in relative rather...

  4. Music, culture and identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilir Ramadani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available At the time of globalization it is difficult to pretend avoiding music culture and identity from political, cultural and social developments. Thus, it is impossible for the music to be unshakable and to represent national identity by not taking and giving nothing to culture. The dynamics of life and the rapid development of technology make it impossible for the culture to remain unaffected in terms of sharing experiences social experiences. Culture represents our current course, both in terms of politics, also in the social and human aspects. Through the technology it is possible for our children to be equal with children of all other countries, to exchange information and to connect directly with all countries of the world. Musical education is one of the main factors of cultural development and preservation of national identity. Identity consists of everything we posses and reflect. We are those who distinguish from each other and have a common denominator compared to other nations.

  5. Culture and Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Anders Ib

    INTRODUCTION The present publication deals with issues of imagination and creativity as a notion, philosophy – and social and cultural form, with point of departure in current debates on visual culture. Whereas these debates cover a large ground, spanning from media studies over design to cultural...... studies, they seldom reflect on the basic fact that visual culture in its present form indicates a huge collective creativity in some capacity, implicating the entire postwar era. From early focuses on the possible social and cultural roles of the image in the 1950s and 60s - e.g. in work of Roland...... Barthes and Daniel Boorstin - to the present day, forms of visual culture have proliferated through a variety of collective dimensions, as reflected for instance in the curriculums of visual communication within design education and studies of image representation and pictorial cognition in art history...

  6. Ethics, evolution and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex; Danielson, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Recent work in the fields of evolutionary ethics and moral psychology appears to be converging on a single empirically- and evolutionary-based science of morality or ethics. To date, however, these fields have failed to provide an adequate conceptualisation of how culture affects the content and distribution of moral norms. This is particularly important for a large class of moral norms relating to rapidly changing technological or social environments, such as norms regarding the acceptability of genetically modified organisms. Here we suggest that a science of morality/ethics can benefit from adopting a cultural evolution or gene-culture coevolution approach, which treats culture as a second, separate evolutionary system that acts in parallel to biological/genetic evolution. This cultural evolution approach brings with it a set of established theoretical concepts (e.g. different cultural transmission mechanisms) and empirical methods (e.g. evolutionary game theory) that can significantly improve our understanding of human morality.

  7. Sound as Popular Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider......The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material...

  8. Sound as Popular Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material......, physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider...

  9. Nature/culture/seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place in anthropological categories of "nature" and "culture." Seawater as nature appears as potentiality of form and uncontainable flux; it moves faster than culture - with culture frequently figured through land-based metaphors - even as culture seeks to channel water's (nature's) flow. Seawater as culture manifests as a medium of pleasure, sustenance, travel, disaster. I argue that, although seawater's qualities in early anthropology were portrayed impressionistically, today technical, scientific descriptions of water's form prevail. For example, processes of globalization - which may also be called "oceanization" - are often described as "currents," "flows," and "circulations." Examining sea-set ethnography, maritime anthropologies, and contemporary social theory, I propose that seawater has operated as a “theory machine” for generating insights about human cultural organization. I develop this argument with ethnography from the Sargasso Sea and in the Sea Islands. I conclude with a critique of appeals to water's form in social theory.

  10. Nuclear Safeguards Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, T.

    2015-01-01

    The paper will consider safeguards culture both at the IAEA and among member states. It will do so through the lens of organizational culture theory and taking into account developments in safeguards since the Iraq case of the early 1990s. The study will seek to identify the current characteristics of safeguards culture and how it has evolved since the 93+2 programme was initiated, as well as considering the roles of the most important purveyors of such culture, including member states and their national safeguards authorities, the General Conference and Board of Governors, the Director General, the Secretariat as a whole, the Safeguards Department and the inspectorate. The question of what might be an optimal safeguards culture at the Agency and among member states will be investigated, along with the issue of how such a culture might be engendered or encouraged. (author)

  11. Bacterial cell culture

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    ### Materials 1. Glass culture tubes with metal caps and labels - Growth medium, from media room or customized - Glass pipette tubes - Parafilm ### Equipment 1. Vortexer - Fireboy or Bunsen burner - Motorized pipette - Micropipettes and sterile tips ### Procedure For a typical liquid culture, use 5 ml of appropriate medium. The amount in each tube does not have to be exact if you are just trying to culture cells for their precious DNA. 1. Streak an a...

  12. The Absence of Culture?

    OpenAIRE

    Norberg, Magnus; Jomer, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    This thesis attempts to investigate if national culture still is a factor to consider for large multinational organizations when choosing a supplier, or if the global business environment due to globalization has become so standardized and homogenous that the influence of national culture differences has diminished. Existing academic literature is divided regarding this matter; some studies indicate that the influence of national culture on business relations is subtle while other argues that...

  13. Organizational culture modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Mihaela GHINEA; Constantin BRĂTIANU

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual analysis of organizational culture modeling in the framework of system dynamics. Tom Peters and Robert Waterman demonstrated through their seminal research that organizational culture constitutes one of the most important key success factors in any company trying to achieve excellence in its business. Organizational culture is a strong nonlinear integrator of the organizational intellectual capital acting especially on the emotional knowled...

  14. Esperanto & cultural identity

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrmann, Ask; Christensen, Julie Hellesøe; Dzieza, Malgorzata; Hansen, Nathalie Gylling

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this project is the relationship between culture, cultural identity and language, and their relationship to the ambiguous concept of neutrality. Taking a case study of Esperanto, an artificial language designed with the specific intention of being a completely neutral and nationless language, we will explore how languages relate to the world. By comparing the thoughts on culture and group identity of various authors, we will then try to explore the concept of neutrality – for can...

  15. The Culture of Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Shankha; Thompson, Jon; Yehoue, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    We study the cultural process through which a society inculcates an entrepreneurial spirit. People work for a guaranteed wage or operate a firm whose return depends on business expertise. The latter is culturally acquired, within the family or outside, and people may choose an occupation different from the one they were socialized into. We show that a cultural bias towards safer occupations from colonial and post-colonial policies leads to stagnation where entrepreneurs do not upgrade technol...

  16. Culture in global business

    OpenAIRE

    Andström, Emmi

    2014-01-01

    Cultural diversity is a question mark to many companies and some are afraid to build multicultural teams, however cultural differences can be a huge benefit to any company, especially to those working in global markets. Company management as well as the individuals within the teams need to understand what are the biggest issues within multicultural teams, how to get to know other cultures and to be aware of issues caused by stereotyping others, what to expect from others and how to overcome ...

  17. Negotiating cultures in cyberspace

    OpenAIRE

    Reeder, Kenneth; Macfadyen, Leah P.; Roche, Jörg; Chase, Mackie

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report findings of a multidisciplinary study of online participation by culturally diverse participants in a distance adult education course offered in Canada and examine in detail three of the study's findings. First, we explore both the historical and cultural origins of "cyberculture values" as manifested in our findings, using the notions of explicit and implicit enforcement of those values and challenging the assumption that cyberspace is a culture free zone. Second, we ...

  18. Corpora and Cultural Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2017-01-01

    Cultural cognition is, to a great extent, transmitted through language and, consequently, reflected and replicated in language use. Cultural cognition may be instantiated in various patterns of language use, such as the discursive behavior of constructions. Very often, such instantiations can be ...... is addressed. In the third part of the chapter, three case studies are presented – one from Danish and two from English – to illustrate the analysis of cultural conceptualization via corpus-linguistic techniques....

  19. Doing Cultural Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Hall, Stuart; Janes, Linda

    What does the Walkman have to do with the 21st century? The long-awaited second edition of this classic textbook takes students on a journey between past and present, giving them the skills do to cultural analysis along the way. Through the notion of the 'circuit of culture', this book teaches...... to the past - unpack the key concepts of contemporary culture, such as mobility and materiality - look with fresh eyes at today's media world and the cultural practices it gives rise to - practice their critical skills with up-to-date exercises and activities This book remains the perfect 'how to...

  20. The cultural divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cellular metabolism can be considered to have two extremes: one is characterized by exponential growth (in 2D cultures) and the other by a dynamic equilibrium (in 3D cultures). We have analyzed the proteome and cellular architecture at these two extremes and found that they are dram......Introduction: Cellular metabolism can be considered to have two extremes: one is characterized by exponential growth (in 2D cultures) and the other by a dynamic equilibrium (in 3D cultures). We have analyzed the proteome and cellular architecture at these two extremes and found...

  1. Organizational culture, Anthropology of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause-Jensen, Jakob; Wright, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Anthropologists have studied organizations since the 1930s. In the 1980s, anthropologists' concepts of culture were instrumentalized by nonanthropologists to promote ‘organizational culture’ as a management tool. In subsequent decades, concern shifted to welding employees from different ‘national...... cultures’ into transnational corporations and organizations concerned with international governance. In such organizations, anthropology graduates are increasingly employed as ‘cultural experts.’ We track the anthropological research on organizational culture and argue that the sensibilities and analytical...... skills acquired and the concepts developed through the ethnographic encounter gives anthropology a unique voice in the study of cultural matters in organizations....

  2. Cultivating Cultural Appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esprivalo, Pamela Sue; Forney, Scott

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity that addresses cultural differences and diversity through ethnobotany. Offers a multicultural framework designed to develop concepts about plant characteristics and taxonomy. (ASK)

  3. Runaway cultural niche construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, Luke; Fogarty, Laurel; Laland, Kevin N.

    2011-01-01

    Cultural niche construction is a uniquely potent source of selection on human populations, and a major cause of recent human evolution. Previous theoretical analyses have not, however, explored the local effects of cultural niche construction. Here, we use spatially explicit coevolutionary models to investigate how cultural processes could drive selection on human genes by modifying local resources. We show that cultural learning, expressed in local niche construction, can trigger a process with dynamics that resemble runaway sexual selection. Under a broad range of conditions, cultural niche-constructing practices generate selection for gene-based traits and hitchhike to fixation through the build up of statistical associations between practice and trait. This process can occur even when the cultural practice is costly, or is subject to counteracting transmission biases, or the genetic trait is selected against. Under some conditions a secondary hitchhiking occurs, through which genetic variants that enhance the capability for cultural learning are also favoured by similar dynamics. We suggest that runaway cultural niche construction could have played an important role in human evolution, helping to explain why humans are simultaneously the species with the largest relative brain size, the most potent capacity for niche construction and the greatest reliance on culture. PMID:21320897

  4. Culture of salmonid fishes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stickney, Robert R

    1991-01-01

    .... In recognition of the growing concern that aquaculture development has the potential to negatively impact the natural environment, a chapter on controversies surrounding salmonid culture has been included...

  5. Photosynthesis tests as an alternative to growth tests for hazard assessment of toxicant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, S.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    Acute (3- and 6-h) toxic responses toward Cu, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), and tributyltin (TBT) of lightsaturated and unsaturated photosynthesis were investigated for Rhodomonas salina and Skeletonema costatum obtained from exponentially growing batch cultures and from chemostat cultures...

  6. Cultural change that sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenbach, Jon R; Steffen, Ilona; Kronley, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    When a major change initiative runs aground, leaders often blame their company's culture for pushing it off course. They try to forge ahead by overhauling the culture--a tactic that tends to fizzle, fail, or backfire. Most cultures are too well entrenched to be jettisoned. The secret is to stop fighting your culture--and to work with and within it, until it evolves in the right direction. Today's best-performing companies, such as Southwest Airlines, Apple, and the Four Seasons, understand this, say the authors, three consultants from Booz & Company. These organizations follow five principles for making the most of their cultures: 1. Match strategy to culture. Culture trumps strategy every time, no matter how brilliant the plan, so the two need to be in alignment. 2. Focus on a few critical shifts in behavior. Wholesale change is hard; choose your battles wisely. 3. Honor the strengths of the existing culture. Every culture is the product of good intentions and has strengths; put them to use. 4. Integrate formal and informal interventions. Don't just implement new rules and processes; identify "influencers" who can bring other employees along. 5. Measure and monitor cultural evolution. Otherwise you can't identify backsliding or correct course. When the leaders of Aetna applied these rules while implementing a new strategy in the early 2000s, they reinvigorated the company's ailing culture and restored employee pride. That shift was reflected in the business results, as Aetna went from a $300 million loss to a $1.7 billion gain.

  7. TOURISM AND CULTURAL REVIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George NICULESCU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the tourism and the cultural revival. Cultural change is a recurrent concern in tourism studies. Host societies frequently remodel their culture following the creation of a tourist resort. But, that does not necessarily imply an acculturating process, since what actually takes place is pragmatic cultural production work in response to the touristic demands that offer consolidated economic alternatives and livelihood. Culture change has been a concern in tourism anthropology studies ever since this field of research established itself, particularly concerning the changes host societies undergo. But that does not necessarily imply the phenomenon is to be analyzed exclusively under the focus of the acculturation paradigm, since researchers often come across the production of new cultural elements of a traditional character among host populations in their attempt to occupy new spaces from which to address the world. in fact, that applies to various social situations where local actors seek to display certain lifestyles and cultural traits in order to draw attention to their ethnic, regional, or national features. Therefore, the object of study no longer focuses on the gradual loss of local and cultural (or ethnic substance, but rather on the relative ethnicity triggered by and among translocal flows that may lead to the deliberate turnaround of different cultural aspects of the host populations. Based on those premises, this article deals with the investigation of a cultural change process, making use of the historic perspective that includes an analysis of the “strategies of cultural mobilization” activated by the social subjects that are constantly recreating themselves in the tourism areas.

  8. Cultural Aspects of Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari D. Maharajh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  9. Assessment of Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilic Zabric, T.; Kavsek, D.

    2006-01-01

    A strong safety culture leads to more effective conduct of work and a sense of accountability among managers and employees, who should be given the opportunity to expand skills by training. The resources expended would thus result in tangible improvements in working practices and skills, which encourage further improvement of safety culture. In promoting an improved safety culture, NEK has emphasized both national and organizational culture with an appropriate balance of behavioural sciences and quality management systems approaches. In recent years there has been particular emphasis put on an increasing awareness of the contribution that human behavioural sciences can make to develop good safety practices. The purpose of an assessment of safety culture is to increase the awareness of the present culture, to serve as a basis for improvement and to keep track of the effects of change or improvement over a longer period of time. There is, however, no single approach that is suitable for all purposes and which can measure, simultaneously, all the intangible aspects of safety culture, i.e. the norms, values, beliefs, attitudes or the behaviours reflecting the culture. Various methods have their strengths and weaknesses. To prevent significant performance problems, self-assessment is used. Self-assessment is the process of identifying opportunities for improvement actively or, in some cases, weaknesses that could cause more serious errors or events. Self-assessments are an important input to the corrective action programme. NEK has developed questionnaires for safety culture self-assessment to obtain information that is representative of the whole organization. Questionnaires ensure a greater degree of anonymity, and create a less stressful situation for the respondent. Answers to questions represent the more apparent and conscious values and attitudes of the respondent. NEK proactively co-operates with WANO, INPO, IAEA in the areas of Safety Culture and Human

  10. Cultural Perspective on African American Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks passed down a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  11. Korean Screen Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    new approaches to Korean popular culture beyond national borders and includes work on K-pop and Korean television drama. This book is a vital addition to existing scholarship on Korean popular culture, offering a unique view by providing an imaginary unification of the two Koreas negotiated through...

  12. Conceptualizing leadership across cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickson, M.W.; Castaño, N.; Magomaeva, A.; den Hartog, D.N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we summarize research on how the meaning of leadership varies systematically across cultures, and describe the conflict in the literature between the quest for universals and the identification of cultural contingencies in leadership theory. We review the literature on the

  13. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  14. Cultural Diplomacy in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Anthony

    The evolution of European government activities in the sphere of international cultural relations is examined. Section 1 describes the period between World War I and World War II when European governments tried to enhance their prestige and policies by means of cultural propaganda. Section 2 analyzes the period during World War II when the…

  15. Culture and weight consciousness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nasser, Mervat

    1997-01-01

    ... of eating disorders. This review is used to highlight the problematic areas in cross-cultural methodologies and to suggest directions for future research. The author also relates the feminist theories that have been put forward to explain the phenomenon of eating disorders in the West to the condition of modern women in many non-western cultures...

  16. Cross cultural usability testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Goyal, Shivam

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a pilot study in Denmark of cross cultural effects on Think Aloud usability testing. We provide an overview of previous research on cross cultural usability evaluation with a special focus on the relationship between the evaluator and the test user...

  17. Cultural Keywords in Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . The Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) approach is used as a unifying framework for the studies. This approach offers an attractive methodology for doing explorative discourse analysis on emic and culturally-sensitive grounds. Cultural Keywords in Discourse will be of interest to researchers and students...

  18. Linking Norms and Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBreen, J.; Tosto, Di G.; Dignum, F.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to propose a method of modelling the evolution of social norms in different cultural settings. We analyse the role of culture in shaping agents' normative reasoning and hence their behaviour. The general notion of 'value' is discussed from the perspective of the BDI

  19. Commercial cage fish culture

    OpenAIRE

    Aigbadon, B.V.

    1987-01-01

    With increasing emphasis in Nigeria on aquaculture as an alternative to dwindling artisanal fishing and scarce foreign exchange for fish import, cage fish culture, is a more profitable aquaculture practice than pond culture. It appears to be one of the most viable business ventures with minimum risks. It is a highly recommendable project

  20. Translation between cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Oliveira Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article will question the pertinence of understanding interculturality in terms of translation between cultures. I shall study this hypothesis in two ways : 1 / the cosmopolitan horizon, which the idea of translation may implicate ; 2 / the critique of the premises of unique origin and homogeneity of cultures which this hypothesis makes possible.

  1. MicroCulture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a playful learning scenario, to enhance children’s museum experience, and the design of MicroCulture, a new learning platform. MicroCulture has been developed through a participatory design process, involving around 25 children. The perspective proposed in this paper is focused...

  2. Escape From Cultural Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesao, Tadao

    1975-01-01

    On the premise that the fundamental character of international interchange lies in a cruel and merciless collision of mutually suspicious and distrustful cultures, the historical resistance of the Japanese to cultural interchange is examined, the consequences of international trade without interchange noted, and the means of escape outlined. (JT)

  3. Why Youth Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintron, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses youth culture and raises concerns about the tricky social terrain modernity offers for youth identity. He discusses familiar "topoi" or thematics that seem to drive most work on youth culture, suggests that justice and fairness are moral imperatives, and that acknowledging the worthiness of difference is one…

  4. Cultural Collage Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a cultural collage painting project. Three things served as the impetus for this project: (1) a desire for students to explore the theme of "culture"; (2) an appreciation for the photo-montaged, layered images one sees in print media; and (3) noticing that projects from core subject areas hanging on the walls…

  5. Plant Tissue Culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    The success of plant biotechnology relies on the fundamental techniques of plant tissue culture. Understanding basic biol- ogy of plants is a prerequisite for proper utilization of the plant system or parts thereof. Plant tissue culture helps in providing a basic understanding of physical and chemical requirements of cell, tissue, ...

