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Sample records for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

  1. Genetics Home Reference: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deficiency Encyclopedia: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test Encyclopedia: Hemolytic anemia Encyclopedia: Newborn jaundice Health Topic: Anemia Health Topic: G6PD Deficiency Health Topic: Newborn Screening Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ...

  2. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in adults presented with anemia. Subjects and Methods: Eighteen months admission data was reviewed for G6PD deficiency as a cause of anemia. Anemia was defined by world health organization (WHO) criteria as haemoglobin less than 11.3 gm%. G6PD activity was measured by Sigma dye decolorisation method. All patients were screened for complications of hemolysis and its possible cause. Patients with more than 13 years of age were included in the study. Results: Out of 3600 patients admitted, 1440 were found anaemic and 49 as G6PD deficient. So the frequency of G6PD deficiency in anaemic patients was 3.4% and the overall frequency is 1.36%. G6PD deficiency among males and females was three and six percent respectively. Antimalarials and antibiotics containing sulphonamide group were the most common precipitating factors for hemolysis. Anemia and jaundice were the most common presentations while malaria was the most common associated disease. Acute renal failure was the most severe complication occurring in five patients with two deaths. Conclusion: G6PD deficiency is a fairly common cause of anemia with medicine as common precipitating factor for hemolysis. Such complications can be avoided with early recognition of the disease and avoiding indiscriminate use of medicine. (author)

  3. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quak, S H; Saha, N; Tay, J S

    1996-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in man is an X-linked enzyme. The deficiency of this enzyme is one of the most common inherited metabolic disorders in man. In Singapore, three clinical syndromes associated with G6PD deficiency had been described: severe haemolysis in neonates with kernicterus, haemoglobinuria and "viral hepatitis"-like syndrome. The human G6PD monomer consists of 515 amino acids. Only the tetrameric or dimeric forms composed of a single type subunit are catylitically active. The complete amino acid sequence of G6PD had been elucidated in man and various other animals. The region of high homology among the enzymes of various animals is presumably functionally active. Among the Chinese in Singapore, three common molecular variants had been identified: Canton (nt 1376 G --> T), Kaiping (nt 1388 G --> A) and Mediterranean (nt 563 C --> T) in frequencies of 24%, 21% and 10% respectively. In addition, two common mutants (Gaozhou, nt 95 A --> G and Chinese 5, nt 1024 C --> T) have been detected in Singapore Chinese in low frequencies. In Malays, 6 different deficient variants are known in Singapore (3 new, 1 Mahidol, 1 Indonesian and 1 Mediterranean).

  4. Screening of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Acipayam

    2014-02-01

    Aim: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is an important factor in etiology of pathologic neonatal jaundice. The aim of this study was to indicate the significance of screening glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the cord blood of neonates and the frequency of this deficiency in the etiology of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Material and Method: The study was performed consecutive 1015 neonates were included. Five hundred fifty six (54.8% of them were male and 459 (45.2% were female. The following parameters were recorded: Gender, birth weight, birth height, head circumference and gestational age. The glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase level of neonates were measured with quantitative method in cord blood. Also, hemoglobine, hematocrite, red blood cell count and blood group were measured. The following parameters were recorded in cases with jaundice: exchange transfusion, phototherapy, physiologic and pathologic jaundice, peak bilirubin day, maximum bilirubin level, total bilirubin level at the first day of jaundice, beginning time of jaundice. Results: Enzyme deficiency was detected in 133 (13.1% of neonates and 76 (57% of them were male, 57 (43% were female. Significant difference was detected in low glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme level with jaundice group for total bilirubin level at the first day of jaundice, maximum total bilirubin level and pathologic jaundice (p<0.05. Discussion: The ratio of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency was found in Edirne in this study and this ratio was higher than other studies conducted in our country. For this reason, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme level in cord blood of neonates should be measured routinely and high risk neonates should be followed up for hyperbilirubinemia and parents should be informed in our region.

  5. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; the single most ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is the most common enzymatic disorder of the red cell and an important risk factor for neonatal jaundice. Methodology: The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of G-6-PD deficiency among jaundiced neonates, and describe the associated morbidity ...

  6. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a study of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase(G6PD) deficiency in sickle cell anaemia patients attending the haematology clinic of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos- Nigeria. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency among the 130 sickle cell anaemia patients studied was found to be 18.5%. G6PD ...

  7. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a house keeping enzyme which catalyzes the first step in the hexose monophosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. G6PD deficiency is the commonest hemolytic X-linked genetic disease, which affects approximately 400 million people worldwide.

  8. [Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in children: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo L, Patricia; Calvanese T, Marlene; Rodríguez V, Diego; Cárcamo C, Cassandra

    2014-02-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD deficiency) is the most common red blood cell (RBC) enzyme disorder. The decrease as well as the absence of the enzyme increase RBC vulnerability to oxidative stress caused by exposure to certain medications or intake of fava beans. Among the most common clinical manifestations of this condition, acute hemolysis, chronic hemolysis, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and an asymptomatic form are observed. To analyze the case of a child who presented hemolytic crisis due to favism. A 2 year and 7 month old boy with a history of hyperbilirubinemia during the newborn period with no apparent cause, no family history of hemolytic anemia or parental consanguinity. He presented a prolonged neonatal jaundice and severe anemia requiring RBC transfusion. An intake of fava beans 48 h prior to onset of symptoms was reported. G6PD qualitative determination was compatible with this enzyme deficiency. G6PD deficiency can be highly variable in its clinical presentation, so it is necessary to keep it in mind during the diagnosis of hemolytic anemia at any age.

  9. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Nigerian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatundun Williams

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy and in Sub-Saharan Africa, is a significant cause of infection- and drug-induced hemolysis and neonatal jaundice. Our goals were to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among Nigerian children of different ethnic backgrounds and to identify predictors of G6PD deficiency by analyzing vital signs and hematocrit and by asking screening questions about symptoms of hemolysis. We studied 1,122 children (561 males and 561 females aged 1 month to 15 years. The mean age was 7.4 ± 3.2 years. Children of Yoruba ethnicity made up the largest group (77.5% followed by those Igbo descent (10.6% and those of Igede (10.2% and Tiv (1.8% ethnicity. G6PD status was determined using the fluorescent spot method. We found that the overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 15.3% (24.1% in males, 6.6% in females. Yoruba children had a higher prevalence (16.9% than Igede (10.5%, Igbo (10.1% and Tiv (5.0% children. The odds of G6PD deficiency were 0.38 times as high in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children (p=0.0500. The odds for Igede and Tiv children were not significantly different from Yoruba children (p=0.7528 and 0.9789 respectively. Mean oxygen saturation, heart rate and hematocrit were not significantly different in G6PD deficient and G6PD sufficient children. The odds of being G6PD deficient were 2.1 times higher in children with scleral icterus than those without (p=0.0351. In conclusion, we determined the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Nigerian sub-populations. The odds of G6PD deficiency were decreased in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children. There was no association between vital parameters or hematocrit and G6PD deficiency. We found that a history of scleral icterus may increase the odds of G6PD deficiency, but we did not exclude other common causes of icterus such as sickle cell disease or malarial infection.

  10. Kernicterus by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: a case report and review of the literature

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    Cossio de Gurrola Gladys

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is an X-linked recessive disease that causes acute or chronic hemolytic anemia and potentially leads to severe jaundice in response to oxidative agents. This deficiency is the most common human innate error of metabolism, affecting more than 400 million people worldwide. Case presentation Here, we present the first documented case of kernicterus in Panama, in a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient newborn clothed in naphthalene-impregnated garments, resulting in reduced psychomotor development, neurosensory hypoacousia, absence of speech and poor reflex of the pupil to light. Conclusion Mutational analysis revealed the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Mediterranean polymorphic variant, which explained the development of kernicterus after exposition of naphthalene. As the use of naphthalene in stored clothes is a common practice, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase testing in neonatal screening could prevent severe clinical consequences.

  11. Biochemical and cytochemical evaluation of heterozygote individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurbuz, Nilgun; Aksu, Tevfik Aslan; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to diagnose heterozygous glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient females by an inexpensive cytochemical G6PD staining method that is easy to perform, allowing diagnosis of G6PD deficiency without cumbersome genetic analysis. Three subject groups were included in

  12. Intravenous immunoglobulin to treat hyperbilirubinemia in neonates with isolated Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadah Khriesat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency alone or concomitant with ABO isoimmunisation is a widespread indication for neonatal exchange transfusion. Aims To evaluate the effectiveness of Intravenous Immunoglobulin in the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted between 2006 and 2014 at the Jordan University of Science and technology. The medical records of 43 infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit for isolated glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency hemolytic disease of the newborns were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I, a historical cohort, included newborns born between 2006 and 2010, Treatment included phototherapy and exchange transfusion. Group II included newborns born between 2011 and 2014, where, in addition to phototherapy, intravenous immunoglobulin was administered. The duration of phototherapy and number of exchange transfusions were evaluated. Results Of 412 newborns that were admitted with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency was present in 43. Of these, 22, did not receive intravenous immunoglobulin and served as a control group. The other 21 newborns received intravenous immunoglobulin. There was no difference in the demographic characteristics between the two groups. Infants in the control group were significantly more likely to receive exchange blood transfusion than infants in the immunoglobulin treatment group, but were significantly less likely to need phototherapy. Conclusion Intravenous immunoglobulin is an effective alternative to exchange transfusion in infants with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency hemolytic disease of the newborn. It is suggested that intravenous immunoglobulin may be beneficial as a prophylaxis for infants with hyperbilirubinemia.

  13. G6PD Deficiency (Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genes from one or both parents to a child. The gene responsible for this deficiency is on the X chromosome. G6PD deficiency is most common in males of African heritage. Many females of African heritage are carriers ...

  14. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Congdon, P. J.; Aggarwal, R. K.; Littlewood, J. M.; Shapiro, H.

    1981-01-01

    A child born to Pakistani parents is described. He had both cystic fibrosis and G-6PD-deficiency. So far as can be ascertained, the occurrence of both these conditions in the same individual has not previously been reported.

  15. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pradeep Kumar

    2016-02-06

    Feb 6, 2016 ... Hemolytic anemia; ... G6PD deficiency is the commonest hemolytic X-linked genetic disease, which affects .... tain drugs or infection, can elicit acute hemolysis. ..... down syndrome risk: a meta-analysis from 34 studies.

  16. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in northern Mexico ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    screening, in which the haplotype analysis was performed. Group B .... Thr65 in the native structure of human G6PD, the same protein .... this mutation has a very low frequency in the Mexican popu- lation, we can predict a significant health impact in the males .... genase deficiency: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

  17. Rasburicase-induced Hemolytic Anemia in an Adolescent With Unknown Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, Manzilat; Audino, Anthony N; Tobias, Joseph D

    2017-01-01

    Rasburicase, used in the prevention and treatment of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS), may cause hemolytic anemia and methemoglobinemia in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Although routine screening for G6PD deficiency has been recommended, given the turnaround time for test results and the urgency to treat TLS, such screening may not be feasible. We report a case of rasburicase-induced hemolytic anemia without methemoglobinemia in an adolescent with T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma, TLS, and previously unrecognized G6PD deficiency. Previous reports of hemolytic anemia with rasburicase are reviewed, mechanisms discussed, and preventative strategies presented.

  18. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Adrenal Hemorrhage in a Filipino Neonate with Hyperbilirubinemia

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    Akira Ohishi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on a Filipino neonate with early onset and prolonged hyperbilirubinemia who was delivered by a vacuum extraction due to a prolonged labor. Subsequent studies revealed adrenal hemorrhage and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency. It is likely that asphyxia and resultant hypoxia underlie the occurrence of adrenal hemorrhage and the clinical manifestation of G6PD deficiency and that the presence of the two events explains the early onset and prolonged hyperbilirubinemia of this neonate. Our results represent the importance of examining possible underlying factors for the development of severe, early onset, or prolonged hyperbilirubinemia.

  19. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and Alzheimer's disease: Partners in crime? The hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusu, N Nuray

    2015-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a multifaceted brain disorder which involves various coupled irreversible, progressive biochemical reactions that significantly reduce quality of life as well as the actual life expectancy. Aging, genetic predispositions, head trauma, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, deficiencies in insulin signaling, dysfunction of mitochondria-associated membranes, cerebrovascular changes, high cholesterol level, increased oxidative stress and free radical formation, DNA damage, disturbed energy metabolism, and synaptic dysfunction, high blood pressure, obesity, dietary habits, exercise, social engagement, and mental stress are noted among the risk factors of this disease. In this hypothesis review I would like to draw the attention on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and its relationship with Alzheimer's disease. This enzymopathy is the most common human congenital defect of metabolism and defined by decrease in NADPH+H(+) and reduced form of glutathione concentration and that might in turn, amplify oxidative stress due to essentiality of the enzyme. This most common enzymopathy may manifest itself in severe forms, however most of the individuals with this deficiency are not essentially symptomatic. To understand the sporadic Alzheimer's disease, the writer of this paper thinks that, looking into a crystal ball might not yield much of a benefit but glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency could effortlessly give some clues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: an unusual cause of acute jaundice after paracetamol overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillpotts, Simon; Tash, Elliot; Sen, Sambit

    2014-11-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest human enzyme defect causing haemolytic anaemia after exposure to specific triggers. Paracetamol-induced haemolysis in G6PD deficiency is a rare complication and mostly reported in children. We report the first case (to the best of our knowledge) of acute jaundice without overt clinical features of a haemolytic crisis, in an otherwise healthy adult female following paracetamol overdose, due to previously undiagnosed G6PD deficiency. It is important that clinicians consider this condition when a patient presents following a paracetamol overdose with significant and disproportionate jaundice, without transaminitis or coagulopathy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and diagnostic challenges in 1500 immigrants in Denmark examined for haemoglobinopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warny, Marie; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Petersen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Similar to the thalassaemia syndromes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is highly prevalent in areas historically exposed to malaria. In the present study, we used quantitative and molecular methods to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in a population of 1508 immigran...

  2. Reduced glutathione and glutathione disulfide in the blood of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhen-Hua; Tian, Guo-Li; Huang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Yan-Min; Xu, Hong-Ping

    2017-07-20

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is commonly detected during mass screening for neonatal disease. We developed a method to measure reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for detecting G6PD deficiency. The concentration of GSH and the GSH/GSSG ratio in newborn dry-blood-spot (DBS) screening and in blood plus sodium citrate for test confirmation were examined by MS/MS using labeled glycine as an internal standard. G6PD-deficient newborns had a lower GSH content (242.9 ± 15.9 μmol/L)and GSH/GSSG ratio (14.9 ± 7.2) than neonatal controls (370.0 ± 53.2 μmol/L and 46.7 ± 19.6, respectively). Although the results showed a significance of P blood measured using MS/MS on the first day of sample preparation are consistent with G6PD activity and are helpful for diagnosing G6PD deficiency.

  3. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and sickle cell trait among blood donors in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alabdulaali Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Blood donation from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient and sickle cell trait (SCT donors might alter the quality of the donated blood during processing, storage or in the recipient′s circulatory system. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and SCT among blood donors coming to King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH in Riyadh. It was also reviewed the benefits and risks of transfusing blood from these blood donors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1150 blood samples obtained from blood donors that presented to KKUH blood bank during the period April 2006 to May 2006. All samples were tested for Hb-S by solubility test, alkaline gel electrophoresis; and for G6PD deficiency, by fluorescent spot test. Results: Out of the 1150 donors, 23 (2% were diagnosed for SCT, 9 (0.78% for G6PD deficiency and 4 (0.35% for both conditions. Our prevalence of SCT and G6PD deficiency is higher than that of the general population of Riyadh. Conclusion: We recommend to screen all units for G6PD deficiency and sickle cell trait and to defer donations from donors with either of these conditions, unless if needed for special blood group compatibility, platelet apheresis or if these are likely to affect the blood bank inventory. If such blood is to be used, special precautions need to be undertaken to avoid complications in high-risk recipients.

  4. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency A− Variant in Febrile Patients in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tamar E.; Maloy, Halley; von Fricken, Michael; St. Victor, Yves; Romain, Jean R.; Okech, Bernard A.; Mulligan, Connie J.

    2014-01-01

    Haiti is one of two remaining malaria-endemic countries in the Caribbean. To decrease malaria transmission in Haiti, primaquine was recently added to the malaria treatment public health policy. One limitation of primaquine is that, at certain doses, primaquine can cause hemolytic anemia in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (G6PDd). In this study, we genotyped two mutations (A376G and G202A), which confer the most common G6PDd variant in West African populations, G6PDd A−. We estimated the frequency of G6PDd A− in a sample of febrile patients enrolled in an on-going malaria study who represent a potential target population for a primaquine mass drug administration. We found that 33 of 168 individuals carried the G6PDd A− allele (includes A− hemizygous males, A− homozygous or heterozygous females) and could experience toxicity if treated with primaquine. These data inform discussions on safe and effective primaquine dosing and future malaria elimination strategies for Haiti. PMID:24891465

  5. Five novel glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency haplotypes correlating with disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallol Ashraf

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, EC 1.1.1.49 deficiency is caused by one or more mutations in the G6PD gene on chromosome X. An association between enzyme levels and gene haplotypes remains to be established. Methods In this study, we determined G6PD enzyme levels and sequenced the coding region, including the intron-exon boundaries, in a group of individuals (163 males and 86 females who were referred to the clinic with suspected G6PD deficiency. The sequence data were analysed by physical linkage analysis and PHASE haplotype reconstruction. Results All previously reported G6PD missense changes, including the AURES, MEDITERRANEAN, A-, SIBARI, VIANGCHAN and ANANT, were identified in our cohort. The AURES mutation (p.Ile48Thr was the most common variant in the cohort (30% in males patients followed by the Mediterranean variant (p.Ser188Phe detectable in 17.79% in male patients. Variant forms of the A- mutation (p.Val68Met, p.Asn126Asp or a combination of both were detectable in 15.33% of the male patients. However, unique to this study, several of such mutations co-existed in the same patient as shown by physical linkage in males or PHASE haplotype reconstruction in females. Based on 6 non-synonymous variants of G6PD, 13 different haplotypes (13 in males, 8 in females were identified. Five of these were previously unreported (Jeddah A, B, C, D and E and were defined by previously unreported combinations of extant mutations where patients harbouring these haplotypes exhibited severe G6PD deficiency. Conclusions Our findings will help design a focused population screening approach and provide better management for G6PD deficiency patients.

  6. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency among malaria patients in Upper Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinyoung; Kim, Tae Im; Kang, Jung-Mi; Jun, Hojong; Lê, Hương Giang; Thái, Thị Lam; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Myint, Moe Kyaw; Lin, Khin; Kim, Tong-Soo; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2018-03-16

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD; EC 1.1.1.49) deficiency is one of the most common X-linked recessive hereditary disorders in the world. Primaquine (PQ) has been used for radical cure of P. vivax to prevent relapse. Recently, it is also used to reduce P. falciparum gametocyte carriage to block transmission. However, PQ metabolites oxidize hemoglobin and generate excessive reactive oxygen species which can trigger acute hemolytic anemia in malaria patients with inherited G6PD deficiency. A total of 252 blood samples collected from malaria patients in Myanmar were used in this study. G6PD variant was analysed by a multiplex allele specific PCR kit, DiaPlexC™ G6PD Genotyping Kit [Asian type]. The accuracy of the multiplex allele specific PCR was confirmed by sequencing analysis. Prevalence and distribution of G6PD variants in 252 malaria patients in Myanmar were analysed. Six different types of G6PD allelic variants were identified in 50 (7 females and 43 males) malaria patients. The predominant variant was Mahidol (68%, 34/50), of which 91.2% (31/34) and 8.8% (3/34) were males and females, respectively. Other G6PD variants including Kaiping (18%, 9/50), Viangchan (6%, 3/50), Mediterranean (4%, 2/50), Union (2%, 1/50) and Canton (2%, 1/50) were also observed. Results of this study suggest that more concern for proper and safe use of PQ as a radical cure of malaria in Myanmar is needed by combining G6PD deficiency test before PQ prescription. Establishment of a follow-up system to monitor potential PQ toxicity in malaria patients who are given PQ is also required.

  7. Neonatal jaundice and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Amauri Antiquera [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    A deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase em neonatos pode ser a responsável pela icterícia neonatal. Este comentário científico é decorrente do relato sobre o tema publicado neste fascículo e que preocupa diversos autores de outros países em relação às complicações em neonatos de hiperbilirrubinemia, existindo inclusive proposições de alguns autores em incluir o teste para identificar a deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase nos recém-nascidos.Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase...

  8. Immune Thrombocytopenia Resolved by Eltrombopag in a Carrier of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scaramucci

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin mimetic peptide, may provide excellent clinical efficacy in steroid-refractory patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP [1,2]. Eltrombopag is generally well tolerated. However, its use in the particular setting of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and history of acute hemolytic anemia (AHA has not been reported so far. A 51-year-old female was diagnosed as having ITP in September 2014. She was not taking any medication and her past history was negative, apart from having been diagnosed a carrier (heterozygous of G6PD deficiency (Mediterranean variant after a familial screening by molecular and biochemical methods. She presented with only slightly reduced (about 50% enzyme level, belonging to World Health Organization-defined class 3 [3,4]. In the following years, the patient experienced some episodes of AHA, which were managed at outside institutions; in particular, a severe episode of AHA, probably triggered by urinary infection and antibiotics [5], had complicated her second and last delivery. The hemolytic episodes were selflimiting and resolved without sequelae. No other causes of hemolysis were documented. When the case came to our attention, a diagnosis of ITP was made; hemolytic parameters were normal, although the G6PD enzyme concentration was not measured. Oral prednisone (1 mg/kg was given with only a transient benefit. The patient was then a candidate for elective splenectomy. However, given her extremely low platelet count, she was started in October 2014 on eltrombopag at 50 mg/day as a bridge to splenectomy. Given that, to the best of our knowledge, the use of this drug has never been reported in the particular setting of G6PD deficiency, the patient was constantly monitored. A prompt platelet increase (178x109/L was observed 1 week after the start of treatment. After she achieved the target platelet count, the dose of eltrombopag was tapered to the lowest effective dose. The patient

  9. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in people living in malaria endemic districts of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Prakash; Singh, Nihal; Ortega, Leonard; Rijal, Komal Raj; Adhikari, Bipin; Thakur, Garib Das; Marasini, Baburam

    2017-05-23

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a rate limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and is closely associated with the haemolytic disorders among patients receiving anti-malarial drugs, such as primaquine. G6PD deficiency (G6PDd) is an impending factor for radical treatment of malaria which affects the clearance of gametocytes from the blood and subsequent delay in the achievement of malaria elimination. The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in six malaria endemic districts in Southern Nepal. A cross-sectional population based prevalence survey was conducted in six malaria endemic districts of Nepal, during April-Dec 2013. A total of 1341 blood samples were tested for G6PDd using two different rapid diagnostic test kits (Binax-Now ® and Care Start™). Equal proportions of participants from each district (n ≥ 200) were enrolled considering ethnic and demographic representation of the population groups. Out of total 1341 blood specimens collected from six districts, the overall prevalence of G6PDd was 97/1341; 7.23% on Binax Now and 81/1341; 6.0% on Care Start test. Higher prevalence was observed in male than females [Binax Now: male 10.2%; 53/521 versus female 5.4%; 44/820 (p = 0.003) and Care Start: male 8.4%; 44/521 versus female 4.5%; 37/820 (p = 0.003)]. G6PDd was higher in ethnic groups Rajbanshi (11.7%; 19/162) and Tharu (5.6%; 56/1005) (p = 0.006), major inhabitant of the endemic districts. Higher prevalence of G6PDd was found in Jhapa (22/224; 9.8%) and Morang districts (18/225; 8%) (p = 0.031). In a multivariate analysis, male were found at more risk for G6PDd than females, on Binax test (aOR = 1.97; CI 1.28-3.03; p = 0.002) and Care Start test (aOR = 1.86; CI 1.16-2.97; p = 0.009). The higher prevalence of G6PDd in certain ethnic group, gender and geographical region clearly demonstrates clustering of the cases and ascertained the risk groups within the population. This is the

  10. Effect of High-Dose Vitamin C Infusion in a Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase-Deficient Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Bryan; Kenyon, Katharine; Muthukanagaraj, Purushothaman

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin C supplementation is generally regarded as benign. There has been a resurgence of interest in the general medical community regarding the use of vitamin C most notably in the care of sepsis. Nonetheless, caution must be taken if supraphysiologic vitamin C supplementation is being administered as it should be considered a medication just like any other. We present a case of hemolysis in a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase- (G6PD-) deficient patient receiving high-dose vitamin C infusions for his rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:29317868

  11. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, S

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-four cases of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency have so far been reported in Japan. Among them, 21 G6PD variants have been characterized. Nineteen out of the 21 variants were characterized in our laboratory and G6PD Heian and "Kyoto" by others. G6PD Tokyo, Tokushima, Ogikubo, Kurume, Fukushima, Yokohama, Yamaguchi, Wakayama, Akita, Heian and "Kyoto" were classified as Class 1, because all these cases showed chronic hemolytic anemia and severe enzyme deficiency. All these variants showed thermal instability. G6PD Mediterranean-like, Ogori, Gifu and Fukuoka were classified as Class 2, whereas G6PD Hofu, B(-) Chinese, Ube, Konan, Kamiube and Kiwa belonged to Class 3. All the 6 Class 3 variants were found as the results of the screening tests. The incidence of the deficiency in Japanese seems to be 0.1-0.5% but that of the cases which may slow drug-induced hemolysis would be much less. G6PD Ube and Konan appear to be relatively common in Japan.

  12. Pedigree analysis of glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency of a Javanese Chinese family in Indonesia

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    IDG Ugrasena

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The molecular and pedigree analyses in a Javanese Chinese family were carried oul on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencies. By method of  MPTP scanning without the sequencing steps, those variants could be confirmed. Two out of three sons were clinically jaundiced at birth due to G6PD deficiency and identified to have a G to T nucleotide change al 1376th nucleotide 01 the G6PD gene (GI376T, corresponding to G6PD Canton. Another son was also identified to have a C to T nucleotide change at 1311st nucleotide 01 the G6PD gene (CI311T, corresponding to a Silent mutation. Their father was normal, but their mother obsorved to have the heleromutation 01 G1376T (G6PD Canton and C1311T (a Silent mutation.

  13. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia: Hacettepe experıence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, H Tolga; Günbey, Ceren; Unal, Sule; Gümrük, Fatma; Yurdakök, Murat

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in newborn infants with neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia and to compare the clinical features of G6PD-deficient and G6PD-normal newborn infants. A total of 4906 term and preterm neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinaemia were retrospectively evaluated according to demographic, neonatal features, bilirubin levels, erythrocyte G6PD levels, other risk factors and treatments. Among 4906 newborn infants with indirect hyperbilirubinaemia, 55 (1.12%) neonates were G6PD-deficient. In our study, no statistically significant difference was detected between G6PD-deficient and G6PD-normal infants in relation to the time of onset of jaundice, bilirubin levels and duration of phototherapy. However, the incidence of exchange transfusion in G6PD-deficient infants was 16.4% while it was only 3.3% in G6PD normal infants (P G6PD must be ordered to all newborns who are receiving phototherapy and especially to those who are coming from the high incident geographical regions and less responsive to phototherapy. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  14. Molecular Characterization of Cosenza Mutation among Patients with Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in huzestan Province, Southwest Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi Nezhad, Seyed Reza; Fahmi, Fatemeh; Khatami, Saeid Reza; Musaviun, Mohsen

    2011-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common hereditary enzymatic disorders in human, increases the vulnerability of erythrocytes to oxidative stress. It is also characterized by remarkable molecular and biochemical heterogeneity. According to previous investigations, G6PD Cosenza (G1376C) is a common G6PD mutation in some parts of . Therefore in the present study we have characterized mutation among G6PD deficient individuals in Khuzestan province. In order to identify G6PD Cosenza, we analyzed the G6PD gene in 64 samples out of 231 deficient individuals who had not G6PD Mediterranean mutation, using PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. G6PD Cosenza mutation was found in 6 males of 231 samples, resulting in the relative rate of 2.6% and allele frequency of 0.023 among Khuzestanian G6PD deficient subjects. A comparison of these results with previous findings in some parts of suggests that G6PD Cosenza is a common mutation in Khuzestanian G6PD deficient individuals. PMID:23365477

  15. Molecular Characterization of Cosenza Mutation among Patients with Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Khuzestan Province, Southwest Iran

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    Seyed Reza Kazemi Nezhad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is one of the most common hereditary enzymatic disorders in human, increases the vulnerability of erythrocytes to oxidative stress. It is also characterized by remarkable molecular and biochemical heterogeneity. According to previous investigations, G6PD Cosenza (G1376C is a common G6PD mutation in some parts of Iran. Therefore in the present study we have characterized Cosenza mutation among G6PD deficient individuals in Khuzestan province. In order to identify G6PD Cosenza, we analyzed the G6PD gene in 64 samples out of 231 deficient individuals who had not G6PD Mediterranean mutation, using PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP method. G6PD Cosenza mutation was found in 6 males of 231 samples, resulting in the relative rate of 2.6% and allele frequency of 0.023 among Khuzestanian G6PD deficient subjects. A comparison of these results with previous findings in some parts of Iran suggests that G6PD Cosenza is a common mutation in Khuzestanian G6PD deficient individuals

  16. Identification of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase mutations by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase mutations by single strand conformation polymorphism and gene sequencing analysis. ... Subject: Six DNA samples from Turkish males confirmed to have G-6-PD deficiency where available for the study. Results: One subject was found to have an abnormal mobility shift ...

  17. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency in neonates in Bunda Women's and Children's Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia

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    Risma Kerina Kaban

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most connnon enzyme deficiency in the world. Itis a risk factor for hyperbilirubinemia in neonates, which can cause serious complications such as bilirubininduced encephalopathy or kernicterus. WHO recommends universal neonatal screening for G6PD deficiency when the frequency exceeds 35% of male newborns. Objective To assess the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among neonates in Bunda Women and C hildren Hospital (Bunda WCH, Jakarta, in order to detennine if there is a need for routine G6PD neonatal screening. Methods This is a cross-sectional and retrospective study; infants' data were obtained from medical records. From January 2009 to May 2010, all neonates in Bunda WCH were screened for G6PD deficiency on the yd day of life. Blood samples were collected using filter papers. We considered a result to be nonnal if it exceeded 3.6 U/g Hb. Results A total 1802 neonates were screened. We found 94 neonates (5.2% with G6PD deficiency. Out of 943 males, 59 (6.26% were G6PD deficient, and out of 859 females, 35 (4.07% were G6PD deficient. We observed that prevalence of G6PD deficiency according to sex distribution was significantly higher in males than females (6.26% vs. 4.07%, P=0.037. There was no significant difference in the risk for severe hyperbilirubinemia between the G6PD deficient infants and the nonnal infants (P=0.804. Conclusions The frequencies of G6PD deficiency were 6.26% of male neonates and 4.07% of female neonates. We recommend universal neonatal screening for G6PD deficiencies in Jakarta since our findings exceed the WHO recommendation for routine testing.

  18. Screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in neonates: a comparison between cord and peripheral blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSaif, Saif; Ponferrada, Ma Bella; AlKhairy, Khalid; AlTawil, Khalil; Sallam, Adel; Ahmed, Ibrahim; Khawaji, Mohammed; AlHathlol, Khalid; Baylon, Beverly; AlSuhaibani, Ahmed; AlBalwi, Mohammed

    2017-07-11

    The use of cord blood in the neonatal screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is being done with increasing frequency but has yet to be adequately evaluated against the use of peripheral blood sample which is usually employed for confirmation. We sought to determine the incidence and gender distribution of G6PD deficiency, and compare the results of cord against peripheral blood in identifying G6PD DEFICIENCY neonates using quantitative enzyme activity assay. We carried out a retrospective and cross-sectional study employing review of primary hospital data of neonates born in a tertiary care center from January to December 2008. Among the 8139 neonates with cord blood G6PD assays, an overall incidence of 2% for G6PD deficiency was computed. 79% of these were males and 21% were females with significantly more deficient males (p blood samples (n = 1253) showed a significantly higher mean G6PD value for peripheral than cord blood (15.12 ± 4.52 U/g and 14.52 ± 4.43 U/g, respectively, p = 0.0008). However, the proportion of G6PD deficient neonates did not significantly differ in the two groups (p = 0.79). Sensitivity of cord blood in screening for G6PD deficiency, using peripheral G6PD assay as a gold standard was 98.6% with a NPV of 99.5%. There was no difference between cord and peripheral blood samples in discriminating between G6PD deficient and non-deficient neonates. A significantly higher mean peripheral G6PD assay reinforces the use of cord blood for neonatal screening since it has substantially low false negative results.

  19. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activity in methemoglobin reduction by methylene blue and cyst amine: study on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient individuals, on normal subjects and on riboflavin-treated subjects

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    Benedito Barraviera

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors have standardized methods for evaluation of the activity of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and of glutathione reductase. The general principle of the first method was based on methemoglobin formation by sodium nitrite followed by stimulation of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with methylene blue. Forty six adults (23 males and 23 females were studied. Subjects were not G6PD deficient and were aged 20 to 30 years. The results showed that methemoglobin reduction by methylene blue was 154.40 and 139.90 mg/min (p<0.05 for males and females, respectively, in whole blood, and 221.10 and 207.85 mg/min (n.s., respectively, in washed red cells. These data showed that using washed red cells and 0.7g% sodium nitrite concentration produced no differences between sexes and also shortened reading time for the residual amount of methemoglobin to 90 minutes. Glutathione reductase activity was evaluated on the basis of the fact that cystamine (a thiol agent binds to the SH groups of hemoglobin, forming complexes. These complexes are reversed by the action of glutathione reductase, with methemoglobin reduction occurring simultaneously with this reaction. Thirty two adults (16 males and 16 females were studied. Subjects were not G6PD deficient and were aged 20 to 30 years. Methemoglobin reduction by cystamine was 81.27 and 91.13 mg/min (p<0.01 for males and females, respectively. These data showed that using washed red cells and 0.1 M cystamine concentration permits a reading of the residual amount of methemoglobin at 180 minutes of incubation. Glutathione reductase activity was evaluated by methemoglobin reduction by cystamine in 14 females before and after treatment with 10 mg riboflavin per day for 8 days. The results were 73.69 and 94.26 jug/min (p<0.01 before and after treatment, showing that riboflavin treatment increase glutathione reductase activity even in normal individuals. Three Black G6PD-deficient individuals (2 males and 1

  20. Hyperbilirubinaemia and erythrocytic glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Malaysian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, A T; Balakrishnan, S; Ahmad, Z

    1989-03-01

    Cord blood from 8,975 babies delivered in Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru over a period of eight months (1st August 1985 to 31st March 1986) were screened for G6PD deficiency. The overall incidence was 4.5% in Chinese, 3.5% in Malays and 1.5% in Indian babies. One hundred of these babies were observed in the nursery for seven days and their daily serum bilirubin recorded. The serum bilirubin peaked at 96 hours to a value of 12mg%. None of the babies in the nursery developed a serum bilirubin level of more than 15mg%. Six of the babies with G6PD deficiency that were sent home were readmitted with hyperbilirubinaemia that needed exchange transfusion.

  1. Icterícia neonatal e deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase Neonatal jaundice and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

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    Amauri Antiquera Leite

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase em neonatos pode ser a responsável pela icterícia neonatal. Este comentário científico é decorrente do relato sobre o tema publicado neste fascículo e que preocupa diversos autores de outros países em relação às complicações em neonatos de hiperbilirrubinemia, existindo inclusive proposições de alguns autores em incluir o teste para identificar a deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase nos recém-nascidos.Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in newborn babies may be responsible for neonatal jaundice. There is a concern of many authors from other countries in respect to complications in neonates with hyperbilirubinemia; some authors even propose screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in newborn babies. A scientific report on this subject is published in this issue.

  2. [Evaluations of newborn screening program performance and enzymatic diagnosis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, F; Huang, Y L; Jiang, X; Jia, X F; Li, B; Feng, Y; Chen, Q Y; Tang, C F

    2018-05-02

    Objective: To reveal the molecular epidemiologic characteristics of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene and to evaluate based on the genetic analysis the newborn screening program performance and enzymatic diagnosis of G6PD deficiency in Guangzhou. Methods: G6PD enzyme activities were measured by quantitative fluorescence assay in dry blood spots of 16 319 newborns(8 725 males, 7 594 females) 3-7 days after birth in Guangzhou Newborn Center. They were born in Guangzhou form Oct. 1 to 20, 2016. The cutoff value of G6PD was less than 2.6 U/g Hb in dry blood spots. G6PD deficiency was diagnosed when G6PDblood cells. Genetic analysis of G6PD gene was performed on the dry blood spot samples of 823 newborns (including positive 346, negative 477)with various levels of G6PD enzyme activities through fluorescence PCR melting curve analysis(FMCA) to detect 15 kinds of mutations reported to be common among Chinese.G6PD gene Sanger sequency was performed in seven highly suspicious patients with negative results by FMCA. Results: (1) Using the cutoff value of G6PDT, c.551C>T, c.835A>T hemizygote were found in 3 male's samples, respectively. (3) The estimated prevalence of harboring mutation was 6.0% in males and 13.5% in females according to rates of mutation in samples with various levels of G6PD enzyme activities. Six common mutations were c.1388G>A、c.1376G>T, c.95A> G, c.871G>A, c.1024C>T, c.392G>T, accounting for 95.5% of detected alleles .(4) based on results of G6PD gene analysis, the newborn scereening of G6PD deficiency with cutoff value G6PDblood cells were 95.5%, 97.2%, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of G6PD deficiency in males was 6.0% in Guangzhou. Six mutations c.1388G>A, c.1376G>T, c.95A>G, c.871G>A, c.1024C>T, c.392G>T accounted for 95.5%. The cutoff value of G6PD<2.6 U/g Hb innewborn screening program and the criteria of biochemical diagnosis could accurately identify G6PD deficiency . Combined with biochemical and molecular analysis will

  3. Prevalence of thalassaemia, iron-deficiency anaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among Arab migrating nomad children, southern Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalar, M; Mehrabani, D; Afrasiabi, A; Mehravar, Z; Reyhani, I; Hamidi, R; Karimi, M

    2014-12-17

    This study investigated the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and β-thalassaemia trait among Arab migrating nomad children in southern Islamic Republic of Iran. Blood samples were analysed from 134 schoolchildren aged child had G6PD deficiency. A total of 9.7% of children had HbA2 ≥ 3.5 g/dL, indicating β-thalassaemia trait (10.8% in females and 7.8% in males). Mean serum iron, serum ferritin and total iron binding capacity were similar in males and females. Serum ferritin index was as accurate as Hb index in the diagnosis of iron-deficiency anaemia. A high prevalence of β-thalassaemia trait was the major potential risk factor in this population.

  4. Prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among hill-tribe school children in Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanola, Jintana; Kongpan, Chatpat; Pornprasert, Sakorn

    2014-07-01

    The prevalaence of anemia, iron deficiency, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency were examined among 265 hill-tribe school children, 8-14 years of age, from Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Anemia was observed in 20 school children, of whom 3 had iron deficiency anemia. The prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency and β-thalassemia trait [codon 17 (A>T), IVSI-nt1 (G>T) and codons 71/72 (+A) mutations] was 4% and 8%, respectively. There was one Hb E trait, and no α-thalassemia-1 SEA or Thai type deletion. Furthermore, anemia was found to be associated with β-thalassemia trait in 11 children. These data can be useful for providing appropriate prevention and control of anemia in this region of Thailand.

  5. High prevalence of Dapsone-induced oxidant hemolysis in North American SCT recipients without glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olteanu, H; Harrington, A M; George, B; Hari, P N; Bredeson, C; Kroft, S H

    2012-03-01

    Dapsone (4-4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone) is commonly used for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients. Oxidant hemolysis is a known complication of dapsone, but its frequency in adult patients who have undergone a SCT for hematological malignancies is not well established. We studied the presence of oxidant hemolysis, by combining examination of RBC morphology and laboratory data, in 30 patients who underwent a SCT and received dapsone for PCP prophylaxis, and compared this group with 26 patients who underwent a SCT and received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for PCP prophylaxis. All patients had normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) enzymatic activity. In SCT patients, dapsone compared with TMP-SMX for PCP prophylaxis was associated with a high incidence of oxidant hemolysis (87 vs 0%, PSCT patients is 20-fold higher than the reported rate in the population of HIV-infected patients, and thus much higher than the prevalence of G6PDH variants in the general population. In our patients, it manifested clinically as a lower Hb that was not significant enough to result in increased packed RBC transfusions.

  6. Data on how several physiological parameters of stored red blood cells are similar in glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient and sufficient donors

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    Vassilis L. Tzounakas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data on the variation in several physiological parameters of red blood cells (RBCs donated by eligible glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficient donors during storage in standard blood bank conditions compared to control, G6PD sufficient (G6PD+ cells. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, cell fragility and membrane exovesiculation were measured in RBCs throughout the storage period, with or without stimulation by oxidants, supplementation of N-acetylcysteine and energy depletion, following incubation of stored cells for 24 h at 37 °C. Apart from cell characteristics, the total or uric acid-dependent antioxidant capacity of the supernatant in addition to extracellular potassium concentration was determined in RBC units. Finally, procoagulant activity and protein carbonylation levels were measured in the microparticles population. Further information can be found in “Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient subjects may be better “storers” than donors of red blood cells” [1]. Keywords: G6PD deficiency, Red blood cell storage lesion, Oxidative stress, Cell fragility, Microparticles

  7. Cytophotometry of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in individual cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Tas, J.; Vogels, I. M.

    1983-01-01

    With the aid of thin films of polyacrylamide gel containing purified glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase subjected to cytochemical procedures for the enzyme using tetranitro blue tetrazolium, arbitrary units of integrated absorbance obtained with a Barr & Stroud GN5 cytophotometer were converted into

  8. Neonatal screening for sickle cell disease, Glucose-6-PhosphateDehydrogenase deficiency and Alpha-Thalassemia in Qatif and Al-Hasa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasserullah, Z.; Srair, Hussain Abu; Al-Jame, A.; Mokhtar, M.; Al-Qatari, G.; Al-Naim, S.; Al-Aqib, A.

    1998-01-01

    Screening programs to determine the frequency of sickle cell,glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and alpha-thalassemia gene areavailable in Saudi Arabia, although not used frequently. Greater use of theseprograms will decrease the morbidity and mortality of Saudi children affectedby these disorders. Neonatal hemoglobin electrophoresis andglucose-6-dehydrogenase fluorescent spot tests were performed on new bornbabies delivered between December 1992 and December 1993 at the Qatif CentralHospital and at the King Fahd Hospital in Al-Hasa. Cord blood samples werecollected from babies born in these two hospitals. Babies born in otherhospitals had blood collected in their first visit to Qatif primary carecenters at the time of vaccination. All specimens were sent to Dammam CentralLaboratory. The diagnosis of sickle cell and alpha-thalassemia was based oncellulose acetate electrophoresis and confirmed by agar gel electrophoresisand glucose-6-phosphate dehydrgenase was confirmed by fluorescent spot test.A total of 12,220 infants, including 11,313 Saudis (92.6%), were screenedover a 12-month period. The common phenotype detected in these infantsincluded AF, SFA, SFA Bart's, FS and FS Bart's. In Saudi infants, homozygoussickle cell disease was detected in 2.35% and 1.08% in Qatif and Al-Hasa,respectively. The frequencies of sickle cell gene were 0.1545% and 0.1109% inQatif and Al-Hasa. Alpha-thalassemia genes based on an elevated level of HbBart's were 28% and 16.3% in Qatif and Al-Hasa. The screening for G6PDdeficiency revealed a high prevalence of 30.6% and 14.7% in Qatif andAl-Hasa. In the non-Saudi infants the frequencies were low. The outcome ofthis study indicates that the Saudi populations in Qatif and Al-Hasa are atrisk for hemoglobinopathies and G6PD. Neonatal screening programs areessential and cost effective and should be maintained as a routine practice.(author)

  9. Comparison of Spectrophotometry, Chromate Inhibition, and Cytofluorometry Versus Gene Sequencing for Detection of Heterozygously Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase-Deficient Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Anna L; Veldthuis, Martijn; van Leeuwen, Karin; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Vlaar, Alexander P J; van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F; van Zwieten, Rob

    2017-11-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzyme deficiency worldwide. Detection of heterozygously deficient females can be difficult as residual activity in G6PD-sufficient red blood cells (RBCs) can mask deficiency. In this study, we compared accuracy of 4 methods for detection of G6PD deficiency in females. Blood samples from females more than 3 months of age were used for spectrophotometric measurement of G6PD activity and for determination of the percentage G6PD-negative RBCs by cytofluorometry. An additional sample from females suspected to have G6PD deficiency based on the spectrophotometric G6PD activity was used for measuring chromate inhibition and sequencing of the G6PD gene. Of 165 included females, 114 were suspected to have heterozygous deficiency. From 75 females, an extra sample was obtained. In this group, mutation analysis detected 27 heterozygously deficient females. The sensitivity of spectrophotometry, cytofluorometry, and chromate inhibition was calculated to be 0.52 (confidence interval [CI]: 0.32-0.71), 0.85 (CI: 0.66-0.96), and 0.96 (CI: 0.71-1.00, respectively, and the specificity was 1.00 (CI: 0.93-1.00), 0.88 (CI: 0.75-0.95), and 0.98 (CI: 0.89-1.00), respectively. Heterozygously G6PD-deficient females with a larger percentage of G6PD-sufficient RBCs are missed by routine methods measuring total G6PD activity. However, the majority of these females can be detected with both chromate inhibition and cytofluorometry.

  10. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency does not increase the susceptibility of sperm to oxidative stress induced by H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshankhah, Shiva; Rostami-Far, Zahra; Shaveisi-Zadeh, Farhad; Movafagh, Abolfazl; Bakhtiari, Mitra; Shaveisi-Zadeh, Jila

    2016-12-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect. G6PD plays a key role in the pentose phosphate pathway, which is a major source of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). NADPH provides the reducing equivalents for oxidation-reduction reductions involved in protecting against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species such as H 2 O 2 . We hypothesized that G6PD deficiency may reduce the amount of NADPH in sperms, thereby inhibiting the detoxification of H 2 O 2 , which could potentially affect their motility and viability, resulting in an increased susceptibility to infertility. Semen samples were obtained from four males with G6PD deficiency and eight healthy males as a control. In both groups, motile sperms were isolated from the seminal fluid and incubated with 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 120 µM concentrations of H 2 O 2 . After 1 hour incubation at 37℃, sperms were evaluated for motility and viability. Incubation of sperms with 10 and 20 µM H 2 O 2 led to very little decrease in motility and viability, but motility decreased notably in both groups in 40, 60, and 80 µM H 2 O 2 , and viability decreased in both groups in 40, 60, 80, and 120 µM H 2 O 2 . However, no statistically significant differences were found between the G6PD-deficient group and controls. G6PD deficiency does not increase the susceptibility of sperm to oxidative stress induced by H 2 O 2 , and the reducing equivalents necessary for protection against H 2 O 2 are most likely produced by other pathways. Therefore, G6PD deficiency cannot be considered as major risk factor for male infertility.

  11. Population screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencies in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands, using a modified enzyme assay on filter paper dried bloodspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landry Losi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency poses a significant impediment to primaquine use for the elimination of liver stage infection with Plasmodium vivax and for gametocyte clearance, because of the risk of life-threatening haemolytic anaemia that can occur in G6PD deficient patients. Although a range of methods for screening G6PD deficiency have been described, almost all require skilled personnel, expensive laboratory equipment, freshly collected blood, and are time consuming; factors that render them unsuitable for mass-screening purposes. Methods A published WST8/1-methoxy PMS method was adapted to assay G6PD activity in a 96-well format using dried blood spots, and used it to undertake population screening within a malaria survey undertaken in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. The assay results were compared to a biochemical test and a recently marketed rapid diagnostic test. Results Comparative testing with biochemical and rapid diagnostic test indicated that results obtained by filter paper assay were accurate providing that blood spots were assayed within 5 days when stored at ambient temperature and 10 days when stored at 4 degrees. Screening of 8541 people from 41 villages in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands revealed the prevalence of G6PD deficiency as defined by enzyme activity Conclusions The assay enabled simple and quick semi-quantitative population screening in a malaria-endemic region. The study indicated a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Isabel Province and highlights the critical need to consider G6PD deficiency in the context of P. vivax malaria elimination strategies in Solomon Islands, particularly in light of the potential role of primaquine mass drug administration.

  12. Review of key knowledge gaps in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency detection with regard to the safe clinical deployment of 8-aminoquinoline treatment regimens: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Seidlein, Lorenz; Auburn, Sarah; Espino, Fe; Shanks, Dennis; Cheng, Qin; McCarthy, James; Baird, Kevin; Moyes, Catherine; Howes, Rosalind; Ménard, Didier; Bancone, Germana; Winasti-Satyahraha, Ari; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Green, Justin; Domingo, Gonzalo; Yeung, Shunmay; Price, Ric

    2013-03-27

    The diagnosis and management of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a crucial aspect in the current phases of malaria control and elimination, which will require the wider use of 8-aminoquinolines for both reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission and achieving the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax. 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine, can induce severe haemolysis in G6PD-deficient individuals, potentially creating significant morbidity and undermining confidence in 8-aminoquinoline prescription. On the other hand, erring on the side of safety and excluding large numbers of people with unconfirmed G6PD deficiency from treatment with 8-aminoquinolines will diminish the impact of these drugs. Estimating the remaining G6PD enzyme activity is the most direct, accessible, and reliable assessment of the phenotype and remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of patients who could be harmed by the administration of primaquine. Genotyping seems an unambiguous technique, but its use is limited by cost and the large range of recognized G6PD genotypes. A number of enzyme activity assays diagnose G6PD deficiency, but they require a cold chain, specialized equipment, and laboratory skills. These assays are impractical for care delivery where most patients with malaria live. Improvements to the diagnosis of G6PD deficiency are required for the broader and safer use of 8-aminoquinolines to kill hypnozoites, while lower doses of primaquine may be safely used to kill gametocytes without testing. The discussions and conclusions of a workshop conducted in Incheon, Korea in May 2012 to review key knowledge gaps in G6PD deficiency are reported here.

  13. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient infants: Enzyme activity and gene variants as risk factors for phototherapy in the first week of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fei-Liang; Ithnin, Azlin; Othman, Ainoon; Cheah, Fook-Choe

    2017-07-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a recognised cause of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, and identifying which infants are at risk could optimise care and resources. In this study, we determined if G6PD enzyme activity (EA) and certain gene variants were associated with neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia requiring phototherapy during the first week after birth. Newborn infants with G6PD deficiency and a group with normal results obtained by the fluorescent spot test were selected for analyses of G6PD EA and the 10 commonly encountered G6PD mutations in this region, relating these with whether the infants required phototherapy before discharge from the hospital in the first week. A total of 222 infants with mean gestation and birth weight of 38.3 ± 1.8 weeks and 3.02 ± 0.48 kg, respectively, were enrolled. Of these, n = 121 were deficient with EA ≤6.76 U/g Hb, and approximately half (43%) received phototherapy in the first week after birth. The mean EA level was 3.7 U/g Hb. The EA had good accuracy in predicting phototherapy use, with area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve of 0.81 ± 0.05. Infants on phototherapy more commonly displayed World Health Organization Class II mutations (deficiency in EA and mutation at c.1388G>A (adjusted odds ratio, 1.5 and 5.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.31-1.76 and 1.30-25.0, respectively) were independent risk factors for phototherapy. Low G6PD EA (G6PD gene variant, c.1388G>A, are risk factors for the need of phototherapy in newborn infants during the first week after birth. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  14. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and the risk of malaria: A meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengmei; Zhang, Juan; Pu, Yuepu

    2017-10-01

    This study is designed to perform a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) to investigate whether people with G6PD deficiency suffered less malarial infection. We searched from PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, CNKI, and Wan Fang databases for case-control study, cohort study or cross section study until April 2017. TSA was used to determine the state of evidence and calculate the required sample size. Eight case-control studies and five cross-sectional studies (30,683participants) were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with normal control group, we found significant protection from severe malaria (OR 0.644, 95% CI [0.493-0.842]; P=0.001) among people with decreasing G6PD activity. People with variations of G6PD gene at nucleotide 202(G6PD A-) were also found to be associated with resistance on severe malaria pooled (OR 0.851, 95% CI [0.779-0.930]; P =0.0001). Sex-stratified test suggested that protection of severe malaria is conferred to both G6PD A-males and heterozygous females (with a single copy of the variant). In conclusion, our study found a significant protection from severe malaria among G6PD deficient people compared to the

  15. Erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Brazilian opossum Didelphis marsupialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barretto O.C. de O.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a comparative study of erythrocyte metabolism of vertebrates, the specific activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD of the Brazilian opossum Didelphis marsupialis in a hemolysate was shown to be high, 207 ± 38 IU g-1 Hb-1 min-1 at 37ºC, compared to the human erythrocyte activity of 12 ± 2 IU g-1 Hb-1 min-1 at 37ºC. The apparent high specific activity of the mixture led us to investigate the physicochemical properties of the opossum enzyme. We report that reduced glutathione (GSH in the erythrocytes was only 50% higher than in human erythrocytes, a value lower than expected from the high G6PD activity since GSH is maintained in a reduced state by G6PD activity. The molecular mass, determined by G-200 Sephadex column chromatography at pH 8.0, was 265 kDa, which is essentially the same as that of human G6PD (260 kDa. The Michaelis-Menten constants (Km: 55 µM for glucose-6-phosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (Km: 3.3 µM were similar to those of the human enzyme (Km: 50-70 and Km: 2.9-4.4, respectively. A 450-fold purification of the opossum enzyme was achieved and the specific activity of the purified enzyme, 90 IU/mg protein, was actually lower than the 150 IU/mg protein observed for human G6PD. We conclude that G6PD after purification from the hemolysate of D. marsupialis does not have a high specific activity. Thus, it is quite probable that the red cell hyperactivity reported may be explained by increased synthesis of G6PD molecules per unit of hemoglobin or to reduced inactivation in the RBC hemolysate.

