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Sample records for glucose urinary urea

  1. Relationship between plasma uridine and urinary urea excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka, Tuneyoshi; Inokuchi, Taku; Tamada, Daisuke; Suda, Michio; Tsutsumi, Zenta; Okuda, Chihiro; Yamamoto, Asako; Takahashi, Sumio; Moriwaki, Yuji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2010-03-01

    To investigate whether the concentration of uridine in plasma is related to the urinary excretion of urea, 45 healthy male subjects with normouricemia and normal blood pressure were studied after providing informed consent. Immediately after collection of 24-hour urine, blood samples were drawn after an overnight fast except for water. The contents of ingested foods during the 24-hour urine collection period were described by the subjects and analyzed by a dietician. Simple regression analysis showed that plasma uridine was correlated with the urinary excretions of urea (R = 0.41, P urea. These results suggest that an increase in de novo pyrimidine synthesis leads to an increased concentration of uridine in plasma via nitrogen catabolism in healthy subjects with normouricemia and normal blood pressure. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Association between Blood Levels of Glucose and Urea and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    osman

    2017-08-05

    Aug 5, 2017 ... Normal blood glucose and urea levels in dairy cows vary within breeds, ..... prolapse, and postpartum uterine haemorrhage, the effect of metabolic stress, ... and the effect of efficiency of heat detection on the average days to.

  3. Effect of sodium chloride intake on urine volume, urinary urea excretion, and milk urea concentration in lactating dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Bannink, A.; Gort, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2012-01-01

    Milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) has been shown to be related to excretion of urinary urea N (UUN; g of N/d) and total excretion of urinary N (UN; g of N/d) in dairy cows. In the present experiment, it was hypothesized that MUN and the relationship between MUN and UUN or UN is affected by urine

  4. Influence of glucose and urea on 125I transport across an anion exchange paper membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroyoshi

    2001-01-01

    In order to study the influence of glucose and urea on the 125 I transport across an anion exchange paper membrane, the transmembrane potential, the fluxes, and the concentrations of 125 I, glucose and urea within the membrane were measured in the Na 125 I concentration-cell system containing glucose or urea. Glucose and urea increased the membrane/solution distribution of the iodide ion, but scarcely affected the diffusion process of iodide ion within the membrane

  5. Automated monosegmented flow analyser. Determination of glucose, creatinine and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimundo Júnior, I M; Pasquini, C

    1997-10-01

    An automated monosegmented flow analyser containing a sampling valve and a reagent addition module and employing a laboratory-made photodiode array spectrophotometer as detection system is described. The instrument was controlled by a 386SX IBM compatible microcomputer through an IC8255 parallel port that communicates with the interface which controls the sampling valve and reagent addition module. The spectrophotometer was controlled by the same microcomputer through an RS232 serial standard interface. The software for the instrument was written in QuickBasic 4.5. Opto-switches were employed to detect the air bubbles limiting the monosegment, allowing precise sample localisation for reagent addition and signal reading. The main characteristics of the analyser are low reagent consumption and high sensitivity which is independent of the sample volume. The instrument was designed to determine glucose, creatinine or urea in blood plasma and serum without hardware modification. The results were compared against those obtained by the Clinical Hospital of UNICAMP using commercial analysers. Correlation coefficients among the methods were 0.997, 0.982 and 0.996 for glucose, creatinine and urea, respectively.

  6. 21 CFR 862.1340 - Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...). Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolism disorders including diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia. (b) Classification. Class...

  7. Transgenic Restoration of Urea Transporter A1 Confers Maximal Urinary Concentration in the Absence of Urea Transporter A3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Janet D; Wang, Yanhua; Mistry, Abinash; LaRocque, Lauren M; Molina, Patrick A; Rogers, Richard T; Blount, Mitsi A; Sands, Jeff M

    2016-05-01

    Urea has a critical role in urinary concentration. Mice lacking the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) urea transporter A1 (UT-A1) and urea transporter A3 (UT-A3) have very low levels of urea permeability and are unable to concentrate urine. To investigate the role of UT-A1 in the concentration of urine, we transgenically expressed UT-A1 in knockout mice lacking UT-A1 and UT-A3 using a construct with a UT-A1 gene that cannot be spliced to produce UT-A3. This construct was inserted behind the original UT-A promoter to yield a mouse expressing only UT-A1 (UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-)). Western blot analysis demonstrated UT-A1 in the inner medulla of UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) and wild-type mice, but not in UT-A1/UT-A3 knockout mice, and an absence of UT-A3 in UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) and UT-A1/UT-A3 knockout mice. Immunohistochemistry in UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) mice also showed negative UT-A3 staining in kidney and other tissues and positive UT-A1 staining only in the IMCD. Urea permeability in isolated perfused IMCDs showed basal permeability in the UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) mice was similar to levels in wild-type mice, but vasopressin stimulation of urea permeability in wild-type mice was significantly greater (100% increase) than in UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) mice (8% increase). Notably, basal urine osmolalities in both wild-type and UT-A1(+/+)/UT-A3(-/-) mice increased upon overnight water restriction. We conclude that transgenic expression of UT-A1 restores basal urea permeability to the level in wild-type mice but does not restore vasopressin-stimulated levels of urea permeability. This information suggests that transgenic expression of UT-A1 alone in mice lacking UT-A1 and UT-A3 is sufficient to restore urine-concentrating ability. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. Urinary Urea Excretion and Long-Term Outcome After Renal Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deetman, Petronella E.; Said, M. Yusof; Kromhout, Daan; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Kootstra-Ros, Jenny E.; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F.; Seelen, Marc A. J.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Navis, Gerjan; Joosten, Michel M.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about optimal protein intake after transplantation. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate associations of urinary urea excretion, a marker for protein intake, with graft failure and mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTR) and potential effect

  9. Urinary Urea excretion and Long-Term outcome after renal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deetman, P.E.; Said, M.Y.; Kromhout, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about optimal protein intake after transplantation. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate associations of urinary urea excretion, a marker for protein intake, with graft failure and mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTR) and potential effect

  10. Prediction of urinary nitrogen and urinary urea nitrogen excretion by lactating dairy cattle in northwestern Europe and North America: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Dijkstra, J.; Duinkerken, van G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Bannink, A.

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on the effect of dietary and animal factors on the excretion of total urinary nitrogen (UN) and urinary urea nitrogen (UUN) in lactating dairy cattle in North America (NA) and northwestern Europe (EU). Mean treatment data were used from 47 trials carried out in NA and

  11. Undernutrition and serum and urinary urea nitrogen of white-tailed deer during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1994-01-01

    Direct, practical means of assessing undernutrition in deer (Odocoileus spp.) and other ungulates during winter are needed in areas of research and management. We examined the relationship between mass loss and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine (U:C) in captive white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). During 4 February-5 May 1988, we maintained 7 adult white-tailed deer on various feeding regimes to simulate natural nutritional restriction during winter. Mass loss was greater (P = 0.037) in deer (17.0-32.2%) fed restricted amounts of a low protein low energy diet versus control deer (7.0-17.4%) fed the same diet ad libitum. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations did not differ (P = 0.191) between groups, but declined (P = 0.001) as nutrition declined. Slopes of percent mass lossSUN and urinary U:C relationships were positive (P = 0.008 and 0.055) in 7 and 6 deer, respectively. Mean U:C was directly related (r2 = 0.52, P = 0.040) to mean cumulative mass loss, whereas mean SUN was not (r2 = 0.29, P = 0.125). Data presented support the potential of urinary U:C as an index of winter nutritional condition of white-tailed deer; however, additional research is required to provide a complete understanding of this index's utility under field conditions.

  12. Effect of extradural blockage upon glucose and urea kinetics in surgical patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J.H.; Galler, L.; Holdaway, I.M.; Holdaway, C.M.

    1987-09-01

    We have determined the metabolic effects induced by the use of extradural blockage with 0.5 per cent bupivacaine hydrochloride in a group of surgical patients. Turnover rates of glucose and urea were determined isotopically using radioisotopes and studies were performed both in the basal state and during total parenteral nutrition. In the basal state, extradural blockade resulted in a decrease in the turnover rates of both glucose and urea. In addition, when extradural blockade was instituted while the patients were receiving total parenteral nutrition, there was also a significant fall in glucose turnover. We conclude that the use of extradural blockade is effective as a means of conserving bodily resources in surgical patients both in the basal state and during total parenteral nutrition.

  13. Effect of extradural blockage upon glucose and urea kinetics in surgical patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, J.H.; Galler, L.; Holdaway, I.M.; Holdaway, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    We have determined the metabolic effects induced by the use of extradural blockage with 0.5 per cent bupivacaine hydrochloride in a group of surgical patients. Turnover rates of glucose and urea were determined isotopically using radioisotopes and studies were performed both in the basal state and during total parenteral nutrition. In the basal state, extradural blockade resulted in a decrease in the turnover rates of both glucose and urea. In addition, when extradural blockade was instituted while the patients were receiving total parenteral nutrition, there was also a significant fall in glucose turnover. We conclude that the use of extradural blockade is effective as a means of conserving bodily resources in surgical patients both in the basal state and during total parenteral nutrition

  14. Regional changes in renal cortical glucose, lactate and urea during acute unilateral ureteral obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Peter-Martin; Stolle, Lars B; Rawashdeh, Yazan F

    2007-01-01

    . Furthermore, we investigated regional variations in renal interstitial fluid (RIF) glucose, lactate and urea during acute UUO. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight anesthetized pigs were used. Microdialysis probes were inserted in the upper, middle and lower thirds of the left renal cortex and perfused with Ringer...... third. RIF lactate did not change. Interstitial urea increased in all regions of the kidney, but most markedly in the upper and lower poles. CONCLUSIONS: Microdialysis is of potential value for assessing the renal interstitial milieu under different pathophysiological conditions. Ureteral obstruction...

  15. Enzyme biosensor systems based on porous silicon photoluminescence for detection of glucose, urea and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syshchyk, Olga; Skryshevsky, Valeriy A; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O; Soldatkin, Alexey P

    2015-04-15

    A phenomenon of changes in photoluminescence of porous silicon at variations in medium pH is proposed to be used as a basis for the biosensor system development. The method of conversion of a biochemical signal into an optical one is applied for direct determination of glucose and urea as well as for inhibitory analysis of heavy metal ions. Changes in the quantum yield of porous silicon photoluminescence occur at varying pH of the tested solution due to the enzyme-substrate reaction. When creating the biosensor systems, the enzymes urease and glucose oxidase (GOD) were used as a bioselective material; their optimal concentrations were experimentally determined. It was shown that the photoluminescence intensity of porous silicon increased by 1.7 times when increasing glucose concentration in the GOD-containing reaction medium from 0 to 3.0mM, and decreased by 1.45 times at the same increase in the urea concentration in the urease-containing reaction medium. The calibration curves of dependence of the biosensor system responses on the substrate concentrations are presented. It is shown that the presence of heavy metal ions (Cu(2+), Pb(2+), and Cd(2+)) in the tested solution causes an inhibition of the enzymatic reactions catalyzed by glucose oxidase and urease, which results in a restoration of the photoluminescence quantum yield of porous silicon. It is proposed to use this effect for the inhibitory analysis of heavy metal ions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Urinary phenylacetylglutamine as dosing biomarker for patients with urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarani, M; Diaz, G A; Rhead, W; Lichter-Konecki, U; Bartley, J; Feigenbaum, A; Longo, N; Berquist, W; Berry, S A; Gallagher, R; Bartholomew, D; Harding, C O; Korson, M S; McCandless, S E; Smith, W; Vockley, J; Bart, S; Kronn, D; Zori, R; Cederbaum, S; Dorrani, N; Merritt, J L; Sreenath-Nagamani, Sandesh; Summar, M; Lemons, C; Dickinson, K; Coakley, D F; Moors, T L; Lee, B; Scharschmidt, B F

    2012-11-01

    We have analyzed pharmacokinetic data for glycerol phenylbutyrate (also GT4P or HPN-100) and sodium phenylbutyrate with respect to possible dosing biomarkers in patients with urea cycle disorders (UCD). These analyses are based on over 3000 urine and plasma data points from 54 adult and 11 pediatric UCD patients (ages 6-17) who participated in three clinical studies comparing ammonia control and pharmacokinetics during steady state treatment with glycerol phenylbutyrate or sodium phenylbutyrate. All patients received phenylbutyric acid equivalent doses of glycerol phenylbutyrate or sodium phenylbutyrate in a cross over fashion and underwent 24-hour blood samples and urine sampling for phenylbutyric acid, phenylacetic acid and phenylacetylglutamine. Patients received phenylbutyric acid equivalent doses of glycerol phenylbutyrate ranging from 1.5 to 31.8 g/day and of sodium phenylbutyrate ranging from 1.3 to 31.7 g/day. Plasma metabolite levels varied widely, with average fluctuation indices ranging from 1979% to 5690% for phenylbutyric acid, 843% to 3931% for phenylacetic acid, and 881% to 1434% for phenylacetylglutamine. Mean percent recovery of phenylbutyric acid as urinary phenylacetylglutamine was 66.4 and 69.0 for pediatric patients and 68.7 and 71.4 for adult patients on glycerol phenylbutyrate and sodium phenylbutyrate, respectively. The correlation with dose was strongest for urinary phenylacetylglutamine excretion, either as morning spot urine (r = 0.730, p phenylbutyric acid AUC(24-hour). Plasma phenylacetic acid levels in adult and pediatric patients did not show a consistent relationship with either urinary phenylacetylglutamine or ammonia control. The findings are collectively consistent with substantial yet variable pre-systemic (1st pass) conversion of phenylbutyric acid to phenylacetic acid and/or phenylacetylglutamine. The variability of blood metabolite levels during the day, their weaker correlation with dose, the need for multiple blood samples

  17. Volumetric and viscometric studies of glucose in binary aqueous solutions of urea at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, T.; Saharay, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Densities and viscosities of glucose in (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0) mass% aqueous urea solutions have been measured at T = (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K, respectively. Apparent molar volumes, limiting partial molar volume, and relative viscosity have been obtained from the density and viscosity results. Limiting partial molar expansibilities have also been calculated from the temperature dependence of limiting partial molar volumes. The viscosity data have been analyzed by using the modified Jones-Dole equation. The results are used to establish the nature of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions. Transition state treatment of the relative viscosity was also used for the calculation of activation parameters of viscous flow. Pour findings show that the solute acts as a water structure former and provides strong solute-solvent interaction.

  18. Volumetric and viscometric studies of urea in binary aqueous solutions of glucose at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, T.; Ray, A.

    2010-01-01

    Densities and viscosities of urea in (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0) mass% of aqueous glucose solutions have been measured at T = (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K, respectively. Apparent molar volumes, limiting partial molar volume, and relative viscosity have been obtained from the density and viscosity data. Limiting partial molar expansibilities have also been calculated from the temperature dependence of limiting partial molar volumes. The viscosity data has been analyzed using the Jones-Dole equation. The results are used to establish the nature of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions. The activation parameters of viscous flow have also been calculated on the basis of transition state treatment of the relative viscosity. Result shows that the solute acts as water structure breaker and posses' weak solute-solvent interaction.

  19. Measurements of urea and glucose in aqueous solutions with dual-beam near-infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P.S.; Bak, J.

    2002-01-01

    of these two modes of operation. The concentrations of aqueous solutions of urea and glucose in the ranges 0-40 mg/dL and 0-250 mg/dL, respectively, were determined by principal component regression using both modes. The dual-beam technique eliminated instrumental variations present in the single...

  20. Glucose and urea kinetics in patients with early and advanced gastrointestinal cancer: the response to glucose infusion, parenteral feeding, and surgical resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, J.H.; Wolfe, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    We isotopically determined rates of glucose turnover, urea turnover, and glucose oxidation in normal volunteers (n = 16), patients with early gastrointestinal (EGI) cancer (n = 6), and patients with advanced gastrointestinal (AGI) cancer (n = 10). Studies were performed in the basal state, during glucose infusion (4 mg/kg/min), and during total parenteral feeding (patients with AGI cancer only). Patients with early stages of the disease were also studied 2 to 3 months after resection of the cancer. Basal rates of glucose turnover were similar in volunteers and in patients with EGI cancer (13.9 +/- 0.3 mumol/kg/min and 13.3 +/- 0.2 mumol/kg/min, respectively) but were significantly higher in patients with AGI cancer (17.6 +/- 1.4 mumol/kg/min). Glucose infusion resulted in significantly less suppression of endogenous production in both patient groups than that seen in the volunteers (76% +/- 6% for EGI group, 69% +/- 7% for AGI group, and 94% +/- 4% for volunteers). The rate of glucose oxidation increased progressively in proportion to the tumor bulk. In the volunteers the percent of VCO2 from glucose oxidation was 23.9% +/- 0.7%, and in EGI and AGI groups the values were 32.8% +/- 2.0% and 43.0% +/- 3.0%, respectively. After curative resection of the cancer, glucose utilization decreased significantly (p less than 0.05). The rate of urea turnover was significantly higher in the AGI group (8.4 +/- 1.0 mumol/kg/min) in comparison with the volunteer group value of 5.9 +/- 0.6 mumol/kg/min (p less than 0.03). Glucose infusion resulted in a significant suppression of urea turnover in the volunteers (p less than 0.02), but in the AGI group glucose infusion did not induce a statistically significant decrease

  1. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Bannink, A.; Gort, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl)

  2. pH-switchable electrochemical sensing platform based on chitosan-reduced graphene oxide/concanavalin a layer for assay of glucose and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yonghai; Liu, Hongyu; Tan, Hongliang; Xu, Fugang; Jia, Jianbo; Zhang, Lixue; Li, Zhuang; Wang, Li

    2014-02-18

    A facile and effective electrochemical sensing platform for the detection of glucose and urea in one sample without separation was developed using chitosan-reduced graphene oxide (CS-rGO)/concanavalin A (Con A) as a sensing layer. The CS-rGO/Con A with pH-dependent surface net charges exhibited pH-switchable response to negatively charged Fe(CN)6(3-). The principle for glucose and urea detection was essentially based on in situ pH-switchable enzyme-catalyzed reaction in which the oxidation of glucose catalyzed by glucose oxidase or the hydrolyzation of urea catalyzed by urease resulted in a pH change of electrolyte solution to give different electrochemical responses toward Fe(CN)6(3-). It was verified by cyclic voltammograms, differential pulse voltammograms, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The resistance to charge transfer or amperometric current changed proportionally toward glucose concentration from 1.0 to 10.0 mM and urea concentration from 1.0 to 7.0 mM. On the basis of human serum experiments, the sensing platform was proved to be suitable for simultaneous assay of glucose and urea in a practical biosystem. This work not only gives a way to detect glucose and urea in one sample without separation but also provides a potential strategy for the detection of nonelectroactive species based on the enzyme-catalyzed reaction and pH-switchable biosensor.

  3. The role of serum and urinary urea in the evaluation of enteral protein intake in adequate and small-for-gestational-age very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Darcie

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Very low birth weight (VLBW infants have special nutritional needs. There is a current tendency to individualize their protein needs. The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of serum and urinary urea as indicators for protein intake in adequate-for-gestational-age (AGA and small-for-gestational-age (SGA VLBW infants. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in the nursery attached to the Maternity Ward of the "Prof. Pedro de Alcântara" Children's Institute, Hospital das Clínicas, Department of Pediatrics, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Seventy-two VLBW infants (mean protein intake = 3.7 mg/kg/day were enrolled in a prospective cohort study in two groups: AGA (n = 34 and SGA (n = 38. Blood samples, six-hour urine (6hUr collections and urine sample tests (STUr were obtained for urea and creatinine assays at three and five weeks of life. Statistical analysis: Student's t test, Pearson correlation and linear regression (p < 0.05. RESULTS: There were no differences between groups for serum urea, 6hUr and STUr, or between two assessments within each group. Serum urea correlated with 6hUr in both AGA and SGA, and to STUr in SGA; 6hUr correlated with STUr in both AGA and SGA. There was no correlation between protein intake and serum or urine urea. CONCLUSIONS: Serum and urinary urea did not reflect protein intake when mean intakes of 3.7 g/kg/day were used. Sample tests of urinary urea can be as reliable as urea from urine collected over longer periods.

  4. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, J W; Bannink, A; Gort, G; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2013-09-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl) intake separately, and their interaction, on MUN and UUN, on the relationship between UUN and MUN, on renal recycling of urea, and on urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract. Twelve second-parity cows (body weight of 645±37 kg, 146±29 d in milk, and a milk production of 34.0±3.28 kg/d), of which 8 were previously fitted with a rumen cannula, were fitted with catheters in the urine bladder and jugular vein. The experiment had a split-plot arrangement with dietary crude protein (CP) content as the main plot factor [116 and 154 g of CP/kg of dry matter (DM)] and dietary NaCl content as the subplot factor (3.1 and 13.5 g of Na/kg of DM). Cows were fed at 95% of the average ad libitum feed intake of cows receiving the low protein diets. Average MUN and UUN were, respectively, 3.90 mg of N/dL and 45 g of N/d higher for the high protein diets compared with the low protein diets. Compared with the low NaCl diets, MUN was, on average, 1.74 mg of N/dL lower for the high NaCl diets, whereas UUN was unaffected. We found no interaction between dietary content of protein and NaCl on performance characteristics or on MUN, UUN, urine production, and renal clearance characteristics. The creatinine clearance rate was not affected by dietary content of protein and NaCl. Urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract, expressed as a fraction of plasma urea entry rate, was negatively related to dietary protein, whereas it was not affected by dietary NaCl content. We found no interaction between dietary protein and NaCl content on plasma urea entry rate and gastrointestinal urea entry rate or their ratio. The relationship between MUN and UUN was significantly affected by the class variable

  5. Clinical chemistry measurements with commercially available test slides on a smartphone platform: Colorimetric determination of glucose and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Boonloed, Anukul; Sleszynski, Neal; Koesdjojo, Myra; Armstrong, Chadd; Bracha, Shay; Remcho, Vincent T

    2015-08-25

    Rapidly increasing healthcare costs in economically advantaged countries are currently unsustainable, while in many developing nations, even 50-year-old technologies are too expensive to implement. New and unconventional technologies are being explored as solutions to this problem. In this study, we examined the use of a smartphone as the detection platform for 2 well-developed, relatively inexpensive, commercially available clinical chemistry assays as a model for rapid and inexpensive clinical diagnostic testing. An Apple iPhone 4 camera phone equipped with a color analysis application (ColorAssist) was combined with Vitros® glucose and urea colorimetric assays. Color images of assay slides at various concentrations of glucose or urea were collected with the iPhone 4 and quantitated in three different spectral ranges (red/green/blue or RGB) using the ColorAssist app. When the diffuse reflectance data was converted into absorbance, it was possible to quantitate glucose or blood urea nitrogen (BUN) over their clinically important concentration ranges (30-515mg/dl for glucose or 2-190mg/dl for BUN), with good linearity (R(2)=0.9994 or 0.9996, respectively [n=5]). Data collected using the iPhone 4 and canine serum samples were in agreement with results from the instrumental "gold standard" (Beckman Coulter AU480 Chemistry System) (R(2)=0.9966 and slope=1.0001 for glucose; R(2)=0.9958 and slope=0.9454 for BUN). Glucose determinations of serum samples made using this smartphone method were as accurate as or more accurate than a commercial colorimetric dry slide analyzer (Heska® Element DC Chemistry Analyzer, Loveland, CO) and 2 glucometers: ReliOn® Ultima (Abbott Diabetes Care Inc) and Presto® (AgaMatrix Inc.H). BUN determinations made using the smartphone approach were comparable in accuracy to the Heska instrument. This demonstration shows that smartphones have the potential to be used as simple, effective colorimetric detectors for quantitative diagnostic tests

  6. Entry rates and recycling of glucose in buffalo calves fed on urea molasses liquid diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, A; Singh, U B; Verma, D N; Ranjhan, S K [Indian Veterinary Research Inst., Izatnagar. Div. of Animal Nutrition

    1974-12-01

    Entry rates of glucose have been measured in buffalo calves by using a dual-isotope dilution method based on continuous infusion of (U-/sup 14/C)D-glucose and (6-/sup 3/H)D-glucose into the blood at a precise controlled rate for 540 min. After 5 h a plateau was obtained in the specific radioactivity of the plasma glucose from which glucose synthesis and entry rates were calculated. The average entry rates of glucose were 112 and 145 mg/min measured by /sup 14/C and /sup 3/H labelled glucose respectively. About 23 percent of the glucose carbon was recycled in the pool. The average recycling rate was 33 mg/min.