  6. Pop Goes the Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlansky, Mark J.

    1977-01-01

    Popular culture is defended as a solid academic entry that is a new approach to sociology, art, and literature. The contributions and theories of three professors are discussed: Arthur Asa Berger, Leslie Fiedler, and Alan Gowans. They illustrate the range and diversity in the pop culture field. (LBH)

  7. Pop Culture in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David Manning, Ed.

    The nature of today's popular culture, its place in American life, and its merit or lack of it are the themes of these essays from "The New York Times Magazine." Introductory essays discuss the use of leisure time, paying the cost of the arts, and whether American society can be considered "cultured." Subsequent essays discuss the nature of radio…

  8. Understanding Corporate Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluff, Gary A.

    1988-01-01

    Considers concept of corporate culture and discusses several values which can be considered when assessing corporate culture, and the "compatibility scales" used to measure them. Included are discussions of employee attitudes, work atmosphere, internal communications, management style, employment opportunity, stability, business ethics, corporate…

  9. Culture, technology, communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles; Sudweeks, Fay

    The first book-length anthology to collect some of the most significant culturally-oriented research and scholarship on CMC from the biennial conference series "Cultural Attitudes towards Technology and Communication" (CATaC). The collection is significant for its contribution towards calling...

  10. Mental activity and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Gert Jan

    2018-01-01

    How does culture affect mental activity? That question, applied to the design of social agents, is tackled in this chapter. Mental activity acts on the perceived outside world. It does so in three steps: perceive, interpret, select action. We see that when culture is taken into account, objective

  11. Bio-Culturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2007-01-01

    The article argues on the basis of analyses of successful films for children that not only cultural determinants but also innate determinats are important, and that film studies should combine cultural studies with cognitive theory, evolutionary theory and neuroscience, an approach that is called...

  12. CULTURAL IMPLICATIONS ON DICTIONARIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    Abstract: This article attempts to show how culture or aspects thereof can be used to comple- ment linguistic and other information in the compilation of dictionaries of African languages. Some obstacles in the way of achieving this goal are identified and proposals made on how to deal with them. Although only some cultural ...

  13. Measuring Cultural Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsiurko, Natalka; Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Many claim that national economic success depends upon cultural homogeneity. We collect new time-series data and develop new measures of ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization for the OECD countries. We show that cultural diversity may vary by type across countries and over short...

  14. FRANCHISING IN CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sitnitskiy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of franchise relations in the sphere of culture in Ukraine is grounded, the author definition of “franchise in culture” as an economic category is proposed and the main advantages and disadvantages of franchising in culture are systematized.

  15. A Runyakitara Culture Wiki

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frederick Iraki

    ABSTRACT. Peterson Asingwire developed a Runyakitara culture framework in 2013, with the aim of using the wiki as a tool for Runyakitara culture documentation, collaboration, sharing, preservation, and revitalization. This paper discusses the implementation of his framework using the wikispaces web hosting service.

  16. Walakira culturing.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    1 and diet-2. Significant growth performance was attained with diet-3. This study demonstrated that sinking fish feed pellets can be used to culture wild-caught ...... management. Kluwer Academic. Publishers, Boston, MA. Boyd, C.E. 1982. Water quality management for pond fish culture. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co.

  17. The virtual culture consumer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nathalie Sonck; Jos de Haan

    2012-01-01

    Original title: De virtuele kunstkar The Dutch satisfy their interest in culture by visiting artistic institutions and exhibitions or by practising the arts themselves. They also use media to meet their cultural needs. In particular, the rise of new media such as the Internet has led to an

  18. Introduction to Vietnamese Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te, Huynh Dinh

    This booklet about the cultural background of Vietnam is one of three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Vietnam is located on the eastern coast of the Indochinese peninsula and has a population of 56 million. Its history is divided into the…

  19. Cultural Capital in Context:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Gran; Jæger, Mads Meier

    to be higher in low-achieving schooling environments than in high-achieving ones. These results support the cultural mobility explanation and are in line with previous research suggesting that children from low-SES families benefit more from cultural capital than children from high-SES families....

  20. Unity through Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Ethnographic film, Moesgård Film, Royal Anthropological Institute (59 min, 2011) Soanin Kilangit is determined to unite the people and attract international tourism through the revival of culture on Baluan Island in the South Pacific. He organizes the largest cultural festival ever held on the is......, performance, identity, cultural politics, exchange, and the impact of the West on traditional societies.”  — Karen Stevenson, American Anthropologist, September 2012......Ethnographic film, Moesgård Film, Royal Anthropological Institute (59 min, 2011) Soanin Kilangit is determined to unite the people and attract international tourism through the revival of culture on Baluan Island in the South Pacific. He organizes the largest cultural festival ever held...

  1. Culture and body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the relationship between culture and body image. We intend to know how socio-cultural factors influence the levels of satisfaction with body image. The emphasis is given to the cultural values as represented by the sociocultural norms of societies such as the United States of America and Europe. It is argued that through the media, the values of these industrialized societies are dissipated throughout the world provoking cultural changes and uniformization of behavioural standards. From the literature review, it is possible to conclude that body dissatisfaction is a reality to both sexes and a direct result of the non-conformity to cultural-esthetical patterns promoted by the profit-oriented societies.

  2. Culture and teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Bradley L; Shapiro, Debra L; Lu, Shuye; McGurrin, Daniel P

    2016-04-01

    We first review research on culture effects in teams, illustrating that mean levels of team cultural values have main (i.e. direct) effects, indirect effects (i.e. mediated by intervening variables), and moderating influences on team processes and outcomes. Variance in team cultural values or on country of origin (i.e. nationality diversity) also has main effects on team functioning, and we highlight contextual variables that strengthen or weaken these main effects. We next review research examining the effect of variance in team cultural values on global virtual teams, specifically. Finally, we review research on how cultural values shape employees' receptivity to empowering leadership behavior in teams. We conclude by discussing critical areas for future research. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Kitsch and cultural tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Petroman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The urban area covers a high density of structures developed by man compared to the surrounding areas. Cultural tourism includes, on the one hand, cultural tourism in urban areas – particularly historical towns and cities with cultural sites such as museums or theatres – and, on the other hand, cultural tourism in rural areas – where its main goal is to focus on communities, festivals, rituals, and traditions. From the point of view of the practice of urban or rural cultural tourism, tourists are, in most cases, presented what they wish to see: thus, authenticity can turn into inauthenticity and what is promoted is vulgar art or improper beauty, surrogate art or even pseudo-art – kitsch, represented by souvenirs that have nothing to do with true art.

  4. Culture as Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and...... essays, Slavko Kacunko discusses the process art by crossing the disciplines of art history and comparative media-, visual- and -cultural studies. As a first approximation, several historiographical remarks on closed-circuit video installations underline their importance as a core category of process art....... In the second part, the problems of process art, seen as a threshold of art history, are further examined in another retroanalytical step, in which concepts and objects related to `mirror', `frame' and `immediacy' are analyzed as the triple delimitation of visual culture studies. In the third part, previously...

  5. Patient Safety Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Solvejg

    Patient safety is highly prioritised in the Danish health care system, never the less, patients are still exposed to risk and harmed every day. Implementation of a patient safety culture has been suggested an effective mean to protect patients against adverse events. Working strategically...... with assessment and development of the patient safety culture is in early days in Denmark. It depends upon valid, reliable and effective methods. The patient safety culture represents a wide range of social phenomena permeating the way of life in a health care. In essence, the safety culture is an aggregation...... of health care professional’s behaviour, habits, norms, values, and basic assumptions related to patient care; it is the way things are done. The patient safety culture guides the motivation, commitment to and know-how of the safety management, and how all members of a work place interact. This thesis...

  6. Religion and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    group breaks totally with the existing Arabic Bible translations that they were in the habit of using. In this translation, the previously strenuous relationship between culture and religion is flattened in a binary sets of oppositions between an unaltered Devine message preserved in ancient Bible...... of this paper to shed some light on Jehovah’s Witnesses theological perception of religion and culture within the context of modern Arab Christianity; a subject that has not received the scholarly attention it deserves. This paper shall also look into Jehovah’s Witnesses’ Arabic Bible Translation New World...... translation of the Holy Scriptures, and address how an originally-American Christian group re-constructs the relationship of religion –universality of one truth and its embodiment in one community of faith – and culture; and specifically, Arabic culture. Culture, in its manifold forms -Jehovah’s witnesses...

  7. Cultural Capital Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Skjøtt-Larsen, Jakob; Rosenlund, Lennart

    2008-01-01

    Based on Danish survey data subjected to correspondence analysis, this article aims at carrying out a critical assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of social differentiation in advanced societies as a multi-dimensional phenomenon. As his theory goes, capital volume (economic + cultural capital......) and capital composition (the relative weight of the two) are the main dimensions of social differentiation, which structure the space of social positions as well as the space of lifestyles. The central discussion of the article concerns the character of cultural capital, and the role it plays in the formation...... of distinction? Cultural capital in a contemporary Danish context appears to be less related to traditional highbrow cultural consumption than in Bourdieu's studies in France some decades ago. Third, is there a rise in the omnivorousness and tolerant taste within the cultural elite? This study answers negatively...

  8. Cultural Policy in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gestur

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the history of cultural policy in Iceland from a Nordic comparative perspective. National cultural policy takes form in the 19th and early 20th century as a part of the nation-building, emphasising the Icelandic language as the core of national identity, building cultural...... institutions and relying heavily on civic society enterprise. After national independence in 1918 there are growing conflicts in the cultural field and during the Cold War such conflicts take the form of an alliance of nationlism and socialism against NATO-oriented anti-communism. However, there is consensus...... on the continuing emphasis on central cultural institution and the Icelandic language. Since the 1970s Cold War conflicts have been replaced by a consensus on growing support to artists and an armth's length policy, and furthermore the 1990s have seen a strong move towards NPM and international participation....

  9. AccessCulture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtysson, Bjarki

    of the European Union, and how its cultural policy responds to the changes that the digital paradigm has brought upon the field. The self-publishing features of various Web 2.0 platforms, along with the interactive and distributional potentials that the Internet offers, have given rise to what is referred to here...... in cultural production and consumption. The first part of this works looks at how these changes respond to the field of cultural policy, as well as suggesting a possible culturepolitical reaction in a model which I refer to as access culture. In terms of theoretical approach, the notion of digital cultural...... of YouTube, MySpace, Facebook and Flickr, along with lesser known platforms such as the animated short film Elephants Dream, the BBC's Creative Archive, various Internet artworks and the Internet Archive. I furthermore introduce the copyright system Creative Commons in order to suggest legal, widely...

  10. Culture and body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Alves

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the relationship between culture and body image. We intend to know how socio-cultural factors influence the levels of satisfaction with body image. The emphasis is given to the cultural values as represented by the sociocultural norms of societies such as the United States of America and Europe. It is argued that through the media, the values of these industrialized societies are dissipated throughout the world provoking cultural changes and uniformization of behavioural standards. From the literature review, it is possible to conclude that body dissatisfaction is a reality to both sexes and a direct result of the non-conformity to cultural-esthetical patterns promoted by the profit-oriented societies.

  11. Music, Meaning and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Widdess

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper situates musical meaning in culture, addressing music as social symbol and as ongoing process of meaning creation. Three examples of non- Western musical practice are used to illustrate the embedding of musical meaning in cultural context. The performance of an Australian Aboriginal song is shown to exemplify the interdependence of song style and social structure as a matrix for the emergence of cultural meanings; an example of North Indian performance is adduced to demonstrate the multi-layered nature of meaning as embodied in musical performance; and an example of collective festival performance from Nepal illustrates ways in which the structure of musical performance can mirror local cultural forms. Each of the three examples lends weight to the idea that music's meanings are often non-linguistic and reflect foundational schemas that are specific to the cultures from the musics are drawn.

  12. Enhancing students' cultural competence using cross-cultural experiential learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Bertolo, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate community health students' perceptions of their cultural competence. Little is known about students' cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills after their experience working with diverse cultural groups and language barriers. A cross-cultural experiential learning exercise was used as an educational approach. Reflective writing was used to elicit students' attitudes of the other culture and their coping skills. Three themes emerged as cultural awareness and knowledge, observation and learning, and cross-cultural communication. Results underscore the need for student academic preparation using cross-cultural educational approaches to enhance cultural competence.

  13. Cultural Evolution and SETI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Drake Equation for the number of radio communicative technological civilizations in the Galaxy encompasses three components of cosmic evolution: astronomical, biological and cultural. Of these three, cultural evolution totally dominates in terms of the rapidity of its effects. Yet, SETI scientists do not take cultural evolution into account, perhaps for understandable reasons, since cultural evolution is not well-understood even on Earth and is unpredictable in its outcome. But the one certainty for technical civilizations billions, millions, or even thousands of years older than ours is that they will have undergone cultural evolution. Cultural evolution potentially takes place in many directions, but this paper argues that its central driving force is the maintenance, improvement and perpetuation of knowledge and intelligence, and that to the extent intelligence can be improved, it will be improved. Applying this principle to life in the universe, extraterrestrials will have sought the best way to improve their intelligence. One possibility is that they may have long ago advanced beyond flesh-and-blood to artificial intelligence, constituting a postbiological universe. Although this subject has been broached, it has not been given the attention it is due from its foundation in cultural evolution. Nor has the idea of a postbiological universe been carried to its logical conclusion, including a careful analysis of the implications for SETI. SETI scientists, social scientists, and experts in AI should consider the strengths and weaknesses of this new paradigm.

  14. Organizational climate and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Benjamin; Ehrhart, Mark G; Macey, William H

    2013-01-01

    Organizational climate and organizational culture theory and research are reviewed. The article is first framed with definitions of the constructs, and preliminary thoughts on their interrelationships are noted. Organizational climate is briefly defined as the meanings people attach to interrelated bundles of experiences they have at work. Organizational culture is briefly defined as the basic assumptions about the world and the values that guide life in organizations. A brief history of climate research is presented, followed by the major accomplishments in research on the topic with regard to levels issues, the foci of climate research, and studies of climate strength. A brief overview of the more recent study of organizational culture is then introduced, followed by samples of important thinking and research on the roles of leadership and national culture in understanding organizational culture and performance and culture as a moderator variable in research in organizational behavior. The final section of the article proposes an integration of climate and culture thinking and research and concludes with practical implications for the management of effective contemporary organizations. Throughout, recommendations are made for additional thinking and research.

  15. Cultural Dimensions of Military Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    cross-cultural awareness training in various commercial sectors, the field of cross-cultural communication (also known as intercultural communication...advanced language skills, and culture and regional expertise with the goals to promote a rethinking of culture and intercultural competence, and how... Intercultural Competence” (Center for Languages, Cultures, and Regional Studies, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY), 4. 34Headquarters

  16. Cultural Amnesia and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viðar Hreinsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A few of the main concepts of cultural memory are investigated in this paper, in order to extend the idea of cultural memory to include the diversity of past cultures and cultural products. It is claimed that understanding of diversity, in a dialogue with the past, enhances cultural understanding for the benefit of sustainable development.

  17. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) leakage from microbial biosensors provides useful information for the evaluation of the scale-down effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvigne, Frank; Brognaux, Alison; Francis, Frédéric; Twizere, Jean-Claude; Gorret, Nathalie; Sorensen, Soren J; Thonart, Philippe

    2011-08-01

    Mixing deficiencies can be potentially detected by the use of a dedicated whole cell microbial biosensor. In this work, a csiE promoter induced under carbon-limited conditions was involved in the elaboration of such biosensor. The cisE biosensor exhibited interesting response after up and down-shift of the dilution rate in chemostat mode. Glucose limitation was accompanied by green fluorescent protein (GFP) leakage to the extracellular medium. In order to test the responsiveness of microbial biosensors to substrate fluctuations in large-scale, a scale-down reactor (SDR) experiment was performed. The glucose fluctuations were characterized at the single cell level and tend to decrease the induction of GFP. Simulations run on the basis of a stochastic hydrodynamic model have shown the variability and the frequencies at which biosensors are exposed to glucose gradient in the SDR. GFP leakage was observed to a great extent in the case of a culture operated in well-mixed fed-batch mode, by comparison with those operated in SDR. GFP leakage seems to be correlated to a higher membrane permeability, confirming previous studies highlighting a better cell viability in cultures operated in a fluctuating environment. Our results suggest that GFP leakage could be used in parallel to the normal GFP biosensor function in order to assess microbial viability in process conditions. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Organizational Culture and Industrialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Simon Ulrik

    behaviours. In-group/out-group particularist values that have been handed over from preindustrial society tend to overlay and replace impersonal and universalistic bureaucracies and market exchange typical ofindustrial society. The paper shows how these values shape the culture of organizations in Latin......Drawing on a revised version ofHofstede's theory ofindustrialization and cultural change contained in his explanation of individualism and collectivism, the paper proposes that countries which are in the earlier stages of industrialization have a common culture that governs organizational...

  19. From Culturalism to Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Casellas López

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article places the immigrants’ integration issue within the culture-citizenship debate. In order to understand culture as something else than people’s given customs or “essence”, the text begins by analysing the essentialist notion of the term ‘culture’, pointing out some of its deficiencies and risks involved in dealing with such a notion. Drawing on the ethical relativism-universalism continuum, the authors also discuss the drawbacks they see in a culture-centred integration, suggesting instead a citizenship approach based on a multidirectional and dynamic notion –aimed at achieving equal rights for everyone involved, immigrant and native populations alike.

  20. Rumlig kultur / Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    artikler et forskningsfelt for rumlig kultur, hvori alskens sanse- og refleksionsformer finder sammen. Based in humanistic urban studies as practiced in the Department of Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, SPATIAL CULTURE outlines a novel framework for understanding the social....... Considerable parts of the volume are in both English and Danish. Along with the introductory chapter by Henrik Reeh, Associate Professor of Humanistic Urban Studies and Modern Culture, University of Copenhagen, and the final essay by Albertó Pérez-Gómez, Professor of the History of Architecture, Mc...

  1. Multiculturalisme et culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    . On epistemological grounds, these approaches would assimilate cultures to closed ensembles with strictly defined contours and content. On political grounds, such a conception faces three types of objections. It would favor the propagation of stereotypes, influence the balance of power within communities and alter......This article engages the role played by culture in a part of multicultural literature. Through the study of Charles Taylor and Will Kymlicka's positions, it introduces to the critique of reductionism which is addressed to approaches founded on the intrinsic or instrumental value of culture...

  2. Autonomy, culture and healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Anita Holm

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to present a theoretical view of how cultural thinking and action in meetings between patient and therapist can be analyzed with special attention to raising awareness of underlying prejudices and preconceptions in such encounters. The examples in the article are all taken from...... a Scandinavian and mostly a Danish context. A key point of the analysis indicates that a highly efficient health sector may entail an implicit duality: On the one hand, the therapist can relate pragmatically to the patient when engaging in cultural meetings. On the other hand, the therapist may be personally...... challenged when cultural thinking leads to ethical dilemmas....

  3. Cultural participation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, David; Kann-Rasmussen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Europe has a ‘problem’; it is becoming a ‘less cultural continent’ as fewer Europeans are ‘engaging in cultural activities’. This conclusion has been reached due to the findings of the latest cross national cultural participation survey. This paper questions the existence of this ‘problem......’ and instead suggests that there is a shared problematisation across Europe sustained by common discursive archaeology that employs various discursive strands in relation to a dominant institutional discourse. The argument is that the ‘problem’ of ‘non-participation’ legitimates a ‘solution’ that predates its...... representation in both countries, and potentially across Europe, appears to rely....