  16. Seizure is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to G6PD deficiency. We report a previously healthy boy who presented initially with seizure and cyanosis and subsequently acute hemolysis, due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) an

    OpenAIRE

    Afshin FAYYAZI; Ali KHAJEH; Hosein ESFAHANI

    2012-01-01

    Seizure is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to G6PD deficiency. We report a previously healthy boy who presented initially with seizure and cyanosis and subsequently acute hemolysis, due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) and probably secondary methemoglobinemia, following the ingestion of fava beans.

  17. Atividade da 6-fosfogliconato desidrogenase em deficientes de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase Activity of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela B. Nicolielo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As enzimas G6PD e 6PGD são responsáveis pela geração do aporte de NADPH, necessário para a detoxificação dos agentes oxidantes produzidos pelo estresse oxidativo metabólico nos eritrócitos. Devido à alta prevalência de deficiência de G6PD na população mundial, principalmente de origem negróide africana, muitos estudos têm sido realizados na tentativa de conhecer melhor a atuação destas enzimas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade enzimática da 6PGD, nos deficientes de G6PD, para verificar a existência de aumento da atividade desta enzima, correlacionando com um possível aumento do número de reticulócitos ou presença de alterações da série vermelha. A pesquisa em 2.657 indivíduos do sexo masculino resultou em 97 deficientes de G6PD, determinando uma prevalência de 3,65% para a região de Bauru (SP, com atividade enzimática média de G6PD de 1,74 UI.g Hb-1. min-1 a 37ºC, 14,4% da atividade da G6PD normal. A atividade enzimática média da 6PGD foi de 9,5 UI.g Hb-1. min-1 a 37ºC, estando aumentada em 47,4% dos deficientes de G6PD. Os resultados não confirmaram que a hipótese do aumento da atividade enzimática da 6PGD, em deficientes de G6PD, seja decorrente da presença de um número aumentado de reticulócitos na corrente circulatória, faixa etária ou alterações eritrocitométricas que denotem anemia. O mais provável é que a hemólise autolimitada, imposta pelos processos oxidativos, preserve os eritrócitos mais jovens, que possuem atividade enzimática mais elevada, uma vez que naturalmente ocorre diminuição da atividade destas enzimas com o envelhecimento celular.The G6PD and 6PGD enzymes are responsible for the generation of NADPH supply necessary for the detoxification of the oxidant agents produced during the oxidative metabolic stress on erythrocytes. Due to the high prevalence of the deficiency of G6PD on world population, especially on Afro descents, many studies have been done trying

  18. Biochemical characteristics of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants among the Malays of Singapore with report of a new non-deficient (GdSingapore) and three deficient variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, N; Hong, S H; Wong, H A; Jeyaseelan, K; Tay, J S

    1991-12-01

    Biochemical characteristics of one non-deficient fast G6PD variant (GdSingapore) and six different deficient variants (three new, two Mahidol, one each of Indonesian and Mediterranean) were studied among the Malays of Singapore. The GdSingapore variant had normal enzyme activity (82%) and fast electrophoretic mobilities (140% in TEB buffer, 160% in phosphate and 140% in Tris-HCl buffer systems respectively). This variant is further characterized by normal Km for G6P; utilization of analogues (Gal6P, 2dG6P; dAmNADP), heat stability and pH optimum. The other six deficient G6PD variants had normal electrophoretic mobility in TEB buffer with enzyme activities ranging from 1 to 12% of GdB+. The biochemical characteristics identity them to be 2 Mahidol, 1 Indonesian and 1 Mediterranean variants and three new deficient variants.

  19. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity decreases during storage of leukoreduced red blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Anna L.; van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.

    2016-01-01

    During storage, the activity of the red blood cell (RBC) antioxidant system decreases. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is essential for protection against oxidative stress by producing NADPH. G6PD function of RBC transfusion products is reported to remain stable during storage, but activity

  20. Posttranslational regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in tongue epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biagiotti, E.; Bosch, K. S.; Ninfali, P.; Frederiks, W. M.; van Noorden, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    Expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity is high in tongue epithelium, but its exact function is still unknown, it may be related;either to the high proliferation rate of this tissue or to protection against oxidative stress. To elucidate its exact role, we localized

  1. The Effects of Fenarimol and Methyl Parathion on Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Enzyme Activity in Rats

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    Ferda ARI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fenarimol and methyl parathion are pesticides that have been used in agriculture for several years. These pesticides have significant effects on environmental and human health. Therefore, we investigated the effects of methyl parathion and fenarimol on glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49 enzyme activity in rats. The glucose 6- phosphate dehydrogenase is the first enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and it is important in detoxifying reactions by NADPH generated. In this study, wistar albino rats administrated with methyl parathion (7 mg kg–1 and fenarimol (200 mg kg−1 by intraperitoneally for different periods (2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and 72 h. The glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme activity was assayed in liver, kidney, brain, and small intestine in male and female rats. The exposure of fenarimol and methyl parathion caused increase of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme activity in rat tissues, especially at last periods. We suggest that this increment of enzyme activity may be the reason of toxic effects of fenarimol and methyl parathion.

  2. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. 864.7360 Section 864.7360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages...

  3. Correlation of viral RNA biosynthesis with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and host resistance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šindelář, Luděk; Šindelářová, Milada

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 215, - (2002), s. 862-869 ISSN 0032-0935 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/99/1264 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase * Nicotiana (viral infection) * Plant viruses Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.960, year: 2002

  4. Association of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and X-linked chronic granulomatous disease in a child with anemia and recurrent infections

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo-Florez, P.; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz Tavares [UNIFESP; Lopez, J. A.; Redher, J.; Newburger, P. E.; Alla-Saad, S. T.; Condino-Neto, A.

    2004-01-01

    Patients with severe leukocyte G6PD deficiency may present with impairment of NADPH oxidase activity and a history of recurrent infections, mimicking the phenotype of chronic granulomatous disease. We report herein a child with recurrent infections who initially received the diagnosis of G6PD deficiency. His erythrocyte G6PD activity was reduced: 1.8 U/g Hb (normal: 12.1 +/- 2.1 U/g Hb). Further studies revealed that G6PD activity in neutrophils, mononuclear leukocytes, and Epstein-Barr virus...

  5. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Haemoglobin Drop after Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine Use for Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria during Pregnancy in Ghana - A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Owusu

    Full Text Available Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP is still the only recommended antimalarial for use in intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp in some malaria endemic countries including Ghana. SP has the potential to cause acute haemolysis in G6PD deficient people resulting in significant haemoglobin (Hb drop but there is limited data on post SP-IPTp Hb drop. This study determined the difference, if any in proportions of women with significant acute haemoglobin drop between G6PD normal, partial deficient and full deficient women after SP-IPTp.Prospectively, 1518 pregnant women who received SP for IPTp as part of their normal antenatal care were enrolled. Their G6PD status were determined at enrollment followed by assessments on days 3, 7,14 and 28 to document any adverse effects and changes in post-IPTp haemoglobin (Hb levels. The three groups were comparable at baseline except for their mean Hb (10.3 g/dL for G6PD normal, 10.8 g/dL for G6PD partial deficient and 10.8 g/dL for G6PD full defect women.The prevalence of G6PD full defect was 2.3% and 17.0% for G6PD partial defect. There was no difference in the proportions with fractional Hb drop ≥ 20% as compared to their baseline value post SP-IPTp among the 3 groups on days 3, 7, 14. The G6PD full defect group had the highest median fractional drop at day 7. There was a weak negative correlation between G6PD activity and fractional Hb drop. There was no statistical difference between the three groups in the proportions of those who started the study with Hb ≥ 8g/dl whose Hb level subsequently fell below 8g/dl post-SP IPTp. No study participant required transfusion or hospitalization for severe anaemia.There was no significant difference between G6PD normal and deficient women in proportions with significant acute haemoglobin drop post SP-IPTp and lower G6PD enzyme activity was not strongly associated with significant acute drug-induced haemoglobin drop post SP-IPTp but a larger

  6. Noninferiority of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency diagnosis by a point-of-care rapid test vs the laboratory fluorescent spot test demonstrated by copper inhibition in normal human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J Kevin; Dewi, Mewahyu; Subekti, Decy; Elyazar, Iqbal; Satyagraha, Ari W

    2015-06-01

    Tens of millions of patients diagnosed with vivax malaria cannot safely receive primaquine therapy against repeated attacks caused by activation of dormant liver stages called hypnozoites. Most of these patients lack access to screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, a highly prevalent disorder causing serious acute hemolytic anemia with primaquine therapy. We optimized CuCl inhibition of G6PD in normal red blood cells (RBCs) to assess G6PD diagnostic technologies suited to point of care in the impoverished rural tropics. The most widely applied technology for G6PD screening-the fluorescent spot test (FST)-is impractical in that setting. We evaluated a new point-of-care G6PD screening kit (CareStart G6PD, CSG) against FST using graded CuCl treatments to simulate variable hemizygous states, and varying proportions of CuCl-treated RBC suspensions to simulate variable heterozygous states of G6PD deficiency. In experiments double-blinded to CuCl treatment, technicians reading FST and CSG test (n = 269) classified results as positive or negative for deficiency. At G6PD activity ≤40% of normal (n = 112), CSG test was not inferior to FST in detecting G6PD deficiency (P = 0.003), with 96% vs 90% (P = 0.19) sensitivity and 75% and 87% (P = 0.01) specificity, respectively. The CSG test costs less, requires no specialized equipment, laboratory skills, or cold chain for successful application, and performs as well as the FST standard of care for G6PD screening. Such a device may vastly expand access to primaquine therapy and aid in mitigating the very substantial burden of morbidity and mortality imposed by the hypnozoite reservoir of vivax malaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Post-irradiation repairing processes of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase from Hansenula Polymorpha yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, Carmen; Postolache, Cristian; Dinu, Diana; Dinischiotu, Anca; Sahini, Victor Emanuel

    2002-01-01

    The post-irradiation repairing mechanisms of two Hansenula Polymorpha yeast enzymes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, were studied. The kinetic parameters of the selected enzymes were investigated over one month since the moment of γ-irradiation with different doses in the presence of oxygen. Dose dependent decrease of initial reaction rates was noticed for both enzymes. Small variation of initial reaction rate was recorded for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase over one month, with a decreasing tendency. No significant electrophoretic changes of molecular forms of this enzyme were observed after irradiation. Continuous strong decrease of catalase activity was evident for the first 20 days after irradiation. Partial recovery process of the catalytic activity was revealed by this study. (authors)

  8. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase: Update and Analysis of New Mutations around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; Ortega-Cuellar, Daniel; González-Valdez, Abigail; Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa Angélica; Hernández-Ochoa, Beatriz; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key regulatory enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway which produces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to maintain an adequate reducing environment in the cells and is especially important in red blood cells (RBC). Given its central role in the regulation of redox state, it is understandable that mutations in the gene encoding G6PD can cause deficiency of the protein activity leading to clinical manifestations such as neonatal jaundice and acute hemolytic anemia. Recently, an extensive review has been published about variants in the g6pd gene; recognizing 186 mutations. In this work, we review the state of the art in G6PD deficiency, describing 217 mutations in the g6pd gene; we also compile information about 31 new mutations, 16 that were not recognized and 15 more that have recently been reported. In order to get a better picture of the effects of new described mutations in g6pd gene, we locate the point mutations in the solved three-dimensional structure of the human G6PD protein. We found that class I mutations have the most deleterious effects on the structure and stability of the protein. PMID:27941691

  9. D-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Entner-Doudoroff enzyme) from Pseudomonas fluorescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessmann, D.; Schimz, K.L.; Kurz, G.

    1975-01-01

    The existence of two different D-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases in Pseudomonas fluorescens has been demonstrated. Based on their different specificity and their different metabolic regulation one enzyme is appointed to the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and the other to the hexose monophosphate pathway. A procedure is described for the isolation of that D-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase which forms part of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway (Entner-Doudoroff enzyme). A 950-fold purification was achieved with an overall yield of 44%. The final preparation, having a specific activity of about 300μmol NADH formed per min per mg protein, was shown to be homogeneous. The molecular weight of the Entner-Doudoroff enzyme has been determined to be 220,000 by gel permeation chromatography, and that of the other enzyme (Zwischenferment) has been shown to be 265,000. The pI of the Entner-Doudoroff enzyme has been shown to be 5.24 and that of the Zwischenferment 4.27. The Entner-Doudoroff enzyme is stable in the range of pH 6 to 10.5 and shows its maximal acivity at pH 8.9. The Entner-Doudoroff enzyme showed specificity for NAD + as well as for NADP + and exhibited homotropic effects for D-glucose 6-phosphate. It is inhibited by ATP which acts as a negative allosteric effector. Other nucleoside triphosphates as well as ADP are also inhibitory. The enzyme catalyzes the transfer of the axial hydrogen at carbon-1 of β-D-glucopyranose 6-phosphate to the si face of carbon-4 of the nicotinamide ring and must be classified as B-side stereospecific dehydrogenase. (orig.) [de

  10. Data mining and pathway analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with natural language processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Zhang, Chunhua; Wang, Yanling; Li, Yuqian; Han, Qiaoqiao; Yang, Huixin; Zhu, Yuechun

    2017-01-01

    Human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a crucial enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, and serves an important role in biosynthesis and the redox balance. G6PD deficiency is a major cause of neonatal jaundice and acute hemolyticanemia, and recently, G6PD has been associated with diseases including inflammation and cancer. The aim of the present study was to conduct a search of the National Center for Biotechnology Information PubMed library for articles discussing G6PD. Genes that were identified to be associated with G6PD were recorded, and the frequency at which each gene appeared was calculated. Gene ontology (GO), pathway and network analyses were then performed. A total of 98 G6PD-associated genes and 33 microRNAs (miRNAs) that potentially regulate G6PD were identified. The 98 G6PD-associated genes were then sub-classified into three functional groups by GO analysis, followed by analysis of function, pathway, network, and disease association. Out of the 47 signaling pathways identified, seven were significantly correlated with G6PD-associated genes. At least two out of four independent programs identified the 33 miRNAs that were predicted to target G6PD. miR-1207-5P, miR-1 and miR-125a-5p were predicted by all four software programs to target G6PD. The results of the present study revealed that dysregulation of G6PD was associated with cancer, autoimmune diseases, and oxidative stress-induced disorders. These results revealed the potential roles of G6PD-regulated signaling and metabolic pathways in the etiology of these diseases. PMID:28627690

  11. Deficiencia de glucosa 6-fostato deshidrogenasa en hombres sanos y en pacientes maláricos; Turbo (Antioquia, Colombia Deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in healthy men and malaria patients; Turbo (Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carmona-Fonseca

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: En América Latina la deficiencia de glucosa 6-fosfato deshidrogenasa (d-G6PD ha sido poco estudiada y en Colombia solo conocemos tres publicaciones antiguas. Urge conocer más la prevalencia de d-G6PD, sobre todo ahora que el tratamiento de la malaria vivax plantea aumentar la dosis diaria o total de primaquina. OBJETIVO: Medir la prevalencia de d-G6PD en poblaciones masculina sana y de enfermos con malaria por Plasmodium vivax, en Turbo (Urabá, departamento de Antioquia, Colombia. METODOLOGÍA: Encuestas de prevalencia, para evaluar la G6PD en dos poblaciones de Turbo (Antioquia: hombres sanos; hombres y mujeres con malaria vivax. Se trabajó con muestras diseñadas con criterios estadístico-epidemiológicos. La actividad enzimática se midió con el método normalizado de Beutler para valorar la G6PD en hemolizados. RESULTADOS: Entre los hombres sanos (n = 508, el intervalo de confianza 95% para el promedio (IC95% estuvo entre 4,15 y 4,51 UI/g hemoglobina y 14,8% presentaron valores por debajo del "límite normal" de INTRODUCTION: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency in Latin America has not been fully studied and in Colombia only three outdated publications are known. Recent information on the prevalence of G6PD deficiency is required now, because the recommended treatment of vivax malaria requires higher daily or total doses of primaquine. OBJECTIVE: To measure the prevalence of G6PD in a healthy male population and in a Plasmodium vivax infected population in Turbo (Urabá, Antioquia Department, Colombia. METHOD: Prevalence survey to evaluate G6PD in two populations of Turbo (Antioquia: healthy male; male and female with vivax malaria. The work was carried out on population samples selected using statistical and epidemiological criteria. Enzyme activity was measured using Beutler's normalized method to evaluate G6PD after hemolysis. RESULTS: For the healthy male group (n = 508, and with a 95% confidence

  12. Evaluation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase stability in stored blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Norunaluwar; Azma, Raja Zahratul; Mohamed, Emida; Ithnin, Azlin; Alauddin, Hafiza; Baya, Siti Noor; Othman, Ainoon

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest cause of neonatal jaundice in Malaysia. Recently, OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit has been introduced to quantitate the level of G6PD activity in newborns delivered in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). As duration of sample storage prior to analysis is one of the matters of concern, this study was conducted to identify the stability of G6PD enzyme during storage. A total of 188 cord blood samples from normal term newborns delivered at UKMMC were selected for this study. The cord bloods samples were collected in ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) tubes and refrigerated at 2-8 °C. In addition, 32 out of 188 cord blood samples were spotted on chromatography paper, air-dried and stored at room temperature. G6PD enzyme activities were measured daily for 7 days using the OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit on both the EDTA blood and dried blood samples. The mean value for G6PD activity was compared between days of analysis using Student Paired T-Test. In this study, 172 out of 188 cord blood samples showed normal enzyme levels while 16 had levels corresponding to severe enzyme deficiency. The daily mean G6PD activity for EDTA blood samples of newborns with normal G6PD activity showed a significant drop on the fourth day of storage (p samples with severely deficient G6PD activity, significant drop was seen on third day of storage (p = 0.002). Analysis of dried cord blood showed a significant reduction in enzyme activity as early as the second day of storage (p = 0.001). It was also noted that mean G6PD activity for spotted blood samples were lower compared to those in EDTA tubes for all days (p = 0.001). Thus, EDTA blood samples stored at 2-8 °C appeared to have better stability in terms of their G6PD enzyme level as compared to dried blood samples on filter paper, giving a storage time of up to 3 days.

  13. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase protects Escherichia coli from tellurite-mediated oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M Sandoval

    Full Text Available The tellurium oxyanion tellurite induces oxidative stress in most microorganisms. In Escherichia coli, tellurite exposure results in high levels of oxidized proteins and membrane lipid peroxides, inactivation of oxidation-sensitive enzymes and reduced glutathione content. In this work, we show that tellurite-exposed E. coli exhibits transcriptional activation of the zwf gene, encoding glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, which in turn results in augmented synthesis of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH. Increased zwf transcription under tellurite stress results mainly from reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and not from a depletion of cellular glutathione. In addition, the observed increase of G6PDH activity was paralleled by accumulation of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P, suggesting a metabolic flux shift toward the pentose phosphate shunt. Upon zwf overexpression, bacterial cells also show increased levels of antioxidant molecules (NADPH, GSH, better-protected oxidation-sensitive enzymes and decreased amounts of oxidized proteins and membrane lipids. These results suggest that by increasing NADPH content, G6PDH plays an important role in E. coli survival under tellurite stress.

  14. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase: isoenzymatic pattern in Oesophagostomum venulosum, Trichuris ovis and T. suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, B; Cutillas, C; German, P; Guevara, D

    1991-12-01

    In the present communication we have studied the isoenzymatic pattern activity of the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in Oesophagostomum venulosum, Trichuris ovis and T. suis, parasites of Capra hircus (goat), Ovis aries (sheep) and Sus scrofa domestica (pig) respectively, by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Different phenotypes have been observed in the G6PD isoenzymatic pattern activity in males and females of Oesophagostomum venulosum. Furthermore, G6PD activity has been assayed in Trichuris ovis collected from Ovis aries and Capra hircus. No differences have been observed in the isoenzymatic patterns attending to the different hosts. All the individuals exhibited one single band or two bands; this suggests a monomeric condition for G6PD in T. ovis. In T. suis the enzyme G6PD appeared as a single electrophoretic band in about 85.7% of the individuals.

  15. Identification of Mutation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehy-drogenase (G6PD) in Iran: Meta- analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Nekoei-Moghadam, Mahmood; Aliram-Zany, Maryam; Amiresmaili, Mohammadreza

    2013-09-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is one of the most common genetic deficiencies, which approximately 400 million people in the world suffer from. According to authors' initial search, numerous studies have been carried out in Iran regarding molecular variants of this enzyme. Thus, this meta-analysis presented a reliable estimation about prevalence of different types of molecular mutations of G6PD Enzyme in Iran. Keywords "glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase or G6PD, Mediterranean or Chatham or Cosenza and mutation, Iran or Iranian and their Persian equivalents" were searched in different databases. Moreover, reference list of the published studies were examined to increase sensitivity and to select more studies. After studying titles and abstracts of retrieved articles, excluding the repeated and unrelated ones, and evaluating quality of articles, documents were selected. Data was analyzed using STATA. After performing systematic review, 22 papers were entered this meta-analysis and 1698 subjects were examined concerning G6PD molecular mutation. In this meta-analysis, prevalence of Mediterranean mutation, Chatham mutation and Cosenza mutation in Iran was estimated 78.2%, 9.1% and 0.5% respectively. This meta-analysis showed that in spite of prevalence of different types of G6PD molecular mutations in center, north, north-west and west of Iran, the most common molecular mutations in people with G6PD deficiency in Iran, like other Mediterranean countries and countries around Persian Gulf, were Mediterranean mutation, Chatham mutation and Cosenza mutation. It is also recommended that future studies may focus on races and regions which haven't been taken into consideration up to now.

  16. Loss of peroxisomes causes oxygen insensitivity of the histochemical assay of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity to detect cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiks, Wilma M.; Vreeling-Sindelárová, Heleen; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

    2007-01-01

    Oxygen insensitivity of carcinoma cells and oxygen sensitivity of non-cancer cells in the histochemical assay of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enables detection of carcinoma cells in unfixed cell smears or cryostat sections of biopsies. The metabolic background of oxygen insensitivity is

  17. Reaction rate studies of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in sections of rat liver using four tetrazolium salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butcher, R. G.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    The reaction rate of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in liver sections from fed and starved rats has been monitored by the continuous measurement at 37 degrees C of the reaction product as it is formed using scanning and integrating microdensitometry. Control media lacked either substrate

  18. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase: the key to sex-related xenobiotic toxicity in hepatocytes of European flounder (Platichthys flesus L.)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winzer, Katja; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Köhler, Angela

    2002-01-01

    The role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in oxidative stress responses was investigated in isolated intact living hepatocytes of immature female and male European flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) because it is the major provider of NADPH needed as reducing power for various

  19. Physiological role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in cold acclimation of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Yu, Dingqun; Luo, Ya; Wang, Xiaorong; Chen, Qing; Sun, Bo; Wang, Yan; Liu, Zejing; Tang, Haoru

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in study of new resistance mechanism in fruit trees. All these regard the climate change and subsequent fruit production. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP), and the expression of this enzyme is related to different biotic and abiotic stresses. Under accumulation of low temperature stress, the significant increase in G6PDH activity was found to be closely correlated to the levels of antioxidant enzymes, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, sugar contents as well as changes of superoxide (O2•-). It is suggested that the enhancement of cold resistance of strawberry, which induced by cold acclimation, related to the significant increase in G6PDH activity. On one hand, G6PDH activates NADPH oxidase to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS); on the other hand, it may be involved in the activation of antioxidant enzymes, and accelerates many other important NADPH-dependent enzymatic reactions. Then further result in the elevation of membrane stability and cold resistance of strawberry. Interestingly, even though the plants were placed again under a temperature of 25°C for 1 d, the higher cold resistance, enzyme activities and soluble sugar content acquired.

  20. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in rat lung alveolar epithelial cells. An ultrastructural enzyme-cytochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Matsubara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD is the key enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway in carbohydrate metabolism, and it plays an important role in cell proliferation and antioxidant regulation within cells in various organs. Although marked cell proliferation and oxidant/antioxidant metabolism occur in lung alveolar epithelial cells, definite data has been lacking as to whether cytochemically detectable G6PD is present in alveolar epithelial cells. The distribution pattern of G6PD within these cells, if it is present, is also unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the subcellular localization of G6PD in alveolar cells in the rat lung using a newly- developed enzyme-cytochemistry (copper-ferrocyanide method. Type I cells and stromal endothelia and fibroblasts showed no activities. Electron-dense precipitates indicating G6PD activity were clearly visible in the cytoplasm and on the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum of type II alveolar epithelial cells. The cytochemical controls ensured specific detection of enzyme activity. This enzyme may play a role in airway defense by delivering substances for cell proliferation and antioxidant forces, thus maintaining the airway architecture.

  1. Radiation target analyses of free and immobilized glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempner, E.S.; Miller, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    The sensitivity of the enzyme glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase to ionizing radiation was examined under several conditions, including the presence of several free-radical scavengers. The enzyme was also irradiated when covalently bound to polyacrylamide beads whose structure is very similar to the polypeptide backbone of proteins. All the enzyme forms were irradiated in the frozen state with high-energy electrons from a linear accelerator. Surviving enzyme activity and surviving monomers were determined; the data were analyzed by target theory. Free-radical scavengers reduced the radiation target size of both the activity and monomers of the free enzyme, but not that of the immobilized enzyme activity. The target size of the activity of the free enzyme was that of a dimer mass, but in the case of the immobilized enzyme it was equal to the smaller mass of the monomer. Free-radical scavengers reduce the target size by modifying radiation energy transfer. The target size of the polyacrylamide-bound enzyme activity was expected to be very large since the connection between polyacrylamide and protein is a peptide bond which permits transfer of radiation-deposited energy. Several explanations concerning energy transfer are suggested for this result.

  2. Functional and Biochemical Characterization of Three Recombinant Human Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Mutants: Zacatecas, Vanua-Lava and Viangchan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; González-Valdez, Abigail; Martínez-Rosas, Víctor; Hernández-Ochoa, Beatriz; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa Angélica; Cuevas-Cruz, Miguel; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in humans causes severe disease, varying from mostly asymptomatic individuals to patients showing neonatal jaundice, acute hemolysis episodes or chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. In order to understand the effect of the mutations in G6PD gene function and its relation with G6PD deficiency severity, we report the construction, cloning and expression as well as the detailed kinetic and stability characterization of three purified clinical variants of G6PD that present in the Mexican population: G6PD Zacatecas (Class I), Vanua-Lava (Class II) and Viangchan (Class II). For all the G6PD mutants, we obtained low purification yield and altered kinetic parameters compared with Wild Type (WT). Our results show that the mutations, regardless of the distance from the active site where they are located, affect the catalytic properties and structural parameters and that these changes could be associated with the clinical presentation of the deficiency. Specifically, the structural characterization of the G6PD Zacatecas mutant suggests that the R257L mutation have a strong effect on the global stability of G6PD favoring an unstable active site. Using computational analysis, we offer a molecular explanation of the effects of these mutations on the active site. PMID:27213370

  3. Importance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) for vanillin tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh Thi My; Kitajima, Sakihito; Izawa, Shingo

    2014-09-01

    Vanillin is derived from lignocellulosic biomass and, as one of the major biomass conversion inhibitors, inhibits yeast growth and fermentation. Vanillin was recently shown to induce the mitochondrial fragmentation and formation of mRNP granules such as processing bodies and stress granules in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furfural, another major biomass conversion inhibitor, also induces oxidative stress and is reduced in an NAD(P)H-dependent manner to its less toxic alcohol derivative. Therefore, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), through which most NADPH is generated, plays a role in tolerance to furfural. Although vanillin also induces oxidative stress and is reduced to vanillyl alcohol in a NADPH-dependent manner, the relationship between vanillin and PPP has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we examined the importance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), which catalyzes the rate-limiting NADPH-producing step in PPP, for yeast tolerance to vanillin. The growth of the null mutant of G6PDH gene (zwf1Δ) was delayed in the presence of vanillin, and vanillin was efficiently reduced in the culture of wild-type cells but not in the culture of zwf1Δ cells. Furthermore, zwf1Δ cells easily induced the activation of Yap1, an oxidative stress responsive transcription factor, mitochondrial fragmentation, and P-body formation with the vanillin treatment, which indicated that zwf1Δ cells were more susceptible to vanillin than wild type cells. These findings suggest the importance of G6PDH and PPP in the response of yeast to vanillin. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Subcellular Characterization of Porcine Oocytes with Different Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Fu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro maturation (IVM efficiency of porcine embryos is still low because of poor oocyte quality. Although brilliant cresyl blue positive (BCB+ oocytes with low glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH activity have shown superior quality than BCB negative (− oocytes with high G6PDH activity, the use of a BCB staining test before IVM is still controversial. This study aimed to shed more light on the subcellular characteristics of porcine oocytes after selection using BCB staining. We assessed germinal vesicle chromatin configuration, cortical granule (CG migration, mitochondrial distribution, the levels of acetylated lysine 9 of histone H3 (AcH3K9 and nuclear apoptosis features to investigate the correlation between G6PDH activity and these developmentally related features. A pattern of chromatin surrounding the nucleoli was seen in 53.0% of BCB+ oocytes and 77.6% of BCB+ oocytes showed peripherally distributed CGs. After IVM, 48.7% of BCB+ oocytes had a diffused mitochondrial distribution pattern. However, there were no significant differences in the levels of AcH3K9 in the nuclei of blastocysts derived from BCB+ and BCB− oocytes; at the same time, we observed a similar incidence of apoptosis in the BCB+ and control groups. Although this study indicated that G6PDH activity in porcine oocytes was correlated with several subcellular characteristics such as germinal vesicle chromatin configuration, CG migration and mitochondrial distribution, other features such as AcH3K9 level and nuclear apoptotic features were not associated with G6PDH activity and did not validate the BCB staining test. In using this test for selecting porcine oocytes, subcellular characteristics such as the AcH3K9 level and apoptotic nuclear features should also be considered. Adding histone deacetylase inhibitors or apoptosis inhibitors into the culture medium used might improve the efficiency of IVM of BCB+ oocytes.

  5. Effect of Punica granatum fruit peel on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in amphistome Gastrothylax indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rama; Bagai, Upma

    2017-03-01

    Increasing anthelmintic resistance and the impact of conventional anthelmintics on the environment, it is important to look for alternative strategies against helminth parasite in sheep. Important lipogenic enzymes like glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) show subcellular distribution pattern. Activity of G-6-PDH was largely restricted to cytosolic fraction while MDH was found in both cytosolic and mitochondrial fraction in Gastrothylax indicus. Following in vitro treatment with ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Punica granatum fruit peel and commercial anthelmintic, albendazole G-6-PDH activity was decreased by 19-32 %, whereas MDH was suppressed by 24-41 %, compared to the respective control. Albendazole was quite effective when compared with negative control and both the extracts. The results indicate that phytochemicals of plant may act as potential vermifuge or vermicide.

  6. Two apparent glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants in normal XY males: G6PD Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prchal, J T; Hall, K; Csepreghy, M; Lilly, M; Berkow, R; Scott, C W

    1988-03-01

    A six-year-old black boy who had transient hemolysis after a viral infection was found to have mildly decreased red cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity (1.25 IU/g hemoglobin). Two G6PD bands, both slightly faster than normal G6PD B, were seen on electrophoresis in both the propositus as well as in his maternal grandfather. This is an unexpected finding, since the G6PD gene is located on the long arm of the X chromosome that is subject to X-chromosome inactivation, and available evidence indicates that it is present as a single functional copy in the human genome. The obvious possibility of duplication of the X chromosome was eliminated by cytogenetic analysis with G-banding. G6PD duplication is unlikely, since peripheral blood granulocytes, platelets, and lymphocytes; cultured skin and bone marrow fibroblasts; and Epstein-Barr virus-stimulated lymphocytes yielded only a single electrophoretic band with mobility identical to the slower band seen in crude red blood cell hemolysate. Study of partially purified red blood cell hemolysate G6PD also yielded a single band with identical mobility. Kinetic studies of the enzyme in the propositus and in three generations of his family identified a unique, previously unpublished G6PD mutant that is herein designated G6PD Alabama. Red blood cells were separated by density gradient into a reticulocyte-enriched, an intermediate, and a dense, older portion. Two distinct enzyme bands were identified on electrophoresis of hemolysate from the reticulocyte-enriched portion, but not from the other two portions. It is postulated that two transcriptional products of the mutant G6PD gene exist; one with a short half-life and detectable only in young red blood cells, and another with a longer half-life present in all cells. The existence of two distinct mutant genes in the genome or a unique post-translational form of the mutant G6PD detected only in reticulocytes cannot be excluded.

  7. Purification and investigation of some kinetic properties of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from parsley (Petroselinum hortense) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, T Abdül Kadir; Ciftçi, Mehmet; Küfrevioğlu, O Irfan

    2002-05-01

    In this study, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (D-glucose-6-phosphate: NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.49; G6PD) was purified from parsley (Petroselinum hortense) leaves, and analysis of the kinetic behavior and some properties of the enzyme were investigated. The purification consisted of three steps: preparation of homogenate, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and DEAE-Sephadex A50 ion exchange chromatography. The enzyme was obtained with a yield of 8.79% and had a specific activity of 2.146 U (mg protein)(-1). The overall purification was about 58-fold. Temperature of +4 degrees C was maintained during the purification process. Enzyme activity was spectrophotometrically measured according to the Beutler method, at 340 nm. In order to control the purification of enzyme, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was carried out in 4% and 10% acrylamide for stacking and running gel, respectively. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a single band for enzyme. The molecular weight was found to be 77.6 kDa by Sephadex G-150 gel filtration chromatography. A protein band corresponding to a molecular weight of 79.3 kDa was obtained on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. For the enzymes, the stable pH, optimum pH, and optimum temperature were found to be 6.0, 8.0, and 60 degrees C, respectively. Moreover, KM and Vmax values for NADP+ and G6-P at optimum pH and 25 degrees C were determined by means of Lineweaver-Burk graphs. Additionally, effects of streptomycin sulfate and tetracycline antibiotics were investigated for the enzyme activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in vitro.

  8. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Lodi844C: a study on its expression in blood cells and muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninfali, P; Bresolin, N; Baronciani, L; Fortunato, F; Comi, G; Magnani, M; Scarlato, G

    1991-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency was found in erythrocytes, lymphocytes and muscle of an Italian male, whose family has lived for at least three generations in Lodi (Lombardy, northern Italy). The subject was hospitalized for myalgia and dark urine after intense physical exercise, but no sign of anemia and chronic hemolysis were present at rest. Family studies revealed that the mother and the maternal aunt had the same enzymopathy. The enzyme-specific activity in red blood cells was 15% of control and the kinetic properties were the following: slower electrophoretic mobility; biphasic pH activity curve; slightly reduced thermal stability, and increased utilization of the substrate analogs. The analysis of our patient's DNA showed a G----C mutation at nucleotide 844 which causes an Asp----His amino acid change in position 282. This is the same mutation found by De Vita et al. in the G6PD Seattle-like variant. However, by following a new convention, we labelled our variant as G6PD Lodi844C. As far as the muscle is concerned, we found that the enzyme-specific activity in this tissue was 14% of control values, but cultured myotubes and myoblasts revealed a normal level of G6PD as well as skin fibroblasts. On the contrary in the same type of cultured cells obtained from G6PD Mediterranean subjects, the G6PD activity was about 20% of normal. Our results complete the characterization of this mutant enzyme, demonstrate the expression of the deficit in muscle and describe the enzyme behaviour in cultured cells.

  9. What is the role of the second "structural" NADP+-binding site in human glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Tao; Chan, Ting Fai; Lam, Veronica M S; Engel, Paul C

    2008-08-01

    Human glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, purified after overexpression in E. coli, was shown to contain one molecule/subunit of acid-extractable "structural" NADP+ and no NADPH. This tightly bound NADP+ was reduced by G6P, presumably following migration to the catalytic site. Gel-filtration yielded apoenzyme, devoid of bound NADP+ but, surprisingly, still fully active. Mr of the main component of "stripped" enzyme by gel filtration was approximately 100,000, suggesting a dimeric apoenzyme (subunit Mr = 59,000). Holoenzyme also contained tetramer molecules and, at high protein concentration, a dynamic equilibrium gave an apparent intermediate Mr of 150 kDa. Fluorescence titration of the stripped enzyme gave the K d for structural NADP+ as 37 nM, 200-fold lower than for "catalytic" NADP+. Structural NADP+ quenches 91% of protein fluorescence. At 37 degrees C, stripped enzyme, much less stable than holoenzyme, inactivated irreversibly within 2 d. Inactivation at 4 degrees C was partially reversed at room temperature, especially with added NADP+. Apoenzyme was immediately active, without any visible lag, in rapid-reaction studies. Human G6PD thus forms active dimer without structural NADP+. Apparently, the true role of the second, tightly bound NADP+ is to secure long-term stability. This fits the clinical pattern, G6PD deficiency affecting the long-lived non-nucleate erythrocyte. The Kd values for two class I mutants, G488S and G488V, were 273 nM and 480 nM, respectively (seven- and 13-fold elevated), matching the structural prediction of weakened structural NADP+ binding, which would explain decreased stability and consequent disease. Preparation of native apoenzyme and measurement of Kd constant for structural NADP+ will now allow quantitative assessment of this defect in clinical G6PD mutations.

  10. The first evaluation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) gene mutation in malaria-endemic region at South Central Timor (SCT) district, Eastern Indonesia 2015-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutagalung, J.; Kusnanto, H.; Supargiyono; Sadewa, A. H.; Satyagraha, A. W.

    2018-03-01

    Primaquine (PQ) is the only licensed drug effective against P. vivax for specific hypnozoites and as a key drug in the malaria elimination stage. However, PQ can cause severe hemolysis in G6PD deficient individuals. Unfortunately, few epidemiological data of these disorders was in Indonesia. This study aimed to assesses the prevalence and genotyping variant of G6PDd among the people on malaria-endemic. Blood samples from 555 unrelated subjects in eastern Indonesia were for G6PDd by quantitative test and PCR-RFLP-DNA sequencing. All protocols followed by Promega, Madison, USA. The prevalence of malaria and anemia was 32.6% (181/555) and 16% (89/555) with P. vivaxdominant species 52.5% (95/181), respectively. Overall, 16.6% (92/555) subjects were G6PD deficient, including 58.7% (54/92) females and 41.3% (38/92). Among the 92 cases G6PD deficient molecularly studied, the genotype variant Vanua Lava (T10883C) were detected dominant and unknown G6PD deficient (T-13.154-C) in 3 cases. It was high G6PD deficient in eastern Indonesia indicate that diagnosis and management of G6PD deficient are necessary. Obligatory anti-malaria doses for G6PD deficient individuals, population screening, are needed on endemic malaria in eastern Indonesia.

  11. Effect of thoracic x-irradiation on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity of the pectoral muscle of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatavdekar, J.M.; Shah, V.C.

    1981-01-01

    The histochemical distribution of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) was observed in the major pectoral muscle of a guinea pig that had received 240 R thoracic X-irradiation. The irradiation effects were studied at 24, 48 and 72 hrs after X-irradiation. Type I fibres of the pectoral muscle were deeply stained showing high activity whereas type II fibres demonstrated minimum enzyme activity. The intermediate fibres had medium levels of G6PD activity. Type II fibres showed more staining at 24 and 48 hrs as compared with control muscle. However, at 72 hrs all three fibre types showed a marked inhibition of G6PD activity. The significance of these changes suggests that muscle G6PD metabolism generally altered after irradiation, but the specific nature of these changes and their causes still remain unclear. (author)

  12. Demonstration of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in rat Kupffer cells by a newly-developed ultrastructural enzyme-cytochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Matsubara

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Although various tissue macrophages possess high glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activity, which is reported to be closely associated with their phagocytotic/bactericidal function, the fine subcellular localization of this enzyme in liver resident macrophages (Kupffer cells has not been determined.We have investigated the subcellular localization of G6PD in Kupffer cells in rat liver, using a newly developed enzyme-cytochemical (copper-ferrocyanide method. Electron-dense precipitates indicating G6PD activity were clearly visible in the cytoplasm and on the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum of Kupffer cells. Cytochemical controls ensured specific detection of the enzymatic activity. Rat Kupffer cells abundantly possessed enzyme-cytochemically detectable G6PD activity. Kupffer cell G6PD may play a role in liver defense by delivering NADPH to NADPH-dependent enzymes. G6PD enzyme-cytochemistry may be a useful tool for the study of Kupffer cell functions.

  13. Inhibition of catalase by aminotriazole in vivo results in reduction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliak, M; Gospodaryov, D; Semchyshyn, H; Lushchak, V

    2008-04-01

    The inhibitor of catalase 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AMT) was used to study the physiological role of catalase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae under starvation. It was shown that AMT at the concentration of 10 mM did not affect the growth of the yeast. In vivo and in vitro the degree of catalase inhibition by AMT was concentration- and time-dependent. Peroxisomal catalase in bakers' yeast was more sensitive to AMT than the cytosolic one. In vivo inhibition of catalase by AMT in S. cerevisiae caused a simultaneous decrease in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and an increase in glutathione reductase activity. At the same time, the level of protein carbonyls, a marker of oxidative modification, was not affected. Possible mechanisms compensating the negative effects caused by AMT inhibition of catalase are discussed.

  14. Incorporation of 14C glucose into glycogen and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in rat brain following carbon monoxide intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikorska, M.; Gorzkowski, B.; Szumanska, G.; Smialek, M.

    1975-01-01

    Incorporation of 14 C glucose into glycogen and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in rat brain following carbon monoxide intoxication was studied. In brains of rats tested on the 20, 30 and 60th minute of exposure to CO and immediately after removal from the chamber the enzyme activity showed no essential deviation from the control level. In the group of rats tested 1 hour after taking them out from the chamber increase of the enzyme activity was noticed, amounting to about 33% of the control value. The brains tested 24 hours after exposure showed the largest increase of the enzyme activity by about 94%. In the next time periods, 48 and 72 hours after intoxication, the enzyme activity was decreasing. The glycogen content in brains of control animals increased 3 hours after CO intoxication by about 69%. The increase of glycogen synthesis was expressed by increase of the total radioactivity, which amounted to 160% of the control value. (Z.M.)

  15. Erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in male newborn babies and its relationship with neonatal jaundice Deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase eritrocitária em recém-nascidos do sexo masculino e sua relação com a icterícia neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Auxiliadora C. Iglessias

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency, the commonest red cell enzymopathy in humans, has an X-linked inheritance. The major clinical manifestations are drug induced hemolytic anemia, neonatal jaundice and chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. The incidence of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is much greater in G6PD-deficient neonates than babies without this deficiency. The aim of this study was to ascertain the presence of neonatal jaundice in erythrocyte G6PD-deficient male newborns. Samples of umbilical cord blood from a total of 204 male newborns of the Januário Cicco School Maternity located in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil were analyzed. The G6PD deficiency was identified by the methemoglobin reduction test (Brewer's test. The deficiency was confirmed by quantitative spectrophotometric assay for enzyme activity and cellulose acetate electrophoresis was used to identify the G6PD variant. Eight newborns were found to be G6PD deficient with four of them exhibiting jaundice during the first 48 hours after birth with bilirubin levels higher than 10 mg/dL. All deficient individuals presented the G6PD A- variant at electrophoresis. Our findings confirmed the association between G6PD deficiency and neonatal jaundice. Hence, early diagnosis of the deficiency at birth is essential to control the appearance of jaundice and to prevent the exposure of these newborns to known hemolytic agents.A deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase (G6PD é a anormalidade enzimática hereditária mais frequente. É transmitida como caráter recessivo ligado ao cromossomo X e as principais manifestações clínicas são hemólise induzida por fármacos, icterícia neonatal e anemia hemolítica não esferocítica. O objetivo do estudo foi determinar a presença de icterícia neonatal em recém-nascidos do sexo masculino deficientes de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase. Foram analisadas 204 amostras de sangue umbilical de recém-nascidos do sexo

  16. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . ... while statistical analysis was done using STATA soft- ware version 8 (STATA Corp., College station, TX). Prevalence of G6PD and HbAS in bivariate variables ... Multivariate logis- .... technique (Enevold et al., 2007) found prevalence of.

  17. Peroxyl radical- and photo-oxidation of glucose 6- phosphate dehydrogenase generates cross-links and functional changes via oxidation of tyrosine and tryptophan residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leinisch, Fabian; Mariotti, Michele; Rykær, Martin

    2017-01-01

    indicate that pathophysiological processes and multiple human diseases are associated with the accumulation of damaged proteins. In this study we investigated the mechanisms and consequences of exposure of the key metabolic enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) to peroxyl radicals (ROO...

  18. Quantitative aspects of the cytochemical demonstration of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with tetranitro BT studied in a model system of polyacrylamide films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Tas, J.

    1980-01-01

    The cytochemical determination of the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) with tetranitro blue tetrazolium (TNBT) was studied with model films of polyacrylamide gel incorporating purified enzyme. This model system enabled a quantitative study to be made of different parameters

  19. Quantitative aspects of the cytochemical demonstration of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with tetrazolium salts studied in a model system of polyacrylamide films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Tas, J.; Sanders, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The enzyme cytochemical demonstration of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) with several tetrazolium salts has been studied with an artificial model of polyacrylamide films in corporated with the enzyme, which enabled teh correlation of cytochemical and biochemical data. In the model films no

  20. Quantitative cytochemical analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in living isolated hepatocytes of European flounder for rapid analysis of xenobiotic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winzer, K.; van Noorden, C. J.; Köhler, A.

    2001-01-01

    There is a great need for rapid but reliable assays to determine quantitatively effects of xenobiotics on biological systems in environmental research. Hepatocytes of European flounder are sensitive to low-dose toxic stress. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) is the major source of NADPH in

  1. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD mutations and haemoglobinuria syndrome in the Vietnamese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Nick

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Vietnam the blackwater fever syndrome (BWF has been associated with malaria infection, quinine ingestion and G6PD deficiency. The G6PD variants within the Vietnamese Kinh contributing to the disease risk in this population, and more generally to haemoglobinuria, are currently unknown. Method Eighty-two haemoglobinuria patients and 524 healthy controls were screened for G6PD deficiency using either the methylene blue reduction test, the G-6-PDH kit or the micro-methaemoglobin reduction test. The G6PD gene variants were screened using SSCP combined with DNA sequencing in 82 patients with haemoglobinuria, and in 59 healthy controls found to be G6PD deficient. Results This study confirmed that G6PD deficiency is strongly associated with haemoglobinuria (OR = 15, 95% CI [7.7 to 28.9], P G6PD variants were identified in the Vietnamese population, of which two are novel (Vietnam1 [Glu3Lys] and Vietnam2 [Phe66Cys]. G6PD Viangchan [Val291Met], common throughout south-east Asia, accounted for 77% of the variants detected and was significantly associated with haemoglobinuria within G6PD-deficient ethnic Kinh Vietnamese (OR = 5.8 95% CI [114-55.4], P = 0.022. Conclusion The primary frequency of several G6PD mutations, including novel mutations, in the Vietnamese Kinh population are reported and the contribution of G6PD mutations to the development of haemoglobinuria are investigated.

  2. Clonal evolution following chemotherapy-induced stem cell depletion in cats heterozygous for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abkowitz, J.L.; Ott, R.M.; Holly, R.D.; Adamson, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The number of hematopoietic stem cells necessary to support normal hematopoiesis is not known but may be small. If so, the depletion or damage of such cells could result in apparent clonal dominance. To test this hypothesis, dimethylbusulfan [2 to 4 mg/kg intravenously (IV) x 3] was given to cats heterozygous for the X-linked enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD). These cats were the daughters of domestic X Geoffroy parents. After the initial drug-induced cytopenias (2 to 4 weeks), peripheral blood counts and the numbers of marrow progenitors detected in culture remained normal, although the percentages of erythroid burst-forming cells (BFU-E) and granulocyte/macrophage colony-forming cells (CFU-GM) in DNA synthesis increased, as determined by the tritiated thymidine suicide technique. In three of six cats treated, a dominance of Geoffroy-type G-6-PD emerged among the progenitor cells, granulocytes, and RBCs. These skewed ratios of domestic to Geoffroy-type G-6-PD have persisted greater than 3 years. No changes in cell cycle kinetics or G-6-PD phenotypes were noted in similar studies in six control cats. These data suggest that clonal evolution may reflect the depletion or damage of normal stem cells and not only the preferential growth and dominance of neoplastic cells

  3. Kinetic and thermodynamic study of the reaction catalyzed by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin del Campo, Julia S.; Patino, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The reaction catalyzed by one enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway was studied. → A spectrophotometric method is proposed for kinetic and thermodynamic analysis. → The pH and the temperature influences are reported on physical chemical properties. → Relative concentrations of substrates are also important in the catalytic process. - Abstract: The enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, EC 1.1.1.49) from Leuconostoc mesenteroides has a dual coenzyme specificity with oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD ox ) and oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate as electron acceptors. The G6PD coenzyme selection is determined by the metabolic cellular prevailing conditions. In this study a kinetic and thermodynamic analysis is presented for the reaction catalyzed by G6PD from L. mesenteroides with NAD ox as coenzyme in phosphate buffer. For this work, an in situ spectrophotometric technique was employed based on the detection of one product of the reaction. Substrate and coenzyme concentrations as well as temperature and pH effects were evaluated. The apparent equilibrium constant, the Michaelis constant, and the turnover number were determined as a function of each experimental condition. The standard transformed Gibbs energy of reaction was determined from equilibrium constants at different initial conditions. For the product 6-phospho-D-glucono-1,5-lactone, a value of the standard Gibbs energy of formation is proposed, Δ f G o = -1784 ± 5 kJ mol -1 .

  4. In Vitro Effects of Imidacloprid and Lambda-cyhalothrin on Capoeta capoeta umbla Kidney Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Enzyme

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    Mahinur KIRICI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide toxicity causes oxidative damage such as DNA damage, enhanced lipid peroxidation, the oxidation of protein sulfydryl groups and enzyme inactivation in the metabolism. In this study, we investigated the in vitro effects on glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (E.C.1.1.49; G6PD from Capoeta capoeta umbla kidney of imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin. For this purpose, the enzymewas purified from kidney of C. c. umbla with a specific activity of 11.26 EU mg-1 proteins and 22.7% yield using hemolysate preparation, ammonium sulfate precipitation and 2',5'-ADP Sepharose 4B affinity gel chromatography methods. In order to control the enzyme purification sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE was done. SDS-PAGE showed a single band for the enzyme. The results of this study suggested that imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin have significant inhibition effect on the activity of G6PD in in vitro. In conclusion, lambda-cyhalothrin inhibits the enzyme activity more than imidacloprid.

  5. Kinetic and thermodynamic study of the reaction catalyzed by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Campo, Julia S. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados - Unidad Merida, Carretera antigua a Progreso Km. 6, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Patino, Rodrigo, E-mail: rtarkus@mda.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados - Unidad Merida, Carretera antigua a Progreso Km. 6, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2011-04-20

    Research highlights: {yields} The reaction catalyzed by one enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway was studied. {yields} A spectrophotometric method is proposed for kinetic and thermodynamic analysis. {yields} The pH and the temperature influences are reported on physical chemical properties. {yields} Relative concentrations of substrates are also important in the catalytic process. - Abstract: The enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, EC 1.1.1.49) from Leuconostoc mesenteroides has a dual coenzyme specificity with oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sub ox}) and oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate as electron acceptors. The G6PD coenzyme selection is determined by the metabolic cellular prevailing conditions. In this study a kinetic and thermodynamic analysis is presented for the reaction catalyzed by G6PD from L. mesenteroides with NAD{sub ox} as coenzyme in phosphate buffer. For this work, an in situ spectrophotometric technique was employed based on the detection of one product of the reaction. Substrate and coenzyme concentrations as well as temperature and pH effects were evaluated. The apparent equilibrium constant, the Michaelis constant, and the turnover number were determined as a function of each experimental condition. The standard transformed Gibbs energy of reaction was determined from equilibrium constants at different initial conditions. For the product 6-phospho-D-glucono-1,5-lactone, a value of the standard Gibbs energy of formation is proposed, {Delta}{sub f}G{sup o} = -1784 {+-} 5 kJ mol{sup -1}.

  6. Prevalence of Sickle Cell Trait and Glucose 6 Phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood donation from sickle cell trait (SCT) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient donors might alter the quality of the donated blood during processing, storage or in the recipients' circulatory system. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of SCT and G6PD deficiency among blood ...

  7. Mutations of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Durham, Santa-Maria and A+ Variants Are Associated with Loss Functional and Structural Stability of the Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; González-Valdez, Abigail; García-Torres, Itzhel; Martínez-Rosas, Víctor; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Lazcano-Pérez, Fernando; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzymopathy in the world. More than 160 mutations causing the disease have been identified, but only 10% of these variants have been studied at biochemical and biophysical levels. In this study we report on the functional and structural characterization of three naturally occurring variants corresponding to different classes of disease severity: Class I G6PD Durham, Class II G6PD Santa Maria, and Class III G6PD A+. The results showed that the G6PD Durham (severe deficiency), and the G6PD Santa Maria and A+ (less severe deficiency) (Class I, II and III, respectively) affect the catalytic efficiency of these enzymes, are more sensitive to temperature denaturing, and affect the stability of the overall protein when compared to the wild type WT-G6PD. In the variants, the exposure of more and buried hydrophobic pockets was induced and monitored with 8-Anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (ANS) fluorescence, directly affecting the compaction of structure at different levels and probably reducing the stability of the protein. The degree of functional and structural perturbation by each variant correlates with the clinical severity reported in different patients. PMID:26633385

  8. Mutations of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Durham, Santa-Maria and A+ Variants Are Associated with Loss Functional and Structural Stability of the Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Gómez-Manzo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most common enzymopathy in the world. More than 160 mutations causing the disease have been identified, but only 10% of these variants have been studied at biochemical and biophysical levels. In this study we report on the functional and structural characterization of three naturally occurring variants corresponding to different classes of disease severity: Class I G6PD Durham, Class II G6PD Santa Maria, and Class III G6PD A+. The results showed that the G6PD Durham (severe deficiency, and the G6PD Santa Maria and A+ (less severe deficiency (Class I, II and III, respectively affect the catalytic efficiency of these enzymes, are more sensitive to temperature denaturing, and affect the stability of the overall protein when compared to the wild type WT-G6PD. In the variants, the exposure of more and buried hydrophobic pockets was induced and monitored with 8-Anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (ANS fluorescence, directly affecting the compaction of structure at different levels and probably reducing the stability of the protein. The degree of functional and structural perturbation by each variant correlates with the clinical severity reported in different patients.