  7. Entry rates and recycling of glucose in buffalo calves fed on urea molasses liquid diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, Arun; Singh, U.B.; Verma, D.N.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1974-01-01

    Entry rates of glucose have been measured in buffalo calves by using a dual-isotope dilution method based on continuous infusion of (U- 14 C)D-glucose and (6- 3 H)D-glucose into the blood at a precise controlled rate for 540 min. After 5 h a plateau was obtained in the specific radioactivity of the plasma glucose from which glucose synthesis and entry rates were calculated. The average entry rates of glucose were 112 and 145 mg/min measured by 14 C and 3 H labelled glucose respectively. About 23 percent of the glucose carbon was recycled in the pool. The average recycling rate was 33 mg/min. (author)

  8. A regenerated electrochemical biosensor for label-free detection of glucose and urea based on conformational switch of i-motif oligonucleotide probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhong Feng; Chen, Dong Mei [Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Lei, Jing Lei [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Luo, Hong Qun, E-mail: luohq@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Li, Nian Bing, E-mail: linb@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Improving the reproducibility of electrochemical signal remains a great challenge over the past decades. In this work, i-motif oligonucleotide probe-based electrochemical DNA (E-DNA) sensor is introduced for the first time as a regenerated sensing platform, which enhances the reproducibility of electrochemical signal, for label-free detection of glucose and urea. The addition of glucose or urea is able to activate glucose oxidase-catalyzed or urease-catalyzed reaction, inducing or destroying the formation of i-motif oligonucleotide probe. The conformational switch of oligonucleotide probe can be recorded by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Thus, the difference of electron transfer resistance is utilized for the quantitative determination of glucose and urea. We further demonstrate that the E-DNA sensor exhibits high selectivity, excellent stability, and remarkable regenerated ability. The human serum analysis indicates that this simple and regenerated strategy holds promising potential in future biosensing applications. - Highlights: • Conformational switch of i-motif is used for the detection of glucose and urea. • The sensor can be regenerated. • The proposed method is successfully applied in real sample assay. • Our method is label-free and inexpensive.

  9. Prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis (leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose) in a population of 3645 adult subjects--consequence for measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose in the general population and measure the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in subjects with or without a positive dipstick analysis. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study...... of 3645 subjects. SETTING: An unselected urban population study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence data of positive dipstick analyses and UAER values. RESULTS: Prevalence data of a positive dipstick analysis were 12%, 4%, 3% and 6%, respectively, for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, and glucose...

  10. Urinary phenylacetylglutamine (U-PAGN concentration as biomarker for adherence in patients with urea cycle disorders (UCD treated with glycerol phenylbutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mokhtarani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urinary phenylacetylglutamine (U-PAGN concentrations in spot urine samples were analyzed as a dosing biomarker during glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB dosing in 68 healthy adults and 66 adult and pediatric patients with urea cycle disorders who participated in GPB clinical trials. Age- and body surface area (BSA-specific 25th percentile cutoff points for spot U-PAGN concentrations (2 years with BSA ≤1.3 m2, and 2 years of age with BSA >1.3 m2 were determined as an approach to identify patients for whom increased dosing and/or adherence to prescribed dosing should be assessed.

  11. Urinary phenylacetylglutamine (U-PAGN) concentration as biomarker for adherence in patients with urea cycle disorders (UCD) treated with glycerol phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarani, M; Diaz, G A; Lichter-Konecki, U; Berry, S A; Bartley, J; McCandless, S E; Smith, W; Harding, C; Le Mons, C; Coakley, D F; Lee, B; Scharschmidt, B F

    2015-12-01

    Urinary phenylacetylglutamine (U-PAGN) concentrations in spot urine samples were analyzed as a dosing biomarker during glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) dosing in 68 healthy adults and 66 adult and pediatric patients with urea cycle disorders who participated in GPB clinical trials. Age- and body surface area (BSA)-specific 25th percentile cutoff points for spot U-PAGN concentrations ( 2 years with BSA ≤ 1.3 m 2 , and  2 years of age with BSA > 1.3 m 2 ) were determined as an approach to identify patients for whom increased dosing and/or adherence to prescribed dosing should be assessed.

  12. Correlation between Fasting Glucose, Erectile Dysfunction, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Benign Prostate Hyperplasia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommie Prasetyo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to determine the correlation between fasting glucose level, erectile dysfunction,and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in patients diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Weenrolled patients with BPH-related LUTS aged over 50 years old. LUTS and erectile dysfunction (ED wereevaluated using International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS and International Index of Erectile Function-5(IIEF-5. Diabetes mellitus was established if fasting glucose level was above 126mg/dL. Forty-two patientswere enrolled in this study from outpatient clinic in Kardinah Hospital, Tegal during January–March 2015.Patients’ mean age was 68.8±8.6 years old with most of them suffered from ED (83.3% and also suffered fromsevere LUTS (80.96%. Mean fasting glucose level was 108.3 + 21.1 mg/dl. However, diabetes mellitus wasobserved in 26.2% subjects with mean fasting glucose level was 136.8+7.8mg/dl. IPSS score was correlatedwith fasting glucose level (r=0.879, p<0.001 and IIEF-5 score (r= -0.346, p=0.025. IIEF-5 score showednegative correlation with age (r=-0.31, p=0.046 and fasting glucose level (r=-0.305, p=0.049. Higher fastingglucose level in a man older than 50 years with BPH would increase severity of LUTS and ED. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, lower urinary tract symptoms, erectile dysfunction   Korelasi antara Glukosa Darah Puasa, Disfungsi Ereksi, dan GejalaSaluran Kemih Bagian Bawah pada PasienBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara nilai glukosa darah puasa, disfungsi ereksi(DE, dan gejala saluran kemih bagian bawah (LUTS pada pasien dengan pembesaran prostate jinak/benignprostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Subjek adalah pasien berusia lebih dari 50 tahun dengan pembesaran prostatjinak di RS Kardinah, Tegal pada bulan Januari-Maret 2015. LUTS dan DE dievaluasi dengan menggunakanInternational Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS and International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5

  13. Determining the amounts of urea and glucose in urine of patients with renal complications from diabetes mellitus and hypertension by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Jeyse A. M.; Silveira, Landulfo; Vieira, Elzo E. d. S.; Fernandes, Adriana B.

    2013-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus and hypertension diseases are frequently found in the same patient, which if untreated predispose to atherosclerotic and kidney diseases. The objective of this study was to identify potential biomarkers in the urine of diabetic and hypertensive patients through dispersive near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Urine samples were collected from patients with diabetes and hypertension but no complications (LG), high degree of complications (HG), and control ones: one fraction was submitted to biochemical tests and another one was stored frozen (-20°C) until spectral analysis. Samples were warmed up and placed in an aluminum sample holder for Raman spectra collection using a dispersive spectrometer (830 nm wavelength, 300 mW laser power and 20 s exposure time). Spectra were then submitted to Principal Components Analysis. The PCA loading vectors 1 and 3 revealed spectral features of urea/creatinine and glucose, respectively; the PCA scores showed that patients with diabetes/hypertension (LG and HG) had higher amount of glucose in the urine compared to the normal group (p diabetes/hypertension (p diabetes/hypertension, can lead to early diagnostic information of complications and a possible disease prognosis in the patients where no complications from diabetes and hypertension were found.

  14. Isotopic studies of urea metabolism in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoeczi, E.; Irons, L.; Koj, A.; McFarlane, A. S.

    1965-01-01

    1. The half-life of [15N]urea was found to be significantly longer than that of [14C]urea injected at the same time, the differences being due to endogenous catabolism of urea, which is accompanied by little or no reutilization of 14C but is approx. 20% for 15N. [15N]Urea therefore appears to be valueless as an indicator of nitrogen metabolism unless the extents of endogenous catabolism of urea and of fractional reutilization of 15N can be separately estimated. 2. Though measurements of the radioactivity of expired 14CO2 confirmed the existence of considerable urea catabolism these could not be used for quantitative assessments. 3. Alternative graphical methods based on [14C]urea specific activities in plasma and urine samples were used to calculate the fraction of urea production that is excreted. Values by the two methods were in good agreement and showed that some animals excrete less than half the urea that they produce. 4. Specific activity differences between simultaneous samples of urinary and plasma urea reflect the presence of a pool of urea in the kidney that is not in equilibrium with the body urea pool. Calculations indicate the presence of urea in the kidney that in some cases may represent as much as 15% of the body pool, and in two animals in which post-mortem renal analyses were performed the masses of urea found agreed closely with the calculated values. 5. A model for urea metabolism is proposed that includes this pool in the excretory pathway. The related theory is shown to be adequate to explain the shape of the specific activity curves of urinary urea from the time of injection and the constant delay of the specific activity of urinary urea, relative to that of plasma urea, that is observed after a short preliminary equilibration period. 6. The body urea pool was calculated from the activity retained at 1·5hr. by excluding renal activity and the corrected specific activity of plasma urea at the same time. The urea pool was calculated to be

  15. Lower urinary tract symptoms are associated with low levels of serum serotonin, high levels of adiponectin and fasting glucose, and benign prostatic enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghsheno, Mohammad-Ali; Mellström, Dan; Peeker, Ralph; Hammarsten, Jan; Lorentzon, Mattias; Sundh, Valter; Karlsson, Magnus; Ohlsson, Claes; Damber, Jan-Erik

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and urinary incontinence are associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The association between LUTS and benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) was also investigated. A cross-sectional, representative risk factor analysis of LUTS, as measured by the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and urinary incontinence was conducted. Among 950 representative individuals, aged 69-81 years, the association between clinical, anthropometric, endocrine, metabolic and inflammatory factors on the one hand, as both major and minor aspects of MetS, and LUTS and urinary incontinence, on the other hand, was analysed. The prostate gland volume was measured in a subgroup of 155 randomly selected individuals and the association between LUTS and BPE was estimated. No significant association was found between LUTS or urinary incontinence and the major aspects of the MetS. However, in a multivariate analysis, serum serotonin showed an independent negative correlation with LUTS and with urinary incontinence while fasting serum glucose and serum adiponectin showed a positive correlation with LUTS. Furthermore, in a subgroup of 155 individuals, the prostate gland volume correlated positively with LUTS. The study did not show an association between LUTS or urinary incontinence and the major components of the MetS. However, serum serotonin showed an independent negative correlation with LUTS and with urinary incontinence while fasting serum glucose and serum adiponectin showed a positive correlation with LUTS. The data confirm the general knowledge that BPE may be one of the causative factors of LUTS.

  16. Urinary Glucose Screening for Early Detection of Asymptomatic Type 2 Diabetes in Jeonbuk Province Korean Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Lee, Dae Yeol

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of glucosuria and the characteristics of diabetes in schoolchildren as detected by a school urine glucose screening program implemented from 2010 to 2013 in the Jeonbuk province area of Korea. A total of 110 children without known diabetes were analyzed. They were checked with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with other laboratory tests and their clinical data were collected. A total of 707,238 schoolchildren from a school population of 1,064,999 were screened for glucosuria. In total, over a 4-year period, 545 schoolchildren (0.077%) were positive for glucosuria on the second urine test. The prevalence of glucosuria was more common among middle and high schoolchildren than among elementary schoolchildren. Among 110 students who completed the OGTT to confirm diabetes, 40 were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM); 39 children, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 1 child, slowly progressive insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (SPIDDM). The mean annual incidence of diabetes was 5.6 per 100,000 schoolchildren and adolescents. The subjects with diabetes diagnosed through the urine screening test showed minimal or no symptoms of diabetes. The students with diabetes were more likely to be woman and obese, and they have a higher body mass index, higher cholesterol, triglyceride, insulin, C-peptide, and fasting glucosuria values than the students with normal glucose tolerance. We identified 40 new cases of diabetes in the Korean schoolchildren with asymptomatic glucosuria on urine glucose screening. This finding shows that school urine glucose screening is a feasible and simple method for early detection of asymptomatic T2DM. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  17. Uric Acid or 1-Methyl Uric Acid in the Urinary Bladder Increases Serum Glucose, Insulin, True Triglyceride, and Total Cholesterol Levels in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs, can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels.

  18. Urinary loss of glucose, phosphate, and protein by diffusion into proximal straight tubules injured by D-serine and maleic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, F.A.; Nakamura, S.; Goldman, B.

    1985-01-01

    In several models of acute renal failure leakage of glomerular filtrate out of the tubule is an important pathogenetic mechanism; however, bidirectional diffusion of solute to account for certain pathophysiologic features of acute renal failure has received meager attention. Using micropuncture and clearance methods, the authors assessed sequentially leakage of solutes and inulin across proximal straight tubules (PST) injured by two nephrotoxins. In d-serine-treated rats with extensive necrosis of PST, the basis for glucosuria and tubular leakage of inulin was studied. Glucose absorption by the proximal convoluted tubule and glucose delivery to the PST were normal, but glucose delivery to the distal tubule was increased nearly 8-fold, indicating diffusion of glucose from interstitial to tubular luminal fluid across the necrotic PST. Total kidney inulin clearance was greatly reduced, but single nephron glomerular filtration rate, based on proximal convoluted tubule samples, was normal, indicating tubular loss of inulin. Urinary recovery of [ 14 C]inulin infused into tubular lumina revealed that proximal convoluted tubule and distal tubule were impermeable to inulin and that inulin diffused out of the necrotic PST. The progressive return over 6 days of tubular impermeability for inulin correlated with relining of PST with new cells. In maleic acid-treated rats the site and extent of tubular necrosis and the nature of urinary loss of solutes were studied. Microdissection revealed that maleic acid caused limited necrosis of PST which averaged 7.4% of total proximal tubular length. Increased urinary excretion of protein, phosphate, and glucose and increased tubular permeability to microinfused [ 14 C]inulin occurred with the onset of PST necrosis, and return of these abnormalities to normal correlated with the degree of cellular repair of the PST

  19. Urinary retention in women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary retention in women. Urinary retention in women is often transient and of no known cause. ... stones, constipation, urethral cancer, uterine fibroids ... present with abnormal bladder function secondary to ... (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or myelography ... full blood count, urea, electrolytes and creatinine can ...

  20. Correlating the amount of urea, creatinine, and glucose in urine from patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension with the risk of developing renal lesions by means of Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Jeyse Aliana Martins; de Sousa Vieira, Elzo Everton; Silveira, Landulfo; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha

    2013-08-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension (HT) diseases are predisposed to kidney diseases. The objective of this study was to identify potential biomarkers in the urine of diabetic and hypertensive patients through Raman spectroscopy in order to predict the evolution to complications and kidney failure. Urine samples were collected from control subjects (CTR) and patients with diabetes and HT with no complications (lower risk, LR), high degree of complications (higher risk, HR), and doing blood dialysis (DI). Urine samples were stored frozen (-20°C) before spectral analysis. Raman spectra were obtained using a dispersive spectrometer (830-nm, 300-mW power, and 20-s accumulation). Spectra were then submitted to principal component analysis (PCA) followed by discriminant analysis. The first PCA loading vectors revealed spectral features of urea, creatinine, and glucose. It has been found that the amounts of urea and creatinine decreased as disease evoluted from CTR to LR/HR and DI (PC1, p<0.05), and the amount of glucose increased in the urine of LR/HR compared to CTR (PC3, p<0.05). The discriminating model showed better overall classification rate of 70%. These results could lead to diagnostic information of possible complications and a better disease prognosis.

  1. Variation of milk urea in dairy cattle : a study on factors that affect the relationship between urea concentration in milk and urea excretion in urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to increase the applicability of milk urea nitrogen concentration (MUN) as a predictor of urinary urea nitrogen excretion (UUN) by identifying and quantifying factors that can explain variation in MUN that is not related to UUN. A literature study was conducted in

  2. Detecting early kidney damage in horses with colic by measuring matrix metalloproteinase -9 and -2, other enzymes, urinary glucose and total proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salonen Hanna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to investigate urine matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9 activity, alkaline phosphatase/creatinine (U-AP/Cr and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase/creatinine (U-GGT/Cr ratios, glucose concentration, and urine protein/creatinine (U-Prot/Cr ratio and to compare data with plasma MMP-2 and -9 activity, cystatin-C and creatinine concentrations in colic horses and healthy controls. Horses with surgical colic (n = 5 were compared to healthy stallions (n = 7 that came for castration. Blood and urine samples were collected. MMP gelatinolytic activity was measured by zymography. Results We found out that horses with colic had significantly higher urinary MMP-9 complex and proMMP-9 activities than horses in the control group. Colic horses also had higher plasma MMP-2 activity than the control horses. Serum creatinine, although within reference range, was significantly higher in the colic horses than in the control group. There was no significant increase in urinary alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase or total proteins in the colic horses compared to the control group. A human cystatin-C test (Dako Cytomation latex immunoassay® based on turbidimetry did not cross react with equine cystatin-C. Conclusion The results indicate that plasma MMP-2 may play a role in the pathogenesis of equine colic and urinary MMP-9 in equine kidney damage.

  3. Influence of milk urea concentration on fractional urea disappearance rate from milk to blood plasma in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and urinary N excretion is affected, among others, by diurnal dynamics in MUN, which in turn is largely influenced by feed intake pattern and characteristics of urea transfer from blood plasma to milk and vice versa. This study aimed

  4. Short communication: Assessing urea transport from milk to blood in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Dijkstra, J.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Bannink, A.

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of urea in milk (MUC) has emerged as a potentially useful tool to predict urinary N excretion. Various factors may affect the relationship between MUC and urinary N excretion, including transport characteristics of urea from blood to milk and vice versa. The main objective of this

  5. Electrocatalytic glucose sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, U; Luft, G; Mund, K; Preidel, W; Richter, G J

    1983-01-01

    An artificial pancreas consists of an insulin depot, a dosage unit and a glucose sensor. The measurement of the actual glucose concentration in blood is still an unsolved problem. Two methods are described for an electrocatalytic glucose sensor. Under the interfering action of amino acids and urea in-vitro measurements show an error of between 10% and 20%.

  6. Consumo, digestibilidade e excreção de uréia e derivados de purinas em novilhas de diferentes pesos Intake, digestibility and urinary excretion of urea and purine derivatives in heifers with different body weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Luiz Chizzotti

    2006-08-01

    , and urinary excretion of nitrogenous compounds. The spot urine sampling and the total collection of urine techniques were used to estimate microbial N flow. Twenty-two heifers with different body weights (523, 453, 315, 235 and 118 kg were used in a completely randomized design and assigned to the following treatments: BW523, BW453, BW315, BW235 or BW118. Animals were fed corn silage ad libitum plus 1.5 kg/day of concentrate on treatments BW523, BW453, BW315 and BW235 and 2 kg/day on BW118 treatment. Intake of nutrients increased linearly from treatment BW118 to BW523. However, the opposite was observed when DMI was expressed as percentage of BW. Digestibilities of DM and OM and dietary TDN did not differ among treatments but digestibilities of CP and NDF corrected for ash and protein (NDFap were greatest and lowest on BW118 treatment, respectively. The urinary excretion of urea (mg/kgBW was higher on BW118 heifers and varied with BW and dietary contents of CP and RDP. Microbial protein synthesis was not affected by sampling methodology and was lowest on treatment BW118. Therefore, spot urine sampling can be used to estimate urinary excretion of nitrogenous compounds and microbial protein synthesis.

  7. Effect of nitrogen supplementation on urea kinetics and microbial use of recycled urea in steers consuming corn-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, D W; Titgemeyer, E C; Jones, M L; Anderson, D E

    2010-08-01

    We studied the effects of supplementing N as distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) or urea to steers consuming corn-based diets. Six ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (244 kg) were used in 2 concurrent 3 x 3 Latin squares and fed 1 of 3 corn-based diets: control (10.2% CP), urea (13.3% CP), or DDGS (14.9% CP). Periods were 14 d, with 9 d for adaptation and 5 d for collection of urine and feces. Urinary (15)N(15)N-urea enrichments, resulting from venous infusions of (15)N(15)N-urea, were used to measure urea kinetics. Dry matter intake (6.0 kg/d) was not affected by treatment, but N intake differed (99, 151, and 123 g/d for the control, DDGS, and urea treatments, respectively). Urea-N synthesis tended to be greater (P = 0.09) for DDGS (118 g/d) than for the control treatment (52 g/d), with the urea treatment (86 g/d) being intermediate. Urea-N excreted in the urine was greater (P urea treatments (29 g/d) than for the control treatment (13 g/d). Gastrointestinal entry of urea-N was not statistically different among treatments (P = 0.25), but was numerically greatest for DDGS (83 g/d), intermediate for urea (57 g/d), and least for the control (39 g/d). The amount of urea-N returned to the ornithine cycle tended to be greater (P = 0.09) for the DDGS treatment (47 g/d) than for the urea (27 g/d) or control treatment (16 g/d). The fraction of recycled urea-N that was apparently used for anabolism tended (P = 0.14) to be greater for the control treatment (0.56) than for the DDGS treatment (0.31), with the urea treatment (0.45) being intermediate, but no differences were observed among treatments in the amount of urea-N used for anabolism (P = 0.66). Urea kinetics in cattle fed grain-based diets were largely related to the amount of N consumed. The percentage of urea production that was captured by ruminal bacteria was greater (P urea treatment (22%), but the percentage of duodenal microbial N flow that was derived from recycled urea-N tended (P = 0.10) to

  8. Association between the extent of urinary albumin excretion and glycaemic variability indices measured by continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S-M; Kim, T-H; Oh, S; Baek, J; Joung, J Y; Park, S-M; Cho, Y Y; Sohn, S Y; Hur, K Y; Lee, M-S; Lee, M-K; Kim, J H

    2015-02-01

    The contribution of glycaemic variability to the microvascular complication of diabetes has not been established. We examined whether there is an independent association between indices of glycaemic variability in continuous glucose monitoring and extent of albuminuria. A total of 173 patients with Type 2 diabetes (without insulin therapy, n = 96; with insulin therapy, n = 77) who had unexplained large fluctuations in blood glucose values underwent three-day continuous glucose monitoring. We used a multinomial logistic regression model to determine whether the indices of glycaemic variability independently affected the odds of having a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio of 30-299 mg/g and ≥ 300 mg/g. Higher standard deviation (P = 0.002), mean of daily differences (P = 0.023) and mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (P = 0.043) significantly increased the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of ≥ 300 mg/g. In multivariable analysis, only higher standard deviation, but not mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion and mean of daily differences, independently increased the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of ≥ 300 mg/g (P = 0.025). Coefficient of variation (sd/mean) was not associated with the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of 30-299 or ≥ 300 mg/g. The independent association between standard deviation and the extent of albuminuria was lost when the measures were normalized by mean glucose level. At least in terms of relative measures of glycaemic variability, we failed to demonstrate an independent association between glycaemic variability and albuminuria extent in patients with inadequately controlled Type 2 diabetes. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  9. Urea biosensor for hemodialysis monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Robert S.

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor capable of detecting and quantifying urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures. The sensor is based upon measurement of the pH change produced in an aqueous environment by the products of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea. The sensor may be fabricated using methods amenable to mass fabrication, resulting in low-cost sensors and thus providing the potential for disposable use. In a typical application, the sensor could be used in treatment centers, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. The sensor can also be utilized to allow at-home testing to determine if dialysis was necessary. Such a home monitor is similar, in principle, to devices used for blood glucose testing by diabetics, and would require a blood droplet sample by using a finger prick.

  10. Urea metabolism in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Claus-Peter

    2011-03-01

    Urea is a plant metabolite derived either from root uptake or from catabolism of arginine by arginase. In agriculture, urea is intensively used as a nitrogen fertilizer. Urea nitrogen enters the plant either directly, or in the form of ammonium or nitrate after urea degradation by soil microbes. In recent years various molecular players of plant urea metabolism have been investigated: active and passive urea transporters, the nickel metalloenzyme urease catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea, and three urease accessory proteins involved in the complex activation of urease. The degradation of ureides derived from purine breakdown has long been discussed as a possible additional metabolic source for urea, but an enzymatic route for the complete hydrolysis of ureides without a urea intermediate has recently been described for Arabidopsis thaliana. This review focuses on the proteins involved in plant urea metabolism and the metabolic sources of urea but also addresses open questions regarding plant urea metabolism in a physiological and agricultural context. The contribution of plant urea uptake and metabolism to fertilizer urea usage in crop production is still not investigated although globally more than half of all nitrogen fertilizer is applied to crops in the form of urea. Nitrogen use efficiency in crop production is generally well below 50% resulting in economical losses and creating ecological problems like groundwater pollution and emission of nitric oxides that can damage the ozone layer and function as greenhouse gasses. Biotechnological approaches to improve fertilizer urea usage bear the potential to increase crop nitrogen use efficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Urea in Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Projectsatbangalore

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a low-cost, portable instrument using CO2 and NH3 gas sensor technology to quantify and differentiate milk samples containing excess urea. Milk containing urea, in presence of urease enzyme hydrolyses urea to form ammonia and carbon dioxide.

  12. Effects of high ambient temperature on urea-nitrogen recycling in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obitsu, Taketo; Kamiya, Mitsuru; Kamiya, Yuko; Tanaka, Masahito; Sugino, Toshihisa; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2011-08-01

    Effects of exposure to hot environment on urea metabolism were studied in lactating Holstein cows. Four cows were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration and housed in a temperature-controlled chamber at constant moderate (18°C) or high (28°C) ambient temperatures in a cross-over design. Urea nitrogen (N) kinetics was measured by determining urea isotopomer in urine after single injection of [(15) N(2) ]urea into the jugular vein. Both dry matter intake and milk yield were decreased under high ambient temperature. Intakes of total N and digestible N were decreased under high ambient temperature but urinary urea-N excretion was increased. The ratio of urea-N production to digestible N was increased, whereas the proportion of gut urea-N entry to urea-N production tended to be decreased under high ambient temperature. Neither return to the ornithine cycle, anabolic use nor fecal excretion of urea-N recycled to the gut was affected by ambient temperature. Under high ambient temperature, renal clearance of plasma urea was not affected but the gut clearance was decreased. Increase of urea-N production and reduction of gut urea-N entry, in relative terms, were associated with increased urinary urea-N excretion of lactating dairy cows in higher thermal environments. 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Effect of whole body gamma-irradiation and/or dietary protein deficiency on the levels of plasma non-protein nitrogen and amino acids; plasma and urinary ammonia and urea in desert rodent and albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.; El-Husseini, M.; Saleh, F.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation exposure on the levels of non-protein nitrogen (N.P.N.) and amino acids in plasma; ammonia and urea in plasma and urine was studied in the desert rodent, Psammomys obesus obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency, N.P.N. and amino acids in plasma were shown to increase by irradiation exposure. The effect of radiation on blood ammonia was less marked, but it caused a significant increase in ammonia excretion in urine. Radiation exposure in albino rats caused a marked increase in urea concentration in plasma of animals fed the high protein diet and irradiated at 780 r. In urine, the tested radiation levels caused an initial increase in urea concentration followed by a subsequent decrease. In psammomys, radiation exposure exerted a little effect on the plasma urea level, whereas significant increase in the daily urea excretion was recorded. It seems that urea level in plasma is more stabilized in psammomys than in albino rats

  14. Urea recycling from the renal pelvis in sheep: A study with [14C]urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirio, A.; Boivin, R.