  4. Astronomy and culture

    CERN Document Server

    Hetherington, Edith

    2009-01-01

    While astronomy is a burgeoning science, with tremendous increases in knowledge every year, it also has a tremendous past, one that has altered humanity's understanding of our place in the universe. The impact of astronomy on culture - whether through myths and stories, or through challenges to the intellectual status quo - is incalculable. This volume in the Greenwood Guides to the Universe series examines how human cultures, in all regions and time periods, have tried to make sense of the wonders of the universe. Astronomy and Culture shows students how people throughout time have struggled

  5. Organizational Culture and Industrialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Simon Ulrik

    Drawing on a revised version ofHofstede's theory ofindustrialization and cultural change contained in his explanation of individualism and collectivism, the paper proposes that countries which are in the earlier stages of industrialization have a common culture that governs organizational...... behaviours. In-group/out-group particularist values that have been handed over from preindustrial society tend to overlay and replace impersonal and universalistic bureaucracies and market exchange typical ofindustrial society. The paper shows how these values shape the culture of organizations in Latin...

  6. Translation as cultural mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Petcu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the role that translation plays as cultural mediator, as it already widely accepted that translation involves not just two languages, but two cultures, two worlds that are brought into close contact with each other. Obviously, between the two cultures, the two worlds that translation compares and contrasts there are both similarities and dissimilarities. What is of interest to us is the way in which dissimilarities should be approached in the process of translation, whether they should be domesticated or foreignized as Venuti put it, whether the reader should be brought closer to the text or the text closer to the reader.

  7. Multiculturalisme et culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    This article engages the role played by culture in a part of multicultural literature. Through the study of Charles Taylor and Will Kymlicka's positions, it introduces to the critique of reductionism which is addressed to approaches founded on the intrinsic or instrumental value of culture....... On epistemological grounds, these approaches would assimilate cultures to closed ensembles with strictly defined contours and content. On political grounds, such a conception faces three types of objections. It would favor the propagation of stereotypes, influence the balance of power within communities and alter...

  8. Class, Culture and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2013-01-01

    Even though contemporary discussions of class have moved forward towards recognizing a multidimensional concept of class, empirical analyses tend to focus on cultural practices in a rather narrow sense, that is, as practices of cultural consumption or practices of education. As a result......, discussions within political sociology have not yet utilized the merits of a multidimensional conception of class. In light of this, the article suggests a comprehensive Bourdieusian framework for class analysis, integrating culture as both a structural phenomenon co-constitutive of class and as symbolic...

  9. Culture in constructive remembering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2012-01-01

    , critiqued and developed with the help of a number of other thinkers. The ultimate aim of the chapter is to go beyond Bartlett and arrive at a thoroughgoing culturally inclusive psychological theory of remembering. Though Bartlett clearly situated remembering within a social process, he did not provide...... an alternative temporal metaphor of remembering as ‘construction’. If we push his metaphor further—with the help of cultural psychology—we can say memory construction is done by agents using cultural ‘tools’ such as language and narrative. In this chapter, Bartlett’s theory is contextualized, elucidated...

  10. Flexible cultural repertoires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Zimmermann, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    Despite extensive studies of street culture and the risks of offending and victimization in urban marginalized areas, little is known about the role of cultural repertoires for variation in victimization risks among young men not involved in crime. Based on two ethnographic studies, conducted...... rejection of crime-involved youth. Young men who perform flexible cultural repertoires, by incorporating and shifting between gang and decent repertoires, experience low victimization due to their adaptation to crime-involved youth. Findings emphasize the importance of detailed investigations of the way...

  11. The Idealized Cultural Encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull

    ). This paper proposes to study cultural encounters which are organised around ideals of cultural difference as a positive social and political force. The Danish People to People NGO Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke (MS) is build around ideals of equality, co-operation, mutuality and solidarity between people...... framework for an investigation into MS’ organisation of what I have termed ‘the idealized cultural encounter’, while also questioning the ways in which ‘culture’ is envisioned in contexts where ‘encounter’ is seen as a positive and desirable force....

  12. Nuclear Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Ethics is caring about people and Safety is caring that no physical harm comes to people.Therefore Safety is a type of Ethical Behavior. Culture: is The Way We Do Things Here.Safety Culture is mixture of organization traditions, values, attitudes and behaviors modeled by Its leaders and internalized by its members that serve to make nuclear safety the overriding priority. Safety Culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in Organisations and individuals which established that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance

  13. Optimal Management during the Microorganism Culture Based on the Continuous Purifying Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbin Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of selective harvesting in a chemostat model. Here, we have taken the purifying effort as a dynamic variable and tax as a control instrument. The existence of the possible steady states along with their globally stable equilibrium is discussed. The optimal tax policy is also discussed with the help of Pontryagin's maximum principle. Finally, numerical examples are taken to illustrate some of the key results.

  14. Culture in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murakami, Kyoko

    2012-01-01

    The overall aim of this chapter is to discuss an approach to studying culture by drawing on the project of remembering and reconciliation from a discursive psychology perspective. I demonstrate discourse analysis from research using a case of the Anglo-Japanese reconciliation. I provide a brief...... overview of the development of discourse analysis and discursive psychology and highlight key philosophical foundations and theoretical assumptions on which discursive psychology and practice of discourse analysis are based. As the examples of discourse analysis, I will demonstrate how culture can...... be studied as a topic of members' concern. In this view, culture is not a matter of the researcher's concern to handle as a causal factor or independent variable. Discursive psychologists study culture as a resource for the participants. Finally, I will discuss the implication of the discursive approach...

  15. Social and cultural activities

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Club news : Record Club, Ski Club, Dancing Club, Orienteering Club, CERN Women's Club, Concerts Club, Russian Cultural Circle, Yachting Club. Conference : Voyage au coeur d'une flûte de champagne. Exhibition.

  16. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  17. Enterprise, Culture and Anarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, P. R.

    1989-01-01

    Britain's proposed plans for reform of higher education are criticized for lack of historical perspective on the nature and cultivation of culture and intellect, removal of institutional autonomy, and irresponsible government intervention. (MSE)

  18. Holograms a cultural history

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Sean F

    2016-01-01

    Holograms have been in the public eye for over a half-century, but their influences have deeper cultural roots. No other visual experience is quite like interacting with holograms; no other cultural product melds the technological sublime with magic and optimism in quite the same way. As holograms have evolved, they have left their audiences alternately fascinated, bemused, inspired or indifferent. From expressions of high science to countercultural art to consumer security, holograms have represented modernity, magic and materialism. Their most pervasive impact has been to galvanize hopeful technological dreams. This book explores how holograms found a place in distinct cultural settings. Engineers, artists, hippies and hobbyists have played with, and dreamed about, holograms. This book explores the technical attractions and cultural uses of the hologram, how they were shaped by what came before them, and how they have matured to shape our notional futures. Today, holograms are in our pockets (as identity do...

  19. Cultural Astronomy in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  20. Culture in Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács Gabriella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning a language means also the study of a different culture. This study focuses on the introduction of the topic of culture in language teaching into the curriculum of the subject Language Teaching Methodology for teacher trainees studying at Translation And Interpreting Studies, Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania, Faculty of Technical and Human Sciences, Târgu-Mureş. This topic has not been treated separately so far, it has only been discussed implicitly, included in other topics. But we believe that future teachers should have a more thorough theoretical and practical training in terms of what incorporating culture into language teaching implies. For this purpose, we are going to examine and discuss some of the recommendations and principles stated in the specialized literature regarding culture in foreign language teaching and reflect on what the ideal content of a course related to the teaching of this skill should be.

  1. Culture in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Ulrik; Christensen, Hans Peter

    2011-01-01

    As engineers today often work in intercultural projects and contexts, intercultural competences must be part of the learning objectives in engineering educations. Cultural aspects of engineering education should not just be treated as a question of appropriate communication and teaching: cultural...... to cultural aspects in engineering education. Hence the key-question of this paper is how CDIO support the development of intercultural competences in engineering education. The paper explores the implementation of CDIO in an intercultural arctic engineering programme in Greenland that since 2001 has been...... enrolling students with special focus on developing intercultural competences. The discussion draws on the socio-technical approaches to technology and professional engineering practises [5,6]. We conclude that intercultural teaching is not just a matter of teaching in spite of cultural differences...

  2. Hybrid Cemetery Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Rodil, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the urban cemetery as a site of intangible cultural practices and ubiquitous computing as an approach to enhance heritage sites. The paper introduces an experience assessment tool as a mobile phone application that audio-visually augments a heritage interpretation programme...... mediations of historic heritage information and cultural practices of remembrance. The paper concludes, that an augmentation of the urban cemetery culture points to a high significance amongst citizens, and that experience design through mobile technologies promises an enhanced meaning in an often overlooked...... urban site. Due to the sensitive subject matter of death and mourning, the participation of the public in general faces challenges that need attention when planning a cultural heritage programme....

  3. America's Cultural Awakening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brents, William B

    2007-01-01

    Although the collapse of the Soviet Union elevated the United States to a hyper superpower status, globalization in terms of modernity, economics, security, and culture would dramatically affect its ascendancy...

  4. Museology and Scientific Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, Diane

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the period of transition and self examination of the museology of science. Defines the main issues and limits of the museum as a means of transmitting a scientific culture and scientific ways. (Author/RT)

  5. Cultural realities of being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cultural Realities of Being offers a dialogue between academic activity and everyday lives by providing an interface between several perspectives on human conduct. Very often, academic pursuits are arcane and obscure for ordinary people, this book will attempt to disentangle these dialogues, lift...... fresh light on the everyday events presented in the text. Cultural Realities of Being will be essential reading for those studying Cross Cultural Psychology as well as those interested in social representation and identity.......Cultural Realities of Being offers a dialogue between academic activity and everyday lives by providing an interface between several perspectives on human conduct. Very often, academic pursuits are arcane and obscure for ordinary people, this book will attempt to disentangle these dialogues...

  6. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  7. Peace, welfare, culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes how Muslims are implied to constitute threats in the official Danish discourse of the centre-right government since 2001. It does so to provide a more nuanced picture of Danish debates on integration than the usual presentation of two discourses – culturalism and multicultur......This article analyzes how Muslims are implied to constitute threats in the official Danish discourse of the centre-right government since 2001. It does so to provide a more nuanced picture of Danish debates on integration than the usual presentation of two discourses – culturalism...... and multiculturalism – pitted in opposition. By analytically focusing on “security narratives”, the article details how initial narratives of Muslims as threats to culture, welfare and societal peace merged and morphed to award surprising new roles to the state and multiculturalism. The re-evaluation of cultural...

  8. Cultural Behavior Generation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reece, Douglas A; Taylor, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    .... We considered different training applications and identified a "knock-and-talk" house visitation scenario as representative of scenarios that require cultural awareness on the part of a trainee, yet...

  9. Phytochemistry and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurlin, Quincy

    1997-01-01

    Describes a trend in science teaching marked by shifts in philosophies and practices and by a search for science content that draws from the experiences of a culturally diverse student population. (DDR)

  10. Teaching Nazi Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patty Lee Parmalee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nazi Culture would seem at first to be a very esoteric subject to teach to the rather practical-minded and not very cosmopolitan students of a northern New Jersey state college. But of course it is really a distancing technique, a Verfremdungseffekt a la Brecht. Teaching fascism is not really teaching fascism per se, but an angle for teaching capitalism and socialism. And teaching Nazi culture is an angle for teaching some of the purposes of capitalist ideology.

  11. Departamento de Patrimonio Cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Valassina Simonetta

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available El Departamento de Patrimonio Cultural se estructura en base a dos grandes líneas docentes, la Historia de la Arquitectura y la Teoría del Urbanismo, las asignaturas que corresponden a estas líneas están asignadas al área cultural y teórica dentro del cuadro general de asignaturas del Plan de Estudios de la Carrera de Arquitectura.

  12. Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Gregory John

    2017-01-01

    In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...

  13. Cultural Orientation and Interdisciplinarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    I begin the article with an account of the background to the German debate on ‘Literaturwissenschaft als Kulturwissenschaft’, including the introduction of the concept of ’cultural orientation’ as a strategy for achieving interdisciplinarity. This is followed by a consideration of the discussion ...... of the object of literary studies as a way of defining the disciplinarity or identity of literary studies. Finally I summarize some of the characteristics of culturally orientated literary studies....

  14. Pleading for Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ștefan GROSU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Culture designates “the tools through which the human polishes himself and develops his multiple spiritual and physical gifts.” The humans interact and change opinions and become conscious that they belong to a global cultural space and are also “authors of the culture of their own community.” Through these tools human “exerts to disobey the world, humanizes social, family and physical life, through progress of mores and institutions, in the end human, expresses, communicates and keeps in its operas, during the times, its great major experiences, because them to serve the progress… of whole human people.” The human valorizes itself but also contributes to the progress of society. Today we talk about the plurality of culture through which is opened the path to the cultural dissemination and perfection. In this way, the humans get a responsibility towards the cultural progress of their community which is anchored in global community, and then appears the question: “what must be done so that all the humans of the world to participate to cultural gods? It is observed here a “spiritual and moral maturity of humans,” defined as “new humanism”. This new type of humanism is not a simple talk, but it represents a new “type of responsibility towards human and towards history.” In this way, it appears the need of a new type of education because the nowadays human must be prepared to become creator and responsible to integrate in a global culture based on values as “intelligence, will, conscience and human fraternity.”

  15. Delineating Cultural Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    Automatic Control, 49(9), 1520-1533. Olk, H. (2003). Cultural knowledge in translation. ELT Journal , 57(2), 167-174. doi:10.1093/ elt /57.2.167 Ong...culture: A model with local convergence and global polarization. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 41(2), 203-226. Busemeyer, J. R., & Townsend, J. T...Deffuant, G. (2006). Comparing extremism propagation patterns in continuous opinion models. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 9(3), 8

  16. Astronomy in Aboriginal culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2006-10-01

    In all probability, long before other civilizations had named the celestial objects in the night sky, the indigenous people of Australia had not only given them names but had also built an astronomical knowledge system which they incorporated into their social, cultural and religious life. Their socio-cultural astronomical knowledge system both assists and clashes with Australia's legal system, which is based on English law.

  17. Organizational culture, Anthropology of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause-Jensen, Jakob; Wright, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Anthropologists have studied organizations since the 1930s. In the 1980s, anthropologists' concepts of culture were instrumentalized by nonanthropologists to promote ‘organizational culture’ as a management tool. In subsequent decades, concern shifted to welding employees from different ‘national...... skills acquired and the concepts developed through the ethnographic encounter gives anthropology a unique voice in the study of cultural matters in organizations....

  18. Learning Within Digital Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, Anders; Schmedes, Jonathan; Gehin, Laurent; Pejtersen, Susan; Ruth, Frederik; Lindholm, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this project is an investigation of the correlation between digital culture and learning - if the digital culture could provide a new approach to learning in the educational system. As the basis for our analysis, we use theories on the Net Generation by Don Tapscott and Marc Prensky and theories on learning by Knud Illeris, as well as critique of the traditional educational system by James Paul Gee and David Shaffer – who also provide ideas for a new educational s...

  19. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act

  20. Rumlig kultur / Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the relationships between urbanity and aesthetics. The articles span five realms: sensory and conceptual architecture, urban spaces, aesthetic textualities, collective memory, and spatial consciousness, all of which contribute to establishing spatial culture as an important field of research within the humanities......Gill University, the substantial captions of more than 100 illustrations make SPATIAL CULTURE accessible to an international readership. All contributions contain abstracts in English....

  1. Cultural Assessments and Campaign Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordon, James

    2004-01-01

    .... Cultural assessment is a detailed analysis of factors that influence cultural behavior and a summary of the characteristics of the culture of a given population in relation to proposed military operations...

  2. Cultural Influences on Play Style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialas, Mateusz; Tekofsky, Shoshannah; Spronck, P.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    In general, video game researchers do not differentiate between players’ nationalities. Cultural theories, however, show that cultural differences concern numerous values, including values associated with interaction with media. We therefore ask the question whether there exist cross-cultural

  3. Experiencing Global Culture in Vatel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance Elizabeth; Broillet, Alexandra; John, Claudette

    2015-01-01

    To explore the meaning of “global culture” in a professional communication context, this paper explores the “unsettled” global culture of Vatel, a private business school educating students from nearly 50 different countries for the hospitality industry. This paper explores the role of knowledge...... management in understanding global culture, arguing that the notion of “unsettled” cultures demonstrates how ideologies function in global settings and draw on national “settled” cultural resources. In unpacking different aspects of Vatel's culture this paper questions assumptions built into cultural frames...... of reference by offering a global culture frame, drawing on cultural resources from country based “settled” cultural contexts, and reflects on how global cultural contexts can benefit from a knowledge management approach to this dynamic between “settled” cultural contexts and “unsettled” cultural ideologies...

  4. Cultural mediation in museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherghina Boda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available If we perceive the museum not only as a place of storing and conserving the patrimony, but also of transmitting it, then we can also see it as a mediator through which cultures can become collective patrimony. Tightly connected to patrimonial appropriation, mediation appears from this perspective as a process and not an end, as it manifests itself in animation, communication and making knowledge popular in relation to a precise patrimony. That is why we can see cultural mediation as a transmission, as a transformation, as an action or social project which aims at creating social bonds, the museum thus being not only a place of meeting for the public with the objects exposed, but also as a place of meeting between different cultures. Thus, cultural mediation presents itself as the most efficient means for access to culture of all categories of the public, situated as the crossroads of culture, continuous education and entertainment and is inscribed in the field of informal education.

  5. Overview of security culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matulanya, M. A.

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear Security culture concept has been aggressively promoted over the past several years as a tool to improve the physical protection of the nuclear and radioactive materials due to growing threats of catastrophic terrorism and other new security challenges. It is obvious that, the scope of nuclear security and the associated cultures need to be extended beyond the traditional task of protecting weapons-usable materials. The role of IAEA is to strengthen the nuclear security framework globally and in leading the coordination of international activities in this field. Therefore all governments should work closely with the IAEA to take stronger measures to ensure the physical protection, the safety and security of the nuclear and radioactive materials. In the effort to reflect this new realities and concerns, the IAEA in 2008 came up with the document, the Nuclear Security Culture, Nuclear Security Series No. 7, Implementing Guide to the member states which urged every member state to take appropriate measures to promote security culture with respect to nuclear and radioactive materials. The document depicted this cultural approach as the way to protect individual, society and the environment. Among other things, the document defined nuclear security culture as characteristics and attitudes in organizations and of individuals which establishes that, nuclear security issues receives attention warranted by their significance. (au)

  6. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Robust Cultural Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Shweder

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this wide ranging interview, Professor Richard A. Shweder from the Department of Comparative Human Development at the University of Chicago, discusses whether it is or is not possible to be a robust cultural pluralist and a dedicated political liberal at the same time. In this discussion, Professor Shweder offers his insights - based on over 40 years of research - on issues related to the history and re-emergence of cultural psychology; moral anthropology and psychology; the experimental method in psychological investigation and its philosophical basis; contemporary and historical cultural collisions – most notably conflicting representations of female genital surgeries; cultural diversity and inequality; and the dissemination of ideas through open access publishing and Twitter. Professor Shweder ends by offering valuable advice to young researchers in the field of cultural psychology as well as a glimpse into the larger themes of his forthcoming book, which seeks to provide answers to the question of what forms of political liberalism are most compatible with robust cultural pluralism and which are not.