  9. The effects of chemical and radioactive properties of Tl-201 on human erythrocyte glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Ali; Senturk, Murat; Ciftci, Mehmet; Varoglu, Erhan; Kufrevioglu, Omer Irfan

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The inhibitory effects of thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) solution on human erythrocyte glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity were investigated. Methods: For this purpose, erythrocyte G6PD was initially purified 835-fold at a yield of 41.7% using 2',5'-Adenosine diphosphate sepharose 4B affinity gel chromatography. The purification was monitored by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which showed a single band for the final enzyme preparation. The in vitro and in vivo effects of the 201 Tl solution including Tl + , Fe +3 and Cu +2 metals and the in vitro effects of the radiation effect of the 201 Tl solution and non-radioactive Tl + , Fe +3 and Cu +2 metals on human erythrocyte G6PD enzyme were studied. Enzyme activity was determined with the Beutler method at 340 nm using a spectrophotometer. All purification procedures were carried out at +4 deg. C. Results: 201 Tl solution and radiation exposure had inhibitory effects on the enzyme activity. IC 50 value of 201 Tl solution was 36.86 μl ([Tl + ]: 0.0036 μM, [Cu +2 ]: 0.0116 μM, [Fe +3 ]: 0.0132 μM), of human erythrocytes G6PD. Seven human patients were also used for in vivo studies of 201 Tl solution. Furthermore, non-radioactive Tl + , Fe +3 and Cu +2 were found not to have influenced the enzyme in vitro. Conclusion: Human erythrocyte G6PD activity was inhibited by exposure for up to 10 minutes to 0.057 mCi/kg 201 Tl solution. It was detected in in vitro and in vivo studies that the human erythrocyte G6PD enzyme is inhibited due to the radiation effect of 201 Tl solution.

  10. Hypoxia-induced glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase overexpression and -activation in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells: implication in pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettimada, Sukrutha; Gupte, Rakhee; Rawat, Dhwajbahadur; Gebb, Sarah A.; McMurtry, Ivan F.

    2014-01-01

    Severe pulmonary hypertension is a debilitating disease with an alarmingly low 5-yr life expectancy. Hypoxia, one of the causes of pulmonary hypertension, elicits constriction and remodeling of the pulmonary arteries. We now know that pulmonary arterial remodeling is a consequence of hyperplasia and hypertrophy of pulmonary artery smooth muscle (PASM), endothelial, myofibroblast, and stem cells. However, our knowledge about the mechanisms that cause these cells to proliferate and hypertrophy in response to hypoxic stimuli is still incomplete, and, hence, the treatment for severe pulmonary arterial hypertension is inadequate. Here we demonstrate that the activity and expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, are increased in hypoxic PASM cells and in lungs of chronic hypoxic rats. G6PD overexpression and -activation is stimulated by H2O2. Increased G6PD activity contributes to PASM cell proliferation by increasing Sp1 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), which directs the cells to synthesize less contractile (myocardin and SM22α) and more proliferative (cyclin A and phospho-histone H3) proteins. G6PD inhibition with dehydroepiandrosterone increased myocardin expression in remodeled pulmonary arteries of moderate and severe pulmonary hypertensive rats. These observations suggest that altered glucose metabolism and G6PD overactivation play a key role in switching the PASM cells from the contractile to synthetic phenotype by increasing Sp1 and HIF-1α, which suppresses myocardin, a key cofactor that maintains smooth muscle cell in contractile state, and increasing hypoxia-induced PASM cell growth, and hence contribute to pulmonary arterial remodeling and pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:25480333

  11. Isoniazid acetylating phenotype in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis and its relationship with serum sulfadoxin levels, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Barraviera

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors evaluated the isoniazid acetylating phenotype and measured hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activities plus serum sulfadoxin levels in 39 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (33 males and 6 females aged 17 to 58 years. Twenty one (53.84% of the patients presented a slow acetylatingphenotype and 18(46.16% a fast acetylating phenotype. Glucose-6-phosphate- dehydrogenase (G6PD acti vity was decreased in 5(23.80% slow acetylators and in 4(22.22% fast acetylators. Glutathione reductase activity was decreased in 14 (66.66% slow acetylators and in 12 (66.66% fast acetylators. Serum levels of free and total sulfadoxin Were higher in slow acetylator (p Os autores avaliaram o fenótipo acetilador da isoniazida, hematócrito, hemoglobina, atividade da glicose-6- fosfato desidrogenase, glutationa redutase e os níveis séricos de sulfadoxina de 39 doentes com paracoccidíoidomicose, senão 33 do sexo masculino e 6 do feminino, com idades compreendidas entre 17 e 58 anos. Vinte e um (53,84% doentes apresentaram fenótipo acetilador lento e 18 (46,16% rápido. A atividade da glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase (G6PD esteve diminuída em 5 (23,80% acetiladores lentos e 4 (22,22% rápidos. A atividade da glutationa redutase esteve diminuída em 14 (66,66% acetiladores lentos e 12 (66,66% rápidos. Os níveis séricos de sulfadoxina livre e total foram maiores nos acetiladores lentos (p < 0,02. A análise dos resultados permite concluir que os níveis séricos de sulfadoxina relaciona-se com o fenótipo acetilador. Além disso, os níveis estiveram sempre acima de 50 µg/ml, níveis estes considerados terapêuticos. Por outro lado, a deficiência de glutationa redutase pode estar relacionada com a má absorção intestinal de nutrientes, entre eles riboflavina, vitamina precursora de FAD.

  12. Protective effects of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase on neurotoxicity of aluminium applied into the CA1 sector of rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina D Jovanovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Aluminum (Al toxicity is closely linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer′s disease (AD. This experimental study was aimed to investigate the active avoidance behaviour of rats after intrahippocampal injection of Al, and biochemical and immunohistochemical changes in three bilateral brain structures namely, forebrain cortex (FBCx, hippocampus and basal forebrain (BF. Methods: Seven days after intra-hippocampal (CA1 sector injection of AlCl 3 into adult male Wistar rats they were subjected to two-way active avoidance (AA tests over five consecutive days. Control rats were treated with 0.9% w/v saline. The animals were decapitated on the day 12 post-injection. The activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH were measured in the FBCx, hippocampus and BF. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for transferrin receptors, amyloid β and tau protein. Results: The activities of both AChE and G6PDH were found to be decreased bilaterally in the FBCx, hippocampus and basal forebrain compared to those of control rats. The number of correct AA responses was reduced by AlCl 3 treatment. G6PDH administered prior to AlCl 3 resulted in a reversal of the effects of AlCl 3 on both biochemical and behavioural parameters. Strong immunohistochemical staining of transferrin receptors was found bilaterally in the FBCx and the hippocampus in all three study groups. In addition, very strong amyloid β staining was detected bilaterally in all structures in AlCl 3 -treated rats but was moderate in G6PDH/AlCl 3 -treated rats. Strong tau staining was noted bilaterally in AlCl 3 -treated rats. In contrast, tau staining was only moderate in G6PDH/AlCl 3 -treated rats. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicated that the G6PDH alleviated the signs of behavioural and biochemical effects of AlCl 3 -treatment suggesting its involvement in the pathogenesis of Al neurotoxicity and its potential

  13. Molecular association of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and pyruvate kinase M2 with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Mahua R.; Bag, Arup K.; Saha, Shekhar; Ghosh, Alok; Dey, Sumit K.; Das, Provas; Mandal, Chitra; Ray, Subhankar; Chakrabarti, Saikat; Ray, Manju; Jana, Siddhartha S.

    2016-01-01

    For a long time cancer cells are known for increased uptake of glucose and its metabolization through glycolysis. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a key regulatory enzyme of this pathway and can produce ATP through oxidative level of phosphorylation. Previously, we reported that GAPDH purified from a variety of malignant tissues, but not from normal tissues, was strongly inactivated by a normal metabolite, methylglyoxal (MG). Molecular mechanism behind MG mediated GAPDH inhibition in cancer cells is not well understood. GAPDH was purified from Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells based on its enzymatic activity. GAPDH associated proteins in EAC cells and 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) induced mouse tumor tissue were detected by mass spectrometry analysis and immunoprecipitation (IP) experiment, respectively. Interacting domains of GAPDH and its associated proteins were assessed by in silico molecular docking analysis. Mechanism of MG mediated GAPDH inactivation in cancer cells was evaluated by measuring enzyme activity, Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, IP and mass spectrometry analyses. Here, we report that GAPDH is associated with glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells and also in 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) induced mouse tumor tissue. Molecular docking analyses suggest C-terminal domain preference for the interaction between GAPDH and GPI. However, both C and N termini of PKM2 might be interacting with the C terminal domain of GAPDH. Expression of both PKM2 and GPI is increased in 3MC induced tumor compared with the normal tissue. In presence of 1 mM MG, association of GAPDH with PKM2 or GPI is not perturbed, but the enzymatic activity of GAPDH is reduced to 26.8 ± 5 % in 3MC induced tumor and 57.8 ± 2.3 % in EAC cells. Treatment of MG to purified GAPDH complex leads to glycation at R399 residue of PKM2 only, and changes the secondary structure of the protein complex. PKM2

  14. Two new glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants associated with congenital nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia found in Japan: GD(-) Tokushima and GD(-) Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, S; Ono, J; Nakashima, K; Abe, S; Kageoka, T

    1976-01-01

    Two new variants of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency associated with chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia were discovered in Japan. Gd(-) Tokushima was found in a 17-years-old male whose erythrocytes contained 4.4% of normal enzyme activity. Partially purified enzyme revealed a main band of normal electrophoretic mobility with additional two minor bands of different mobility; normal Km G6P, and Km NADP five-to sixfold higher than normal; normal utilization of 2-deoxy-G6P, galactose-6P, and deamino-NADP; marked thermal instability; a normal pH curve; and normal Ki NADPH. The hemolytic anemia was moderate to severe. Gd(-) Tokyo was characterized from a 15-year-old male who had chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia of mild degree. The erythrocytes contained 3% of normal enzyme activity, and partially purified enzyme revealed slow electrophoretic mobility (90% of normal for both a tris-hydrochloride buffer system and a tris-EDTA-borate buffer system, and 70% of normal for a phosphate buffer system); normal Km G6P and Km NADP; normal utilization of 2-deoxy-G6P, galactose-6P, and deamino-NADP; greatly increased thermal instability; a normal pH curve; and normal Ki NADPH. These two variants are clearly different from hitherto described G6PD variants, including the Japanese variants Gd(-) Heian and Gd(-) Kyoto. The mothers of both Gd(-) Tokushima and Gd(-) Tokoyo were found to be heterozygote by an ascorbate-cyanide test.

  15. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Enhances Antiviral Response through Downregulation of NADPH Sensor HSCARG and Upregulation of NF-κB Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient cells are highly susceptible to viral infection. This study examined the mechanism underlying this phenomenon by measuring the expression of antiviral genes—tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and GTPase myxovirus resistance 1 (MX1—in G6PD-knockdown cells upon human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E and enterovirus 71 (EV71 infection. Molecular analysis revealed that the promoter activities of TNF-α and MX1 were downregulated in G6PD-knockdown cells, and that the IκB degradation and DNA binding activity of NF-κB were decreased. The HSCARG protein, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH sensor and negative regulator of NF-κB, was upregulated in G6PD-knockdown cells with decreased NADPH/NADP+ ratio. Treatment of G6PD-knockdown cells with siRNA against HSCARG enhanced the DNA binding activity of NF-κB and the expression of TNF-α and MX1, but suppressed the expression of viral genes; however, the overexpression of HSCARG inhibited the antiviral response. Exogenous G6PD or IDH1 expression inhibited the expression of HSCARG, resulting in increased expression of TNF-α and MX1 and reduced viral gene expression upon virus infection. Our findings suggest that the increased susceptibility of the G6PD-knockdown cells to viral infection was due to impaired NF-κB signaling and antiviral response mediated by HSCARG.

  16. Kinetic Behaviour of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase in Different Tissues of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Exposed to Non-Lethal Concentrations of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Hisar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cadmium (Cd on the enzymatic activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD were investigated in the gill, liver and kidney tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Three test groups of fish were subjected to increasing concentrations (1, 3 and 5 mg/l of cadmium (Cd in vivo, respectively. The G6PD and 6PGD activities in the gill, liver, and kidney tissues of each group of fish were measured on days 1, 3, 5 and 7. G6PD and 6PGD enzyme activities, measured in gill, liver and kidney homogenates, were stimulated by various concentrations (1, 3, and 5 mg/l of cadmium. Although the dose-response pattern of G6PD enzyme activities in liver and kidney tissue was very similar, that in gill was different from both other tissues. The enzyme activity of G6PD enzyme was significantly stimulated after three days (Day 3 in liver and kidney tissues at a dose of 1 mg/l Cd (p p p p p p < 0.05 in liver and kidney tissues at the doses of 3 and 1 mg/l Cd. The stimulation effect of cadmium on the three tissues studied was also calculated; for both of the enzymes (G6PD and 6PGD, the enzyme activity levels were stimulated by approximately 60% and 38% in gills, 68% and 44% in liver, and 67% and 41% in kidneys, respectively, over the base-line enzyme activity of the control groups during the sevenday experimental period. These findings indicate that tissue G6PD and 6PGD enzymes function to protect against cadmium toxicity.

  17. Simultaneous demonstration of acid phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in mouse hepatocytes. A novel electron-microscopic dual staining enzyme-cytochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Matsubara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid phosphatase (ACPase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD play important roles in cell biology/disease pathophysiology in various organs including the liver. The purpose of the present report is to introduce a new enzymecytochemical method to simultaneously demonstrate the subcellular localization of ACPase and G6PD within the same hepatocyte in the mouse liver. The ultrastructural localization of ACPase and G6PD were demonstrated, with concomitant use of the cerium method and the copper-ferrocyanide method, respectively. ACPase labelings were localized in the lysosomes, and G6PD labelings were visible in the cytoplasm and on the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum of the hepatocyte. This novel double staining procedure may be a useful histochemical tool for the study of liver functions in both physiological and pathological conditions.

  18. Incorporation of /sup 14/C glucose into glycogen and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in rat brain following carbon monoxide intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikorska, M; Gorzkowski, B; Szumanska, G; Smialek, M [Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw. Centrum Medycyny Doswiadczalnej i Klinicznej; Panstwowy Zaklad Higieny, Warsaw (Poland))

    1975-01-01

    Incorporation of /sup 14/C glucose into glycogen and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in rat brain following carbon monoxide intoxication was studied. In brains of rats tested on the 20, 30 and 60th minute of exposure to CO and immediately after removal from the chamber the enzyme activity showed no essential deviation from the control level. In the group of rats tested 1 hour after taking them out from the chamber increase of the enzyme activity was noticed, amounting to about 33% of the control value. The brains tested 24 hours after exposure showed the largest increase of the enzyme activity by about 94%. In the next time periods, 48 and 72 hours after intoxication, the enzyme activity was decreasing. The glycogen content in brains of control animals increased 3 hours after CO intoxication by about 69%. The increase of glycogen synthesis was expressed by increase of the total radioactivity, which amounted to 160% of the control value.

  19. EFFECTS OF PARTIAL HEPATECTOMY, PHENOBARBITAL AND 3-METHYLCHOLANTHRENE ON KINETIC-PARAMETERS OF GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE AND PHOSPHOGLUCONATE DEHYDROGENASE IN-SITU IN PERIPORTAL, INTERMEDIATE AND PERICENTRAL ZONES OF RAT-LIVER LOBULES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonges, G. N.; Vogels, I. M. C.; van Noorden, C. J. F.

    1995-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGDH) are heterogeneously distributed in liver lobules of female rats. The maximum activity of both enzymes is approximately twice higher in intermediate and pericentral zones than in periportal zones. Enzyme activities

  20. Deletion of the Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene KlZWF1 Affects both Fermentative and Respiratory Metabolism in Kluyveromyces lactis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliola, Michele; Scappucci, Gina; De Maria, Ilaria; Lodi, Tiziana; Mancini, Patrizia; Falcone, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    In Kluyveromyces lactis, the pentose phosphate pathway is an alternative route for the dissimilation of glucose. The first enzyme of the pathway is the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), encoded by KlZWF1. We isolated this gene and examined its role. Like ZWF1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, KlZWF1 was constitutively expressed, and its deletion led to increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide on glucose, but unlike the case for S. cerevisiae, the Klzwf1Δ strain had a reduced biomass yield on fermentative carbon sources as well as on lactate and glycerol. In addition, the reduced yield on glucose was associated with low ethanol production and decreased oxygen consumption, indicating that this gene is required for both fermentation and respiration. On ethanol, however, the mutant showed an increased biomass yield. Moreover, on this substrate, wild-type cells showed an additional band of activity that might correspond to a dimeric form of G6PDH. The partial dimerization of the G6PDH tetramer on ethanol suggested the production of an NADPH excess that was negative for biomass yield. PMID:17085636

  1. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is required for hpa1xoo (harpin protein fragment)-mediated salt stress tolerance in transgenic arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang, S.L.; Xie, L.L.; Cui, X.W.; Wang, Z.Y.

    2018-01-01

    Harpin induces salicylic acid and abscisic acid signaling in plants under biotic and abiotic stress, respectively. Our previous report showed that the effective harpin fragment Hpa1xoo enhanced H2O2 production and pathogen resistance in a transgenic Arabidopsis mutant. In this study, we examined contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), H2O2 and glutathione, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) enzyme activity in Hpa1xoo-expressing Arabidopsis under salt stress. The results revealed increased amounts of TBARS and H2O2 in wild-type (WT) compared to mutant plants under salt stress conditions. In contrast, increased levels were observed in the mutant under stress-free conditions. Moreover, a higher reduced glutathione (GSH) content and ratio of GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) was observed in mutant compared to WT plants under both stress-free and salt stress conditions. In addition, mutant plants exhibited significantly higher G6PDH, GR and GPX activity than WT plants under salt stress. Suppression of G6PDH activity via 6-aminonicotinamide (6-AN, a specific inhibitor of G6PDH) was partly reversed by L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO, a specific inhibitor of GSH regeneration) and aggravated by GSH. Combined with previous reports, these findings suggest that the G6PDH enzyme plays a key role in harpin fragment (Hpa1xoo)-mediated salt stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. (author)

  2. Co-immobilization of cyclohexanone monooxygenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase onto polyethylenimine-porous agarose polymeric composite using γ irradiation to use in biotechnological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atia, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    The co-immobilization of cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) was optimized by completely coating, via covalent immobilization, the surface aldehyde groups of porous agarose (glyoxyl-agarose) with amine groups of polyethylenimine (PEI). The highest immobilization efficiency (∼87%) (activity of enzyme per amount of immobilized enzyme) was obtained with a CHMO/G6PDH ratio 2:1. The effects of different ratios of the support to the amount of enzymes (CHMO:G6PDH=2:1), the optimum incubation pH and the incubation time on the enzymatic activity of the enzymes were determined and found to be 5:1, 8.5 and 30 min, respectively. Subjecting the co-immobilized enzymes to doses of γ-radiation (5-100 kGy) resulted in complete loss in the activity of the free enzymes at a dose of 40 kGy, while the co-immobilized ones showed relatively high resistance to γ-radiation up to a dose of 50 kGy

  3. Process Integration for the Disruption of Candida guilliermondii Cultivated in Rice Straw Hydrolysate and Recovery of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase by Aqueous Two-Phase Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurpilhares, Daniela B; Pessoa, Adalberto; Roberto, Inês C

    2015-07-01

    Remaining cells of Candida guilliermondii cultivated in hemicellulose-based fermentation medium were used as intracellular protein source. Recovery of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) was attained in conventional aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) was compared with integrated process involving mechanical disruption of cells followed by ATPS. Influences of polyethylene glycol molar mass (M PEG) and tie line lengths (TLL) on purification factor (PF), yields in top (Y T ) and bottom (Y B ) phases and partition coefficient (K) were evaluated. First scheme resulted in 65.9 % enzyme yield and PF of 2.16 in salt-enriched phase with clarified homogenate (M PEG 1500 g mol(-1), TLL 40 %); Y B of 75.2 % and PF B of 2.9 with unclarified homogenate (M PEG 1000 g mol(-1), TLL 35 %). The highest PF value of integrated process was 2.26 in bottom phase (M PEG 1500 g mol(-1), TLL 40 %). In order to optimize this response, a quadratic model was predicted for the response PFB for process integration. Maximum response achieved was PFB = 3.3 (M PEG 1500 g mol(-1), TLL 40 %). Enzyme characterization showed G6P Michaelis-Menten constant (K M ) equal 0.07-0.05, NADP(+) K M 0.02-1.98 and optimum temperature 70 °C, before and after recovery. Overall, our data confirmed feasibility of disruption/extraction integration for single-step purification of intracellular proteins from remaining yeast cells.

  4. The transcriptional regulator NtrC controls glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase expression and polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis through NADPH availability in Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacomboio, Euclides Nenga Manuel; Kim, Edson Yu Sin; Correa, Henrique Leonardo Ruchaud; Bonato, Paloma; Pedrosa, Fabio de Oliveira; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Chubatsu, Leda Satie; Müller-Santos, Marcelo

    2017-10-19

    The NTR system is the major regulator of nitrogen metabolism in Bacteria. Despite its broad and well-known role in the assimilation, biosynthesis and recycling of nitrogenous molecules, little is known about its role in carbon metabolism. In this work, we present a new facet of the NTR system in the control of NADPH concentration and the biosynthesis of molecules dependent on reduced coenzyme in Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1. We demonstrated that a ntrC mutant strain accumulated high levels of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), reaching levels up to 2-fold higher than the parental strain. In the absence of NtrC, the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (encoded by zwf) increased by 2.8-fold, consequently leading to a 2.1-fold increase in the NADPH/NADP + ratio. A GFP fusion showed that expression of zwf is likewise controlled by NtrC. The increase in NADPH availability stimulated the production of polyhydroxybutyrate regardless the C/N ratio in the medium. The mutant ntrC was more resistant to H 2 O 2 exposure and controlled the propagation of ROS when facing the oxidative condition, a phenotype associated with the increase in PHB content.

  5. Mediterranean glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDC563T) mutation among jordanian females with acute hemolytic crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbar, A.A.; Kanakiri, N.; Kamil, M.; Rimawi, H.S.A.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the G6PDC563T Mediterranean mutation among Jordanian females who were admitted to Princess Rahma Teaching Hospital (PRTH) with/or previous history of favism. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Jordanian University of Science and Technology and PRTH, from October 2003 to October 2004. Methodology: After obtaining approval from the Ethics Committee of Jordanian University of Science and Technology, a total of 32 females were included in this study. Samples from 15 healthy individual females were used as a negative control. Blood samples from these patients were collected and analyzed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) to determine the G6PDC563T mutation. Results: Twenty one out of 32 patients were found to be G6PDC563T Mediterranean mutation (65.6%) positive. Three out of 21 patients were homozygous and remaining 18 were heterozygous for G6PDC563T Mediterranean mutation. Eleven (34.4%) out of 32 patients were found to be negative for G6PDC563T mutation indicating the presence of other G6PD mutations in the study sample. Conclusion: G6PDC563T Mediterranean mutation accounted for 65.6% of the study sample with favism in the North of Jordan. There is likely to be another G6PD deficiency variant implicated in acute hemolytic crisis (favism). (author)

  6. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase plays a pivotal role in nitric oxide-involved defense against oxidative stress under salt stress in red kidney bean roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinggao; Wu, Ruru; Wan, Qi; Xie, Gengqiang; Bi, Yurong

    2007-03-01

    The pivotal role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH)-mediated nitric oxide (NO) production in the tolerance to oxidative stress induced by 100 mM NaCl in red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) roots was investigated. The results show that the G-6-PDH activity was enhanced rapidly in the presence of NaCl and reached a maximum at 100 mM. Western blot analysis indicated that the increase of G-6-PDH activity in the red kidney bean roots under 100 mM NaCl was mainly due to the increased content of the G-6-PDH protein. NO production and nitrate reductase (NR) activity were also induced by 100 mM NaCl. The NO production was reduced by NaN(3) (an NR inhibitor), but not affected by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) (an NOS inhibitor). Application of 2.5 mM Na(3)PO(4), an inhibitor of G-6-PDH, blocked the increase of G-6-PDH and NR activity, as well as NO production in red kidney bean roots under 100 mM NaCl. The activities of antioxidant enzymes in red kidney bean roots increased in the presence of 100 mM NaCl or sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor. The increased activities of all antioxidant enzymes tested at 100 mM NaCl were completely inhibited by 2.5 mM Na(3)PO(4). Based on these results, we conclude that G-6-PDH plays a pivotal role in NR-dependent NO production, and in establishing tolerance of red kidney bean roots to salt stress.

  7. INFLUENCE OF pH, TEMPERATURE AND DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONCENTRATION ON THE PRODUCTION OF GLUCOSE 6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE AND INVERTASE BY Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abrahão-Neto

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pH (from 4.0 to 5.0, temperature (T (from 30 oC to 40 oC and dissolved oxygen concentration (DO (from 0.2 to 6.0 mg O2/L on glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH (EC 1.1.1.49 and Invertase (EC 3.2.1.26 formation by S. cerevisiae were studied. The best culture conditions for G6PDH and Invertase formation were: 2.55 L culture medium (yeast extract, 3.0 g/L; 5peptone, 5.0 g/L; glucose, 2.0 g/L; sucrose, 15.0 g/L; Na2HPO4.12 H2O, 2.4 g/L; (NH42SO4, 5.1 g/L and MgSO4. 7H2O, 0.075 g/L; 0.45 L inoculum (0.70 g dry cell/L; pH = 4.5; T = 35 oC and DO = 4.0 mg/L. G6PDH was highly sensitive to pH, T and DO variation. The increase in G6PDH production was about three times when the DO ranged from 0.2 to 4.0 mg O2/L. Moreover, by shifting pH from 5.0 to 4.5 and temperature from 30 oC to 35 oC, G6PDH formation increased by 57% and 70%, respectively. Invertase activity (IA of whole cells decreased at least 50% at extremes values of DO (2.0 and 6.0 mg O2/L and pH (4.0 and 5.0. Furthermore, IA oscillated during the fermentation due to the glucose repression/derepression mechanism

  8. Use of a simplified spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in normal children from two day-care centers of the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Muller

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the applicability of a simplified method forquantitative determination of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenaseactivity in normal children; to determine the mean, standarddeviation and threshold value under which the enzyme activity isconsidered deficient. Methods: Blood samples were collected from201 children from two day-care centers in the city of São Paulo.The subjects were considered normal based on physicalexamination and laboratory tests. The enzyme activity wasdetermined in red blood cells of normal children using the “TestCombination G-6-PDH®” kit. The following statistical analyses werecarried out: the results were submitted to Student’s t test,Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, lower confidence interval (one-tailedtest and Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results: The meanhemoglobin value for girls was slightly higher than the mean valuefor boys, but this difference was not statistically significant. Therewas no statistical difference in mean enzyme activities for Caucasianand non-Caucasian children. There was no significant correlation amongenzyme activity levels, red blood cells, hemoglobin levels,hematocrit, reticulocytes, white blood cells and age of patients.The mean enzyme activity for boys was 4.448 U/g Hb, standarddeviation = 1.380 U/g Hb. For girls, the mean enzyme activity was4.531 U/g Hb, standard deviation = 1.386 U/g Hb, and the differencewas not statistically significant. Therefore, the two populationgroups were considered as one single population, presenting amean enzyme activity of 4.490 U/g Hb, standard deviation = 1.380 U/g Hb.Since the distribution curve of enzyme activity values was normal,a lower confidence interval was determined (one-tailed test, witha cutoff point of 2.227 U/g Hb. Conclusion: The method used bySolem proved to be simple, fast, very accurate and useful to detectglucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and to identifychildren with enzyme deficiency.

  9. Triiodothyronine (T3)-associated upregulation and downregulation of nuclear T3 binding in the human fibroblast cell (MRC-5)--stimulation of malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase, and 6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase by insulin, but not by T3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, L E; Kristensen, S R; Kvetny, J

    1991-01-01

    The specific nuclear binding of triiodothyronine (T3) (NBT3) and the activity of malic enzyme (ME), glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD), and 6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase (6PGD) were studied in the human fibroblast cell (MRC-5). The overall apparent binding affinity (Ka) was 2.7 x 10(9) L.......mol-1 estimated from kinetic studies of nuclear T3 binding, and 2.5 x 10(9) L.mol-1 estimated from equilibrium studies. The scatchard plots were curvilinear and composed of a high-affinity binding site with Ka1 3.4 +/- 0.7 x 10(9) L.mol-1 and maximal binding capacity (MBC) MBC1 57.0 +/- 11.9 fmol/mg DNA...... and a low-affinity binding site with Ka2 2.9 +/- 1.1 x 10(8) L.mol-1 and MBC2 124.7 +/- 22.1 fmol/mg DNA (n = 6). Incubation of cells with 6 nmol/L T3 for 20 hours reduced NBT3 to 62.2% +/- 15.7% (P less than .01, n = 11). The Ka estimated from kinetic studies was reduced to 6.7 x 10(7) L.mol-1...

  10. Effects of whole body x-ray irradiation on induction by phenobarbital of rat liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitny-Szlachto, S.; Szyszko, A. (Wojskowy Inst. Higieny i Epidemiologii, Warsaw (Poland))

    1979-01-01

    In rats treated with phenobarbital (3x100 mg/kg, i.p.), liver G-6-P dehydrogenase activity increased by 70% in the cytosol and in the 9.000xg supernatant, and only by 20% in microsomes. Moreover, the phenobarbital treatment increased rat liver GSSG reductase activity by 30%. On the other hand, activity of the liver microsomal G-6-P dehydrogenase was found to increase by some 20% in whole body irradiated, both control and phenobarbital treated rats. In rats irradiated with 600 R prior to the first dose of the inducer there was not noted any increase in G-6-P dehydrogenase of the 9.000xg supernatant, and increase in the cytosol activity dropped to 38%. Thus, induction of the soluble liver G-6-P dehydrogenase by phenobarbital has turned out to be radiosensitive, whereas phenobarbital induction of GSSG reductase was unaffected by irradiation.

  11. Combined Effect of L-Cysteine and Vitamin E Injected Pre-Irradiation on Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity and Certain products of Glycolysis in Blood of Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, K.I.; Abou-Safi, H.M.; Kafafy, Y.A.; Ashry, O.M.

    1999-01-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the protective limits of L-cysteine and vitamin E combination against deleterious effects of gamma radiation on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, liver glycogen, blood glucose, pyruvic and lactic acids and their correlations in adult female rats. Mature female white rats were divided into four groups: 1- Control group. 2- Whole body gamma irradiated group at a dose level two Gy. 3-Group injected with 120 mg/100 g b.wt. L-cysteine+10 mg/100 g b.wt. vitamin E. 4- Group injected with cysteine+ vitamin E one hour before irradiation at 2 Gy dose level. Results revealed that combined administration of cysteine and vitamin E before gamma-irradiation have accelerated the radiation injury on liver glycogen, plasma glucose and G 6 Pd activity, while they showed a protective effect on lactic and pyruvic acids. This could be due to different mechanisms or a biphasic mechanism related to hormonal (like E 2 , T 3 and insulin), enzymatic or metabolic (e.g. oxidation/reduction, catabolic, anabolic factors) control

  12. A role for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... mice caused a decrease in the nucleated cell counts in the peripheral blood, the .... Society of hematology, annual meeting abstracts; abstract 1049: p. 106. Salman 141. Leopold J ... Trans Res. Soc. London B. Biol. Sci. 354:.

  13. Molecular Characterization of Glucose-6-Phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, ... United Arab Emirates (UAE), 3School of Pharmacy, Pharmacology Department, University Sains Malaysia ... International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index ..... dehydrogenase deficiency in a student population.

  14. Quantitative comparison between the gel-film and polyvinyl alcohol methods for dehydrogenase histochemistry reveals different intercellular distribution patterns of glucose-6-phosphate and lactate dehydrogenases in mouse liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffini, P.; Vigorelli, E.; Bertone, V.; Freitas, I.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    The precise histochemical localization and quantification of the activity of soluble dehydrogenases in unfixed cryostat sections requires the use of tissue protectants. In this study, two protectants, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and agarose gel, were compared for assaying the activity of lactate

  15. Molecular Characterization of Glucose-6-Phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    The total prevalence of G6PD deficiency among the subjects was 4.59 % (4/87), all of whom were. Malay males. One of the deficient subjects had G6PD Viangchan, while the other three were G6PD. Mahidol ..... J Paediatr Child Health .1991 ...

  16. Molecular Characterization of Glucose-6-Phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G6PD) deficiency among staff and students of a university community in Malaysia as well as to identify molecular genetics by determination of G6PD mutations. Methods: Cross-sectional and experimental studies were carried out on the staff ...

  17. assessment of the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uwaifoh

    2012-10-31

    Oct 31, 2012 ... Chemical Pathology, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Edo ... in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and control subjects using enzymatic ... inappropriate antioxidation process. ... without a previous diagnosis of diabetes develop a ... variants. It confers protection against malaria, which accounts for its ...

  18. Rapid screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and haemoglobin polymorphisms in Africa by a simple high-throughput SSOP-ELISA method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevold, Anders; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Lusingu, John

    2005-01-01

    was available. METHODS: A simple and rapid technique was developed to detect the most prominent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the HbB and G6PD genes. The method is able to detect the different haemoglobin polymorphisms A, S, C and E, as well as G6PD polymorphisms B, A and A- based on PCR......-amplification followed by a hybridization step using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOPs) specific for the SNP variants and quantified by ELISA. RESULTS: The SSOP-ELISA method was found to be specific, and compared well to the commonly used PCR-RFLP technique. Identical results were obtained in 98......% (haemoglobin) and 95% (G6PD) of the tested 90 field samples from a high-transmission area in Tanzania, which were used to validate the new technique. CONCLUSION: The simplicity and accuracy of the new methodology makes it suitable for application in settings where resources are limited. It would serve...

  19. Glucose-6-phosphate mediates activation of the carbohydrate responsive binding protein (ChREBP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming V.; Chen, Weiqin; Harmancey, Romain N.; Nuotio-Antar, Alli M.; Imamura, Minako; Saha, Pradip; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Chan, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is a Mondo family transcription factor that activates a number of glycolytic and lipogenic genes in response to glucose stimulation. We have previously reported that high glucose can activate the transcriptional activity of ChREBP independent of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-mediated increase in nuclear entry and DNA binding. Here, we found that formation of glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) is essential for glucose activation of ChREBP. The glucose response of GAL4-ChREBP is attenuated by D-mannoheptulose, a potent hexokinase inhibitor, as well as over-expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase); kinetics of activation of GAL4-ChREBP can be modified by exogenously expressed GCK. Further metabolism of G-6-P through the two major glucose metabolic pathways, glycolysis and pentose-phosphate pathway, is not required for activation of ChREBP; over-expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) diminishes, whereas RNAi knockdown of the enzyme enhances, the glucose response of GAL4-ChREBP, respectively. Moreover, the glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), which is phosphorylated by hexokinase, but not further metabolized, effectively upregulates the transcription activity of ChREBP. In addition, over-expression of phosphofructokinase (PFK) 1 and 2, synergistically diminishes the glucose response of GAL4-ChREBP. These multiple lines of evidence support the conclusion that G-6-P mediates the activation of ChREBP.

  20. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydro- genase deficiency; the single most ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-10

    Mar 10, 2017 ... possible Icterogenic agents, such as naphthalene balls, henna .... Table 4: Causes of jaundice among the 100 babies in the study n denote ... rate of 11%. Five (45.5%) of these were preterm with low weigh. The mortality rate among the G-6-PD defi- cient neonates was proportionately higher 15.2% (7 of.

  1. Infleunce of pH on the partition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and hexokinase in aqueous two-phase system Influência do pH na partição da glicose 6-fosfato desidrogenase e hexoquinase em sistema de duas fases aquosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pereira da Silva

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH and hexokinase (HK are important enzymes used in biochemical and medical studies and in several analytical methods. Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS formed by a polymer solution and an electrolyte solution provides a method for the separation and purification of enzymes with several advantages, including biocompatibility and easy scale up of the process. In this work, the effects of different pH values on the storage stability and partitioning behavior (K, partition coefficient of the enzymes G6PDH and HK from baker's yeast extract were investigated in ATPS. The results, obtained from the 17.5% PEG 400 : 15.0% phosphate system, showed that when the pH was increased from 5.0 to 8.8, the K HK increased 26-fold and the K G6PDH 2.2-fold. In the 20.0% PEG 1500 : 17.5% phosphate system, the K HK and K G6PDH increased 13 and 1.2-fold, when the pH value was increased from 3.8 to 8.8, respectively. This leads to the conclusion that the partition coefficient for both enzymes is favored by high pH values. A statistical analysis of the results was conducted to confirm this conclusion.Glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase (G6PDH e hexoquinase (HK são importantes enzimas usadas em estudos bioquímicos e médicos e em diversos métodos analíticos. Sistema de duas fases aquosas (SDFA formado por uma solução polimérica e uma solução eletrolítica proporciona um método para separação e purificação de enzimas com diversas vantagens, incluindo biocompatibilidade, que pode ser facilmente escalonado para nível industrial. Neste trabalho, os efeitos de diferentes valores de pH na estabilidade e na partição (K, coeficiente de partição por SDFA das enzimas G6PDH e HK, obtidas através de levedura de panificação, foram investigados. Os resultados, obtidos do sistema constituído por 17,5% de PEG 400 e 15,0% de fosfato, mostraram que com a elevação do pH de 5,0 para 8,8, o K HK aumentou 26 vezes e o K G6PDH 2,2 vezes

  2. Influence of sickle heterozygous status and glucose-6-phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    genes are known to offer reliable protection against falciparum malaria in malaria endemic areas ... study, we investigated the contribution of HbS and G6PD enzyme deficiency status in .... were analysed using an automated system,.

  3. Prevalence of sickle cell, malaria and glucose-6-phosphate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PD) deficiency are relatively common genetic disorders in population exposed to malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. The prevalence of these two genetic disorders differs between different malaria transmission areas. Objectives: This cross ...

  4. Fluorometric determination of free glucose and glucose 6-phosphate in cows' milk and other opaque matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of free glucose and glucose 6-phosphate in milk have until now been dependent upon several time consuming and troublesome procedures. This has limited investigations in the area. The present article presents a new, reliable, analytical procedure, based on enzymatic degradation and fluoro......Analyses of free glucose and glucose 6-phosphate in milk have until now been dependent upon several time consuming and troublesome procedures. This has limited investigations in the area. The present article presents a new, reliable, analytical procedure, based on enzymatic degradation...... and fluorometric detection. Standards and control materials were based on milk that was stripped of intrinsic glucose and glucose 6-phosphate in order to obtain standards and samples based on the same matrix. The analysis works without pre-treatment of the samples, e.g. without centrifugation and precipitation...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5-fluorouracil and capecitabine. These drugs are not broken down efficiently by people with dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency ... of this enzyme. Because fluoropyrimidine drugs are also broken down by the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase enzyme, deficiency of ...

  6. Polimorfisme Enzim Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase pada Tiga Populasi Tuna Sirip Kuning (Thunnus albacares)

    OpenAIRE

    Permana, Gusti Ngurah; Hutapea, Jhon H.; Moria, Sari Budi; Haryanti, Haryanti

    2006-01-01

    Samples of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) were taken from three locations Bali, North Sulawesi and North Maluku. The glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) was analyzed from liver using allozyme electrophoresis method. Polymorphism of GPI enzyme was observed and four alleles (A, B ,C, D) were found in Bali population, three alleles (A,B,C) were found in North Maluku and North Sulawesi populations. Heterozygosity values, from Bali, North Maluku and North Sulawesi were 0.419; 0.417; 0.143 resp...

  7. Diurnal fluctuation of leukocyte G6PD activity. A possible explanation for the normal neutrophil bactericidal activity and the low incidence of pyogenic infections in patients with severe G6PD deficiency in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolach, Baruch; Ashkenazi, Meir; Grossmann, Rami; Gavrieli, Ronit; Friedman, Ziva; Bashan, Nava; Roos, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    Acute hemolytic anemia associated with red blood cell (RBC) glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is commonly encountered in the Mediterranean basin. Nevertheless, concomitant clinical evidence of white blood cell G6PD deficiency is extremely rare in Israel. This study sought to assess

  8. Central Nervous System Symptoms Due to Transient Methemoglobinemia in a Child With G6PD Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shreya; Srinivasaraghavan, Rangan; Krishnamurthy, Sriram

    2017-01-01

    The authors herein report a 5-year-old child who presented with massive hemolysis, irritability, and cyanosis. The final diagnosis was glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency with associated central nervous system symptoms probably because of concomitantly acquired methemoglobinemia following oxidant drug exposure. The associated acute-onset anemia would have contributed to the development of cerebral anoxia-related seizures and encephalopathy.

  9. A role for AMPK in the inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohan, Alison B.; Talukdar, Indrani; Walsh, Callee M. [Department of Biochemistry, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Salati, Lisa M., E-mail: lsalati@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Biochemistry, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2009-10-09

    Both polyunsaturated fatty acids and AMPK promote energy partitioning away from energy consuming processes, such as fatty acid synthesis, towards energy generating processes, such as {beta}-oxidation. In this report, we demonstrate that arachidonic acid activates AMPK in primary rat hepatocytes, and that this effect is p38 MAPK-dependent. Activation of AMPK mimics the inhibition by arachidonic acid of the insulin-mediated induction of G6PD. Similar to intracellular signaling by arachidonic acid, AMPK decreases insulin signal transduction, increasing Ser{sup 307} phosphorylation of IRS-1 and a subsequent decrease in AKT phosphorylation. Overexpression of dominant-negative AMPK abolishes the effect of arachidonic acid on G6PD expression. These data suggest a role for AMPK in the inhibition of G6PD by polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  10. Metabolic impact of an NADH-producing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olavarria, K.; De Ingeniis, J.; Zielinski, D. C.

    2014-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway (oxPPP) is one of the major sources of NADPH when glucose is the sole carbon nutrient. However, unbalanced NADPH production causes growth impairment as observed in a strain lacking phosphoglucoisomerase (Δpgi). In this work......PDH(R46E,Q47E). Through homologous recombination, the zwf loci (encoding G6PDH) in the chromosomes of WT and Δpgi E. coli strains were replaced by DNA encoding LmG6PDH(R46E,Q47E). Contrary to some predictions performed with flux balance analysis, the replacements caused a substantial effect...

  11. Reduced prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection and of concomitant anaemia in pregnant women with heterozygous G6PD deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Mandelkow, Jantina; Till, Holger; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Eggelte, Teunis A.; Bienzle, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency confers protection against malaria in children, yet its role in malaria in pregnancy is unknown. In a cross-sectional study among 529 pregnant Ghanaian women, Plasmodium falciparum infection, anaemia and G6PD genotypes were assessed. Of these,

  12. Glucose-6-phosphate reduces calcium accumulation in rat brain endoplasmic reticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Thomas Cole

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain cells expend large amounts of energy sequestering calcium (Ca2+, while loss of Ca2+ compartmentalization leads to cell damage or death. Upon cell entry, glucose is converted to glucose-6-phosphate (G6P, a parent substrate to several metabolic major pathways, including glycolysis. In several tissues, G6P alters the ability of the endoplasmic reticulum to sequester Ca2+. This led to the hypothesis that G6P regulates Ca2+ accumulation by acting as an endogenous ligand for sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA. Whole brain ER microsomes were pooled from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Using radio-isotopic assays, 45Ca2+ accumulation was quantified following incubation with increasing amounts of G6P, in the presence or absence of thapsigargin, a potent SERCA inhibitor. To qualitatively assess SERCA activity, the simultaneous release of inorganic phosphate (Pi coupled with Ca2+ accumulation was quantified. Addition of G6P significantly and decreased Ca2+ accumulation in a dose-dependent fashion (1-10 mM. The reduction in Ca2+ accumulation was not significantly different that seen with addition of thapsigargin. Addition of glucose-1-phosphate or fructose-6-phosphate, or other glucose metabolic pathway intermediates, had no effect on Ca2+ accumulation. Further, the release of Pi was markedly decreased, indicating G6P-mediated SERCA inhibition as the responsible mechanism for reduced Ca2+ uptake. Simultaneous addition of thapsigargin and G6P did decrease inorganic phosphate in comparison to either treatment alone, which suggests that the two treatments have different mechanisms of action. Therefore, G6P may be a novel, endogenous regulator of SERCA activity. Additionally, pathological conditions observed during disease states that disrupt glucose homeostasis, may be attributable to Ca2+ dystasis caused by altered G6P regulation of SERCA activity

  13. Final Report for research on The Glucose 6-Phosphate Shunt Around the Calvin-Benson Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkey, Thomas D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2017-10-30

    In this research, photosynthetic carbon metabolism was studied to identify mechanisms by which plants store energy from sunlight as carbon compounds, especially sugars. Conditions were identified in which carbon appeared to flow backwards from outside the photosynthetic compartment (chloroplast) back into it. A specific gene product was manipulated to make the flow bigger or smaller. Preventing the flow (by eliminating the gene) had little effect on plant growth but increasing the flow, by overexpressing the gene, caused the plants to become extremely sensitive to changes in light. Plants with the gene overexpressed had high rates of cyclic electron flow, the photosynthetic electron transport pathway that occurs when plants need more of the energy molecule ATP. These and other observations led us to conclude that a metabolic pathway that is normally turned off because it is counter-productive during photosynthesis, in fact occurs at about 10% of the rate of normal photosynthesis. This creates an inefficiency but may stabilize photosynthesis allowing it to cope with the very large and rapid changes that leaves experience such as the hundred-fold changes in light intensity that can occur in seconds on a partly cloudy day. We also concluded that the back flow of carbon into chloroplasts could be important at high rates of photosynthesis allowing increased rates of starch synthesis. Starch synthesis allows plants to store sugars during the day for use at night. At high rates of photosynthesis starch synthesis becomes very important to protect against end-product inhibition of photosynthesis. This research identified two metabolic pathways that extend the primary carbon fixation pathway called the Calvin-Benson cycle. These pathway extensions are now called the cytosolic bypass and the glucose 6-phosphate shunt. This improvement in our understanding of carbon metabolism of photosynthesis will guide efforts to increase photosynthesis to increase production of food, fuel

  14. 2-Methylbutyryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sass, Jörn Oliver; Ensenauer, Regina; Röschinger, Wulf

    2008-01-01

    2-Methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (MBD; coded by the ACADSB gene) catalyzes the step in isoleucine metabolism that corresponds to the isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase reaction in the degradation of leucine. Deficiencies of both enzymes may be detected by expanded neonatal screening with tandem...... individuals showed clinical symptoms attributable to MBD deficiency although the defect in isoleucine catabolism was demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro. Several mutations in the ACADSB gene were identified, including a novel one. MBD deficiency may be a harmless metabolic variant although significant...

  15. Modulation of low dose radiation effect on pentose phosphate pathway enzymes by B-multivitamin deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimatkina, T.I.; Lashak, L.K.; Moiseenok, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    Blood, liver, thymus and spleen of albino rats injected subcutaneously with antivitamins (othythiamine and methotrexate) and subjected to prolonger γ-irradiation in the overall dose of 0.75 Gy were assayed for transketolase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase after 12h, 1, 2, 5 and 40 days from the last radiation dose. High transketolase sensitivity was found both to radiation (activation) and the combined effects of vitamin deficiency and radiation (potentiation of antivitamin inhibitory action) in all the tissues studied. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was little changed under the given experimental manipulations, but the combined effect of the factors considerably inhibited the enzyme activities in the organs of the immune system. Consequently, in B-multivitamin deficiency the effect of low radiation doses was subjected to a considerable modulation resulting in profound inhibition of the oxidation and nonoxidative branches of the pentose phosphate pathway. (author). 9 refs, 2 tabs

  16. The level of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity strongly influences xylose fermentation and inhibitor sensitivity in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppsson, M.; Johansson, B.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2003-01-01

    production levels of G6PDH on xylose fermentation. We used a synthetic promoter library and the copper-regulated CUP1 promoter to generate G6PDH-activities between 0% and 179% of the wildtype level. G6PDH-activities of 1% and 6% of the wild-type level resulted in 2.8- and 5.1-fold increase in specific xylose...

  17. Efficient regeneration of NADPH in a 3-enzyme cascade reaction by in situ generation of glucose 6-phosphate from glucose and pyrophosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, A.F.; van Herk, T.; Wever, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report here a promising method to regenerate NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) using the intermediate formation of glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) from glucose and pyrophosphate (PPi) catalyzed by the acid phosphatase from Shigella flexneri (PhoN-Sf). The G6P formed is used in turn by

  18. SLC37A1 and SLC37A2 are phosphate-linked, glucose-6-phosphate antiporters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Jiunn Pan

    Full Text Available Blood glucose homeostasis between meals depends upon production of glucose within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER of the liver and kidney by hydrolysis of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P into glucose and phosphate (P(i. This reaction depends on coupling the G6P transporter (G6PT with glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α. Only one G6PT, also known as SLC37A4, has been characterized, and it acts as a P(i-linked G6P antiporter. The other three SLC37 family members, predicted to be sugar-phosphate:P(i exchangers, have not been characterized functionally. Using reconstituted proteoliposomes, we examine the antiporter activity of the other SLC37 members along with their ability to couple with G6Pase-α. G6PT- and mock-proteoliposomes are used as positive and negative controls, respectively. We show that SLC37A1 and SLC37A2 are ER-associated, P(i-linked antiporters, that can transport G6P. Unlike G6PT, neither is sensitive to chlorogenic acid, a competitive inhibitor of physiological ER G6P transport, and neither couples to G6Pase-α. We conclude that three of the four SLC37 family members are functional sugar-phosphate antiporters. However, only G6PT/SLC37A4 matches the characteristics of the physiological ER G6P transporter, suggesting the other SLC37 proteins have roles independent of blood glucose homeostasis.

  19. Time course of radiolabeled 2-deoxy-D-glucose 6-phosphate turnover in cerebral cortex of goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelligrino, D.A.; Miletich, D.J.; Albrecht, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The vivo dephosphorylation rate of 2-deoxy-D-glucose 6-phosphate (DGP) in the cerebral cortex of goats injected intravenously with radiolabeled 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DG) was investigated. Serial rapidly frozen samples of parietal cortical gray tissue were obtained at regular intervals over time periods from 45 min to 3 h in awake goats or in paralyzed and artificially ventilated goats maintained under 70% N 2 O or pentobarbital sodium anesthesia. The samples were analyzed for glucose content and separate DG and DGP activities. The rate parameters for phosphorylation (k/sup */ 4 ) and dephosphorylation (k/sup */ 4 ) were estimated in each animal. The glucose phosphorylation rate (PR) was calculated over the intervals 3-5 (or 6), 3-10, 3-20, 3-30, and 3-45 min, assuming k/sup */ 4 = O. As the evaluation period was extended beyond 10 min, the calculated PR became increasingly less when compared with that calculated over the 3- to 5- (or 6) min interval (PR/sub i/). Furthermore, as metabolic activity decreased, the magnitude of the error increased such that at 45 min pentobarbital-anesthetize goats underestimated the PR/sub i/ by 46.5% compared with only 23.1 in N 2 O-anesthetized goats. This was also reflected in the >twofold higher k/sup */ 4 /k/sup */ 3 ratio in the pentobarbital vs. N 2 O-anesthetized group. It is concluded that when using the DG method in the goat, DGP dephosphorylation cannot be ignored when employing >10-min evaluation periods

  20. X-Linked G6PD Deficiency Protects Hemizygous Males but Not Heterozygous Females against Severe Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Guindo, Aldiouma; Fairhurst, Rick M; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Wellems, Thomas E; Diallo, Dapa A

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. “Favism” is a condition that results from a deficiency in an enzyme called glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and this disorder is thought to be the commonest enzyme-deficiency disease worldwide. The disease is named favism after the Italian word for broad beans (fava), which cause a classic reaction when eaten by people with G6PD deficiency. The G6PD enzyme is particularly important in red blood cells, where it protects against damage that can be caused by...

  1. Expanding the clinical spectrum of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabatabaie, L; Klomp, L W J; Rubio-Gozalbo, M E; Spaapen, L J M; Haagen, A A M; Dorland, L; de Koning, T J

    UNLABELLED: 3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH) deficiency is considered to be a rare cause of congenital microcephaly, infantile onset of intractable seizures and severe psychomotor retardation. Here, we report for the first time a very mild form of genetically confirmed 3-PGDH deficiency in

  2. Natural history of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency through adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapalme-Remis, S.; Lewis, E.C.; De Meulemeester, C.; Chakraborty, P.; Gibson, K.M.; Torres, C.; Guberman, A.; Salomons, G.; Jakobs, C.; Ali-Ridha, A.; Parviz, M.; Pearl, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The natural history of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency in adulthood is unknown; we elucidate the clinical manifestations of the disease later in life. Methods: A 63-year-old man with long-standing intellectual disability was diagnosed with SSADH deficiency following

  3. Optic neuropathy in a patient with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, Juan E. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Gonzalez, Guido E. [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Clinica Alemana de Santiago, Departmento de Imagenes, Santiago (Chile); Nagao, Karina E.; Walton, David S. [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Ophthalmology, Boston, MA (United States); Caruso, Paul A. [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency is a genetic disorder of mitochondrial metabolism. The clinical manifestations range from severe neonatal lactic acidosis to chronic neurodegeneration. Optic neuropathy is an uncommon clinical sequela and the imaging findings of optic neuropathy in these patients have not previously been described. We present a patient with PDH deficiency with bilateral decreased vision in whom MRI demonstrated bilateral optic neuropathy and chiasmopathy. (orig.)