    1990-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that urea can be recycled from the renal pelvis, [14C]urea diluted in native urine (1 microCi/ml) was perfused (0.5 ml/min) into one of the pelvises of sheep fed either normal (NP) or low (LP)-protein diets. Blood samples were obtained from the ipsilateral renal vein and from the carotid artery throughout the perfusions. 14C activity determinations in urine and plasma demonstrated a flux of [14C]urea from the pelvis to renal vein blood (40,000 in NP and 130,000 disintegrations/min in LP sheep, P less than 0.01). The corresponding flux of native urea was only 1.5 times higher in NP than in LP sheep (6.8 +/- 1.1 vs. 4.7 +/- 2.9 mumol/min, not significant) despite their 8 times higher urinary concentration of urea. The fraction of filtered urea that was reabsorbed in the pelvis was larger in LP sheep (7.5 +/- 3.7 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.7% in NP sheep, P less than 0.05). A fraction of urea is thus actually recycled from the renal pelvis in sheep, and this pelvic retention is enhanced in LP animals. The importance of this phenomenon in the nitrogen economy is discussed

  15. Urea metabolism in Barbari kids d on urea molasses diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, M.; Singh, U.B.; Verma, D.N.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1974-01-01

    The entry rates of urea into the body pool of urea were estimated in Barbari kids using a single injection isotope dilution technique using 14 C-urea. The excretion rates of urea were calculated by estimating total urine output over 24 h and urea content. (M.G.B.)

  16. Influence of milk urea concentration on fractional urea disappearance rate from milk to blood plasma in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, J W; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and urinary N excretion is affected, among others, by diurnal dynamics in MUN, which in turn is largely influenced by feed intake pattern and characteristics of urea transfer from blood plasma to milk and vice versa. This study aimed to obtain insight in urea transfer characteristics within the mammary gland and from the mammary gland to blood plasma in dairy cows at various concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN; mg of N/dL) and MUN. Urea transfer from milk to blood plasma and urea transfer within the mammary gland itself was evaluated in a 4×4 Latin square design using 4 lactating multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (milk production of 39.8±4.70kg/d and 90±3.9 d in milk). Treatments consisted of 4 primed continuous intravenous urea infusions of 0, 5, 10, and 15g of urea/h. Boluses of [(15)N(15)N]urea were injected in cistern milk at 20, 60, and 100 min before the 1700h milking. Milk was collected in portions of approximately 2 L at the 1700h milking. Milk samples were analyzed for urea and enrichment of (15)N-urea. Results from one cow were discarded because of leakage of milk from the teats after injection of boluses of [(15)N(15)N]urea. Increasing urea infusion rate linearly increased PUN from 11.4 (0g of urea/h) to 25.9mg/dL (15g of urea/h) and MUN from 10.3 (0g of urea/h) to 23.5 (15g of urea/h) mg of N/dL. The percentage of injected [(15)N(15)N]urea recovered from milk at the time of injection was not affected by urea infusion rate and varied between 65.1 and 73.0%, indicating that a substantial portion of injected [(15)N(15)N]urea was not accounted for by collected milk. The estimated fractional disappearance rate of (15)N-urea from milk to blood (Kurea; per hour) linearly increased from 0.429 (0g of urea/h) to 0.641 per hour (15g of urea/h). Cistern injected [(15)N(15)N]urea diffused within 20 min after injection toward alveoli milk. Calculations with the average Kurea estimated in this

  17. Urea recycling in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshiaki; Niibayashi, Tsunekazu

    1980-01-01

    The transfer of blood urea into the alimentary tract of goats, as ruminants, was studied by the use of 15 N-urea, 15 N-ammonium chloride and physiological experimental techniques. Blood urea after an intravenous injection of 15 N-urea appeared in the first rumen via two routes, the saliva (approximately 60% of the serum urea concentration) and idrect diffusion from the wall of the first rumen, both as the ammonium-form N. The serum urea levels from diets containing different protein levels were paralleled with the protein levels, the ammonium level in the first rumen being similar to that of the serum urea. The transfer of low protein into the NH 3 pool of the first rumen was 56% of the total NH 3 in the entire alimentary tract, and the quantitative ratio of salivary secretion of diffusion in the first rumen was 1:9. The transfer of high protein was 14% in the entire alimentary tract, and the ratio of saliva to diffusion in the first rumen was 6:1. Thus, when protein uptake was large, salivary secretion was the primary route to the first rumen. Approximately 50% of the entire quantity of blood urea in the alimentary tract appeared in the first rumen, and 35%, in the lower alimentary tract, primarily in the duodenum and jejunum. (Chiba, N.)

  18. Hydration of urea and alkylated urea derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo

    2018-01-01

    Compressibility data and broadband dielectric spectra of aqueous solutions of urea and some of its alkylated derivatives have been evaluated to yield their numbers Nh of hydration water molecules per molecule of solute. Nh values in a broad range of solute concentrations are discussed and are compared to hydration numbers of other relevant molecules and organic ions. Consistent with previous results, it is found that urea differs from other solutes in its unusually small hydration number, corresponding to just one third of the estimated number of nearest neighbor molecules. This remarkable hydration behavior is explained by the large density φH of hydrogen bonding abilities offered by the urea molecule. In terms of currently discussed models of reorientational motions and allied dynamics in water and related associating liquids, the large density φH causes a relaxation time close to that of undisturbed water with most parts of water encircling the solute. Therefore only a small part of disturbed ("hydration") water is left around each urea molecule. Adding alkyl groups to the basic molecule leads to Nh values which, within the series of n-alkylurea derivatives, progressively increase with the number of methyl groups per solute. With n-butylurea, Nh from dielectric spectra, in conformity with many other organic solutes, slightly exceeds the number of nearest neighbors. Compared to such Nh values, hydration numbers from compressibility data are substantially smaller, disclosing incorrect assumptions in the formula commonly used to interpret the experimental compressibilities. Similar to other series of organic solutes, effects of isomerization have been found with alkylated urea derivatives, indicating that factors other than the predominating density φH of hydrogen bond abilities contribute also to the hydration properties.

  19. Urea ammoniation compared to urea supplementation as a method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urea ammoniation compared to urea supplementation as a method of improving the nutritive value of wheat straw for sheep. S.W.P. Cloete, N.M. Kritzinger. Winter Rainfall Region, Eisenburg. The ammoniation of wheat straw by urea in a stack method was in- vestigated and compared to urea supplemented and untreated ...

  20. Transfer of blood urea nitrogen to cecal microbial nitrogen is increased by fructo-oligosaccharide feeding in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Kiyonori; Min, Xiao; Li, Xiao; Hasegawa, Ena; Sakaguchi, Ei

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the mechanism by which nitrogen (N) availability is improved by fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) in guinea pigs. Adult male guinea pigs were fed a commercial pellet diet (50 g/day) with either 5% glucose or 5% FOS for 7 days in individual metabolism cages. After 7 days of feeding the diet, (15) N-urea was administered intravenously 1 h before slaughter under anesthesia. The amount and concentration of total, protein, bacterial, ammonia and urea N and the (15) N atom % excess were measured in blood, liver, gut contents and urine. The (15) N atom % excess of total and protein N, and the amount of total, protein and bacteria N and (15) N in the cecum were significantly increased by the consumption of FOS. Furthermore, the concentration and amount of short-chain fatty acids were significantly increased by the consumption of FOS. In contrast, the amount of urinary (15) N was significantly decreased by the consumption of FOS. These results suggest that consumption of FOS increases transfer of blood urea N into the large intestine for bacterial N synthesis, which is subsequently re-absorbed by cecotrophy, and contributes to the increase of N utilization in guinea pigs. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Comportamento das concentrações séricas e urinárias de creatinina e uréia ao longo de uma periodização desenvolvida em futebolistas profissionais: relações com a taxa de filtração glomerular Comportamiento de las concentraciones séricas y urinarias de creatinina y urea a lo largo de una periodicidad desarrollada en futbolistas profesionales: relaciones con la tasa de filtración glomerular Behavior of the creatinine and urea seric and urinary concentrations during a periodization developed in professional soccer players: relations with the glomerular filtration rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva

    2006-12-01

    urinario, los otros fueron dependientes. Para verificar las respuestas y la correlación de datos en el programa de entrenamiento de fútbol se utilizó el test de ANOVA (one-way, seguido del coeficiente de Newman-Keuls y Pearson, producto-momento y escogimos un nivel de significancia de 5%. El programa de entrenamiento de fútbol midió un incremento en el desempeño aeróbico (p The creatinine and urea responses have been extensively used to evaluate the physical training impact. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the behavior of serum and urinary creatinine and urea concentrations during a soccer training program. Eighteen Brazilian soccer players were evaluated at the beginning (T1, in the middle (T2 and at the end (T3 of a soccer training program. The athletes had their anthropometric characteristics, aerobic capacity and alactic anaerobic metabolism efficiency assessed. Besides the measurement of serum and urinary creatinine and urea concentrations, the athletes had their creatinine clearance evaluated by three different methods. While the first method was independent from the urinary volume, the others were dependent. Anova one-way test followed by Newman-Keuls and Pearson product-moment coefficient were used to verify the responses and correlations of the data to the soccer training program. A significance level of 5% was chosen. The soccer training program led to an increase in aerobic (p < 0.01 and alactic anaerobic (p < 0.01 performances, however, the urinary volume diminished along the experiment (p < 0.05. The serum (p < 0.05 and urinary (p < 0.01 creatinine concentrations presented an opposite behavior during the soccer training program, in addition, there were not observed significant correlations between this parameters in any period of the study. The creatinine clearance assessed by the three different methods decreased in response to the training (p < 0.05. Significant correlations for all methods were observed only in T1. However

  2. The effect of CP concentration in the diet on urea kinetics and microbial usage of recycled urea in cattle: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, E D; Detmann, E; Valadares Filho, S C; Titgemeyer, E C; Valadares, R F D

    2017-08-01

    In ruminants, urea recycling is considered an evolutionary advantage. The amount of urea recycled mainly depends of the nitrogen (N) intake and the amount of organic matter (OM) digested in the rumen. Because recycled N contributes to meeting microbial N requirements, accurate estimates of urea recycling can improve the understanding of efficiency of N utilization and N losses to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate urea kinetics and microbial usage of recycled urea N in ruminants using a meta-analytical approach. Treatment mean values were compiled from 25 studies with ruminants (beef cattle, dairy cows and sheep) which were published from 2001 to 2016, totalling 107 treatment means. The data set was analyzed according to meta-analysis techniques using linear or non-linear mixed models, taking into account the random variations among experiments. Urea N synthesized in the liver (UER) and urea N recycled to the gut (GER) linearly increased (PCP concentration and the ratio of CP to digestible OM (CP:DOM). Maximum curvature analyses identified 17% dietary CP as the point where there was a prominent increase in hepatic synthesis of urea N, likely due to an excess of dietary N leading to greater ammonia absorption. The GER:UER decreased with increasing dietary CP concentration (PCP⩾19%, GER:UER reached near minimal values. The fraction of UER eliminated as urinary urea N and the contribution of urea N to total urinary N were positively associated with dietary CP (PCP was 17%. The fractions of GER excreted in the feces and utilized for anabolism decreased, whereas the fraction of GER returned to the ornithine cycle increased with dietary CP concentration (PCP and CP:DOM increased (PCP/kg DOM. The models obtained in this study contribute to the knowledge on N utilization, and they could be used in feeding models to predict urea recycling and thus to improve formulation of diets to reduce N losses that contribute to air and water pollution.

  3. The urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Guy; Pacheco-Colón, Ileana; Gropman, Andrea L

    2014-07-01

    The urea cycle is the primary nitrogen-disposal pathway in humans. It requires the coordinated function of six enzymes and two mitochondrial transporters to catalyze the conversion of a molecule of ammonia, the α-nitrogen of aspartate, and bicarbonate into urea. Whereas ammonia is toxic, urea is relatively inert, soluble in water, and readily excreted by the kidney in the urine. Accumulation of ammonia and other toxic intermediates of the cycle lead to predominantly neurologic sequelae. The disorders may present at any age from the neonatal period to adulthood, with the more severely affected patients presenting earlier in life. Patients are at risk for metabolic decompensation throughout life, often triggered by illness, fasting, surgery and postoperative states, peripartum, stress, and increased exogenous protein load. Here the authors address neurologic presentations of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency in detail, the most common of the urea cycle disorders, neuropathology, neurophysiology, and our studies in neuroimaging. Special attention to late-onset presentations is given. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Living with urea stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Intracellular organic osmolytes are present in certain organisms adapted to harsh environments. These osmolytes protect intracellular macromolecules against denaturing environmental stress. In contrast to the usually benign effects of most organic osmolytes, the waste product urea is a well-known perturbant of ...

  5. Treatment of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone by urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaux, G; Brimioulle, S; Genette, F; Mockel, J

    1980-07-01

    Recent data have shown the role of urea in the urinary concentrating mechanism. We studied the effects of exogenous urea administration in hyponatremia associated with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). In 20 patients with SIADH, we observed a positive correlation between serum sodium and blood urea levels (r = 0.65; p less than 0.01). In one patient with an oat cell carcinoma and SIADH-induced hyponatremia, we observed the same positive correlation (r = 0.80; p less than 0.01) but also a negative one between the excreted fraction of filtered sodium and urinary urea (r = -0.67; p less than 0.001). The short-term administration of low doses of urea (4 to 10 g) resulted in correcting the "salt-losing" tendency of this patient. Longer term administration of high doses of urea (30 g/day) was attempted with the same patient as well as with a healthy volunteer subject with Pitressin-induced SIADH. in both patients, urea treatment lowered urinary sodium excretion as long as hyponatremia was significant (less than 130 meq/liter). Urea treatment also induced a persistent osmotic diuresis, allowing a normal daily intake of water despite SIADH. This was clearly shown during the long-term treatment of a third patient with SIADH who was taking 30 g urea/day during 11 weeks. It is concluded that urea is a good alternative in the treatment of patients with SIADH who presented with persistent hyponatremia despite the restriction of water intake.

  6. Urea recycling contributes to nitrogen retention in calves fed milk replacer and low-protein solid feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berends, Harma; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Røjen, Betina A.

    2014-01-01

    Urea recycling, with urea originating from catabolism of amino acids and hepatic detoxification of ammonia, is particularly relevant for ruminant animals, in which microbial protein contributes substantially to the metabolizable protein supply. However, the quantitative contribution of urea...... recycling to protein anabolism in calves during the transition from preruminants (milk-fed calves) to ruminants [solid feed (SF)-fed calves] is unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify urea recycling in milk-fed calves when provided with low-protein SF. Forty-eight calves [164 ± 1.6 kg body weight (BW......)] were assigned to 1 of 4 SF levels [0, 9, 18, and 27 g of dry matter (DM) SF · kg BW2-0.75 . d-1] provided in addition to an identical amount of milk replacer. Urea recycling was quantified after a 24-h intravenous infusion of [15N2]urea by analyzing urea isotopomers in 68-h fecal and urinary...

  7. Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with nerve signals involved in bladder control, causing urinary incontinence. Risk factors Factors that increase your risk of developing urinary incontinence include: Gender. Women are more likely to have ...

  8. Urinary incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of bladder control; Uncontrollable urination; Urination - uncontrollable; Incontinence - urinary ... and take out yourself. Bladder nerve stimulation. Urge incontinence and urinary frequency can sometimes be treated by electrical nerve ...

  9. The emerging physiological roles of the SLC14A family of urea transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gavin

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, urea is the main nitrogenous breakdown product of protein catabolism and is produced in the liver. In certain tissues, the movement of urea across cell membranes is specifically mediated by a group of proteins known as the SLC14A family of facilitative urea transporters. These proteins are derived from two distinct genes, UT-A (SLC14A2) and UT-B (SLC14A1). Facilitative urea transporters play an important role in two major physiological processes – urinary concentration and urea nitrogen salvaging. Although UT-A and UT-B transporters both have a similar basic structure and mediate the transport of urea in a facilitative manner, there are a number of significant differences between them. UT-A transporters are mainly found in the kidney, are highly specific for urea, have relatively lower transport rates and are highly regulated at both gene expression and cellular localization levels. In contrast, UT-B transporters are more widespread in their tissue location, transport both urea and water, have a relatively high transport rate, are inhibited by mercurial compounds and currently appear to be less acutely regulated. This review details the fundamental research that has so far been performed to investigate the function and physiological significance of these two types of urea transporters. PMID:21449978

  10. The fate of ingested [sup 14]C-urea in the urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munster, D J; Chapman, B A; Burt, M J; Dobbs, B R; Allardyce, R A; Bagshaw, P F; Troughton, W D; Cook, H B [Christchurch Hospital (New Zealand)

    1993-08-01

    The metabolic fate of the radioactive carbon in the [sup 14]C-urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori was investigated in 18 subjects. After ingestion of labelled urea, breath was sampled for 24 h, and urine was collected for 3 days. Subjects were designated high or low expirers on the basis of their breath counts, and this agreed well with H. pylori serologic analyses. When given 185 or 37 kBq of [sup 14]C-urea, 51% of the label was recovered from the breath of high expirers, and 7% from the breath of low expirers. The mean combined urinary and breath recovery for high expirers was 86%, and for low expirers it was 97%. It is concluded that the long-term retention of [sup 14]C from ingested [sup 14]C-urea is low. The results enable a more accurate estimation to be made of radiation exposure resulting from the [sup 14]C-urea breath test. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Hydrogen bonding of formamide, urea, urea monoxide and their thio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ab initio and DFT methods have been employed to study the hydrogen bonding ability of formamide, urea, urea monoxide, thioformamide, thiourea and thiourea monoxide with one water molecule and the homodimers of the selected molecules. The stabilization energies associated with themonohydrated adducts and ...

  12. National Urea Cycle Disorders Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urea cycle disorders. Donate Now To End Urea Cycle Disorders © 2005-2017 NUCDF. All rights reserved. This site may be freely linked to but not copied or duplicated in any fashion without the Foundation's consent. Make A Donation in ...

  13. Urea enhances cell lysis of Schizosaccharomyces pombe ura4 mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Kohei; Kushima, Misaki; Kaino, Tomohiro; Matsuo, Yasuhiro; Kawamukai, Makoto

    2017-07-01

    Cell lysis is induced in Schizosaccharomyces pombe ∆ura4 cells grown in YPD medium, which contains yeast extract, polypeptone, and glucose. To identify the medium components that induce cell lysis, we first tested various kinds of yeast extracts from different suppliers. Cell lysis of ∆ura4 cells on YE medium was observed when yeast extracts from OXOID, BD, Oriental, and Difco were used, but not when using yeast extract from Kyokuto. To determine which compounds induced cell lysis, we subjected yeast extract and polypeptone to GC-MS analysis. Ten kinds of compounds were detected in OXOID and BD yeast extracts, but not in Kyokuto yeast extract. Among them was urea, which was also present in polypeptone, and it clearly induced cell lysis. Deletion of the ure2 gene, which is responsible for utilizing urea, abolished the lytic effect of urea. The effect of urea was suppressed by deletion of pub1, and a similar phenotype was observed in the presence of polypeptone. Thus, urea is an inducer of cell lysis in S. pombe ∆ura4 cells.

  14. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections > A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections (PDF, ... Embed Subscribe To receive Publications email updates Submit Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are most often caused ...

  15. Variáveis ruminais, concentração de uréia plasmática e excreções urinárias de nitrogênio em vacas leiteiras alimentadas com concentrado processado de diferentes formas Ruminal metabolism, plasma urea concentration, and urinary excretion of nitrogen of dairy cows fed concentrate processed in different forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Luiz Wernersbach Filho

    2006-06-01

    at 3 h post-feeding on cows fed diets contained extruded concentrate. Plasma urea did not differ across diets while for urinary excretion of nitrogen a significant difference was observed only for the diet containing the partially processed high-energy concentrate.

  16. comparative studies on the mineralization of furfural urea and urea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-12-02

    Dec 2, 2013 ... In this research, laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural urea as a slow release N ... regarding groundwater pollution ( Myrold, 2008). The ... The plastic pots containing the treated soil sample and.

  17. Production of granules of urea, urea-ammonium sulphate and urea-potassium chloride enriched with 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendassolli, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Using a pearling tower it was possible to produce granulated urea, and granulated mixtures of ammonium sulphate and urea, potassium chloride and urea, Labelled in 15 N. Granulated urea with 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm of diameter was obtained using a system with a heating controller. A low concentration of biuret was observed in the granules produced ( 15 N-Labelled ( 15 NH 4' 15 NH 2 ) with variable proportion of ammonium sulphate and urea. (author)

  18. Correlation between dietary nitrogen, level of plasma urea and urea excretion in urine of buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1978-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted with 6 male buffalo calves of Murrah breed, aged 1.5 years, to determine whether blood urea nitrogen and urea excretion in urine were associated with protein intake. The animals were fed different amounts of crude protein in their diet. The levels of urea-N in the blood, excretion of 14 C from urea and urea-N in the urine were estimated. Close relationships were observed between nitrogen intake, blood urea nitrogen and urea excretion in the urine. The observations indicated that blood urea-N and urea excretion in urine could be quantitated with the protein intake. (author)

  19. Urea impairs β cell glycolysis and insulin secretion in chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, Laetitia; Nyam, Elsa; Vivot, Kevin; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E.; Dai, Xiao-Qing; Nguyen, Bich N.; Attané, Camille; Moullé, Valentine S.; MacDonald, Patrick E.; Ghislain, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of glucose homeostasis are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and are associated with increased mortality, but the mechanisms of impaired insulin secretion in this disease remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that defective insulin secretion in CKD is caused by a direct effect of urea on pancreatic β cells. In a murine model in which CKD is induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (CKD mice), we observed defects in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vivo and in isolated islets. Similarly, insulin secretion was impaired in normal mouse and human islets that were cultured with disease-relevant concentrations of urea and in islets from normal mice treated orally with urea for 3 weeks. In CKD mouse islets as well as urea-exposed normal islets, we observed an increase in oxidative stress and protein O-GlcNAcylation. Protein O-GlcNAcylation was also observed in pancreatic sections from CKD patients. Impairment of insulin secretion in both CKD mouse and urea-exposed islets was associated with reduced glucose utilization and activity of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK-1), which could be reversed by inhibiting O-GlcNAcylation. Inhibition of O-GlcNAcylation also restored insulin secretion in both mouse models. These results suggest that insulin secretory defects associated with CKD arise from elevated circulating levels of urea that increase islet protein O-GlcNAcylation and impair glycolysis. PMID:27525435

  20. Effect of rumen-degradable intake protein supplementation on urea kinetics and microbial use of recycled urea in steers consuming low-quality forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickersham, T A; Titgemeyer, E C; Cochran, R C; Wickersham, E E; Gnad, D P

    2008-11-01

    We evaluated the effect of increasing amounts of rumen-degradable intake protein (DIP) on urea kinetics in steers consuming prairie hay. Ruminally and duodenally fistulated steers (278 kg of BW) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square and provided ad libitum access to low-quality prairie hay (4.9% CP). The DIP was provided as casein dosed ruminally once daily in amounts of 0, 59, 118, and 177 mg of N/kg of BW daily. Periods were 13 d long, with 7 d for adaptation and 6 d for collection. Steers were in metabolism crates for total collection of urine and feces. Jugular infusion of (15)N(15)N-urea, followed by determination of urinary enrichment of (15)N(15)N-urea and (14)N(15)N-urea was used to determine urea kinetics. Forage and N intake increased (linear, P Urea synthesis was 19.9, 24.8, 42.9, and 50.9 g of urea-N/d for 0, 59, 118, and 177 mg of N/kg of BW daily (linear, P = 0.004). Entry of urea into the gut was 98.9, 98.8, 98.6, and 95.9% of production for 0, 59, 118, and 177 mg of N/kg of BW daily, respectively (quadratic, P = 0.003). The amount of urea-N entering the gastrointestinal tract was greatest for 177 mg of N/kg of BW daily (48.6 g of urea-N/d) and decreased (linear, P = 0.005) to 42.4, 24.5, and 19.8 g of urea-N/d for 118, 59, and 0 mg of N/kg of BW daily. Microbial incorporation of recycled urea-N increased linearly (P = 0.02) from 12.3 g of N/d for 0 mg of N/kg of BW daily to 28.9 g of N/d for 177 mg of N/kg of BW daily. Provision of DIP produced the desired and previously observed increase in forage intake while also increasing N retention. The large percentage of urea synthesis that was recycled to the gut (95.9% even when steers received the greatest amount of DIP) points to the remarkable ability of cattle to conserve N when fed a low-protein diet.