  8. Cross-Cultural Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Minelgaite Snaebjornsson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing low participation of women in global leadership calls for more research in this field. In this article, we set out to include gendered expectations toward leader behavior as part of cross-cultural leadership theory. Building on an existing body of research, we focus on propositions about the effects of gendered expectations on the leader, from the followers’ standpoint. The consideration of gendered effects from the follower standpoint is an under-researched area in leadership literature, and it is even more rarely to be found in empirical data. In every culture, there are certain expectations toward leaders of the two genders that influence their behavior. In this article, we will attempt to answer the following question: How does perceived leader behavior and gendered behavior relate to national culture and actual leader behavior? We present a conceptual model that seeks to incorporate gendered expectations into cross-cultural leadership as an answer. Moreover, we provide a conceptual guideline toward operationalization of the model. The model includes the potential of dissonance between male expectations as a dominating leadership role and female leadership. This might serve as an explanation as to why in some cases women are not seen as successful as men when they adopt a masculine leadership style. The article seeks to advance cross-cultural leadership theory by focusing on expected gendered leadership behavior. Our ideas and model could eventually contribute to the advancement of leadership theory, as well as contributing to gender studies, cross-cultural leadership, and business communication.

  9. Effect of dilution rate and methanol-glycerol mixed feeding on heterologous Rhizopus oryzae lipase production with Pichia pastoris Mut(+) phenotype in continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Christian; Altamirano, Claudia; Berrios, Julio

    2015-01-01

    The induction using substrate mixtures is an operational strategy for improving the productivity of heterologous protein production with Pichia pastoris. Glycerol as a cosubstrate allows for growth at a higher specific growth rate, but also has been reported to be repressor of the expression from the AOX1 promoter. Thus, further insights about the effects of glycerol are required for designing the induction stage with mixed substrates. The production of Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) was used as a model system to investigate the application of methanol-glycerol feeding mixtures in fast metabolizing methanol phenotype. Cultures were performed in a simple chemostat system and the response surface methodology was used for the evaluation of both dilution rate and methanol-glycerol feeding composition as experimental factors. Our results indicate that productivity and yield of ROL are strongly affected by dilution rate, with no interaction effect between the involved factors. Productivity showed the highest value around 0.04-0.06 h(-1) , while ROL yield decreased along the whole dilution rate range evaluated (0.03-0.1 h(-1) ). Compared to production level achieved with methanol-only feeding, the highest specific productivity was similar in mixed feeding (0.9 UA g-biomass(-1) h(-1) ), but volumetric productivity was 70% higher. Kinetic analysis showed that these results are explained by the effects of dilution rate on specific methanol uptake rate, instead of a repressor effect caused by glycerol feeding. It is concluded that despite the effect of dilution rate on ROL yield, mixed feeding strategy is a proper process option to be applied to P. pastoris Mut(+) phenotype for heterologous protein production. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  10. Blockbusters as vehicles for cultural debate in cultural journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    From, Unni; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    cultural approach in cultural journalism since the mid-20th century. The analysis shows that the negotiation and definition of the blockbuster as cultural phenomenon has changed; whereas it was originally, critically, interpreted as a sign of cultural imperialism, Americanisation, or artistic decline......, it is increasingly viewed as a global, omnipresent cultural and industrial phenomenon with its own aesthetic, narrative, and cultural logic. In this manner, the coverage exemplifies that the blockbuster has been and continues to be negotiated as a (relevant) object of cultural journalism; that cultural journalism...... at different times provides different reflective spaces for popular culture; and that contemporary cultural journalism continues to be critical and contemplative at the same time as it provides cultural service and infotainment. Consequently, the analysis also illustrates how the role of journalists...

  11. Cultural Journalism and Cultural Critique in a Changing Media Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard; From, Unni

    2015-01-01

    This special issue addresses a topic of journalism studies that has previously been somewhat neglected but which has gained increasing scholarly attention since the mid-2000s: the coverage and evaluation of art and culture, or what we term “cultural journalism and cultural critique.......” In this introduction, we highlight three issues that serve to frame the study of cultural journalism and cultural critique more generally and the eight articles of this special issue more specifically: (1) the constant challenge of demarcating cultural journalism and cultural critique, including the interrelations...... of “journalism” and “critique”; (2) the dialectic of globalisation’s cultural homogenisation, on the one hand, and the specificity of local/national cultures, on the other; and (3) the digital media landscape seen in terms of the need to rethink, perhaps even redefine cultural journalism and cultural critique...

  12. Maintenance metabolism and carbon fluxes in Bacillus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decasper Seraina

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection of an appropriate host organism is crucial for the economic success of biotechnological processes. A generally important selection criterion is a low maintenance energy metabolism to reduce non-productive consumption of substrate. We here investigated, whether various bacilli that are closely related to Bacillus subtilis are potential riboflavin production hosts with low maintenance metabolism. Results While B. subtilis exhibited indeed the highest maintenance energy coefficient, B. licheniformis and B. amyloliquefaciens exhibited only statistically insignificantly reduced maintenance metabolism. Both B. pumilus and B. subtilis (natto exhibited irregular growth patterns under glucose limitation such that the maintenance metabolism could not be determined. The sole exception with significantly reduced maintenance energy requirements was the B. licheniformis strain T380B. The frequently used spo0A mutation significantly increased the maintenance metabolism of B. subtilis. At the level of 13C-detected intracellular fluxes, all investigated bacilli exhibited a significant flux through the pentose phosphate pathway, a prerequisite for efficient riboflavin production. Different from all other species, B. subtilis featured high respiratory tricarboxylic acid cycle fluxes in batch and chemostat cultures. In particular under glucose-limited conditions, this led to significant excess formation of NADPH of B. subtilis, while anabolic consumption was rather balanced with catabolic NADPH formation in the other bacilli. Conclusion Despite its successful commercial production of riboflavin, B. subtilis does not seem to be the optimal cell factory from a bioenergetic point of view. The best choice of the investigated strains is the sporulation-deficient B. licheniformis T380B strain. Beside a low maintenance energy coefficient, this strain grows robustly under different conditions and exhibits only moderate acetate overflow, hence

  13. Cultural Competence and the Operational Commander: Moving Beyond Cultural Awareness into Culture-Centric Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karcanes, James A

    2007-01-01

    The term "cultural awareness" serves as the new favorite Department of Defense buzzword but fails in its definition to adequately articulate the complexity of culture and the high level of cultural...

  14. Storytelling and Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, C.

    2016-01-01

    The paper uses a five-part model of nuclear safety as the basis for discussion of how the oral culture in an organization contributes to (or can potentially undermine) the understanding of safety, the commitment to safe practices and the formation of group identity which is the product of effective cultural leadership. It explores some differences between oral and literate forms of expression, how these interact, and why both are essential parts of nuclear safety culture. It looks at how oral forms impact safety culture, and how by understanding the power of the oral culture leaders can be more effective in shaping people’s understanding and commitment to the essential practices of nuclear safety. Oral forms of expression in cultures are highly stable because they are repeated as “stories” and as ritualistic patterns. They are the only forms of language that “live inside us”, so they are essential for things such as communicating principles and forming a sense of group identity. Oral forms can be exceptionally long-lasting and can (and do) influence cultures sometimes decades after they first come into being. In other words, (and for good and bad) they have an exceptional ability to survive change. This is because oral stories are like magic flowers. Every time the story is told its seeds spring out and scatter, and are planted in every hearer. Then any one of those listeners can carry the story forwards into the future and retell it so another magic flower is born. Compelling stories are therefore always alive, they only die when they are replaced with a more compelling story.

  15. Madurese cultural communication approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmawan, A.; Aji, G. G.; Mutiah

    2018-01-01

    Madura is a tribe with a cultural entity influenced by the ecological aspect and Madurese people. Assessing Madurese culture cannot be separated from the relation of society and ecological aspects that form the characteristics of Madura culture. Stereotypes of Madurese include a stubborn attitude, and carok or killing as a problem solving. On the other hand, Madurese are known to be inclusive, religious, and hardworking. The basic assumption is that the ecological conditions in Madura also shape the social and cultural life of the Madurese. Therefore, judging the Madurese cannot just be seen from a single event only. Moreover, the assessment only focuses on Madurese violence and disregards their structure and social aspects. Assessing Madura culture as a whole can explain the characteristics of Madurese community. According Hofstede culture is a characteristic mindset and perspective of individuals or groups of society in addressing a distinguished life. These differences distinguish individuals from others, or one country to the other. According to Hofstede to be able to assess the culture can be explained by four dimensions namely, individualism-collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity-femininity and power distance. The method used in this research is a case study. The Result is Madurese classified collectivism can be viewed from the pattern of settlements called kampong meji. Madurese can be classified into low and high uncertainty avoidance. the power distance for the Madurese is classified as unequally or there is a distance of power based on social groups. The element of masculinity of the Madurese is shown to be found when the earnestness of work.

  16. Cultural universals: So what?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elaine Botha

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available The search for the elusive "cultural universal s” in a variety of academic disciplines has been motivated b y the spectre of relativism in its diverse guises. The problem of relativism has been thrust upon us inter alia by the inability of our epistemological models to account for social and cultural, moral and cognitive diversity and to provide us with criteria by means of which to judge aberrations like ideologies. Contrary to the general trend I would like to argue that it is not the spectre of relativism in its various guises which necessitates the search for cultural universals, nor is this the only motivation for a Christian to argue in favour of the recognition of cultural universals. Various authors have suggested that such universal structures do exist; that they condition human and societal behaviour and that it would in principle be possible to construct a theory of these structural universals or a "biogrammar" or "geography ” of the universal cultural acquisition device of humankind (cf. Harre,1976, 32; Johnson, 1987: xxxvii ; Tige r and Fox, 1974:17,30. Cross -cu ltural research in both psychology and anthropology has pointed to the existence of such traits, and in recent philosophical discussions Apel and others have pointed to the necessity of recognizing the existence of some sort of " transcendentalia" . These arguments emphasize elements that are common to diverse approaches to the problem of cultural universals. Christian scholars could accept most of these arguments as valid and yet argue in favour of a very specifically modified version of the notion of cultural universals. This essay attempts to develop such a position.

  17. The effect of cultural interaction on cumulative cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahashi, Wataru

    2014-07-07

    Cultural transmission and cultural evolution are important for animals, especially for humans. I developed a new analytical model of cultural evolution, in which each newborn learns cultural traits from multiple individuals (exemplars) in parental generation, individually explores around learned cultural traits, judges the utility of known cultural traits, and adopts a mature cultural trait. Cultural evolutionary speed increases when individuals explore a wider range of cultural traits, accurately judge the skill level of cultural traits (strong direct bias), do not strongly conform to the population mean, increase the exploration range according to the variety of socially learned cultural traits (condition dependent exploration), and make smaller errors in social learning. Number of exemplars, population size, similarity of cultural traits between exemplars, and one-to-many transmission have little effect on cultural evolutionary speed. I also investigated how cultural interaction between two populations with different mean skill levels affects their cultural evolution. A population sometimes increases in skill level more if it encounters a less skilled population than if it does not encounter anyone. A less skilled population sometimes exceeds a more skilled population in skill level by cultural interaction between both populations. The appropriateness of this analytical method is confirmed by individual-based simulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Culture Based Model: Constructing a Model of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent trends reveal that models of culture aid in mapping the design and analysis of information and communication technologies. Therefore, models of culture are powerful tools to guide the building of instructional products and services. This research examines the construction of the culture based model (CBM), a model of culture that evolved…

  19. Delineating Cultural Models: Extending the Cultural Mixture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    communicate with, do business with, train, or hire members of that culture. When identifying a cultural identity, it is important to understand whether the...member of a culture to identify family relations, or rules of etiquette , or cultural icons and religious symbols, and these make up an important part of

  20. Examining Cultural Intelligence and Cross-Cultural Negotiation Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Kevin S.; Feyerherm, Ann; Gu, Minhua

    2015-01-01

    International negotiation failures are often linked to deficiencies in negotiator cross-cultural capabilities, including limited understanding of the cultures engaged in the transaction, an inability to communicate with persons from different cultural backgrounds, and limited behavioral flexibility to adapt to culturally unfamiliar contexts.…

  1. From Cultural Awareness to Intercultural Awareness: Culture in ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Will

    2012-01-01

    Cultural awareness (CA) has emerged over the last few decades as a significant part of conceptualizing the cultural dimension to language teaching. That is, L2 users need to understand L2 communication as a cultural process and to be aware of their own culturally based communicative behaviour and that of others. However, while CA has provided a…

  2. Nuclear safety culture based on the organizational and individual culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingxi; Ren Ou

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear safety culture is used increasingly and developed by countries that have nu- clear plants all over the world, since the term 'safety culture' was first introduced by IAEA in 1986. Enterprises culture reflects many terms in an enterprise, such as management level and staff quality. The safety culture is the center in a nuclear enterprises culture, and relates directly to the safety and outstanding achievement of operation. This paper discusses the nuclear safety culture from the viewpoints of the organizational and individual cultures. (authors)

  3. Teaching Japanese Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Shamoon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Japanese popular culture has arrived on American college campuses as never before. Student interest in Japanese manga (comic books, anime (animated films and television shows, and video games drives much of the enrollment in Japanese courses and Japanese majors and minors. In response to student interest, as well as the establishment of popular culture as a topic of serious academic scholarship, the demand for courses on Japanese popular culture has never been higher. Yet the number of scholars specializing in the study of popular culture is still relatively small. This can potentially create problems, as faculty teach outside their expertise, and perhaps face an uncomfortable situation in which the students know more about the topic than the professor. In this article, I will offer some suggestions and advice for faculty creating a popular culture course for the first time, based on my experiences teaching undergraduates at the University of Notre Dame. The course I developed reflects my background in Japanese literature and film, and is but one example of many possible approaches to the topic. The sample syllabus and list of resources at the end of this article provide citations for all text and media sources mentioned.

  4. Culture in constructive remembering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2012-01-01

    The present chapter explores novel ways of thinking about what it means to remember and how precisely culture is involved in this process. Since Plato, the dominant metaphor for conceptualizing memory has been that of a spatial ‘storage’. In contrast to this, Frederic Bartlett advanced an alterna......The present chapter explores novel ways of thinking about what it means to remember and how precisely culture is involved in this process. Since Plato, the dominant metaphor for conceptualizing memory has been that of a spatial ‘storage’. In contrast to this, Frederic Bartlett advanced...... an alternative temporal metaphor of remembering as ‘construction’. If we push his metaphor further—with the help of cultural psychology—we can say memory construction is done by agents using cultural ‘tools’ such as language and narrative. In this chapter, Bartlett’s theory is contextualized, elucidated......, critiqued and developed with the help of a number of other thinkers. The ultimate aim of the chapter is to go beyond Bartlett and arrive at a thoroughgoing culturally inclusive psychological theory of remembering. Though Bartlett clearly situated remembering within a social process, he did not provide...

  5. Uterine culture in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, D

    1984-05-01

    A guarded, sterile swab is used to obtain samples for uterine culture. With the mare in stocks, the tail bandage and the perineum washed, the culture rod is introduced into the vagina with a gloved hand. After the rod is guided through the cervix, the guard cap is dislodged and the swab is rubbed along the endometrium, after which the rod is extracted. Samples for uterine culture should only be obtained during full estrus. Swabs should be directly plated onto agar within 2 hours of collection. Blood agar is appropriate for initial screening, but use of specialized types of agar expedites identification of microbes. Plates are incubated at 37 C and inspected for growth every 12 hours. The type and number of bacterial colonies should be coupled with the history and clinical signs in deciding on the necessity and type of treatment. Pure, heavy bacterial growth is usually accompanied by clinical signs of infection. Interpretation of the significance of moderate bacterial growth may be aided by cytologic examination of endometrial smears, made by rolling the swab onto a glass slide and staining with Diff - Quik . Large numbers of neutrophils indicate the need for antibiotic therapy. Mixed bacterial growth and variable numbers of neutrophils usually indicate faulty sampling technic. Microaerophilic or anaerobic cultures may aid diagnosis in cases of equivocal aerobic culture results.

  6. Management of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavsek, D.

    2004-01-01

    The strengthening of safety culture in an organization has become an increasingly important issue for nuclear industry. A high level of safety performance is essential for business success in intensely competitive global environment. This presentation offers a discussion of some principles and activities used in enhancing safety performance and appropriate safety behaviour at the Krsko NPP. Over the years a number of events have occurred in nuclear industry that have involved problems in human performance. A review of these and other significant events has identified recurring weaknesses in plant safety culture and policy. Focusing attention on the strengthening of relevant processes can help plants avoid similar undesirable events. The policy of the Krsko NPP is that all employees concerned shall constantly be alert to opportunities to reduce risks to the lowest practicable level and to achieve excellence in plant safety. The most important objective is to protect individuals, society and the environment by establishing and maintaining an effective defense against radiological hazard in the nuclear power plant. It is achieved through the use of reliable structures, components, systems, and procedures, as well as plant personnel committed to a strong safety culture. The elements of safety culture include both organizational and individual aspects. Elements commonly included at the organizational level are senior management commitment to safety, organizational effectiveness, effective communication, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages identification and resolution of safety issues. Elements identified at the individual level include personal accountability, a questioning attitude, communication, procedural adherence, etc.(author)

  7. Citizenship and cultural diversity in agenda of cultural policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Silva Dorneles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a discussion paper which aims to contribute to the systematization of studies, concepts and practices on cultural policies which have been developed in previous years in Brazil and are orienting cultural actions and public programs in the country, also influencing the Occupational Therapy. Citizenship and Cultural Diversity are concepts under construction and are part of the of the agenda of cultural policies and as well as the reflections and practices of various occupational therapists who are acting in a constant dialogue with the cultural area by means of the formation in cultural management, cultural mapping, programs and grant projects aimed to promote inventive identities, traditional communities, native populations, urban mobility, and cultural networks and exchange initiatives, among others. The article presents the process of this conceptual construction and the constitution of experiences aiming the democratization of the culture in the history of Brazilian cultural public policies, over which are being discussed approach paths and possibilities for Occupational Therapy.