  4. Optic neuropathy in a patient with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, Juan E.; Gonzalez, Guido E.; Nagao, Karina E.; Walton, David S.; Caruso, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency is a genetic disorder of mitochondrial metabolism. The clinical manifestations range from severe neonatal lactic acidosis to chronic neurodegeneration. Optic neuropathy is an uncommon clinical sequela and the imaging findings of optic neuropathy in these patients have not previously been described. We present a patient with PDH deficiency with bilateral decreased vision in whom MRI demonstrated bilateral optic neuropathy and chiasmopathy. (orig.)

  5. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waddell, Leigh; Wiley, Veronica; Carpenter, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The fatty acid oxidation disorder most commonly identified by tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening is the potentially fatal medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD). In clinically presenting cases, 80% are homozygous for the common mutation, c.985A > G and 18% heterozygous. We ...

  6. Synthesis and modifications of heterocyclic derivatives of D-arabinose: potential inhibitors of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, Renato Marcio Ribeiro; Prado, Maria Auxiliadora Fontes; Alves, Ricardo Jose

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of -5-(D-arabino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)tetrazole and -2-(d-arabino-1,2,3,4-tetra-acetoxybutyl)-5-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole from d-arabinose is described. Attempts at removing the protecting groups of the oxadiazole derivative were unsuccessful, leading to products resulting from the opening of the oxadiazole ring. The unprotected tetrazole derivative was selectively phosphorylated at the primary hydroxyl group with diethyl phosphoryl chloride. The resulting 5-[d-arabino-4-(diethylphosphoryloxy)-1,2,3-trihydroxybutyl]tetrazole is a protected form of a potential inhibitor of the enzymes glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and glucosamine synthase. (author)

  7. Distinguishing two types of gray mullet, Mugil cephalus L. (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae), by using glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) allozymes with special reference to enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C S; Weng, C F; Lee, S C

    2001-06-01

    The resident and migratory types of gray mullet, Mugil cephalus, on the coast of Taiwan can not be separated morphologically. Allozyme analysis was applied to estimate genetic variation between the two types of gray mullet and to test whether they belong to different populations. After starch gel electrophoresis, different allelic frequency spectra of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase-A (GPI-A) between stocks was observed. The resident stock contained Gpi-A(135) and Gpi-A(100), whereas the migratory type contained Gpi-A(100) only. In addition, GPI activities of locus A showed two distinct profiles between the two alleles. The results broadly revealed that Gpi-A allelic frequency was not regulated by temperature changes even after 6 months of thermal acclimation. This suggests that natural selection may play a role in shaping the allelic frequency change during the migratory journey. These findings suggest that the Gpi-A allelic difference can be used for population discrimination.

  8. Discovery of ebselen as an inhibitor of Cryptosporidium parvum glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (CpGPI by high-throughput screening of existing drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Eltahan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium parvum is a water-borne and food-borne apicomplexan pathogen. It is one of the top four diarrheal-causing pathogens in children under the age of five in developing countries, and an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Unlike other apicomplexans, C. parvum lacks Kreb's cycle and cytochrome-based respiration, thus relying mainly on glycolysis to produce ATP. In this study, we characterized the primary biochemical features of the C. parvum glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (CpGPI and determined its Michaelis constant towards fructose-6-phosphate (Km = 0.309 mM, Vmax = 31.72 nmol/μg/min. We also discovered that ebselen, an organoselenium drug, was a selective inhibitor of CpGPI by high-throughput screening of 1200 known drugs. Ebselen acted on CpGPI as an allosteric noncompetitive inhibitor (IC50 = 8.33 μM; Ki = 36.33 μM, while complete inhibition of CpGPI activity was not achieved. Ebselen could also inhibit the growth of C. parvum in vitro (EC50 = 165 μM at concentrations nontoxic to host cells, albeit with a relatively small in vitro safety window of 4.2 (cytotoxicity TC50 on HCT-8 cells = 700 μM. Additionally, ebselen might also target other enzymes in the parasite, leading to the parasite growth reduction. Therefore, although ebselen is useful in studying the inhibition of CpGPI enzyme activity, further proof is needed to chemically and/or genetically validate CpGPI as a drug target. Keywords: Apicomplexan, Cryptosporidium parvum, Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI, Ebselen

  9. Signatures of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase deficiency in poplar lignins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Catherine; Pilate, Gilles; Pollet, Brigitte; Mila, Isabelle; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Jouanin, Lise; Kim, Hoon; Ralph, John

    2004-02-01

    A series of transgenic poplars down-regulated for cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) was analyzed by thioacidolysis. Among the lignin-derived monomers, the indene compounds that were recently shown to originate from sinapaldehyde incorporated into lignins through 8-O-4-cross-coupling, were found to increase as a function of CAD deficiency level. While these syringyl markers were recovered in substantial amounts in the most severely depressed lines, the markers for coniferaldehyde incorporation were recovered in only low amounts. In conjunction with these additional sinapaldehyde units and relative to the control samples, lignins in CAD-deficient poplar lines had less conventional syringyl-units and beta-O-4-bonds and more free phenolic groups. We found that almost half of the polymers in the most deficient lines could be solubilized in alkali and at room temperature. This unusual behavior suggests that lignins in CAD-deficient poplars occur as small, alkali-leachable lignin domains. That mainly sinapaldehyde incorporates into the lignins of CAD-deficient poplars suggests that the recently identified sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD), which is structurally distinct from the CAD enzyme targeted herein, does not play any substantial role in constitutive lignification in poplar.

  10. Inhibition of the pentose phosphate shunt by 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in erythrocyte pyruvate kinase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, A; Lachant, N A; Noble, N A; Tanaka, K R

    1983-07-01

    Pentose phosphate shunt activity was studied by the release of 14CO2 from 14C-1-glucose and 14C-2-glucose in the red cells of five patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency and found to be significantly decreased after new methylene blue stimulation when compared to high reticulocyte controls. Incubated Heinz body formation was increased and the ascorbate cyanide test was positive in blood from these patients. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) as well as that of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) was inhibited to 20% of baseline in normal red cell haemolysate by 4 mM 2,3-diphosphoglycerate at pH 7.1. 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate was a competitive inhibitor with 6-phosphogluconate (Ki=1.05 mM) and a noncompetitive inhibitor with NADP (Ki=3.3 mM) for 6PGD. Since the intracellular concentrations of glucose-6-phosphate, 6-phosphogluconate and NADP are below their Kms for G6PD and 6PGD, the kinetic data suggest that increased concentrations of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in pyruvate kinase deficient red cells are sufficiently high to suppress pentose phosphate shunt activity. This suppression may be an additional factor contributing to the haemolytic anaemia of pyruvate kinase deficiency, particularly during periods of infection or metabolic stress.

  11. Increased superoxide accumulation in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficient fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, Lyudmyla G; Judge, Sharon; Cruz, Alex; Pourang, Deena; Mathews, Clayton E; Stacpoole, Peter W

    2011-11-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) oxidizes pyruvate to acetyl CoA and is critically important in maintaining normal cellular energy homeostasis. Loss-of-function mutations in PDC give rise to congenital lactic acidosis and to progressive cellular energy failure. However, the subsequent biochemical consequences of PDC deficiency that may contribute to the clinical manifestations of the disorder are poorly understood. We postulated that altered flux through PDC would disrupt mitochondrial electron transport, resulting in oxidative stress. Compared to cells from 4 healthy subjects, primary cultures of skin fibroblasts from 9 patients with variable mutations in the gene encoding the alpha subunit (E1α) of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDA1) demonstrated reduced growth and viability. Superoxide (O(2)(.-)) from the Qo site of complex III of the electron transport chain accumulated in these cells and was associated with decreased activity of manganese superoxide dismutase. The expression of uncoupling protein 2 was also decreased in patient cells, but there were no significant changes in the expression of cellular markers of protein or DNA oxidative damage. The expression of hypoxia transcription factor 1 alpha (HIF1α) also increased in PDC deficient fibroblasts. We conclude that PDC deficiency is associated with an increase in O(2)(.-) accumulation coupled to a decrease in mechanisms responsible for its removal. Increased HIF1α expression may contribute to the increase in glycolytic flux and lactate production in PDC deficiency and, by trans-activating pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, may further suppress residual PDC activity through phosphorylation of the E1α subunit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The chemopreventive properties of chlorogenic acid reveal a potential new role for the microsomal glucose-6-phosphate translocase in brain tumor progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desgagnés Julie

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorogenic acid (CHL, the most potent functional inhibitor of the microsomal glucose-6-phosphate translocase (G6PT, is thought to possess cancer chemopreventive properties. It is not known, however, whether any G6PT functions are involved in tumorigenesis. We investigated the effects of CHL and the potential role of G6PT in regulating the invasive phenotype of brain tumor-derived glioma cells. Results RT-PCR was used to show that, among the adult and pediatric brain tumor-derived cells tested, U-87 glioma cells expressed the highest levels of G6PT mRNA. U-87 cells lacked the microsomal catalytic subunit glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase-α but expressed G6Pase-β which, when coupled to G6PT, allows G6P hydrolysis into glucose to occur in non-glyconeogenic tissues such as brain. CHL inhibited U-87 cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 secretion, two prerequisites for tumor cell invasion. Moreover, CHL also inhibited cell migration induced by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, a potent mitogen for glioblastoma multiform cells, as well as the rapid, S1P-induced extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase phosphorylation potentially mediated through intracellular calcium mobilization, suggesting that G6PT may also perform crucial functions in regulating intracellular signalling. Overexpression of the recombinant G6PT protein induced U-87 glioma cell migration that was, in turn, antagonized by CHL. MMP-2 secretion was also inhibited by the adenosine triphosphate (ATP-depleting agents 2-deoxyglucose and 5-thioglucose, a mechanism that may inhibit ATP-mediated calcium sequestration by G6PT. Conclusion We illustrate a new G6PT function in glioma cells that could regulate the intracellular signalling and invasive phenotype of brain tumor cells, and that can be targeted by the anticancer properties of CHL.

  13. Discovery of ebselen as an inhibitor of Cryptosporidium parvum glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (CpGPI) by high-throughput screening of existing drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltahan, Rana; Guo, Fengguang; Zhang, Haili; Xiang, Lixin; Zhu, Guan

    2018-04-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a water-borne and food-borne apicomplexan pathogen. It is one of the top four diarrheal-causing pathogens in children under the age of five in developing countries, and an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Unlike other apicomplexans, C. parvum lacks Kreb's cycle and cytochrome-based respiration, thus relying mainly on glycolysis to produce ATP. In this study, we characterized the primary biochemical features of the C. parvum glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (CpGPI) and determined its Michaelis constant towards fructose-6-phosphate (K m  = 0.309 mM, V max  = 31.72 nmol/μg/min). We also discovered that ebselen, an organoselenium drug, was a selective inhibitor of CpGPI by high-throughput screening of 1200 known drugs. Ebselen acted on CpGPI as an allosteric noncompetitive inhibitor (IC 50  = 8.33 μM; K i  = 36.33 μM), while complete inhibition of CpGPI activity was not achieved. Ebselen could also inhibit the growth of C. parvum in vitro (EC 50  = 165 μM) at concentrations nontoxic to host cells, albeit with a relatively small in vitro safety window of 4.2 (cytotoxicity TC 50 on HCT-8 cells = 700 μM). Additionally, ebselen might also target other enzymes in the parasite, leading to the parasite growth reduction. Therefore, although ebselen is useful in studying the inhibition of CpGPI enzyme activity, further proof is needed to chemically and/or genetically validate CpGPI as a drug target. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Sequence analysis and molecular characterization of Clonorchis sinensis hexokinase, an unusual trimeric 50-kDa glucose-6-phosphate-sensitive allosteric enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingjin Chen

    Full Text Available Clonorchiasis, which is induced by the infection of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, is highly associated with cholangiocarcinoma. Because the available examination, treatment and interrupting transmission provide limited opportunities to prevent infection, it is urgent to develop integrated strategies to prevent and control clonorchiasis. Glycolytic enzymes are crucial molecules for trematode survival and have been targeted for drug development. Hexokinase of C. sinensis (CsHK, the first key regulatory enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, was characterized in this study. The calculated molecular mass (Mr of CsHK was 50.0 kDa. The obtained recombinant CsHK (rCsHK was a homotrimer with an Mr of approximately 164 kDa, as determined using native PAGE and gel filtration. The highest activity was obtained with 50 mM glycine-NaOH at pH 10 and 100 mM Tris-HCl at pH 8.5 and 10. The kinetics of rCsHK has a moderate thermal stability. Compared to that of the corresponding negative control, the enzymatic activity was significantly inhibited by praziquantel (PZQ and anti-rCsHK serum. rCsHK was homotropically and allosterically activated by its substrates, including glucose, mannose, fructose, and ATP. ADP exhibited mixed allosteric effect on rCsHK with respect to ATP, while inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi displayed net allosteric activation with various allosteric systems. Fructose behaved as a dose-dependent V activator with the substrate glucose. Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P displayed net allosteric inhibition on rCsHK with respect to ATP or glucose with various allosteric systems in a dose-independent manner. There were differences in both mRNA and protein levels of CsHK among the life stages of adult worm, metacercaria, excysted metacercaria and egg of C. sinensis, suggesting different energy requirements during different development stages. Our study furthers the understanding of the biological functions of CsHK and supports the need to screen for small

  15. Sequence Analysis and Molecular Characterization of Clonorchis sinensis Hexokinase, an Unusual Trimeric 50-kDa Glucose-6-Phosphate-Sensitive Allosteric Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingjin; Ning, Dan; Sun, Hengchang; Li, Ran; Shang, Mei; Li, Xuerong; Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Wenjun; Liang, Chi; Li, Wenfang; Mao, Qiang; Li, Ye; Deng, Chuanhuan; Wang, Lexun; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xinbing

    2014-01-01

    Clonorchiasis, which is induced by the infection of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), is highly associated with cholangiocarcinoma. Because the available examination, treatment and interrupting transmission provide limited opportunities to prevent infection, it is urgent to develop integrated strategies to prevent and control clonorchiasis. Glycolytic enzymes are crucial molecules for trematode survival and have been targeted for drug development. Hexokinase of C. sinensis (CsHK), the first key regulatory enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, was characterized in this study. The calculated molecular mass (Mr) of CsHK was 50.0 kDa. The obtained recombinant CsHK (rCsHK) was a homotrimer with an Mr of approximately 164 kDa, as determined using native PAGE and gel filtration. The highest activity was obtained with 50 mM glycine-NaOH at pH 10 and 100 mM Tris-HCl at pH 8.5 and 10. The kinetics of rCsHK has a moderate thermal stability. Compared to that of the corresponding negative control, the enzymatic activity was significantly inhibited by praziquantel (PZQ) and anti-rCsHK serum. rCsHK was homotropically and allosterically activated by its substrates, including glucose, mannose, fructose, and ATP. ADP exhibited mixed allosteric effect on rCsHK with respect to ATP, while inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) displayed net allosteric activation with various allosteric systems. Fructose behaved as a dose-dependent V activator with the substrate glucose. Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) displayed net allosteric inhibition on rCsHK with respect to ATP or glucose with various allosteric systems in a dose-independent manner. There were differences in both mRNA and protein levels of CsHK among the life stages of adult worm, metacercaria, excysted metacercaria and egg of C. sinensis, suggesting different energy requirements during different development stages. Our study furthers the understanding of the biological functions of CsHK and supports the need to screen for small molecule inhibitors

  16. Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Two Malaysian Siblings with Abnormal MRI Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Bee Chin; Mohd Rawi, Rowani; Meinsma, Rutger; Meijer, Judith; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.; van Kuilenburg, André B. P.

    2014-01-01

    Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of the pyrimidine metabolism. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to an accumulation of thymine and uracil and a deficiency of metabolites distal to the catabolic enzyme. The disorder presents with a wide clinical

  17. Dysfunctional TCA-Cycle Metabolism in Glutamate Dehydrogenase Deficient Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Jakob D; Pajęcka, Kamilla; Stridh, Malin H; Skytt, Dorte M; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2015-12-01

    Astrocytes take up glutamate in the synaptic area subsequent to glutamatergic transmission by the aid of high affinity glutamate transporters. Glutamate is converted to glutamine or metabolized to support intermediary metabolism and energy production. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) catalyze the reversible reaction between glutamate and α-ketoglutarate, which is the initial step for glutamate to enter TCA cycle metabolism. In contrast to GDH, AAT requires a concomitant interconversion of oxaloacetate and aspartate. We have investigated the role of GDH in astrocyte glutamate and glucose metabolism employing siRNA mediated knock down (KD) of GDH in cultured astrocytes using stable and radioactive isotopes for metabolic mapping. An increased level of aspartate was observed upon exposure to [U-(13) C]glutamate in astrocytes exhibiting reduced GDH activity. (13) C Labeling of aspartate and TCA cycle intermediates confirmed that the increased amount of aspartate is associated with elevated TCA cycle flux from α-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate, i.e. truncated TCA cycle. (13) C Glucose metabolism was elevated in GDH deficient astrocytes as observed by increased de novo synthesis of aspartate via pyruvate carboxylation. In the absence of glucose, lactate production from glutamate via malic enzyme was lower in GDH deficient astrocytes. In conclusions, our studies reveal that metabolism via GDH serves an important anaplerotic role by adding net carbon to the TCA cycle. A reduction in GDH activity seems to cause the astrocytes to up-regulate activity in pathways involved in maintaining the amount of TCA cycle intermediates such as pyruvate carboxylation as well as utilization of alternate substrates such as branched chain amino acids. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Degtyareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a case of a baby with a severe infant form of very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, a very rare genetic disorder. The basis for the disease is a disorder of mitochondrial β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. Accumulation of acyl-CoA-derived fatty acids causes a toxic effect on the myocardium and cardiac conduction system, liver, skeletal muscles, and other organs. The development of hypoglycemia is typical. Treatment in the acute period involves the immediately ceased delivery of long-chain triglycerides, the provision of the body with medium-chain triglycerides, and the correction of glycemia. In our observation the baby was born at term with a satisfactory condition in a family with a poor history (the first baby had suddenly died at the age of 3,5 months. The disease manifested itself as bradyarrhythmia and cardiac arrest on day 2 of life. The clinical symptom complex also included hepatomegalia, hypoglycemic episodes, lactate acidosis, and elevated blood levels of cytolytic enzymes and creatine phosphokinase. The diagnosis was suspected on the basis of the high blood values of acylcarnitines (primarily C14:1 and verified by a molecular genetic examination. Syndrome therapy and dietotherapy resulted in the abolishment of the abnormality. At the age of 2 years of life, the infant’s physical, motor, mental, and speech development corresponded to his age although he had mild right-sided hemiparesis. Thus, timely therapy determines the favorable prognosis of the disease even in its severe infant forms. 

  19. Kawasaki disease with G6PD deficiency--report of one case and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Hao; Lin, Li-Yan; Yang, Kuender D; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Kuo, Ho-Chang

    2014-06-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis primarily affecting children who are younger than 5 years. The most serious complications are coronary artery aneurysms and sequelae of vasculitis with the subsequent development of coronary artery aneurysm. According to the literature, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) plus high-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) were standard treatment for KD, whereas low-dose aspirin (3-5 mg/kg/day) was used for thrombocytosis in KD via antiplatelet effect. However, aspirin has been reported to have hemolytic potential in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. We report a child with G6PD-deficiency who has KD, and review the literature. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Tissue carnitine homeostasis in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Tokunaga, Chonan; Wendel, Udo; Mayatepek, Ertan; Ijlst, Lodewijk; Vaz, Frederic M.; van Vlies, Naomi; Overmars, Henk; Duran, Marinus; Wijburg, Frits A.; Wanders, Ronald J.; Strauss, Arnold W.

    2005-01-01

    Deficiency of very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) is the most common long-chain fatty acid oxidation defect and presents with heterogeneous clinical manifestations. Accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines and deficiency of free carnitine have often been proposed to play an important

  1. Newborn screening for dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency: Citrulline as a useful analyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane C. Quinonez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency, also known as maple syrup urine disease (MSUD type III, is caused by the deficiency of the E3 subunit of branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (αKGDH, and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH. DLD deficiency variably presents with either a severe neonatal encephalopathic phenotype or a primarily hepatic phenotype. As a variant form of MSUD, it is considered a core condition recommended for newborn screening. The detection of variant MSUD forms has proven difficult in the past with no asymptomatic DLD deficiency patients identified by current newborn screening strategies. Citrulline has recently been identified as an elevated dried blood spot (DBS metabolite in symptomatic patients affected with DLD deficiency. Here we report the retrospective DBS analysis and second-tier allo-isoleucine testing of 2 DLD deficiency patients. We show that an elevated citrulline and an elevated allo-isoleucine on second-tier testing can be used to successfully detect DLD deficiency. We additionally recommend that DLD deficiency be included in the “citrullinemia/elevated citrulline” ACMG Act Sheet and Algorithm.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for This Page Lutfallah C, Wang W, Mason JI, Chang YT, Haider A, Rich B, Castro-Magana ... A, Copeland KC, Chang YT, Lutfallah C, Mason JI. Carriers for type II 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B2) ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000 newborns. It is more common in the Arab population of Gaza, where it affects 1 in ... fetus, resulting in the abnormalities in the external sex organs that occur in 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ...

  4. Modulation of nuclear T3 binding by T3 in a human hepatocyte cell-line (Chang-liver) - T3 stimulation of cell growth but not of malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphatdehydrogenase or 6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, L E; Kristensen, S R; Kvetny, J

    1991-01-01

    The T3 modulation of nuclear T3 binding (NBT3), the T3 effect on cell growth, and the T3 and insulin effects on malic enzyme (ME), glucose-6-phosphat-dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconat-dehydrogenase (G6PD) were studied in a human hepatocyte cell-line (Chang-liver). T3 was bound to a high ...

  5. 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency associated with autism and mental retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanavin, Oivind J; Woldseth, Berit; Jellum, Egil

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency or short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD) is caused by a defect in the degradation pathway of the amino acid L-isoleucine. METHODS: We report a four-year-old mentally retarded Somali boy with autism and a history...... cases with SBCADD, both originating from Somalia and Eritrea, indicating that it is relatively prevalent in this population. Autism has not previously been described with mutations in this gene, thus expanding the clinical spectrum of SBCADD....

  6. 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency associated with autism and mental retardation: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanavin, Øjvind; Woldseth, Berit; Jellum, Egil

    2007-01-01

    previously reported cases with SBCADD, both originating from Somalia and Eritrea, indicating that it is relatively prevalent in this population. Autism has not previously been described with mutations in this gene, thus expanding the clinical spectrum of SBCADD. PMID: 17883863 [PubMed - in process]......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency or short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD) is caused by a defect in the degradation pathway of the amino acid L-isoleucine. METHODS: We report a four-year-old mentally retarded Somali boy with autism...

  7. Enhanced glucose cycling and suppressed de novo synthesis of glucose-6-phosphate result in a net unchanged hepatic glucose output in ob/ob mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandsma, RHJ; Grefhorst, A; van Dijk, TH; van der Sluijs, FH; Hammer, A; Reijngoud, DJ; Kuipers, F

    2004-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis. Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice are hyperinsulinaemic and hyperglycaemic; however, the cause of hyperglycaemia remains largely unknown. Methods. Glucose metabolism in vivo in 9-h fasted ob/ob mice and lean littermates was studied by infusing [U-C-13]-glucose, [2-C-13]-glycerol,

  8. Acquired multiple Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in 10 horses with atypical myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, C M; Dorland, L; Votion, D M; de Sain-van der Velden, M G M; Wijnberg, I D; Wanders, R J A; Spliet, W G M; Testerink, N; Berger, R; Ruiter, J P N; van der Kolk, J H

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess lipid metabolism in horses with atypical myopathy. Urine samples from 10 cases were subjected to analysis of organic acids, glycine conjugates, and acylcarnitines revealing increased mean excretion of lactic acid, ethylmalonic acid, 2-methylsuccinic acid, butyrylglycine, (iso)valerylglycine, hexanoylglycine, free carnitine, C2-, C3-, C4-, C5-, C6-, C8-, C8:1-, C10:1-, and C10:2-carnitine as compared with 15 control horses (12 healthy and three with acute myopathy due to other causes). Analysis of plasma revealed similar results for these predominantly short-chain acylcarnitines. Furthermore, measurement of dehydrogenase activities in lateral vastus muscle from one horse with atypical myopathy indeed showed deficiencies of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (0.66 as compared with 2.27 and 2.48 in two controls), medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (0.36 as compared with 4.31 and 4.82 in two controls) and isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (0.74 as compared with 1.43 and 1.61 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) in two controls). A deficiency of several mitochondrial dehydrogenases that utilize flavin adenine dinucleotide as cofactor including the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases of fatty acid beta-oxidation, and enzymes that degrade the CoA-esters of glutaric acid, isovaleric acid, 2-methylbutyric acid, isobutyric acid, and sarcosine was suspected in 10 out of 10 cases as the possible etiology for a highly fatal and prevalent toxic equine muscle disease similar to the combined metabolic derangements seen in human multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency also known as glutaric acidemia type II.

  9. 2-ethylhydracrylic aciduria in short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korman, Stanley H; Andresen, Brage S; Zeharia, Avraham

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Isolated excretion of 2-methylbutyrylglycine (2-MBG) is the hallmark of short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD), a recently identified defect in the proximal pathway of L-isoleucine oxidation. SBCADD might be underdiagnosed because detection and recognition...

  10. Clinical variability in 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensenauer, Regina; Niederhoff, Helmut; Ruiter, Jos P. N.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Schwab, K. Otfried; Brandis, Matthias; Lehnert, Willy

    2002-01-01

    We report the identification of two new 7-year-old patients with 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, a recently described inborn error of isoleucine metabolism. The defect is localized one step above 3-ketothiolase, resulting in a urinary metabolite pattern similar to that seen

  11. Clinical aspects of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maldegem, B.T.; Wanders, R.J.A.; Wijburg, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. SCADD is biochemically characterized by increased C4-carnitine in plasma and ethylmalonic acid in urine. The diagnosis of SCADD is confirmed by DNA analysis showing

  12. 5FU and oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy in two dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase-deficient patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reerink, O; Mulder, NH; Szabo, BG; Hospers, GAP

    2004-01-01

    Patients with a germline mutation leading to a deficiency of the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) enzyme are at risk from developing severe toxicity on the administration of 5FU-containing chemotherapy. We report on the implications of this inborn genetic error in two patients who received 5FU

  13. Prevalence of Long-Chain 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joost, K; Ounap, K; Zordania, R

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) in the general Estonian population and among patients with symptoms suggestive of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) defects. We collected DNA from a cohort of 1,040 anonymous newborn blo...... prevalence of LCHADD in Estonia would be 1: 91,700....

  14. Myopathy in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholte, H R; Van Coster, R N; de Jonge, P C

    1999-01-01

    was deficient in muscle and fibroblasts, consistent with deficiency of very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD). The gene of this enzyme had a homozygous deletion of three base pairs in exon 9, skipping lysine residue 238. Fibroblasts oxidised myristate, palmitate and oleate at a rate of 129, 62 and 38......A 30-year-old man suffered since the age of 13 years from exercise induced episodes of intense generalised muscle pain, weakness and myoglobinuria. Fasting ketogenesis was low, while blood glucose remained normal. Muscle mitochondria failed to oxidise palmitoylcarnitine. Palmitoyl-CoA dehydrogenase......% of controls. In contrast to patients with cardiac VLCAD deficiency, our patient had no lipid storage, a normal heart function, a higher rate of oleate oxidation in fibroblasts and normal free carnitine in plasma and fibroblasts. 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of muscle showed a normal oxidative...

  15. Dysfunctional TCA-Cycle Metabolism in Glutamate Dehydrogenase Deficient Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Jakob D; Pajęcka, Kamilla; Stridh, Malin H

    2015-01-01

    aminotransferase (AAT) catalyze the reversible reaction between glutamate and α-ketoglutarate, which is the initial step for glutamate to enter TCA cycle metabolism. In contrast to GDH, AAT requires a concomitant interconversion of oxaloacetate and aspartate. We have investigated the role of GDH in astrocyte...... Labeling of aspartate and TCA cycle intermediates confirmed that the increased amount of aspartate is associated with elevated TCA cycle flux from α-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate, i.e. truncated TCA cycle. (13) C Glucose metabolism was elevated in GDH deficient astrocytes as observed by increased de novo...... synthesis of aspartate via pyruvate carboxylation. In the absence of glucose, lactate production from glutamate via malic enzyme was lower in GDH deficient astrocytes. In conclusions, our studies reveal that metabolism via GDH serves an important anaplerotic role by adding net carbon to the TCA cycle...

  16. Evidence of redox imbalance in a patient with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Kaisa Niemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH deficiency is not completely understood. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial pathology, and low reduced glutathione levels have been demonstrated in mice, but no studies have been reported in humans. We report on a patient with SSADH deficiency in whom we found low levels of blood reduced glutathione (GSH, and elevations of dicarboxylic acids in urine, suggestive of possible redox imbalance and/or mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, targeting the oxidative stress axis may be a potential therapeutic approach if our findings are confirmed in other patients.

  17. Identification of the human mitochondrial FAD transporter and its potential role in multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, András N.; Ijlst, Lodewijk; van Roermund, Carlo W. T.; Wijburg, Frits A.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Waterham, Hans R.

    2005-01-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) or glutaric aciduria type II (GAII) is most often caused by mutations in the genes encoding the alpha- or beta-subunit of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETF-DH). Since not all patients have

  18. Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency with adult onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smelt, A H; Poorthuis, B J; Onkenhout, W

    1998-01-01

    Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a severe disorder of mitochondrial beta-oxidation in infants. We report adult onset of attacks of painful rhabdomyolysis. Gas chromatography identified strongly elevated levels of tetradecenoic acid, 14:1(n-9), tetrade......Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a severe disorder of mitochondrial beta-oxidation in infants. We report adult onset of attacks of painful rhabdomyolysis. Gas chromatography identified strongly elevated levels of tetradecenoic acid, 14:1(n-9......), tetradecadienoic acid, 14:2(n-6), and hexadecadienoic acid, 16:2(n-6). Palmitoyl-CoA and behenoyl-CoA dehydrogenase in fibroblasts were deficient. Muscle VLCAD activity was very low. DNA analysis revealed compound heterozygosity for two missense mutations in the VLCAD gene. The relatively mild clinical course may...... be due to residual enzyme activity as a consequence of the two missense mutations. Treatment with L-carnitine and medium chain triglycerides in the diet did not reduce the attacks of rhabdomyolysis....

  19. Gaped deficiency distribution and variants in Saudi Arabia: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hazmi, Mohsen A.F.; Warsy, Arjumand S.

    2001-01-01

    The first report of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Saudi population of the Eastern Province paved the way for extensive investigations to determine the distribution and molecular pathogenesis of G6PD deficiency in Saudis in different parts of the country. During a national study lasting from 1980 to 1993, 24,407 Saudi in 31 different areas of Saudi Arabia screened for G6PD deficiency using spectrophoretic estimation of enzyme activity and electrophoretic separation of the phenotypes. The results in the males and females were separately analyzed and showed a statistically significant difference in the frequency in the male (0.0905) and female (0.041) population (P<0.05). The frequency in the male varied from 0 to 0.398 and in the female from 0 to 0.214. The phenotypes identified included G6PD-A, G6PD-Mediterranean and G6PD-Med-Like with G6PD-B as the normal phenotype in all areas. This study shows that G6PD deficiency is a frequently identified single-gene disorder in Saudi Arabia and G6PD-Mediterranean is the major variant producing the severe deficiency state in this population. (author)

  20. Glucose 6 phosphatase dehydrogenase (G6PD and neurodegenerative disorders: Mapping diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Tiwari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD is a key and rate limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP. The physiological significance of enzyme is providing reduced energy to specific cells like erythrocyte by maintaining co-enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH. There are preponderance research findings that demonstrate the enzyme (G6PD role in the energy balance, and it is associated with blood-related diseases and disorders, primarily the anemia resulted from G6PD deficiency. The X-linked genetic deficiency of G6PD and associated non-immune hemolytic anemia have been studied widely across the globe. Recent advancement in biology, more precisely neuroscience has revealed that G6PD is centrally involved in many neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. The neuroprotective role of the enzyme (G6PD has also been established, as well as the potential of G6PD in oxidative damage and the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS produced in cerebral ischemia. Though G6PD deficiency remains a global health issue, however, a paradigm shift in research focusing the potential of the enzyme in neurological and neurodegenerative disorders will surely open a new avenue in diagnostics and enzyme therapeutics. Here, in this study, more emphasis was made on exploring the role of G6PD in neurological and inflammatory disorders as well as non-immune hemolytic anemia, thus providing diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities.

  1. Review of succinate dehydrogenase-deficient renal cell carcinoma with focus on clinical and pathobiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Kuroda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH-deficient renal cell carcinoma (RCC was first identified in 2004 and has been integrated into the 2016 WHO classification of RCC. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH is an enzyme complex composed of four protein subunits (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. The tumor which presents this enzyme mutation accounts for 0.05 to 0.2% of all renal carcinomas. Multiple tumors may occur in approximately 30% of affected patients. SDHB-deficient RCC is the most frequent, and the tumor histologically consists of cuboidal cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm, vacuolization, flocculent intracytoplasmic inclusion and indistinct cell borders. Ultrastructurally, the tumor contains abundant mitochondria. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells are positive for SDHA, but negative for SDHB in SDHB-, SDHC- and SDHD-deficient RCCs. However, SDHA-deficient RCC shows negativity for both SDHA and SDHB. In molecular genetic analyses, a germline mutation in the SDHB , SDHC or SDHD gene (in keeping with most patients having germline mutations in an SDH gene has been identified in patients with or without a family history of renal tumors, paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma or gastrointestinal stromal tumor. While most tumors are low grade, some tumors may behave in an aggressive fashion, particularly if they are high nuclear grade, and have coagulative necrosis or sarcomatoid differentiation.

  2. 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activity in vitro in lung and kidney of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Toft, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    Weanling rats were fed for 6 months on a diet deficient in essential fatty acids: either fat-free, or with 28% (w/w) partially hydrogenated fish oil. Control rats were fed a diet with 28% (w/w) arachis oil for 6 months. 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activity was determined as initial rates...... of the two groups on diets deficient in essential fatty acids as compared to the control group. No difference was observed in dehydrogenase activity in the kidneys. The dehydrogenase may be of importance for the regulation of the level of endogenous prostaglandins and, thus, a decrease in activity could...

  3. Molecular diagnosis and characterization of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Bross, P; Jensen, T G

    1995-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is the most common defect in mitochondrial beta-oxidation in humans. It is an autosomal recessive disorder which usually presents in infancy. The disease manifests itself in periods of metabolic stress to the beta-oxidation system and may...... of correct enzyme structure, and does not directly affect the catalytically active regions of the enzyme. We find that our diagnostic set up, consisting of an initial testing by the G985 assay, followed by semi-automated sequencing of DNA from those patients who were indicated to be compound heterozygous...

  4. A severe genotype with favourable outcome in very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Touma, E H; Rashed, M S; Vianey-Saban, C

    2001-01-01

    A patient with very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is reported. He had a severe neonatal presentation and cardiomyopathy. He was found to be homozygous for a severe mutation with no residual enzyme activity. Tandem mass spectrometry on dried blood spots revealed increased lo...... chain acylcarnitines. VLCAD enzyme activity was severely decreased to 2% of control levels. Dietary management consisted of skimmed milk supplemented with medium chain triglycerides and L-carnitine. Outcome was good and there was no acute recurrence....

  5. Glucose 6 phosphatase dehydrogenase (G6PD) and neurodegenerative disorders: Mapping diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Manju Tiwari

    2017-01-01

    Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key and rate limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). The physiological significance of enzyme is providing reduced energy to specific cells like erythrocyte by maintaining co-enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). There are preponderance research findings that demonstrate the enzyme (G6PD) role in the energy balance, and it is associated with blood-related diseases and disorders, primarily the anemia resulted f...

  6. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 deficiency alters the gut microbiome response to Western diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jethro S; Opiyo, Monica N; Thomson, Marian; Gharbi, Karim; Seckl, Jonathan R; Heger, Andreas; Chapman, Karen E

    2017-02-01

    The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) interconverts active glucocorticoids and their intrinsically inert 11-keto forms. The type 1 isozyme, 11β-HSD1, predominantly reactivates glucocorticoids in vivo and can also metabolise bile acids. 11β-HSD1-deficient mice show altered inflammatory responses and are protected against the adverse metabolic effects of a high-fat diet. However, the impact of 11β-HSD1 on the composition of the gut microbiome has not previously been investigated. We used high-throughput 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing to characterise the gut microbiome of 11β-HSD1-deficient and C57Bl/6 control mice, fed either a standard chow diet or a cholesterol- and fat-enriched 'Western' diet. 11β-HSD1 deficiency significantly altered the composition of the gut microbiome, and did so in a diet-specific manner. On a Western diet, 11β-HSD1 deficiency increased the relative abundance of the family Bacteroidaceae, and on a chow diet, it altered relative abundance of the family Prevotellaceae Our results demonstrate that (i) genetic effects on host-microbiome interactions can depend upon diet and (ii) that alterations in the composition of the gut microbiome may contribute to the aspects of the metabolic and/or inflammatory phenotype observed with 11β-HSD1 deficiency. © 2017 The authors.

  7. Fulminant lipid storage myopathy due to multiple acyl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Charles H; Felice, Kevin J; Silvers, David; Wu, Qian

    2015-08-01

    The lipid storage myopathies, primary carnitine deficiency, neutral lipid storage disease, and multiple acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD), are progressive disorders that cause permanent weakness. These disorders of fatty acid metabolism and intracellular triglyceride degradation cause marked fat deposition and damage to muscle cells. We describe a rapidly progressive myopathy in a previously healthy 33-year-old woman. Over 4 months, she developed a proximal and axial myopathy associated with diffuse myalgia and dysphagia, ultimately leading to respiratory failure and death. Muscle biopsy showed massive accumulation of lipid. Plasma acylcarnitine and urine organic acid analysis was consistent with MADD. This was confirmed by molecular genetic testing, which revealed 2 pathogenic mutations in the ETFDH gene. This report illustrates a late-onset case of MADD and reviews the differential diagnosis and evaluation of patients with proximal myopathy and excessive accumulation of lipid on muscle biopsy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Ketogenic diet in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency: short- and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofou, Kalliopi; Dahlin, Maria; Hallböök, Tove; Lindefeldt, Marie; Viggedal, Gerd; Darin, Niklas

    2017-03-01

    Our aime was to study the short- and long-term effects of ketogenic diet on the disease course and disease-related outcomes in patients with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency, the metabolic factors implicated in treatment outcomes, and potential safety and compliance issues. Pediatric patients diagnosed with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency in Sweden and treated with ketogenic diet were evaluated. Study assessments at specific time points included developmental and neurocognitive testing, patient log books, and investigator and parental questionnaires. A systematic literature review was also performed. Nineteen patients were assessed, the majority having prenatal disease onset. Patients were treated with ketogenic diet for a median of 2.9 years. All patients alive at the time of data registration at a median age of 6 years. The treatment had a positive effect mainly in the areas of epilepsy, ataxia, sleep disturbance, speech/language development, social functioning, and frequency of hospitalizations. It was also safe-except in one patient who discontinued because of acute pancreatitis. The median plasma concentration of ketone bodies (3-hydroxybutyric acid) was 3.3 mmol/l. Poor dietary compliance was associated with relapsing ataxia and stagnation of motor and neurocognitive development. Results of neurocognitive testing are reported for 12 of 19 patients. Ketogenic diet was an effective and safe treatment for the majority of patients. Treatment effect was mainly determined by disease phenotype and attainment and maintenance of ketosis.

  9. 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency associated with autism and mental retardation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanavin Oivind J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency or short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD is caused by a defect in the degradation pathway of the amino acid L-isoleucine. Methods We report a four-year-old mentally retarded Somali boy with autism and a history of seizures, who was found to excrete increased amounts of 2-methylbutyryl glycine in the urine. The SBCAD gene was examined with sequence analysis. His development was assessed with psychometric testing before and after a trial with low protein diet. Results We found homozygosity for A > G changing the +3 position of intron 3 (c.303+3A > G in the SBCAD gene. Psychometric testing showed moderate mental retardation and behavioral scores within the autistic spectrum. No beneficial effect was detected after 5 months with a low protein diet. Conclusion This mutation was also found in two previously reported cases with SBCADD, both originating from Somalia and Eritrea, indicating that it is relatively prevalent in this population. Autism has not previously been described with mutations in this gene, thus expanding the clinical spectrum of SBCADD.

  10. Severe acute haemolytic anaemia associated with severe methaemoglobinaemia in a G6PD-deficient man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Abdul; Shehadeh, Mohanad; Khirfan, Diala; Jones, Akhnuwhkh

    2018-03-28

    Methaemoglobin is a form of haemoglobin in which the ferrous (Fe 2+ ) ion contained in the iron-porphyrin complex of haem is oxidised to its ferric (Fe 3+ ) state. Methaemoglobinaemia, the presence of methaemoglobin in the blood, is most commonly treated with methylene blue. However, methylene blue cannot be used in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency as it is ineffective in such patients and it can worsen G6PD deficiency haemolysis. We report the case of a 30-year-old man who presented with clinical features of G6PD deficiency-associated haemolysis and was found to have severe methaemoglobinaemia (35%). He was administered blood transfusions and intravenous ascorbic acid. His methaemoglobinaemia resolved within 24 hours. This case demonstrates the successful management of a patient with severe methaemoglobinaemia in the setting of G6PD deficiency haemolysis. Emergency physicians should be aware of the possible co-occurrence of severe methaemoglobinaemia in a patient with G6PD deficiency haemolysis. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Environmental stresses of field growth allow cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient Nicotiana attenuata plants to compensate for their structural deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harleen; Shaker, Kamel; Heinzel, Nicolas; Ralph, John; Gális, Ivan; Baldwin, Ian T

    2012-08-01

    The organized lignocellulosic assemblies of cell walls provide the structural integrity required for the large statures of terrestrial plants. Silencing two CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD) genes in Nicotiana attenuata produced plants (ir-CAD) with thin, red-pigmented stems, low CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity, low lignin contents, and rubbery, structurally unstable stems when grown in the glasshouse (GH). However, when planted into their native desert habitat, ir-CAD plants produced robust stems that survived wind storms as well as the wild-type plants. Despite efficient silencing of NaCAD transcripts and enzymatic activity, field-grown ir-CAD plants had delayed and restricted spread of red stem pigmentation, a color change reflecting blocked lignification by CAD silencing, and attained wild-type-comparable total lignin contents. The rubbery GH phenotype was largely restored when field-grown ir-CAD plants were protected from wind, herbivore attack, and ultraviolet B exposure and grown in restricted rooting volumes; conversely, it was lost when ir-CAD plants were experimentally exposed to wind, ultraviolet B, and grown in large pots in growth chambers. Transcript and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight analysis revealed that these environmental stresses enhanced the accumulation of various phenylpropanoids in stems of field-grown plants; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that the lignin of field-grown ir-CAD plants had GH-grown comparable levels of sinapaldehyde and syringaldehyde cross-linked into their lignins. Additionally, field-grown ir-CAD plants had short, thick stems with normal xylem element traits, which collectively enabled field-grown ir-CAD plants to compensate for the structural deficiencies associated with CAD silencing. Environmental stresses play an essential role in regulating lignin biosynthesis in lignin-deficient plants.

  12. Trace element deficiency and its diagnosis by biochemical criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgessner, M.; Grassmann, E.; Roth, H.P.; Spoerl, R.; Schnegg, A.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of trace element deficiency on growth of rats and dairy cows is demonstrated using zinc and nickel. The effect of copper deficiency on reproductive performance is shown to be associated with increased death rates of pregnant animals and their foetuses. For the diagnosis of suboptimum states of trace element supply, biochemical criteria are needed. The mere analysis of the trace element content of various body tissues may lead to falase diagnoses because of the often slow response to varying intake and because of interactions with other dietary ingredients affecting absorption and metabolic efficiency of utilization. Thus copper deficiency is associated with a decrease in the serum level of both copper and iron, despite adequate iron intake, and simultaneously with an accumulation of iron in the liver of the animal. Enzymes and hormones containing the essential trace element as an integral constituent may serve as biochemical criteria. A sensitive response to zinc intake is exhibited by the activity of the alkaline phosphatase of serum or bones, and by the activity of the pancreatic carboxypeptidase A, all of which show a significant reaction to deficient intake within two to four days, and perhaps by the biopotency of insulin. Ceruloplasmin responds to the supply of copper. Its biosynthesis in the liver is possible only from copper available for this purpose. Thus, the determination of ceruloplasmin may take account of at least part of the copper available to the body for metabolic functions. Among various criteria, the catalase activity in blood may provide additional information on the state of iron supply. Malate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase respond to nickel-deficient intake. Nickel deficiency also involves anaemia due to disorders in iron absorption

  13. L-Cysteine in vitro can restore cellular glutathione and inhibits the expression of cell adhesion molecules in G6PD-deficient monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsanathan, Rajesh; Jain, Sushil K

    2018-04-06

    L-Cysteine is a precursor of glutathione (GSH), a potent physiological antioxidant. Excess glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in African Americans and low levels of L-cysteine diet in Hispanics can contributes to GSH deficiency and oxidative stress. Oxidative stress and monocyte adhesion was considered to be an initial event in the progression of vascular dysfunction and atherosclerosis. However, no previous study has investigated the contribution of GSH/G6PD deficiency to the expression of monocyte adhesion molecules. Using human U937 monocytes, this study examined the effect of GSH/G6PD deficiency and L-cysteine supplementation on monocyte adhesion molecules. G6PD/GSH deficiency induced by either siRNA or inhibitors (6AN/BSO, respectively) significantly (p adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, SELL, ITGB1 and 2); NADPH oxidase (NOX), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MCP-1 were upregulated, and decreases in levels of GSH, and nitric oxide were observed. The expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA levels increased in high glucose, MCP-1 or TNF-α-treated G6PD-deficient compared to G6PD-normal cells. L-Cysteine treatment significantly (p adhesion molecules. Thus, GSH/G6PD deficiency increases susceptibility to monocyte adhesion processes, whereas L-cysteine supplementation can restore cellular GSH/G6PD and attenuates NOX activity and expression of cell adhesion molecules.

  14. G6PD Deficiency in an HIV Clinic Setting in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Julia Z.; Francis, Richard O.; Lerebours Nadal, Leonel E.; Shirazi, Maryam; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Hod, Eldad A.; Jhang, Jeffrey S.; Stotler, Brie A.; Spitalnik, Steven L.; Nicholas, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Because human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receive prophylaxis with oxidative drugs, those with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency may experience hemolysis. However, G6PD deficiency has not been studied in the Dominican Republic, where many individuals have African ancestry. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Dominican HIV-infected patients and to attempt to develop a cost-effective algorithm for identifying such individuals. To this end, histories, chart reviews, and G6PD testing were performed for 238 consecutive HIV-infected adult clinic patients. The overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency (8.8%) was similar in males (9.3%) and females (8.5%), and higher in Haitians (18%) than Dominicans (6.4%; P = 0.01). By logistic regression, three clinical variables predicted G6PD status: maternal country of birth (P = 0.01) and a history of hemolysis (P = 0.01) or severe anemia (P = 0.03). Using these criteria, an algorithm was developed, in which a patient subset was identified that would benefit most from G6PD screening, yielding a sensitivity of 94.7% and a specificity of 97.2%, increasing the pretest probability (8.8–15.1%), and halving the number of patients needing testing. This algorithm may provide a cost-effective strategy for improving care in resource-limited settings. PMID:26240158

  15. Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 deficiency inhibits PPARγ-mediated bone loss and marrow adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallamshetty, Shriram; Le, Phuong T; Wang, Hong; Issacsohn, Maya J; Reeder, David J; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kiefer, Florian W; Brown, Jonathan D; Rosen, Clifford J; Plutzky, Jorge

    2014-10-01

    PPARγ, a ligand-activated nuclear receptor, regulates fundamental aspects of bone homeostasis and skeletal remodeling. PPARγ-activating anti-diabetic thiazolidinediones in clinical use promote marrow adiposity, bone loss, and skeletal fractures. As such, delineating novel regulatory pathways that modulate the action of PPARγ, and its obligate heterodimeric partner RXR, may have important implications for our understanding and treatment of disorders of low bone mineral density. We present data here establishing retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1) and its substrate retinaldehyde (Rald) as novel determinants of PPARγ-RXR actions in the skeleton. When compared to wild type (WT) controls, retinaldehyde dehydrogenase-deficient (Aldh1a1(-/-)) mice were protected against bone loss and marrow adiposity induced by either the thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone or a high fat diet, both of which potently activate the PPARγ-RXR complex. Consistent with these results, Rald, which accumulates in vivo in Aldh1a1(-/-) mice, protects against rosiglitazone-mediated inhibition of osteoblastogenesis in vitro. In addition, Rald potently inhibits in vitro adipogenesis and osteoclastogenesis in WT mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) respectively. Primary Aldh1a1(-/-) HSCs also demonstrate impaired osteoclastogenesis in vitro compared to WT controls. Collectively, these findings identify Rald and retinoid metabolism through Aldh1a1 as important novel modulators of PPARγ-RXR transactivation in the marrow niche. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Parental Experiences of Raising a Child With Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Piercy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Newborn screening enabling early diagnosis of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD has dramatically improved health outcomes in children with MCADD. Achieving those outcomes depends on effective management by parents. Understanding parental management strategies and associated anxieties and concerns is needed to inform provision of appropriate care and support. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of parents of children aged 2 to 12 years. Thematic analysis identified two main themes. Managing dietary intake examined how parents managed day-to-day dietary intake to ensure adequate intake and protection of safe fasting intervals. Managing and preventing illness events explored parental experiences of managing illness events and their approach to preventing these events. Management strategies were characterized by caution and vigilance and influenced by a lack of confidence in others to manage the condition. The study identifies the need for increased awareness of the condition, particularly in relation to emergency treatment.

  17. Altered Energetics of Exercise Explain Risk of Rhabdomyolysis in Very Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, E. F.; Visser, G.; Schmitz, J. P. J.; Nievelstein, R. A. J.; de Sain-van der Velden, M.; Wardrop, M.; van der Pol, W. L.; Houten, S. M.; van Riel, N. A. W.; Takken, T.; Jeneson, J. A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is common in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) and other metabolic myopathies, but its pathogenic basis is poorly understood. Here, we show that prolonged bicycling exercise against a standardized moderate workload in VLCADD patients is associated with

  18. Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency and early-onset liver cirrhosis in two siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maldergem, L.; Tuerlinckx, D.; Wanders, R. J.; Vianey-Saban, C.; van Hoof, F.; Martin, J. J.; Fourneau, C.; Gillerot, Y.; Bachy, A.

    2000-01-01

    We present the clinical, pathological, biochemical, and molecular results on an infant girl with long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency and data on her deceased elder brother for whom this condition was retrospectively diagnosed. Clinical signs were liver enlargement and

  19. A mild phenotype of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency and developmental retardation associated with a missense mutation affecting cofactor binding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weidensee, Sabine; Goettig, Peter; Bertone, Marko; Haas, Dorothea; Magdolen, Viktor; Kiechle, Marion; Meindl, Alfons; van Kuilenburg, André B. P.; Gross, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of a non-synonymous mutation associated with dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency. DPD enzyme analysis, mutation analysis and molecular dynamics simulations based on the 3D-model of DPD. The substitution Lys63Glu is likely to affect the FAD binding pocket within the DPD

  20. Delayed diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with salt wasting due to type II 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Trine H; Mallet, Delphine; Dige-Petersen, Harriet

    2005-01-01

    Classical 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) deficiency is a rare cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. We report two sisters presenting with delayed diagnoses of classical 3beta-HSD, despite salt wasting (SW) episodes in infancy. Sibling 1 was referred for premature pubarche, slig...

  1. Neonatal pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency due to a R302H mutation in the PDHA1 gene: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares-Fernandes, Joao P.; Ribeiro, Manuel; Magalhaes, Zita; Rocha, Jaime F.; Teixeira-Gomes, Roseli; Cruz, Romeu; Leijser, Lara M.

    2008-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency is one of the most common causes of congenital lactic acidosis. Correlations between the genetic defect and neuroimaging findings are lacking. We present conventional and diffusion-weighted MRI findings in a 7-day-old male neonate with PDH deficiency due to a mosaicism for the R302H mutation in the PDHA1 gene. Corpus callosum dysgenesis, widespread increased diffusion in the white matter, and bilateral subependymal cysts were the main features. Although confirmation of PDH deficiency depends on specialized biochemical analyses, neonatal MRI plays a role in evaluating the pattern and extent of brain damage, and potentially in early diagnosis and clinical decision making. (orig.)