  1. /sup 15/N study on dietary urea utility in young pigs fed with a low protein diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niiyama, M; Kagota, K; Iwase, T; Namioka, S [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1978-10-01

    To investigate effect of a low protein diet on urea utilization, a tracer study was conducted with /sup 15/N-urea on pigs fed a low protein diet (DCP 5.7%) with 2% urea (group B), and on pigs fed and optimal protein diet (DCP 13.3%) with 2% urea (group A). /sup 15/N was incorporated into protein of liver, serum and muscle, which were obtained 8 days after the last administration of /sup 15/N-urea. The /sup 15/N incorporation rate into the tissue protein tended to be higher in group B than in group A. Approximately 70% of /sup 15/N, however, was excreted into urine within 48 hours in group B. A comparison was made on growth and urea level in blood and urine to evaluate efficacy of the administered urea on growth between group B pigs and pigs fed the same low protein diet without urea supplementation (group C). Since group B pigs always maintained a higher level of blood urea, they were considered to have had more ammonia nitrogen which was available for protein synthesis than group C animals. A similar amount of urea to ingested dose, however, was excessively eliminated in urine. The increased ammonia nitrogen by urea ingestion may be excreted in form of urinary urea in group B pigs. There was no difference in growth between group B and group C animals; therefore, poor efficacy of administered urea on growth may have resulted not only from its loss into urine in early stage after ingestion, but also to poor utility of ammonia for protein synthesis.

  2. A 15N study on dietary urea utility in young pigs fed with a low protein diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niiyama, Masayoshi; Kagota, Katsumoto; Iwase, Toshio; Namioka, Shigeo

    1978-01-01

    To investigate effect of a low protein diet on urea utilization, a tracer study was conducted with 15 N-urea on pigs fed a low protein diet (DCP 5.7%) with 2% urea (group B), and on pigs fed and optimal protein diet (DCP 13.3%) with 2% urea (group A). 15 N was incorporated into protein of liver, serum and muscle, which were obtained 8 days after the last administration of 15 N-urea. The 15 N incorporation rate into the tissue protein tended to be higher in group B than in group A. Approximately 70% of 15 N, however, was excreted into urine within 48 hours in group B. A comparison was made on growth and urea level in blood and urine to evaluate efficacy of the administered urea on growth between group B pigs and pigs fed the same low protein diet without urea supplementation (group C). Since group B pigs always maintained a higher level of blood urea, they were considered to have had more ammonia nitrogen which was available for protein synthesis than group C animals. A similar amount of urea to ingested dose, however, was excessively eliminated in urine. The increased ammonia nitrogen by urea ingestion may be excreted in form of urinary urea in group B pigs. There was no difference in growth between group B and group C animals; therefore, poor efficacy of administered urea on growth may have resulted not only from its loss into urine in early stage after ingestion, but also to poor utility of ammonia for protein synthesis. (author)

  3. Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why does urinary incontinence affect more women than men? Women have unique health events, such as pregnancy, ... urge incontinence, urine leakage usually happens after a strong, sudden urge to urinate and before you can ...

  4. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... and disorders: physiology of micturition, voiding dysfunction, urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, and painful bladder syndrome. In: Lobo ...

  5. Urinary Tract Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related to the urinary tract health of women: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) and Urinary Incontinence (UI). For information on a range of urinary tract health issues for women, men, and children, visit the National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information ...

  6. Determination of Microbial Nitrogen Production by Using Urinary Allantoin and Blood Metabolite Concentrate in Growing Brahman Cattle Fed the Different Proportion of Roughage and Concentrate in Diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suthikrai, Wanvipa; Usawang, Sungwon; Kijsamrej, Suriya; Sophon, Sunpetch; Jetana, Thongsuk

    2003-06-01

    Determination of microbial nitrogen synthesis by using urinary allantoin and blood metabolite for evaluating the efficiency of feed utilization, in this study was conducted by using four Brahman bulls (about 1 year old). Animals were fed ad libitum with 4 fixed diets of four combinations of pineapple fibre (P) and concentrate (C) in the proportions, on dry matter basis of 0.8:0.2 (P80:C20), 0.6:0.04(P60:C40), 0.4:0.6(P40:C60) and 0.2:0.8 (P20:C80). The experiment was designed as a 4x4 Latin square design The Results showed that increasing in the proportion of concentrate linearly increased the rumen microbial nitrogen production (p<0.001), the concentrations of Insulin and urea-N in plasma and the concentration of urea-N in the urine, but not affected on the concentrations of glucose and creatinine in plasma. In conclusion, the using of allantoin urinary associated with blood metabolite can evaluate the accuracy in evaluation of feed utilization in Brahman cattle

  7. Comparative studies on the mineralization of furfural urea and urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural urea as a slow release N fertilizer in an alfisol of Nigeria Savanna in the year 2009/2010 season. Incubation studies revealed that released N through mineralizatoin and microbial activities had confirmed that the compound may stay longer ...

  8. The effect of supplementing untreated, urea-supplemented and urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3x2x2 factorial experiment, involving an intake and in vivo digestibility trial with 48 adult S.A. Mutton Merino wethers. Straw dry matter (OM) intake on ammoniated wheat-straw diets was 27 and 22% higher (P ';;0,01) than on untreated and urea-supplemented diets, respectively. No significant difference was found between ...

  9. Utilization of dietary urea in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, S J; Dabrowski, K R; Dabrowska, H; Olah, E; Luquet, P

    1983-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the potential utilization of dietary urea by rainbow trout. A control diet and two diets supplemented with 1 and 3% of urea were fed to fish. Postprandial levels of urea and ammonia in blood plasma, and postprandial excretion of these metabolites were followed during 24 h. Apparent digestibility of urea in rainbow trout was very high (greater than 98%). Maximum values of urea levels in plasma were reached 6 h (32.3 +/- 10.2 micrograms/ml) after a meal in the control fish and respectively 6 h (83.4 +/- 18.4 micrograms/ml) and 8 h (250.3 +/- 96.1 micrograms/ml) after a meal in trout fed 1 and 3% urea diets. Peaks of urea excretion rates appeared 7-9 h after meal, coinciding with the highest circulating urea concentration. Total daily urea excretion amounted to 5.53, 10.43 and 33.80 mg urea N/100 mg N intake in trout fed the control, 1 and 3% urea diets, respectively. It is concluded that the dietary urea is readily absorbed in the digestive tract of trout but is totally excreted thus leading to no beneficial effect on nitrogen balance. This excretion of urea also takes place passively without any increase in energy demands.

  10. Urinary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011. [4] Mevcha A, Drake MJ. Etiology and management of urinary retention in women. Indian Journal of Urology. 2010;26(2):230–235. August ... 30 a.m. to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Follow Us NIH… Turning Discovery Into ... Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  11. Leaching of dieldrin, permethrin, phenyl urea and 4-CL phenyl urea pesticides from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onal, G.

    1978-01-01

    Leaching of four 14 C-labelled pesticides (dieldrin, permethrin, phenyl urea and 4-Cl phenyl urea) were investigated. It was found that dieldrin and permethrin were not leached from soil but adsorbed by the soil; phenyl urea and 4-CL phenyl urea were leached to a 7.5 cm depth

  12. 40 CFR 721.9892 - Alkylated urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylated urea. 721.9892 Section 721... Alkylated urea. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an alkylated urea (PMN P-93-1649) is subject to reporting under this...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9928 - Urea, tetraethyl-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urea, tetraethyl-. 721.9928 Section... Substances § 721.9928 Urea, tetraethyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as urea, tetraethyl- (PMN P-94-1017; CAS No. 1187-03-7) is...

  14. Effect of prolonged intravenous glucose and essential amino acid infusion on nitrogen balance, muscle protein degradation and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene expression in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scaife Jes R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravenous infusions of glucose and amino acids increase both nitrogen balance and muscle accretion. We hypothesised that co-infusion of glucose (to stimulate insulin and essential amino acids (EAA would act additively to improve nitrogen balance by decreasing muscle protein degradation in association with alterations in muscle expression of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. Methods We examined the effect of a 5 day intravenous infusions of saline, glucose, EAA and glucose + EAA, on urinary nitrogen excretion and muscle protein degradation. We carried out the study in 6 restrained calves since ruminants offer the advantage that muscle protein degradation can be assessed by excretion of 3 methyl-histidine and multiple muscle biopsies can be taken from the same animal. On the final day of infusion blood samples were taken for hormone and metabolite measurement and muscle biopsies for expression of ubiquitin, the 14-kDa E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, and proteasome sub-units C2 and C8. Results On day 5 of glucose infusion, plasma glucose, insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were increased while urea nitrogen excretion and myofibrillar protein degradation was decreased. Co-infusion of glucose + EAA prevented the loss of urinary nitrogen observed with EAA infusions alone and enhanced the increase in plasma IGF-1 concentration but there was no synergistic effect of glucose + EAA on the decrease in myofibrillar protein degradation. Muscle mRNA expression of the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, 14-kDa E2 and proteasome sub-unit C2 were significantly decreased, after glucose but not amino acid infusions, and there was no further response to the combined infusions of glucose + EAA. Conclusion Prolonged glucose infusion decreases myofibrillar protein degradation, prevents the excretion of infused EAA, and acts additively with EAA to increase plasma IGF-1 and improve net nitrogen balance. There was no evidence of

  15. Treating agent for urea containing radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hiroshi; Maki, Kentaro.

    1973-01-01

    Object: To add a coagulant into urea containing radioactive material to precipitate and remove the radioactive material in the urea. Structure: Iodosalt is added into urea and next, a mixed reagent in which silver ion or silver acetic ion and iron hydroxide precipitation or ferrite ion coexist is added therein. The urea is treated to have a sufficient alkaline, after which it is introduced into a basket type centrifuge formed with a filter layer in combination of an upper glass fiber layer and a lower active carbon layer. The treating agent can uniformly remove radioactive ion and radioactive chelate within urea containing inorganic salt and various metabolites. (Nakamura, S.)

  16. Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Dosing Simulations of Nitrogen-Scavenging Compounds: Disposition of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate in Adult and Pediatric Patients with Urea Cycle Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Monteleone, Jon P. R.; Mokhtarani, M.; Diaz, G. A.; Rhead, W.; Lichter-Konecki, U.; Berry, S. A.; LeMons, C.; Dickinson, K.; Coakley, D.; Lee, B.; Scharschmidt, B. F.

    2013-01-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate and glycerol phenylbutyrate mediate waste nitrogen excretion in the form of urinary phenylacetylglutamine (PAGN) in patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs); rare genetic disorders characterized by impaired urea synthesis and hyperammonemia. Sodium phenylbutyrate is approved for UCD treatment; the development of glycerol phenylbutyrate afforded the opportunity to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of both compounds. A population PK model was developed using data fro...

  17. Effects of varying ruminally undegradable protein supplementation on forage digestion, nitrogen metabolism, and urea kinetics in Nellore cattle fed low-quality tropical forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, E D; Detmann, E; Titgemeyer, E C; Valadares Filho, S C; Valadares, R F D; Prates, L L; Rennó, L N; Paulino, M F

    2016-01-01

    Effects of supplemental RDP and RUP on nutrient digestion, N metabolism, urea kinetics, and muscle protein degradation were evaluated in Nellore heifers () consuming low-quality signal grass hay (5% CP and 80% NDF, DM basis). Five ruminally and abomasally cannulated Nellore heifers (248 ± 9 kg) were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square. Treatments were the control (no supplement) and RDP supplementation to meet 100% of the RDP requirement plus RUP provision to supply 0, 50, 100, or 150% of the RUP requirement. Supplemental RDP (casein plus NPN) was ruminally dosed twice daily, and RUP supply (casein) was continuously infused abomasally. Jugular infusion of [NN]-urea with measurement of enrichment in urine was used to evaluate urea kinetics. The ratio of urinary 3-methylhistidine to creatinine was used to estimate skeletal muscle protein degradation. Forage NDF intake (2.48 kg/d) was not affected ( ≥ 0.37) by supplementation, but supplementation did increase ruminal NDF digestion ( Urea entry rate and gastrointestinal entry rate of urea were increased by supplementation ( urea entry rate and tended ( = 0.07) to linearly increase gastrointestinal entry rate of urea. Urea use for anabolic purposes tended ( = 0.07) to be increased by supplementation, and RUP provision also tended ( = 0.08) to linearly increase the amount of urea used for anabolism. The fraction of recycled urea N incorporated into microbial N was greater ( urea from the renal tubule than did supplemented heifers. Overall, unsupplemented heifers had greater mobilization of AA from myofibrillar protein, which provided N for urea synthesis and subsequent recycling. Supplemental RUP, when RDP was supplied, not only increased N retention but also supported increased urea N recycling and increased ruminal microbial protein synthesis.

  18. Urinary catheter - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... A urinary catheter is a small, soft tube placed in the bladder. This article addresses urinary catheters in babies. WHY IS ...

  19. Urea recycling contributes to nitrogen retention in calves fed milk replacer and low-protein solid feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Harma; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Røjen, Betina A; van Baal, Jürgen; Gerrits, Walter J J

    2014-07-01

    Urea recycling, with urea originating from catabolism of amino acids and hepatic detoxification of ammonia, is particularly relevant for ruminant animals, in which microbial protein contributes substantially to the metabolizable protein supply. However, the quantitative contribution of urea recycling to protein anabolism in calves during the transition from preruminants (milk-fed calves) to ruminants [solid feed (SF)-fed calves] is unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify urea recycling in milk-fed calves when provided with low-protein SF. Forty-eight calves [164 ± 1.6 kg body weight (BW)] were assigned to 1 of 4 SF levels [0, 9, 18, and 27 g of dry matter (DM) SF · kg BW(-0.75) · d⁻¹] provided in addition to an identical amount of milk replacer. Urea recycling was quantified after a 24-h intravenous infusion of [¹⁵N₂]urea by analyzing urea isotopomers in 68-h fecal and urinary collections. Real-time qPCR was used to measure gene expression levels of bovine urea transporter B (bUTB) and aquaglyceroporin-3 and aquaglyceroporin-7 in rumen wall tissues. For every incremental gram of DM SF intake (g DM · kg(0.75)), nitrogen intake increased by 0.70 g, and nitrogen retention increased by 0.55 g (P intake, but aquaglyceroporin-7 expression did not. We conclude that in addition to the increase in digested nitrogen, urea recycling contributes to the observed increase in nitrogen retention with increasing SF intake in milk-fed calves. Furthermore, ruminal bUTB and aquaglyceroporin-3 expression are upregulated with SF intake, which might be associated with urea recycling. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Sitagliptin reduces urinary microalbumin in experimental model of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsavdaridis, Ioannis; Papadimitriou, Dimochristos; Karanikola, Dora; Kalousis, Kostas; Katsouda, Areti; Mironidou-Tzouveleki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The term Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) refers to any disease of the kidney that is a result of long-term hyperglycemia caused either by diabetes mellitus type 1 (DT1) or type 2 (DT2). When DKD coexists with macro albuminuria or proteinuria the condition is called diabetic nephropathy. DKD is the primary cause of renal failure since it is responsible for the 44% of new cases presented in the U.S.A. in 2008. Sitagliptin is an inhibitor of the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase and is used as a treatment for diabetes since 2006. Through the inhibition of the enzyme's action sitagliptin prevents the degradation of GLP-1 which is an endogenous peptide with significant hypoglycemic actions, particularly postprandial. The proven hypoglycemic actions of sitagliptin led the researchers to further study the possible effects sitagliptin may have on the complications of diabetes mellitus such as diabetic nephropathy. The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of sitagliptin on diabetic nephropathy using biochemical parameters for assessment. 27db/db mice were used in total. They were about 4 weeks old. The mice were randomly divided into 3 groups each one consisting of 9 mice, the first 2 groups received sitagliptin treatment over a period of 32 weeks while the third did not receive any treatment. In the first group the mice received 200mg sitagliptin per Kg of body weight and in the second 10mg per Kg. At the end of the 32 weeks period the serum glucose, urea, creatinine, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, hsCRP and triglycerides as well as the urinary creatinine and microalbumin were measured in all 3 groups. The first group (received 200mg/kg) in comparison to the third group (control group) exhibited a reduction in the biochemical parameters measured: glucose -12.35% (P=0.16), urea -17.18% (P=0.61), creatinine -0.81% (P=0.95 ), cholesterol -19.28% (P=0,09), HDL -12,25% (P=0.26), LDL -31.2% (P=0.25), triglycerides -13,9% (P=0.37), hsCRP -49.8% (P=0.06), microalbumin -37.8% (P<0

  1. Glucose Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1923 - Urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Urea. 184.1923 Section 184.1923 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1923 Urea. (a) Urea (CO(NH2)2, CAS Reg. No. 57-13-6) is the diamide of...

  3. Nutritional factors influencing milk urea in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Urea is the primary form in which N is excreted in ruminants. Milk urea (MU content was introduced as a means to monitor the efficiency of protein utilisation in dairy cattle (Baker et al., 1995; Roseler et al., 1993; Bertoni, 1995. In this study the effect of some nutrition factors on MU content in buffalo herds was analysed in order to examine the possibility that protein nutrition could be monitored by means of milk urea at herd level........

  4. Propionate supplementation improves nitrogen use by reducing urea flux in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, U; Hu, Q; Bequette, B J

    2015-10-01

    Feeding and postruminal infusion of propionate is known to increase N retention in ruminants. Our aim was to determine the role of rumen propionate on urea N recycling and gluconeogenesis in growing sheep. In Exp. 1, wether sheep ( = 6; 32.5 ± 3.57 kg BW) fitted with a rumen cannula were fed to 1.8 × ME requirement a concentrate-type ration (172 g CP/kg DM and 10.4 MJ ME/kg DM) and continuously infused into the rumen with isoenergetic (10% of dietary ME intake) solutions of either sodium acetate (control) or sodium propionate for 9-d periods in a crossover design. In Exp. 2, a different group of wether sheep ( = 5; 33.6 ± 3.70 kg BW) fitted with a rumen cannula were fed, on an isonitrogenous basis, either a control (151 g CP/kg DM and 8.4 MJ ME/kg DM) or sodium propionate-supplemented (139 g CP/kg DM and 8.9 MJ ME/kg DM) diet at 2-h intervals. [N] urea was continuously infused intravenously for the last 5 d of each period, and total urine was collected by vacuum and feces were collected by a harness bag. Over the last 12 h, [C]glucose was continuously infused intravenously and hourly blood samples were collected during the last 5 h. Propionate treatments increased ( urea entry (synthesis) rate (UER) in Exp. 1; however, sodium propionate infusion tended ( urea elimination (UUE). In Exp. 2, feeding propionate increased ( urea N/d, leading to a reduction ( urea N/d). Between the 2 experiments, the proportion of UER recycled to the gut was greater with the forage-type diet in Exp. 2 (approximately 60%) compared with the concentrate-type diet in Exp. 1 (approximately 40%), although urea N fluxes across the gut remained unchanged in both experiments. In Exp. 1, glucose entry and gluconeogenesis were greater ( < 0.05) and plasma glucose tended ( < 0.1) to be greater with sodium propionate infusion than with sodium acetate infusion, but there was no difference in Cori cycling. In Exp. 2, glucose entry, gluconeogenesis, Cori cycling, and plasma glucose increased ( < 0

  5. Effects of bed-rest on urea and creatinine: correlation with changes in fat-free mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilancio, Giancarlo; Lombardi, Cinzia; Pisot, Rado; De Santo, Natale G; Cavallo, Pierpaolo; Cirillo, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Bed-rest experiments are designed for investigation on catabolic effects of hypokinetic conditions and/or for microgravity simulation in on-ground aerospace research. Bed-rest effects include a reduction in fat-free mass and muscle mass. Urea and creatinine are catabolites of endogenous protein and of muscular energetic metabolism which are excreted mainly by the kidney. The study investigated on urea, creatinine, and kidney function during bed-rest. Twenty healthy young men underwent a 7-day adaptation period (day-6 to day-0) and a 35-day bed-rest experiment (day1 to day35) during normocaloric diet. Urine were collected from day-3 to day0 (baseline) and from day1 to day35. Blood samples and anthropometrical data were collected at day0 (baseline) and bed-rest days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. Bed-rest reduced plasma volume, weight, fat-free mass, and muscle mass (Pcreatinine, and no change in urinary creatinine. The overall integral of changes from day0 to day35 was on average +101.7 mg/dL for plasma urea (95%CI = +43.4/+159.9), +82.2 g/24 h for urinary urea (95%CI = +55.8/+108.7), -2.5 mg/dL for plasma creatinine (95%CI = -3.1/-1.9). Bed-rest reduced plasma cistatyn C also, which was used as mass-independent marker of glomerular filtration rate (-13.1%, P<0.05). Correlations with final reduction in fat-free mass and muscle mass were significant for the overall integral of changes in urinary urea from day0 to day35 (R = 0.706, P<0.001) and for early changes in urinary urea and plasma urea from day0 to day7 (R = 0.566, P = 0.009 and R = 0.715, P<0.001, respectively). Study results shows that urea is a marker of catabolic conditions secondary to hypokinetic conditions.

  6. The crystal structure of urea nitrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, Sybolt; Feil, D.

    1969-01-01

    The structure of urea nitrate has been solved, by the use of three-dimensional X-ray data. Data were collected using Cu Ke and Mo K0~ radiations. The structure consists of layers with urea and nitrate groups held together by hydrogen bonds. The positions of all hydrogen atoms were found. The final R

  7. Urea synthesis in patients with chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke; Sonne, J

    2001-01-01

    Up-regulation of urea synthesis by amino acids and dietary protein intake may be impaired in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) due to the reduced glucagon secretion. Conversely, urea synthesis may be increased as a result of the chronic inflammation. The aims of the study were to determine...

  8. Experimental studies on urea degradation in seawater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajendran, A.; Joseph, T.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    polluted waters, resulting in the accumulation of ammonia. The urea decomposing bacteria varied between 7 and 40% among the total heterotrophic bacteria in Velsao Bay, while these were from 15 to 22% near Mormugao. The rate for biological oxidation of urea...

  9. BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen): MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/bunbloodureanitrogen.html BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) To use the sharing features on this ... please enable JavaScript. What is a BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) Test? A BUN, or blood urea nitrogen ...

  10. Effect of urea supplemented and urea treated straw based diet on milk urea concentration in crossbred Karan-Fries cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Sirohi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of urea supplemented and urea treated straw based diet on milk ureaconcentration. Six multiparous crossbred Karan-Fries (Holstein Friesian ✕ Tharparkar cows were blocked into threegroups of nearly equal body weight, DIM, milk yield and milk fat content and were randomized into a 3 ✕ 3 Latin squaredesign with 3-week period. Three experimental diets were fed to the animals. Composition of these diets were: Diet 1green maize, wheat straw and concentrate mixture; Diet 2 green maize, wheat straw, concentrate mixture (urea supplementedand molasses; Diet 3 green maize (4 % of total DM, 4 % urea treated wheat straw and concentrate mixture.Intake of DM and CP did not vary across the diets. Intake of digestible crude protein (DCP was found significantlyhigher in diet 2, while ME and NEL intakes were found significantly lower in diet 3 but did not differ between diets 1and 2. Average milk and plasma urea concentrations (mg dl-1 were found 29.2 ± 2.6, 45.3 ± 0.9, 34.5 ± 2.3 and 28.9± 2.4, 36.6 ± 1.4, 33.9 ± 2.2, respectively in diet 1, diet 2 and diet 3. Urea concentrations in morning milk sampleswere found significantly lower than noon or evening samples in all the three diets. Concentrations of urea in milk andplasma were found closely correlated (r = 0.94 and the regression equation developed was, plasma urea = 8.90 (.89+ .79 (.02 milk urea. Intake (g of DCP than CP, per unit (MCal of ME was found more closely associated with milk ureaconcentration. The study revealed that urea supplementation and urea treated straw based diet increased urea concentrationsignificantly in milk and plasma. Morning milk urea values that estimated at a time gap of 15 hr since last majorfeeding may be considered as the lowest level and can be used for interpretation to monitor feeding adequacy or reproductiveperformances in dairy cows.

  11. Investigation of some urea derivatives under in vitro conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goersch, R.; Bergner, H.

    1978-01-01

    The protein synthesis from urea, isobutylidene diurea (IBDU), acetyl urea and urea phosphate was investigated in vitro under standardized conditions. The 35 S incorporation into the trichloroacetic acid precipitable fraction of the fermentation mixture and the NH 3 level served as test criteria. If rumen juice of donor animals adapted to urea was used (test 1), only IBDU made possible a protein synthesis comparable to the urea preparation. Under conditions of IBDU adaption of the donor animals (test 2), urea, IBDU and urea phosphate proved to be of equal value. Acetyl urea showed considerably lower incorporation ratios, irrespective of the adaption of the donor animals. (author)

  12. Investigation of some urea derivatives under in vitro conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goersch, R; Bergner, H [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin

    1978-10-01

    The protein synthesis from urea, isobutylidene diurea (IBDU), acetyl urea and urea phosphate was investigated in vitro under standardized conditions. The /sup 35/S incorporation into the trichloroacetic acid precipitable fraction of the fermentation mixture and the NH/sub 3/ level served as test criteria. If rumen juice of donor animals adapted to urea was used (test 1), only IBDU made possible a protein synthesis comparable to the urea preparation. Under conditions of IBDU adaption of the donor animals (test 2), urea, IBDU and urea phosphate proved to be of equal value. Acetyl urea showed considerably lower incorporation ratios, irrespective of the adaption of the donor animals.