  8. Cultural conditions required for the induction of an adaptive acid-tolerance response (ATR) in Sinorhizobium meliloti and the question as to whether or not the ATR helps rhizobia improve their symbiosis with alfalfa at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draghi, Walter O; Del Papa, María Florencia; Pistorio, Mariano; Lozano, Mauricio; de Los Angeles Giusti, María; Torres Tejerizo, Gonzalo A; Jofré, Edgardo; Boiardi, José Luis; Lagares, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti associates with Medicago and Melilotus species to develop nitrogen-fixing symbioses. The agricultural relevance of these associations, the worldwide distribution of acid soils, and the remarkable acid sensitivity of the microsymbiont have all stimulated research on the responses of the symbionts to acid environments. We show here that an adaptive acid-tolerance response (ATR) can be induced in S. meliloti, as shown previously for Sinorhizobium medicae, when the bacteria are grown in batch cultures at the slightly acid pH of 6.1. In marked contrast, no increased tolerance to hydrogen ions is obtained if rhizobia are grown in a chemostat under continuous cultivation at the same pH. The adaptive ATR appears as a complex process triggered by an increased hydrogen-ion concentration, but operative only if other--as yet unknown--concomitant factors that depend on the culture conditions are present (although not provided under continuous cultivation). Although the stability of the ATR and its influence on acid tolerance has been characterized in rhizobia, no data have been available on the effect of the adapted state on symbiosis. Coinoculation experiments showed that acid-adapted indicator rhizobia (ATR+) were present in >90% of the nodules when nodulation was performed at pH 5.6, representing a >30% increase in occupancy compared with a control test. We show that the ATR represents a clear advantage in competing for nodulation at low pH. It is not yet clear whether such an effect results from an improved performance in the acid environment during preinfection, an enhanced ability to initiate infections, or both conditions. The practical use of ATR+ rhizobia will depend on validation experiments with soil microcosms and on field testing, as well as on the possibility of preserving the physiology of ATR+ bacteria in inoculant formulations.

  9. Public administration: from bureaucratic culture to citizen-oriented culture

    OpenAIRE

    Claver Cortés, Enrique; Llopis Taverner, Juan; Gascó Gascó, José Luis; Molina Manchón, Hipólito; Conca Flor, Francisco José

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes how public administration may improve the service it offers to citizens through a suitable organizational culture; for this purpose, it starts by studying the specific features of the culture of public administration. In this respect, it analyzes the existing taxonomies in public administration, the role of culture in these agencies and how a diagnosis of such culture is made. Then, it describes the problems of bureaucratic culture, typical of many public agencies, and bri...

  10. Organised Cultural Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull; Galal, Lise Paulsen; Hvenegård-Lassen, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue by presenting the concept of organised cultural encounters that are encounters organised to manage and/or transform problems perceived to originate in or include cultural differences. Inspired by Pratt’s conceptualisation of the contact zone, a critical...... perspective on the particular historical and spatial context of any encounter and how this context frames and mediates what takes place during an encounter is applied. While the articles of the issue present different varieties of organised cultural encounters, it is argued that they are not only of the same...... kind because of our analytical framework, but also because they share various features. They are scripted events tied to the particular social arena with which the encounter is associated and thus shaped in important ways by the existing norms, discourses, roles and hierarchies that govern these arenas...

  11. Organizational Culture and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.

    2003-01-01

    '..only a fool perseveres in error.' Cicero. Humans will break the most advanced technological devices and override safety and security systems if they are given the latitude. Within the workplace, the operator may be just one of several factors in causing accidents or making risky decisions. Other variables considered for their involvement in the negative and often catastrophic outcomes include the organizational context and culture. Many organizations have constructed and implemented safety programs to be assimilated into their culture to assure employee commitment and understanding of the importance of everyday safety. The purpose of this paper is to examine literature on organizational safety cultures and programs that attempt to combat vulnerability, risk taking behavior and decisions and identify the role of training in attempting to mitigate unsafe acts.

  12. Cultural differences in use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Charlotte; Lauring, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - Purpose: Intercultural communication problems are most often argued to be caused by differences in cultural values. In this exploratory paper, we argue that attention should not only be directed at national differences. Alternatively, we argue that more interest should be paid...... corporation. This illustrates how individuals and groups may essentialize cultural differences during intercultural business encounters and how this fixation of cultural traits can be used in social stratification. Originality/value - Originality: Only scant extant research has focused on the active use...... to the actual use of those differences in communication. Design/methodology/approach - Methodology: Ethnographic field study including 12 interviews and observations. Findings - Findings: We use a short case on interaction between expatriates and local managers in a Chinese subsidiary of a Danish multinational...

  13. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  14. Cultural War of Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cultural War of Values: The Proliferation of Moral Identities In the Danish Public Sphere Peter Hervik (Aalborg University) This chapter looks at the drastic shift in the construction of minority others that came with the emergence of neo-nationalism, neo-racism and radical right populism...... in the post-1989 world. Through an analysis of a political philosophy launched in Denmark in the 1990s called the “Cultural War of Values”, I show that the moral identities proliferating in the Danish public sphere are fundamentally anti-political correct, anti-multiculturalist, and anti......-Marxist as confrontation is also directed at political adversaries. Thus, the chapter’s key argument is that the social construction of thick minority identities can only be understood in relation to the cultural war of value strategy aimed at domestic political opponents....

  15. Culture systems: air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Poor laboratory air quality is a known hazard to the culture of human gametes and embryos. Embryologists and chemists have employed analytical methods for identifying and measuring bulk and select air pollutants to assess the risk they pose to the embryo culture system. However, contaminant concentrations that result in gamete or embryotoxicity are poorly defined. Combating the ill effects of poor air quality requires an understanding of how toxicants can infiltrate the laboratory, the incubator, and ultimately the culture media. A further understanding of site-specific air quality can then lead to the consideration of laboratory design and management strategies that can minimize the deleterious effects that air contamination may have on early embryonic development in vitro.

  16. Creating organizational cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.; Just, Sine Nørholm; Gabrielsen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    insights. The authors propose an integrated perspective in which material practices and rhetorical strategies are seen as two analytical sides of the same ontological coin. This enables a fuller and more detailed explanation of how organizational cultures are created or changed. A brief illustration......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to re-conceptualize the relations between rhetorical strategies and material practices in the processes whereby leaders create or change organizational cultures. Design/methodology/approach – The authors compare and contrast two broad perspectives on cultural...... is provided of the merits of this approach by revisiting the case of Enron. Originality/value – The paper constitutes an initial exploration of how social scientific and rhetorical perspectives on organizational change may be brought closer together. It may provide the first step towards the development...

  17. [Time, cultures, and coexistence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elchardus, M; Glorieux, I; Scheys, M

    1987-06-01

    "In this essay, the authors try to illustrate the relevance of the sociology of time for the study of migration and inter-cultural relations. It is argued that by taking the time-dimension more explicitly into account, our insights in the dynamics of these relations can be [improved].... In connection with international migration processes, this relationship appears to be influenced by at least six different factors: 1) the sudden transition from a rural to an urban, industrial environment; 2) the perspective of the return to the homeland; 3) the confrontation with the culture of the host country and with other migrants' cultures; 4) the religious, ideological and political developments in the homeland; 5) the reactions of the host country and the problems these create; 6) the minority position of the migrants." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  18. Urban sharing culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjalland, Emmy Laura Perez

    In urban areas sharing cultures, services and economies are rising. People share, rent and recycle their homes, cars, bikes, rides, tools, cloths, working space, knowhow and so on. The sharing culture can be understood as mobilities (Kesselring and Vogl 2013) of goods, values and ideas reshaping...... our cities. The sharing economy has the power to democratise access the urban space, resources and raw materials (Steen Nielsen 2008; Harvey 2000); it holds the ability to change the current dominant understandings and structures of economy and growth (Steen Nielsen 2008); solve emerging environmental...... and trust. (Thomsen 2013; Bauman 2000; Beck 1992; Giddens 1991). The sharing economy is currently hyper trendy but before claiming capitalism as dead we need to understand the basics of the sharing economies and cultures asking who can share and what will we share. Furthermore it is crucial to study what...

  19. Accelerating the culture change!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunk, S W; Panetta, J; Wooten, J

    1996-11-01

    Exide Electronics, a major supplier of uninterruptible power system equipment, embarked on a journey of changing a culture to improve quality, enhance customer responsiveness, and reduce costs. This case study examines the evolution of change over a period of seven years, with particular emphasis on the most recent years, 1992 through 1995. The article focuses on the Raleigh plant operations and describes how each succeeding year built on the successes and fixed the shortcomings of the prior years to accelerate the culture change, including corrective action and continuous improvement processes, organizational structures, expectations, goals, achievements, and pitfalls. The real challenge to changing the culture was structuring a dynamic approach to accelerate change! The presentation also examines how the evolutionary process itself can be created and accelerated through ongoing communication, regular feedback of progress and goals, constant evaluation and direction of the process, and measuring and paying for performance.

  20. CULTURE, CULTURE LEARNING AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES: TOWARDS A PEDAGOGICAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Levy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to improve approaches to the learning and teaching of culture using new technologies by relating the key qualities and dimensions of the culture concept to elements within a pedagogical framework. In Part One, five facets of the culture concept are developed: culture as elemental; culture as relative; culture as group membership; culture as contested; and culture as individual (variable and multiple. Each perspective aims to provide a focus for thinking about culture, and thereby to provide a valid and useful point of departure for thinking about the practice of culture learning and teaching with new technologies. The referenced literature draws from a broad range of disciplines and definitions of culture. In Part Two, five projects are chosen to represent relevant technologies currently in use for culture learning: e-mail, chat, a discussion forum and a Web-based project. Each project is used to illustrate facets of the culture concept discussed in Part One with a view to identifying key elements within a pedagogical framework that can help us respond effectively to the challenge of culture learning and teaching utilising new technologies. Thus the goal is to align fundamental qualities of the culture concept with specific pedagogical designs, tasks and technologies.

  1. What is culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Breznik

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Under the pressure of applicability of research and a problem-solving approach, contemporary scientific practices often fail to define their “object of knowledge” and to reflect upon their own work. It may therefore be good to ask a naïve question: What is culture? In the art world, the arts often function as the last ideological fortress. In scientific research, an analogous role is played by the notion of culture as a gradual “process of civilisation” that moves people by the means of self-restraint and refinement towards civilisation and away from barbarism. The historical and contemporary cases examined in the article show that there is no transtemporal culture with an a priori positive and “progressive” social role. The concept of culture cannot be separated from: (1 the establishment of financial institutions in the Renaissance, when patronage of the arts helped to “legalise” the most profitable and then-forbidden practice of usury; (2 the transformation of class war into cultural difference via the refinement of the Renaissance carnival; (3 the establishment of general access to education in the 20th century, which, in itself, could not abolish social inequalities, but to the contrary integrated educated people into the reproduction of social inequalities; (4 the establishment of the world art system in the 21st century, when the “capitalist welfare state” replaced the “social welfare state.” From these examples we can draw the conclusion that culture is rather a “Trojan Horse” that can at times work as a destructive social force.

  2. Cultural Topology of Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Andryukhina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The man in the modern culture faces the challenge of either being creative or forced to leave the stage, which reflects the essential basics of life. The price of lost opportunities, caused by mental stereotypes and encapsulation, is gradually rising. The paper reveals the socio-cultural conditions and the necessary cultural topology of creativity development, as well as the man’s creative potential in the 21st century. The content of the creativity concept is specified along with the phenomenon of its fast expansion in the modern discourse. That results from the global spreading of numerous creative practices in various spheres of life, affecting the progress directions in economics, business, industrial technologies, labor, employment and social stratification. The author emphasizes the social features of creativity, the rising number of, so called, creative class, and outlines the two opposing strategies influencing the topology modification of the social and cultural environment. The first one, applied by the developed countries, facilitates the development of the creative human potential, whereas the other one, inherent in our country, holds that a creative person is able to make progress by himself. However, for solving the urgent problem of innovative development, the creative potential of modern Russia is not sufficient, and following the second strategy will result in unrealized social opportunities and ever lasting social and cultural situation demanding further investment. According to the author, to avoid such a perspective, it is necessary to overcome the three deeply rooted archetypes: the educational disciplinary centrism, organizational absolutism and cultural ostracism. 

  3. Cultural Perspectives Toward Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Li

    2008-01-01

    Cultural conflicts may be derived from using inappropriate language. Appropriate linguistic-pragmatic competence may also be produced by providing various and multicultural backgrounds. Culture and language are linked together naturally, unconsciously, and closely in daily social lives. Culture affects language and language affects culture through…

  4. Culture from the Bottom Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija

    2013-01-01

    The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…

  5. Quake warnings, seismic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Huggins, Tom; Miles, Scott; Otegui, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Since 1990, nearly one million people have died from the impacts of earthquakes. Reducing those impacts requires building a local seismic culture in which residents are aware of earthquake risks and value efforts to mitigate harm. Such efforts include earthquake early warning (EEW) systems that provide seconds to minutes notice of pending shaking. Recent events in Mexico provide an opportunity to assess performance and perception of an EEW system and highlight areas for further improvement. We have learned that EEW systems, even imperfect ones, can help people prepare for earthquakes and build local seismic culture, both beneficial in reducing earthquake-related losses.

  6. CULTURE AND CORRUPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihut Ioan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available National culture and the organization’s management are interdependent systems of values, which generate human performances that can reach levels of excellence. But, in certain crises situations, generated and supported by turbulent economic frames, by the transition from one economic system to another, the cultures specific to the organizations’ management become vulnerable. In such conditions, when an economic system is chaotically dismantled, as it happened to the communist one, “an organized anarchy” appears, a system which is good for some individuals and interest groups that assimilates rapidly the deficiencies specific to a “marginal culture”.

  7. Changes in cultural consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarrete, T.; Borowiecki, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Visits to museums have been studied as hedonic and utilitarian forms of cultural consumption, though limited attention has been given to the access of museum collections online. We perform a unique historic analysis of the visibility of collections in a museum of ethnographic collections and comp......Visits to museums have been studied as hedonic and utilitarian forms of cultural consumption, though limited attention has been given to the access of museum collections online. We perform a unique historic analysis of the visibility of collections in a museum of ethnographic collections...

  8. Brain, body and culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2010-01-01

    This essay sketches out a biocultural theory of religion which is based on an expanded view of cognition that is anchored in brain and body (embrained and embodied), deeply dependent on culture (enculturated) and extended and distributed beyond the borders of individual brains. Such an approach...... uniquely accommodates contemporary cultural and neurobiological sciences. Since the challenge that the study of religion faces, in my opinion, is at the interstices of these sciences, I have tried to develop a theory of religion which acknowledges the fact. My hope is that the theory can be of use...

  9. Framing financial culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Sine Nørholm; Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.

    2014-01-01

    between competing frames leads to the conclusion that this political “blame game” is related to struggles over how to define the scandal, how to conceptualize its causes, and policy recommendations. Banks may have lost the battle of “Liborgate,” but the war over the meaning of financial culture is far...... from over. Originality/value – The paper is theoretically and methodologically original in its combination of the theories of framing and stasis, and it provides analytical insights into how sense is made of financial culture in the wake of the financial crisis....

  10. Teaching and Learning Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    inside and outside the classroom; at the same time, culture also influences the context of the learning. The context may be “invisible” and hide itself as tacit knowledge or embedded values, or it may be very visible and present itself as a fixed curriculum or an established tradition. No matter what......, but instead, should explore how the context may be integrated into and used constructively in the teaching and learning of culture. This allowance of context in the classroom will allow for teachers, students, subjects and contexts to enter into a dialogue and negotiation of meaning that will enrich each...

  11. The Cultural Heritage of Interculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Peterson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article traces the cultural heritage of inter-cultural contexts, which have had profound impact over long time. It takes its departure in antique and culturally complex environments in the eastern Mediterranean. One millennium later corresponding inter-cultural conditions are explored in the western part of the Mediterranean. Both cases demonstrated their wide and long lasting influences on posterity. The cultural heritage implied the deep effects of cross-fertilization and ensuing cultural enrichment as the conflation of several well-endowed cultures took place. A similar, more powerful outcome followed the Radical Enlightenment in Leiden around 1650s and in Vienna some centuries later.

  12. Emerging Forms of Cultural Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes stock of recent research on patterns of cultural engagement in various European nations, with specific reference to British and Danish research. It argues that Bourdieu's original theorisation of cultural capital in ‘Distinction’ needs to be significantly updated to register...... the decline of ‘highbrow’ culture which these studies reveal. However, we argue that this shift does not entail the erosion of cultural capital itself, or the rise of the ‘cultural omnivore’, so much as the emergence of a form of ‘cosmopolitan cultural capital’. We argue that this emerging cultural capital...

  13. Cross-cultural investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Y; Case, R; Bleiker, C; Henderson, B

    1996-01-01

    In Piaget's system, the development of children's cognitive structures is seen as progressing through a universal sequence from sensorimotor, to concrete, to formal logical thought. The data that have been obtained on his measures are problematic in their support for this view, however, because they indicate that adults in traditional societies often fail his formal tasks. Piaget's (1972) interpretation of such findings was that they indicated a problem with his measures, not his theory - if appropriate measures were available, he believed that formal logical operations would be found in all cultures and social groups. Our own interpretation differs. While we acknowledge that adults in all cultures are capable of thinking in a fashion that is more sophisticated, subtle, and complex than that of young children, we see the highest forms of thought as being dependent on the mastery of systems that are cultural creations and not universal human attainments - and we see Piaget's system of formal operations as being just one example of the sort of system that can be created by a culture and passed on from one generation to the next. In a previous investigation, Fiati (1992) studied children who were growing up in isolated, agricultural villages in the Volta region of West Africa. In these communities, life was still a traditional one, and children's experiences with time, money, and mathematical computation were considerably different from those of children who were attending schools in the nearby towns. Under these conditions, Fiati found that village children's skill in using numbers or in thinking about quantitative variables did not develop to a very high level as compared to that of their peers in the towns or as compared to their own thinking about social issues. In the terms used in the present Monograph, it appeared as though children's central conceptual structures for number - in contrast to their central conceptual structures for narrative - did not advance

  14. Perfusion based cell culture chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiskanen, Arto; Emnéus, Jenny; Dufva, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Performing cell culture in miniaturized perfusion chambers gives possibilities to experiment with cells under near in vivo like conditions. In contrast to traditional batch cultures, miniaturized perfusion systems provide precise control of medium composition, long term unattended cultures...... and tissue like structuring of the cultures. However, as this chapter illustrates, many issues remain to be identified regarding perfusion cell culture such as design, material choice and how to use these systems before they will be widespread amongst biomedical researchers....

  15. Optimization and radiation protection culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, In Young; Shin, Hyeong Ki; Lee, Chan Mi

    2013-01-01

    Safety culture or radiation protection culture is based in common on the term, 'culture'. Culture is defined as the learned, shared set of symbols and patterns of basic assumptions, which is invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problem of external adaptation and internal integration. Safety culture generally refers to the attitude and behaviors affecting safety performance. The concept of 'Safety Culture' was introduced after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. For the accident, nuclear society reached the conclusion that the cause was the wrong management attitude of the NPP, that is, deficient 'Safety Culture'. Recently, 'Radiation Protection Culture' was introduced as the core concept of nuclear safety culture. There have been many efforts to establish definition and develop assessment tool for radiation protection culture in international level such as ICRP and IRPA as well as NRC. In the same context with the safety culture, radiation protection culture is defined as 'the core values and behaviors resulting from a collective commitment by leaders and individual's to emphasize safety over competing goals to ensure protection of people and the environment.' It is worthwhile to recognize that regulatory enforcement in establishing healthy radiation protection culture of operators should be minimized because culture is not in the domain of regulatory enforcement. However, as 'ALARA', the most important concept in radiation protection, may be successfully achieved only in well established radiation protection culture, the least regulatory intervention would be needed in promoting and nurturing radiation protection culture in licensee. In addition, the concept of radiation protection culture should be addressed in plant operational policy to achieve the goals of ALARA. The pre-condition of the successful radiation protection culture is a healthy organizational

  16. Cultural similarity, cultural competence, and nurse workforce diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Sandra L; Brush, Barbara L; Moore, Jean

    2010-11-01

    Proponents of health workforce diversity argue that increasing the number of minority health care providers will enhance cultural similarity between patients and providers as well as the health system's capacity to provide culturally competent care. Measuring cultural similarity has been difficult, however, given that current benchmarks of workforce diversity categorize health workers by major racial/ethnic classifications rather than by cultural measures. This study examined the use of national racial/ethnic categories in both patient and registered nurse (RN) populations and found them to be a poor indicator of cultural similarity. Rather, we found that cultural similarity between RN and patient populations needs to be established at the level of local labor markets and broadened to include other cultural parameters such as country of origin, primary language, and self-identified ancestry. Only then can the relationship between cultural similarity and cultural competence be accurately determined and its outcomes measured.