  2. Deficiency of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 induces BMP2 and increases bone mass in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriram Nallamshetty

    Full Text Available The effects of retinoids, the structural derivatives of vitamin A (retinol, on post-natal peak bone density acquisition and skeletal remodeling are complex and compartment specific. Emerging data indicates that retinoids, such as all trans retinoic acid (ATRA and its precursor all trans retinaldehyde (Rald, exhibit distinct and divergent transcriptional effects in metabolism. Despite these observations, the role of enzymes that control retinoid metabolism in bone remains undefined. In this study, we examined the skeletal phenotype of mice deficient in retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1, the enzyme responsible for converting Rald to ATRA in adult animals. Bone densitometry and micro-computed tomography (µCT demonstrated that Aldh1a1-deficient (Aldh1a1(-/- female mice had higher trabecular and cortical bone mass compared to age and sex-matched control C57Bl/6 wild type (WT mice at multiple time points. Histomorphometry confirmed increased cortical bone thickness and demonstrated significantly higher bone marrow adiposity in Aldh1a1(-/- mice. In serum assays, Aldh1a1(-/- mice also had higher serum IGF-1 levels. In vitro, primary Aldh1a1(-/- mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs expressed significantly higher levels of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2 and demonstrated enhanced osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis versus WT MSCs. BMP2 was also expressed at higher levels in the femurs and tibias of Aldh1a1(-/- mice with accompanying induction of BMP2-regulated responses, including expression of Runx2 and alkaline phosphatase, and Smad phosphorylation. In vitro, Rald, which accumulates in Aldh1a1(-/- mice, potently induced BMP2 in WT MSCs in a retinoic acid receptor (RAR-dependent manner, suggesting that Rald is involved in the BMP2 increases seen in Aldh1a1 deficiency in vivo. Collectively, these data implicate Aldh1a1 as a novel determinant of cortical bone density and marrow adiposity in the skeleton in vivo through modulation of BMP signaling.

  3. Deficiency of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 induces BMP2 and increases bone mass in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallamshetty, Shriram; Wang, Hong; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kiefer, Florian W; Brown, Jonathan D; Lotinun, Sutada; Le, Phuong; Baron, Roland; Rosen, Clifford J; Plutzky, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The effects of retinoids, the structural derivatives of vitamin A (retinol), on post-natal peak bone density acquisition and skeletal remodeling are complex and compartment specific. Emerging data indicates that retinoids, such as all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and its precursor all trans retinaldehyde (Rald), exhibit distinct and divergent transcriptional effects in metabolism. Despite these observations, the role of enzymes that control retinoid metabolism in bone remains undefined. In this study, we examined the skeletal phenotype of mice deficient in retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1), the enzyme responsible for converting Rald to ATRA in adult animals. Bone densitometry and micro-computed tomography (µCT) demonstrated that Aldh1a1-deficient (Aldh1a1(-/-) ) female mice had higher trabecular and cortical bone mass compared to age and sex-matched control C57Bl/6 wild type (WT) mice at multiple time points. Histomorphometry confirmed increased cortical bone thickness and demonstrated significantly higher bone marrow adiposity in Aldh1a1(-/-) mice. In serum assays, Aldh1a1(-/-) mice also had higher serum IGF-1 levels. In vitro, primary Aldh1a1(-/-) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressed significantly higher levels of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and demonstrated enhanced osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis versus WT MSCs. BMP2 was also expressed at higher levels in the femurs and tibias of Aldh1a1(-/-) mice with accompanying induction of BMP2-regulated responses, including expression of Runx2 and alkaline phosphatase, and Smad phosphorylation. In vitro, Rald, which accumulates in Aldh1a1(-/-) mice, potently induced BMP2 in WT MSCs in a retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-dependent manner, suggesting that Rald is involved in the BMP2 increases seen in Aldh1a1 deficiency in vivo. Collectively, these data implicate Aldh1a1 as a novel determinant of cortical bone density and marrow adiposity in the skeleton in vivo through modulation of BMP signaling.

  4. Primaquine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deficiency (a genetic condition), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (a genetic condition), or if you or someone ... eye drops, creams, patches, and inhalers) are not child-resistant and young children can open them easily. ...

  5. Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim (Bactrim or Septra) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition known as glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD deficiency). However, it is not always necessary to stop ... may affect a man’s ability to father a child. There are no studies looking at risk for ...

  6. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines for rasburicase therapy in the context of G6PD deficiency genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relling, M V; McDonagh, E M; Chang, T; Caudle, K E; McLeod, H L; Haidar, C E; Klein, T; Luzzatto, L

    2014-08-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is associated with development of acute hemolytic anemia (AHA) induced by a number of drugs. We provide guidance as to which G6PD genotypes are associated with G6PD deficiency in males and females. Rasburicase is contraindicated in G6PD-deficient patients due to the risk of AHA and possibly methemoglobinemia. Unless preemptive genotyping has established a positive diagnosis of G6PD deficiency, quantitative enzyme assay remains the mainstay of screening prior to rasburicase use. The purpose of this article is to help interpret the results of clinical G6PD genotype tests so that they can guide the use of rasburicase. Detailed guidelines on other aspects of the use of rasburicase, including analyses of cost-effectiveness, are beyond the scope of this document. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines are published and updated periodically on https://www.pharmgkb.org/page/cpic to reflect new developments in the field.

  7. Pancreatic injury in hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice after subchronic exposure to ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Wu Hai; Boor, Paul J.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatitis caused by activation of digestive zymogens in the exocrine pancreas is a serious chronic health problem in alcoholic patients. However, mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis remains obscure due to lack of a suitable animal model. Earlier, we reported pancreatic injury and substantial increases in endogenous formation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH - ) deer mice fed 4% ethanol. To understand the mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis, we evaluated dose-dependent metabolism of ethanol and related pancreatic injury in ADH - and hepatic ADH-normal (ADH + ) deer mice fed 1%, 2% or 3.5% ethanol via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet daily for 2 months. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was remarkably increased and the concentration was ∼ 1.5-fold greater in ADH - vs. ADH + deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. At the end of the experiment, remarkable increases in pancreatic FAEEs and significant pancreatic injury indicated by the presence of prominent perinuclear space, pyknotic nuclei, apoptotic bodies and dilation of glandular ER were found only in ADH - deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. This pancreatic injury was further supported by increased plasma lipase and pancreatic cathepsin B (a lysosomal hydrolase capable of activating trypsinogen), trypsinogen activation peptide (by-product of trypsinogen activation process) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (endoplasmic reticulum stress marker). These findings suggest that ADH-deficiency and high alcohol levels in the body are the key factors in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury. Therefore, determining how this early stage of pancreatic injury advances to inflammation stage could be important for understanding the mechanism(s) of alcoholic pancreatitis.

  8. Cobalt deficiency effects on trace elements, hormones and enzymes involved in energy metabolism of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangl, G I; Schwarz, F J; Kirchgessner, M

    1999-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the physiological consequences of long-term moderate cobalt deficiency in beef cattle, which have not hitherto been studied in detail. Cobalt deficiency was induced in cattle by feeding two groups of animals either a basal corn silage-based diet that was moderately low in cobalt (83 micrograms Co/kg), or the same diet supplemented with cobalt to a total of 200 micrograms per kg, for 43 weeks. Cobalt deficiency was induced, as judged by inappetance, diminished growth gain and a markedly reduced vitamin B12 status in serum and liver. The long-term cobalt deprivation which was primarily a combination of reduced feed intake and a tissue vitamin B12 deficiency did not show evidence of a significant dysfunction of energy metabolism. The activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase in liver remained unaffected by cobalt deficiency, nor was there a significant change in serum glucose level of cattle on the cobalt-deprived diet. However, analysis of thyroid hormone status indicated a slight reduction of type I thyroxine monodeiodinase activity in liver accompanied by a significant reduction of the triiodothyronine level in serum. The diminished liver vitamin B12 level resulted in significantly reduced folate level in this tissue, reduced concentrations of heme-depending blood parameters. Moreover cobalt deficiency or rather vitamin B12 deficiency was accompanied by a dramatic accumulation of the trace elements iron and nickel in liver. These results indicate that long-term moderate cobalt deficiency may induce a number of physiological changes in cattle, but a follow-up study, which excluded different feed levels by including a pair-fed control group, will be necessary to actually obtain the single effect of cobalt deficiency in cattle.

  9. Severe sensory neuropathy in patients with adult-onset multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoxia; Hong, Daojun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Wurong; Shi, Xin; Zhao, Danhua; Yang, Xu; Lv, He; Yuan, Yun

    2016-02-01

    Multiple Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation. Most patients with late-onset MADD are clinically characterized by lipid storage myopathy with dramatic responsiveness to riboflavin treatment. Abnormalities of peripheral neuropathy have rarely been reported in patients with late-onset MADD. We describe six patients who presented with proximal limb weakness and loss of sensation in the distal limbs. Muscle biopsy revealed typical myopathological patterns of lipid storage myopathy and blood acylcarnitine profiles showed a combined elevation of multiple acylcarnitines supporting the diagnosis of MADD. However, nerve conduction investigations and sural nerve biopsies in these patients indicated severe axonal sensory neuropathy. Causative ETFDH gene mutations were found in all six cases. No other causative gene mutations were identified in mitochondrial DNA and genes associated with hereditary neuropathies through next-generation-sequencing panel. Late-onset patients with ETFDH mutations can present with proximal muscle weakness and distal sensory neuropathy, which might be a new phenotypic variation, but the precise underlying pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Molecular characterization of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, N; Andresen, B S; Bross, P

    1991-01-01

    . All clones sequenced from the patient exhibited a single base substitution from adenine (A) to guanine (G) at position 985 in the MCAD cDNA as the only consistent base-variation compared with control cDNA. In contrast, the parents contained cDNA with the normal and the mutated sequence, revealing......A series of experiments has established the molecular defect in the medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase (MCAD) gene in a family with MCAD deficiency. Demonstration of intra-mitochondrial mature MCAD indistinguishable in size (42.5-kDa) from control MCAD, and of mRNA with the correct...... size of 2.4 kb, indicated a point-mutation in the coding region of the MCAD gene to be disease-causing. Consequently, cloning and DNA sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified complementary DNA (cDNA) from messenger RNA of fibroblasts from the patient and family members were performed...

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of universal newborn screening for medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in France

    OpenAIRE

    Hamers, Françoise F; Rumeau-Pichon, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Five diseases are currently screened on dried blood spots in France through the national newborn screening programme. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is a technology that is increasingly used to screen newborns for an increasing number of hereditary metabolic diseases. Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is among these diseases. We sought to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of introducing MCADD screening in France. Methods We developed a decision model t...

  12. Clear correlation of genotype with disease phenotype in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Olpin, S; Poorthuis, B J

    1999-01-01

    Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) catalyzes the initial rate-limiting step in mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation. VLCAD deficiency is clinically heterogenous, with three major phenotypes: a severe childhood form, with early onset, high mortality, and high incidence of cardiomyop......Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) catalyzes the initial rate-limiting step in mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation. VLCAD deficiency is clinically heterogenous, with three major phenotypes: a severe childhood form, with early onset, high mortality, and high incidence...... of cardiomyopathy; a milder childhood form, with later onset, usually with hypoketotic hypoglycemia as the main presenting feature, low mortality, and rare cardiomyopathy; and an adult form, with isolated skeletal muscle involvement, rhabdomyolysis, and myoglobinuria, usually triggered by exercise or fasting......-phenotype relationship is in sharp contrast to what has been observed in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, in which no correlation between genotype and phenotype can be established....

  13. Is GERD a Factor in Osteonecrosis of the Jaw? Evidence of Pathology Linked to G6PD Deficiency and Sulfomucins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Seneff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ, a rare side effect of bisphosphonate therapy, is a debilitating disorder with a poorly understood etiology. FDA’s Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS provides the opportunity to investigate this disease. Our goals were to analyze FAERS data to discover possible relationships between ONJ and specific conditions and drugs and then to consult the scientific literature to deduce biological explanations. Our methodology revealed a very strong association between gastroesophageal reflux and bisphosphonate-induced ONJ, suggesting acidosis as a key factor. Overgrowth of acidophilic species, particularly Streptococcus mutans, in the oral microbiome in the context of insufficient acid buffering due to impaired salivary glands maintains the low pH that sustains damage to the mucosa. Significant associations between ONJ and adrenal insufficiency, vitamin C deficiency, and Sjögren’s syndrome were found. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency can explain much of the pathology. An inability to maintain vitamin C and other antioxidants in the reduced form leads to vascular oxidative damage and impaired adrenal function. Thus, pathogen-induced acidosis, hypoxia, and insufficient antioxidant defenses together induce ONJ. G6PD deficiency and adrenal insufficiency are underlying factors. Impaired supply of adrenal-derived sulfated sterols such as DHEA sulfate may drive the disease process.

  14. G6PD deficiency in Latin America: systematic review on prevalence and variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Wuelton M; Val, Fernando FA; Siqueira, André M; Franca, Gabriel P; Sampaio, Vanderson S; Melo, Gisely C; Almeida, Anne CG; Brito, Marcelo AM; Peixoto, Henry M; Fuller, Douglas; Bassat, Quique; Romero, Gustavo AS; Maria Regina F, Oliveira; Marcus Vinícius G, Lacerda

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax radical cure requires the use of primaquine (PQ), a drug that induces haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (G6PDd) individuals, which further hampers malaria control efforts. The aim of this work was to study the G6PDd prevalence and variants in Latin America (LA) and the Caribbean region. A systematic search of the published literature was undertaken in August 2013. Bibliographies of manuscripts were also searched and additional references were identified. Low prevalence rates of G6PDd were documented in Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay, but studies from Curaçao, Ecuador, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, Suriname and Trinidad, as well as some surveys carried out in areas of Brazil, Colombia and Cuba, have shown a high prevalence (> 10%) of G6PDd. The G6PD A-202A mutation was the variant most broadly distributed across LA and was identified in 81.1% of the deficient individuals surveyed. G6PDd is a frequent phenomenon in LA, although certain Amerindian populations may not be affected, suggesting that PQ could be safely used in these specific populations. Population-wide use of PQ as part of malaria elimination strategies in LA cannot be supported unless a rapid, accurate and field-deployable G6PDd diagnostic test is made available. PMID:25141282

  15. G6PD deficiency in Latin America: systematic review on prevalence and variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuelton M Monteiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax radical cure requires the use of primaquine (PQ, a drug that induces haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (G6PDd individuals, which further hampers malaria control efforts. The aim of this work was to study the G6PDd prevalence and variants in Latin America (LA and the Caribbean region. A systematic search of the published literature was undertaken in August 2013. Bibliographies of manuscripts were also searched and additional references were identified. Low prevalence rates of G6PDd were documented in Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay, but studies from Curaçao, Ecuador, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, Suriname and Trinidad, as well as some surveys carried out in areas of Brazil, Colombia and Cuba, have shown a high prevalence (> 10% of G6PDd. The G6PD A-202A mutation was the variant most broadly distributed across LA and was identified in 81.1% of the deficient individuals surveyed. G6PDd is a frequent phenomenon in LA, although certain Amerindian populations may not be affected, suggesting that PQ could be safely used in these specific populations. Population-wide use of PQ as part of malaria elimination strategies in LA cannot be supported unless a rapid, accurate and field-deployable G6PDd diagnostic test is made available.

  16. G6PD deficiency in Latin America: systematic review on prevalence and variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Wuelton M; Val, Fernando F A; Siqueira, André M; Franca, Gabriel P; Sampaio, Vanderson S; Melo, Gisely C; Almeida, Anne C G; Brito, Marcelo A M; Peixoto, Henry M; Fuller, Douglas; Bassat, Quique; Romero, Gustavo A S; Maria Regina F, Oliveira; Marcus Vinícius G, Lacerda

    2014-08-01

    Plasmodium vivax radical cure requires the use of primaquine (PQ), a drug that induces haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient (G6PDd) individuals, which further hampers malaria control efforts. The aim of this work was to study the G6PDd prevalence and variants in Latin America (LA) and the Caribbean region. A systematic search of the published literature was undertaken in August 2013. Bibliographies of manuscripts were also searched and additional references were identified. Low prevalence rates of G6PDd were documented in Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay, but studies from Curaçao, Ecuador, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, Suriname and Trinidad, as well as some surveys carried out in areas of Brazil, Colombia and Cuba, have shown a high prevalence (> 10%) of G6PDd. The G6PD A-202A mutation was the variant most broadly distributed across LA and was identified in 81.1% of the deficient individuals surveyed. G6PDd is a frequent phenomenon in LA, although certain Amerindian populations may not be affected, suggesting that PQ could be safely used in these specific populations. Population-wide use of PQ as part of malaria elimination strategies in LA cannot be supported unless a rapid, accurate and field-deployable G6PDd diagnostic test is made available.

  17. The effect of altered lignin composition on mechanical properties of CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD) deficient poplars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özparpucu, Merve; Gierlinger, Notburga; Burgert, Ingo; Van Acker, Rebecca; Vanholme, Ruben; Boerjan, Wout; Pilate, Gilles; Déjardin, Annabelle; Rüggeberg, Markus

    2018-04-01

    CAD-deficient poplars enabled studying the influence of altered lignin composition on mechanical properties. Severe alterations in lignin composition did not influence the mechanical properties. Wood represents a hierarchical fiber-composite material with excellent mechanical properties. Despite its wide use and versatility, its mechanical behavior has not been entirely understood. It has especially been challenging to unravel the mechanical function of the cell wall matrix. Lignin engineering has been a useful tool to increase the knowledge on the mechanical function of lignin as it allows for modifications of lignin content and composition and the subsequent studying of the mechanical properties of these transgenics. Hereby, in most cases, both lignin composition and content are altered and the specific influence of lignin composition has hardly been revealed. Here, we have performed a comprehensive micromechanical, structural, and spectroscopic analysis on xylem strips of transgenic poplar plants, which are downregulated for cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) by a hairpin-RNA-mediated silencing approach. All parameters were evaluated on the same samples. Raman microscopy revealed that the lignin of the hpCAD poplars was significantly enriched in aldehydes and reduced in the (relative) amount of G-units. FTIR spectra indicated pronounced changes in lignin composition, whereas lignin content was not significantly changed between WT and the hpCAD poplars. Microfibril angles were in the range of 18°-24° and were not significantly different between WT and transgenics. No significant changes were observed in mechanical properties, such as tensile stiffness, ultimate stress, and yield stress. The specific findings on hpCAD poplar allowed studying the specific influence of lignin composition on mechanics. It can be concluded that the changes in lignin composition in hpCAD poplars did not affect the micromechanical tensile properties.

  18. Different Routes for Conifer- and Sinapaldehyde and Higher Saccharification upon Deficiency in the Dehydrogenase CAD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Rebecca; Déjardin, Annabelle; Desmet, Sandrien; Hoengenaert, Lennart; Vanholme, Ruben; Morreel, Kris; Laurans, Françoise; Kim, Hoon; Santoro, Nicholas; Foster, Cliff; Goeminne, Geert; Légée, Frédéric; Lapierre, Catherine; Pilate, Gilles; Ralph, John; Boerjan, Wout

    2017-11-01

    In the search for renewable energy sources, genetic engineering is a promising strategy to improve plant cell wall composition for biofuel and bioproducts generation. Lignin is a major factor determining saccharification efficiency and, therefore, is a prime target to engineer. Here, lignin content and composition were modified in poplar ( Populus tremula × Populus alba ) by specifically down-regulating CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE1 ( CAD1 ) by a hairpin-RNA-mediated silencing approach, which resulted in only 5% residual CAD1 transcript abundance. These transgenic lines showed no biomass penalty despite a 10% reduction in Klason lignin content and severe shifts in lignin composition. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and thioacidolysis revealed a strong increase (up to 20-fold) in sinapaldehyde incorporation into lignin, whereas coniferaldehyde was not increased markedly. Accordingly, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based phenolic profiling revealed a more than 24,000-fold accumulation of a newly identified compound made from 8-8 coupling of two sinapaldehyde radicals. However, no additional cinnamaldehyde coupling products could be detected in the CAD1-deficient poplars. Instead, the transgenic lines accumulated a range of hydroxycinnamate-derived metabolites, of which the most prominent accumulation (over 8,500-fold) was observed for a compound that was identified by purification and nuclear magnetic resonance as syringyl lactic acid hexoside. Our data suggest that, upon down-regulation of CAD1 , coniferaldehyde is converted into ferulic acid and derivatives, whereas sinapaldehyde is either oxidatively coupled into S'(8-8)S' and lignin or converted to sinapic acid and derivatives. The most prominent sink of the increased flux to hydroxycinnamates is syringyl lactic acid hexoside. Furthermore, low-extent saccharification assays, under different pretreatment conditions, showed strongly increased glucose (up to +81%) and

  19. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN G6PD DEFICIENCY AND TOTAL SERUM BILIRUBIN LEVEL IN ICTERIC NEONATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Behjati-Ardakani

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available "nGlucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most important disease of the hexose monophosphate pathway. Deficiency of this enzym can lead to hemolysis of red blood cells. Our aim was to study the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in relation to neonatal jaundice. We studied 456 clinically icteric neonates Laboratory investigations included determination of direct and indirect serum bilirubin concentrations, blood group typing, direct coomb's test, hemoglobin, blood smear, reticulocyte count and G6PD level. We divided these neonates to 3 groups based on total serum bilirubin level (TSB: TSB< 20 mg%, TSB=20-25 mg%, and TSB>25 mg%. In only 35 (7.6% of cases G6PD deficiency was diagnosed. All of these babies were male. From 456 icteric neonates, 213 cases belong to group 1 (TSB<20 mg%, 158 cases belong to group 2 (TSB=20-25 mg% and 85 cases belong to group 3 (TSB>25 mg%. 16 neonates from 213 neonates of group 1, 6 neonates from 158 neonates of group 2 and 13 neonates from 85 neonates of group 3 had G6PD deficiency. There was statistically significant difference of prevalence of G6PD deficiency between group 2 and 3 ( 15.3% vs 3.8%( P = 0.001. Between groups 1 vs 2 and 1 vs 3 no statistically significant difference was found. Early detection of this enzymopathy regardless of sex and close surveillance of the affected newborns may be important in reducing the risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia. This emphasizes the necessity of neonatal screening on cord blood samples for G6PD deficiency.

  20. Dabrafenib

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have ever had diabetes; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (a genetic condition); bleeding problems; eye problems; heart, ... pregnant, or if you plan to father a child. You or your partner should not become pregnant ...

  1. Short-chain Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: studies in a large family adding to the complexity of the disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bok, Levinus A.; Vreken, Peter; Wijburg, Frits A.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Gregersen, Niels; Corydon, Morten J.; Waterham, Hans R.; Duran, Marinus

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To understand the expanding clinical and biochemical spectrum of short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency, the impact of which is not fully understood. STUDY DESIGN: We studied a family with SCAD deficiency and determined urinary ethylmalonic acid excretion, plasma

  2. A case of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency with low density areas in white matter noticed by CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Akiko; Kyoya, Seizo; Matsushima, Akihiro; Irimichi, Hideki; Koike, Yoshiko.

    1985-01-01

    The patient was a 4-month-old boy, the first child of healthy, non-consanguineous patient. He was mildly asphyxiated at birth and developed severe convulsions at two days of age. At 4 months of age, he was referred to us because of infantile spasms and motor retardation. The EEG showed hypsarhythmia, ACTH and anticonvulsants were started, but his seizures were not controlled completely. At 8 months of age, the CT scan demonstrated a cerebral atrophy with enlarged ventricles and a diffuse low density of cerebral white matter, and lactic acidosis was first noticed. The glucose, glucagon, fructose, and alanine tolerance tests revealed almost normal responses in blood glucose levels and elevation of lactate levels above the initial value. Enzyme studies revealed a severe deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and pyruvate dehydrogenase (E 1 ), and a normal activity of pyruvate carboxylase in liver obtained by biopsy. In biopsied muscle, mitochondria appeared normal. Treatment with thiamine, lipoic acid and anticonvulsants was not effective. The clinical picture of PDC deficiency has been correlated with the amount of the residual activity, and this case confirmed to the ''severe'' category. Several pathologic entities may be associated with PDHC deficiency, and CT findings in our case demonstrated the demyelinating condition. The precise relationship between the defect and the pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. (author)

  3. Comparative genomics of aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 (succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase and accumulation of gamma-hydroxybutyrate associated with its deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaspina Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH; aldehyde dehydrogenase 5A1 [ALDH5A1]; locus 6p22 occupies a central position in central nervous system (CNS neurotransmitter metabolism as one of two enzymes necessary for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA recycling from the synaptic cleft. Its importance is highlighted by the neurometabolic disease associated with its inherited deficiency in humans, as well as the severe epileptic phenotype observed in Aldh5a1-/- knockout mice. Expanding evidence now suggests, however, that even subtle decreases in human SSADH activity, associated with rare and common single nucleotide polymorphisms, may produce subclinical pathological effects. SSADH, in conjunction with aldo-keto reductase 7A2 (AKR7A2, represent two neural enzymes responsible for further catabolism of succinic semialdehyde, producing either succinate (SSADH or γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB; AKR7A2. A GABA analogue, GHB is a short-chain fatty alcohol with unusual properties in the CNS and a long pharmacological history. Moreover, SSADH occupies a further role in the CNS as the enzyme responsible for further metabolism of the lipid peroxidation aldehyde 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, an intermediate known to induce oxidant stress. Accordingly, subtle decreases in SSADH activity may have the capacity to lead to regional accumulation of neurotoxic intermediates (GHB, 4-HNE. Polymorphisms in SSADH gene structure may also associate with quantitative traits, including intelligence quotient and life expectancy. Further population-based studies of human SSADH activity promise to reveal additional properties of its function and additional roles in CNS tissue.

  4. Misfolding, degradation, and aggregation of variant proteins. The molecular pathogenesis of short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christina Bak; Bross, P.; Winter, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    and aggregation of variant SCAD proteins. In this study we investigated the processing of a set of disease-causing variant SCAD proteins (R22W, G68C, W153R, R359C, and Q341H) and two common variant proteins (R147W and G185S) that lead to reduced SCAD activity. All SCAD proteins, including the wild type, associate...... proteolytic degradation by mitochondrial proteases or, especially at elevated temperature, aggregation of non-native conformers. The latter finding may indicate that accumulation of aggregated SCAD proteins may play a role in the pathogenesis of SCAD deficiency.......Short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency is an inborn error of the mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism caused by rare variations as well as common susceptibility variations in the SCAD gene. Earlier studies have shown that a common variant SCAD protein (R147W) was impaired in folding...

  5. Prevalence of G6PD deficiency in selected populations from two previously high malaria endemic areas of Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmini Gunawardena

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD enzyme deficiency is known to offer protection against malaria and an increased selection of mutant genes in malaria endemic regions is expected. However, anti-malarial drugs such as primaquine can cause haemolytic anaemia in persons with G6PD deficiency. We studied the extent of G6PD deficiency in selected persons attending Teaching Hospitals of Anuradhapura and Kurunegala, two previously high malaria endemic districts in Sri Lanka. A total of 2059 filter-paper blood spots collected between November 2013 and June 2014 were analysed for phenotypic G6PD deficiency using the modified WST-8/1-methoxy PMS method. Each assay was conducted with a set of controls and the colour development assessed visually as well as with a microplate reader at OD450-630nm. Overall, 142/1018 (13.95% and 83/1041 (7.97% were G6PD deficient in Anuradhapura and Kurunegala districts respectively. The G6PD prevalence was significantly greater in Anuradhapura when compared to Kurunegala (P0.05. Severe deficiency (<10% normal was seen among 28/1018 (2.75% in Anuradhapura (7 males; 21 females and 17/1041 (1.63% in Kurunegala (7 males; 10 females. Enzyme activity between 10-30% was observed among 114/1018 (11.20%; 28 males; 86 females in Anuradhapura while it was 66/1041 (6.34%; 18 males; 48 females in Kurunegala. Screening and educational programmes for G6PD deficiency are warranted in these high risk areas irrespective of gender for the prevention of disease states related to this condition.

  6. Proteins Differentially Expressed in the Pancreas of Hepatic Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Deficient Deer Mice Fed Ethanol For 3 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopale, Kamlesh K; Amer, Samir M; Kaphalia, Lata; Soman, Kizhake V; Wiktorowicz, John E; Shakeel Ansari, Ghulam A; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed proteins in the pancreatic tissue of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice fed ethanol to understand metabolic basis and mechanism of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Mice were fed liquid diet containing 3.5 g% ethanol daily for 3 months, and differentially expressed pancreatic proteins were identified by protein separation using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identification by mass spectrometry. Nineteen differentially expressed proteins were identified by applying criteria established for protein identification in proteomics. An increased abundance was found for ribosome-binding protein 1, 60S ribosomal protein L31-like isoform 1, histone 4, calcium, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding proteins and the proteins involved in antiapoptotic processes and endoplasmic reticulum function, stress, and/or homeostasis. Low abundance was found for endoA cytokeratin, 40S ribosomal protein SA, amylase 2b isoform precursor, serum albumin, and ATP synthase subunit β and the proteins involved in cell motility, structure, and conformation. Chronic ethanol feeding in alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice differentially expresses pancreatic functional and structural proteins, which can be used to develop biomarker(s) of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, particularly amylase 2b precursor, and 60 kDa heat shock protein and those involved in ATP synthesis and blood osmotic pressure.

  7. Identification of isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase and its deficiency in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tien V; Andresen, Brage S; Corydon, Thomas J

    2002-01-01

    -CoA dehydrogenase. A single patient has previously been described whose fibroblasts exhibit a specific deficit in the oxidation of valine. Amplified ACAD8 cDNA made from patient fibroblast mRNA was homozygous for a single nucleotide change (905G>A) in the ACAD8 coding region compared to the sequence from control...... in a patient....

  8. Possible association of 3' UTR +357 A>G, IVS11-nt 93 T>C, c.1311 C>T polymorphism with G6PD deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirdah, Mahmoud M; Shubair, Mohammad E; Al-Kahlout, Mustafa S; Al-Tayeb, Jamal M; Prchal, Josef T; Reading, N Scott

    2017-07-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common X-linked inherited enzymopathic disorder affecting more than 500 million people worldwide. It has so far been linked to 217 distinct genetic variants in the exons and exon-intron boundaries of the G6PD gene, giving rise to a wide range of biochemical heterogeneity and clinical manifestations. Reports from different settings suggested the association of intronic and other mutations outside the reading frame of the G6PD gene with reduced enzyme activity and presenting clinical symptoms. The present study aimed to investigate any association of other variations apart of the exonic or exonic intronic boundaries in the development of G6PD deficiency. Sixty-seven unrelated Palestinian children admitted to the pediatric hospital with hemolytic crises due to G6PD deficiency were studied. In our Palestinian cohort of 67 [59 males (M) and 8 females (F)] G6PD-deficient children, previously hospitalized for acute hemolytic anemia due to favism, molecular sequencing of the G6PD gene revealed four cases (3M and 1F) that did not have any of the variants known to cause G6PD deficiency, but the 3' UTR c.*+357A>G (rs1050757) polymorphism in association with IVS 11 (c.1365-13T>C; rs2071429), and c.1311C>T (rs2230037). We now provide an additional evidence form Palestinian G6PD-deficient subjects for a possible role of 3' UTR c.*+357 A>G, c.1365-13T>C, and/or c.1311C>T polymorphism for G6PD deficiency, suggesting that not only a single variation in the exonic or exonic intronic boundaries, but also a haplotype of G6PD should considered as a cause for G6PD deficiency.

  9. Patients with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency have impaired oxidation of fat during exercise but no effect of L-carnitine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K L; Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C

    2013-01-01

    It is not clear to what extent skeletal muscle is affected in patients with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD). l-Carnitine is commonly used as a supplement in patients with MCADD, although its beneficial effect has not been verified.......It is not clear to what extent skeletal muscle is affected in patients with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD). l-Carnitine is commonly used as a supplement in patients with MCADD, although its beneficial effect has not been verified....

  10. Equine acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) in 14 horses associated with ingestion of Maple leaves (Acer pseudoplatanus) covered with European tar spot (Rhytisma acerinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kolk, J H; Wijnberg, I D; Westermann, C M; Dorland, L; de Sain-van der Velden, M G M; Kranenburg, L C; Duran, M; Dijkstra, J A; van der Lugt, J J; Wanders, R J A; Gruys, E

    2010-01-01

    This case-series describes fourteen horses suspected of equine acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) also known as atypical myopathy of which seven cases were confirmed biochemically with all horses having had access to leaves of the Maple tree (Acer pseudoplatanus) covered with European tar spot (Rhytisma acerinum). Assessment of organic acids, glycine conjugates, and acylcarnitines in urine was regarded as gold standard in the biochemical diagnosis of equine acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Different Routes for Conifer- and Sinapaldehyde and Higher Saccharification upon Deficiency in the Dehydrogenase CAD1

    OpenAIRE

    Van Acker, Rebecca; Dejardin, Annabelle; Desmet, Sandrien; Hoengenaert, Lennart; Vanholme, Ruben; Morreel, Kris; Laurans, Françoise; Kim, Hoon; Santoro, Nicholas; Foster, Cliff; Goeminne, Geert; Legée, Frédéric; Lapierre, Catherine; Pilate, Gilles; Ralph, John

    2017-01-01

    In the search for renewable energy sources, genetic engineering is a promising strategy to improve plant cell wall composition for biofuel and bioproducts generation. Lignin is a major factor determining saccharification efficiency and, therefore, is a prime target to engineer. Here, lignin content and composition were modified in poplar (Populus tremula 3 Populus alba) by specifically down-regulating CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE1 (CAD1) by a hairpin-RNA-mediated silencing approach, which r...

  12. Specific combination of compound heterozygous mutations in 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 (HSD17B4 defines a new subtype of D-bifunctional protein deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMillan Hugh J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background D-bifunctional protein (DBP deficiency is typically apparent within the first month of life with most infants demonstrating hypotonia, psychomotor delay and seizures. Few children survive beyond two years of age. Among patients with prolonged survival all demonstrate severe gross motor delay, absent language development, and severe hearing and visual impairment. DBP contains three catalytically active domains; an N-terminal dehydrogenase, a central hydratase and a C-terminal sterol carrier protein-2-like domain. Three subtypes of the disease are identified based upon the domain affected; DBP type I results from a combined deficiency of dehydrogenase and hydratase activity; DBP type II from isolated hydratase deficiency and DBP type III from isolated dehydrogenase deficiency. Here we report two brothers (16½ and 14 years old with DBP deficiency characterized by normal early childhood followed by sensorineural hearing loss, progressive cerebellar and sensory ataxia and subclinical retinitis pigmentosa. Methods and results Biochemical analysis revealed normal levels of plasma VLCFA, phytanic acid and pristanic acid, and normal bile acids in urine; based on these results no diagnosis was made. Exome analysis was performed using the Agilent SureSelect 50Mb All Exon Kit and the Illumina HiSeq 2000 next-generation-sequencing (NGS platform. Compound heterozygous mutations were identified by exome sequencing and confirmed by Sanger sequencing within the dehydrogenase domain (c.101C>T; p.Ala34Val and hydratase domain (c.1547T>C; p.Ile516Thr of the 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 gene (HSD17B4. These mutations have been previously reported in patients with severe-forms of DBP deficiency, however each mutation was reported in combination with another mutation affecting the same domain. Subsequent studies in fibroblasts revealed normal VLCFA levels, normal C26:0 but reduced pristanic acid beta-oxidation activity. Both DBP

  13. Environmental Stresses of Field Growth Allow Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Deficient Nicotiana attenuata Plants to Compensate for their Structural Deficiencies1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harleen; Shaker, Kamel; Heinzel, Nicolas; Ralph, John; Gális, Ivan; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2012-01-01

    The organized lignocellulosic assemblies of cell walls provide the structural integrity required for the large statures of terrestrial plants. Silencing two CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD) genes in Nicotiana attenuata produced plants (ir-CAD) with thin, red-pigmented stems, low CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity, low lignin contents, and rubbery, structurally unstable stems when grown in the glasshouse (GH). However, when planted into their native desert habitat, ir-CAD plants produced robust stems that survived wind storms as well as the wild-type plants. Despite efficient silencing of NaCAD transcripts and enzymatic activity, field-grown ir-CAD plants had delayed and restricted spread of red stem pigmentation, a color change reflecting blocked lignification by CAD silencing, and attained wild-type-comparable total lignin contents. The rubbery GH phenotype was largely restored when field-grown ir-CAD plants were protected from wind, herbivore attack, and ultraviolet B exposure and grown in restricted rooting volumes; conversely, it was lost when ir-CAD plants were experimentally exposed to wind, ultraviolet B, and grown in large pots in growth chambers. Transcript and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight analysis revealed that these environmental stresses enhanced the accumulation of various phenylpropanoids in stems of field-grown plants; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that the lignin of field-grown ir-CAD plants had GH-grown comparable levels of sinapaldehyde and syringaldehyde cross-linked into their lignins. Additionally, field-grown ir-CAD plants had short, thick stems with normal xylem element traits, which collectively enabled field-grown ir-CAD plants to compensate for the structural deficiencies associated with CAD silencing. Environmental stresses play an essential role in regulating lignin biosynthesis in lignin-deficient plants. PMID:22645069

  14. In vitro modeling of experimental succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD using brain-derived neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara R Vogel

    Full Text Available We explored the utility of neural stem cells (NSCs as an in vitro model for evaluating preclinical therapeutics in succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase-deficient (SSADHD mice. NSCs were obtained from aldh5a1+/+ and aldh5a1-/- mice (aldh5a1 = aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 = SSADH. Multiple parameters were evaluated including: (1 production of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyrate, the biochemical hallmark of SSADHD; (2 rescue from cell death with the dual mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitor, XL-765, an agent previously shown to rescue aldh5a1-/- mice from premature lethality; (3 mitochondrial number, total reactive oxygen species, and mitochondrial superoxide production, all previously documented as abnormal in aldh5a1-/- mice; (4 total ATP levels and ATP consumption; and (5 selected gene expression profiles associated with epilepsy, a prominent feature in both experimental and human SSADHD. Patterns of dysfunction were observed in all of these parameters and mirrored earlier findings in aldh5a1-/- mice. Patterns of dysregulated gene expression between hypothalamus and NSCs centered on ion channels, GABAergic receptors, and inflammation, suggesting novel pathomechanisms as well as a developmental ontogeny for gene expression potentially associated with the murine epileptic phenotype. The NSC model of SSADHD will be valuable in providing a first-tier screen for centrally-acting therapeutics and prioritizing therapeutic concepts of preclinical animal studies applicable to SSADHD.

  15. Late-onset 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency with virilization induced by a large ovarian cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, U; Eberlein-Gonska, M; Benz, G; Haack, D; Otto, H F

    1993-01-01

    A midpubertal girl presented with secondary amenorrhea and a rapidly progressive deepening of her voice as the only signs of virilization. Diagnostic work-up yielded an extremely elevated plasma testosterone (289 ng/dl), low estradiol (29 pg/ml) levels and a large solitary cyst of the right ovary, which was totally removed. Pathohistology was in keeping with a granulosa cyst with mild luteinization. Normalization of testosterone (to 27.3 ng/dl) and estradiol (to 62 pg/ml) and resumption of regular menses after 2 months clearly indicated an autonomous function of the cyst. A malignant tumor was unequivocally excluded. Basal and ACTH stimulated levels of adrenal androgens pointed to a late-onset 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency, which per se is known to induce polycystic ovarian changes, but to date has never been described to be accompanied with a large and autonomous follicular cyst.

  16. Mice deficient in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 lack bone marrow adipocytes, but maintain normal bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jeannette; Mosekilde, Lis; Holmes, Megan

    2004-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) exert potent, but poorly characterized, effects on the skeleton. The cellular activity of GCs is regulated at a prereceptor level by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11betaHSDs). The type 1 isoform, which predominates in bone, functions as a reductase in intact cells...... and regenerates active cortisol (corticosterone) from circulating inert 11-keto forms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of this intracrine activation of GCs on normal bone physiology in vivo using mice deficient in 11betaHSD1 (HSD1(-/-)). The HSD1(-/-) mice exhibited no significant changes...... in cortical or trabecular bone mass compared with wild-type (Wt) mice. Aged HSD1(-/-) mice showed age-related bone loss similar to that observed in Wt mice. Histomorphometric analysis showed similar bone formation and bone resorption parameters in HSD1(-/-) and Wt mice. However, examination of bone marrow...

  17. Hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase-α deficiency leads to metabolic reprogramming in glycogen storage disease type Ia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jun-Ho; Kim, Goo-Young; Mansfield, Brian C; Chou, Janice Y

    2018-04-15

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) is caused by a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC), a key enzyme in endogenous glucose production. This autosomal recessive disorder is characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis and long-term complications of hepatocellular adenoma/carcinoma (HCA/HCC). We have shown that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency-mediated steatosis leads to defective autophagy that is frequently associated with carcinogenesis. We now show that hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency also leads to enhancement of hepatic glycolysis and hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS) that can contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis. The enhanced hepatic glycolysis is reflected by increased lactate accumulation, increased expression of many glycolytic enzymes, and elevated expression of c-Myc that stimulates glycolysis. The increased HMS is reflected by increased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and elevated production of NADPH and the reduced glutathione. We have previously shown that restoration of hepatic G6Pase-α expression in G6Pase-α-deficient liver corrects metabolic abnormalities, normalizes autophagy, and prevents HCA/HCC development in GSD-Ia. We now show that restoration of hepatic G6Pase-α expression normalizes both glycolysis and HMS in GSD-Ia. Moreover, the HCA/HCC lesions in L-G6pc-/- mice exhibit elevated levels of hexokinase 2 (HK2) and the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) which play an important role in aerobic glycolysis and cancer cell proliferation. Taken together, hepatic G6Pase-α deficiency causes metabolic reprogramming, leading to enhanced glycolysis and elevated HMS that along with impaired autophagy can contribute to HCA/HCC development in GSD-Ia. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Genetic Basis for Correction of Very‐Long‐Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Deficiency by Bezafibrate in Patient Fibroblasts: Toward a Genotype‐Based Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobin‐Limballe, S.; Djouadi, F.; Aubey, F.

    2007-01-01

    Very‐long‐chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is an inborn mitochondrial fatty‐acid β‐oxidation (FAO) defect associated with a broad mutational spectrum, with phenotypes ranging from fatal cardiopathy in infancy to adolescent‐onset myopathy, and for which there is no established...

  19. Effects of two mutations detected in medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)-deficient patients on folding, oligomer assembly, and stability of MCAD enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bross, P; Jespersen, C; Jensen, T G

    1995-01-01

    We have used expression of human medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) in Escherichia coli as a model system for dissecting the molecular effects of two mutations detected in patients with MCAD deficiency. We demonstrate that the R28C mutation predominantly affects polypeptide folding...

  20. Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide Status and the Effects of High-Dose Riboflavin Treatment in Short-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maldegem, Bianca T.; Duran, Marinus; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Waterham, Hans R.; Wijburg, Frits A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) is an inborn error, biochemically characterized by increased plasma butyrylcarnitine (C4-C) concentration and increased ethylmalonic acid (EMA) excretion and caused by rare mutations and/or common gene variants in the SCAD encoding gene. Although

  1. Equine acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) in 14 horses associated with ingestion of Maple leaves (Acer pseudoplatanus) covered with European tar spot (Rhytisma acerinum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kolk, J. H.; Wijnberg, I. D.; Westermann, C. M.; Dorland, L.; de Sain-van der Velden, M. G. M.; Kranenburg, L. C.; Duran, M.; Dijkstra, J. A.; van der Lugt, J. J.; Wanders, R. J. A.; Gruys, E.

    2010-01-01

    This case-series describes fourteen horses suspected of equine acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) also known as atypical myopathy of which seven cases were confirmed biochemically with all horses having had access to leaves of the Maple tree (Acer pseudoplatanus) covered with

  2. 17Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 deficiency: diagnosis, phenotypic variability, population genetics, and worldwide distribution of ancient and de novo mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L.M. Boehmer (Annemie); D.J.J. Halley (Dicky); P.E. de Ruiter (Petra); M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus); S. Andersson (Stefan); F.H. de Jong (Frank); H.H. Bode (Hans); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); H. Kayserili (Hülya); M.A. de Vroede; C. Rodrigues (Cidade); B.J. Otten (Barto); B.B. Mendonça (Berenice); H.A. Delemarre-van de Waal (Henriette); C.W. Rouwé (Catrienus); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert); L.A. Sandkuijl (Lodewijk)

    1999-01-01

    textabstract17Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 (17betaHSD3) deficiency is an autosomal recessive form of male pseudohermaphroditism caused by mutations in the HSD17B3 gene. In a nationwide study on male pseudohermaphroditism among all pediatric endocrinologists and

  3. 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 deficiency : Diagnosis, phenotypic variability, population genetics, and worldwide distribution of ancient and de novo mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boehmer, ALM; Brinkmann, AO; Sandkuijl, LA; Halley, DJJ; Niermeijer, MF; Andersson, S; de Jong, FH; Kayserili, H; de Vroede, MA; Otten, BJ; Rouwe, CW; Mendonca, BB; Rodrigues, C; Bode, HH; de Ruiter, PE; Delemarre-van de Waal, HA; Drop, SLS

    1999-01-01

    17 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 (17 beta HSD3) deficiency is an autosomal recessive form of male pseudohermaphroditism caused by mutations in the HSD17B3 gene. In a nationwide study on male pseudohermaphroditism among all pediatric endocrinologists and clinical geneticists in The Netherlands,

  4. Glucose 6-phosphate compartmentation and the control of glycogen synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Alfred

    2002-01-01

    Using adenovirus-mediated gene transfer into FTO-2B cells, a rat hepatoma cell line, we have overexpressed hexokinase I, (HK I), glucokinase (GK), liver glycogen synthase (LGS), muscle glycogen synthase (MGS), and combinations of each of the two glucose phosphorylating enzymes with each one of the

  5. Genetics Home Reference: short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unclear why some people with SBCAD deficiency develop health problems and others do not. Doctors suggest that in some cases, signs and symptoms may be triggered by infections, prolonged periods without food (fasting), or an increased amount of protein-rich foods ...

  6. A case of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency with status epilepticus and rapid regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horino, Asako; Kawawaki, Hisashi; Fukuoka, Masataka; Tsuji, Hitomi; Hattori, Yuka; Inoue, Takeshi; Nukui, Megumi; Kuki, Ichiro; Okazaki, Shin; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka; Hirose, Shinichi

    2016-10-01

    Clinical phenotypic expression of SSADH deficiency is highly heterogeneous, and some infants may develop refractory secondary generalized seizures. A 9-month-old boy manifested partial seizures, developing severe status epilepticus, and conventional antiepileptic drugs were ineffective. Use of ketamine contributed to the control of status epilepticus, achieving a reduction in frequency of partial seizures, and improving EEG findings without apparent complications. Diffusion-weighted images showed hyperintensities in the bilateral basal ganglia and fornix, and multiple T2 hyperintensity lesions were detected. (123)I-iomazenil (IMZ) SPECT revealed a decrease in binding of (123)I-iomazenil predominantly in the left temporal region by the 18th day of hospitalization. However, repeated IMZ-SPECT on the 46th day of hospitalization demonstrated almost no accumulation across a broad region, sparing the left temporal region. The patient showed rapid regression, refractory myoclonus, and severe progressive brain atrophy. IMZ-SPECT findings demonstrated reduced benzodiazepine receptor binding and its dynamic changes in an SSADH-deficient patient. Considering the down regulation of the GABAA receptor, ketamine should be included in pharmacotherapeutic strategies for treatment of refractory status epilepticus in SSADH-deficient patients. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Krebs cycle metabolite profiling for identification and stratification of pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas due to succinate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Susan; Peitzsch, Mirko; Rapizzi, Elena; Lenders, Jacques W; Qin, Nan; de Cubas, Aguirre A; Schiavi, Francesca; Rao, Jyotsna U; Beuschlein, Felix; Quinkler, Marcus; Timmers, Henri J; Opocher, Giuseppe; Mannelli, Massimo; Pacak, Karel; Robledo, Mercedes; Eisenhofer, Graeme

    2014-10-01

    Mutations of succinate dehydrogenase A/B/C/D genes (SDHx) increase susceptibility to development of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs), with particularly high rates of malignancy associated with SDHB mutations. We assessed whether altered succinate dehydrogenase product-precursor relationships, manifested by differences in tumor ratios of succinate to fumarate or other metabolites, might aid in identifying and stratifying patients with SDHx mutations. PPGL tumor specimens from 233 patients, including 45 with SDHx mutations, were provided from eight tertiary referral centers for mass spectrometric analyses of Krebs cycle metabolites. Diagnostic performance of the succinate:fumarate ratio for identification of pathogenic SDHx mutations. SDH-deficient PPGLs were characterized by 25-fold higher succinate and 80% lower fumarate, cis-aconitate, and isocitrate tissue levels than PPGLs without SDHx mutations. Receiver-operating characteristic curves for use of ratios of succinate to fumarate or to cis-aconitate and isocitrate to identify SDHx mutations indicated areas under curves of 0.94 to 0.96; an optimal cut-off of 97.7 for the succinate:fumarate ratio provided a diagnostic sensitivity of 93% at a specificity of 97% to identify SDHX-mutated PPGLs. Succinate:fumarate ratios were higher in both SDHB-mutated and metastatic tumors than in those due to SDHD/C mutations or without metastases. Mass spectrometric-based measurements of ratios of succinate:fumarate and other metabolites in PPGLs offer a useful method to identify patients for testing of SDHx mutations, with additional utility to quantitatively assess functionality of mutations and metabolic factors responsible for malignant risk.

  8. Krebs cycle metabolite profiling for identification and stratification of pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas due to succinate dehydrogenase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, S; Peitzsch, M.; Rapizzi, E.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Qin, N.; Cubas, A.A. de; Schiavi, F.; Rao, J.U.; Beuschlein, F.; Quinkler, M.; Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Opocher, G.; Mannelli, M.; Pacak, K.; Robledo, M.; Eisenhofer, G.

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Mutations of succinate dehydrogenase A/B/C/D genes (SDHx) increase susceptibility to development of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs), with particularly high rates of malignancy associated with SDHB mutations. OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether altered succinate dehydrogenase

  9. 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency in the Mediterranean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosler, Ariel

    2006-08-01

    Eighty-five males with 17 beta-HSD3 were identified among a highly inbred Arab population in Israel and 57 studied over a period of 25 years. The founders of this defect originated in the mountainous regions of present Lebanon and Syria, but most of the families now live in Jerusalem, Hebron, the Tel-Aviv area and, in particular, in Gaza, where the frequency of affected males is estimated at 1 in 100 to 150. Affected individuals are born with ambiguity of the external genitalia and reared as females until puberty. Thereafter marked virilization occurs, leading in many cases to the spontaneous adoption of a male gender identity and role. Adults develop a male habitus with abundant body hair and beard and the phallus and testes enlarge to adult proportions. Gender reassignment in infancy was only possible when enough erectile tissue was present at birth and developed into a normal size penis with testosterone. 17 beta-HSD3 deficiency can be reliably diagnosed by endocrine evaluation and mutation analysis. In adults the defect is characterized by markedly increased concentrations of androstenedione (A) with borderline low to normal testosterone (T) levels and a high A/T ratio. 5a-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentrations are moderately decreased, normal or high and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels are high. The estrogen pathway is also impaired, even though both estrone (E-1) and estradiol-17 beta (E-2) levels are high. Children have low basal levels of all androgens, but the defect may be demonstrated after prolonged stimulation with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). LH and FSH levels are very high after puberty and normal in childhood. 17 beta-HSD3 isozyme is encoded by the chromosome 9q22 17 beta-HSD3 gene and expressed exclusively in testes. A point mutation in exon 3, codon 80 of the 17 beta-HSD3 gene, R80Q, caused by a single base substitution from CGG ( arginine) to CAG ( glutamine) was identified in both alleles of 24 individuals from 9 extended Arab

  10. Short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency due to an IVS3+3A>G mutation that causes exon skipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Pia Pinholt

    2006-01-01

    Short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of L: -isoleucine catabolism. Little is known about the clinical presentation associated with this enzyme defect, as it has been reported in only a limited number of patients. Because the presence...... is relevant to the interpretation of the functional consequences of this type of mutation in other disease genes....

  11. Recombinant human G6PD for quality control and quality assurance of novel point-of-care diagnostics for G6PD deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kahn

    Full Text Available A large gap for the support of point-of-care testing is the availability of reagents to support quality control (QC of diagnostic assays along the supply chain from the manufacturer to the end user. While reagents and systems exist to support QC of laboratory screening tests for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency, they are not configured appropriately to support point-of-care testing. The feasibility of using lyophilized recombinant human G6PD as a QC reagent in novel point-of-care tests for G6PD deficiency is demonstrated.Human recombinant G6PD (r-G6PD was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Aliquots were stored at -80°C. Prior to lyophilization, aliquots were thawed, and three concentrations of r-G6PD (representing normal, intermediate, and deficient clinical G6PD levels were prepared and mixed with a protective formulation, which protects the enzyme activity against degradation from denaturation during the lyophilization process. Following lyophilization, individual single-use tubes of lyophilized r-G6PD were placed in individual packs with desiccants and stored at five temperatures for one year. An enzyme assay for G6PD activity was used to ascertain the stability of r-G6PD activity while stored at different temperatures.Lyophilized r-G6PD is stable and can be used as a control indicator. Results presented here show that G6PD activity is stable for at least 365 days when stored at -80°C, 4°C, 30°C, and 45°C. When stored at 55°C, enzyme activity was found to be stable only through day 28.Lyophilized r-G6PD enzyme is stable and can be used as a control for point-of-care tests for G6PD deficiency.

  12. Diagnostic performances of the fluorescent spot test for G6PD deficiency in newborns along the Thailand-Myanmar border: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielemans, Laurence; Gornsawun, Gornpan; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Paw, Moo Kho; Porn, Pen; Moo, Paw Khu; Van Overmeire, Bart; Proux, Stephane; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose; Carrara, Verena I; Bancone, Germana

    2018-01-01

    Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an inherited enzymatic disorder associated with severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and acute haemolysis after exposure to certain drugs or infections. The disorder can be diagnosed phenotypically with a fluorescent spot test (FST), which is a simple test that requires training and basic laboratory equipment. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic performances of the FST used on umbilical cord blood by locally-trained staff and to compare test results of the neonates at birth with the results after one month of age. Methods : We conducted a cohort study on newborns at the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, along the Thai-Myanmar border between January 2015 and May 2016. The FST was performed at birth on the umbilical cord blood by locally-trained staff and quality controlled by specialised technicians at the central laboratory. The FST was repeated after one month of age. Genotyping for common local G6PD mutations was carried out for all discrepant results. Results: FST was performed on 1521 umbilical cord blood samples. Quality control and genotyping revealed 10 misdiagnoses. After quality control, 10.7% of the males (84/786) and 1.2% of the females (9/735) were phenotypically G6PD deficient at birth. The FST repeated at one month of age or later diagnosed 8 additional G6PD deficient infants who were phenotypically normal at birth. Conclusions : This study shows the short-comings of the G6PD FST in neonatal routine screening and highlights the importance of training and quality control. A more conservative interpretation of the FST in male newborns could increase the diagnostic performances. Quantitative point-of-care tests might show higher sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of G6PD deficiency on umbilical cord blood and should be investigated.