  13. The effects of a hind-gut fermentation on urea kinetics in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncuer, A.

    1988-01-01

    Four female sheep were fitted with rumen cannulas and abomasal and ileal infusion catheters; one of the sheep was also fitted with a cannula at the caecum. All animals were nourished wholly by intragastric infusion of nutrients to the rumen and abomasum and received in addition three levels of nutrient infusion into the terminal ileum in order to achieve different levels of hind-gut fermentation. The ileal infusion treatments were (1) water infusion; (2) 25 g/d starch and 50 g/d cellulose infusion; (3) 50 g/d starch and 50 g/d cellulose infusion. In each 2 week period, the first 7 days served as the preliminary period infusion. Days 8-12 inclusive were used for quantitative collection of faeces and urine for digestibility and nitrogen balance measurement and on day 14 an injection of ( 14 C)-urea was given into a jugular vein for measurement of urea kinetics. Hind-gut fermentation did not significantly affect any parameters of urea metabolism. Although degradation of urea did not differ significantly between treatments an increase of over 2 g/d was observed in progressing from the lowest to the highest level of hind-gut infusion. Faecal nitrogen excretion increased significantly from 21.8 to 74.7 mg N/kg 0.75 /d (P 0.01) and urinary urea-N decreased significantly from 278.9 to 252.3 mg/kg 0.75 /d (P 0.05) in the presence of a hind-gut fermentation. Close relationships were observed between various parameters of urea metabolism

  14. Ammonia volatilization from coated urea forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa do Nascimento

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization is a major component of the cost of agricultural production, due to the high cost and low efficiency of fertilizers. In the case of urea, the low efficiency is mainly due to losses by volatilization, which are more pronounced in cultivation systems in which plant residues are left on the soil. The objective of this work was to compare the influence of urea coated with sulfur or boric acid and copper sulfate with conventional N fertilizers on N volatilization losses in sugar cane harvested after stubble burning. The sources urea, sulfur-coated urea, urea coated with boric acid and copper sulfate, as well as nitrate and ammonium sulfate, were tested at amounts containing N rates of 120 kg ha-1 N. The integration of new technologies in urea fertilization can reduce N losses by volatilization. These losses were most reduced when using nitrate and ammonium sulfate. The application of a readily acidified substance (boric acid to urea was more efficient in reducing volatilization losses and nutrient removal by sugar cane than that of a substance with gradual acidification (elemental sulfur.

  15. Urea metabolism in cattle and buffaloes fed diets containing NPN salts, usin g urea radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhiman, T.R.; Arora, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    Urea metabolism studies were conducted using isotope dilution techniques. Animals in groups 1 and 3 were fed basal diet (S, 0.11%) supplemented with urea (test diet 1) and those of groups 2 and 4 supplemented urea plus ammonium sulphate (test diet 2) containing 0.22% S. A single injection of a mixture of 15 N-urea and 14 C-urea was given intravenously and 51 Cr-EDTA was given as a single infusion intraruminally. The pattern of release of ammonia, mean ruminal ammonia, plasma urea, rumen fluid outflow rate, rumen ammonia pool size and ammonia outflow from rumen remained unaffected due to different dietary treatments. On an average, 73.3% of plasma urea synthesized was excreted in urine with test diet 1 and showing 26.6% degradation in the gastrointestinal tract, whereas 68.8% was excreted with test diet 2 and showing 31.3% degradation in the gastrointestinal tract. At 24 hr, 18.33 to 20.93% of nitrogen entering the ruminal ammonia pool was derived from plasma urea in calves of groups 1 and 2 and 24.22 to 27.49 in buffalo calves of groups 3 and 4 respectively. Sulphur supplementation through ammonium sulphate (N : S, 10 :1) resulted in better utilization of nitrogen with test diet 2 by lowering urea excretion rate and increasing urea recycling rate in both the species. (author). 5 tabs., 16 refs

  16. Accurate determination of renal function in patients with intestinal urinary diversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougal, W.S.; Koch, M.O.

    1986-01-01

    The regular determination of renal function is a critical part of the management of patients who have had the urinary tract reconstructed with intestinal segments. These intestinal segments reabsorb urinary solutes and, thereby, complicate the determination of renal function by conventional methods. Urinary clearances of urea, creatinine and inulin were performed in patients with intestinal segments in the urinary tract and controls under varying diuretic conditions. Patients with intestinal diversions also underwent radioisotopic determination of renal function. The urinary clearances of urea, creatinine and inulin are highly dependent on the rate of urine flow in patients with intestinal segments in the urinary tract. Diuresis maximizes the urinary clearances of these solutes by minimizing intestinal reabsorption. Creatinine clearance prediction from the serum creatinine underestimates true glomerular filtration rate. Radioisotopic determination of renal function correlates poorly with true glomerular filtration rate. Only creatinine clearance measured under diuretic conditions correlates well with true renal function. Urine concentrating ability cannot be assessed accurately in patients with intestinal segments in the urinary tract, since osmolality rapidly equilibrates across the segments

  17. Remote calorimetric detection of urea via flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddes, David E; Demirel, Melik C; Reeves, W Brian; Tadigadapa, Srinivas

    2015-12-07

    The design and development of a calorimetric biosensing system enabling relatively high throughput sample analysis are reported. The calorimetric biosensor system consists of a thin (∼20 μm) micromachined Y-cut quartz crystal resonator (QCR) as a temperature sensor placed in close proximity to a fluidic chamber packed with an immobilized enzyme. Layer by layer enzyme immobilization of urease is demonstrated and its activity as a function of the number of layers, pH, and time has been evaluated. This configuration enables a sensing system where a transducer element is physically separated from the analyte solution of interest and is thereby free from fouling effects typically associated with biochemical reactions occuring on the sensor surface. The performance of this biosensing system is demonstrated by detection of 1-200 mM urea in phosphate buffer via a flow injection analysis (FIA) technique. Miniaturized fluidic systems were used to provide continuous flow through a reaction column. Under this configuration the biosensor has an ultimate resolution of less than 1 mM urea and showed a linear response between 0-50 mM. This work demonstrates a sensing modality in which the sensor itself is not fouled or contaminated by the solution of interest and the enzyme immobilized Kapton® fluidic reaction column can be used as a disposable cartridge. Such a system enables reuse and reliability for long term sampling measurements. Based on this concept a biosensing system is envisioned which can perform rapid measurements to detect biomarkers such as glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, urea and lactate in urine and blood continuously over extended periods of time.

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ... topic for: Kids Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more Partner Message ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ... topic for: Kids Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more About Us ...

  20. Genital and Urinary Tract Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... conditions > Genital and urinary tract defects Genital and urinary tract defects E-mail to a friend Please fill ... and extra fluids. What problems can genital and urinary tract defects cause? Genital and urinary tract defects affect ...

  1. Identification of elevated urea as a severe, ubiquitous metabolic defect in the brain of patients with Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patassini, Stefano; Begley, Paul; Reid, Suzanne J; Xu, Jingshu; Church, Stephanie J; Curtis, Maurice; Dragunow, Mike; Waldvogel, Henry J; Unwin, Richard D; Snell, Russell G; Faull, Richard L M; Cooper, Garth J S

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder wherein the aetiological defect is a mutation in the Huntington's gene (HTT), which alters the structure of the huntingtin protein through the lengthening of a polyglutamine tract and initiates a cascade that ultimately leads to dementia and premature death. However, neurodegeneration typically manifests in HD only in middle age, and processes linking the causative mutation to brain disease are poorly understood. Here, our objective was to elucidate further the processes that cause neurodegeneration in HD, by measuring levels of metabolites in brain regions known to undergo varying degrees of damage. We applied gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabolomics in a case-control study of eleven brain regions in short post-mortem-delay human tissue from nine well-characterized HD patients and nine controls. Unexpectedly, a single major abnormality was evident in all eleven brain regions studied across the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain, namely marked elevation of urea, a metabolite formed in the urea cycle by arginase-mediated cleavage of arginine. Urea cycle activity localizes primarily in the liver, where it functions to incorporate protein-derived amine-nitrogen into urea for recycling or urinary excretion. It also occurs in other cell-types, but systemic over-production of urea is not known in HD. These findings are consistent with impaired local urea regulation in brain, by up-regulation of synthesis and/or defective clearance. We hypothesize that defective brain urea metabolism could play a substantive role in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration, perhaps via defects in osmoregulation or nitrogen metabolism. Brain urea metabolism is therefore a target for generating novel monitoring/imaging strategies and/or therapeutic interventions aimed at ameliorating the impact of HD in patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The relationship between gluconeogenic substrate supply and glucose production in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahoor, F.; Peters, E.J.; Wolfe, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between gluconeogenic precursor supply and glucose production has been investigated in 14-h and 86-h fasted humans. In protocols 1 and 2 [6,6-2H]glucose and [15N2]urea were infused to measure glucose and urea production rates (Ra) in response to infusions of glycerol and alanine. In protocol 3 first [15N]alanine, [3-13C]lactate, and [6,6-2H]glucose were infused before and during administration of dichloroacetate (DCA) to determine the response of glucose Ra to decreased fluxes of pyruvate, alanine, and lactate, then alanine was infused with DCA and glucose Ra measured. After a 14-h fast, neither alanine nor glycerol increased glucose Ra. Basal glucose Ra decreased by one-third after 86 h of fasting, yet glycerol and alanine infusions had no effect on glucose Ra. Glycerol always reduced urea Ra (P less than 0.05), suggesting that glycerol competitively inhibited gluconeogenesis from amino acids. DCA decreased the fluxes of pyruvate, alanine (P less than 0.01), and glucose Ra (P less than 0.01), which was prevented by alanine infusion. These findings suggest that (1) the reduction in glucose Ra after an 86-h fast is not because of a shortage of gluconeogenic substrate; (2) nonetheless, the importance of precursor supply to maintain basal glucose Ra is confirmed by the response to DCA; (3) an excess of one gluconeogenic substrate inhibits gluconeogenesis from others

  3. [Male urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, T.A. de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment

  4. Urinary incontinence products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003973.htm Urinary incontinence products To use the sharing features on this ... There are many products to help you manage urinary incontinence . You can decide which product to choose based ...

  5. Modeling of flux, binding and substitution of urea molecules in the urea transporter dvUT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Tian; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Tao; Sang, Jian-Ping; Zou, Xian-Wu; Zou, Xiaoqin

    2017-09-01

    Urea transporters (UTs) are transmembrane proteins that transport urea molecules across cell membranes and play a crucial role in urea excretion and water balance. Modeling the functional characteristics of UTs helps us understand how their structures accomplish the functions at the atomic level, and facilitates future therapeutic design targeting the UTs. This study was based on the crystal structure of Desulfovibrio vulgaris urea transporter (dvUT). To model the binding behavior of urea molecules in dvUT, we constructed a cooperative binding model. To model the substitution of urea by the urea analogue N,N'-dimethylurea (DMU) in dvUT, we calculated the occupation probability of DMU along the urea pore and the ratio of the occupation probabilities of DMU at the external (S ext ) and internal (S int ) binding sites, and we established the mutual substitution rule for binding and substitution of urea and DMU. Based on these calculations and modelings, together with the use of the Monte Carlo (MC) method, we further modeled the urea flux in dvUT, equilibrium urea binding to dvUT, and the substitution of urea by DMU in the dvUT. Our modeling results are in good agreement with the existing experimental functional data. Furthermore, the modelings have discovered the microscopic process and mechanisms of those functional characteristics. The methods and the results would help our future understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the diseases associated with impaired UT functions and rational drug design for the treatment of these diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Glucose allostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stumvoll, Michael; Tataranni, P Antonio; Stefan, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    individuals with normal glucose tolerance, normoglycemia can always be maintained by compensatorily increasing AIR in response to decreasing M (and vice versa). This has been mathematically described by the hyperbolic relationship between AIR and M and referred to as glucose homeostasis, with glucose......In many organisms, normoglycemia is achieved by a tight coupling of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta-cell (acute insulin response [AIR]) and the metabolic action of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal (insulin action [M]). It is widely accepted that in healthy...... concentration assumed to remain constant along the hyperbola. Conceivably, glucose is one of the signals stimulating AIR in response to decreasing M. Hypothetically, as with any normally functioning feed-forward system, AIR should not fully compensate for worsening M, since this would remove the stimulus...

  7. Urea and deuterium mixtures at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, M., E-mail: m.donnelly-2@sms.ed.ac.uk; Husband, R. J.; Frantzana, A. D.; Loveday, J. S. [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Erskine Williamson Building, Peter Guthrie Tait Road, The King’s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom); Bull, C. L. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxford Harwell, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Klotz, S. [IMPMC, CNRS UMR 7590, Université P and M Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France)

    2015-03-28

    Urea, like many network forming compounds, has long been known to form inclusion (guest-host) compounds. Unlike other network formers like water, urea is not known to form such inclusion compounds with simple molecules like hydrogen. Such compounds if they existed would be of interest both for the fundamental insight they provide into molecular bonding and as potential gas storage systems. Urea has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material [T. A. Strobel et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 478, 97 (2009)]. Here, we report the results of high-pressure neutron diffraction studies of urea and D{sub 2} mixtures that indicate no inclusion compound forms up to 3.7 GPa.

  8. Study of furfural-urea grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of raw materials, formulation and performance of furfural-urea grout is given. Characteristics of the grout slurry, mechanism of stabilization and examples of shaft sinking with grouting in quicksand are summarized.

  9. Urinary ascites in a preterm female neonate: a rare case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hyponatremia and hyperkalemia, and blood urea nitrogen levels will be increased [5]. Diagnosis of urinary ascites can be made by abdominal radiograph and USG abdomen. Abdominal radiograph will show central pooling of gut loops in abdomen and ground glass opacity in flanks. USG abdomen can be confirmative.

  10. 21 CFR 862.1770 - Urea nitrogen test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urea nitrogen test system. 862.1770 Section 862....1770 Urea nitrogen test system. (a) Identification. A urea nitrogen test system is a device intended to measure urea nitrogen (an end-product of nitrogen metabolism) in whole blood, serum, plasma, and urine...

  11. Metabolism of urea in kids fed different levels of urea molasses diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, M.; Singh, U.B.; Verma, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    Urea entry rates were measured in the body pool of Barbari kids using a single injection isotope dilution technique. The kids were divided into five groups (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 , T 4 and T 5 ) and they were fed different levels of urea molasses viz., 10, 25, 35, 40 and 0 percent to meet their DCP requirement along with concentrate mixture and oat hay as per A.R.C. recommendation. Urea entry rate was significantly higher (P 1 and the control group (T 5 without urea in their diets) than that of T 2 , T 3 and T 4 which were not significantly different from each other. (author)

  12. Urea hydrolysis and ammonia volatilization from some urea based fertilizers applied to rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, C.; Jena, D.; Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Schepers, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out in replicated microplots (1 m x 1 m) with rice (cv. Pathara) to study urea hydrolysis using several urea based N-fertilizer sources. Results indicated highly significant urea based N-fertilizers, among which urea super granule (USG) and prilled urea (PU) (applied in two splits) could be rated as the most efficient sources of N. Based on measured ammonia volatilization loss, NH 2 -N concentration in flood water and soil solution (following fertilizer application); urea hydrolysis was observed to be faster in the case of PU, USG, PU + ECC (encapsulated calcium carbide) and UNP (urea nitro phosphate) (19-19-0) than in the case of GCU (gypsum coated urea) and UNP (27-9-0) treatments. Based on the 15 N tagged prilled urea experiment, it is observed that about 24 per cent of fertilizer nitrogen was utilized by the crop in closed system as compared to 18 per cent in natural free system. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  13. The incidence of urea cycle disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Summar, Marshall L.; Koelker, Stefan; Freedenberg, Debra; Le Mons, Cynthia; Haberle, Johannes; Lee, Hye-Seung; Kirmse, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A key question for urea cycle disorders is their incidence. In the United States two UCDs argininosuccinic synthetase and lyase deficiency are currently detected by newborn screening. We used newborn screening data on over 6. million births and data from the large US and European longitudinal registries to determine how common these conditions are. The incidence for the United States is predicted to be 1 urea cycle disorder patient for every 35000 births presenting about 113 new patients per ...

  14. Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidneys and Urinary Tract KidsHealth / For Teens / Kidneys and Urinary Tract What's ... a sign of diabetes . What the Kidneys and Urinary Tract Do Although the two kidneys work together to ...

  15. Transfer of blood urea into the goat colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, W. von; Hinderer, S.

    1976-01-01

    Transfer of blood urea to the temporarily isolated and perfused colon of conscious goats was measured. Simultaneously, total urea turnover was estimated using 14 C-labelled urea. Three animals in the weight range 50-70 k were used, with appropriately placed cannulae. The entry of blood urea into the total gastrointestinal tract was estimated from the difference between total urea turnover renal urea excretion. When experimental conditions remained constant, such as the permeability of the gastrointestinal tract wall, blood urea diffusion into the colon depended on plasma urea concentration. Results of varying feeding conditions demonstrated that changes in permeability of the gastrointestinal tract will have a more pronounced influence on the amounts of blood urea entering the gastrointestinal tract than differences in plasma urea concentration

  16. Hepatic urea biosynthesis in the euryhaline elasmobranch Carcharhinus leucas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W Gary; Good, Jonathan P; Pillans, Richard D; Hazon, Neil; Franklin, Craig E

    2005-10-01

    Plasma urea levels and hepatic urea production in the euryhaline bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, acclimated to freshwater and seawater environments were measured. It was found that plasma urea concentration increased with salinity and that this increase was, in part, the result of a significant increase in hepatic production of urea. This study provides direct evidence that hepatic production of urea plays an important role in the osmoregulatory strategy of C. leucas. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Measurement of synovial fluid volume using urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, V B; Stabler, T V; Kong, S Y; Varju, G; McDaniel, G

    2007-10-01

    To examine the utility of using urea concentrations for determining Synovial Fluid (SF) joint volume in effused and non-effused joints. Knee joint SF was aspirated from 159 human study participants with symptomatic osteoarthritis of at least one knee either directly (165 knees) or by lavage (110 knees). Serum was obtained immediately prior to SF aspiration. Participants were asked to rate individual knee pain, aching or stiffness. SF and serum urea levels were determined using a specific enzymatic method run on an automated CMA600 analyzer. Cell counts were performed on direct SF aspirates when volume permitted. The formula for calculating SF joint volume was as follows: V(j)=C(D)(V(I))/(C-C(D)) with V(j)=volume of SF in entire joint, C(D)=concentration of urea in diluted (lavage) SF, V(I)=volume of saline injected into joint, and C=concentration of urea in undiluted (neat) SF derived below where C=0.897(C(S)) and C(s)=concentration of urea in serum. There was an excellent correlation (r(2)=0.8588) between SF and serum urea in the direct aspirates with a ratio of 0.897 (SF/serum). Neither urea levels nor the SF/serum ratio showed any correlation with Kellgren Lawrence (KL) grade, or cell count. While urea levels increased with age there was no change in the ratio. Intraarticular SF volumes calculated for the lavaged knees ranged from 0.555 to 71.71ml with a median volume of 3.048ml. There was no correlation of SF volume to KL grade but there was a positive correlation (P=0.001) between SF volume and self-reported individual knee pain. Our urea results for direct aspirates indicate an equilibrium state between serum and SF with regard to the water fraction. This equilibrium exists regardless of disease status (KL grade), inflammation (cell count), or age, making it possible to calculate intraarticular volume of lavaged joints based upon this urea method. Most of the joint volumes we calculated fell within the previously reported range for normal knees of 0.5-4.0ml

  18. RENAL FUNCTION TEST ON THE BASIS OF SERUM CREATININE AND UREA IN TYPE-2 DIABETICS AND NONDIABETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type-2 diabetes mellitus has quickly become a global health problem due to rapidly increasing population growth, aging, urbanization and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. Diabetic nephropathy is one of the major causes of chronic renal failure. Both serum urea and creatinine are widely used to assess the function of kidney. This study was conducted to observe the impaired renal function in type 2 diabetics and compare with non-diabetics controls. Method: To determine the incidence of renal dysfunction in diabetics in Nepalgunj medical college and Hospital , Nepalgunj , Banke, Nepal , blood samples from 100 diabetic subjects and 100 non-diabetic controls were taken between the period 1st February  , 2012  to  31st January , 2013 for investigation of  plasma glucose fasting(FPG, blood urea and serum creatinine. These biochemical parameters were determined by using a fully automated clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: Our findings showed that the level of blood urea (P<0.0001, 95%Cl and serum creatinine (P≈0.0004,95%Cl were significantly higher in type 2 diabetics as compared to non-diabetics in both male and female. There was no significant difference between diabetic male and female. 15 out of 100 diabetes samples have high urea level whereas 7 out of 100 had increased creatinine level. In control only 3 samples had high urea value and 1 had high creatinine level. There was statistical significant increased in urea level with increased in blood sugar level. Conclusion: Blood urea and creatinine is widely accepted to assess the renal functions. Good control of blood glucose level is absolute requirement to prevent progressive renal impairment.

  19. Salivary flow rate, buffer capacity, and urea concentration in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saes Busato, Ivana Maria; Antoni, Carlos Cesar De; Calcagnotto, Thiago; Ignácio, Sérgio Aparecido; Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze salivary flow rate, urea concentration, and buffer capacity in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM) in two different stages. This study was performed on adolescents (14-19 years), allocated between two groups: type 1 DM group comprised 32 adolescents with type 1 DM, and non-type 1 DM group comprised 32 nondiabetics. The adolescents in type 1 DM group were evaluated at a baseline (T0) and after 15 months (T1), and those in non-type 1 DM group were only evaluated at T0. Diabetic status was determined by glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) and capillary glucose tests. Measurement of salivary flow was performed by means of stimulated saliva (SSFR) collection. The buffer capacity (BC) was determined, and analysis of urea salivary concentration was performed using the colorimetric method. At T0, there were significant differences between diabetics and nondiabetics for SSFR and BC (pdiabetics, SSFR was 0.790 mL/min in T0 and 0.881 mL/min in T1 (p>0.05). BC at T0 was 4.8, and at T1, it was 3.9 (p=0.000). Urea concentration mean value had a significant decrease at T1 (28.13) compared with T0 (34.88) (p=0.013). There was a negative correlation between SSFR and urea salivary concentration at both T0 (r=-0.426, p≤0.05) and T1 (r=-0.601, p≤0.01). In adolescents with type 1 DM, hyposalivation at T0 was associated with an increase in urea salivary concentration. At T1, hyposalivation was associated with a reduction in BC, and an increase in salivary urea.

  20. Urea utilization in protein deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Noriko

    1982-01-01

    Three experiments were performed to investigate the mechanism of urea utilization and the nutritional roles of intestinal flora on the utilization of urea by rats fed with a protein deficient diet. Ammonia content in the small intestine in LPD(low protein diet) group fed with a low protein diet for 2 or 5 weeks was about three of five times higher than that of control group fed with SPD(standard protein diet) after administration of urea (0.2gN/100gB.W.). The 15 N incorporation into plasma protein of LPD group was significantly higher than that of the control group two hours after the administration of 15 N-urea (10 mg/100gB.W.) and higher level of 15 N concentration in plasma protein in LPD group was maintained thereafter. The 15 N incorporation into the amino acids of plasma protein was higher in LPD group than in control group. The 15 N incorporation into the amino acids in portal plasma seemed to be higher in LPD group than in control group one hour after the administration of 15 N-urea (10mg/100gB.W.). However, the 15 N incorporation into each free amino acids was suppressed considerably by the administration of antibiotic mixture. it follows that amino acids may be synthesized from urea in the intestine by intestinal-bacterial action and absorbed from portal vein. From these results, it may be concluded that the ammonia nitrogen converted from urea by the action of intestinal-bacterial urease in the intestine is utilized for the synthesis of essential and nonessential amino acids in protein deficient rats and transfered to the liver through portal vein and utilized for protein synthesis. (J.P.N.)

  1. Urea utilization in protein deficient rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, N [Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo (Japan)

    1982-06-01

    Three experiments were performed to investigate the mechanism of urea utilization and the nutritional roles of intestinal flora on the utilization of urea by rats fed with a protein deficient diet. Ammonia content in the small intestine in LPD(low protein diet) group fed with a low protein diet for 2 or 5 weeks was about three of five times higher than that of control group fed with SPD(standard protein diet) after administration of urea (0.2gN/100gB.W.). The /sup 15/N incorporation into plasma protein of LPD group was significantly higher than that of the control group two hours after the administration of /sup 15/N-urea (10 mg/100gB.W.) and higher level of /sup 15/N concentration in plasma protein in LPD group was maintained thereafter. The /sup 15/N incorporation into the amino acids of plasma protein was higher in LPD group than in control group. The /sup 15/N incorporation into the amino acids in portal plasma seemed to be higher in LPD group than in control group one hour after the administration of /sup 15/N-urea (10mg/100gB.W.). However, the /sup 15/N incorporation into each free amino acids was suppressed considerably by the administration of antibiotic mixture. it follows that amino acids may be synthesized from urea in the intestine by intestinal-bacterial action and absorbed from portal vein. From these results, it may be concluded that the ammonia nitrogen converted from urea by the action of intestinal-bacterial urease in the intestine is utilized for the synthesis of essential and nonessential amino acids in protein deficient rats and transfered to the liver through portal vein and utilized for protein synthesis.