  17. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CULTURAL TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka Zadel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of analysis in the paper is economic impact of cultural tourism and identification of the main factors which directly affect cultural tourism revenues. Most countries do not have a statistical system of monitoring and analysing individual factors of cultural tourism such as the number of arrivals of cultural tourists and consumption of cultural tourists. Therefore, it is hard to assess the economic impact of cultural tourism. In cultural tourism, cultural assets are prepared and placed on the tourist market, i.e. cultural resources are transformed into cultural tourism products. The main objective is fulfilling tourists' needs, and achieving positive effects which includes economic effects. Identification of the economic impact of cultural tourism is important because cultural resources have an inestimable value for the local community. Tourism valorisation should be used in order to achieve the necessary maximum effects with minimum negative impacts which tourism may leave on cultural resources. The objective of the paper is to identify the economic contribution of cultural tourism in the Republic of Croatia and to propose a model of identification of economic impact of cultural tourism.

  18. Basic cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, J W

    1990-01-01

    This article will describe the basic techniques required for successful cell culture. It will also act to introduce some of the other chapters in this volume. It is not intended, as this volume is not, to describe the establishment of a tissue culture laboratory, nor to provide a historical or theoretical survey of cell culture. There are several books that adequately cover these areas, including the now somewhat dated but still valuable volume by Paul (1), the multi-authored Methods in Enzymology volume edited by Jakoby and Pastan (2), and the new edition of Freshney (3). Instead, this chapter's focus will be on the techniques for establishing primary rodent cell cultures from embryos and adult skin, maintaining and subculturing these fibro-blasts and their transformed derivatives, and the isolation of genetically pure strains. The cells described are all derived from Chinese hamsters since, to date, these cells, have proved to be the most useful for somatic cell genetics (4,5). The techniques, however, are generally applicable to most fibroblastic cell types.

  19. Tissue culture and neurotoxicology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooisma, J.

    1982-01-01

    Application of tissue culture in neurotoxicology may serve two purposes. First, they may be used to unravel the mechanism of action of neurotoxic compounds and secondly, they may be used for the screening of neurotoxic agents. Studies belonging to the first group can be subdivided into those aiming

  20. Two cultures - one symbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Shostak

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the question of similarities in the approach to the multilevel symbolism in Slav and Native American cultures. Ambivalent symbol of the snake is analyzed in the frame of mythological thinking. At the end the author comes to the conclusion that elements of mythological thinking are still present in everyday life and influence human behavior levels

  1. The Cultural Twilight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuer, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author begins by saying how privileged he feels to be included in the celebration of the American Indian Culture and Research Journal (AICRJ) and to toast forty years of American Indian studies at UCLA. He looks back over the field of Native American literature and criticism, then peeks at the present, and last, makes some…

  2. Safety culture at ANAV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Madrid, B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent safety culture assessments detected various actions, practices and behaviours that did not follow the standards, expectations and guidelines that are essential l for all safe and highly reliable companies, as we aim to be. For this reason, as part of the PROCURA project, a wide range of actions have been undertaken o reinforce certain individual, group and organisational behaviours. (Author).

  3. NIGERIAN CULTURAL HERITAGE: PRESERVATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    Globally the importance of heritages to countries and even in developing nations like Nigeria cannot be over-emphasized. This is due to its economic, historical, tourist, aesthetic, educational and research significance. For a critical and comprehensive understanding of Nigerian Cultural heritages, the approach adopted.

  4. [Structural adjustment, cultural adjustment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, B; Dujardin, M; Hermans, I

    2003-12-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple studies have been conducted and many articles published about Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). These studies mainly describe the characteristics of SAPs and analyse their economic consequences as well as their effects upon a variety of sectors: health, education, agriculture and environment. However, very few focus on the sociological and cultural effects of SAPs. Following a summary of SAP's content and characteristics, the paper briefly discusses the historical course of SAPs and the different critiques which have been made. The cultural consequences of SAPs are introduced and are described on four different levels: political, community, familial, and individual. These levels are analysed through examples from the literature and individual testimonies from people in the Southern Hemisphere. The paper concludes that SAPs, alongside economic globalisation processes, are responsible for an acute breakdown of social and cultural structures in societies in the South. It should be a priority, not only to better understand the situation and its determining factors, but also to intervene and act with strategies that support and reinvest in the social and cultural sectors, which is vital in order to allow for individuals and communities in the South to strengthen their autonomy and identify.

  5. Plant Tissue Culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 8. Plant Tissue Culture - Historical Developments and Applied Aspects. H R Dagla. General Article Volume 17 Issue 8 August 2012 pp 759-767. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Language and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramsch, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This paper surveys the research methods and approaches used in the multidisciplinary field of applied language studies or language education over the last fourty years. Drawing on insights gained in psycho- and sociolinguistics, educational linguistics and linguistic anthropology with regard to language and culture, it is organized around five…

  7. Writing Drug Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The paper juxtaposes the cultural mediation of experience through drugs with that performed with text. As a sample of the currently radically changing relations between professional and lay knowledge in the field of drug interventions, the website of a Copenhagen institution for young drug users...

  8. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc., has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc., is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  9. Culture and Imperialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Edward W.

    Growing out of a series of lectures given at universities in the United States, Canada, and England, this book reopens the dialogue between literature and the life of its time. It draws dramatic connections between the imperial endeavor and the culture that both reflected and reinforced it, describing a general pattern of relationships between the…

  10. Micropolitics of Media Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisters, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    This book focuses on the micro-political implications of the work of Gilles Deleuze (and Felix Guattari). General philosophical articles are coupled to more specific analyses of films (such as Fight Club and Schindler's List) and other expressions of contemporary culture. The choice of giving

  11. Late Modern Play Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2008-01-01

    and the Danish University of Education (among others) have been working with different kind of products, all referred to as PlAYWARE. Playware combines modern technology and knowledge about play culture in order to produce playful experiences for its players. This paper will exemplify how the concept of play can...

  12. Language, Thought, and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henle, Paul, Ed.

    This book presents a collection of essays intended for an integrated study of language by anthropologists, literary critics, philosophers, psychologists, sociologists, and linguists. There is first a discussion of theories concerning the interrelationship of language, thought, and culture. This is followed by a discussion of the development of…

  13. Safety culture in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado Gonzalez, C.H.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, there are describe the activities already accomplished and the activities planned to be executed by the licensee and the regulator with the aim to develop, maintain and strength Safety Culture in all the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant activities. (author)

  14. Cultures et organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.; Hofstede, G.J.; Minkov, M.

    2010-01-01

    La coopération interculturelle, une question de survie Véritable atlas des valeurs culturelles, paru en 18 langues, Cultures et organisations est le fruit de plus de 40 ans de recherches menées dans plus de 100 pays. Il est aujourd'hui le livre de référence des chercheurs, universitaires et

  15. Bringing Culture Back In

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A number of international political scientists, economists, philosophers, and humanist scholars address the role of culture, ethnicity, and religion in contemporary states and societies. Contributions by Jørn Borup, Michael Böss, Marianne Qvortrup Fibiger, Antje Gimmler, Nils Holtug, John...

  16. Cultural Learning Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael

    2016-01-01

    M. Tomasello, A. Kruger, and H. Ratner (1993) proposed a theory of cultural learning comprising imitative learning, instructed learning, and collaborative learning. Empirical and theoretical advances in the past 20 years suggest modifications to the theory; for example, children do not just imitate but overimitate in order to identify and…

  17. Culture of insect tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cestari, A.N.; Simoes, L.C.G.

    1978-01-01

    Several aspects are discussed related to the behavior of politenic chromosomes from Rhyncosciara salivary glands kept in culture during different periods of time, without interference of insect hormones. Nucleic acid-and protein synthesis in isolated nuclei and chromosomes are also investigated. Autoradiographic techniques and radioactive precursors for nucleic acids and proteins are used in the research. (M.A.) [pt

  18. Making Mathematics Culturally Relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Examines three strands of elementary mathematics--numerals and counting, recording and calculating, and mathematics exploration and play--and provides ways to integrate culture and mathematics experiences in each area. Specific topics include Egyptian methods for multiplication, the abacus, and the words for the numbers 1-10 in seven different…

  19. Pop Culture Peeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszewski, Julie; Fontes, Kris

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a classroom activity called Pop Culture Peep. In this particular activity, students are required to first research famous artists and/or famous artworks to have an image to use as a reference. Students then plan out how they would decorate the Peep, deciding what materials they would use to create the Peep in…

  20. Complicating Visual Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiello, Vicki; Hathaway, Kevin; Rhoades, Mindi; Walker, Sydney

    2006-01-01

    Arguing for complicating the study of visual culture, as advocated by James Elkins, this article explicates and explores Lacanian psychoanalytic theory and pedagogy in view of its implications for art education practice. Subjectivity, a concept of import for addressing student identity and the visual, steers the discussion informed by pedagogical…

  1. Plant Tissue Culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    closely linked with the discovery and characterization of plant hormones, and has facilitated our understanding of plant growth and development. Furthermore, the ability to grow plant cells and tissues in culture and to control their development forms the basis of many practical applications in agriculture, horticulture indus-.

  2. Culture Clash. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bache, Ellyn

    This monograph provides a first-hand account of the experience of a U.S. family who sponsored a Vietnamese refugee family from 1975-1979. The book, which is comprised of journal entries, proposes to show what it is like to deal with people from an entirely difference culture and to suggest an approach to handling the problems before the…

  3. Plant Tissue Culture Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert Alan

    Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…

  4. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...

  5. Connecting Community and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Corine Meredith; White, Meg

    2014-01-01

    In order to be effective educators in the 21st century, it is essential for teacher candidates to develop a deep understanding of the culture and contextual factors surrounding their students' lives, and the ability to apply this understanding to classroom instruction. This action research study discusses how the implementation of teaching…

  6. Bone culture research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Nicola C.

    1993-01-01

    The experiments described are aimed at exploring PTH regulation of production of collagenase and protein inhibitors of collagenase (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases, TIMP-1 and -2) by osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells under conditions of weightlessness. The results of this work will contribute to information as to whether a microgravity environment alters the functions and responsiveness of the osteoblast. The objectives of the Bone Culture Research (BCR) experiment are: to observe the effects of microgravity on the morphology, rate of proliferation, and behavior of the osteoblastic cells, UMR 106-01; to determine whether microgravy affects the hormonal sensitivity of osteroblastic cells; and to measure the secretion of collagenase and its inhibitors into the medium under conditions of microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: the osteoblast-like cells, UMR-106-01, will be cultured in four NASDA cell culture chambers; two chambers will be subjected to microgravity on SL-J; two chambers will remain on the ground at KSC as ground controls but subjected to an identical set of culture conditions as on the shuttle; media will be changed four times; twice the cells will receive the hormone parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and media collected; cells will be photographed under conditions of microgravity; and media and photographs will be analyzed upon return to determine whether functions of the cells changed.

  7. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    available for expressing not only task-relevant but also socially and psychologically relevant information makes it necessary to take influences into account that are not readily implemented like emotions or cultural heuristics. These influences have a huge impact on the success of an interaction...

  8. Effects of glucose availability in Lactobacillus sakei; metabolic change and regulation of the proteome and transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette McLeod

    Full Text Available Effects of glucose availability were investigated in Lactobacillus sakei strains 23K and LS25 cultivated in anaerobic, glucose-limited chemostats set at high (D = 0.357 h-1 and low (D = 0.045 h-1 dilution rates. We observed for both strains a shift from homolactic towards more mixed acid fermentation when comparing high to low growth rates. However, this change was more pronounced for LS25 than for 23K, where dominating products were lactate>formate>acetate≥ethanol at both conditions. A multivariate approach was used for analyzing proteome and transcriptome data from the bacterial cultures, where the predictive power of the omics data was used for identifying features that can explain the differences in the end-product profiles. We show that the different degree of response to the same energy restriction revealed interesting strain specific regulation. An elevated formate production level during slow growth, more for LS25 than for 23K, was clearly reflected in correlating pyruvate formate lyase expression. With stronger effect for LS25, differential expression of the Rex transcriptional regulator and NADH oxidase, a target of Rex, indicated that maintainance of the cell redox balance, in terms of the NADH/NAD+ ratio, may be a key process during the metabolic change. The results provide a better understanding of different strategies that cells may deploy in response to changes in substrate availability.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of fermentation and anaerobic growth of baker's yeast for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Kwee-Yan; Lutz, Andrew E

    2010-05-17

    Thermodynamic concepts have been used in the past to predict microbial growth yield. This may be the key consideration in many industrial biotechnology applications. It is not the case, however, in the context of ethanol fuel production. In this paper, we examine the thermodynamics of fermentation and concomitant growth of baker's yeast in continuous culture experiments under anaerobic, glucose-limited conditions, with emphasis on the yield and efficiency of bio-ethanol production. We find that anaerobic metabolism of yeast is very efficient; the process retains more than 90% of the maximum work that could be extracted from the growth medium supplied to the chemostat reactor. Yeast cells and other metabolic by-products are also formed, which reduces the glucose-to-ethanol conversion efficiency to less than 75%. Varying the specific ATP consumption rate, which is the fundamental parameter in this paper for modeling the energy demands of cell growth, shows the usual trade-off between ethanol production and biomass yield. The minimum ATP consumption rate required for synthesizing cell materials leads to biomass yield and Gibbs energy dissipation limits that are much more severe than those imposed by mass balance and thermodynamic equilibrium constraints. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lactobacillus casei combats acid stress by maintaining cell membrane functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongde; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Miao; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2012-07-01

    Lactobacillus casei strains have traditionally been recognized as probiotics and frequently used as adjunct culture in fermented dairy products where lactic acid stress is a frequently encountered environmental condition. We have investigated the effect of lactic acid stress on the cell membrane of L. casei Zhang [wild type (WT)] and its acid-resistant mutant Lbz-2. Both strains were grown under glucose-limiting conditions in chemostats; following challenge by low pH, the cell membrane stress responses were investigated. In response to acid stress, cell membrane fluidity decreased and its fatty acid composition changed to reduce the damage caused by lactic acid. Compared with the WT, the acid-resistant mutant exhibited numerous survival advantages, such as higher membrane fluidity, higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids, and higher mean chain length. In addition, cell integrity analysis showed that the mutant maintained a more intact cellular structure and lower membrane permeability after environmental acidification. These results indicate that alteration in membrane fluidity, fatty acid distribution, and cell integrity are common mechanisms utilized by L. casei to withstand severe acidification and to reduce the deleterious effect of lactic acid on the cell membrane. This detailed comparison of cell membrane responses between the WT and mutant add to our knowledge of the acid stress adaptation and thus enable new strategies to be developed aimed at improving the industrial performance of this species under acid stress.

  11. The response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to sudden vs. gradual changes in environmental stress monitored by expression of the stress response protein Hsp12p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisamedtinov, Ildar; Lindsey, George G; Karreman, Robert; Orumets, Kerti; Koplimaa, Mariane; Kevvai, Kaspar; Paalme, Toomas

    2008-09-01

    The response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to sudden vs. gradual changes in different environmental stress conditions during both respiratory growth and aerobic fermentative growth in the presence of excess glucose was investigated by monitoring the level and rate of expression of the stress response protein Hsp12p using the fluorescent fusion construct Hsp12p-Gfp2p. The initial expression level and the rate of Hsp12p synthesis was significantly greater under glucose-limited conditions in the chemostat (Dtemperature caused stress responses in both D-stat and auxo-accelerostat culture. The magnitude of the stress response depended on the stress factor, cultivation conditions as well as the rate of change of the stress factor. The rate of Hsp12p synthesis increased due to all applied stresses, with the observed increase between 2 and 20 times lower when the stress was applied gradually rather than rapidly. The results suggested that the Hsp12p expression rate is a good indicator of applied stress in S. cerevisiae.

  12. Rabbit whole embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Valerie A; Carney, Edward W

    2012-01-01

    Although the rabbit is used extensively in developmental toxicity testing, relatively little is known about the fundamental developmental biology of this species let alone mechanisms underlying developmental toxicity. This paucity of information about the rabbit is partly due to the historic lack of whole embryo culture (WEC) methods for the rabbit, which have only been made available fairly recently. In rabbit WEC, early somite stage embryos (gestation day 9) enclosed within an intact amnion and attached to the visceral yolk sac are dissected from maternal tissues and placed in culture for up to 48 h at approximately 37°C and are continuously exposed to an humidified gas atmosphere mixture in a rotating culture system. During this 48 h culture period, major phases of organogenesis can be studied including cardiac looping and segmentation, neural tube closure, and development of anlagen of the otic system, eyes and craniofacial structures, somites and early phases of limb development (up to bud stage), as well as expansion and closure of the visceral yolk sac around the embryo. Following completion of the culture period, embryos are evaluated based on several growth and development parameters and also are assessed for morphological abnormalities. The ability to sustain embryo development independent of the maternal system allows for exposure at precise development stages providing the opportunity study the direct action of a teratogen or one of its metabolites on the developing embryo. Rabbit WEC is perhaps most useful when used in conjunction with rodent WEC methods to investigate species-specific mechanisms of developmental toxicity.

  13. Quality Culture Survey Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pritesh; Baker, Denyse; Burdick, Rick; Chen, Cylia; Hill, Jonathon; Holland, Morgan; Sawant, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The Parenteral Drug Association conducted an anonymous global survey of quality culture in the pharmaceutical industry to determine whether there is a relationship between certain quality behaviors and certain quality attributes, and whether these quality attributes could be used as surrogates (or proxy variables) to assess quality culture. Other studies have shown that an unhealthy quality culture is a root cause of many quality or compliance issues seen by sites and organizations. Statistical analysis of survey data suggests that certain attributes are driving good behaviors, and the demographic data suggests that this relationship holds irrespective of the geographic location of the site. Executive survey respondents had a more optimistic view of the current state of quality culture than survey respondents at large, with cross-functional vision showing the biggest gap (P-value = 0.07, F-Test). The top five quality attributes that can serve as surrogates for quality culture were (1) Management communication that quality is everyone's responsibility, (2) Site has formal quality improvement objectives and targets, (3) Clear performance criteria for feedback and coaching, (4) Quality topics included in at least half of all-hands meetings, and (5) Collecting error prevention metrics. These identified mature quality attributes are related to management responsibility, and continual improvement of the pharmaceutical quality system sections of ICH Q10, and therefore may be amenable to be incorporated in audit programs or in regulatory inspections. Additional research and discussion is required to build a coherent approach, which the pharmaceutical industry and regulators can adopt. © PDA, Inc. 2015.