  13. Diagnostic performances of the fluorescent spot test for G6PD deficiency in newborns along the Thailand-Myanmar border: A cohort study [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Thielemans

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is an inherited enzymatic disorder associated with severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and acute haemolysis after exposure to certain drugs or infections. The disorder can be diagnosed phenotypically with a fluorescent spot test (FST, which is a simple test that requires training and basic laboratory equipment. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic performances of the FST used on umbilical cord blood by locally-trained staff and to compare test results of the neonates at birth with the results after one month of age. Methods: We conducted a cohort study on newborns at the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, along the Thai-Myanmar border between January 2015 and May 2016. The FST was performed at birth on the umbilical cord blood by locally-trained staff and quality controlled by specialised technicians at the central laboratory. The FST was repeated after one month of age. Genotyping for common local G6PD mutations was carried out for all discrepant results. Results: FST was performed on 1521 umbilical cord blood samples. Quality control and genotyping revealed 10 misdiagnoses. After quality control, 10.7% of the males (84/786 and 1.2% of the females (9/735 were phenotypically G6PD deficient at birth. The FST repeated at one month of age or later diagnosed 8 additional G6PD deficient infants who were phenotypically normal at birth. Conclusions: This study shows the short-comings of the G6PD FST in neonatal routine screening and highlights the importance of training and quality control. A more conservative interpretation of the FST in male newborns could increase the diagnostic performances. Quantitative point-of-care tests might show higher sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of G6PD deficiency on umbilical cord blood and should be investigated.

  14. Metabolism of excised embryos of Lupinus luteus L. VI. An electrophoretic analysis of some dehydrogenases in cultured embryos as compared with the normal seedling axes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czosnowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrophoretic patterns (disc electrophoresis of the studied dehydrogenases: glucose-6-phosphate - (A, malate - (B, glutamate - (C, alcohol - (D and lactate dehydrogenase (E, in the axial organs of isolated Lupinus luteus embryos and seedlings cultivated over 12 days are characterized by great similarities. With time, after the third day of cultivation the patterns begin to become less deyeloped. Analyses performed during the first 10 hours of imbibition of seed parts indicate that the maximal development of isozyme patterns occurs during the third hour after which the patterns become poorer. The most uniform type of pattern. and the lowest number of isozymes was shown by glutamate dehydrogenase, the richest pattern was shown by malate dehydrogenase. No band common for a 11 the 27 experimental elements was found.

  15. Long-term outcome of isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency diagnosed following an episode of ketotic hypoglycaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Santra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Isobutyryl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (IBDD is an inherited disorder of valine metabolism caused by mutations in ACAD8. Most reported patients have been diagnosed through newborn screening programmes due to elevated C4-carnitine levels and appear clinically asymptomatic. One reported non-screened patient had dilated cardiomyopathy and anaemia at the age of two years. We report a 13 month old girl diagnosed with IBDD after developing hypoglycaemic encephalopathy (blood glucose 1.9 mmol/l during an episode of rotavirus-induced gastroenteritis. Metabolic investigations demonstrated an appropriate ketotic response (free fatty acids 2594 μmol/l, 3-hydroxybutyrate 3415 μmol/l, mildly elevated plasma lactate (3.4 mmol/l, increased C4-carnitine on blood spot and plasma acylcarnitine analysis and other metabolic abnormalities secondary to ketosis. After recovery, C4-carnitine remained increased and isobutyrylglycine was detected on urine organic acid analysis. Free carnitine was normal in all acylcarnitine samples. IBDD was confirmed by finding a homozygous c.845C > T substitution in ACAD8. The patient was given, but has not used, a glucose polymer emergency regimen and after ten years' follow-up has had no further episodes of hypoglycaemia nor has she developed cardiomyopathy or anaemia. Psychomotor development has been normal to date. Though we suspect IBDD did not contribute to hypoglycaemia in this patient, patients should be followed-up carefully and glucose polymer emergency regimens may be indicated if recurrent episodes of hypoglycaemia occur.

  16. Different Routes for Conifer- and Sinapaldehyde and Higher Saccharification upon Deficiency in the Dehydrogenase CAD11[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurans, Françoise; Foster, Cliff; Légée, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    In the search for renewable energy sources, genetic engineering is a promising strategy to improve plant cell wall composition for biofuel and bioproducts generation. Lignin is a major factor determining saccharification efficiency and, therefore, is a prime target to engineer. Here, lignin content and composition were modified in poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba) by specifically down-regulating CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE1 (CAD1) by a hairpin-RNA-mediated silencing approach, which resulted in only 5% residual CAD1 transcript abundance. These transgenic lines showed no biomass penalty despite a 10% reduction in Klason lignin content and severe shifts in lignin composition. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and thioacidolysis revealed a strong increase (up to 20-fold) in sinapaldehyde incorporation into lignin, whereas coniferaldehyde was not increased markedly. Accordingly, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based phenolic profiling revealed a more than 24,000-fold accumulation of a newly identified compound made from 8-8 coupling of two sinapaldehyde radicals. However, no additional cinnamaldehyde coupling products could be detected in the CAD1-deficient poplars. Instead, the transgenic lines accumulated a range of hydroxycinnamate-derived metabolites, of which the most prominent accumulation (over 8,500-fold) was observed for a compound that was identified by purification and nuclear magnetic resonance as syringyl lactic acid hexoside. Our data suggest that, upon down-regulation of CAD1, coniferaldehyde is converted into ferulic acid and derivatives, whereas sinapaldehyde is either oxidatively coupled into S′(8-8)S′ and lignin or converted to sinapic acid and derivatives. The most prominent sink of the increased flux to hydroxycinnamates is syringyl lactic acid hexoside. Furthermore, low-extent saccharification assays, under different pretreatment conditions, showed strongly increased glucose (up to +81%) and xylose

  17. Tandem mass spectrometry screening for very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: the value of second-tier enzyme testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Haussmann, Ulrike; Mueller, Martina; ter Veld, Frank; Stehn, Maren; Santer, Rene; Lukacs, Zoltan

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate newborn screening (NBS) for very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD), we further characterized newborns with elevation of one or all C14-carnitine derivatives on NBS from a total of 90 338 newborns. Palmitoyl-CoA oxidation was performed in lymphocytes to define very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase function. Molecular analysis followed in children with residual activitiesvalues and acylcarnitine ratios did not allow correct identification of the newborn as a patient with VLCADD. Reliable diagnosis is not feasible with acylcarnitine analysis alone. Enzyme analysis in lymphocytes is a reliable and rapid method for correctly assessing all newborns with VLCADD and should be carried out in all newborns identified during the first screening, regardless of the results of a later acylcarnitine profile. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The first three years of screening for medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD by newborn screening ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Lawrence

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD is a disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and is one of the most common inborn errors of metabolism. Identification of MCADD via newborn screening permits the introduction of interventions that can significantly reduce associated morbidity and mortality. This study reports on the first three years of newborn screening for MCADD in Ontario, Canada. Methods Newborn Screening Ontario began screening for MCADD in April 2006, by quantification of acylcarnitines (primarily octanoylcarnitine, C8 in dried blood spots using tandem mass spectrometry. Babies with positive screening results were referred to physicians at one of five regional Newborn Screening Treatment Centres, who were responsible for diagnostic evaluation and follow-up care. Results From April 2006 through March 2009, approximately 439 000 infants were screened for MCADD in Ontario. Seventy-four infants screened positive, with a median C8 level of 0.68 uM (range 0.33-30.41 uM. Thirty-one of the screen positive infants have been confirmed to have MCADD, while 36 have been confirmed to be unaffected. Screening C8 levels were higher among infants with MCADD (median 8.93 uM compared to those with false positive results (median 0.47 uM. Molecular testing was available for 29 confirmed cases of MCADD, 15 of whom were homozygous for the common c.985A > G mutation. Infants homozygous for the common mutation tended to have higher C8 levels (median 12.13 uM relative to compound heterozygotes for c.985A > G and a second detectable mutation (median 2.01 uM. Eight confirmed mutation carriers were identified among infants in the false positive group. The positive predictive value of a screen positive for MCADD was 46%. The estimated birth prevalence of MCADD in Ontario is approximately 1 in 14 000. Conclusions The birth prevalence of MCADD and positive predictive value of the screening test were similar to those

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of universal newborn screening for medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamers Françoise F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Five diseases are currently screened on dried blood spots in France through the national newborn screening programme. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS is a technology that is increasingly used to screen newborns for an increasing number of hereditary metabolic diseases. Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD is among these diseases. We sought to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of introducing MCADD screening in France. Methods We developed a decision model to evaluate, from a societal perspective and a lifetime horizon, the cost-effectiveness of expanding the French newborn screening programme to include MCADD. Published and, where available, routine data sources were used. Both costs and health consequences were discounted at an annual rate of 4%. The model was applied to a French birth cohort. One-way sensitivity analyses and worst-case scenario simulation were performed. Results We estimate that MCADD newborn screening in France would prevent each year five deaths and the occurrence of neurological sequelae in two children under 5 years, resulting in a gain of 128 life years or 138 quality-adjusted life years (QALY. The incremental cost per year is estimated at €2.5 million, down to €1 million if this expansion is combined with a replacement of the technology currently used for phenylketonuria screening by MS/MS. The resulting incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER is estimated at €7 580/QALY. Sensitivity analyses indicate that while the results are robust to variations in the parameters, the model is most sensitive to the cost of neurological sequelae, MCADD prevalence, screening effectiveness and screening test cost. The worst-case scenario suggests an ICER of €72 000/QALY gained. Conclusions Although France has not defined any threshold for judging whether the implementation of a health intervention is an efficient allocation of public resources, we conclude that the expansion of the French

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of universal newborn screening for medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Françoise F; Rumeau-Pichon, Catherine

    2012-06-08

    Five diseases are currently screened on dried blood spots in France through the national newborn screening programme. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is a technology that is increasingly used to screen newborns for an increasing number of hereditary metabolic diseases. Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is among these diseases. We sought to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of introducing MCADD screening in France. We developed a decision model to evaluate, from a societal perspective and a lifetime horizon, the cost-effectiveness of expanding the French newborn screening programme to include MCADD. Published and, where available, routine data sources were used. Both costs and health consequences were discounted at an annual rate of 4%. The model was applied to a French birth cohort. One-way sensitivity analyses and worst-case scenario simulation were performed. We estimate that MCADD newborn screening in France would prevent each year five deaths and the occurrence of neurological sequelae in two children under 5 years, resulting in a gain of 128 life years or 138 quality-adjusted life years (QALY). The incremental cost per year is estimated at €2.5 million, down to €1 million if this expansion is combined with a replacement of the technology currently used for phenylketonuria screening by MS/MS. The resulting incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is estimated at €7 580/QALY. Sensitivity analyses indicate that while the results are robust to variations in the parameters, the model is most sensitive to the cost of neurological sequelae, MCADD prevalence, screening effectiveness and screening test cost. The worst-case scenario suggests an ICER of €72 000/QALY gained. Although France has not defined any threshold for judging whether the implementation of a health intervention is an efficient allocation of public resources, we conclude that the expansion of the French newborn screening programme to MCADD would appear to be cost

  1. Beneficial effect of feeding a ketogenic diet to mothers on brain development in their progeny with a murine model of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliss, Lioudmila; Jatania, Urvi; Patel, Mulchand S

    2016-06-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) deficiency is a major inborn error of oxidative metabolism of pyruvate in the mitochondria causing congenital lactic acidosis and primarily structural and functional abnormalities of the central nervous system. To provide an alternate source of acetyl-CoA derived from ketone bodies to the developing brain, a formula high in fat content is widely employed as a treatment. In the present study we investigated efficacy of a high-fat diet given to mothers during pregnancy and lactation on lessening of the impact of PDC deficiency on brain development in PDC-deficient female progeny. A murine model of systemic PDC deficiency by interrupting the X-linked Pdha1 gene was employed in this study. Maternal consumption of a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation had no effect on number of live-birth, body growth, tissue PDC activity levels, as well as the in vitro rates of glucose oxidation and fatty acid biosynthesis by the developing brain of PDC-deficient female offspring during the postnatal age 35 days, as compared to the PDC-deficient progeny born to dams on a chow diet. Interestingly, brain weight was normalized in PDC-deficient progeny of high fat-fed mothers with improvement in impairment in brain structure deficit whereas brain weight was significantly decreased and was associated with greater cerebral structural defects in progeny of chow-fed mothers as compared to control progeny of mothers fed either a chow or high fat diet. The findings provide for the first time experimental support for beneficial effects of a ketogenic diet during the prenatal and early postnatal periods on the brain development of PDC-deficient mammalian progeny.

  2. 46,XY disorder of sex development due to 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 deficiency: a plea for timely genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimbly, Chelsey; Caluseriu, Oana; Metcalfe, Peter; Jetha, Mary M; Rosolowsky, Elizabeth T

    2016-01-01

    17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17βHSD3) deficiency is a rare cause of disorder of sex development (DSD) due to impaired conversion of androstenedione to testosterone. Traditionally, the diagnosis was determined by βHCG-stimulated ratios of testosterone:androstenedione stimulation (1500 IU IM for 2 days) suggested 17βHSD3 deficiency although androstenedione was only minimally stimulated (4.5 nmol/L to 5.4 nmol/L). Expedient genetic testing for the HSD17B3 gene provided the unequivocal diagnosis. We advocate for urgent genetic testing in rare causes of DSD as indeterminate hormone results can delay diagnosis and prolong intervention.

  3. Long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (L-CHAD) deficiency in a patient with the Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryburg, J S; Pelegano, J P; Bennett, M J; Bebin, E M

    1994-08-01

    Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS) is an autosomal dominant condition of macrocephaly in combination with lipomas/hemangiomas, hypotonia, developmental delay, and a lipid myopathy. The etiology of the lipid storage myopathy has been unclear. We describe a black boy with findings of BRRS who also has a defect in long-chain fatty acid oxidation expressed in cultured skin fibroblasts as a deficiency of long-chain-L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (L-CHAD). He also has an abnormal brain MRI and increased size of both lower limbs. We present this child because of his unusual combination of findings, and postulate that L-CHAD deficiency may be the cause of the lipid myopathy in BRRS.

  4. Riboflavin-Responsive Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency Associated with Hepatoencephalomyopathy and White Matter Signal Abnormalities on Brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Päivi; Myllynen, Päivi; Perhomaa, Marja; Tuominen, Hannu; Keski-Filppula, Riikka; Rytky, Seppo; Risteli, Leila; Uusimaa, Johanna

    2017-06-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a rare inborn error of metabolism affecting both fatty acid and amino acid oxidation. It can manifest at any age, but riboflavin-responsiveness has mainly been described in less severely affected patients. We describe an infant with severe MADD presenting with profound hypotonia and hepatomegaly. Treatment with riboflavin improved his muscle strength, liver size, and biochemical markers. A homozygous mutation of electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase ( ETFDH ) was found. His motor skills continued to progress until a fatal infection-triggered deterioration at the age of 34 months. We show changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging over the course of the disease, with profound white matter abnormalities during the deterioration phase. Aggregates of mitochondria with abnormal cristae in muscle electron microscopy were noticed already in infancy. An unusual lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme pattern with LDH-1 predominance was additionally observed. This case demonstrates riboflavin-responsiveness in a severely affected infant with both muscular and extramuscular involvement and further underlines the variable nature of this disease. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Acetic acid treatment in S. cerevisiae creates significant energy deficiency and nutrient starvation that is dependent on the activity of the mitochondrial transcriptional complex Hap2-3-4-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitanovic, Ana; Bonowski, Felix; Heigwer, Florian; Ruoff, Peter; Kitanovic, Igor; Ungewiss, Christin; Wölfl, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic pathways play an indispensable role in supplying cellular systems with energy and molecular building blocks for growth, maintenance and repair and are tightly linked with lifespan and systems stability of cells. For optimal growth and survival cells rapidly adopt to environmental changes. Accumulation of acetic acid in stationary phase budding yeast cultures is considered to be a primary mechanism of chronological aging and induction of apoptosis in yeast, which has prompted us to investigate the dependence of acetic acid toxicity on extracellular conditions in a systematic manner. Using an automated computer controlled assay system, we investigated and model the dynamic interconnection of biomass yield- and growth rate-dependence on extracellular glucose concentration, pH conditions and acetic acid concentration. Our results show that toxic concentrations of acetic acid inhibit glucose consumption and reduce ethanol production. In absence of carbohydrates uptake, cells initiate synthesis of storage carbohydrates, trehalose and glycogen, and upregulate gluconeogenesis. Accumulation of trehalose and glycogen, and induction of gluconeogenesis depends on mitochondrial activity, investigated by depletion of the Hap2-3-4-5 complex. Analyzing the activity of glycolytic enzymes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate kinase (PYK), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) we found that while high acetic acid concentration increased their activity, lower acetic acids concentrations significantly inhibited these enzymes. With this study we determined growth and functional adjustment of metabolism to acetic acid accumulation in a complex range of extracellular conditions. Our results show that substantial acidification of the intracellular environment, resulting from accumulation of dissociated acetic acid in the cytosol, is required for acetic acid toxicity, which creates a state of energy deficiency and nutrient starvation.

  6. Acetic acid treatment in S. cerevisiae creates significant energy deficiency and nutrient starvation that is dependent on the activity of the mitochondrial transcriptional complex Hap2-3-4-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitanovic, Ana; Bonowski, Felix; Heigwer, Florian [Institute for Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg (Germany); Ruoff, Peter [Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre for Organelle Research, University of Stavanger, Stavanger (Norway); Kitanovic, Igor; Ungewiss, Christin; Wölfl, Stefan, E-mail: wolfl@uni-hd.de [Institute for Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-09-21

    Metabolic pathways play an indispensable role in supplying cellular systems with energy and molecular building blocks for growth, maintenance and repair and are tightly linked with lifespan and systems stability of cells. For optimal growth and survival cells rapidly adopt to environmental changes. Accumulation of acetic acid in stationary phase budding yeast cultures is considered to be a primary mechanism of chronological aging and induction of apoptosis in yeast, which has prompted us to investigate the dependence of acetic acid toxicity on extracellular conditions in a systematic manner. Using an automated computer controlled assay system, we investigated and model the dynamic interconnection of biomass yield- and growth rate-dependence on extracellular glucose concentration, pH conditions and acetic acid concentration. Our results show that toxic concentrations of acetic acid inhibit glucose consumption and reduce ethanol production. In absence of carbohydrates uptake, cells initiate synthesis of storage carbohydrates, trehalose and glycogen, and upregulate gluconeogenesis. Accumulation of trehalose and glycogen, and induction of gluconeogenesis depends on mitochondrial activity, investigated by depletion of the Hap2-3-4-5 complex. Analyzing the activity of glycolytic enzymes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate kinase (PYK), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) we found that while high acetic acid concentration increased their activity, lower acetic acids concentrations significantly inhibited these enzymes. With this study we determined growth and functional adjustment of metabolism to acetic acid accumulation in a complex range of extracellular conditions. Our results show that substantial acidification of the intracellular environment, resulting from accumulation of dissociated acetic acid in the cytosol, is required for acetic acid toxicity, which creates a state of energy deficiency and nutrient starvation.

  7. Leigh syndrome associated with a deficiency of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex: results of treatment with a ketogenic diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijburg, F. A.; Barth, P. G.; Bindoff, L. A.; Birch-Machin, M. A.; van der Blij, J. F.; Ruitenbeek, W.; TURNBULL, D. M.; Schutgens, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    A one-year-old boy suffering from intermittent lactic acidosis, muscular hypotonia, horizontal gaze paralysis and spasticity in both legs had low activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex associated with low amounts of immunoreactive E 1 alpha and E 1 beta. Leigh syndrome was diagnosed on the

  8. Developmental Defects of Caenorhabditis elegans Lacking Branched-chain α-Ketoacid Dehydrogenase Are Mainly Caused by Monomethyl Branched-chain Fatty Acid Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fan; Cui, Mingxue; Than, Minh T; Han, Min

    2016-02-05

    Branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) catalyzes the critical step in the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolic pathway and has been the focus of extensive studies. Mutations in the complex disrupt many fundamental metabolic pathways and cause multiple human diseases including maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), autism, and other related neurological disorders. BCKDH may also be required for the synthesis of monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs) from BCAAs. The pathology of MSUD has been attributed mainly to BCAA accumulation, but the role of mmBCFA has not been evaluated. Here we show that disrupting BCKDH in Caenorhabditis elegans causes mmBCFA deficiency, in addition to BCAA accumulation. Worms with deficiency in BCKDH function manifest larval arrest and embryonic lethal phenotypes, and mmBCFA supplementation suppressed both without correcting BCAA levels. The majority of developmental defects caused by BCKDH deficiency may thus be attributed to lacking mmBCFAs in worms. Tissue-specific analysis shows that restoration of BCKDH function in multiple tissues can rescue the defects, but is especially effective in neurons. Taken together, we conclude that mmBCFA deficiency is largely responsible for the developmental defects in the worm and conceivably might also be a critical contributor to the pathology of human MSUD. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of anaemia in paediatric patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Child Health ... deficiency 42.3% (p=0.001), glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency 24.8% (p=0.02), ... Malaria and iron deficiency remain common among ill children <5 years old who are anaemic.

  10. Single Low Dose Primaquine (0.25 mg/kg Does Not Cause Clinically Significant Haemolysis in G6PD Deficient Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Bancone

    Full Text Available Primaquine is the only drug consistently effective against mature gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum. The transmission blocking dose of primaquine previously recommended was 0.75 mg/kg (adult dose 45 mg but its deployment was limited because of concerns over haemolytic effects in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency. G6PD deficiency is an inherited X-linked enzymatic defect that affects an estimated 400 million people around the world with high frequencies (15-20% in populations living in malarious areas. To reduce transmission in low transmission settings and facilitate elimination of P. falciparum, the World Health Organization now recommends adding a single dose of 0.25 mg/kg (adult dose 15 mg to Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies (ACTs without G6PD testing. Direct evidence of the safety of this low dose is lacking. Adverse events and haemoglobin variations after this treatment were assessed in both G6PD normal and deficient subjects in the context of targeted malaria elimination in a malaria endemic area on the North-Western Myanmar-Thailand border where prevalence of G6PD deficiency (Mahidol variant approximates 15%.The tolerability and safety of primaquine (single dose 0.25 mg base/kg combined with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ given three times at monthly intervals was assessed in 819 subjects. Haemoglobin concentrations were estimated over the six months preceding the ACT + primaquine rounds of mass drug administration. G6PD deficiency was assessed with a phenotypic test and genotyping was performed in male subjects with deficient phenotypes and in all females. Fractional haemoglobin changes in relation to G6PD phenotype and genotype and primaquine round were assessed using linear mixed-effects models. No adverse events related to primaquine were reported during the trial. Mean fractional haemoglobin changes after each primaquine treatment in G6PD deficient subjects (-5.0%, -4.2% and -4

  11. Sudden unexpected infant death (SUDI in a newborn due to medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD deficiency with an unusual severe genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovera Cristina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD is the most common inborn error of fatty acid oxidation. This condition may lead to cellular energy shortage and cause severe clinical events such as hypoketotic hypoglycemia, Reye syndrome and sudden death. MCAD deficiency usually presents around three to six months of life, following catabolic stress as intercurrent infections or prolonged fasting, whilst neonatal-onset of the disease is quite rare. We report the case of an apparently healthy newborn who suddenly died at the third day of life, in which the diagnosis of MCAD deficiency was possible through peri-mortem blood-spot acylcarnitine analysis that showed very high concentrations of octanoylcarnitine. Genetic analysis at the ACADM locus confirmed the biochemical findings by demonstrating the presence in homozygosity of the frame-shift c.244dup1 (p.Trp82LeufsX23 mutation, a severe genotype that may explain the unusual and very early fatal outcome in this newborn. This report confirms that inborn errors of fatty acid oxidation represent one of the genetic causes of sudden unexpected deaths in infancy (SUDI and underlines the importance to include systematically specific metabolic screening in any neonatal unexpected death.

  12. InterProScan Result: FS765596 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 001282 Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Molecular Function: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity (GO:0004345)|Biological... Process: glucose metabolic process (GO:0006006)|Biological Process: oxidation reduction (GO:0055114) ...

  13. The most common mutation causing medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is strongly associated with a particular haplotype in the region of the gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kølvraa, S; Gregersen, N; Blakemore, A I

    1991-01-01

    RFLP haplotypes in the region containing the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) gene on chromosome 1 have been determined in patients with MCAD deficiency. The RFLPs were detected after digestion of patient DNA with the enzymes BanII. PstI and TaqI and with an MCAD cDNA-clone as a probe....... Of 32 disease-causing alleles studied, 31 possessed the previously published A----G point-mutation at position 985 of the cDNA. This mutation has been shown to result in inactivity of the MCAD enzyme. In at least 30 of the 31 alleles carrying this G985 mutation a specific RFLP haplotype was present...

  14. Modulation of NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, In Sup; Lee, Young Sup; Bae, Young Seuk; Huh, Tae Lin; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2004-01-01

    NADPH is an important cofactor in many biosynthesis pathways and the regeneration of reduced glutathione, critically important in cellular defense against oxidative damage. It is mainly produced by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, and NADP(+)-specific isocitrate dehydrogenases (ICDHs). Here, we investigated age-related changes in ICDH activity and protein expression in IMR-90 human diploid fibroblast cells and tissues from Fischer 344 rats. We found that in IMR-90 cells the activity of cytosolic ICDH (IDPc) gradually increased with age up to the 46-48 population doubling level (PDL) and then gradually decreased at later PDL. 2',7'-Dichloro-fluorescein fluorescence which reflects intracellular ROS generation was increased with aging in IMR-90 cells. In ad libitum-fed rats, we noted age-related, tissue-specific modulations of IDPc and mitochondrial ICDH (IDPm) activities and protein expression in the liver, kidney and testes. In contrast, ICDH activities and protein expression were not significantly modulated in diet-restricted rats. These data suggest that modulation of ICDH is an age-dependent and a tissue-specific phenomenon.

  15. Vulnerability to oxidative stress in vitro in pathophysiology of mitochondrial short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: response to antioxidants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarazuela Zolkipli

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the pathophysiology of SCAD deficient patients who have a unique neurological phenotype, among fatty acid oxidation disorders, with early developmental delay, CNS malformations, intractable seizures, myopathy and clinical signs suggesting oxidative stress. METHODS: We studied skin fibroblast cultures from patients homozygous for ACADS common variant c.625G>A (n = 10, compound heterozygous for c.625G>A/c.319C>T (n = 3 or homozygous for pathogenic c.319C>T (n = 2 and c.1138C>T (n = 2 mutations compared to fibroblasts from patients with carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2 (n = 5, mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP/long-chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD (n = 7, and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD deficiencies (n = 4 and normal controls (n = 9. All were exposed to 50 µM menadione at 37°C. Additional conditions included exposure to 39°C and/or hypoglycemia. Time to 100% cell death was confirmed with trypan blue dye exclusion. Experiments were repeated with antioxidants (Vitamins C and E or N-acetylcysteine, Bezafibrate or glucose and temperature rescue. RESULTS: The most significant risk factor for vulnerability to menadione-induced oxidative stress was the presence of a FAO defect. SCADD fibroblasts were the most vulnerable compared to other FAO disorders and controls, and were similarly affected, independent of genotype. Cell death was exacerbated by hyperthermia and/or hypoglycemia. Hyperthermia was a more significant independent risk factor than hypoglycemia. Rescue significantly prolonged survival. Incubation with antioxidants and Bezafibrate significantly increased viability of SCADD fibroblasts. INTERPRETATION: Vulnerability to oxidative stress likely contributes to neurotoxicity of SCADD regardless of ACADS genotype and is significantly exacerbated by hyperthermia. We recommend rigorous temperature control in SCADD patients during acute illness

  16. Fatal hepatic short-chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency: clinical, biochemical, and pathological studies on three subjects with this recently identified disorder of mitochondrial beta-oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennett, M. J.; Spotswood, S. D.; Ross, K. F.; Comfort, S.; Koonce, R.; Boriack, R. L.; IJlst, L.; Wanders, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the clinical, biochemical, and pathological findings in three infants with hepatic short-chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (SCHAD) deficiency, a recently recognized disorder of the mitochondrial oxidation of straight-chain fatty acids. Candidate subjects were

  17. Lethal neonatal case and review of primary short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (SCEH) deficiency associated with secondary lymphocyte pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bedoyan, Jirair K.; Yang, Samuel P.; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Jack, Rhona M.; Miron, Alexander; Grahame, George; DeBrosse, Suzanne D.; Hoppel, Charles L.; Kerr, Douglas S.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in ECHS1 result in short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (SCEH) deficiency which mainly affects the catabolism of various amino acids, particularly valine. We describe a case compound heterozygous for ECHS1 mutations c.836T>C (novel) and c.8C>A identified by whole exome sequencing of proband and

  18. Additive effects of clofibric acid and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 4 (PDK4) deficiency on hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high-saturated fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Byounghoon; Wu, Pengfei; Harris, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Although improving glucose metabolism by inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) might prove beneficial in the treatment of type 2 diabetes or diet-induced obesity, it might induce detrimental effects by inhibiting fatty acid oxidation. PPARα agonists are often used to treat dyslipidemia in patients, especially in type 2 diabetes. Combinational treatment with a PDK4 inhibitor and PPARα agonists may prove beneficial. However, PPARα agonists may be less effective in the presence of a PDK4 inhibitor because PPARα agonists induce PDK4 expression. In the present study, the effects of clofibric acid, a PPARα agonist, on blood and liver lipids were determined in wild type and PDK4 knockout mice fed a high fat diet. As expected, treatment of wild type mice with clofibric acid resulted in less body weight gain, smaller epididymal fat pads, greater insulin sensitivity, and lower levels of serum and liver triacylglycerol. Surprisingly, rather than decreasing the effectiveness of clofibric acid, PDK4 deficiency enhanced the beneficial effects of clofibric acid on hepatic steatosis, lowered blood glucose levels, and did not prevent the positive effects of clofibric acid on serum triacylglycerols and free fatty acids. The metabolic effects of clofibric acid are therefore independent of the induction of PDK4 expression. The additive beneficial effects on hepatic steatosis may be due to induction of increased capacity for fatty acid oxidation and partial uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation by clofibric acid and a reduction in the capacity for fatty acid synthesis by PDK4 deficiency. PMID:22429297

  19. Mechanisms underlying metabolic and neural defects in zebrafish and human multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanquan Song

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In humans, mutations in electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF or electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETFDH lead to MADD/glutaric aciduria type II, an autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by a broad spectrum of devastating neurological, systemic and metabolic symptoms. We show that a zebrafish mutant in ETFDH, xavier, and fibroblast cells from MADD patients demonstrate similar mitochondrial and metabolic abnormalities, including reduced oxidative phosphorylation, increased aerobic glycolysis, and upregulation of the PPARG-ERK pathway. This metabolic dysfunction is associated with aberrant neural proliferation in xav, in addition to other neural phenotypes and paralysis. Strikingly, a PPARG antagonist attenuates aberrant neural proliferation and alleviates paralysis in xav, while PPARG agonists increase neural proliferation in wild type embryos. These results show that mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to an increase in aerobic glycolysis, affects neurogenesis through the PPARG-ERK pathway, a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  20. Genetic basis for correction of very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency by bezafibrate in patient fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobin-Limballe, S; Djouadi, F; Aubey, F

    2007-01-01

    there is no established treatment. Recent data suggest that bezafibrate could improve the FAO capacities in beta-oxidation-deficient cells, by enhancing the residual level of mutant enzyme activity via gene-expression stimulation. Since VLCAD-deficient patients frequently harbor missense mutations with unpredictable...... values, for 21 genotypes that mainly corresponded to patients with the myopathic phenotype. In contrast, bezafibrate induced no changes in FAO for 11 genotypes corresponding to severe neonatal or infantile phenotypes. This pattern of response was not due to differential inductions of VLCAD messenger RNA......, as shown by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, but reflected variable increases in measured VLCAD residual enzyme activity in response to bezafibrate. Genotype cross-analysis allowed the identification of alleles carrying missense mutations, which could account for these different...

  1. The Deletion of the Succinate Dehydrogenase Gene KlSDH1 in Kluyveromyces lactis Does Not Lead to Respiratory Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliola, Michele; Bartoccioni, Paola Chiara; De Maria, Ilaria; Lodi, Tiziana; Falcone, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    We have isolated a Kluyveromyces lactis mutant unable to grow on all respiratory carbon sources with the exception of lactate. Functional complementation of this mutant led to the isolation of KlSDH1, the gene encoding the flavoprotein subunit of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex, which is essential for the aerobic utilization of carbon sources. Despite the high sequence conservation of the SDH genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and K. lactis, they do not have the same relevance in the metabolism of the two yeasts. In fact, unlike SDH1, KlSDH1 was highly expressed under both fermentative and nonfermentative conditions. In addition to this, but in contrast with S. cerevisiae, K. lactis strains lacking KlSDH1 were still able to grow in the presence of lactate. In these mutants, oxygen consumption was one-eighth that of the wild type in the presence of lactate and was normal with glucose and ethanol, indicating that the respiratory chain was fully functional. Northern analysis suggested that alternative pathway(s), which involves pyruvate decarboxylase and the glyoxylate cycle, could overcome the absence of SDH and allow (i) lactate utilization and (ii) the accumulation of succinate instead of ethanol during growth on glucose. PMID:15189981

  2. Impaired growth and neurological abnormalities in branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mandar A.; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Obayashi, Mariko; Hattab, Eyas M.; Brocken, Eric G.; Liechty, Edward A.; Kubek, Michael J.; Vattem, Krishna M.; Wek, Ronald C.; Harris, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    The BCKDH (branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex) catalyses the rate-limiting step in the oxidation of BCAAs (branched-chain amino acids). Activity of the complex is regulated by a specific kinase, BDK (BCKDH kinase), which causes inactivation, and a phosphatase, BDP (BCKDH phosphatase), which causes activation. In the present study, the effect of the disruption of the BDK gene on growth and development of mice was investigated. BCKDH activity was much greater in most tissues of BDK−/− mice. This occurred in part because the E1 component of the complex cannot be phosphorylated due to the absence of BDK and also because greater than normal amounts of the E1 component were present in tissues of BDK−/− mice. Lack of control of BCKDH activity resulted in markedly lower blood and tissue levels of the BCAAs in BDK−/− mice. At 12 weeks of age, BDK−/− mice were 15% smaller than wild-type mice and their fur lacked normal lustre. Brain, muscle and adipose tissue weights were reduced, whereas weights of the liver and kidney were greater. Neurological abnormalities were apparent by hind limb flexion throughout life and epileptic seizures after 6–7 months of age. Inhibition of protein synthesis in the brain due to hyperphosphorylation of eIF2α (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α) might contribute to the neurological abnormalities seen in BDK−/− mice. BDK−/− mice show significant improvement in growth and appearance when fed a high protein diet, suggesting that higher amounts of dietary BCAA can partially compensate for increased oxidation in BDK−/− mice. Disruption of the BDK gene establishes that regulation of BCKDH by phosphorylation is critically important for the regulation of oxidative disposal of BCAAs. The phenotype of the BDK−/− mice demonstrates the importance of tight regulation of oxidative disposal of BCAAs for normal growth and neurological function. PMID:16875466

  3. Clinical, genetic, and structural basis of apparent mineralocorticoid excess due to 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Mabel; Haider, Shozeb; Khattab, Ahmed; Ling, Chen; Mathew, Mehr; Zaidi, Samir; Bloch, Madison; Patel, Monica; Ewert, Sinead; Abdullah, Wafa; Toygar, Aysenur; Mudryi, Vitalii; Al Badi, Maryam; Alzubdi, Mouch; Wilson, Robert C; Al Azkawi, Hanan Said; Ozdemir, Hatice Nur; Abu-Amer, Wahid; Hertecant, Jozef; Razzaghy-Azar, Maryam; Funder, John W; Al Senani, Aisha; Sun, Li; Kim, Se-Min; Yuen, Tony; Zaidi, Mone; New, Maria I

    2017-12-26

    Mutations in 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 gene ( HSD11B2 ) cause an extraordinarily rare autosomal recessive disorder, apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME). AME is a form of low renin hypertension that is potentially fatal if untreated. Mutations in the HSD11B2 gene result either in severe AME or a milder phenotype (type 2 AME). To date, ∼40 causative mutations have been identified. As part of the International Consortium for Rare Steroid Disorders, we have diagnosed and followed the largest single worldwide cohort of 36 AME patients. Here, we present the genotype and clinical phenotype of these patients, prominently from consanguineous marriages in the Middle East, who display profound hypertension and hypokalemic alkalosis. To correlate mutations with phenotypic severity, we constructed a computational model of the HSD11B2 protein. Having used a similar strategy for the in silico evaluation of 150 mutations of CYP21A2 , the disease-causing gene in congenital adrenal hyperplasia, we now provide a full structural explanation for the clinical severity of AME resulting from each known HSD11B2 missense mutation. We find that mutations that allow the formation of an inactive dimer, alter substrate/coenzyme binding, or impair structural stability of HSD11B2 yield severe AME. In contrast, mutations that cause an indirect disruption of substrate binding or mildly alter intramolecular interactions result in type 2 AME. A simple in silico evaluation of novel missense mutations could help predict the often-diverse phenotypes of an extremely rare monogenic disorder.

  4. Diagnostic potential of stored dried blood spots for inborn errors of metabolism: a metabolic autopsy of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Noriyuki; Ihara, Kenji; Hirata, Yuichiro; Yamada, Kenji; Lee, Sooyoung; Kanemasa, Hikaru; Motomura, Yoshitomo; Baba, Haruhisa; Tanaka, Tamami; Sakai, Yasunari; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Ohga, Shouichi

    2018-05-02

    It is estimated that 1-5% of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases might be caused by undiagnosed inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs); however, the postmortem identification of IEMs remains difficult. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of dried blood spots (DBSs) stored after newborn screening tests as a metabolic autopsy to determine the causes of death in infants and children who died suddenly and unexpectedly. Infants or toddlers who had suddenly died without a definite diagnosis between July 2008 and December 2012 at Kyushu University Hospital in Japan were enrolled in this study. Their Guthrie cards, which had been stored for several years at 4-8°C, were used for an acylcarnitine analysis by tandem mass spectrometry to identify inborn errors of metabolism. Fifteen infants and children who died at less than 2 years of age and for whom the cause of death was unknown were enrolled for the study. After correcting the C0 and C8 values assuming the hydrolysation of acylcarnitine in the stored DBSs, the corrected C8 value of one case just exceeded the cut-off level for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency screening. Genetic and biochemical analyses confirmed this patient to have MCAD deficiency. DBSs stored after newborn screening tests are a promising tool for metabolic autopsy. The appropriate compensation of acylcarnitine data and subsequent genetic and biochemical analyses are essential for the postmortem diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Compared effects of missense mutations in Very-Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase deficiency: Combined analysis by structural, functional and pharmacological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin-Limballe, Stéphanie; McAndrew, Ryan P; Djouadi, Fatima; Kim, Jung-Ja; Bastin, Jean

    2010-05-01

    Very-Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) is an autosomal recessive disorder considered as one of the more common ss-oxidation defects, possibly associated with neonatal cardiomyopathy, infantile hepatic coma, or adult-onset myopathy. Numerous gene missense mutations have been described in these VLCADD phenotypes, but only few of them have been structurally and functionally analyzed, and the molecular basis of disease variability is still poorly understood. To address this question, we first analyzed fourteen disease-causing amino acid changes using the recently described crystal structure of VLCAD. The predicted effects varied from the replacement of amino acid residues lining the substrate binding cavity, involved in holoenzyme-FAD interactions or in enzyme dimerisation, predicted to have severe functional consequences, up to amino acid substitutions outside key enzyme domains or lying on near enzyme surface, with predicted milder consequences. These data were combined with functional analysis of residual fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and VLCAD protein levels in patient cells harboring these mutations, before and after pharmacological stimulation by bezafibrate. Mutations identified as detrimental to the protein structure in the 3-D model were generally associated to profound FAO and VLCAD protein deficiencies in the patient cells, however, some mutations affecting FAD binding or monomer-monomer interactions allowed a partial response to bezafibrate. On the other hand, bezafibrate restored near-normal FAO rates in some mutations predicted to have milder consequences on enzyme structure. Overall, combination of structural, biochemical, and pharmacological analysis allowed assessment of the relative severity of individual mutations, with possible applications for disease management and therapeutic approach. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Additive effects of clofibric acid and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 4 (PDK4) deficiency on hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high saturated fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Byounghoon; Wu, Pengfei; Harris, Robert A

    2012-05-01

    Although improving glucose metabolism by inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) may prove beneficial in the treatment of type 2 diabetes or diet-induced obesity, it may have detrimental effects by inhibiting fatty acid oxidation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonists are often used to treat dyslipidemia in patients, especially in type 2 diabetes. Combinational treatment using a PDK4 inhibitor and PPARα agonists may prove beneficial. However, PPARα agonists may be less effective in the presence of a PDK4 inhibitor because PPARα agonists induce PDK4 expression. In the present study, the effects of clofibric acid, a PPARα agonist, on blood and liver lipids were determined in wild-type and PDK4 knockout mice fed a high-fat diet. As expected, treatment of wild-type mice with clofibric acid resulted in less body weight gain, smaller epididymal fat pads, greater insulin sensitivity, and lower levels of serum and liver triacylglycerol. Surprisingly, rather than decreasing the effectiveness of clofibric acid, PDK4 deficiency enhanced the beneficial effects of clofibric acid on hepatic steatosis, reduced blood glucose levels, and did not prevent the positive effects of clofibric acid on serum triacylglycerols and free fatty acids. The metabolic effects of clofibric acid are therefore independent of the induction of PDK4 expression. The additive beneficial effects on hepatic steatosis may be due to induction of increased capacity for fatty acid oxidation and partial uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation by clofibric acid, and a reduction in the capacity for fatty acid synthesis as a result of PDK4 deficiency. Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS. No claim to original US government works.

  7. Novel ETF dehydrogenase mutations in a patient with mild glutaric aciduria type II and complex II-III deficiency in liver and muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lynne A; He, Miao; Vockley, Jerry; Payne, Nicole; Rhead, William; Hoppel, Charles; Spector, Elaine; Gernert, Kim; Gibson, K Michael

    2010-12-01

    We describe a 22-year-old male who developed severe hypoglycemia and lethargy during an acute illness at 4 months of age and subsequently grew and developed normally. At age 4 years he developed recurrent vomiting with mild hyperammonemia and dehydration requiring frequent hospitalizations. Glutaric aciduria Type II was suspected based upon biochemical findings and managed with cornstarch, carnitine and riboflavin supplements. He did not experience metabolic crises between ages 4-12 years. He experienced recurrent vomiting, mild hyperammonemia, and generalized weakness associated with acute illnesses and growth spurts. At age 18 years, he developed exercise intolerance and proximal muscle weakness leading to the identification of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and complex II/III deficiencies in both skeletal muscle and liver. Subsequent molecular characterization of the ETFDH gene revealed novel heterozygous mutations, p.G274X:c.820 G > T (exon 7) and p.P534L: c.1601 C > T (exon 12), the latter within the iron sulfur-cluster and predicted to affect ubiquinone reductase activity of ETFDH and the docking of ETF to ETFDH. Our case supports the concept of a structural interaction between ETFDH and other enzyme partners, and suggests that the conformational change upon ETF binding to ETFDH may play a key role in linking ETFDH to II/III super-complex formation.

  8. Multi-organ abnormalities and mTORC1 activation in zebrafish model of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hyung Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MADD is a severe mitochondrial disorder featuring multi-organ dysfunction. Mutations in either the ETFA, ETFB, and ETFDH genes can cause MADD but very little is known about disease specific mechanisms due to a paucity of animal models. We report a novel zebrafish mutant dark xavier (dxa(vu463 that has an inactivating mutation in the etfa gene. dxa(vu463 recapitulates numerous pathological and biochemical features seen in patients with MADD including brain, liver, and kidney disease. Similar to children with MADD, homozygote mutant dxa(vu463 zebrafish have a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from moderate to severe. Interestingly, excessive maternal feeding significantly exacerbated the phenotype. Homozygous mutant dxa(vu463 zebrafish have swollen and hyperplastic neural progenitor cells, hepatocytes and kidney tubule cells as well as elevations in triacylglycerol, cerebroside sulfate and cholesterol levels. Their mitochondria were also greatly enlarged, lacked normal cristae, and were dysfunctional. We also found increased signaling of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 with enlarged cell size and proliferation. Treatment with rapamycin partially reversed these abnormalities. Our results indicate that etfa gene function is remarkably conserved in zebrafish as compared to humans with highly similar pathological, biochemical abnormalities to those reported in children with MADD. Altered mTORC1 signaling and maternal nutritional status may play critical roles in MADD disease progression and suggest novel treatment approaches that may ameliorate disease severity.

  9. A Historical Cohort Study on the Efficacy of Glucocorticoids and Riboflavin Among Patients with Late-onset Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Yi; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Dan-Ni; Lin, Min-Ting; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-20

    Late-onset multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is the most common type of lipid storage myopathies in China. Most patients with late-onset MADD are well responsive to riboflavin. Up to now, these patients are often treated with glucocorticoids as the first-line drug because they are misdiagnosed as polymyositis without muscle biopsy or gene analysis. Although glucocorticoids seem to improve the fatty acid metabolism of late-onset MADD, the objective evaluation of their rationalization on this disorder and comparison with riboflavin treatment are unknown. We performed a historical cohort study on the efficacy of the two drugs among 45 patients with late-onset MADD, who were divided into glucocorticoids group and riboflavin group. Detailed clinical information of baseline and 1-month follow-up were collected. After 1-month treatment, a dramatic improvement of muscle strength was found in riboflavin group (P riboflavin group (P riboflavin group still presented high-level muscle enzymes and weak muscle strength after 1-month riboflavin treatment, meaning that 1-month treatment duration maybe insufficient and patients should keep on riboflavin supplement for a longer time. Our results provide credible evidences that the overall efficacy of riboflavin is superior to glucocorticoids, and a longer duration of riboflavin treatment is necessary for patients with late-onset MADD.

  10. A novel ALDH5A1 mutation is associated with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency and severe intellectual disability in an Iranian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püttmann, Lucia; Stehr, Henning; Garshasbi, Masoud; Hu, Hao; Kahrizi, Kimia; Lipkowitz, Bettina; Jamali, Payman; Tzschach, Andreas; Najmabadi, Hossein; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Musante, Luciana; Kuss, Andreas W

    2013-08-01

    Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency is a disorder of the catabolism of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) with a very variable clinical phenotype ranging from mild intellectual disability to severe neurological defects. We report here on a large Iranian family with four affected patients presenting with severe intellectual disability, developmental delay and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Molecular genetic analysis revealed a missense mutation c.901A>G (p.K301E, RefSeq number NM_001080) in ALDH5A1 co-segregating with the disease in the family. The missense mutation affects an amino acid residue that is highly conserved across the animal kingdom. Protein modeling showed that p.K301E most likely leads to a loss of NAD(+) binding and a predicted decrease in the free energy by 6.67 kcal/mol furthermore suggests a severe destabilization of the protein. In line with these in silico observations, no SSADH enzyme activity could be detected in patient lymphoblasts. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Central nervous system and muscle involvement in an adolescent patient with riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kiyoko; Komaki, Hirofumi; Ohkuma, Aya; Nishino, Ichizo; Nonaka, Ikuya; Sasaki, Masayuki

    2010-09-01

    We report an adolescent case of late-onset riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) characterized by intermittent nausea and depressive state as early symptoms. At the age of 12 years and 11 months, the patient experienced intermittent nausea and vomiting, and depressive state. She was on medication for depression for 5 months but it was ineffective. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed disseminated high-intensity areas in the periventricular white matter and in the splenium of the corpus callosum on T2-weighted images and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery images. Progressive muscle weakness occurred and blood creatine kinase level was found to be elevated. The muscle biopsy revealed lipid storage myopathy. Urine organic acid analysis and mutation analysis of the ETFDH gene confirmed the diagnosis of MADD. With oral supplements of riboflavin and l-carnitine, in addition to a high-calorie and reduced-fat diet, her clinical symptoms improved dramatically. Early diagnosis is important because riboflavin treatment has been effective in a significant number of patients with MADD. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. NADH:ubiquinone reductase and succinate dehydrogenase activity in the liver of rats with acetaminophen-induced toxic hepatitis on the background of alimentary protein deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Kopylchuk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The ratio between the redox forms of the nicotinamide coenzymes and key enzymatic activity of the I and II respiratory chain complexes in the liver cells mitochondria of rats with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis under the conditions of alimentary deprivation of protein was studied. It was estimated, that under the conditions of acute acetaminophen-induced hepatitis of rats kept on a low-protein diet during 4 weeks a significant decrease of the NADH:ubiquinone reductase and succinate dehydrogenase activity with simultaneous increase of the ratio between redox forms of the nicotinamide coenzymes (NAD+/NADН is observed compared to the same indices in the liver cells of animals with experimental hepatitis kept on the ration balanced by all nutrients. Results of research may become basic ones for the biochemical rationale for the approaches directed to the correction and elimination of the consequences­ of energy exchange in the toxic hepatitis, induced on the background of protein deficiency.

  13. Anesthetic agents in patients with very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redshaw, Charlotte; Stewart, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrongenase deficiency (VLCADD) is a rare disorder of fatty acid metabolism that renders sufferers susceptible to hypoglycemia, liver failure, cardiomyopathy, and rhabdomyolysis. The literature about the management of these patients is hugely conflicting, suggesting that both propofol and volatile anesthesia should be avoided. We have reviewed the literature and have concluded that the source papers do not support the statements that volatile anesthetic agents are unsafe. The reports on rhabdomyolysis secondary to anesthesia appear to be due to inadequate supply of carbohydrate not volatile agents. Catabolism must be avoided with minimal fasting, glucose infusions based on age and weight, and attenuation of emotional and physical stress. General anesthesia appears to be protective of stress-induced catabolism and may offer benefits in children and anxious patients over regional anesthesia. Propofol has not been demonstrated to be harmful in VLCADD but is presented in an emulsion containing very long-chain fatty acids which can cause organ lipidosis and itself can inhibit mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism. It is therefore not recommended. Suxamethonium-induced myalgia may mimic symptoms of rhabdomyolysis and cause raised CK therefore should be avoided. Opioids, NSAIDS, regional anesthesia, and local anesthetic techniques have all been used without complication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 150 ... HU Nwanjo, G Oze. Vol 14, No 2 (2005), Incidence of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) Deficiency in Apparently Healthy Individuals in Some Parts of North Central Nigeria, Abstract. A Abubakar, A Musa, B Lliyasu, J Adetunji, O Olaniru, T Akande, A T Mokogwu. Vol 14, No 1 (2005) ...

  15. Prevalence and molecular characterization of G6PD deficiency in two Plasmodium vivax endemic areas in Venezuela: predominance of the African A-(202A/376G) variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzi, Esmeralda; Bastidas, Gilberto; Hidalgo, Mariana; Colman, Laura; Pérez, Hilda A

    2016-01-11

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency causes acute haemolytic anaemia triggered by oxidative drugs such as primaquine (PQ), used for Plasmodium vivax malaria radical cure. However, in many endemic areas of vivax malaria, patients are treated with PQ without any evaluation of their G6PD status. G6PD deficiency and its genetic heterogeneity were evaluated in northeastern and southeastern areas from Venezuela, Cajigal (Sucre state) and Sifontes (Bolívar state) municipalities, respectively. Blood samples from 664 randomly recruited unrelated individuals were screened for G6PD activity by a quantitative method. Mutation analysis for exons 4-8 of G6PD gen was performed on DNA isolated from G6PD-deficient (G6PDd) subjects through PCR-RFLP and direct DNA sequencing. Quantitative biochemical characterization revealed that overall 24 (3.6%) subjects were G6PDd (average G6PD enzyme activity 4.5 ± 1.2 U/g Hb, moderately deficient, class III), while DNA analysis showed one or two mutated alleles in 19 of them (79.2%). The G6PD A-(202A/376G) variant was the only detected in 17 (70.8%) individuals, 13 of them hemizygous males and four heterozygous females. Two males carried only the 376A → G mutation. No other mutation was found in the analysed exons. The G6PDd prevalence was as low as that one shown by nearby countries. This study contributes to the knowledge of the genetic background of Venezuelan population, especially of those living in malaria-endemic areas. Despite the high degree of genetic mixing described for Venezuelan population, a net predominance of the mild African G6PD A-(202A/376G) variant was observed among G6PDd subjects, suggesting a significant flow of G6PD genes from Africa to Americas, almost certainly introduced through African and/or Spanish immigrants during and after the colonization. The data suggest that 1:27 individuals of the studied population could be G6PDd and therefore at risk of haemolysis under precipitating factors

  16. 46,XY DSD with Female or Ambiguous External Genitalia at Birth due to Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, 5-Reductase-2 Deficiency, or 17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A Review of Quality of Life Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur Tom

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of sex development refer to a collection of congenital conditions in which atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex occurs. Studies of 46,XY DSD have focused largely on gender identity, gender role, and sexual orientation. Few studies have focused on other domains, such as physical and mental health, that may contribute to a person's quality of life. The current review focuses on information published since 1955 pertaining to psychological well-being, cognition, general health, fertility, and sexual function in people affected by androgen insensitivity syndromes, 5- reductase-2 deficiency, or 17-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 deficiency—reared male or female. The complete form of androgen insensitivity syndrome has been the focus of the largest number of investigations in domains other than gender. Despite this, all of the conditions included in the current review are under-studied. Realms identified for further study include psychological well-being, cognitive abilities, general health, fertility, and sexual function. Such investigations would not only improve the quality of life for those affected by DSD but may also provide information for improving physical and mental health in the general population.