  2. Standardization of the TRUE Test imidazolidinyl urea and diazolidinyl urea patches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Björkner, B

    2001-01-01

    The preservatives imidazolidinyl urea (IMID, Germall 115) and diazolidinyl urea (DU, Germall II) are commonly used in cosmetic products and are well-known sensitizers. The aim of the present study was to establish the optimal patch test concentration in hydrophilic dried-in vehicle (TRUE Test...

  3. Substitution of lucerne hay by untreated, urea-enriched and urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat straw was left untreated (WS), enriched with 1.5% urea (UWS), or ammoniated with 5.5% urea in a stack for 8 .... nitrogen concentration for maximal microbial synthesis is in ... faeces and urine samples were taken daily and pooled for.

  4. Thermoplastic poly(urethane urea)s from novel, bio-based amorphous polyester diols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, D.; Noordover, B.A.J.; Sablong, R.J.; Koning, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, two novel, bio-based, amorphous polyester diols, namely poly(1,2-dimethylethylene adipate) (PDMEA) and poly(1,2-dimethylethylene succinate) (PDMES) are used to prepare thermoplastic poly(urethane urea)s (TPUUs). Interestingly, the TPUUs based on PDMEA show similar thermal and

  5. Urea concentration in sheep’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Havranek

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining urea concentration in milk is a useful indicator for controlling supply of proteins to organisms, as well as the relationship of energy and protein in the food, thus it is finding more and more ways of practical use. The concentration of urea in milk, along with the feeding process, is influenced by a number of other factors such as: breed, stage and sequence of lactation, body mass, daily production and chemical structure of milk, number of somatic cells, season, milking.The goal of the research was to establish the influence of the breed (Island of Krk, East Frisian, lactation stage (beginning, middle and the end and the herd (3 to the concentration of urea in milk during lactation.For each breed there has been established daily quantity of milk, protein share and the concentration of urea in milk.Statistical analysis of data was conducted by using General Linear Models procedure, SAS program system (1999.The breed of sheep considerably (P<0.001 influenced daily quantity of milk, protein share and the concentration of urea in the milk.East Frisian sheep produced on average almost double the daily quantities of milk (1070 mL compared to the Krk sheep (588 mL.Protein share and the urea concentration in Krk sheep milk were higher (5.99 % and 35.97 mg/100 mL then in the milk of East Frisian sheep (5.12 % and 33.31 mg/100 mL.For both breeds the significant influence of lactation stage to the daily milk quantity has been established (0.001, that is also for the urea concentration in the milk of Krk sheep (0.001, as well as protein share in the milk of East Frisian sheep (0.001.Herd influence significantly affected daily milk quantities (0.001 and concentration of urea in the milk (0.05.The defining of the urea concentration in sheep milk should be occasionally carried out in the Republic of Croatia to establish the standard physiological values typical for the particular sheep breed.

  6. Photoluminescence of urea- and urea/rhodamine B-capped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalo-Juan, I., E-mail: gonzalo@materials.tu-darmstadt.de; Macé, L.; Tengeler, S.; Mosallem, A.; Nicoloso, N.; Riedel, R.

    2016-07-01

    Urea- and rhodamine B (RhB)-capped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared by solvothermal synthesis and characterized by HRTEM, XRD, FTIR, XPS, optical absorption and photoemission. The urea and urea/RhB ligands are capped to the surface of the TiO{sub 2} NPs for the first time through carbamate bonding. The band gap of TiO{sub 2} is slightly reduced from 3.1 eV to 3.0 eV in the urea capped TiO{sub 2} NPs (TU) and 2.9 eV for the NPs capped with urea/RhB (TUR). The generation of new trapping states in TU and TUR at the conduction band edges (surface oxygen vacancies) has been confirmed by the Urbach law providing tail state energies of 180 meV and 270 meV, respectively. These tail states are considered to be responsible for the strong reduction of the photoluminescence at ≈400 nm and the increased emission at ≈600 nm in TU and TUR. The findings suggest that urea- and RhB-capped TiO{sub 2} NPs could have potential applications as photocatalysts, opto-electronic devices, sensors, biological labels and anti-bacterial agents. - Highlights: • Urea- and urea/rhodamine B (RhB)-capped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles preparation. • Characterization of optical properties of urea- and urea/rhodamine B (RhB)-capped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • The recombination of electrons and holes is significantly reduced in the capped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, in comparison with TiO{sub 2}.

  7. Urinary schistosomiasis epidemiological survey of urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... knowledge about the infection and 12% of the children that reported having blood in their urine ... urinary schistosomiasis on economic condition and the ..... Medicine for the Tropics (3rd edition) Edward Arnold: Educational.

  8. Estimation of daily protein intake based on spot urine urea nitrogen concentration in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Hiroko; Kanda, Eiichiro; Sato, Asako; Sakamoto, Kaori; Kanno, Yoshihiko

    2016-04-01

    Determination of daily protein intake in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) requires precision. Inaccuracies in recording dietary intake occur, and estimation from total urea excretion presents hurdles owing to the difficulty of collecting whole urine for 24 h. Spot urine has been used for measuring daily sodium intake and urinary protein excretion. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether urea nitrogen (UN) concentration in spot urine can be used to predict daily protein intake instead of the 24-h urine collection in 193 Japanese CKD patients (Stages G1-G5). After patient randomization into 2 datasets for the development and validation of models, bootstrapping was used to develop protein intake estimation models. The parameters for the candidate multivariate regression models were male gender, age, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum albumin level, spot urinary UN and creatinine level, and spot urinary UN/creatinine levels. The final model contained BMI and spot urinary UN level. The final model was selected because of the higher correlation between the predicted and measured protein intakes r = 0.558 (95 % confidence interval 0.400, 0.683), and the smaller distribution of the difference between the measured and predicted protein intakes than those of the other models. The results suggest that UN concentration in spot urine may be used to estimate daily protein intake and that a prediction formula would be useful for nutritional control in CKD patients.

  9. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Perez, Maria Eliette Gonzalez; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; de Vossenberg, Jack van; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-10-29

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods-lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment-were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m³ of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment.

  10. Limiting the testing of urea: Urea along with every plasma creatinine test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gao-Ming; Guo, Xu-Xiao; Zhang, Guo-Ming

    2017-09-01

    We found that it is not necessary to simultaneously detect both creatinine (CREA) and urea until the concentration of CREA is lower than the certain level. To reduce urea testing, we suggest measuring urea only when CREA or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) exceeds a predetermined limit. CREA and urea data were analyzed consisting of almost all of people age above 65 years old check-up (n=95441) in Shuyang countryside, and inpatients (n=101631), outpatients (n=18474) and Routine Health Check-up (n=20509) in Shuyang People's Hospital. The proportions of elevated urea were derived. The data used in this study was generated from people more than 13 years old in both outpatients and inpatients. When the limits for initiating urea testing were used at 85 μmol/L CREA and 120 mL/min/1.73 m 2 eGFR, the percentage of unnecessary urea test are 94.5% and 64.7% (elderly health check-up), 67.9% and 84.5% (outpatients), 88.5% and 73.2% (inpatients), 92.2% and 81.7% (routine health check-up). The missing rate of urea are 1%, 2.5%, 4.6% and 9.2%, 0.1%, 0.4%, 0.9% and 1.8%, 0.4%, 0.8%, 1.4%, and 2.5%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 1.1%, and 0.8% of ureas exceeding 9.28 mmol/L and 8.3 mmol/L in above each group, respectively. If the CREA≤85 μmol/L or eGFR≥90 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , there is 97.5% urea urea missed is 2.5%. We suggest that the initiating urea testing should be based on the upper limit of Reference Intervals serum CREA of females or a 120 mL/min/1.73 m 2 eGFR limit. Conservatively, the urea testing would be reduced by 65% at least. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Entry of blood urea into the rumen of the llama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinderer, S.; Engelhardt, W. von

    1976-01-01

    Transfer of body urea into the temporarily isolated rumen cleaned and filled with a test solution was measured in the llama. Simultaneously urea recirculation into the total gastro-intestinal tract (GI-tract) was estimated using 14 C-urea. The permeability of the rumen wall to urea could be changed significantly. With CO 2 or butyric acid in the test solution, permeability was highest, it was low when food was withheld and when no volatile fatty acids were present in the solution. Changes in the permeability can affect the transfer of blood urea across the rumen wall more extensively than changes in plasma urea concentrations. (author)

  12. A perfusion study of the handling of urea and urea analogues by the gills of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris M; Liew, Hon Jung; De Boeck, Gudrun; Walsh, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    The branchial mechanism of urea retention in elasmobranchs was investigated using an in vitro isolated-perfused head preparation, as well as in vivo samples, in the spiny dogfish shark. Both in vivo and in control saline perfusions containing 350 mmol L(-1) urea, calculated intracellular urea concentrations in gill epithelial cells were close to extracellular concentrations. Urea efflux to the external water fell only non-significantly, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentration did not change when perfusate urea concentration was reduced from 350 to 175 mmol L(-1) with osmotic compensation by 175 mmol L(-1) mannitol. However, when the urea analogues thiourea or acetamide were present in the perfusate at concentrations equimolar (175 mmol L(-1)) to those of urea (175 mmol L(-1)), urea efflux rates were increased 4-fold and 6.5-fold respectively, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentrations were depressed by about 55%. Analogue efflux rates were similar to urea efflux rates. Previous studies have argued that either the basolateral or apical membranes provided the limiting permeability barrier, and/or that a back-transporter on the basolateral membranes of gill cells is responsible for urea retention. The present results provide new evidence that the apical membrane is the limiting factor in maintaining gill urea impermeability, and raise the prospect that a urea back-transporter, which can be competitively inhibited by thiourea and acetamide, operates at the apical membrane.

  13. A perfusion study of the handling of urea and urea analogues by the gills of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris M. Wood

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The branchial mechanism of urea retention in elasmobranchs was investigated using an in vitro isolated-perfused head preparation, as well as in vivo samples, in the spiny dogfish shark. Both in vivo and in control saline perfusions containing 350 mmol L−1 urea, calculated intracellular urea concentrations in gill epithelial cells were close to extracellular concentrations. Urea efflux to the external water fell only non-significantly, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentration did not change when perfusate urea concentration was reduced from 350 to 175 mmol L−1 with osmotic compensation by 175 mmol L−1 mannitol. However, when the urea analogues thiourea or acetamide were present in the perfusate at concentrations equimolar (175 mmol L−1 to those of urea (175 mmol L−1, urea efflux rates were increased 4-fold and 6.5-fold respectively, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentrations were depressed by about 55%. Analogue efflux rates were similar to urea efflux rates. Previous studies have argued that either the basolateral or apical membranes provided the limiting permeability barrier, and/or that a back-transporter on the basolateral membranes of gill cells is responsible for urea retention. The present results provide new evidence that the apical membrane is the limiting factor in maintaining gill urea impermeability, and raise the prospect that a urea back-transporter, which can be competitively inhibited by thiourea and acetamide, operates at the apical membrane.

  14. The incidence of urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summar, Marshall L; Koelker, Stefan; Freedenberg, Debra; Le Mons, Cynthia; Haberle, Johannes; Lee, Hye-Seung; Kirmse, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A key question for urea cycle disorders is their incidence. In the United States two UCDs, argininosuccinic synthetase and lyase deficiency, are currently detected by newborn screening. We used newborn screening data on over 6million births and data from the large US and European longitudinal registries to determine how common these conditions are. The incidence for the United States is predicted to be 1 urea cycle disorder patient for every 35,000 births presenting about 113 new patients per year across all age groups. © 2013.

  15. Spectroscopic studies of europium-tetracyclines complexes and their applications in detection of hydrogen peroxide and urea peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, Andrea Nastri

    2010-01-01

    In this work were studied the spectroscopic properties of trivalent europium ion complexed with components of tetracycline family, chlorotetracycline, oxytetracycline and metacycline, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and urea peroxide. Optical parameters were obtained such as absorption, emission, lifetime and calibration curves were constructed for luminescence spectra. Experiments were carried out with both inorganic compounds and europium-tetracyclines complexes in order to verify possible interferences. Studies for glucose determination were also described using europium-tetracyclines complexes as biosensors. Results show that europium tetracyclines complexes emit a narrow band in the visible region and, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide or urea peroxide there is a greater enhancement in their luminescence and lifetime. Thus, europium-tetracyclines complexes studied can be used as biosensors for hydrogen and urea peroxides determination as a low cost and room temperature method. An indirect method for glucose determination was studied by adding glucose oxidase enzyme in europium-tetracyclines complex in the presence of glucose promoting as product hydrogen peroxide. (author)

  16. Role of thin descending limb urea transport in renal urea handling and the urine concentrating mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tianluo; Zhou, Lei; Layton, Anita T.; Zhou, Hong; Zhao, Xuejian; Bankir, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Urea transporters UT-A2 and UT-B are expressed in epithelia of thin descending limb of Henle's loop and in descending vasa recta, respectively. To study their role and possible interaction in the context of the urine concentration mechanism, a UT-A2 and UT-B double knockout (UT-A2/B knockout) mouse model was generated by targeted deletion of the UT-A2 promoter in embryonic stem cells with UT-B gene knockout. The UT-A2/B knockout mice lacked detectable UT-A2 and UT-B transcripts and proteins and showed normal survival and growth. Daily urine output was significantly higher in UT-A2/B knockout mice than that in wild-type mice and lower than that in UT-B knockout mice. Urine osmolality in UT-A2/B knockout mice was intermediate between that in UT-B knockout and wild-type mice. The changes in urine osmolality and flow rate, plasma and urine urea concentration, as well as non-urea solute concentration after an acute urea load or chronic changes in protein intake suggested that UT-A2 plays a role in the progressive accumulation of urea in the inner medulla. These results suggest that in wild-type mice UT-A2 facilitates urea absorption by urea efflux from the thin descending limb of short loops of Henle. Moreover, UT-A2 deletion in UT-B knockout mice partially remedies the urine concentrating defect caused by UT-B deletion, by reducing urea loss from the descending limbs to the peripheral circulation; instead, urea is returned to the inner medulla through the loops of Henle and the collecting ducts. PMID:21849488

  17. Urea transporter proteins as targets for small-molecule diuretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteva-Font, Cristina; Anderson, Marc O; Verkman, Alan S

    2015-02-01

    Conventional diuretics such as furosemide and thiazides target salt transporters in kidney tubules, but urea transporters (UTs) have emerged as alternative targets. UTs are a family of transmembrane channels expressed in a variety of mammalian tissues, in particular the kidney. UT knockout mice and humans with UT mutations exhibit reduced maximal urinary osmolality, demonstrating that UTs are necessary for the concentration of urine. Small-molecule screening has identified potent and selective inhibitors of UT-A, the UT protein expressed in renal tubule epithelial cells, and UT-B, the UT protein expressed in vasa recta endothelial cells. Data from UT knockout mice and from rodents administered UT inhibitors support the diuretic action of UT inhibition. The kidney-specific expression of UT-A1, together with high selectivity of the small-molecule inhibitors, means that off-target effects of such small-molecule drugs should be minimal. This Review summarizes the structure, expression and function of UTs, and looks at the evidence supporting the validity of UTs as targets for the development of salt-sparing diuretics with a unique mechanism of action. UT-targeted inhibitors may be useful alone or in combination with conventional diuretics for therapy of various oedemas and hyponatraemias, potentially including those refractory to treatment with current diuretics.

  18. Effect of abomasal infusion of oligofructose on portal-drained visceral ammonia and urea-nitrogen fluxes in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røjen, B A; Larsen, M; Kristensen, N B

    2012-12-01

    The effects of abomasal infusion of oligofructose in lactating dairy cows on the relationship between hindgut fermentation and N metabolism, and its effects on NH(3) absorption and transfer of blood urea-N across the portal-drained viscera versus ruminal epithelia were investigated. Nine lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were used in an unbalanced crossover design with 14-d periods. Treatments were continuous abomasal infusion of water or 1,500 g/d of oligofructose. The same basal diet was fed with both treatments. Eight sample sets of arterial, portal, hepatic, and ruminal vein blood, ruminal fluid, and urine were obtained at 0.5h before the morning feeding and at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, and 6.5 h after feeding. It was hypothesized that an increased supply of fermentable substrate to the hindgut would increase the uptake of urea-N from blood to the hindgut at the expense of urea-N uptake to the forestomach. The study showed that abomasal oligofructose infusion decreased the total amount of urea-N transferred from the blood to the gut, NH(3) absorption, and arterial blood urea-N concentration. Subsequently, hepatic NH(3) uptake and urea-N production also decreased with oligofructose infusion. Additionally, urea-N concentration in milk and urinary N excretion decreased with oligofructose treatment. The oligofructose infusion did not affect ruminal NH(3) concentrations or any other ruminal variables, nor did it affect ruminal venous - arterial concentration differences for urea-N and NH(3). The oligofructose treatment did not affect milk yield, but did decrease apparent digestibility of OM, N, and starch. Nitrogen excreted in the feces was greater with the oligofructose infusion. In conclusion, the present data suggest that increased hindgut fermentation did not upregulate urea-N transfer to the hindgut at the expense of urea-N uptake by the rumen, and the observed reduction

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing quite a lot. Why? Because it ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ...

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Urinary Tract ...

  2. Environmental factors influencing milk urea nitrogen in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    following fixed effects model, in matrix notation, was used for the ANOVA: .... Estimation of genetic parameters for milk urea nitrogen and its ... urea nitrogen concentration: Heritability and genetic correlations with reproductive performance and.

  3. Measurement of urea kinetics in vivo by means of a constant tracer infusion of di-15N-urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    We have assessed the feasibility of studying urea metabolism in vivo in both steady state and nonsteady state situations by means of the primed constant infusion of di-15N-urea and the analysis of the resulting enrichment in plasma urea. Both hepatectomized dogs with known rates of urea infusion and intact dogs were studied. The enrichment of the bistrimethylsilyl derivative of urea was determined on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Selected ion monitoring was set for m/e 189 (M - 15), m/e 190 (A + 1), and m/e 191 (A + 2), thus enabling the calculation of the rate of urea production from nonrecycled NH3 (from A + 2 data) (Ra N), the rate of recycling of NH3 into urea (Ra R) (from A + 1 data), and thus the total rate of urea production (Ra N + Ra R). When urine collections were made, the incorporation of urea-N into protein was estimated from the difference between Ra N and urea excretion. We found that, in the steady state in a hepatectomized dog, the rate of appearance of urea can be determined accurately. In the nonsteady state in both hepatectomized and intact dogs, urea appearance could be estimated within +/- 20% in most situations. The only situation in which this was not the case was when we attempted to measure rapid changes in Ra R. Thus, within limits, this can be a useful technique enabling the quantitation of various aspects of urea metabolism

  4. Urea retranslocation from senescing Arabidopsis leaves is promoted by DUR3-mediated urea retrieval from leaf apoplast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohner, Anne; Kojima, Soichi; Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Melzer, Michael; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2015-01-01

    In plants, urea derives either from root uptake or protein degradation. Although large quantities of urea are released during senescence, urea is mainly seen as a short-lived nitrogen (N) catabolite serving urease-mediated hydrolysis to ammonium. Here, we investigated the roles of DUR3 and of urea in N remobilization. During natural leaf senescence urea concentrations and DUR3 transcript levels showed a parallel increase with senescence markers like ORE1 in a plant age- and leaf age-dependent manner. Deletion of DUR3 decreased urea accumulation in leaves, whereas the fraction of urea lost to the leaf apoplast was enhanced. Under natural and N deficiency-induced senescence DUR3 promoter activity was highest in the vasculature, but was also found in surrounding bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. An analysis of petiole exudates from wild-type leaves revealed that N from urea accounted for >13% of amino acid N. Urea export from senescent leaves further increased in ureG-2 deletion mutants lacking urease activity. In the dur3 ureG double insertion line the absence of DUR3 reduced urea export from leaf petioles. These results indicate that urea can serve as an early metabolic marker for leaf senescence, and that DUR3-mediated urea retrieval contributes to the retranslocation of N from urea during leaf senescence. PMID:25440717

  5. Disorders of urea cycle: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Álvarez

    2017-08-01

    Discussion: Urea cycle disorders are part of innate errors in ammonia detoxification or arginine synthesis, secondary to defects in the enzymes involved in this cycle. Clinical manifestations are secondary to elevated levels of serum ammonia. The treatment is composed of an acute and chronic phase.

  6. Quantitative aspect of the endogenous urea cycle in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Yu

    1975-01-01

    The turnover of plasma urea was studied in goats fed rations with different protein contents by using 14 C- and 15 N-urea as tracers. The biological half-life time of urea determined with 15 N-urea was always longer than that determined with 14 C-urea, reflecting the difference in the metabolic pathway between the urea hydrolysates, ammonia and carbon dioxide. It was roughly estimated from the turnover studies that more than a half the quantity of urea synthesized might be transferred to the alimentary canal, including the rumen, where it underwent dissociation, with a decrease in the protein content of the ration, the percentage of transfer and dissociation increased. The 14 C-urea discharged into the urine was less than 57% of the administered dose. It decreased to 3.9% in goats fed rations with a low protein content. The rate of urea turnover determined with 15 N-urea was nearly consistent with the rate of urea discharge into the urine in goats fed higher protein rations. In goats fed lower protein rations, on the other hand, the rate of urea discharge decreased and its consistency with the rate of turnover determined with 15 N-urea was upset. This was caused by assimilation of urea-nitrogen in rumen microorganisms, as was convinced by studying the incorporation of urea- 15 N into the fraction of rumen microorganisms. It was assumed that in goats fed lower protein rations the bulk of urea synthesized might have entered the endogenous recycling system within the body and assimilated by rumen microorganisms. (auth.)

  7. Determination of urea 13C in urea 13C mixed powder by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jianguo; Song Tianqi

    2006-01-01

    A HPLC method is developed for determination of Urea 13 C in Urea 13 C Mixed Powder. A Alltech Econosphere NH2 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm)is used as stationary phrase, a mixture of V(acetonitrile): V(methanol): V(water) = 900 : 100: 10 is used as mobile phase and the flow rate is l mL·min -1 , UV detection wavelength is performed at 200 nm. The calibration curve shows good linearity in the range of 0.2-1.0 g·L -1 of Urea 13 C, y=2.548 x 10 6 x + 4.005 x 10 4 , r=0.9999, and the averaged recovery is 100.6%. The method is simple and accurate, and can be used for the quality control of Urea 13C Mixed Powder. (authors)

  8. Substituição total do farelo de soja por uréia ou amiréia, em dietas com alto teor de concentrado, sobre a amônia ruminal, os parâmetros sangüíneos e o metabolismo do nitrogênio em bovinos de corte Total replacement of soybean meal by urea or starea in high grain diets on nitrogen metabolism, ruminal ammonia-N concentration and blood parameters in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Cunha de Oliveira Junior

    2004-06-01

    parameters were: rumen ammonia-N concentration, plasma urea-N, glucose and nitrogen balance. Experimental treatments were: 1 soybean meal (SBM; 2 urea and 3 starea (A-150S. Diets were isonitrogen (13% CP. The rumen ammonia-N concentration was higher in the treatment with urea, compared to the treatment with SBM, and starea showed no difference compared to the others. Starea had higher loss of urinary N. N retention (g/d and % of consumed and protein biological value (N retention, % of N digestible were higher for urea treatment, compared to the others. There was no difference on plasma urea-N and glucose concentration among treatments. Total replacement of SBM by urea, adjusting PDR in diets for growing beef cattle, demonstrated to be viable. Conventional urea showed advantage compared to starea.

  9. Effect of levels of urea and cassava chip on feed intake, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites and microbial populations in growing goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Wanapat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess effect of levels of urea and cassava chip (CC on feed intake, rumen ecology, blood metabolites and microbial populations. Four, Thai Native X Anglo Nubian crossbred growing male goats with an average liveweight 19.0+1 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design to receive one of four diets: T1=urea at 0 % (CC=30%, T2=urea at 1% (CC=40%, T3=urea at 2% (CC = 50% and T4=urea at 3%(CC=60%, of DM basis, respectively. Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum was offered on an ad lib basis. The results revealed that total DM intake (%BW and g/kg W0.75 and BW change were similar among treatments (p>0.05. Likewise, rumen pH, BUN, blood glucose, PCV and microbial populations were similar among treatments (p>0.05, while NH3-N increased as the urea level increased and were found highest (p<0.05 in T4 at 12.8 mg/dL. Based on this experiment, it can be concluded that a higher level of urea (3% could be used with a high level of CC in concentrate and it was good approach in exploiting the use of local feed resources for goat production.

  10. Urea transporters and sweat response to uremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Raymond W; Bailey, James L; Wang, Yanhua; Klein, Janet D; Sands, Jeff M

    2016-06-01

    In humans, urea is excreted in sweat, largely through the eccrine sweat gland. The urea concentration in human sweat is elevated when compared to blood urea nitrogen. The sweat urea nitrogen (UN) of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESRD) is increased when compared with healthy humans. The ability to produce sweat is maintained in the overwhelming majority of ESRD patients. A comprehensive literature review found no reports of sweat UN neither in healthy rodents nor in rodent models of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, this study measured sweat UN concentrations in healthy and uremic rats. Uninephrectomy followed by renal artery ligation was used to remove 5/6 of renal function. Rats were then fed a high-protein diet to induce uremia. Pilocarpine was used to induce sweating. Sweat droplets were collected under oil. Sweat UN was measured with a urease assay. Serum UN was measured using a fluorescent ortho-pthalaldehyde reaction. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was accomplished with a horseradish peroxidase and diaminobenzidine technique. Sweat UN in uremic rats was elevated greater than two times compared to healthy pair-fed controls (220 ± 17 and 91 ± 15 mmol/L, respectively). Post hoc analysis showed a significant difference between male and female uremic sweat UN (279 ± 38 and 177 ± 11 mmol/L, respectively.) IHC shows, for the first time, the presence of the urea transporters UT-B and UT-A2 in both healthy and uremic rat cutaneous structures. Future studies will use this model to elucidate how rat sweat UN and other solute excretion is altered by commonly prescribed diuretics. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  11. 40 CFR 721.9925 - Aminoethylethylene urea methacrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aminoethylethylene urea methacrylamide... Substances § 721.9925 Aminoethylethylene urea methacrylamide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an aminoethylethylene urea...