  14. Cultural hegemony? Educators’ perspectives on facilitating cross-cultural dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zareen; Verstegen, Daniëlle; Vyas, Rashmi; Hamed, Omayma; Dornan, Tim; Morahan, Page

    2016-01-01

    Background We live in an age when education is being internationalized. This can confront students with ‘cultural hegemony’ that can result from the unequal distribution of power and privilege in global society. The name that is given to awareness of social inequality is ‘critical consciousness’. Cross-cultural dialogue provides an opportunity for learners to develop critical consciousness to counter cultural hegemony. The purpose of this research was to understand how learners engage with cross-cultural dialogue, so we can help them do so more effectively in the future. Method The setting for this research was an online discussion in an international health professions educator fellowship program. We introduced scenarios with cultural references to study the reaction of participants to cultural conversation cues. We used an inductive thematic analysis to explore power and hegemony issues. Results Participants reflected that personally they were more likely to take part in cross-cultural discussions if they recognized the context discussed or had prior exposure to educational settings with cultural diversity. They identified barriers as lack of skills in facilitating cross-cultural discussions and fear of offending others. They suggested deliberately introducing cultural issues throughout the curriculum. Conclusion Our results indicate that developing critical consciousness and cross-cultural competency will require instructional design to identify longitudinal opportunities to bring up cross-cultural issues, and training facilitators to foster cross-cultural discussions by asking clarifying questions and navigating crucial/sensitive conversations. PMID:27890048

  15. Cultural neuroscience and psychopathology: prospects for cultural psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Suparna; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2009-01-01

    There is a long tradition that seeks to understand the impact of culture on the causes, form, treatment, and outcome of psychiatric disorders. An early, colonialist literature attributed cultural characteristics and variations in psychopathology and behavior to deficiencies in the brains of colonized peoples. Contemporary research in social and cultural neuroscience holds the promise of moving beyond these invidious comparisons to a more sophisticated understanding of cultural variations in brain function relevant to psychiatry. To achieve this, however, we need better models of the nature of psychopathology and of culture itself. Culture is not simply a set of traits or characteristics shared by people with a common geographic, historical, or ethnic background. Current anthropology understands culture as fluid, flexible systems of discourse, institutions, and practices, which individuals actively use for self-fashioning and social positioning. Globalization introduces new cultural dynamics and demands that we rethink culture in relation to a wider domain of evolving identities, knowledge, and practice. Psychopathology is not reducible to brain dysfunction in either its causes, mechanisms, or expression. In addition to neuropsychiatric disorders, the problems that people bring to psychiatrists may result from disorders in cognition, the personal and social meanings of experience, and the dynamics of interpersonal interactions or social systems and institutions. The shifting meanings of culture and psychopathology have implications for efforts to apply cultural neuroscience to psychiatry. We consider how cultural neuroscience can refine use of culture and its role in psychopathology using the example of adolescent aggression as a symptom of conduct disorder.

  16. Cultural hegemony? Educators' perspectives on facilitating cross-cultural dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zareen; Verstegen, Daniëlle; Vyas, Rashmi; Hamed, Omayma; Dornan, Tim; Morahan, Page

    2016-01-01

    We live in an age when education is being internationalized. This can confront students with 'cultural hegemony' that can result from the unequal distribution of power and privilege in global society. The name that is given to awareness of social inequality is 'critical consciousness'. Cross-cultural dialogue provides an opportunity for learners to develop critical consciousness to counter cultural hegemony. The purpose of this research was to understand how learners engage with cross-cultural dialogue, so we can help them do so more effectively in the future. The setting for this research was an online discussion in an international health professions educator fellowship program. We introduced scenarios with cultural references to study the reaction of participants to cultural conversation cues. We used an inductive thematic analysis to explore power and hegemony issues. Participants reflected that personally they were more likely to take part in cross-cultural discussions if they recognized the context discussed or had prior exposure to educational settings with cultural diversity. They identified barriers as lack of skills in facilitating cross-cultural discussions and fear of offending others. They suggested deliberately introducing cultural issues throughout the curriculum. Our results indicate that developing critical consciousness and cross-cultural competency will require instructional design to identify longitudinal opportunities to bring up cross-cultural issues, and training facilitators to foster cross-cultural discussions by asking clarifying questions and navigating crucial/sensitive conversations.

  17. Cultural hegemony? Educators’ perspectives on facilitating cross-cultural dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareen Zaidi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We live in an age when education is being internationalized. This can confront students with ‘cultural hegemony’ that can result from the unequal distribution of power and privilege in global society. The name that is given to awareness of social inequality is ‘critical consciousness’. Cross-cultural dialogue provides an opportunity for learners to develop critical consciousness to counter cultural hegemony. The purpose of this research was to understand how learners engage with cross-cultural dialogue, so we can help them do so more effectively in the future. Method: The setting for this research was an online discussion in an international health professions educator fellowship program. We introduced scenarios with cultural references to study the reaction of participants to cultural conversation cues. We used an inductive thematic analysis to explore power and hegemony issues. Results: Participants reflected that personally they were more likely to take part in cross-cultural discussions if they recognized the context discussed or had prior exposure to educational settings with cultural diversity. They identified barriers as lack of skills in facilitating cross-cultural discussions and fear of offending others. They suggested deliberately introducing cultural issues throughout the curriculum. Conclusion: Our results indicate that developing critical consciousness and cross-cultural competency will require instructional design to identify longitudinal opportunities to bring up cross-cultural issues, and training facilitators to foster cross-cultural discussions by asking clarifying questions and navigating crucial/sensitive conversations.

  18. COMPETENCIA CULTURAL E INTELIGENCIA CULTURAL. APORTES A LA MEDIACIÓN CULTURAL DOCENTE CULTURAL (COMPETENCE AND CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE. CONTRIBUTIONS TO CULTURAL MEDIATION FOR TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Antoni Maurizia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El ensayo nace como parte de una investigación mayor que se publicará sobre la inserción profesional docente en la Universidad de Costa Rica. Su finalidad en la investigación en curso es la de explorar los aportes de los estudios sobre competencia cultural e inteligencia cultural, para identificar planteamientos teóricos que fortalezcan nuevos espacios para la mediación cultural docente en la Universidad. Se concluye que el concepto de competencia cultural representa un aporte importante, si se revisa la idea de cultura que subyace y se le transforma en “competencia intercultural”. Luego, se define mediación cultural, evidenciándose la importancia de la nueva figura profesional en el contexto actual, los ámbitos de acción donde se ha empleado y se manifiesta la necesidad de promover mediadores y mediadoras culturales en Costa Rica también.Abstract: The essay comes as part of a larger investigation to be published about teachers’ professional integration at the University of Costa Rica. His purpose in the ongoing investigation is to explore the contributions of studies on cultural competency and cultural understanding, to identify new theoretical approaches and strengthen new cultural spaces for teaching mediation at the University. We conclude that the concept of cultural competence represents an important contribution, if we review the underlying idea of culture and it is transformed into "intercultural competence". The definition of cultural mediation points to the importance of the new professional figure in the current context, evidencing the areas of action where it has been used and showing the need to promote cultural mediators in Costa Rica as well.

  19. Occupation, well-being, and culture: Theory and cultural humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, Karen R Whalley

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement depicts individuals embedded within cultural environments that afford occupational possibilities. Culture pertains not solely to ethnicity or race but to any dimension of diversity, including class, gender, sexual orientation, and ability. This paper highlights specific dimensions of cultural diversity and their relationships to occupational engagement and well-being. Cultural variations constitute the basis for a socially constructed hierarchy of traits that significantly determine occupational opportunities and impact mental health and well-being. Cultural humility is an approach to redressing power imbalances in client-therapist relationships by incorporating critical self-evaluation and recognizing that cultural differences lie not within clients but within client-therapist relationships. It is proposed that theoretical relevance would be enhanced if culturally diverse perspectives were incorporated into theories of occupation. Cultural humility is advocated as an approach to theoretical development and in efforts to counter professional Eurocentrism, ethnocentrism, and intellectual colonialism.

  20. LINGUO-CULTURAL ASPECTS OF CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusakova, N.L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the linguo-cultural aspects of cross-cultural communication. The aim of article is to identify the relationship between lingual personality’s interpreting degree of cross-cultural symbols and successful process of cross-cultural communication. As a result it is proved, that cross-cultural communication is based on interpretation of cross-cultural symbols as one of the most important motivate factors of communication. It should be emphasized that the lingual personality is the main component of communicative process. It is identified, that individual parameters of lingual personality form the individual lingual world view which reflects objectively the world perception by people having different cultures. The role of lingual personality parameters of emigrant at the successful cross-cultural communication is identified.

  1. Between Mass Culture and Africa's Cultural Heritage: Possibilities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , stresses its relationship with mass culture, and investigates the possibilities of a dialectic between the two. African cultural goods include archaeological discoveries, ritual and court objects, ordinary or everyday objects, tourist art, and the ...

  2. Culture collections and biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, Manuel; Iborra, José L

    2003-06-01

    This review describes the relationships and links between culture collections, which act as sources of genomes, transcriptomes, proteome, and metabolomes, and fields of research biochemistry that demand their support and help. In addition, the invaluable but not always rewarded efforts of these organizations as a source and conservator of organism diversity is discussed. Biological waste-water treatment, ethanol as a non-finite source of energy, Rhodococcus fascians as the source of a citrus-juice debittering agent, the sporulation of filamentous fungi in liquid medium, and biotransformation with growing and resting cells are processes developed by the authors that demonstrate some of the applications of organisms from culture collections in the general field of biotechnology and related areas, including industrial biochemistry and biocatalytic synthesis.

  3. Mapping cultural ecosystem services:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paracchini, Maria Luisa; Zulian, Grazia; Kopperoinen, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Research on ecosystem services mapping and valuing has increased significantly in recent years. However, compared to provisioning and regulating services, cultural ecosystem services have not yet been fully integrated into operational frameworks. One reason for this is that transdisciplinarity...... surveys are a main source of information. Among cultural ecosystem services, assessment of outdoor recreation can be based on a large pool of literature developed mostly in social and medical science, and landscape and ecology studies. This paper presents a methodology to include recreation...... in the conceptual framework for EU wide ecosystem assessments (Maes et al., 2013), which couples existing approaches for recreation management at country level with behavioural data derived from surveys, and population distribution data. The proposed framework is based on three components: the ecosystem function...

  4. Immediation (Cultures of Immediacy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    2018-01-01

    The 21st century´s media praxis is increasingly characterized by the emerging “cultural principle”, “condition” or “culture of immediacy”. The processes summarized under the term immediation suggest the closure of the spatio-temporal “gap” between agencies and the media involved, resulting......-circuit arrangements and 2. live-streaming practices. It proposes an innovative combination of interdisciplinary perspectives and methods to discuss the options available to increase and enrich the understanding of immediation’s potential for boosting an immense variety of its societal applications. The so designed...... future-focused research in liveness and immediacy promises in particular answering the questions of 1. concrete impacts of creative closed circuit arrangements onto the emerging “domestication” of live streaming and of 2. actual measures needed to be taken within emerging live streaming research...

  5. Chapter 8: Youth Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang

    2016-01-01

    no longer has to be fixed, and can be negotiated. The discussion at the end of the chapter focuses on how technology changes at an increasing pace, and how its adoption changes the way we live and interact. Mobile phone use influences interpersonal and group dynamics, from the smallest unit of society......Gitte Stald has been researching mobile technologies since their early days of adoption by younger audiences. In her talk, she focuses on adolescents and their mobile media use. Stald shares her findings from the longitudinal and cross-cultural studies she has been conducting over the years....... The chapter builds on findings from a Danish and a European context, but they can be expanded to think about mobile youth culture in general. Gitte Stald discusses the concepts of digital natives and digital immigrants, sharing, immediacy, and the feeling of presence (or absent presence), social coordination...

  6. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable......More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example......-economic resources. In a second step, the 28 EU member countries were clustered into six country clusters based on their representation of mobility styles. The country clusters indicate the existence of considerably different mobility cultures across the EU. Sub-regions can be identified that have highly different...

  7. Cross cultural usability testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Goyal, Shivam

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a pilot study in Denmark of cross cultural effects on Think Aloud usability testing. We provide an overview of previous research on cross cultural usability evaluation with a special focus on the relationship between the evaluator and the test user....... This relation was studied in an experiment with usability testing of a localized clipart application in which eight participants from Denmark and India formed pairs of evaluator-test user. The test users were asked to think aloud and the evaluators' role were to facilitate the test users thinking aloud...... and hereby identify usability problems with the clipart application. Data on the evaluators' and test users' behaviour were recorded and analyzed by coding and summarizing statistics on these behavioural events. The results show that Think Aloud Usability Test of a localized application is most effectively...

  8. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  9. Cultural Heritage communication technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ippoliti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This magazine issue is about the relationship between digital techniques and the communication of cultural heritage and specifically aims at portraying how the interest and implications of these two things are widespread. Without trying to go too in depth, various points of view have been compared, each taken from different articles presenting a wide range of possible approaches on the subject of creating a wealth of information on cultural heritage and how it can be made available to the public without difficulty. Therefore, this issue wants to create a forum for a many-sided comparison built on a wealth of experience and opinions of different authors. In this way the abundance and versatility of the contributing professions (architects, archaeologists, engineers, mathematicians, graphic designers, artists, video producers, digital experts, 3D graphic designers, critics, directors, etc. has given life to a precious blend of know-how, which is without doubt enhanced by present-day digital technology.

  10. The Value of Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrede, Joar

    2014-01-01

    In Oslo, the capital of Norway, several urban development projects are in the making. One such project is the Fjord City project, which involves freeing up waterfront areas for housing, commerce, culture and recreation. It has been decided to relocate The Munch Museum to the area, and a new Opera...... about sustainable urban development, including, but not limited to, culture. Put together, the articles are meant to constitute a micro-macro approach, combining an analysis of a single document – the plan of action from the Norwegian government – and meso- and macro-interpretations based on selected...... texts from two ongoing public debates. The study demonstrates that there are discourses aiming at removing barriers to capital flow and increasing Oslo’s attraction value. Neoliberal discourses echoing the “creative city” thesis are an important driving force in the two ongoing urban development...

  11. Culture and Language Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kazem Lotfipour saedi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There are different views on the relationship between language and culture. Some consider them as separate entities one being a code-system and the other a system of beliefs and attitudes. Some believe in a cause and effect relationship between the two; and yet others argue for a co-evolutionary mode of interrelation. This paper will subscribe to the Hallidayan co-evolutionary view of the relationship (cf. Halliday 1991, presenting the view that language and culture are both integrated into a unique socio-semiotic system always interacting with one another for the successful functioning of the system. It will discuss some aspects of this interaction and the implications for ESL/EFL education programs.

  12. The Value of Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrede, Joar

    2014-01-01

    documents and the public debate, it is evident that “culture” is vital in the urban development projects, but it is ambiguous what the value of “culture” consists of. Many citizens are questioning the disruption to historical continuity and they are confused about the political reasoning behind......In Oslo, the capital of Norway, several urban development projects are in the making. One such project is the Fjord City project, which involves freeing up waterfront areas for housing, commerce, culture and recreation. It has been decided to relocate The Munch Museum to the area, and a new Opera...... the decisions to abandon the old museum buildings. On the other hand, the relocation of the cultural institutions is intended to increase the city’s attractiveness and make it more interesting to investors, tourists and visitors. Against this backdrop, this thesis is devoted to the task of analysing – from...

  13. Tracing Cultural Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    to Soweto’s Regina Mundi Church, this thesis analyses tourists’ snapshots at sites of memory and outlines their tracing activity in cultural memory. It draws on central concepts of actor - network theory and visual culture studies for a cross - disciplinary methodology to comprehend the collective...... of memory. They highlight the role of mundane uses of the past and indicate the need for cross - disciplinary research on the visual and on memory......We encounter, relate to and make use of our past and that of others in multifarious and increasingly mobile ways. Tourism is one of the main paths for encountering sites of memory. This thesis examines tourists’ creative appropriations of sites of memory – the objects and future memories inspired...

  14. CLASSROOM CULTURE OF PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia FĂT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results obtained during an enquiry based on a questionnaire about the classroom culture. This concept it is understood as a micro-society with its own characteristics derived from the dynamic of socialization and training process. This research aims to investigate certain specific aspects of micro-sociology and emphasis on classroom culture. A relatively new concept is reflected by the normative consensus or the integrated system of values that belongs to the teachers, pupils and school, as a social entity. The integrative ensemble of values, class cohesion degree and training strategies are only a few of the aspects described by 62 pupils aged 17-18 years old, from a very prestigious school in Bucharest. The perception of pupils regarding our concept is the effect of the relational practices and training used constantly by the teachers. Those practices reflect the school’s focus mostly on cognitive performance.

  15. Several Cultures project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Researches carried out in the 'Many Culture Project' of the Agricultural Nuclear Energy Center, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, are described. Such researches comprise: genetic improvement of wheat; genetic improvement of rice; radioentomology of fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata); soil/sugar-cane relation; biological fixation of nitrogen by sugar-cane; radioentomology of the sugar-cane borer (Diatraea saccharalis); sugar-cane manuring; electron microscopy of B. mori and A. gemmatalis polyhedrosis; electron microscopy of some varieties of coffee-plant attacked with blight; nitrogen fixation in corn; confirmation of the extent of the concept of the value 'A'; behavior of the 14 C - and 35 S soil organic matter; fractionation of organic matter from the main types of Brazilian soils and measurement of the 14 C/ 12 C specific radioactivity; study of the radicular system of some cultures; influence of organic matter on the alteration of soils located in different Brazilian climatic zones. (M.A.) [pt

  16. Commensality, society and culture

    OpenAIRE

    Fischler , Claude

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The founding fathers of the social sciences recognized commensality as a major issue but considered it mostly in a religious, sacrificial, ritualistic context. The notion of commensality is examined in its various dimensions and operations. Empirical data are used to examine cultural variability in attitudes about food, commensality and its correlates among countries usually categorized as 'Western' and 'modern'. Clear-cut differences are identified, hinting at possibl...

  17. The Culture of Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    they were viewing was something of a higher social status. This leftover prestige distinguished these paintings and monuments from mass culture in...from both men and women to be successful. As women pushed for equal access to civil and professional jobs and political rights, men resisted the...N03-72157636731022006/. 63 as a charming caring man that appealed to women .97 Figure 4.2

  18. Quarks, culture, combogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Barry

    2018-01-01

    The value of Tyler Volk’s Quarks to Culture is evident when the book is placed against popular histories of the universe, dozens of which have provided evidence for an immense cosmic past. But such histories are often anecdotal, like early British histories of the kings of England. Unlike these works, Volk artfully presents the case for structural continuity and systematic cre­ativity across 13.8 billion years of cosmic history.

  19. Cross-Cultural Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Minelgaite Snaebjornsson; Ingi Runar Edvardsson; Vilma Zydziunaite; Vlad Vaiman

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing low participation of women in global leadership calls for more research in this field. In this article, we set out to include gendered expectations toward leader behavior as part of cross-cultural leadership theory. Building on an existing body of research, we focus on propositions about the effects of gendered expectations on the leader, from the followers’ standpoint. The consideration of gendered effects fro...