  17. A Historical Cohort Study on the Efficacy of Glucocorticoids and Riboflavin Among Patients with Late-onset Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Yi Liu; Zhi-Qiang Wang; Dan-Ni Wang; Min-Ting Lin; Ning Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Late-onset multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is the most common type of lipid storage myopathies in China.Most patients with late-onset MADD are well responsive to riboflavin.Up to now,these patients are often treated with glucocorticoids as the first-line drug because they are misdiagnosed as polymyositis without muscle biopsy or gene analysis.Although glucocorticoids seem to improve the fatty acid metabolism of late-onset MADD,the objective evaluation of their rationalization on this disorder and comparison with riboflavin treatment are unknown.Methods:We performed a historical cohort study on the efficacy of the two drugs among 45 patients with late-onset MADD,who were divided into glucocorticoids group and riboflavin group.Detailed clinical information of baseline and 1-month follow-up were collected.Results:After 1-month treatment,a dramatic improvement of muscle strength was found in riboflavin group (P < 0.05).There was no significant difference in muscle enzymes between the two groups.Significantly,the number of patients with full recovery in glucocorticoids group was less than the number in riboflavin group (P < 0.05).On the other hand,almost half of the patients in riboflavin group still presented high-level muscle enzymes and weak muscle strength after 1-month riboflavin treatment,meaning that 1-month treatment duration maybe insufficient and patients should keep on riboflavin supplement for a longer time.Conclusions:Our results provide credible evidences that the overall efficacy of riboflavin is superior to glucocorticoids,and a longer duration of riboflavin treatment is necessary for patients with late-onset MADD.

  18. Isolated 2-methylbutyrylglycinuria caused by short/branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: identification of a new enzyme defect, resolution of its molecular basis, and evidence for distinct acyl-CoA dehydrogenases in isoleucine and valine metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andresen, B. S.; Christensen, E.; Corydon, T. J.; Bross, P.; Pilgaard, B.; Wanders, R. J.; Ruiter, J. P.; Simonsen, H.; Winter, V.; Knudsen, I.; Schroeder, L. D.; Gregersen, N.; Skovby, F.

    2000-01-01

    Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD) defects in isoleucine and valine catabolism have been proposed in clinically diverse patients with an abnormal pattern of metabolites in their urine, but they have not been proved enzymatically or genetically, and it is unknown whether one or two ACADs are involved. We

  19. Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase contributes to skeletal muscle homeostasis independent of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semjonous, Nina M

    2011-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) metabolism by the enzyme hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) within the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen generates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) to provide the redox potential for the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) to activate glucocorticoid (GC). H6PDH knockout (KO) mice have a switch in 11β-HSD1 activity, resulting in GC inactivation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. Importantly, H6PDHKO mice develop a type II fiber myopathy with abnormalities in glucose metabolism and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). GCs play important roles in muscle physiology, and therefore, we have examined the importance of 11β-HSD1 and GC metabolism in mediating aspects of the H6PDHKO myopathy. To achieve this, we examined 11β-HSD1\\/H6PDH double-KO (DKO) mice, in which 11β-HSD1 mediated GC inactivation is negated. In contrast to H6PDHKO mice, DKO mice GC metabolism and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis set point is similar to that observed in 11β-HSD1KO mice. Critically, in contrast to 11β-HSD1KO mice, DKO mice phenocopy the salient features of the H6PDHKO, displaying reduced body mass, muscle atrophy, and vacuolation of type II fiber-rich muscle, fasting hypoglycemia, increased muscle glycogen deposition, and elevated expression of UPR genes. We propose that muscle G6P metabolism through H6PDH may be as important as changes in the redox environment when considering the mechanism underlying the activation of the UPR and the ensuing myopathy in H6PDHKO and DKO mice. These data are consistent with an 11β-HSD1-independent function for H6PDH in which sarcoplasmic reticulum G6P metabolism and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-(oxidized)\\/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) redox status are important for maintaining muscle homeostasis.

  20. [Clinical features and ACADVL gene mutation spectrum analysis of 11 Chinese patients with very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinjun, Cao; Wenjuan, Qiu; Ruinan, Zhang; Jun, Ye; Lianshu, Han; Huiwen, Zhang; Qigang, Zhang; Xuefan, Gu

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the clinical and laboratory features of very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency ( VLCADD ) and the correlations between its genotype and phenotype. Eleven patients diagnosed as VLCADD of Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine seen from September 2006 to May 2014 were included. There were 9 boys and 2 girls, whose age was 2 d-17 years. Analysis was performed on clinical features, routine laboratory examination, and tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) , gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and genetic analysis were conducted. All cases had elevated levels of blood tetradecanoylcarnitine (C14:1) recognized as the characteristic biomarker for VLCADD. The eleven patients were classified into three groups: six cases in neonatal onset group, three in infancy onset group form patients and two in late onset group. Neonatal onset patients were characterized by hypoactivity, hypoglycemia shortly after birth. Infancy onset patients presented hepatomegaly and hypoglycemia in infancy. The two adolescent patients showed initial manifestations of exercise intolerance or rhabdomyolysis. Six of the eleven patients died at the age of 2-8 months, including four neonatal onset and two infant onset patients, with one or two null mutations. The other two neonatal onset patients were diagnosed since early birth through neonatal screening and their clinical manifestation are almost normal after treatments. Among 11 patients, seventeen different mutations in the ACADVL gene were identified, with a total mutation detection rate of 95.45% (21/22 alleles), including eleven reported mutations ( p. S22X, p. G43D, p. R511Q, p. W427X, p. A213T, p. C215R, p. G222R, p. R450H, p. R456H, c. 296-297delCA, c. 1605 + 1G > T) and six novel mutations (p. S72F, p. Q100X, p. M437T, p. D466Y, c. 1315delG insAC, IVS7 + 4 A > G). The p. R450H was the most frequent mutation identified in three alleles (13.63%, 3/22 alleles), followed by p. S22X and p. D466Y mutations which

  1. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaphalia, Lata [Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Boroumand, Nahal [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Hyunsu, Ju [Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Kaphalia, Bhupendra S., E-mail: bkaphali@utmb.edu [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Calhoun, William J. [Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to < 1.0% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 μg/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 μg/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1α and spliced XBP1 was observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease. - Highlights: • Chronic

  2. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaphalia, Lata; Boroumand, Nahal; Hyunsu, Ju; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Calhoun, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to < 1.0% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 μg/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 μg/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1α and spliced XBP1 was observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease. - Highlights: • Chronic

  3. Labelling of the pineal gland with 99mTc-glucose-6-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, M.J.; Santos, A.C.; De Lima, J.J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Lately, the pineal body has been the subject of a large variety of studies. Only recently it has been understood the role played by this endocrine gland to maintain the balance of the human body and also in animal models. Although small in dimensions, the pineal body is a very active organ, able to transmit precise temporal information. It probably participates in the synchronization of several organic functions. The present work aims to study a possible use of 99m Tc-glucose-6-P as a tracer for the pineal gland. Histoautoradiographic studies have been performed in Wistar rats. Tomoscintigraphic studies were acquired in patients and in albine rabbits (oryctolagus cuniculus hyplus). The labelling efficiency and the radiochemical purity of the labelled products have always been tested. Animal and human SPECT exams, show an activity focus projected over the area corresponding to the pineal body localization. Autoradiographic studies using [1- 14 C]-glucose-6-P did not reveal a more relevant activity at the pineal level, probably due to its hepatic conversion to 14 C-glucose. (author)

  4. Toxicological effects of thiomersal and ethylmercury: Inhibition of the thioredoxin system and NADP+-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Juan; Branco, Vasco; Lu, Jun; Holmgren, Arne; Carvalho, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a strong toxicant affecting mainly the central nervous, renal, cardiovascular and immune systems. Thiomersal (TM) is still in use in medical practice as a topical antiseptic and as a preservative in multiple dose vaccines, routinely given to young children in some developing countries, while other forms of mercury such as methylmercury represent an environmental and food hazard. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of thiomersal (TM) and its breakdown product ethylmercury (EtHg) on the thioredoxin system and NADP + -dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway. Results show that TM and EtHg inhibited the thioredoxin system enzymes in purified suspensions, being EtHg comparable to methylmercury (MeHg). Also, treatment of neuroblastoma and liver cells with TM or EtHg decreased cell viability (GI 50 : 1.5 to 20 μM) and caused a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the overall activities of thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in cell lysates. Compared to control, the activities of Trx and TrxR in neuroblastoma cells after EtHg incubation were reduced up to 60% and 80% respectively, whereas in hepatoma cells the reduction was almost 100%. In addition, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were also significantly inhibited by all mercurials, with inhibition intensity of Hg 2+ > MeHg ≈ EtHg > TM (p < 0.05). Cell incubation with sodium selenite alleviated the inhibitory effects on TrxR and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Thus, the molecular mechanism of toxicity of TM and especially of its metabolite EtHg encompasses the blockage of the electrons from NADPH via the thioredoxin system. - Highlights: • TM and EtHg inhibit Trx and TrxR both in purified suspensions and cell lysates. • TM and EtHg also inhibit the activities of G6PDH and 6PGDH in cell lysates, • Co-exposure to selenite alleviates the

  5. Toxicological effects of thiomersal and ethylmercury: Inhibition of the thioredoxin system and NADP{sup +}-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Juan, E-mail: juanricardorodrigues@gmail.com [Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal); Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Central University of Venezuela (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Branco, Vasco [Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal); Lu, Jun; Holmgren, Arne [Division of Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Carvalho, Cristina, E-mail: cristina.carvalho@ff.ulisboa.pt [Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a strong toxicant affecting mainly the central nervous, renal, cardiovascular and immune systems. Thiomersal (TM) is still in use in medical practice as a topical antiseptic and as a preservative in multiple dose vaccines, routinely given to young children in some developing countries, while other forms of mercury such as methylmercury represent an environmental and food hazard. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of thiomersal (TM) and its breakdown product ethylmercury (EtHg) on the thioredoxin system and NADP{sup +}-dependent dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate pathway. Results show that TM and EtHg inhibited the thioredoxin system enzymes in purified suspensions, being EtHg comparable to methylmercury (MeHg). Also, treatment of neuroblastoma and liver cells with TM or EtHg decreased cell viability (GI{sub 50}: 1.5 to 20 μM) and caused a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the overall activities of thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in cell lysates. Compared to control, the activities of Trx and TrxR in neuroblastoma cells after EtHg incubation were reduced up to 60% and 80% respectively, whereas in hepatoma cells the reduction was almost 100%. In addition, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were also significantly inhibited by all mercurials, with inhibition intensity of Hg{sup 2+} > MeHg ≈ EtHg > TM (p < 0.05). Cell incubation with sodium selenite alleviated the inhibitory effects on TrxR and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Thus, the molecular mechanism of toxicity of TM and especially of its metabolite EtHg encompasses the blockage of the electrons from NADPH via the thioredoxin system. - Highlights: • TM and EtHg inhibit Trx and TrxR both in purified suspensions and cell lysates. • TM and EtHg also inhibit the activities of G6PDH and 6PGDH in cell lysates, • Co-exposure to selenite alleviates

  6. Additive effects of clofibric acid and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 4 (PDK4) deficiency on hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high-saturated fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Byounghoon; Wu, Pengfei; Harris, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Although improving glucose metabolism by inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) might prove beneficial in the treatment of type 2 diabetes or diet-induced obesity, it might induce detrimental effects by inhibiting fatty acid oxidation. PPARα agonists are often used to treat dyslipidemia in patients, especially in type 2 diabetes. Combinational treatment with a PDK4 inhibitor and PPARα agonists may prove beneficial. However, PPARα agonists may be less effective in the presence of...

  7. Burden of Hemoglobinopathies (Thalassemia, Sickle Cell Disorders and G6PD Deficiency) in Iran, 1990-2010: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Nazila; Naderimagham, Shohreh; Ghasemian, Anoosheh; Saeedi Moghaddam, Sahar; Gohari, Kimia; Zareiy, Saeid; Sobhani, Sahar; Modirian, Mitra; Kompani, Farzad

    2015-08-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are known as the most common genetic disorders in Iran. The paper aims to provide global estimates of deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) due to hemoglobinopathies in Iran by sex and age during 1990 to 2010 and describe the challenges due to limitations of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010). GBD 2010 estimates of the numbers of deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) due to premature mortality were calculated using the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm). Years of life lost due to disability (YLDs) were computed by multiplication of prevalence, the disability weight for occurrence of sequelae, and the duration of symptoms. Prevalence was estimated through a systematic search of published and available unpublished data sources, with a Bayesian meta-regression model developed for GBD 2010. Disability weights were produced using collected data from population-based surveys. Uncertainty from all inputs was incorporated into the computations of DALYs using simulation methods. We aim to prepare and criticize the results of GBD 2010 and provide some recommendations for reaching better conclusions about the burden of hemoglobinopathies in Iran. Between 1990 and 2010, the overall deaths attributed to hemoglobinopathies decreased from 0.51% to 0.36% of total deaths, with the corresponding burden declining from 1% to 0.82% of total DALYs. There was a reduction in deaths and DALYs rates for all ages and the rates attributed to all ages followed the same pattern in Iranian men and women. The highest DALYs for hemoglobinopathies, thalassemia, sickle cell disorder, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD-D) were found in those aged less than 5 years. The collective burden of all of these hemoglobin disorder was lower in 2010 than in 1990. Although the screening programs in Iran have been very successful in reducing the number of thalassemia patients between 1990 to 2010, in order to provide a better estimation of the

  8. Beneficial effect of feeding a ketogenic diet to mothers on brain development in their progeny with a murine model of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioudmila Pliss

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The findings provide for the first time experimental support for beneficial effects of a ketogenic diet during the prenatal and early postnatal periods on the brain development of PDC-deficient mammalian progeny.

  9. [A novel homozygous mutation p.E25X in the HSD3B2 gene causing salt wasting 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases deficiency in a Chinese pubertal girl: a delayed diagnosis until recurrent ovary cysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yonglan; Zheng, Jipeng; Xie, Ting; Xiao, Qing; Lu, Shaomei; Li, Xiuzhen; Cheng, Jing; Chen, Lihe; Liu, Li

    2014-12-01

    3β- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency (3βHSD), a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) resulted from mutations in the HSD3B2 gene that impair steroidogenesis in both adrenals and gonads. We report clinical features and the results of HSD3B2 gene analysis of a Chinese pubertal girl with salt wasting 3βHSD deficiency. We retrospectively reviewed clinical presentations and steroid profiles of the patient diagnosed in Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center in 2013. PCR and direct sequencing were used to identify any mutation in the HSD3B2 gene. A 13-year-old girl was diagnosed as CAH after birth because of salt-wasting with mild clitorimegaly and then was treated with glucocorticoid replacement. Breast and pubic hair development were normal, and menarche occurred at 12 yr, followed by menstrual bleeding about every 45 days. In the last one year laparoscopic operation and ovariocentesis were performed one after another for recurrent ovary cysts. Under corticoid acetate therapy, ACTH 17.10 pmol/L (normal 0-10.12), testosterone 1.31 nmol/L (normal T (p.E25X) was identified in HSD3B2 gene. The girl was homozygous and her mother was heterozygous, while her father was not identified with this mutation. A classic 3βHSD deficiency is characterized by salt wasting and mild virilization in female. Ovary cysts may be the one of features of gonad phenotype indicating ovary 3βHSD deficiency. A novel homozygous mutation c.73G >T(p.E25X) was related to the classical phenotype.

  10. Identification and functional evaluation of the reductases and dehydrogenases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in vanillin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinning; Liang, Zhenzhen; Hou, Jin; Bao, Xiaoming; Shen, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Vanillin, a type of phenolic released during the pre-treatment of lignocellulosic materials, is toxic to microorganisms and therefore its presence inhibits the fermentation. The vanillin can be reduced to vanillyl alcohol, which is much less toxic, by the ethanol producer Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The reducing capacity of S. cerevisiae and its vanillin resistance are strongly correlated. However, the specific enzymes and their contribution to the vanillin reduction are not extensively studied. In our previous work, an evolved vanillin-resistant strain showed an increased vanillin reduction capacity compared with its parent strain. The transcriptome analysis suggested the reductases and dehydrogenases of this vanillin resistant strain were up-regulated. Using this as a starting point, 11 significantly regulated reductases and dehydrogenases were selected in the present work for further study. The roles of these reductases and dehydrogenases in the vanillin tolerance and detoxification abilities of S. cerevisiae are described. Among the candidate genes, the overexpression of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH6, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene ALD6, glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase gene ZWF1, NADH-dependent aldehyde reductase gene YNL134C, and aldo-keto reductase gene YJR096W increased 177, 25, 6, 15, and 18 % of the strain μmax in the medium containing 1 g L(-1) vanillin. The in vitro detected vanillin reductase activities of strain overexpressing ADH6, YNL134C and YJR096W were notably higher than control. The vanillin specific reduction rate increased by 8 times in ADH6 overexpressed strain but not in YNL134C and YJR096W overexpressed strain. This suggested that the enzymes encoded by YNL134C and YJR096W might prefer other substrate and/or could not show their effects on vanillin on the high background of Adh6p in vivo. Overexpressing ALD6 and ZWF1 mainly increased the [NADPH]/[NADP(+)] and [GSH]/[GSSG] ratios but not the vanillin reductase activities. Their

  11. Comparison of Three Screening Test Kits for G6PD Enzyme Deficiency: Implications for Its Use in the Radical Cure of Vivax Malaria in Remote and Resource-Poor Areas in the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fe Esperanza Espino

    Full Text Available We evaluated a battery of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase diagnostic point-of-care tests (PoC to assess the most suitable product in terms of performance and operational characteristics for remote areas.Samples were collected in Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines and tested for G6PD deficiency with a fluorescent spot test (FST; Procedure 203, Trinity Biotech, Ireland, the semiquantitative WST8/1-methoxy PMS (WST; Dojindo, Japan and the Carestart G6PD Rapid Diagnostic Test (CSG; AccessBio, USA. Results were compared to spectrophotometry (Procedure 345, Trinity Biotech, Ireland. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each test with cut-off activities of 10%, 20%, 30% and 60% of the adjusted male median.The adjusted male median was 270.5 IU/10(12 RBC. FST and WST were tested on 621 capillary blood samples, the CSG was tested on venous and capillary blood on 302 samples. At 30% G6PD activity, sensitivity for the FST was between 87.7% (95%CI: 76.8% to 93.9% and 96.5% (95%CI: 87.9% to 99.5% depending on definition of intermediate results; the WST was 84.2% (95%CI: 72.1% to 92.5%; and the CSG was between 68.8% (95%CI: 41.3% to 89.0% and 93.8% (95%CI: 69.8% to 99.8% when the test was performed on capillary or venous blood respectively. Sensitivity of FST and CSG (tested with venous blood were comparable (p>0.05. The analysis of venous blood samples by the CSG yielded significantly higher results than FST and CSG performed on capillary blood (p<0.05. Sensitivity of the CSG varied depending on source of blood used (p<0.05.The operational characteristics of the CSG were superior to all other test formats. Performance and operational characteristics of the CSG performed on venous blood suggest the test to be a good alternative to the FST.

  12. Cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase status modulates oxidative damage to cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Min; Koh, Ho-Jin; Park, Dong-Chan; Song, Byoung J; Huh, Tae-Lin; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2002-06-01

    NADPH is an important cofactor in many biosynthesis pathways and the regeneration of reduced glutathione, critically important in cellular defense against oxidative damage. It is mainly produced by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), malic enzyme, and the cytosolic form of NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc). Little information is available about the role of IDPc in antioxidant defense. In this study we investigated the role of IDPc against cytotoxicity induced by oxidative stress by comparing the relative degree of cellular responses in three different NIH3T3 cells with stable transfection with the cDNA for mouse IDPc in sense and antisense orientations, where IDPc activities were 3-4-fold higher and 35% lower, respectively, than that in the parental cells carrying the vector alone. Although the activities of other antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and G6PD, were comparable in all transformed cells, the ratio of GSSG to total glutathione was significantly higher in the cells expressing the lower level of IDPc. This finding indicates that IDPc is essential for the efficient glutathione recycling. Upon transient exposure to increasing concentrations of H(2)O(2) or menadione, an intracellular source of free radicals and reactive oxygen species, the cells with low levels of IDPc became more sensitive to oxidative damage by H(2)O(2) or menadione. Lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage, and intracellular peroxide generation were higher in the cell-line expressing the lower level of IDPc. However, the cells with the highly over-expressed IDPc exhibited enhanced resistance against oxidative stress, compared to the control cells. This study provides direct evidence correlating the activities of IDPc and the maintenance of the cellular redox state, suggesting that IDPc plays an important role in cellular defense against oxidative stress.

  13. Role of cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase in ischemia-reperfusion injury in mouse kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinu; Kim, Ki Young; Jang, Hee-Seong; Yoshida, Takumi; Tsuchiya, Ken; Nitta, Kosaku; Park, Jeen-Woo; Bonventre, Joseph V; Park, Kwon Moo

    2009-03-01

    Cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) synthesizes reduced NADP (NADPH), which is an essential cofactor for the generation of reduced glutathione (GSH), the most abundant and important antioxidant in mammalian cells. We investigated the role of IDPc in kidney ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in mice. The activity and expression of IDPc were highest in the cortex, modest in the outer medulla, and lowest in the inner medulla. NADPH levels were greatest in the cortex. IDPc expression in the S1 and S2 segments of proximal tubules was higher than in the S3 segment, which is much more susceptible to I/R. IDPc protein was also highly expressed in the mitochondrion-rich intercalated cells of the collecting duct. IDPc activity was 10- to 30-fold higher than the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, another producer of cytosolic NADPH, in various kidney regions. This study identifies that IDPc may be the primary source of NADPH in the kidney. I/R significantly reduced IDPc expression and activity and NADPH production and increased the ratio of oxidized glutathione to total glutathione [GSSG/(GSH+GSSG)], resulting in kidney dysfunction, tubular cell damage, and lipid peroxidation. In LLC-PK(1) cells, upregulation of IDPc by IDPc gene transfer protected the cells against hydrogen peroxide, enhancing NADPH production, inhibiting the increase of GSSG/(GSH+GSSG), and reducing lipid peroxidation. IDPc downregulation by small interference RNA treatment presented results contrasting with the upregulation. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that IDPc is expressed differentially along tubules in patterns that may contribute to differences in susceptibility to injury, is a major enzyme in cytosolic NADPH generation in kidney, and is downregulated with I/R.

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency in a family with a previous fatal case of sudden unexpected death in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, N; Winter, V; Jensen, P K

    1995-01-01

    --involved in the expression of the disease. Thus, families who have experienced the death of a child from MCAD deficiency might have an increased risk of a seriously affected subsequent child. In such a family we have therefore performed a prenatal diagnosis on a chorionic villus sample by a highly specific and sensitive...... polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the G985 mutation. The analysis was positive and resulted in abortion. We verified the diagnosis by direct analysis on blood spots and other tissue material from the aborted fetus and from family members....

  15. Hydroxysteroid (17β)-dehydrogenase 1-deficient female mice present with normal puberty onset but are severely subfertile due to a defect in luteinization and progesterone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Janne; Jokela, Heli; Pakarinen, Pirjo; Heikelä, Hanna; Kätkänaho, Laura; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Ohlsson, Claes; Zhang, Fu-Ping; Poutanen, Matti

    2015-09-01

    Hydroxysteroid (17β)-dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD17B1) catalyzes the conversion of low active 17-ketosteroids, androstenedione (A-dione) and estrone (E1) to highly active 17-hydroxysteroids, testosterone (T) and E2, respectively. In this study, the importance of HSD17B1 in ovarian estrogen production was determined using Hsd17b1 knockout (HSD17B1KO) mice. In these mice, the ovarian HSD17B enzyme activity was markedly reduced, indicating a central role of HSD17B1 in ovarian physiology. The lack of Hsd17b activity resulted in increased ovarian E1:E2 and A-dione:T ratios, but we also observed reduced progesterone concentration in HSD17B1KO ovaries. Accordingly with the altered steroid production, altered expression of Star, Cyp11a1, Lhcgr, Hsd17b7, and especially Cyp17a1 was observed. The ovaries of HSD17B1KO mice presented with all stages of folliculogenesis, while the corpus luteum structure was less defined and number reduced. Surprisingly, bundles of large granular cells of unknown origin appeared in the stroma of the KO ovaries. The HSD17B1KO mice presented with severe subfertility and failed to initiate pseudopregnancy. However, the HSD17B1KO females presented with normal estrous cycle defined by vaginal smears and normal puberty appearance. This study indicates that HSD17B1 is a key enzyme in ovarian steroidogenesis and has a novel function in initiation and stabilization of pregnancy. © FASEB.

  16. The SDH mutation database: an online resource for succinate dehydrogenase sequence variants involved in pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma and mitochondrial complex II deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devilee Peter

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD genes encode the subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (succinate: ubiquinone oxidoreductase, a component of both the Krebs cycle and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. SDHA, a flavoprotein and SDHB, an iron-sulfur protein together constitute the catalytic domain, while SDHC and SDHD encode membrane anchors that allow the complex to participate in the respiratory chain as complex II. Germline mutations of SDHD and SDHB are a major cause of the hereditary forms of the tumors paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma. The largest subunit, SDHA, is mutated in patients with Leigh syndrome and late-onset optic atrophy, but has not as yet been identified as a factor in hereditary cancer. Description The SDH mutation database is based on the recently described Leiden Open (source Variation Database (LOVD system. The variants currently described in the database were extracted from the published literature and in some cases annotated to conform to current mutation nomenclature. Researchers can also directly submit new sequence variants online. Since the identification of SDHD, SDHC, and SDHB as classic tumor suppressor genes in 2000 and 2001, studies from research groups around the world have identified a total of 120 variants. Here we introduce all reported paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma related sequence variations in these genes, in addition to all reported mutations of SDHA. The database is now accessible online. Conclusion The SDH mutation database offers a valuable tool and resource for clinicians involved in the treatment of patients with paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma, clinical geneticists needing an overview of current knowledge, and geneticists and other researchers needing a solid foundation for further exploration of both these tumor syndromes and SDHA-related phenotypes.

  17. Impact of chronic low to moderate alcohol consumption on blood lipid and heart energy profile in acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fan; Cao, Quan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Xin; Shen, Cheng; Liu, Xiang-wei; Bu, Li-ping; Zou, Yun-zeng; Hu, Kai; Sun, Ai-jun; Ge, Jun-bo

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the roles of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), the key enzyme of ethanol metabolism, in chronic low to moderate alcohol consumption-induced heart protective effects in mice. Twenty-one male wild-type (WT) or ALDH2-knockout (KO) mice were used in this study. In each genotype, 14 animals received alcohol (2.5%, 5% and 10% in week 1-3, respectively, and 18% in week 4-7), and 7 received water for 7 weeks. After the treatments, survival rate and general characteristics of the animals were evaluated. Serum ethanol and acetaldehyde levels and blood lipids were measured. Metabolomics was used to characterize the heart and serum metabolism profiles. Chronic alcohol intake decreased the survival rate of KO mice by 50%, and significantly decreased their body weight, but did not affect those of WT mice. Chronic alcohol intake significantly increased the serum ethanol levels in both WT and KO mice, but KO mice had significantly higher serum acetaldehyde levels than WT mice. Chronic alcohol intake significantly increased the serum HDL cholesterol levels in WT mice, and did not change the serum HDL cholesterol levels in KO mice. After chronic alcohol intake, WT and KO mice showed differential heart and serum metabolism profiles, including the 3 main energy substrate types (lipids, glucose and amino acids) and three carboxylic acid cycles. Low to moderate alcohol consumption increases HDL cholesterol levels and improves heart energy metabolism profile in WT mice but not in ALDH2-KO mice. Thus, preserved ALDH2 function is essential for the protective effect of low to moderate alcohol on the cardiovascular system.

  18. Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems as Decision Support Tools for Malaria Control in the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-30

    remote sensing and GIS techniques to monitor vectors and vector-borne disease in Mexico, Belize and, more recently, Peru (Roberts et al. 1999...parasite is severe hemolytic anemia in persons who are deficient in glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD). Primaquine is the only drug currently...the denaturation of hemoglobin, resulting in hemoglobinuria, kidney damage and anemia . Erythrocytes are protected from oxidation by the hexose

  19. Prospective diagnosis of 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in the Hmong population by newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matern, Dietrich; He, Miao; Berry, Susan A

    2003-01-01

    but asymptomatic. METHODS: We report 8 additional patients identified by prospective newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Molecular genetic analysis performed for 3 of these patients revealed that all are homozygous for an 1165A>G mutation that causes skipping of exon 10 of the SBCAD gene....... Although there was no obvious consanguinity, all patients belong to the Hmong, an ancient ethnic group that originated in China and constitutes only 0.8% and 0.6% of the Minnesota and Wisconsin population, respectively. Dietary treatment was initiated in the neonatal period. Except for 1 patient who...... developed mild muscle hypotonia, all patients remain asymptomatic at ages ranging from 3 to 14 months of age. CONCLUSIONS: These cases suggest that SBCAD deficiency is another inborn error of metabolism detectable by newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry. The continued efficacy of long...

  20. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mice supplemented with odd or even medium-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Sara; Behringer, Sidney; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2015-11-01

    An even medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-based diet is the mainstay of treatment in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency (VLCADD). Previous studies with magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown an impact of MCT on the average fatty acid chain length in abdominal fat. We therefore assume that medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are elongated and accumulate in tissue as long-chain fatty acids. In this study, we explored the hepatic effects of long-term supplementation with MCT or triheptanoin, an odd-chain C7-based triglyceride, in wild-type and VLCAD-deficient (VLCAD(-/-) ) mice after 1 year of supplementation as compared with a control diet. The de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids, and peroxisomal β-oxidation, were quantified by RT-PCR. This was followed by a comprehensive analysis of hepatic and cardiac fatty acid profiles by GC-MS. Long-term application of even and odd MCFAs strongly induced de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids in both wild-type and VLCAD(-/-) mice, leading to an alteration of the hepatic fatty acid profiles. We detected de novo-synthesized and elongated fatty acids, such as heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n9), eicosanoic acid (C20:1n9), erucic acid (C22:1n9), and mead acid (C20:3n9), that were otherwise completely absent in mice under control conditions. In parallel, the content of monounsaturated fatty acids was massively increased. Furthermore, we observed strong upregulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation in VLCAD(-/-) mice, especially when they were fed an MCT diet. Our data raise the question of whether long-term MCFA supplementation represents the most efficient treatment in the long term. Studies on the hepatic toxicity of triheptanoin are still ongoing. © 2015 FEBS.

  1. Development and implementation of a novel assay for L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L-2-HGDH) in cell lysates: L-2-HGDH deficiency in 15 patients with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranendijk, M; Salomons, G S; Gibson, K M

    2009-01-01

    L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase. An assay to evaluate L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L-2-HGDH) activity in fibroblast, lymphoblast and/or lymphoc...

  2. [Neonatal screening of hemoglobinopathies and G6PD deficiency in Catalonia (Spain). Molecular study of sickle cell disease associated with alpha thalassemia and G6PD deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañú Pereira, María Del Mar; Cabot, Anna; Martínez González, Ana; Sitjà Navarro, Eulalia; Cararach, Vicent; Sabrià, Josep; Boixaderas, Jordi; Teixidor, Roser; Bosch, Albert; López Vílchez, M Angeles; Martín Ibáñez, Itziar; Carrión, Teresa; Plaja, Pere; Sánchez, Mario; Vives Corrons, José Luis

    2007-06-30

    The prevalence of hemoglobinopathies and glucose-6-phosphate dehidrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in the Catalan neonatal population is increasing due to immigration. Coinheritance of more than a single RBC genetic defect is becoming more frequent and diagnostic pitfalls are also increasing. We intended to demonstrate the need to perform an early diagnosis of sickle cell disease (SCD) by means of neonatal screening, to establish the prevalence of SCD associated with alpha thalassemia and G6PD deficiency and to identify genotypes associated with sickle cell disease and G6PD deficiency. 4,020 blood samples from newborns were screened. For the screening of hemoglobinopathies the high performance liquid chromatography method was used and for G6PD deficiency the fluorescent spot test was employed. We studied the association between betaS gene and alpha thalassaemia del-3.7 Kb. SCD and G6PD deficiency genotypes were established. Prevalence of SCD in population at risk was 1/475 newborns. Prevalence of G6PD deficiency in population at risk was 1/43, and in autochthonous population was 1/527 newborns. In all the cases, sickle hemoglobin was confirmed by ARMS (amplification refractory mutation system). Association between betaS gene and alpha thalassaemia del-3.7 Kb was found in 32.2% of the samples, and an association between betaS gene and G6PD deficiency was observed in 7% of the samples. This study confirms the high prevalence of SCD and G6PD deficiency in population at risk as well as their genetic and clinical heterogeneity. The study of genotype/phenotype relationships allows a better knowledge of molecular mechanism and is useful to establish suitable criteria of diagnosis.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... glycolytic pathway; in this step, a molecule called glucose-6-phosphate is converted to another molecule called fructose-6-phosphate. When GPI remains a single molecule (a monomer) it is involved in the development and maintenance of nerve cells ( neurons ). In this context, it is often known as ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... N, Petrova-Benedict R, Federico A, Fois A, Cole DE, Robertson E, Robinson BH. Mutations in the ... medicine? What is newborn screening? New Pages Lyme disease Fibromyalgia White-Sutton syndrome All New & Updated Pages ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Epilepsy Information Page Educational Resources (5 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Seizures and Epilepsy Disease InfoSearch: Succinic semialdehyde ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition characterized by an unusually small head size (microcephaly); impaired development of physical reactions, movements, and speech ( ... is getting smaller as the body grows (progressive microcephaly ). Poor brain growth leads to an inability to ...

  7. Are free glucose and glucose-6-phosphate in milk indicators of specific physiological states in the cow?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Moyes, Kasey M

    2015-01-01

    that they are not hydrolysis product from lactose post secretion, but rather reflecting the energy status of the mammary epithelial cells pre-secretion. Wide variation in range of these metabolites, that is, from 90 to 630 μM and 5 to 324 μM, for glucose and G6P, respectively, was observed. During the first 21 weeks in milk....... In addition, lactose, protein, fat, citrate and β-hydroxybutyrate were determined and comparisons between these variables were made. Data were analysed using GLM model for the effect of parity, breed, time from last milking and stage of lactation on variations in parameters in milk. Pearson’s correlations...

  8. MCAD deficiency in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Brage Storstein; Lund, Allan Meldgaard; Hougaard, David Michael

    2012-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is the most common defect of fatty acid oxidation. Many countries have introduced newborn screening for MCADD, because characteristic acylcarnitines can easily be identified in filter paper blood spot samples by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/M...

  9. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  10. The first case of a complete deficiency of diphosphoglycerate mutase in human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, R; Prehu, M O; Beuzard, Y; Rosa, J

    1978-01-01

    An inherited and complete deficiency of diphosphoglycerate mutase was discovered in the erythrocytes of a 42-yr-old man of French origin whose blood hemoglobin concentration was 19.0 g/dl. Upon physical examination he was normal with the exception of a ruddy cyanosis. The morphology of his erythrocytes was also normal and there was no evidence of hemolysis. The erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate level was below 3% of normal values and, as a consequence, the affinity of the cells for oxygen was increased. Diphosphoglycerate mutase activity was undetectable in erythrocytes as was that of diphosphoglycerate phosphatase. The activities of all the other erythrocyte enzymes that were tested were normal except for nomophosphoglycerate mutase which was diminished to 50% of the normal value. The levels of reduced glutathione, ATP, fructose 1,6-diphosphate, and of triose phosphates were elevated, whereas those of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate were decreased. This report sheds new light on the role of diphosphoglycerate mutase in the metabolism of erythrocytes. Images PMID:152321

  11. The first case of a complete deficiency of diphosphoglycerate mutase in human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, R; Prehu, M O; Beuzard, Y; Rosa, J

    1978-11-01

    An inherited and complete deficiency of diphosphoglycerate mutase was discovered in the erythrocytes of a 42-yr-old man of French origin whose blood hemoglobin concentration was 19.0 g/dl. Upon physical examination he was normal with the exception of a ruddy cyanosis. The morphology of his erythrocytes was also normal and there was no evidence of hemolysis. The erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate level was below 3% of normal values and, as a consequence, the affinity of the cells for oxygen was increased. Diphosphoglycerate mutase activity was undetectable in erythrocytes as was that of diphosphoglycerate phosphatase. The activities of all the other erythrocyte enzymes that were tested were normal except for nomophosphoglycerate mutase which was diminished to 50% of the normal value. The levels of reduced glutathione, ATP, fructose 1,6-diphosphate, and of triose phosphates were elevated, whereas those of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate were decreased. This report sheds new light on the role of diphosphoglycerate mutase in the metabolism of erythrocytes.

  12. Evolution of hepatic glucose metabolism: liver-specific glucokinase deficiency explained by parallel loss of the gene for glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yang Wang

    Full Text Available Glucokinase (GCK plays an important role in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. In the liver, phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate by GCK is the first step for both glycolysis and glycogen synthesis. However, some vertebrate species are deficient in GCK activity in the liver, despite containing GCK genes that appear to be compatible with function in their genomes. Glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR is the most important post-transcriptional regulator of GCK in the liver; it participates in the modulation of GCK activity and location depending upon changes in glucose levels. In experimental models, loss of GCKR has been shown to associate with reduced hepatic GCK protein levels and activity.GCKR genes and GCKR-like sequences were identified in the genomes of all vertebrate species with available genome sequences. The coding sequences of GCKR and GCKR-like genes were identified and aligned; base changes likely to disrupt coding potential or splicing were also identified.GCKR genes could not be found in the genomes of 9 vertebrate species, including all birds. In addition, in multiple mammalian genomes, whereas GCKR-like gene sequences could be identified, these genes could not predict a functional protein. Vertebrate species that were previously reported to be deficient in hepatic GCK activity were found to have deleted (birds and lizard or mutated (mammals GCKR genes. Our results suggest that mutation of the GCKR gene leads to hepatic GCK deficiency due to the loss of the stabilizing effect of GCKR.

  13. Deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa en un paciente con síndrome de Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Cammarata Scalisi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Down, es una alteración genética que ocurre cuando un individuo exhibe todo o una parte específica adicional del cromosoma 21 y es la entidad más frecuentemente asociada a retardo mental. La deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa, es el defecto enzimático más común en humanos y presenta patrón de herencia ligado al cromosoma X recesivo. Se debe a la mutación del gen G6PD, el cual causa diversos fenotipos bioquímicos y clínicos. Reportamos un caso de lactante menor masculino, evaluado en la Unidad de Genética Médica de la Universidad de Los Andes, con el diagnóstico de deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa con doble mutación A376G y G202A y síndrome de Down con estudio citogenético 47, XY, +21. Palabras clave:Síndrome de Down; deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa; G6PD; A37G6; G202A. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in a patient with Down syndrome Abstract Down syndrome, is a genetic disorder that occurring when an individual exhibits all or part of an extra copy of chromosome 21 and the most common entity associated mental retardation. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, is the most common human enzyme defect and has a X-linked recessive inheritance. Due to mutations in the G6PD gene, which cause many biochemical and clinical phenotypes. We reported a case of child male, evaluated in the Unit of Medical Genetics of the University of The Andes, with diagnosis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency with double mutation A376G and G202A and Down syndrome with cytogenetic study 47, XY, + 21.

  14. Storage Pool Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ...

  15. Reduced risk of uncomplicated malaria episodes in children with a+-thalassemia in northeastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevold, Anders; Lusingu, John P; Mmbando, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    the susceptibility to uncomplicated malaria. We compared the risk of suffering from febrile, uncomplicated malaria between individuals carrying three common RBC polymorphisms (sickle cell trait, alpha(+)-thalassemia, and glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase deficiency) and controls. The study was performed in an area...... measured with flow cytometry and ELISA assays, respectively. Regression analyses showed that alpha(+)-thalassemia was associated with a reduced risk of uncomplicated malaria episodes and that this advantageous effect seemed to be more predominant in children older than 5 years of age, but was independent...

  16. The challenge of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanain Hani Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA is a Coomb's-negative hemolytic anemia characterized by red cell fragmentation (schistocytes. Thrombotic microangiopathy anemia, including thrombotic thrombocytopenia and hemolytic-uremic syndrome, malignant hypertension, preeclampsia are among the most common causes. We present a case of MAHA presenting with thrombocytopenia initially diagnosed as MAHA secondary to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and received five sessions plasmapheresis without improvement but with worsening of anemia and thrombocytopenia. On further inquiry, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency was identified, and the patient showed dramatic recovery after the trial of B12 and folate.

  17. Differences in associations between markers of antioxidative defense and asthma are sex specific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Tine Halsen; Sigsgaard, Torben; Andersen, Helle R

    2010-01-01

    on a screening questionnaire, random sampling, or both. Serum selenium concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase [GPX], glutathione reductase [GR], and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [G6PD]) in erythrocytes were measured. Asthma was defined as either...

  18. Higher Vulnerability of Menadione-Exposed Cortical Astrocytes of Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficient Mice to Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, and Cell Death: Implications for the Neurodegeneration in Glutaric Aciduria Type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marília Danyelle Nunes; Seminotti, Bianca; Zanatta, Ângela; de Mello Gonçalves, Aline; Bellaver, Bruna; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Quincozes-Santos, André; Goodman, Stephen Irwin; Woontner, Michael; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Wajner, Moacir

    2017-08-01

    Patients affected by glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I) show progressive cortical leukoencephalopathy whose pathogenesis is poorly known. In the present work, we exposed cortical astrocytes of wild-type (Gcdh +/+ ) and glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase knockout (Gcdh -/- ) mice to the oxidative stress inducer menadione and measured mitochondrial bioenergetics, redox homeostasis, and cell viability. Mitochondrial function (MTT and JC1-mitochondrial membrane potential assays), redox homeostasis (DCFH oxidation, nitrate and nitrite production, GSH concentrations and activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and GPx), and cell death (propidium iodide incorporation) were evaluated in primary cortical astrocyte cultures of Gcdh +/+ and Gcdh -/- mice unstimulated and stimulated by menadione. We also measured the pro-inflammatory response (TNFα levels, IL1-β and NF-ƙB) in unstimulated astrocytes obtained from these mice. Gcdh -/- mice astrocytes were more vulnerable to menadione-induced oxidative stress (decreased GSH concentrations and altered activities of the antioxidant enzymes), mitochondrial dysfunction (decrease of MTT reduction and JC1 values), and cell death as compared with Gcdh +/+ astrocytes. A higher inflammatory response (TNFα, IL1-β and NF-ƙB) was also observed in Gcdh -/- mice astrocytes. These data indicate a higher susceptibility of Gcdh -/- cortical astrocytes to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, probably leading to cell death. It is presumed that these pathomechanisms may contribute to the cortical leukodystrophy observed in GA-I patients.

  19. Neonatal lactic acidosis, complex I/IV deficiency, and fetal cerebral disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straaten, H. L. M.; van Tintelen, J. P.; Trijbels, J. M. F.; van den Heuvel, L. P.; Troost, D.; Rozemuller, J. M.; Duran, M.; de Vries, L. S.; Schuelke, M.; Barth, P. G.

    2005-01-01

    Cerebral developmental abnormalities occur in various inborn errors of metabolism including peroxisomal deficiencies, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency and others. Associations with abnormalities of the respiratory chain are rare. Here we report male and female siblings with microcephaly, a

  20. Neonatal lactic acidosis, complex I/IV deficiency, and fetal cerebral disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straaten, HLM; van Tintelen, JP; Trijbels, JMF; van den Heuvel, LP; Troost, D; Rozemuller, JM; Duran, M; de Vries, LS; Schuelke, M; Barth, PG

    Cerebral developmental abnormalities occur in various inborn errors of metabolism including peroxisomal deficiencies, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency and others. Associations with abnormalities of the respiratory chain are rare. Here we report male and female siblings with microcephaly, a

  1. Neonatal lactic acidosis, complex I/IV deficiency, and fetal cerebral disruption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straaten, H.L.M. van; Tintelen, J.P. van; Trijbels, J.M.F.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Troost, D.; Rozemuller, J.M.; Duran, M.; Vries, L.S. de; Schuelke, M.; Barth, P.G.

    2005-01-01

    Cerebral developmental abnormalities occur in various inborn errors of metabolism including peroxisomal deficiencies, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency and others. Associations with abnormalities of the respiratory chain are rare. Here we report male and female siblings with microcephaly, a

  2. Metabolic Engineering of Mannitol Production in Lactococcus lactis: Influence of Overexpression of Mannitol 1-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in Different Genetic Backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wisselink, H. Wouter; Mars, Astrid E.; van der Meer, Pieter; Eggink, Gerrit; Jeroen Hugenholtz

    2004-01-01

    To obtain a mannitol-producing Lactococcus lactis strain, the mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (mtlD) from Lactobacillus plantarum was overexpressed in a wild-type strain, a lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)-deficient strain, and a strain with reduced phosphofructokinase activity. High-performance liquid chromatography and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that small amounts (

  3. Metabolic Engineering of Mannitol Production in Lactococcus lactis: Influence of Overexpression of Mannitol 1-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in Different Genetic Backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.W.; Mars, A.E.; Meer, van der P.; Eggink, G.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2004-01-01

    To obtain a mannitol-producing Lactococcus lactis strain, the mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (mtlD) from Lactobacillus plantarum was overexpressed in a wild-type strain, a lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)-deficient strain, and a strain with reduced phosphofructokinase activity. High-performance

  4. Mutations in ALDH6A1 encoding methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase are associated with dysmyelination and transient methylmalonic aciduria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcadier, Julien L.; Smith, Amanda M.; Pohl, Daniela; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Al-Dirbashi, Osama Y.; Majewski, Jacek; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Bulman, Dennis E.; Boycott, Kym M.; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Geraghty, Michael T.; Boycott, Kym; Friedman, Jan; Michaud, Jacques; Bernier, Francois; Brudno, Michael; Fernandez, Bridget; Knoppers, Bartha; Samuels, Mark; Scherer, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (MMSDH) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with varied metabolite abnormalities, including accumulation of 3-hydroxyisobutyric, 3-hydroxypropionic, 3-aminoisobutyric and methylmalonic acids, as well as β-alanine. Existing reports describe a

  5. The effects of storage on the retention of enzyme activity in cryostat sections. A quantitative histochemical study on rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiks, W. M.; Ouwerkerk, I. J.; Bosch, K. S.; Marx, F.; Kooij, A.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of storage of unfixed cryostat sections from rat liver for 4 h, 24 h, 3 days and 7 days at -25 degrees C was studied on the activities of lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, xanthine oxidoreductase, glutamate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase (all demonstrated

  6. Iodine Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fax/Phone Home » Iodine Deficiency Leer en Español Iodine Deficiency Iodine is an element that is needed ... world’s population remains at risk for iodine deficiency. Iodine Deficiency FAQs WHAT IS THE THYROID GLAND? The ...

  7. Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupar, C A; Gillett, J; Gordon, B A; Ramsay, D A; Johnson, J L; Garrett, R M; Rajagopalan, K V; Jung, J H; Bacheyie, G S; Sellers, A R

    1996-12-01

    Isolated sulfite oxidase (SO) deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited inborn error of sulfur metabolism. In this report of a ninth patient the clinical history, laboratory results, neuropathological findings and a mutation in the sulfite oxidase gene are described. The data from this patient and previously published patients with isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency and molybdenum cofactor deficiency are summarized to characterize this rare disorder. The patient presented neonatally with intractable seizures and did not progress developmentally beyond the neonatal stage. Dislocated lenses were apparent at 2 months. There was increased urine excretion of sulfite and S-sulfocysteine and a decreased concentration of plasma cystine. A lactic acidemia was present for 6 months. Liver sulfite oxidase activity was not detectable but xanthine dehydrogenase activity was normal. The boy died of respiratory failure at 32 months. Neuropathological findings of cortical necrosis and extensive cavitating leukoencephalopathy were reminiscent of those seen in severe perinatal asphyxia suggesting an etiology of energy deficiency. A point mutation that resulted in a truncated protein missing the molybdenum-binding site has been identified.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... An Y, Weavil SD, Chaing SH, Bali D, McDonald MT, Kishnani PS, Chen YT, Millington DS. Rare ... 10 All Bulletins Features What is direct-to-consumer genetic testing? What are genome editing and CRISPR- ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oxidation, several enzymes work in a step-wise fashion to break down (metabolize) fats and convert them ... 10 All Bulletins Features What is direct-to-consumer genetic testing? What are genome editing and CRISPR- ...

  10. Health Deficiencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all health deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection date,...

  11. Aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism in North American, South American, and Mexican Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedde, H W; Agarwal, D P; Harada, S; Rothhammer, F; Whittaker, J O; Lisker, R

    1986-01-01

    While about 40% of the South American Indian populations (Atacameños, Mapuche, Shuara) were found to be deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme I (ALDH2 or E2), preliminary investigations showed very low incidence of isozyme deficiency among North American natives (Sioux, Navajo) and Mexican Indians (mestizo). Possible implications of such trait differences on cross-cultural behavioral response to alcohol drinking are discussed. PMID:3953578

  12. Safe and unsafe duration of fasting for children with MCAD deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Terry G J; van Spronsen, Francjan J; Rake, Jan Peter; van der Hilst, Christian S; Span, Mark M; Smit, G Peter A

    OBJECTIVE: To study the safe and unsafe duration of fasting in children with medium chain acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency, the literature and the database on Dutch MCAD-deficient patients were searched for data on fasting studies in patients with MCAD deficiency. MATERIALS AND

  13. Molybdenum-cofactor deficiency: an easily missed cause of neonatal convulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, H. M.; Overweg-Plandsoen, W. C.; Bakker, H. D.; Abeling, N. G.; Tamminga, P.; Barth, P. G.; van Gennip, A. H.

    1993-01-01

    Intractable seizures in the neonatal period may be caused by molybdenum-cofactor deficiency, an inborn error which combines the deficiencies of sulphite oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase. The neurological symptoms of molybdenum cofactor and isolated sulphite oxidase deficiencies are identical. Two

  14. Treatment of Nonclassic 11-Hydroxylase Deficiency with Ashwagandha Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Powell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An elderly woman presented with acne and male pattern alopecia, which upon diagnostic evaluation was found to be due to nonclassic 11-hydroxylase deficiency. We previously reported that Ashwagandha root ameliorates nonclassic 3-β-ol dehydrogenase and aldosterone synthase deficiencies. This is the first report of its use being associated with amelioration of nonclassic 11-hydroxylase deficiency, where its apparent effects appear to be dose-related.

  15. Monitoring of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase by formation of pyrenedecanoic acid from pyrenedecanal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Markus A.; Watschinger, Katrin; Golderer, Georg; Maglione, Manuel; Sarg, Bettina; Lindner, Herbert H.; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele; Terrinoni, Alessandro; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Werner, Ernst R.

    2010-01-01

    Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.48) converts long-chain fatty aldehydes to the corresponding acids. Deficiency in this enzyme causes the Sjogren Larsson Syndrome, a rare inherited disorder characterized by ichthyosis, spasticity, and mental retardation. Using a fluorescent aldehyde,

  16. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected.

  17. Identification of the 2-hydroxyglutarate and isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenases as alternative electron donors linking lysine catabolism to the electron transport chain of Arabidopsis mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Wagner L; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Larson, Tony R; Tohge, Takayuki; Krahnert, Ina; Witt, Sandra; Obata, Toshihiro; Schauer, Nicolas; Graham, Ian A; Leaver, Christopher J; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2010-05-01

    The process of dark-induced senescence in plants is relatively poorly understood, but a functional electron-transfer flavoprotein/electron-transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF/ETFQO) complex, which supports respiration during carbon starvation, has recently been identified. Here, we studied the responses of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in the expression of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase to extended darkness and other environmental stresses. Evaluations of the mutant phenotypes following carbon starvation induced by extended darkness identify similarities to those exhibited by mutants of the ETF/ETFQO complex. Metabolic profiling and isotope tracer experimentation revealed that isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase is involved in degradation of the branched-chain amino acids, phytol, and Lys, while 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase is involved exclusively in Lys degradation. These results suggest that isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase is the more critical for alternative respiration and that a series of enzymes, including 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase, plays a role in Lys degradation. Both physiological and metabolic phenotypes of the isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase mutants were not as severe as those observed for mutants of the ETF/ETFQO complex, indicating some functional redundancy of the enzymes within the process. Our results aid in the elucidation of the pathway of plant Lys catabolism and demonstrate that both isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase act as electron donors to the ubiquinol pool via an ETF/ETFQO-mediated route.