  12. 21 CFR 176.320 - Sodium nitrate-urea complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate-urea complex. 176.320 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.320 Sodium nitrate-urea complex. Sodium nitrate-urea complex may be safely used as a component of articles intended for use in producing...

  13. 76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... urea from Russia and Ukraine. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be...

  14. A field evaluation of coated urea with biodegradable materials and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-28

    Dec 28, 2011 ... Urease inhibitor and biodegradable polymer coatings are two most suitable startegies to increase urea fertilizer efficiency. Coating of urea with selected inhibitors can increase the crop production by slowing down the hydrolysis process of urea in the soil. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted ...

  15. The effects of urea, guanidinium chloride and sorbitol on porphyrin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper compares the inhibition effect of porphyrin aggregation in the presence of urea, guanidinium chloride (Gdn) and sorbitol by molecular dynamics simulation. It demonstrates that porphyrin aggregation increases in sorbitol, but decreases towards addition of urea and Gdn. It shows that urea, Gdn and sorbitol can ...

  16. A field evaluation of coated urea with biodegradable materials and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urease inhibitor and biodegradable polymer coatings are two most suitable startegies to increase urea fertilizer efficiency. Coating of urea with selected inhibitors can increase the crop production by slowing down the hydrolysis process of urea in the soil. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the ...

  17. Urinary retention in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Saad

    2014-07-01

    This review is a summary of the most pertinent published studies in the literature in the last 18 months that address cause, diagnosis, and management of urinary retention in women. Symptoms, uroflow, and pressure-flow studies have a low predictive value for and do not correlate with elevated postvoid residual urine (PVR). Anterior and posterior colporrhaphy do not cause de-novo bladder outlet obstruction in the majority of patients with elevated PVR, and the cause of elevated PVR may be other factors such as pain or anxiety causing abnormal relaxation of the pelvic floor and contributing to voiding difficulty. The risk of urinary retention in a future pregnancy after mid-urethral sling (MUS) is small. The risk of urinary tract infection and urinary retention after chemodenervation of the bladder with onabotulinumtoxin-A (100 IU) in patients with non-neurogenic urge incontinence is 33 and 5%, respectively. There is a lack of consensus among experts on the timing of sling takedown in the management of acute urinary retention following MUS procedures. There has been a significant progress in the understanding of the causation of urinary retention. Important areas that need further research (basic and clinical) are post-MUS and pelvic organ prolapse repair urinary retention and obstruction, and urinary retention owing to detrusor underactivity.

  18. Feed intake and urinary excretion of nitrogen and purine derivatives in pregnant suckler cows fed alternative roughage-based diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jardstedt, M.; Hessle, A.; Nørgaard, P.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared intake of alternative roughage-based diets and of common late-cut grass silage and related intake to urinary nitrogen (N), urea-N and purine derivative (PD) excretion, where PD is an indicator of rumen microbial crude protein (MCP) synthesis. Total urine was collected from 36...... Hereford cows, blocked into three groups based on expected calving date. Cows within calving groups were randomly assigned to one of four roughage diets: common mixed grass silage (MGS), festulolium silage plus urea (FLS), reed canarygrass silage (RCS) and barley straw plus urea and rapeseed meal (BRM...... diets stimulated rumen MCP production to a greater extent than the BRM diet, as indicated by the higher urinary output of PD in cows fed the grass silage-based diets (P

  19. Effect of drinking parsley leaf tea on urinary composition and urinary stones' risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyami, Fahad A; Rabah, Danny M

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the effect of parsley leaf tea on urine composition and the inhibitors of urinary tract stones formation, we studied 20 healthy volunteers who were divided into two groups: the first group of 10 subjects drank daily 1,200 mL of parsley leaf tea for 2 weeks, while the second group drank at least 1,200 mL daily of bottled water for the same period. This was followed by a 2-week "washout" period before the two groups were crossed over for another 2 weeks. During the experimental phase, 24-h urine samples were collected at baseline, on day 14, and at the end of the 6-week period and different urinary parameters were measured and analyzed statistically. We found no significant difference in the urine volume, pH, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, phosphorus, magnesium, uric acid, cystine, or citric acid. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of parsley leaf tea on urinary parameters in healthy and stone-forming patients.

  20. Decrease in urinary creatinine excretion in early stage chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tynkevich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about muscle mass loss in early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD. We used 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate to assess determinants of muscle mass and its evolution with kidney function decline. We also described the range of urinary creatinine concentration in this population. METHODS: We included 1072 men and 537 women with non-dialysis CKD stages 1 to 5, all of them with repeated measurements of glomerular filtration rate (mGFR by (51Cr-EDTA renal clearance and several nutritional markers. In those with stage 1 to 4 at baseline, we used a mixed model to study factors associated with urinary creatinine excretion rate and its change over time. RESULTS: Baseline mean urinary creatinine excretion decreased from 15.3 ± 3.1 to 12.1 ± 3.3 mmol/24 h (0.20 ± 0.03 to 0.15 ± 0.04 mmol/kg/24 h in men, with mGFR falling from ≥ 60 to <15 mL/min/1.73 m(2, and from 9.6 ± 1.9 to 7.6 ± 2.5 (0.16 ± 0.03 to 0.12 ± 0.03 in women. In addition to mGFR, an older age, diabetes, and lower levels of body mass index, proteinuria, and protein intake assessed by urinary urea were associated with lower mean urinary creatinine excretion at baseline. Mean annual decline in mGFR was 1.53 ± 0.12 mL/min/1.73 m(2 per year and that of urinary creatinine excretion rate, 0.28 ± 0.02 mmol/24 h per year. Patients with fast annual decline in mGFR of 5 mL/min/1.73 m(2 had a decrease in urinary creatinine excretion more than twice as big as in those with stable mGFR, independent of changes in urinary urea as well as of other determinants of low muscle mass. CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate may appear early in CKD patients, and is greater the more mGFR declines independent of lowering protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea. Normalizing urine analytes for creatininuria may overestimate their concentration in patients with reduced kidney function and low muscle mass.

  1. Prolonged use of indwelling urinary catheter following acute urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.O. Bello

    prolonged use of urinary catheters following acute urinary retention secondary to benign prostate enlarge- ment (BPE) and urethral ... indwelling urinary catheter for >3 months following acute urinary retention due to BPE or USD. The study .... the major health-care financing strategy in Nigeria and accounts for more than ...

  2. Interactions between barley grain processing and source of supplemental dietary fat on nitrogen metabolism and urea-nitrogen recycling in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozho, G N; Hobin, M R; Mutsvangwa, T

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of methods of barley grain processing and source of supplemental fat on urea-N transfer to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the utilization of this recycled urea-N in lactating dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (656.3 +/- 27.7 kg of BW; 79.8 +/- 12.3 d in milk) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods and a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Experimental diets contained dry-rolled barley or pelleted barley in combination with whole canola or whole flaxseed as supplemental fat sources. Nitrogen balance was measured from d 15 to 19, with concurrent measurements of urea-N kinetics using continuous intrajugular infusions of [15N 15N]-urea. Dry matter intake and N intake were higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. Nitrogen retention was not affected by diet, but fecal N excretion was higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley than in those fed pelleted barley. Actual and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by diet. Milk fat content and milk fat yield were higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. Source of supplemental fat did not affect urea-N kinetics. Urea-N production was higher (442.2 vs. 334.3 g of N/d), and urea-N entering the GIT tended to be higher (272.9 vs. 202.0 g of N/d), in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. The amount of urea-N entry into the GIT that was returned to the ornithine cycle was higher (204.1 vs. 159.5 g of N/d) in cows fed dry-rolled barley than in pelleted barley-fed cows. The amount of urea-N recycled to the GIT and used for anabolic purposes, and the amounts lost in the urine or feces were not affected by dietary treatment. Microbial nonammonia N supply, estimated using total urinary excretion of purine derivatives, was not affected by diet. These results show that even though barley grain processing altered urea

  3. Determination of urea kinetics by isotope dilution with [C-13]urea and gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenburg, Wybe; Wolthers, BG; Stellaard, F; Elzinga, H; Tepper, T; deJong, PE; Huisman, RM

    1. Stable urea isotopes can be used to study urea kinetics in humans, The use of stable urea isotopes far studying urea kinetic parameters in humans on a large scale is hampered by the high costs of the labelled material, We devised a urea dilution for measurement of the distribution volume,

  4. [Urinary incontinence and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffieux, X

    2009-12-01

    The goal of the current study was to systematically review the literature concerning urinary incontinence and pregnancy, in order to develop recommendations for clinical practice. The prevalence of urinary stress incontinence and overactive bladder symptoms increase with gestational age during pregnancy (from the first to the third trimester), and decrease during the third months following delivery. Obstetrics factors (position during delivery, length of the second part of the labour, forceps, episiotomy, epidural or pudendal anaesthesia) do not modify the risk of post-partum or long term urinary incontinence. At short term follow-up, caesarean delivery is associated with a lower rate of post-partum urinary incontinence. At long term follow-up, data are lacking. Non elective caesarean section is not associated with a decrease in the rate of post-partum or long-term urinary incontinence. Elective caesarean section and systematic episiotomy are not recommended methods for the prevention of post-partum urinary incontinence (grade B), even in "high risk" women. Pelvic floor muscle therapy is the first line treatment for prenatal or post-partum urinary incontinence (grade A). Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Urea, a true uremic toxin: the empire strikes back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wei Ling; Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2017-01-01

    Blood levels of urea rise with progressive decline in kidney function. Older studies examining acute urea infusion suggested that urea was well-tolerated at levels 8-10× above normal values. More recent in vitro and in vivo work argue the opposite and demonstrate both direct and indirect toxicities of urea, which probably promote the premature aging phenotype that is pervasive in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated urea at concentrations typically encountered in uremic patients induces disintegration of the gut epithelial barrier, leading to translocation of bacterial toxins into the bloodstream and systemic inflammation. Urea induces apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells as well as endothelial dysfunction, thus directly promoting cardiovascular disease. Further, urea stimulates oxidative stress and dysfunction in adipocytes, leading to insulin resistance. Finally, there are widespread indirect effects of elevated urea as a result of the carbamylation reaction, where isocyanic acid (a product of urea catabolism) alters the structure and function of proteins in the body. Carbamylation has been linked with renal fibrosis, atherosclerosis and anaemia. In summary, urea is a re-emerging Dark Force in CKD pathophysiology. Trials examining low protein diet to minimize accumulation of urea and other toxins suggest a clinical benefit in terms of slowing progression of CKD. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  6. Neuroscience of glucose homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Fleur, S E; Fliers, E; Kalsbeek, A

    2014-01-01

    Plasma glucose concentrations are homeostatically regulated and maintained within strict boundaries. Several mechanisms are in place to increase glucose output when glucose levels in the circulation drop as a result of glucose utilization, or to decrease glucose output and increase tissue glucose

  7. Transfer of blood urea into the goat colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, W. von; Hinderer, S.

    1976-01-01

    Transfer of body urea into the temporarily isolated and perfused colon of conscious goats was measured. Simultaneously total urea turnover was estimated using 14 C-urea. The transfer of urea into the total gastrointestinal tract (total turnover minus renal excretion) was four times higher with the high-energy - low-protein diet (sugar pulp plus straw) compared with control feeding (hay ad lib.). The transfer of urea into the colon was 8% of the transfer into the total GI tract during control feeding, 14% when food was withheld for 48 hours and 1% during sugar pulp feeding. The transfer into the colon depends mainly on the plasma urea concentration, whereas in the proximal part of the GI tract changes in the permeability of the GI tract wall have a more pronounced influence than plasma urea concentration. (author)

  8. Milk Urea Dynamics during its Transformation into Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Vintila

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our work was to evaluate in what measure milk urea concentration stays in processed yogurt and in what measure urea dose influences its quality. We added known amounts of urea into milk destined to yogurt processing in order to obtain probes with concentrations from 0,5 to 28 mg/ 100 ml milk. Obtained results lead us to the conclusion that milk urea decreases dramatically until the finishing of the process of milk coagulation and its transformation into yogurt. All probes which contained higher amounts of urea than 6 mg/ 100 ml milk, urea totally disappeared from yogurt before 48 hours of keeping. Milk coagulation time and its transformation to yogurt is reduced proportional with urea concentration in milk.

  9. Entry of blood urea into the rumen of the llama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinderer, S.; Engelhardt, W. von

    1976-01-01

    Llamas were provided with a large rumen fistula, and the transfer of blood urea into the temporarily isolated rumen, cleaned and filled with test solution was measured. Plasma urea clearance due to transfer of blood urea across the rumen wall should indicate changes in its permeability to urea. Clearance values were highest with CO 2 or with high concentrations of butyric acid. Permeability was low when food was with-held and when no volatile fatty acids were present in the solution. The permeability of the rumen wall to blood urea can be altered significantly. These changes can affect blood urea transfer more extensively than changes in the plasma urea concentration within physiological ranges

  10. The anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt on high-glucose-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic renal damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lan; Li, Linlin; Li, Xinxia; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yujie; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Jian; Mao, Xinmin

    2015-09-07

    Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of diabetes whose development process is associated with inflammation, renal hypertrophy, and fibrosis. Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt, traditionally used as a healthcare tea, has anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemia, and glycemic regulation activities. The aim of our study was to investigate the renal protective effect of ethyl acetate extract of C. tinctoria Nutt (AC) on high-glucose-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. A diabetic rat model was induced by high-glucose-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of 35 mg/kg STZ. After treatment with AC at a daily dose of 150, 300 or, 600 mg/kg for 4 weeks, metabolic and renal function parameters of serum and urine were examined. Degree of renal damage, renal proinflammatory cytokines, and fibrotic protein expression were analyzed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Renal AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/Smad signaling pathway were determined by western blotting. Diabetic rats showed obvious renal dysfunction, inflammation and fibrosis. However, AC significantly reduced levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and urinary albumin, as well as expression of kidney proinflammatory cytokines of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. AC also ameliorated renal hypertrophy and fibrosis by reducing fibronectin and collagen IV and suppressing the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. Meanwhile, AMPKα as a protective cytokine was markedly stimulated by AC. In summary, AC controls blood glucose, inhibits inflammatory and fibrotic processes, suppresses the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway, and activates phosphorylation of AMPKα in the kidneys, which confirms the protective effects of AC in the early stage of diabetic kidney disease.

  11. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys two ureters (say: ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more ... & Terms of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web ...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth / For Teens / Urinary Tract Infections What's ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is ...

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections ( ... Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made ...

  14. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections ( ... Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made ...

  15. Origin of Urinary Oxalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ross P.; Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.

    2007-04-01

    Urinary oxalate is mostly derived from the absorption of ingested oxalate and endogenous synthesis. The breakdown of vitamin C may also contribute small amounts to the urinary oxalate pool. The amount of oxalate absorbed is influenced by the oxalate content of the diet, the concentrations of divalent cations in the gut, the presence of oxalate-degrading organisms, transport characteristics of the intestinal epithelium, and other factors associated with the intestinal environment. Knowledge of pathways associated with endogenous oxalate synthesis is limited. Urinary oxalate excretion can be modified using strategies that limit dietary oxalate absorption and the ingestion of oxalogenic substrates such as hydroxyproline.

  16. Neurological implications of urea cycle disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summar, M.; Leonard, J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The urea cycle disorders constitute a group of rare congenital disorders caused by a deficiency of the enzymes or transport proteins required to remove ammonia from the body. Via a series of biochemical steps, nitrogen, the waste product of protein metabolism, is removed from the blood and converted into urea. A consequence of these disorders is hyperammonaemia, resulting in central nervous system dysfunction with mental status changes, brain oedema, seizures, coma, and potentially death. Both acute and chronic hyperammonaemia result in alterations of neurotransmitter systems. In acute hyperammonaemia, activation of the NMDA receptor leads to excitotoxic cell death, changes in energy metabolism and alterations in protein expression of the astrocyte that affect volume regulation and contribute to oedema. Neuropathological evaluation demonstrates alterations in the astrocyte morphology. Imaging studies, in particular 1H MRS, can reveal markers of impaired metabolism such as elevations of glutamine and reduction of myoinositol. In contrast, chronic hyperammonaemia leads to adaptive responses in the NMDA receptor and impairments in the glutamate–nitric oxide–cGMP pathway, leading to alterations in cognition and learning. Therapy of acute hyperammonaemia has relied on ammonia-lowering agents but in recent years there has been considerable interest in neuroprotective strategies. Recent studies have suggested restoration of learning abilities by pharmacological manipulation of brain cGMP with phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Thus, both strategies are intriguing areas for potential investigation in human urea cycle disorders. PMID:18038189

  17. A longitudinal study of urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batshaw, Mark L; Tuchman, Mendel; Summar, Marshall; Seminara, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) is a member of the NIH funded Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and is performing a longitudinal study of 8 urea cycle disorders (UCDs) with initial enrollment beginning in 2006. The consortium consists of 14 sites in the U.S., Canada and Europe. This report summarizes data mining studies of 614 patients with UCDs enrolled in the UCDC's longitudinal study protocol. The most common disorder is ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, accounting for more than half of the participants. We calculated the overall prevalence of urea cycle disorders to be 1/35,000, with 2/3rds presenting initial symptoms after the newborn period. We found the mortality rate to be 24% in neonatal onset cases and 11% in late onset cases. The most common precipitant of clinical hyperammonemic episodes in the post-neonatal period was intercurrent infections. Elevations in both blood ammonia and glutamine appeared to be biomarkers for neurocognitive outcome. In terms of chronic treatment, low protein diet appeared to result in normal weight but decreased linear growth while N-scavenger therapy with phenylbutyrate resulted in low levels of branched chain amino acids. Finally, we found an unexpectedly high risk for hepatic dysfunction in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. This natural history study illustrates how a collaborative study of a rare genetic disorder can result in an improved understanding of morbidity and disease outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and Bowel Why is it important to begin urologic care in infancy and ...

  19. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... Craig JC. Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2011;(3):CD001534. PMID: ...

  20. What is Urinary Incontinence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Causes of urinary incontinence For women, thinning and drying of the skin in the vagina or urethra, ... make some changes in your diet. Alcohol, caffeine, foods high in acid (such as tomato or grapefruit) ...

  1. Urea utilization in growing lambs. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbrich, M.; Nikitin, S.; Geissler, C.; Hoffmann, M.

    1988-01-01

    Lambs aged 2 or 4 months and of an average live weight of 14.7 and 27.4 kg, resp., received rations consisting of 44% cereals, 46% dried sugar beet pulp, 6% wheat starch, 2% urea and 2% mineral-vitamin mixture. The crude protein content was 17.1 and 15.9%, resp., in the dry matter, that of natively crude protein 10.6 and 9.4%, resp. During a 6-day N balance period 8 and 16 g 15 N-urea resp. with a 15 N excess ( 15 N') of 9.26 and 9.40 atom-% were fed orally instead of commercial feeding urea. There were no significant differences between the two age groups with regard to the digestibility of the organic matter and the crude nutrients. The average N balance of 372 ± 85 mg/kg LW 0.75 /day were in the intermediate range of N retention capacity and accounted for 26 ± 5% of the consumed N. N retention in per cent. was slightly lower in younger lambs. Projections of urea utilization in a quasi stationary state resulted in an efficiency of the utilization of 33 ± 4%. The cutting up of the lambs at the end of the main period showed between 0.02 and 0.22 atom-% 15 N' in the total N, TCA precipitable N and amino acid N of the meat. At between 0.24 and 0.38 atom-% 15 N' they were highest in the heart and jaw muscles. The quota of 15 N' amounts found in the total N of the meat were 10.6 ± 3% of the 15 N intake and 20.1 ± 5.1% of the 15 N'amount remaining in the body. The bones contained 7.7 ± 1.7% and the fleece 7.9 ± 3.1% of the 15 N' intake. Total N and urea utilization was slightly lower in younger lambs than in older ones. (author)

  2. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Wesnes, Stian Langeland; Rørtveit, Guri; Bø, Kari; Hunskår, Steinar

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate incidence and prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy, and associated risk factors.Method: The data collection was conducted as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We present questionnaire data about urinary incontinence obtained from 43,279 women (response rate 45%) by week 30. We report data on any incontinence in addition to type, frequency and amount of incontinence. Po...

  3. Determination of urea content in urea cream by centrifugal partition chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Qun Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to establish a centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC method for determination of the urea ingredient in urea cream. The mechanism of this method is that urea is determined by UV detector at 430 nm after being extracted from the cream and derivatized on line via Ehrlich reaction in rotor of CPC, where the reaction products dissolve in the mobile phase and the cream matrix retains in the stationary phase. The mixed solvent consisting of n-hexane, methanol, hydrochloric acid and p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde with a ratio of 1000 mL:1000 mL:18 mL:2.0 g is used for solvent system of CPC. The CPC method proposed offers good precision and convenience without complex sample pretreatment processes.

  4. Final report of the safety assessment of Urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Although Urea is officially described as a buffering agent, humectant, and skin-conditioning agent-humectant for use in cosmetic products, there is a report stating that Urea also is used in cosmetics for its desquamating and antimicrobial action. In 2001, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported that Urea was used in 239 formulations. Concentrations of use for Urea ranged from 0.01% to 10%. Urea is generally recognized as safe by FDA for the following uses: side-seam cements for food contact; an inhibitor or stabilizer in pesticide formulations and formulations applied to animals; internal sizing for paper and paperboard and surface sizing and coating of paper and paper board that contact water-in-oil dairy emulsions, low-moisture fats and oils, moist bakery products, dry solids with surface containing no free fats or oil, and dry solids with the surface of fat or oil; and to facilitate fermentation of wine. Urea is the end product of mammalian protein metabolism and the chief nitrogenous compound of urine. Urea concentrations in muscle, liver, and fetuses of rats increased after a subcutaneous injection of Urea. Urea diffused readily through the placenta and into other maternal and fetal organs. The half-life of Urea injected into rabbits was on the order of several hours, and the reutilization rate was 32.2% to 88.8%. Urea given to rats by a bolus injection or continuous infusion resulted in distribution to the following brain regions: frontal lobe, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, thalamus plus hypothalamus, pons and white matter (corpus callosum). The permeability constant after treatment with Urea of whole skin and the dermis of rabbits was 2.37 +/- 0.13 (x 10(6)) and 1.20 +/- 0.09 (x10(3)) cm/min, respectively. The absorption of Urea across normal and abraded human skin was 9.5% +/- 2.3% and 67.9% +/- 5.6%, respectively. Urea increased the skin penetration of other compounds, including hydrocortisone. No toxicity was observed for Urea at levels as high

  5. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in late-onset urea cycle disorder patients

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Mercedes L.; Martins Cecilia E.; Pérez-Dueñas Belén; Gómez-López Lilian; Murgui Empar; Fons Carmen; García-Cazorla Ángels; Artuch Rafael M D; Jara Fernando; Arranz José Antonio; Häberle Johannes; Briones Paz; Campistol Jaume M D; Pineda Mercè; Vilaseca María Antònia Antonia

    2010-01-01

    Inherited urea cycle disorders represent one of the most common groups of inborn errors of metabolism. Late onset urea cycle disorders caused by partial enzyme deficiencies may present with unexpected clinical phenotypes. We report 9 patients followed up in our hospital presenting late onset urea cycle disorders who initially manifested neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental symptoms (the most prevalent neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnoses were mental retardation attention deficit hyper...