  20. Wealth, Culture, and Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan W Husted

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of national wealth, income distribution, government size, and four cultural variables on the perceived level of corruption in a country. The study finds that corruption is significantly correlated to GNP per capita, power distance, masculinity, and uncertainty avoidance. Significant interaction effects occur in collectivistic and high power-distance countries. Suggestions for future research are developed.© 1999 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1...

  1. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast...... historical material these essays, by a diverse group of scholars, examine the pioneers of world literature and the roles played by translation, migration and literary institutions in the circulation and reception of both national and cosmopolitan literatures....

  2. Leadership, Culture & Sustainable Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    パトリス, ペンデル

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable development in emerging economies that simultaneously preserves cultural identity can be realized by implementing a simple social business model, the profits of which fund sustainable tourism leadership venture. Social business models, rooted in the community, provide jobs and opportunities for local people. Profits typically provide funds for training and/or education that acquiesce to the global market in service-oriented, low pay and low social status situations. Endeavors that...

  3. Culture in Services Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    This research features both theoretical and empirical work underlining the potential value of marketing to contribute to commercial performance. The theory draws from those authors who have been predominant in promoting the concept of a market orientation as an antecedent to organisational success. The marketing culture paradigm is introduced and developed to specifically consider the area of services marketing. The empirical investigation concludes that there is an acknowledged appreciation ...

  4. Online Civic Cultures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; Askanius, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the potential of video activism on YouTube to form a communicative space for deliberation and dissent. It asks how commenting on activist videos can help sustain civic cultures that allow for both antagonism and inclusive political debate. Drawing on a case study of online...... by potentially transnational publics and how online modes of debate engage notions of the public sphere in contemporary online environments....

  5. Tonality and the Cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Leech-Wilkinson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The emphasis in this response to Mine Doğantan-Dack's "Tonality: The Shape of Affect" is on the cultural construction of tonality and the ways in which that may encourage Western musicians to understand tonality as a fundamental psychological process. An alternative hypothesis is proposed in which tonality assists in the effective musical modelling of hunting, offering a means to relive the experience in social groups.

  6. Cultural competency training in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, A; Collazos, F; Ramos, M; Casas, M

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant and ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training involves the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. Cognitive cultural competence involves awareness of the various ways in which culture, immigration status, and race impact psychosocial development, psychopathology, and therapeutic transactions. Technical cultural competence involves the application of cognitive cultural competence, and requires proficiency in intercultural communication, the capacity to develop a therapeutic relationship with a culturally different patient, and the ability to adapt diagnosis and treatment in response to cultural difference. Perhaps the greatest challenge in cultural competence training involves the development of attitudinal competence inasmuch as it requires exploration of cultural and racial preconceptions. Although research is in its infancy, there are increasing indications that cultural competence can improve key aspects of the psychiatric treatment of immigrant and minority group patients.

  7. Cultural Saga: Does Pakhtun Culture Impede Women Employment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultural Saga: Does Pakhtun Culture Impede Women Employment? Humera Jamal, Mussawar Shah, Sidra Iqbal, Asad Ullah, Imran Imran. Abstract. Aim of this research article embodies the measurement of attitude of teaching faculty in Peshawar University to assess cultural impediments with reference to women ...

  8. Cultural Diversity and the Changing Culture of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nderu-Boddington, Eulalee

    2008-01-01

    The paper will examine the change in schools brought about by cultural diversity and examines the theories that surround the topic. I will evaluate and examine ways in which schools can accommodate cultural diversity. References will be made to cultural and social changes in our schools and how education is affected by such changes. The issue of…

  9. Managing Culture--Making Culture Work for You

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006

    2006-01-01

    An understanding of culture in organisations can offer insights into individual and group behaviour, and leadership. It can help to explain not just what happens in an organisation, but why it happens. However, many people are concerned not just with understanding culture, and hence organisational life. They see culture as something to be…

  10. The Reaffirmation of Cultural Identity in Cross-cultural Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmitzki, Corinne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between cultural contact and cultural identity as conceptualized in two research approaches: social identity theory and acculturation. The groups studied were German and Americans who either lived in their nonnative culture or had no direct contact. Comparisons between bicultural and monocultural groups revealed a…

  11. Morality, Culture and the Dialogic Self: Taking Cultural Pluralism Seriously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haste, Helen; Abrahams, Salie

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores moral reasoning within the framework of contemporary cultural theory, in which moral functioning is action mediated by tools (such as socially available discourses) within a social and cultural context. This cultural model of a "dialogic moral self" challenges many of the assumptions inherent in the individualistic Kantian…

  12. Teaching Culture Perception: Documenting and Transforming Institutional Teaching Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustra, Erika; Doci, Florida; Gillard, Kaitlyn; Hondzel, Catharine Dishke; Goff, Lori; Gabay, Danielle; Meadows, Ken N.; Borin, Paola; Wolf, Peter; Ellis, Donna; Eiliat, Hoda; Grose, Jill; Dawson, Debra L.; Hughes, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    An institutional culture that values teaching is likely to lead to improved student learning. The main focus of this study was to determine faculty, graduate and undergraduate students' perception of the teaching culture at their institution and identify indicators of that teaching culture. Themes included support for teaching development; support…

  13. The plant tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crocomo, O.J.; Sharp, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Progress in the field of plant tissue culture at the Plant Biochemistry Sector, Centro de Energia na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, S.P., Brazil, pertains to the simplification of development in 'Phaseolus vulgaris' by dividing the organism into its component organs, tissues, and cells and the maintenance of these components on defined culture media 'in vitro'. This achievement has set the stage for probing the basis for the stability of the differentiated states and/or the reentry of mature differentiated cells into the mitotic cell cycle and their subsequent redifferentiation. Data from such studies at the cytological and biochemical level have been invaluable in the elucidation of the control mechanisms responsible for expression of the cellular phenotype. Unlimited possibilities exist for the application of tissue culture in the vegetative propagation of 'Phaseolus' and other important cultivars in providing genocopies or a large scale and/or readily obtaining plantlets from haploid cell lines or from protoplast (wall-less cells) hybridization products following genetic manipulation. These tools are being applied in this laboratory for the development and selection of high protein synthesizing 'Phaseolus' cultivars

  14. Cultural Landscape and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Haaland

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focus on the way Nepalese migrants in Myanmar use features of the natural environment in their homeland in metaphoric constructions of a cultural landscape expressing ethnic identity. It is through such "symbolic work" that perceptions of "ethnoscapes" are shaped and indoctrinated. Although the appeal is to symbols that can serve to foster the importance of Nepaliness as a basis for belonging to an imagined community, this does not mean that the caste/ethnicity interaction boundaries are broken down. It does mean however that sectors of activities where such boundaries are made relevant have been changed and so has the cultural content organized through such interaction boundaries. Ethnoscapes do not exist by themselves from a 'primordial' past; they require ongoing expression and confirmation. Features of a natural environment most migrants have never seen is used as sources for spinning compelling webs of significance extolling the values of belonging to a group that shares a common past in that environment. I shall here present material of an ethnoscape very different from what is experienced in Nepal, namely Nepalese multi-caste/ethnic communities among Kachins, Shans, Burmese, Indian and Chinese traders in the Kachin state of Northern Myanmar. Keywords: Nepali migrants; Myanmar; ethnic identity; cultural landscape DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4515 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.4 2010 pp.99-110

  15. Diversidad cultural y emprendimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Álvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los efectos de la diversidad cultural, medida a partir de la fragmentación étnica, lingüística y religiosa, sobre la actividad emprendedora. A partir de datos de 39 países que hacen parte del proyecto Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM para el año 2008 y utilizando diversas regresiones lineales, se demuestra la importancia de la fragmentación étnica y lingüística sobre la religiosa, como condicionantes del emprendimiento. En cuanto a las implicaciones, el estudio permite por un lado, avanzar en la relación entre instituciones informales como la cultura y el emprendimiento, desde una faceta más novedosa como es la diversidad cultural en el contexto de la teoría institucional.Asu vez, las evidencias encontradas podrían facilitar el diseño de políticas y estrategias de fomento a la actividad emprendedora, en el contexto de globalización actual que favorece la movilidad geográfica y por ende, la diversidad cultural.

  16. Crowdsourcing Lost Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulou, E. K.; Georgopoulos, A.; Panagiotopoulos, G.; Kaliampakos, D.

    2015-08-01

    Cultural Heritage all over the world is at high risk. Natural and human activities endanger the current state of monuments and sites, whereas many of them have already been destroyed especially during the last years. Preventive actions are of utmost importance for the protection of human memory and the prevention of irreplaceable. These actions may be carried out either in situ or virtually. Very often in situ preventive, or protective or restoration actions are difficult or even impossible, as e.g. in cases of earthquakes, fires or war activity. Digital preservation of cultural heritage is a challenging task within photogrammetry and computer vision communities, as efforts are taken to collect digital data, especially of the monuments that are at high risk. Visit to the field and data acquisition is not always feasible. To overcome the missing data problem, crowdsourced imagery is used to create a visual representation of lost cultural heritage objects. Such digital representations may be 2D or 3D and definitely help preserve the memory and history of the lost heritage. Sometimes they also assist studies for their reconstruction. An initiative to collect imagery data from the public and create a visual 3D representation of a recently destroyed stone bridge almost 150 years old is being discussed in this study. To this end, a crowdsourcing platform has been designed and the first images collected have been processed with the use of SfM algorithms.

  17. RLG's Cultural Materials Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Smith-Yoshimura

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:5-12

    RLG members have formed a "Cultural Materials Alliance" to develop a pool of digitized research materials and a coherent, integrated discovery service. Alliance members are identifying best practices to create and describe digital surrogates and a rights-management framework addressing institutional intellectual-property mandates. The paper outlines the issues addressed in developing this new research resource that will promote "cultural heritage" in an unprecedented way. Examples from the RLG Cultural Materials service to be released later in 2001 will illustrate the work done so far.

  18. Measuring Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-07-19

    As the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements a State Level Approach to its safeguards verification responsibilities, a number of countries are beginning new nuclear power programs and building new nuclear fuel cycle faculties. The State Level approach is holistic and investigatory in nature, creating a need for transparent, non-discriminatory judgments about a state's nonproliferation posture. In support of this need, the authors previously explored the value of defining and measuring a state's safeguards culture. We argued that a clear definition of safeguards culture and an accompanying set of metrics could be applied to provide an objective evaluation and demonstration of a country's nonproliferation posture. As part of this research, we outlined four high-level metrics that could be used to evaluate a state's nuclear posture. We identified general data points. This paper elaborates on those metrics, further refining the data points to generate a measurable scale of safeguards cultures. We believe that this work could advance the IAEA's goals of implementing a safeguards system that is fully information driven, while strengthening confidence in its safeguards conclusions.

  19. 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SEARCH Driver Behavior & Performance 2016 Traffic Safety Culture Index This report presents the results of our annual Traffic Safety Culture Index survey, providing data on the attitudes and behaviors ...

  20. Cultural Fields, Communication and Ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This article is a cultural analysis conducted in a neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Indre Nørrebro, where approximately 20 percent of the population is of other than Danish ethnic origin. It sheds light on the structural characteristics of two strategic sites, or cultural fields, within which everyda...... these cultural fields play significant roles as social and cultural mediators in the production of locality.......This article is a cultural analysis conducted in a neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Indre Nørrebro, where approximately 20 percent of the population is of other than Danish ethnic origin. It sheds light on the structural characteristics of two strategic sites, or cultural fields, within which everyday...... life and identity formation of ethnic minorities take place. We deliberately explore how ethnicity works or does not work as a marker in the configuration of the two chosen cultural fields: public libraries and ethnic media. We analyse the role of these two cultural fields in the social formation...

  1. The Duty to Recognize Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    On Taylor and Honneth's theories of recognition and whether one can derive a "duty to recognize Culture" from these......On Taylor and Honneth's theories of recognition and whether one can derive a "duty to recognize Culture" from these...

  2. Conflict Resolution for Contrasting Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifford C.; Lipp, G. Douglas

    1998-01-01

    A seven-step process can help people from different cultures understand each other's intentions and perceptions so they can work together harmoniously: problem identification, problem clarification, cultural exploration, organizational exploration, conflict resolution, impact assessment, and organizational integration. (JOW)

  3. College Drinking - Changing the Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about college alcohol policies College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ... More about special features College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ...

  4. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  5. Cultural Diversity and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Van Praag, Mirjam

    One of the most salient and relevant dimensions of team heterogeneity is cultural background. We measure the impact of cultural diversity on the performance of business teams using a field experiment. Companies are set up by teams of undergraduate students in business studies in realistic though...... similar circumstances. We vary the cultural composition of otherwise randomly composed teams in a multi-cultural student population. Our data indicate that a moderate level of cultural diversity has no effect on team performance in terms of business outcomes (sales, profits and profits per share). However......, if at least the majority of team members is culturally diverse then more cultural diversity seems to affect the performance of teams positively. Our data suggest that this might be related to the more diverse pool of relevant knowledge facilitating (mutual) learning within culturally diverse teams....

  6. Studying Popular Culture in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    , ceramics, fashion magazines and folk art as both products and as processes of design, manufacture, distribution, appreciation and use, which must all be taken into account. Precisely because popular cultural forms are both cultural products and commodities, they reveal the complementary nature of the two......This working paper – written for inclusion as a chapter on Japanese society, to be published in Chinese by the Beijing University of Foreign Studies later in 2011 – looks at popular culture as a form of cultural production. It argues for the need to study popular cultural forms like advertisements...... categories of culture and the economy. The paper outlines and analyses the different ways in which social, cultural, symbolic and economic capital are converted by those participating in advertising, ceramic, fashion magazine and folk art worlds, and suggests that popular culture may best be seen as a name...

  7. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid

  8. CREATING VALUE WITHIN CONSUMPTION CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Adrian Gârdan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of culture consumption is a particular concern within the modern marketing theory. Culture can be seen as representing a body of knowledge, beliefs, values, attitudes, symbols etc, developed in a certain period of time by a group of individuals, items transmitted with the help of a social learning process to other generations within the group. Thus, the consumption of culture will identify itself with the consumption of any product, service or a combination of them, directly resulted as manifestation of culture, expressions of artistic creativity specific for a certain cultural space. The present paper proposes the analysis of the phenomenon referring to the culture consumption in terms of specific characteristics. The paper reviews the features specific to the modern consumer of culture, the relationship that exists between the individuals’ level of education and the culture consumption and value creation process or augmentation of the intrinsic value of an artistic product as a result of the contribution that the culture consumer can bring himself. The authors highlight the fact that within extremely complex processes which are defining the culture consumption, consumers can assume an active role, becoming on their turn co-participants in the cultural goods and services value creation and transmission. The modern consumer benefits more than ever from the advantages offered by the information technology, being called to respond to major challenges of the postmodernism paradigm in terms of culture consumption. Globalization and other social economic and politic phenomena have profoundly changed the reports between individual and culture, between self and other members of the society, causing synthesis and essential transformations of culture consumption, of culture consumers typologies, and not least of the very forms of artistic expression related to cultural goods and services.

  9. Forest ecosystem services: Cultural values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa M. Kreye; Damian C. Adams; Ramesh Ghimire; Wayde Morse; Taylor Stein; J. M. Bowker

    2017-01-01

    How we define “culture” and societal well-being related to culture depends heavily on who is looking at it, but culture can be generally described as “the customs and beliefs of a particular group of people that are used to express their collectively held values” (Soulbury Commission 2012). In the context of forests, culturally derived norms, beliefs, and values help...

  10. TECHNICAL CULTURE AND HUMAN AXJOSPHERE

    OpenAIRE

    ­Krystyna Chałas

    2014-01-01

    Technical culture is the value of each historical period. It is the subject of the ongoing development. While it is a value which is associated with different categories of values, mainly material, cognitive, social. Between culture and these three categories of values ​ there is a cognitive effect. Technical culture determines the quality of human axjosphere. The aim of this study is to show the relationships and dependencies between technical culture and the structures in which a person liv...

  11. The cultural management of leadership

    OpenAIRE

    De Giosa, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to analyse leadership from a symbolic point of view, as a decisive action for the construction and management of the meanings and values on which all organizational practice is based. A cultural perspective is valuable in understanding how everything that happens within the organization as a whole tends to be permeated by its culture and, therefore, has to be considered in the framework of cultural data. Moreover, such perspective reveals how the culture of an org...

  12. Serbian society and gun culture

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetković Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    This paper questions whether one characteristic of Serbian society is a gun culture. The first part of the paper deals with some theoretical concerns and closer explanation of what is understood by the term gun culture. Few different approaches to the issue are analyzed. The concept used has three main components of the gun culture: system of positive beliefs; social symbols embodied by the gun; agent "bearers" of gun culture. The second part of the paper presents results from Small Arms and ...

  13. Cultural diversity for virtual characters investigating behavioral aspects across cultures

    CERN Document Server

    Endrass, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Culture plays a crucial role in our lives. Depending on our cultural background, we judge on and react to everything that we encounter. Subtle differences in behavior can lead to misunderstandings or even culture shock. In a similar manner, virtual characters can be declined by certain user groups when showing culturally inappropriate behavior. But how can social aspects such as culture be integrated into the behavioral models of virtual characters Birgit Endrass addresses this question by carrying out a hybrid approach that is based on theoretical background from the social sciences as well a

  14. Logic in culture of thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov G. V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available in this article the logic perspective in information culture is investigated. The contents of four laws of logical thinking in their value for thinking and humanitarian culture of the personality are described. Formal and logical laws are characterized by a condition of uniform information culture of mankind.

  15. A Cultural Approach to Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    1998-01-01

    The this article learning is discussed in relation to different understanding of culture. In particular the dialectics of 'Enlightenment' inthe Western culture are reflected , as well aslow- and high-context communication and learningin different types of culture. Finaaly the Weberian methodology...

  16. Essentialism, hybridism and cultural critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frello, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    , culture or whatever. The purpose of focusing on concepts of transgression is usually to try to develop conceptual spaces within which it is possible to grasp and to study cultural identity without resorting to cultural essentialism. These attempts open up new possibilities but also new problems - e...

  17. Culture-Orientated Product Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moalosi, Richie; Popovic, Vesna; Hickling-Hudson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    There is little in-depth research that can assist designers to use culture as a catalyst for designing innovative products within Botswana's context. The concept of culture and design are intertwined, thus modifications stemming from cultural evolution both reflect and determine developments in design. The paper discusses an experimental design…

  18. The Cultural Context of Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Flora Ida

    To explicate the relevance of cultural context to educational administration practices, this paper contrasts United States cultural attitudes and administrative practices with those of Latin America. Drawing on Leslie A. White's definition of culture, the author presents the Weberian model of administration as exemplary for the United States,…

  19. Studying Legal Cultures and Encounters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...

  20. Cultural Diversity and Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Geneva

    2013-01-01

    This discussion examines some of the major issues and attributes of culturally responsive teaching. It begins with explaining my views of culturally responsive teaching and how I incorporate cultural responsiveness in my writing to teach readers what it means. These general conceptual frameworks are followed by a discussion of some specific…