  18. Inhibition effects of furfural on alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modig, Tobias; Lidén, Gunnar; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2002-01-01

    The kinetics of furfural inhibition of the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1), aldehyde dehydrogenase (AlDH; EC 1.2.1.5) and the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex were studied in vitro. At a concentration of less than 2 mM furfural was found to decrease the activity of both PDH and AlDH by more than 90%, whereas the ADH activity decreased by less than 20% at the same concentration. Furfural inhibition of ADH and AlDH activities could be described well by a competitive inhibition model, whereas the inhibition of PDH was best described as non-competitive. The estimated K(m) value of AlDH for furfural was found to be about 5 microM, which was lower than that for acetaldehyde (10 microM). For ADH, however, the estimated K(m) value for furfural (1.2 mM) was higher than that for acetaldehyde (0.4 mM). The inhibition of the three enzymes by 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was also measured. The inhibition caused by HMF of ADH was very similar to that caused by furfural. However, HMF did not inhibit either AlDH or PDH as severely as furfural. The inhibition effects on the three enzymes could well explain previously reported in vivo effects caused by furfural and HMF on the overall metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting a critical role of these enzymes in the observed inhibition. PMID:11964178

  19. Metabolic engineering of mannitol production in Lactococcus lactis: influence of overexpression of mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase in different genetic backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisselink, H Wouter; Mars, Astrid E; van der Meer, Pieter; Eggink, Gerrit; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    2004-07-01

    To obtain a mannitol-producing Lactococcus lactis strain, the mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (mtlD) from Lactobacillus plantarum was overexpressed in a wild-type strain, a lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)-deficient strain, and a strain with reduced phosphofructokinase activity. High-performance liquid chromatography and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that small amounts (<1%) of mannitol were formed by growing cells of mtlD-overexpressing LDH-deficient and phosphofructokinase-reduced strains, whereas resting cells of the LDH-deficient transformant converted 25% of glucose into mannitol. Moreover, the formed mannitol was not reutilized upon glucose depletion. Of the metabolic-engineering strategies investigated in this work, mtlD-overexpressing LDH-deficient L. lactis seemed to be the most promising strain for mannitol production.

  20. Electron transfer flavoprotein deficiency: Functional and molecular aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiff, M; Froissart, R; Olsen, Rikke Katrine Jentoft

    2006-01-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a recessively inherited metabolic disorder that can be due to a deficiency of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or its dehydrogenase (ETF-ubiquinone oxidoreductase). ETF is a mitochondrial matrix protein consisting of alpha- (30kDa) and beta......- (28kDa) subunits encoded by the ETFA and ETFB genes, respectively. In the present study, we have analysed tissue samples from 16 unrelated patients with ETF deficiency, and we report the results of ETF activity, Western blot analysis and mutation analysis. The ETF assay provides a reliable diagnostic...... tool to confirm ETF deficiency in patients suspected to suffer from MADD. Activity ranged from less than 1 to 16% of controls with the most severely affected patients disclosing the lowest activity values. The majority of patients had mutations in the ETFA gene while only two of them harboured...

  1. LDH and G-6PDH activities in the ovaries of adult female Wistar rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of aqueous extracts of neem (Azadirachta Indica) leaves (which have been documented for its antifertility effect on experimental animals) on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6PDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in the ovaries of adult female wistar ...

  2. Effects of lead nitrate on the activity of metabolic enzymes during early developmental stages of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.G.M.; Mekkawy, Imam A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Kirschbaum, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pyruvate kinase (PK) are key metabolic enzymes. G6PDH has been used as a biomarker of pollution-induced carcinogenesis in fish. LDH has been used as marker of lesions in toxicology and clinical chemistry, and PK catalyses the

  3. Abnormal mitochondrial bioenergetics and heart rate dysfunction in mice lacking very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exil, VJ; Gardner, CD; Rottman, JN; Sims, H; Bartelds, B; Khuchua, Z; Sindhal, R; Ni, GM; Strauss, AW

    Mitochondrial very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase ( VLCAD) deficiency is associated with severe hypoglycemia, cardiac dysfunction, and sudden death in neonates and children. Sudden death is common, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We report on a mouse model of VLCAD

  4. DOWNREGULATION OF CINNAMYL-ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE IN SWITCHGRASS BY RNA SILENCING RESULTS IN ENHANCED GLUCOSE RELEASE AFTER CELLULASE TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), catalyzes the last step in monolignol biosynthesis and genetic evidence indicates CAD deficiency in grasses both decreases overall lignin, alters lignin structure and increases enzymatic recovery of sugars. To ascertain the effect of CAD downregulation in switch...

  5. The Newborn Screening Paradox: Sensitivity vs. Overdiagnosis in VLCAD Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, Eugene; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique; Waterham, Hans; Kluijtmans, Leo; Schielen, Peter; van Veen, Evert Ben; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Wijburg, Frits; Visser, Gepke

    2016-01-01

    To improve the efficacy of newborn screening (NBS) for very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD). Data on all dried blood spots collected by the Dutch NBS from October 2007 to 2010 (742.728) were included. Based solely on the C14:1 levels (cutoff ≥0.8 μmol/L), six newborns with

  6. Fatal cerebral edema associated with serine deficiency in CSF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keularts, Irene M. L. W.; Leroy, Piet L. J. M.; Rubio-Gozalbo, Estela M.; Spaapen, Leo J. M.; Weber, Biene; Dorland, Bert; de Koning, Tom J.; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M.

    2010-01-01

    Two young girls without a notable medical history except for asthma presented with an acute toxic encephalopathy with very low serine concentrations both in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) comparable to patients with 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH) deficiency. Clinical symptoms and

  7. What Are Rare Clotting Factor Deficiencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ... Deficiency Factor V Deficiency Combined FV & FVIII Deficiencies Factor VII Deficiency Factor X Deficiency Factor XI Deficiency Factor ...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1670 - Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system. 862.1670... Systems § 862.1670 Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system. (a) Identification. A sorbitol dehydrogenase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme sorbitol dehydrogenase in serum...

  9. Histochemical localization of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    dehydrogenase, Withania somnifera, CKX localization. INTRODUCTION. Cytokinin (Ck) is a plant hormone that plays a crucial role in many fundamental processes of plant development throughout the life cycle. These include ...

  10. Shikimate dehydrogenase from Pinu sylvestris L. needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipov, V.I.; Shein, I.V.

    1986-01-01

    Shikimate dehydrogenase was isolated by extraction from pine needles and partially purified by fractionation with ammonium sulfate. In conifers, in contrast to other plants, all three isoenzymes of shikimate dehydrogenase exhibit activity not only with NADP + , but also with NAD + . The values of K/sub m/ for shikimate, when NADP + and NAD + are used as cofactors, are 0.22 and 1.13 mM, respectively. The enzyme is maximally active at pH 10 with both cofactors. It is suggested that NAD-dependent shikimate dehydrogenase catalyzes the initial reaction of the alternative pathway of the conversion of shikimic acid to hydroxybenzoic acid. The peculiarities of the organization and regulation of the initial reactions of the shikimate pathway in conifers and in plants with shikimate dehydrogenase absolutely specific for NADP are discussed

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  12. Phosphorylation site on yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlinger, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was purified to homogeneity from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Yeast cells were disrupted in a Manton-Gaulin laboratory homogenizer. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was purified by fractionation with polyethylene glycol, isoelectric precipitation, ultracentrifugation and chromatography on hydroxylapatite. Final purification of the yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was achieved by cation-exchange high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). No endogenous pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity was detected during the purification. However, the yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was phosphorylated and inactivated with purified pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase from bovine kidney. Tryptic digestion of the 32 P-labeled complex yielded a single phosphopeptide which was purified to homogeniety. The tryptic digest was subjected to chromatography on a C-18 reverse phase HPLC column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile. Radioactive fractions were pooled, concentrated, and subjected to anion-exchange HPLC. The column was developed with a linear gradient of ammonium acetate. Final purification of the phosphopeptide was achieved by chromatography on a C-18 reverse phase HPLC column developed with a linear gradient of acetonitrile. The amino acid sequence of the homogeneous peptide was determined by manual modified Edman degradation

  13. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES.......043). CONCLUSION: ID is frequent in an outpatient HF clinic. ID is not associated with cardiovascular biomarkers after adjustment for traditional confounders. Inflammation, but not neurohormonal activation is associated with ID in systolic HF. Further studies are needed to understand iron metabolism in elderly HF...

  14. Identification of the 2-Hydroxyglutarate and Isovaleryl-CoA Dehydrogenases as Alternative Electron Donors Linking Lysine Catabolism to the Electron Transport Chain of Arabidopsis Mitochondria[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Wagner L.; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Larson, Tony R.; Tohge, Takayuki; Krahnert, Ina; Witt, Sandra; Obata, Toshihiro; Schauer, Nicolas; Graham, Ian A.; Leaver, Christopher J.; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2010-01-01

    The process of dark-induced senescence in plants is relatively poorly understood, but a functional electron-transfer flavoprotein/electron-transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF/ETFQO) complex, which supports respiration during carbon starvation, has recently been identified. Here, we studied the responses of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in the expression of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase to extended darkness and other environmental stresses. Evaluations of the mutant phenotypes following carbon starvation induced by extended darkness identify similarities to those exhibited by mutants of the ETF/ETFQO complex. Metabolic profiling and isotope tracer experimentation revealed that isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase is involved in degradation of the branched-chain amino acids, phytol, and Lys, while 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase is involved exclusively in Lys degradation. These results suggest that isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase is the more critical for alternative respiration and that a series of enzymes, including 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase, plays a role in Lys degradation. Both physiological and metabolic phenotypes of the isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase mutants were not as severe as those observed for mutants of the ETF/ETFQO complex, indicating some functional redundancy of the enzymes within the process. Our results aid in the elucidation of the pathway of plant Lys catabolism and demonstrate that both isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase act as electron donors to the ubiquinol pool via an ETF/ETFQO-mediated route. PMID:20501910

  15. Characterization of phosphorylated isocitrate dehydrogenase and purification of the isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malloy, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    NADP + -specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH; EC 1.1.1.42) was shown to be phosphorylated with ( 32 P)-orthophosphate in vivo in several strains of Escherichia coli. In strain KC 13, an adenylate cyclase deficient mutant, the specific activity of IDH decreased 70% when acetate was added to stationary phase cultures grown on glucose. The enzyme was immunoprecipitated from sonic extracts and shown to contain 32 P by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The results demonstrate that unlike many eukaryotic protein kinases, the protein kinase involved in the phosphorylation of IDH in E. coli does not require cyclic adenosine monophosphate for catalysis. Similarly, the phosphorylation of IDH was demonstrated in E. coli mutants deficient in either isocitrate lyase or malate synthase. The incorporation of 32 P in IDH was demonstrated following SDS-PAGE and autoradiography of the immunoprecipitated enzyme. These results suggest that the conditions required for the phosphorylation of IDH do not depend on the functioning of the glyoxylate shunt. Following in vivo 32 P-labeling of E. coli strain F143/KL259 in the presence of acetate, 32 P-labeled IDH was isolated from sonicated extracts of the cells. The 32 P-enzyme was carboxylmethylated and digested with trypsin. A single 32 P-labeled peptide was isolated from the tryptic digest. Amino acid analysis of the purified 32 P-labeled peptide showed that the peptide contains seven amino acids, including a single phosphorylated serine residue

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency ... anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen for iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor ...

  18. Inducible xylitol dehydrogenases in enteric bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Doten, R C; Mortlock, R P

    1985-01-01

    Morganella morganii ATCC 25829, Providencia stuartii ATCC 25827, Serratia marcescens ATCC 13880, and Erwinia sp. strain 4D2P were found to induce a xylitol dehydrogenase when grown on a xylitol-containing medium. The xylitol dehydrogenases were partially purified from the four strains, and those from M. morganii ATCC 25829, P. stuartii ATCC 25827, and S. marcescens ATCC 13880 were all found to oxidize xylitol to D-xylulose. These three enzymes had KmS for xylitol of 7.1 to 16.4 mM and molecul...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to moderate iron-deficiency anemia, or red blood cell transfusion for severe iron-deficiency anemia. You may ... body needs iron to make healthy red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because ...

  1. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are unique to specific vitamin deficiencies. Folate-deficiency anemia risk factors include: Undergoing hemodialysis for kidney failure. ... the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack of intrinsic factor. Most ...

  2. The domain-specific and temperature-dependent protein misfolding phenotype of variant medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jank, Johanna M.; Maier, Esther M.; Reiβ, Dunja D.; Haslbeck, Martin; Kemter, Kristina F.; Truger, Marietta S.; Sommerhoff, Christian P.; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Wanders, Ronald J.; Gersting, Søren W.; Muntau, Ania C.

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of expanded newborn screening programs reduced mortality and morbidity in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) caused by mutations in the ACADM gene. However, the disease is still potentially fatal. Missense induced MCADD is a protein misfolding disease with a

  3. Physiological covalent regulation of rat liver branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.A.; Powell, S.M.; Paxton, R.; Gillim, S.E.; Nagae, H.

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical assay was developed for measuring branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase activity of Triton X-100 extracts of freeze-clamped rat liver. The proportion of active (dephosphorylated) enzyme was determined by measuring enzyme activities before and after activation of the complex with a broad-specificity phosphoprotein phosphatase. Hepatic branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase activity in normal male Wistar rats was 97% active but decreased to 33% active after 2 days on low-protein (8%) diet and to 13% active after 4 days on the same diet. Restricting protein intake of lean and obese female Zucker rats also caused inactivation of hepatic branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. Essentially all of the enzyme was in the active state in rats maintained for 14 days on either 30 or 50% protein diets. This was also the case for rats maintained on a commercial chow diet (minimum 23% protein). However, maintaining rats on 20, 8, and 0% protein diets decreased the percentage of the active form of the enzyme to 58, 10, and 7% of the total, respectively. Fasting of chow-fed rats for 48 h had no effect on the activity state of hepatic branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase, i.e., 93% of the enzyme remained in the active state compared to 97% for chow-fed rats. However, hepatic enzyme of rats maintained on 8% protein diet was 10% active before starvation and 83% active after 2 days of starvation. Thus, dietary protein deficiency results in inactivation of hepatic branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex, presumably as a consequence of low hepatic levels of branched-chain alpha-ketoacids

  4. (G6PD) in stored blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red blood cell viability in stored blood determines successful transfusion. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity has been shown to maintain red blood cell membrane integrity. This study was, therefore, aimed at estimating the G6PD activity in stored blood bags at the blood bank of the University of Nigeria ...

  5. ONLINE MONITORING OF EXTRACELLULAR BRAIN GLUCOSE USING MICRODIALYSIS AND A NADPH-LINKED ENZYMATIC ASSAY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERKUIL, JHF; KORF, J

    A method to monitor extracellular glucose in freely moving rats, based on intracerebral microdialysis coupled to an enzyme reactor is described. The dialysate is continuously mixed with a solution containing the enzymes hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and the fluorescence of NADPH

  6. Metabolic Control Analysis aimed at the ribose synthesis pathways of tumor cells: a new strategy for antitumor drug development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boren, Joan; Montoya, Antonio Ramos; de Atauri, Pedro; Comin-Anduix, Begoña; Cortes, Antonio; Centelles, Josep J.; Frederiks, Wilma M.; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Cascante, Marta

    2002-01-01

    Metabolic control analysis predicts that effects on tumor growth are likely to be obtained with lower concentrations of drug, if an enzyme with a high control coefficient on tumor growth is being inhibited. Here we measure glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) control coefficient on in vivo

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 60 ... Vol 1, No 2 (2012), Assessment of the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in ... Vol 5, No 3 (2016), Effect of aqueous extract of alligator pepper ... antigen sero-positivity and Hepatitis C virus among voluntary blood ...

  8. Molecular Identification of G6PD Chatham (G1003A) in Khuzestan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the first enzyme in pentose phosphate pathway and the main intracel- lular source of NADPH. Since G6PD is the only source of. NADPH in red blood cells, defense against oxidative damage strongly depends on its activity (Mehta et al. 2000). Defi- ciency of G6PD enzyme in ...

  9. Recovery of active pathogenesis-related enzymes from the apoplast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall protease activity intensity was higher in the symplast. Maximum symplast contamination of the apoplast was 2% as estimated by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, a biochemical marker for symplast. Accumulation of pathogenesis-related enzymatic activities in the apoplast of M. acuminata leaf tissue was ...

  10. HL-1 mouse cardiomyocyte injury and death after simulated ischemia and reperfusion: roles of pH, Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2, and Na+/H+ exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ann-Dorit; Poulsen, Kristian Arild; Lambert, Ian H

    2009-01-01

    activation were reduced after acidic compared with neutral SI, whereas necrotic death, estimated as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase release, was similar in the two conditions. Inhibition of iPLA(2)-VI activity by bromoenol lactone (BEL) elicited cardiomyocyte necrosis during normoxia and after acidic, yet...

  11. Histochemical demonstration of creatine kinase activity using polyvinyl alcohol and auxiliary enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiks, W. M.; Marx, F.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1987-01-01

    Creatine kinase activity (EC 2.7.3.2.) has been demonstrated in myocardium and skeletal muscle from rats by a method based on the incubation of cryostat sections with a polyvinyl alcohol-containing medium and the use of auxiliary enzymes. Hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were spread

  12. Optimization of Adsorptive Immobilization of Alcohol Dehydrogenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivedi, Archana; Heinemann, Matthias; Spiess, Antje C.; Daussmann, Thomas; Büchs, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    In this work, a systematic examination of various parameters of adsorptive immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) on solid support is performed and the impact of these parameters on immobilization efficiency is studied. Depending on the source of the enzymes, these parameters differently

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español Iron-deficiency anemia is a ... address the cause of your iron deficiency, such as any underlying bleeding. If undiagnosed or untreated, iron- ...

  14. Carbohydrate metabolism in erythrocytes of copper deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S P J; Cockell, K A; Dawson, B A; Ratnayake, W M N; Lampi, B J; Belonje, B; Black, D B; Plouffe, L J

    2003-11-01

    Dietary copper deficiency is known to adversely affect the circulatory system of fructose-fed rats. Part of the problem may lie in the effect of copper deficiency on intermediary metabolism. To test this, weanling male Long-Evans rats were fed for 4 or 8 weeks on sucrose-based diets containing low or adequate copper content. Copper deficient rats had significantly lower plasma and tissue copper as well as lower plasma copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase activity. Copper deficient rats also had a significantly higher heart:body weight ratio when compared to pair-fed controls. Direct measurement of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway flux in erythrocytes using (13)C NMR showed no differences in carbon flux from glucose or fructose to pyruvate but a significantly higher flux through the lactate dehydrogenase locus in copper deficient rats (approximately 1.3 times, average of glucose and glucose + fructose measurements). Copper-deficient animals had significantly higher erythrocyte concentrations of glucose, fructose, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and NAD(+). Liver metabolite levels were also affected by copper deficiency being elevated in glycogen and fructose 1-phosphate content. The results show small changes in carbohydrate metabolism of copper deficient rats.

  15. 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 2 in Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kosicka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a serious medical problem affecting the mother and her child and influences their health not only during the pregnancy, but also many years after. Although preeclampsia is a subject of many research projects, the etiology of the condition remains unclear. One of the hypotheses related to the etiology of preeclampsia is the deficiency in placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2, the enzyme which in normal pregnancy protects the fetus from the excess of maternal cortisol. The reduced activity of the enzyme was observed in placentas from pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia. That suggests the overexposure of the developing child to maternal cortisol, which in high levels exerts proapoptotic effects and reduces fetal growth. The fetal growth restriction due to the diminished placental 11β-HSD2 function may be supported by the fact that preeclampsia is often accompanied with fetal hypotrophy. The causes of the reduced function of 11β-HSD2 in placental tissue are still discussed. This paper summarizes the phenomena that may affect the activity of the enzyme at various steps on the way from the gene to the protein.

  16. Triacylglycerol infusion improves exercise endurance in patients with mitochondrial myopathy due to complex I deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roef, MJ; de Meer, K; Reijngoud, DJ; Straver, HWHC; de Barse, M; Kalhan, SC; Berger, R

    Background: A high-fat diet has been recommended for the treatment of patients with mitochondrial myopathy due to complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) deficiency (CID). Objective: This study evaluated the effects of intravenous infusion of isoenergetic amounts of triacylglycerol or glucose on substrate

  17. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 encodes a primarily multifunctional cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-03-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis.

  18. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 Encodes a Primarily Multifunctional Cinnamyl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Rice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-01-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis. PMID:16443696

  19. O-Alkyl Hydroxamates as Metaphors of Enzyme-Bound Enolate Intermediates in Hydroxy Acid Dehydrogenases. Inhibitors of Isopropylmalate Dehydrogenase, Isocitrate Dehydrogenase, and Tartrate Dehydrogenase(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrung, Michael C.; Han, Hyunsoo; Chen, Jrlung

    1996-07-12

    The inhibition of Thermus thermophilus isopropylmalate dehydrogenase by O-methyl oxalohydroxamate was studied for comparison to earlier results of Schloss with the Salmonella enzyme. It is a fairly potent (1.2 &mgr;M), slow-binding, uncompetitive inhibitor against isopropylmalate and is far superior to an oxamide (25 mM K(i) competitive) that is isosteric with the ketoisocaproate product of the enzyme. This improvement in inhibition was attributed to its increased NH acidity, which presumably is due to the inductive effect of the hydroxylamine oxygen. This principle was extended to the structurally homologous enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase from E. coli, for which the compound O-(carboxymethyl) oxalohydroxamate is a 30 nM inhibitor, uncompetitive against isocitrate. The pH dependence of its inhibition supports the idea that it is bound to the enzyme in the anionic form. Another recently discovered homologous enzyme, tartrate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida, was studied with oxalylhydroxamate. It has a relatively low affinity for the enzyme, though it is superior to tartrate. On the basis of these leads, squaric hydroxamates with increased acidity compared to squaric amides directed toward two of these enzymes were prepared, and they also show increased inhibitory potency, though not approaching the nanomolar levels of the oxalylhydroxamates.

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fatigue or tiredness, shortness of breath, or chest pain. If your doctor diagnoses you with iron-deficiency ... Common symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia include: Chest pain Coldness in the hands and feet Difficulty concentrating ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about exciting research areas that NHLBI is exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  2. Factor VII deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000548.htm Factor VII deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Factor VII (seven) deficiency is a disorder caused by a ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... lead to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia can cause serious complications, including heart failure and development delays in children. Explore this Health ... to iron-deficiency anemia include: End-stage kidney failure, where there is blood loss during dialysis. People ...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... view the colon directly. What if my doctor thinks something else is causing my iron-deficiency anemia? ... deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in premature ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... mg and women need 18 mg. After age 51, both men and women need 8 mg. Pregnant ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about exciting research areas that NHLBI is exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. These conditions include: Intestinal and digestive conditions, such as celiac disease; inflammatory bowel diseases, ... iron-deficiency anemia , such as bleeding in the digestive or urinary tract or heavy menstrual bleeding, your ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from developing iron-deficiency anemia. Foods that are good sources of iron include dried beans, dried fruits, eggs, lean red meat, ... signs of iron-deficiency anemia include: Brittle nails ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ...

  12. Fire Safety Deficiencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all fire safety deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection...

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

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    Full Text Available ... learning how having iron-deficiency anemia early in life affects later behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ... Cells From Iron-deficient Donors: Recovery and Storage Quality. Learn more about participating in a clinical trial . ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... leaving cells where it is stored or from being absorbed in the duodenum, the first part of ... treatments for iron-deficiency anemia. Living With After being diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia, it is important ...

  16. New onset diabetes complicated by haemolysis and rhabdomyolysis: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galtrey Clare M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Previously undiagnosed glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency can be unmasked by a diabetic crisis and both can be associated with rhabdomyolysis. The relationship between diabetes and G6PD deficiency is discussed and the possible triggers for haemolysis as outlined in this case report. The incidence of G6PD deficiency is 10% in African-American males and up to 35% in parts of Africa so an increased awareness of G6PD deficiency is important when treating diabetes in these populations. Case presentation A 54-year-old Kenyan man presented with a 3-day history of reduced appetite, weakness and reduced level of consciousness as a result of a hyperglycaemic diabetic crisis with both hyperosmolarity and ketoacidosis. The patient then developed haemolysis and a raised creatine kinase level. A diagnosis of G6PD deficiency and rhabdomyolysis was made. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of simple laboratory investigations in the early identification of the rarer complications of diabetic crisis such as haemolysis secondary to G6PD deficiency and rhabdomyolysis.

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of your age, ... or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron deficiency at certain ages: Infants between ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer en español ... bleeding Consuming less than recommended daily amounts of iron Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by getting ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Home / < Back To Health Topics / Iron-Deficiency Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Also known as Leer ... and symptoms as well as complications from iron-deficiency anemia. Research for Your Health The NHLBI is part of the U.S. Department ...

  20. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia, your doctor may order the following blood tests to diagnose iron-deficiency anemia: Complete blood count (CBC) to ... than normal when viewed under a microscope. Different tests help your doctor diagnose iron-deficiency anemia. In iron-deficiency anemia, blood ...

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  2. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk de Bruyn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, supplementation with carnitine is advised. This supplementation should be continued throughout pregnancy according to plasma concentrations.

  3. Cloning and expression analysis of alcohol dehydrogenase ( Adh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrid promoters are created by shuffling of DNA fragments while keeping intact regulatory regions crucial of promoter activity. Two fragments of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) promoter from Zea mays were selected to generate hybrid promoter. Sequence analysis of both alcohol dehydrogenase promoter fragments through ...

  4. Enzymatic urea adaptation: lactate and malate dehydrogenase in elasmobranchs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lagana, G.; Bellocco, E.; Mannucci, C.; Leuzzi, U.; Tellone, E.; Kotyk, Arnošt; Galtieri, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 6 (2006), s. 675-688 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : elasmobranchs * lactate dehydrogenase * malate dehydrogenase Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2006

  5. Some Properties of Glutamate Dehydrogenase from the Marine Red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: ammonia assimilation, glutamate dehydrogenase, GDH, Gracilaria sordida, red alga, enzyme activity. Glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH, EC ... Anabolic functions could be assimilation of ammonia released during photorespiration and synthesis of N-rich transport compounds. Western Indian Ocean Journal of ...

  6. Study on the triphenyl tetrazolium chloride– dehydrogenase activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quick analysis of the sludge activity method based on triphenyltetrazolium chloride-dehydrogenase activity (TTC-DHA) was developed to change the rule and status of the biological activity of the activated sludge in tomato paste wastewater treatment. The results indicate that dehydrogenase activity (DHA) can effectively ...

  7. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) mutations identified by MS/MS-based prospective screening of newborns differ from those observed in patients with clinical symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Dobrowolski, S F; O'Reilly, L

    2001-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is the most frequently diagnosed mitochondrial beta-oxidation defect, and it is potentially fatal. Eighty percent of patients are homozygous for a common mutation, 985A-->G, and a further 18% have this mutation in only one disease allele. In a...

  8. INFLUENCE OF SELECTED PHARMACEUTICALS ON ACTIVATED SLUDGE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Tomska

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of selected antibiotics - sulfanilamide and erythromycin on activated sludge dehydrogenase activity with use of trifenyltetrazolinum chloride (TTC test. Dehydrogenases activity is an indicator of biochemical activity of microorganisms present in activated sludge or the ability to degrade organic compounds in waste water. TTC test is particularly useful for the regularity of the course of treatment, in which the presence of inhibitors of biochemical reactions and toxic compounds are present. It was observed that the dehydrogenase activity decreases with the increase of a antibiotics concentration. The lowest value of the dehydrogenase activity equal to 32.4 μmol TF / gMLSS obtained at sulfanilamide concentration 150mg / l. For this sample, an inhibition of dehydrogenase activity was 31%.

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age ... athletes. Athletes, especially young females, are at risk for iron deficiency. Endurance ...

  10. Iodine deficiency disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S M [Pakistan Council for Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1994-12-31

    Iodine deficiency (IDD) is one of the common problem in the diet. Iodine deficiency as prevalence of goiter in population occurs in the mountainous areas. There is consensus that 800 million people are at risk of IDD from living in iodine deficient area and 190 million from goiter. Very high prevalence of IDD in different parts of the world are striking. It has generally observed that in iodine-deficient areas about 50% are affected with goiter, 1-5% from cretinsim and 20% from impaired mental and/or mortor function. (A.B.).

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs. Our ... more information about Donor Iron Deficiency Study - Red Blood Cells ...

  12. Gaseous environment of plants and activity of enzymes of carbohydrate catabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, B.F.; Zemlyanukhin, A.A.; Igamberdiev, A.U.; Salam, A.M.M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors investigated the action of hypoxia and high CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere on activity of phosphofructokinase, aldolase, glucose phosphate isomerase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and isocitrate lyase in pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L.), corn scutella (Zea mays L.), and hemp cotyledons (Cannabis sativa L.). The first 4-12h of hypoxia witnessed suppression of enzymes of the initial stages of glycolysis (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, phosphofructokinase)and activation of enzymes of its final stages (alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase) and enzymes linking glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (aldolase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase). An excess of CO 2 in the environment accelerated and amplified this effect. At the end of a 24-h period of anaerobic incubation, deviations of enzyme activity from the control were leveled in both gaseous environments. An exception was observed in the case of phosphofructokinase, whose activity increased markedly at this time in plants exposed to CO 2 . Changes in activity of the enzymes were coupled with changes in their kinetic parameters (apparent K m and V max values). The activity of isocitrate lyase was suppressed in both variants of hypoxic gaseous environments, a finding that does not agree with the hypothesis as to participation of the glyoxylate cycle in the metabolic response of plants to oxygen stress. Thus, temporary inhibition of the system of glycolysis and activation of the pentose phosphate pathway constituted the initial response of the plants to O 2 stress, and CO 2 intensified this metabolic response

  13. Enantiocomplementary Yarrowia lipolytica Oxidoreductases: Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 and Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Winkler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes of the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica seem to be tailor-made for the conversion of lipophilic substrates. Herein, we cloned and overexpressed the Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 from Yarrowia lipolytica in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was characterized in vitro. The substrate scope for YlADH2 mediated oxidation and reduction was investigated spectrophotometrically and the enzyme showed a broader substrate range than its homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A preference for secondary compared to primary alcohols in oxidation direction was observed for YlADH2. 2-Octanone was investigated in reduction mode in detail. Remarkably, YlADH2 displays perfect (S-selectivity and together with a highly (R-selective short chain dehydrogenase/ reductase from Yarrowia lipolytica it is possible to access both enantiomers of 2-octanol in >99% ee with Yarrowia lipolytica oxidoreductases.

  14. Enantiocomplementary Yarrowia lipolytica Oxidoreductases: Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 and Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napora-Wijata, Kamila; Strohmeier, Gernot A; Sonavane, Manoj N; Avi, Manuela; Robins, Karen; Winkler, Margit

    2013-08-12

    Enzymes of the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica seem to be tailor-made for the conversion of lipophilic substrates. Herein, we cloned and overexpressed the Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 from Yarrowia lipolytica in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was characterized in vitro. The substrate scope for YlADH2 mediated oxidation and reduction was investigated spectrophotometrically and the enzyme showed a broader substrate range than its homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A preference for secondary compared to primary alcohols in oxidation direction was observed for YlADH2. 2-Octanone was investigated in reduction mode in detail. Remarkably, YlADH2 displays perfect (S)-selectivity and together with a highly (R)-selective short chain dehydrogenase/ reductase from Yarrowia lipolytica it is possible to access both enantiomers of 2-octanol in >99% ee with Yarrowia lipolytica oxidoreductases.

  15. Action of sulphite on plant malate dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, I.

    1974-01-01

    SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ acts on NAD- and NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase in several ways. Firstly, SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ favours the appearance of low MW species (65000 and 39000 daltons) in Sephadex gel chromatography. Secondly, the enzyme from which is obtained by gel chromatography with dithioerythritol plus nucleotide cofactor is changed in the presence of SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/. This is indicated by the appearance of a linear reaction (instead of curvilinear), and by the abolition of the biphasic sigmoidal kinetics on varying substrate and cofactor concentrations. Thus the inhibition of initial velocity at high substrate or cofactor concentrations is even more marked than at lower ones. Thirdly, SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ strongly reduces the activity in substrate saturating conditions.

  16. Enantiocomplementary Yarrowia lipolytica Oxidoreductases: Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 and Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase

    OpenAIRE

    Napora-Wijata, Kamila; Strohmeier, Gernot A.; Sonavane, Manoj N.; Avi, Manuela; Robins, Karen; Winkler, Margit

    2013-01-01

    Enzymes of the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica seem to be tailor-made for the conversion of lipophilic substrates. Herein, we cloned and overexpressed the Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 from Yarrowia lipolytica in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was characterized in vitro. The substrate scope for YlADH2 mediated oxidation and reduction was investigated spectrophotometrically and the enzyme showed a broader substrate range than its homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisia...

  17. Evaluation of 5-FU pharmacokinetics in cancer patients with DPD deficiency using a Bayesian limited sampling strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kuilenburg, A.; Hausler, P.; Schalhorn, A.; Tanck, M.; Proost, J.H.; Terborg, C.; Behnke, D.; Schwabe, W.; Jabschinsky, K.; Maring, J.G.

    Aims: Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is the initial enzyme in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and DPD deficiency is an important pharmacogenetic syndrome. The main purpose of this study was to develop a limited sampling strategy to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of 5FU and to detect

  18. Triacylglycerol infusion does not improve hyperlactemia in resting patients with mitochondrial myopathy due to complex I deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roef, MJ; de Meer, K; Reijngoud, DJ; Straver, HWHC; de Barse, M; Kalhan, SC; Berger, R

    Background: A high-fat diet has been recommended for correction of biochemical abnormalities and muscle energy state in patients with complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) deficiency (CID). Objective: This study evaluated the effects of intravenous infusion of isoenergetic amounts of triacylglycerol or

  19. Multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase causing excessive acetaldehyde production from ethanol by oral streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Sylvia I; Jin, Ling; Gasparovich, Stephen R; Tao, Lin

    2013-07-01

    Ethanol consumption and poor oral hygiene are risk factors for oral and oesophageal cancers. Although oral streptococci have been found to produce excessive acetaldehyde from ethanol, little is known about the mechanism by which this carcinogen is produced. By screening 52 strains of diverse oral streptococcal species, we identified Streptococcus gordonii V2016 that produced the most acetaldehyde from ethanol. We then constructed gene deletion mutants in this strain and analysed them for alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases by zymograms. The results showed that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol and ethanol, respectively. Two additional dehydrogenases, S-AdhA and TdhA, were identified with specificities to the secondary alcohol 2-propanol and threonine, respectively, but not to ethanol. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase even though its adhE gene encodes a putative bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Mutants with adhE deletion showed greater tolerance to ethanol in comparison with the wild-type and mutant with adhA or adhB deletion, indicating that AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Analysis of 19 additional strains of S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis showed expressions of up to three alcohol dehydrogenases, but none showed detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, except one strain that showed a novel ALDH. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase may contribute to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by certain oral streptococci.

  20. Acquired multiple Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in 10 horses with atypical myopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, C. M.; Dorland, L.; Votion, D. M.; de Sain-van der Velden, M. G. M.; Wijnberg, I. D.; Wanders, R. J. A.; Spliet, W. G. M.; Testerink, N.; Berger, R.; Ruiter, J. P. N.; van der Kolk, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess lipid metabolism in horses with atypical myopathy. Urine samples from 10 cases were subjected to analysis of organic acids, glycine conjugates, and acylcarnitines revealing increased mean excretion of lactic acid, ethylmalonic acid, 2-methylsuccinic acid,

  1. Genetics Home Reference: short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... An Y, Weavil SD, Chaing SH, Bali D, McDonald MT, Kishnani PS, Chen YT, Millington DS. Rare ... 10 All Bulletins Features What is direct-to-consumer genetic testing? What are genome editing and CRISPR- ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Resources Formal Diagnostic Criteria (1 link) ACT Sheet: Elevated C16-OH +/- C18:1-OH and Other Long Chain Acylcarnitines (PDF) Formal Treatment/Management Guidelines (1 link) New England Consortium of Metabolic ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Resources Formal Diagnostic Criteria (1 link) ACT Sheet: Elevated C14:1 +/- other long-chain acylcarnitines (PDF) Formal Treatment/Management Guidelines (1 link) New England Consortium of Metabolic ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Resources Formal Diagnostic Criteria (1 link) ACT Sheet: Elevated C8 with Lesser Elevations of C6 and C10 Acylcarnitine (PDF) Formal Treatment/Management Guidelines (2 links) British Inherited Metabolic Disease Group: ...

  5. Glucose replaces glutamate as energy substrate to fuel glutamate uptake in glutamate dehydrogenase-deficient astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pajęcka, Kamilla; Nissen, Jakob D; Stridh, Malin H

    2015-01-01

    -500 µM) in the presence or in the absence of glucose, the metabolism of these substrates was studied by using tritiated glutamate or 2-deoxyglucose as tracers. In addition, the cellular contents of glutamate and ATP were determined. The astrocytes were able to maintain physiological levels of ATP...... regardless of the expression level of GDH and the incubation condition, indicating a high degree of flexibility with regard to regulatory mechanisms involved in maintaining an adequate energy level in the cells. Glutamate uptake was found to be increased in these cells when exposed to increasing levels...

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. Read more New treatments for disorders that lead to iron-deficiency anemia. We are ... and other pathways. This could help develop new therapies for conditions that ... behavior, thinking, and mood during adolescence. Treating anemia in ...

  7. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... loss and lead to iron-deficiency anemia. Common causes of blood loss that lead to iron-deficiency anemia include: Bleeding in your GI tract, from an ulcer, colon cancer, or regular use of medicines such as aspirin ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) to learn about research that ... iron-deficiency anemia in blood donors affects the quality of donated red blood cells, such as how ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blocks the intestine from taking up iron. Other medical conditions Other medical conditions that may lead to iron-deficiency anemia ... daily amount of iron. If you have other medical conditions that cause iron-deficiency anemia , such as ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend you eat heart-healthy foods or control other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Are you curious about how inflammation from chronic diseases can cause iron-deficiency anemia? Read more When there is ... DBDR) is a leader in research on the causes, prevention, and treatment of blood diseases, including iron-deficiency anemia. Search the NIH Research ...

  13. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics section only, or the News and Resources section. NHLBI Entire Site NHLBI Entire Site Health ... español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia that occurs if you do not have enough iron in your body. People with mild or moderate iron-deficiency anemia ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia usually develops over time because your body’s intake of iron is too ... clamping of your newborn’s umbilical cord at the time of delivery. This may help prevent iron-deficiency ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other conditions that can cause iron-deficiency anemia. Blood tests to screen for iron-deficiency anemia To screen ... check the size of your liver and spleen. Blood tests Based on results from blood tests to screen ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also are hoping to determine which iron supplements work best to treat iron-deficiency anemia in children who do not consume the daily recommended amount of iron. Read less Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials We lead or sponsor many studies related to iron-deficiency anemia. See if you ...

  19. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia that occurs if you do not ... iron-deficiency anemia and help rule out other types of anemia. Treatment will explain treatment-related complications ...

  20. Iron deficiency in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijterschout, L.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Iron is involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism, immune response, and plays an important role in brain development. In infancy, ID is associated with adverse effects on cognitive, motor, and behavioral development

  1. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anemia. Return to Signs, Symptoms, and Complications to review signs and symptoms as well as complications from iron-deficiency ... NIH]) Heavy Menstrual Bleeding (Centers for Disease Control and ... Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet (NIH) Iron-Deficiency Anemia (National Library ...

  2. Iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, ... you are experiencing side effects such as a bad metallic taste, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, or upset stomach. ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how we are using current research and advancing research to prevent iron-deficiency anemia. Participate in NHLBI Clinical Trials will explain our ongoing clinical studies that are investigating prevention strategies for iron-deficiency anemia. Signs, Symptoms, and Complications ...

  5. Molecular analysis of mutant and wild type alcohol dehydrogenase alleles from Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Wild type alcohol dehydrogenase polypeptides (ADH) from Drosophila melanogaster transformants were examined using western blots and polyclonal antiserum specific for Drosophila melanogaster ADH. Mutants induced in Drosophila spermatozoa at the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) locus using X-rays, 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea (ENU) or ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) were characterized using genetic complementation tests, western blots, Southern blots, northern blots and enzymatic amplification of the Adh locus. Genetic complementation tests showed that 22/30 X-ray-induced mutants, and 3/13 ENU and EMS induced mutants were multi-locus deficiencies. Western blot analysis of the intragenic mutations showed that 4/7 X-ray-induced mutants produced detectable polypeptides, one of which was normal in molecular weight and charge. In contrast 8/10 intragenic ENU and EMS induced mutants produced normal polypeptides. Southern blot analysis showed that 5/7 intragenic X-ray induced mutants and all 10 of the intragenic ENU and EMS induced mutants were normal with respect to the alleles they were derived from

  6. Characterization of cDNAs encoding human pyruvate dehydrogenase α subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Lap; Wexler, I.D.; Liu, Techung; Thekkumkara, T.J.; Patel, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    A cDNA clone (1,423 base pairs) comprising the entire coding region of the precursor form of the α subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase (E 1 α) has been isolated from a human liver cDNA library in phage λgt11. The first 29 amino acids deduced from the open reading frame correspond to a typical mitochondrial targeting leader sequence. The remaining 361 amino acids, starting at the N terminus with phenylalanine, represent the mature mitochondrial E 1 α peptide. The cDNA has 43 base pairs in the 5' untranslated region and 210 base pairs in the 3' untranslated region, including a polyadenylylation signal and a short poly(A) tract. The nucleotide sequence of human liver E 1 α cDNA was confirmed by the nucleotide sequences of three overlapping fragments generated from human liver and fibroblast RNA by reverse transcription and DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction. This consensus nucleotide sequence of human liver E 1 α cDNA resolves existing discrepancies among three previously reported human E 1 α cDNAs and provides the unambiguous reference sequence needed for the characterization of genetic mutations in pyruvate dehydrogenase-deficient patients

  7. Retinol dehydrogenase-10 regulates pancreas organogenesis and endocrine cell differentiation via paracrine retinoic acid signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arregi, Igor; Climent, Maria; Iliev, Dobromir

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A-derived retinoic acid (RA) signals are critical for the development of several organs, including the pancreas. However, the tissue-specific control of RA synthesis in organ and cell lineage development has only poorly been addressed in vivo. Here we show that Retinol dehydrogenase-10 (Rdh......10), a key enzyme in embryonic RA production, has important functions in pancreas organogenesis and endocrine cell differentiation. Rdh10 was expressed in the developing pancreas epithelium and surrounding mesenchyme. Rdh10 null mutant mouse embryos exhibited dorsal pancreas agenesis...... and a hypoplastic ventral pancreas with retarded tubulogenesis and branching. Conditional disruption of Rdh10 from the endoderm caused increased mortality, reduced body weight and lowered blood glucose levels after birth. Endodermal Rdh10 deficiency led to a smaller dorsal pancreas with a reduced density of early...

  8. Thiamine and magnesium deficiencies: keys to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, D

    2015-02-01

    Thiamine deficiency (TD) is accepted as the cause of beriberi because of its action in the metabolism of simple carbohydrates, mainly as the rate limiting cofactor for the dehydrogenases of pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate, both being critical to the action of the citric acid cycle. Transketolase, dependent on thiamine and magnesium, occurs twice in the oxidative pentose pathway, important in production of reducing equivalents. Thiamine is also a cofactor in the dehydrogenase complex in the degradation of the branched chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine and valine. In spite of these well accepted facts, the overall clinical effects of TD are still poorly understood. Because of the discovery of 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase (HACL1) as the first peroxisomal enzyme in mammals found to be dependent on thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and the ability of thiamine to bind with prion protein, these factors should improve our clinical approach to TD. HACL1 has two important roles in alpha oxidation, the degradation of phytanic acid and shortening of 2-hydroxy long-chain fatty acids so that they can be degraded further by beta oxidation. The downstream effects of a lack of efficiency in this enzyme would be expected to be critical in normal brain metabolism. Although TD has been shown experimentally to produce reversible damage to mitochondria and there are many other causes of mitochondrial dysfunction, finding TD as the potential biochemical lesion would help in differential diagnosis. Stresses imposed by infection, head injury or inoculation can initiate intermittent cerebellar ataxia in thiamine deficiency/dependency. Medication or vaccine reactions appear to be more easily initiated in the more intelligent individuals when asymptomatic marginal malnutrition exists. Erythrocyte transketolase testing has shown that thiamine deficiency is widespread. It is hypothesized that the massive consumption of empty calories, particularly those derived from carbohydrate and fat, results in

  9. 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Intracellular Gate-Keepers of Tissue Glucocorticoid Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Karen; Holmes, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoid action on target tissues is determined by the density of “nuclear” receptors and intracellular metabolism by the two isozymes of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) which catalyze interconversion of active cortisol and corticosterone with inert cortisone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone. 11β-HSD type 1, a predominant reductase in most intact cells, catalyzes the regeneration of active glucocorticoids, thus amplifying cellular action. 11β-HSD1 is widely expressed in liver, adipose tissue, muscle, pancreatic islets, adult brain, inflammatory cells, and gonads. 11β-HSD1 is selectively elevated in adipose tissue in obesity where it contributes to metabolic complications. Similarly, 11β-HSD1 is elevated in the ageing brain where it exacerbates glucocorticoid-associated cognitive decline. Deficiency or selective inhibition of 11β-HSD1 improves multiple metabolic syndrome parameters in rodent models and human clinical trials and similarly improves cognitive function with ageing. The efficacy of inhibitors in human therapy remains unclear. 11β-HSD2 is a high-affinity dehydrogenase that inactivates glucocorticoids. In the distal nephron, 11β-HSD2 ensures that only aldosterone is an agonist at mineralocorticoid receptors (MR). 11β-HSD2 inhibition or genetic deficiency causes apparent mineralocorticoid excess and hypertension due to inappropriate glucocorticoid activation of renal MR. The placenta and fetus also highly express 11β-HSD2 which, by inactivating glucocorticoids, prevents premature maturation of fetal tissues and consequent developmental “programming.” The role of 11β-HSD2 as a marker of programming is being explored. The 11β-HSDs thus illuminate the emerging biology of intracrine control, afford important insights into human pathogenesis, and offer new tissue-restricted therapeutic avenues. PMID:23899562

  10. Next-generation sequencing-based molecular diagnosis of chronic non-spherocytic hemolysis in erythrocytic enzymopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Jamwal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in genes encoding red blood cell enzymes are often inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and can lead to chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (CNSHA in homozygotes and compound heterozygotes. Usual clinical manifestations include jaundice, cholelithiasis and splenomegaly with normocytic normochromic hemolysis. Phenotypes range from fully-compensated hemolysis (without anemia to transfusion-dependent states. Definitive diagnosis requires biochemical testing of enzyme levels, which for rarer enzymes are often difficult and not easily available. Molecular diagnosis using a gene-by-gene approach is expensive, time-consuming and cumbersome. Targeted resequencing can expedite the molecular diagnosis in cases where the hemolysis remains unexplained after routine laboratory tests. Ten patients with clinical and laboratory evidence suggestive of hemolytic anemia, but negative family history, were enrolled. Various biochemical and molecular tests were used to exclude glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency, thalassemias, hemoglobinopathies, autoimmune hemolysis, hereditary spherocytosis and pyruvate kinase (PKLR deficiency. Common G6PD and PKLR variants were excluded by molecular tests. DNA Libraries were prepared using TruSight One™ panel and sequenced on MiSeq™ Sequencing System. MiSeq Reporter™ and VariantStudio™ v2.1 were used for analysis, classification, and reporting of genomic variants reporting genomic variants. All 10 patients’ diagnoses were resolved by targeted resequencing: two had G6PD deficiency, two had glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI deficiency and six unexpectedly had pyruvate kinase deficiency despite pyruvate kinase enzyme activity assays previously being normal in all. All the mutations were predicted deleterious by PolyPhen, SIFT, Provean, mutpred and Mutationtaster software. The mutations were validated in parents and/or siblings (where available to establish the mode of inheritance. Our

  11. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ralph; Allen, Lindsay H; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2017-01-01

    , subclinical deficiency affects between 2.5% and 26% of the general population depending on the definition used, although the clinical relevance is unclear. B12 deficiency can affect individuals at all ages, but most particularly elderly individuals. Infants, children, adolescents and women of reproductive age...... remain debated. Management depends on B12 supplementation, either via high-dose oral routes or via parenteral administration. This Primer describes the current knowledge surrounding B12 deficiency, and highlights improvements in diagnostic methods as well as shifting concepts about the prevalence, causes...

  12. Properties of glucoside 3-dehydrogenase and its potential applications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... dehydrogenase has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to broad substrate specificity and excellent ... site-selective oxidation of the C-3 hydroxyl group. .... single peptide with a molecular mass of 67 kDa in.

  13. 21 CFR 862.1500 - Malic dehydrogenase test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... plasma. Malic dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of muscle and liver... marrow) leukemia. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket...

  14. Modeling of NAD+ analogues in horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer, N.A.; Buck, H.M.; Sluyterman, L.A.A.E.; Meijer, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    So far, the interactions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) derivatives with dehydrogenases are not very well understood. This hampers the introduction of NAD+ analogues with improved characteristics concerning industrial application. We have developed an AMBER molecular mechanics model in

  15. An improved method for the assay of platelet pyruvate dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schofield, P.J.; Griffiths, L.R.; Rogers, S.H.

    1980-01-01

    An improved method for the assay of human platelet pyruvate dehydrogenase is described. By generating the substrate [1- 14 C]pyruvate in situ from [1- 14 C]lactate plus L-lactate dehydrogenase, the rate of spontaneous decarboxylation is dramatically reduced, allowing far greater sensitivity in the assay of low activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, no special precautions are required for the storage and use of [1- 14 C]lactate, in contrast to those for [1- 14 C]pyruvate. These factors allow a 5-10-fold increase in sensitivity compared with current methods. The pyruvate dehydrogenase activity of normal subjects as determined by the [1- 14 C]lactate system was 215+-55 pmol min -1 mg -1 protein (n=18). The advantages of this assay system are discussed. (Auth.)

  16. Rapid synthesis of triazine inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, William J; Guo, Junqing; Dhar, T G Murali; Shen, Zhongqi; Gu, Henry H; Watterson, Scott H; Bednarz, Mark S; Chen, Bang Chi; Barrish, Joel C; Bassolino, Donna; Cheney, Daniel; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine A; Hollenbaugh, Diane L; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2002-08-19

    A series of novel triazine-based small molecule inhibitors (IV) of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase was prepared. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SAR) derived from in vitro studies are described.

  17. Novel amide-based inhibitors of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Scott H; Liu, Chunjian; Dhar, T G Murali; Gu, Henry H; Pitts, William J; Barrish, Joel C; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine; Sherbina, N Z; Hollenbaugh, Diane L; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2002-10-21

    A series of novel amide-based small molecule inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) was explored. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) derived from in vitro studies are described.

  18. Eucalypt NADP-Dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiffin, Vincent; Hodges, Michael; Gálvez, Susana; Balestrini, Raffaella; Bonfante, Paola; Gadal, Pierre; Martin, Francis

    1998-01-01

    NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) activity is increased in roots of Eucalyptus globulus subsp. bicostata ex Maiden Kirkp. during colonization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius Coker and Couch. To investigate the regulation of the enzyme expression, a cDNA (EgIcdh) encoding the NADP-ICDH was isolated from a cDNA library of E. globulus-P. tinctorius ectomycorrhizae. The putative polypeptide sequence of EgIcdh showed a high amino acid similarity with plant NADP-ICDHs. Because the deduced EgICDH protein lacks an amino-terminal targeting sequence and shows highest similarity to plant cytosolic ICDHs, it probably represents a cytoplasmic isoform. RNA analysis showed that the steady-state level of EgIcdh transcripts was enhanced nearly 2-fold in ectomycorrhizal roots compared with nonmycorrhizal roots. Increased accumulation of NADP-ICDH transcripts occurred as early as 2 d after contact and likely led to the observed increased enzyme activity. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that NADP-ICDH was preferentially accumulated in the epidermis and stele parenchyma of nonmycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal lateral roots. The putative role of cytosolic NADP-ICDH in ectomycorrhizae is discussed. PMID:9662536

  19. Human liver aldehyde dehydrogenase: coenzyme binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosley, L.L.; Pietruszko, R.

    1987-01-01

    The binding of [U- 14 C] NAD to mitochondrial (E2) and cytoplasmin(E1) aldehyde dehydrogenase was measured by gel filtration and sedimentation techniques. The binding data for NAD and (E1) yielded linear Scatchard plots giving a dissociation constant of 25 (+/- 8) uM and the stoichiometry of 2 mol of NAD bound per mol of E1. The binding data for NAD and (E2) gave nonlinear Scatchard plots. The binding of NADH to E2 was measured via fluorescence enhancement; this could not be done with E1 because there was no signal. The dissociation constant for E2 by this technique was 0.7 (+/- 0.4) uM and stoichiometry of 1.0 was obtained. The binding of [U- 14 C] NADH to (E1) and (E2) was also measured by the sedimentation technique. The binding data for (E1) and NADH gave linear Scatchard plots giving a dissociation constant of 13 (+/- 6) uM and the stoichiometry of 2.0. The binding data for NADH to (E2) gave nonlinear Scatchard plots. With (E1), the dissociation constants for both NAD and NADH are similar to those determined kinetically, but the stoichiometry is only half of that found by stopped flow technique. With (E2) the dissociation constant by fluorometric procedure was 2 orders of magnitude less than that from catalytic reaction

  20. Radioimmunoassay of lactate dehydrogenase, H forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvano, R.; Massaglia, A.; Zannino, M.; Palmucci, F.; Cali, V.; Zucchelli, G.C.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa

    1979-01-01

    Antisera to H 4 -lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were elicited in rabbits, against both human (h) and porcine (p) isoenzymes. 125 I-labelled H 4 -LDH was prepared by electrolytic iodination. A simple and fast procedure (1-h incubation for clinical assays) was set up by using polyethylene glycol for the bound-free separation. The results obtained in the antiserum characterization indicated that the heterologous homotetramer, M 4 was completely discriminated in the porcine system, while a weak cross-reaction with human antisera resulted. In both cases, for the hybrid forms, a cross-reactivity level related to the stoichiometric contents of the H-subunit in the tetramers was observed. The H 4 -LDH from other species was found to be much more effectively distinguished in the procine than in the human system. The assay for human LDH was further validated in terms of analytical suitability and clinical response. For healthy subjects the mean concentration was 0.46 +- 0.19 μg/ml (mean +- SD). Patients with acute myocardial infarction had levels ranging from 1.2 to 5.9 μg/ml. (orig.) [de