  6. In vivo urea cycle flux distinguishes and correlates with phenotypic severity in disorders of the urea cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brendan; Yu, Hong; Jahoor, Farook; O'Brien, William; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Reeds, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Urea cycle disorders are a group of inborn errors of hepatic metabolism that result in often life-threatening hyperammonemia and hyperglutaminemia. Clinical and laboratory diagnosis of partial deficiencies during asymptomatic periods is difficult, and correlation of phenotypic severity with either genotype and/or in vitro enzyme activity is often imprecise. We hypothesized that stable isotopically determined in vivo rates of total body urea synthesis and urea cycle-specific nitrogen flux would correlate with both phenotypic severity and carrier status in patients with a variety of different enzymatic deficiencies of the urea cycle. We studied control subjects, patients, and their relatives with different enzymatic deficiencies affecting the urea cycle while consuming a low protein diet. On a separate occasion the subjects either received a higher protein intake or were treated with an alternative route medication sodium phenylacetate/benzoate (Ucephan), or oral arginine supplementation. Total urea synthesis from all nitrogen sources was determined from [18O]urea labeling, and the utilization of peripheral nitrogen was estimated from the relative isotopic enrichments of [15N]urea and [15N]glutamine during i.v. co-infusions of [5-(amide)15N]glutamine and [18O]urea. The ratio of the isotopic enrichments of 15N-urea/15N-glutamine distinguished normal control subjects (ratio = 0.42 ± 0.06) from urea cycle patients with late (0.17 ± 0.03) and neonatal (0.003 ± 0.007) presentations irrespective of enzymatic deficiency. This index of urea cycle activity also distinguished asymptomatic heterozygous carriers of argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency (0.22 ± 0.03), argininosuccinate lyase deficiency (0.35 ± 0.11), and partial ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (0.26 ± 0.06) from normal controls. Administration of Ucephan lowered, and arginine increased, urea synthesis to the degree predicted from their respective rates of metabolism. The 15N-urea/15N-glutamine ratio

  7. Urea cycle disorder--argininosuccinic lyase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neeta; Kirk, Pia Chatterjee; Holder, Ray; Precheur, Harry V

    2012-01-01

    An increased level of ammonia in the bloodstream, or hyperammonemia, is a symptom associated with metabolic disorders referred to as inborn errors of metabolism. Urea cycle disorder is a congenital abnormality or absence of one of the six enzymes involved in the elimination of ammonia. Administration of certain medications, high protein diet, excessive exercise, surgical procedures, or trauma can precipitate symptoms of mental confusion, seizure-like activity, and ataxia. This paper reviews the literature with insight into current treatment and management options of the disorder and modification of treatment for the dental patient. © 2012 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. N-Urea Efficiency In Lowland Rice Applied With Azolla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasjid, Havid; Sisworo, E.L.; Wemay, Y.; Sisworo, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    Two N-fertilizer experiments have been conducted using urea tablet and prill urea combined with Azolla application. Twelve treatments have been tested using 2 rice varieties namely Atomita-4 and IR-64. To enable the determination of N-urea efficiency 15 N labelled urea was used. The experiments were conducted in the dry and wet season (DS and WS) 1994/1995 at the experimental station, pusaka negara, Subang West Java. Data obtained from the two experiments showed that the highest N-urea efficiency was found in Atomita-4 applied with urea-tablet (DS=46,1%, WS= 35,8%). Letting the Azolla grow during one lowland rice growth period could increase the N-urea prill efficiency (±5%) compared when no azolla was applied. Apparently Atomita-4 could use N-urea more efficiently compared to IR-64, showing higher grain yield (atomita-4 DS=6.2 ton ha -1 WS=5.9 ton ha -1 ) vs IR-64 (DS=5.8 ton ha -1 , WS=5.3 ton ha -1 ). Decreasing the levels of TSP not influence to the urea efficiency at the DS and WS

  9. Urea thermolysis and NOx reduction with and without SCR catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Howard L.; DaCosta, Herbert F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has been a leading contender for removal of nitrogen oxides (deNO x ) from diesel engine emissions. Despite its advantages, the SCR technology faces some critical detriments to its catalytic performance such as catalyst surface passivation (caused by deposit formation) and consequent stoichiometric imbalance of the urea consumption. Deposit formation deactivates catalytic performance by not only consuming part of the ammonia produced during urea decomposition but also degrading the structural and thermal properties of the catalyst surface. We have characterized the urea thermolysis with and without the urea-SCR catalyst using both spectroscopic (DRIFTS and Raman) and thermal techniques (thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)) to identify the deposit components and their corresponding thermal properties. Urea thermolysis exhibits two decomposition stages, involving ammonia generation and consumption, respectively. The decomposition after the second stage leads to the product of melamine complexes, (HNC=NH) x (HNCO) y , that hinder catalytic performance. The presence of catalyst accompanied with a good spray of the urea solution helps to eliminate the second stage. In this work, kinetics of the direct reduction of NO x by urea is determined and the possibility of using additives to the urea solution in order to rejuvenate the catalyst surface and improve its performance will be discussed

  10. Pengolahan Limbah Cair Pabrik Pupuk Urea Menggunakan Advanced Oxidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmadi Darmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Limbah cair pabrik pupuk urea terdiri dari urea dan amonium yang masing-masing mempunyai konsentrasi berkisar antara 1500-10000 ppm dan 400-3000 ppm. Konsentrasi urea yang tinggi di dalam badan air dapat menyebabkan blooming algae dalam ekosistem tersebut yang dapat mengakibatkan kehidupan biota air lain terserang penyakit. Peristiwa ini terjadi karena kurangnya nutrisi bagi biota air dan sedikitnya sinar matahari yang dapat menembusi permukaan air. Disamping kedua hal tersebut di atas, algae juga dapat memproduksi senyawa beracun bagi biota air dan manusia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengolah urea menggunakan oksidasi konvensional (H2O2 dan Advanced Oxidation Processes (kombinasi H2O2-Fe2+ pada pH 5 dengan parameter yang digunakan adalah variasi konsen-trasi awal H2O2  dan konsentrasi Fe2+. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa penurunan konsentrasi urea tertinggi diperoleh pada penggunaan reagen fenton (8000 ppm H2O2 dan 500 ppm Fe2+, yaitu dapat menurunkan urea dari konsentrasi awal urea 2566,145 ppm menjadi 0 ppm. Kinetika reaksi dekomposisi urea menjadi amonium dan amonium menjadi nitrit dan nitrat yang diuji mengikuti laju kinetika reaksi orde 1 (satu terhadap urea dan orde satu terhadap amonium dengan konstanta laju reaksi masing-masing k1 = 0,019 dan k2 = 0,022 min-1.

  11. Urinary incontinence in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yoshitaka; Brown, Heidi W.; Brubaker, Linda; Cornu, Jean Nicolas; Daly, J. Oliver; Cartwright, Rufus

    2018-01-01

    Urinary incontinence symptoms are highly prevalent among women, have a substantial effect on health-related quality of life and are associated with considerable personal and societal expenditure. Two main types are described: stress urinary incontinence, in which urine leaks in association with physical exertion, and urgency urinary incontinence, in which urine leaks in association with a sudden compelling desire to void. Women who experience both symptoms are considered as having mixed urinary incontinence. Research has revealed overlapping potential causes of incontinence, including dysfunction of the detrusor muscle or muscles of the pelvic floor, dysfunction of the neural controls of storage and voiding, and perturbation of the local environment within the bladder. A full diagnostic evaluation of urinary incontinence requires a medical history, physical examination, urinalysis, assessment of quality of life and, when initial treatments fail, invasive urodynamics. Interventions can include non-surgical options (such as lifestyle modifications, pelvic floor muscle training and drugs) and surgical options to support the urethra or increase bladder capacity. Future directions in research may increasingly target primary prevention through understanding of environmental and genetic risks for incontinence. PMID:28681849

  12. Pediatric urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blickman, J.G.

    1991-02-06

    Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs.

  13. Fasting and Urinary Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting is considered as one of the most important practices of Islam, and according to Prophet Mohammad, fasting is obligatory upon Muslims. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of fasting on urinary stones. Materials and Methods: Very few studies have been carried out on urinary stones and the effect of Ramadan fasting. The sources of the present study are Medline and articles presented by local and Muslim researchers. Meanwhile, since we are acquainted with three well-known researchers in the field of urology, we contacted them via email and asked for their professional opinions. Results: The results of studies about the relationship of urinary stones and their incidence in Ramadan are not alike, and are even sometimes contradictory. Some believe that increased incidence of urinary stones in Ramadan is related not to fasting, but to the rise of weather temperature in hot months, and an increase in humidity. Conclusion: Numerous biological and behavioral changes occur in people who fast in Ramadan and some researchers believe that urinary stone increases during this month.

  14. Pediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blickman, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs

  15. Carcass characteristics of sheep fed diets with slow-release urea replacing conventional urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanilton Moura Alves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of adding slow-release urea to replace conventional urea in the diet on carcass characteristics of feedlot sheep. We used 20 Santa Ines x SRD rams, with average body weight of 21.1±1.2 kgand average age of 120 days, distributed in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments. The replacement levels used as treatments were 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80%, composing diets of about 12% crude protein, with 50 % Tifton-85 hay and 50% concentrate. There was no influence of slow release urea on weight at slaughter (35.17 kg, and on hot (16.75 kg and cold (16.24 kg carcass weight, but the yield of these carcasses showed quadratic trend, revealing lower percentages at 48.5 and 47.63% replacement levels, respectively. The weights and yields of cuts did not change, except for the posterior arm, whose values showed a cubic trend. Objective measures of carcass, loin eye area, and subjective evaluations of conformation, finishing and marbling of carcasses were not affected. The subcutaneous fat thickness decreased linearly (4.25 to2.48 mm. The inclusion of slow release urea in the diet changes the yield and reduces subcutaneous fat, however, it does not influence other carcass characteristics.

  16. The effect of urea and urea-modified halloysite on performance of PCL

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khunová, V.; Kelnar, Ivan; Kristóf, J.; Dybal, Jiří; Kratochvíl, Jaroslav; Kaprálková, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 2 (2015), s. 1283-1291 ISSN 1388-6150 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-15255S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : PCL * urea * halloysite Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.781, year: 2015

  17. Urinary Tract and How It Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... VUR) The Urinary Tract & How It Works The Urinary Tract & How It Works On this page: What is ... a person produces? Clinical Trials What is the urinary tract and how does it work? The urinary tract ...

  18. Estimation of urinary angiotensin II by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, S [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine

    1974-11-01

    Urine samples were collected from fasting subjects after maintaining posture for 2 hr in early morning. Urinary angiotensin II was extracted with SE-Sephadex. The extracts, after being dissolved in phosphate buffer, pH 7.5, were measured by radioimmunoassay. Recovery, sensitivity and accuracy were found to be satisfactory. The normal values obtained from 6 subjects were 52-280 pg/2 hr. The values were almost normal in essential hypertension and in chronic glomerulonephritis. They were high in 3 out of 6 cases with renovascular hypertension and subsequently dropped after surgery. In 6 cases with primary aldosteronism, very low levels were found. These increased after the removal of adrenal adenomas. No positive correlation between simultaneous plasma and urinary angiotensin samples was apparent. Also no positive correlation between urinary angiotensin and urine volume was found. In renovascular hypertention, during glucose infusion, lower values in urine volume and angiotensin excretion were observed on the stenotic side as compared to the intact side. Thus, the angiotensin excretion rate does not appear to be regulated by arterial angiotensin concentration, but rather by the angiotensin perfusion rate.

  19. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Lains Mota

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training, surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  20. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  1. Distribution and excretion of. cap alpha. -naphthylthio-(/sup 14/C)urea in Albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, T N; Radhakrishnamurty, R [Central Food Technological Research Inst., Mysore (India)

    1977-09-01

    ..cap alpha..-naphthylthio-(/sup 14/C) urea was synthesised by allowing potassium (/sup 14/C)thiocyanate to react with ..cap alpha..-naphthylamine. Its distribution and excretion were studied in Albino rats following the administration of this rodenticide. Considerable radioactivity observed in liver and kidney, increased till 8 hr and later decreased. About 80% of the activities present in serum and pleural effusion were found in the respective albumin fractions. Approximately 40% of the dose administered was excreted in urine and less than 1% in faeces in 20 hr. About 36% of the total urinary activity was recovered as unchanged compound and the rest was distributed in three metabolites with low Rsyb(f) values. Decrease in cytochsome P-450 content and activities of N, N-dimethylaniline demethylase, aryl 4-hydroxylase and reduced NAD dehydrogenase were observed in ..cap alpha..-naphthylathiourea-treated rats.

  2. Distribution and excretion of α-naphthylthio-[14C]urea in Albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, T.N.; Radhakrishnamurty, R.

    1977-01-01

    α-naphthylthio-( 14 C) urea was synthesised by allowing potassium ( 14 C)thiocyanate to react with α-naphthylamine. Its distribution and excretion were studied in Albino rats following the administration of this rodenticide. Considerable radioactivity observed in liver and kidney, increased till 8 hr and later decreased. About 80% of the activities present in serum and pleural effusion were found in the respective albumin fractions. Approximately 40% of the dose administered was excreted in urine and less than 1% in faeces in 20 hr. About 36% of the total urinary activity was recovered as unchanged compound and the rest was distributed in three metabolites with low Rsyb(f) values. Decrease in cytochsome P-450 content and activities of N, N-dimethylaniline demethylase, aryl 4-hydroxylase and reduced NAD dehydrogenase were observed in α-naphthylathiourea-treated rats. (author)

  3. Glucose and cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, M.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Mudde, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association and the World Health Organisation have recently redefined the spectrum of abnormal glucose tolerance. The criteria for diabetes mellitus were sharpened and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were classified as intermediate stages

  4. 75 FR 51440 - Solid Urea from the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-821-801] Solid Urea from the Russian... duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation. The solid urea subject to this review was... solid urea from the Russian Federation. See Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results...

  5. 76 FR 66690 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-821-801] Solid Urea From the Russian... duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation. The solid urea subject to this review was... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation. See Solid Urea...

  6. Urinary Exertion Of Calcium By Urinary Stone Disease Patients And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare the urinary excretion of calcium by subjects in a known area of high incidence of urinary stone disease, and a known area of low incidence, 12 adult male patients with idiopathic calcigerous urinary stone disease in south-East Nigeria and 55 similar patients from Scotland, United Kingdom were analyzed ...

  7. Reoperation for urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss Hansen, Margrethe; Lose, Gunnar; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    for urinary incontinence (retropubic midurethral tape, transobturator tape, urethral injection therapy, Burch colposuspension, pubovaginal slings, and miscellaneous operations). Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for factors......BACKGROUND: The synthetic midurethral slings were introduced in the 1990s and were rapidly replaced the Burch colposuspension as the gold standard treatment for urinary incontinence. It has been reported that the retropubic midurethral tape has an objective and subjective cure rate of 85% at 5...... years of follow-up, but the rate of reoperation after retropubic midurethral tape at the long-term follow-up is less well described. The existing literature specifies an overall lifetime rate of reoperation of about 8-9% after an initial operation for urinary incontinence. There are, however...

  8. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & ... KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is a Urinary ...

  10. Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stress Urinary Incontinence Special Procedures What is stress urinary incontinence (SUI)? What causes SUI? What nonsurgical treatment options may help with SUI? What are the surgical treatment options for SUI? What factors are considered when deciding which SUI surgery is ...

  11. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? ... bladder, your brain tells you it's time to find a bathroom. Once you're ready to pee, ...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is ...

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more Partner ... All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and ...

  14. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  15. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ready to pee, you relax a set of muscles at the bottom of your bladder. That lets ... topic for: Kids Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more About Us ...

  16. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more ... Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  17. Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007376.htm Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures To use the sharing features ... are types of surgeries that help control stress urinary incontinence . This is urine leakage that happens when you ...

  18. Nickel hydroxide modified electrodes for urea determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nickel hydroxide films were prepared by electrodeposition from a solution Ni(NO32 0,05 mol L ?¹ on ITO electrodes (Tin oxide doped with Indium on PET-like plastic film, applying a current of - 0,1 A cm ?² during different time intervals between 1800 and 7200 s. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel hydroxide electrode was investigated through a cyclic voltammogram, in NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹, where it was observed two peaks in the profile in 0,410 and 0,280 V, corresponding to redox couple Ni(II/Ni(III. A sensor for urea presenting a satisfactory answer can be obtained when, after the deposit of the film of Ni(OH2 on the electrode of nickel, it is immersed in a solution of NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹ and applying a potential of + 0,435 V, where the maximum of the anodic current occurs in the cyclic voltammogram. Analyzing the results it can be observed that, for a range of analite concentration between 5 to 50 m mol L ?¹, the behavior is linear and the sensibility found was of 20,3 mA cm?² (mol L?¹?¹, presenting reproducibility confirming the nickel hydroxide electrodes utilization for the determination of urea.

  19. Effect of urea and urea-gamma treatments on cellulose degradation of Thai rice straw and corn stalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchorndhevakul, Siriwattana

    2002-01-01

    Cellulose degradation of 20% urea treated and 20% urea-10 kGy gamma treated Thai rice straw and corn stalk showed that combination effect of urea and gamma radiation gave a higher % decrease in neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin and cutin in comparison with urea effect only for both room temperature storage and room temperature +258 K storage. The results also indicated that cellulose degradation proceeded with time, even at 258 K. A drastic drop to less than half of the original contents in NDF, ADF, and ADL could not be obtained in this study

  20. Effect of urea and urea-gamma treatments on cellulose degradation of Thai rice straw and corn stalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchorndhevakul, Siriwattana

    2002-08-01

    Cellulose degradation of 20% urea treated and 20% urea-10 kGy gamma treated Thai rice straw and corn stalk showed that combination effect of urea and gamma radiation gave a higher % decrease in neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin and cutin in comparison with urea effect only for both room temperature storage and room temperature +258 K storage. The results also indicated that cellulose degradation proceeded with time, even at 258 K. A drastic drop to less than half of the original contents in NDF, ADF, and ADL could not be obtained in this study.

  1. Glucose dynamics and mechanistic implications of SGLT2 inhibitors in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, James F; Whaley, Jean M

    2011-03-01

    Glucose is freely filtered in the glomeruli before being almost entirely reabsorbed into circulation from the proximal renal tubules. The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), present in the S1 segment of the proximal tubule, is responsible for the majority of glucose reabsorption. SGLT2 inhibitors reduce glucose reabsorption and increase urinary glucose excretion. In animal models and humans with type 2 diabetes, this effect is associated with reduced fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels, and reduced hemoglobin A1c. Animal studies suggest that reduction of hyperglycemia with SGLT2 inhibitors may also improve insulin sensitivity and preserve β-cell function. Urinary excretion of excess calories with SGLT2 inhibitors is also associated with reduction in body weight. Modest reductions in blood pressure have been noted with SGLT2 inhibitors, consistent with a mild diuretic action. Some C-glucoside SGLT2 inhibitors, such as dapagliflozin, have pharmacokinetic properties that make them amenable to once-daily dosing.

  2. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  3. Imaging of the Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day urinary urgency—the inability to delay urination urinary incontinence—the accidental loss of urine blockage of urine ... can use several different imaging techniques depending on factors such as the ... urinary tract symptoms. Conventional Radiology X-ray machines have ...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) ... How Do I Know if I Have a UTI? You may notice signs of a urinary tract ...

  5. Managing lower urinary tract symptoms in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Kenneth R; Aning, Jonathan J

    2016-04-01

    Male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common and increase in prevalence with age. Up to 90% of men aged 50 to 80 may suffer from troublesome LUTS. Men may attend expressing direct concern about micturition, describing one or more LUTS and the related impact on their quality of life. Frequently men may present for other medical or urological reasons such as concern regarding their risk of having prostate cancer or erectile dysfunction but on taking a history bothersome LUTS are identified. Men may present late in the community with urinary retention: the inability to pass urine. A thorough urological history is essential to inform management. It is important to determine whether men have storage or voiding LUTS or both. All patients must have a systematic comprehensive examination including genitalia and a digital rectal examination. Investigations performed in primary care should be guided by the history and examination findings, taking into account the impact of the LUTS on the individual's quality of life. Current NICE guidelines recommend the following to be performed at initial assessment: frequency volume chart (FVC); urine dipstick to detect blood, glucose, protein, leucocytes and nitrites; and prostate specific antigen. Men should be referred for urological review if they have: bothersome LUTS which have not responded to conservative management or medical therapy; LUTS in association with recurrent or persistent UTIs; urinary retention; renal impairment suspected to be secondary to lower urinary tract dysfunction; or suspected urological malignancy. All patients not meeting criteria for immediate referral to urology can be managed initially in primary care. Based on history, examination and investigation findings an individualised management plan should be formulated. Basic lifestyle advice should be given regarding reduction or avoidance of caffeinated products and alcohol. The FVC should guide advice regarding fluid intake management and all

  6. Nonhepatic hyperammonemic encephalopathy due to undiagnosed urea cycle disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Tashfeen; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamoylase deficiency is the most common inherited urea cycle disorder. In adults, its phenotypes are diverse. In asymptomatic patients with late presentations, symptom onset is often associated with a precipitating factor. We present a case of a woman with urea cycle disorder diagnosed after an acute peptic ulcer bleed and fasting.

  7. Nonhepatic hyperammonemic encephalopathy due to undiagnosed urea cycle disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Tashfeen; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Ornithine transcarbamoylase deficiency is the most common inherited urea cycle disorder. In adults, its phenotypes are diverse. In asymptomatic patients with late presentations, symptom onset is often associated with a precipitating factor. We present a case of a woman with urea cycle disorder diagnosed after an acute peptic ulcer bleed and fasting.

  8. 76 FR 77015 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... Urea From Russia and Ukraine Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record...

  9. A colorimeter for measurement of picomole quantities of urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurek, G G; Knepper, M A

    1982-04-01

    We described a new colorimeter for the measurement of picomole quantities of urea in nanoliter volume fluid samples. The diacetyl monoxime reaction was used to produce a colored product from urea. The method is capable of resolving differences of 10 pmoles between samples containing 0 to 225 pmoles.

  10. Urea production by yeasts other than Saccharomyces in food fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Qun; Cui, Kaixiang; Lin, Jianchun; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Urea is an important intermediate in the synthesis of carcinogenic ethyl carbamate in various food fermentations. Identifying urea-producing microorganisms can help control or reduce ethyl carbamate production. Using Chinese liquor fermentation as a model system, we identified the yeasts responsible

  11. Preparation and characterization of dialdehyde starch urea (DASU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dialdehyde starch urea (DASU) was prepared by the reaction of dialdehyde starch (DAS) from periodate oxidized cassava starch with urea, which was then used to adsorb Co(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solution. Starch modified starches and starch complexes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared ...

  12. Reference Values for Plasma Electrolytes and Urea in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reference values for plasma electrolytes and urea have been defined for Nigerian children and adolescents residing in Abeokuta and its environs, a location in southern Nigeria, by estimating plasma sodium, potassium bicarbonate and urea concentrations in a reference population. The study group comprised three ...

  13. Effect of Microbial Interaction on Urea Metabolism in Chinese Liquor Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Lin, Jianchun; Cui, Kaixiang; Du, Rubin; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-12-20

    Urea is the primary precursor of the carcinogen ethyl carbamate in fermented foods. Understanding urea metabolism is important for controlling ethyl carbamate production. Using Chinese liquor as a model system, we used metatranscriptome analysis to investigate urea metabolism in spontaneous food fermentation processes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was dominant in gene transcription for urea biosynthesis and degradation. Lysinibacillus sphaericus was dominant for urea degradation. S. cerevisiae degraded 18% and L. sphaericus degraded 13% of urea in their corresponding single cultures, whereas they degraded 56% of urea in coculture after 12 h. Compared to single cultures, transcription of CAR1, DAL2, and argA, which are related to urea biosynthesis, decreased by 51, 36, and 69% in coculture, respectively. Transcription of DUR1 and ureA, which are related to urea degradation, increased by 227 and 70%, respectively. Thus, coexistence of the two strains promoted degradation of urea via transcriptional regulation of genes related to urea metabolism.

  14. Effects of nitrogen supply on inter-organ fluxes of urea-N and renal urea-N kinetics in lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Theil, Peter Kappel; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2011-01-01

    The effects of decreasing ruminal urea infusion in lactating dairy cows fed a basal diet deficient in rumen degradable protein on inter-organ urea-N fluxes, epithelial urea-N extraction, and renal urea-N kinetics were investigated. Eight Danish Holstein cows fitted with a ruminal cannula...... and permanent indwelling catheters in the major splanchnic blood vessels and the gastrosplenic vein were used. The cows were randomly allocated to a triplicate incomplete 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Treatments were continuous ventral ruminal infusion of water, 4.1 g of feed urea/kg of dry...... matter intake, and 8.5 g of feed urea/kg of dry matter intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield decreased linearly with decreasing urea infusion. Arterial blood urea-N and ruminal ammonia concentrations decreased linearly with decreasing urea infusion. In absolute amounts, the urea-N recycling did...

  15. Kidneys and urinary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, G

    1993-12-31

    Nuclear medicine studies, through primarily concerned with the functional aspects of the organ, can also provide useful information about the anatomy. An understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the kidneys and urinary system greatly helps in the interpretation of data from radionuclide studies 9 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Kidneys and urinary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear medicine studies, through primarily concerned with the functional aspects of the organ, can also provide useful information about the anatomy. An understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the kidneys and urinary system greatly helps in the interpretation of data from radionuclide studies

  17. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  18. The female urinary microbiome in urgency urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Meghan M; Zilliox, Michael J; Rosenfeld, Amy B; Thomas-White, Krystal J; Richter, Holly E; Nager, Charles W; Visco, Anthony G; Nygaard, Ingrid E; Barber, Matthew D; Schaffer, Joseph; Moalli, Pamela; Sung, Vivian W; Smith, Ariana L; Rogers, Rebecca; Nolen, Tracy L; Wallace, Dennis; Meikle, Susan F; Gai, Xiaowu; Wolfe, Alan J; Brubaker, Linda

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the urinary microbiota in women who are planning treatment for urgency urinary incontinence and to describe clinical associations with urinary symptoms, urinary tract infection, and treatment outcomes. Catheterized urine samples were collected from multisite randomized trial participants who had no clinical evidence of urinary tract infection; 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was used to dichotomize participants as either DNA sequence-positive or sequence-negative. Associations with demographics, urinary symptoms, urinary tract infection risk, and treatment outcomes were determined. In sequence-positive samples, microbiotas were characterized on the basis of their dominant microorganisms. More than one-half (51.1%; 93/182) of the participants' urine samples were sequence-positive. Sequence-positive participants were younger (55.8 vs 61.3 years old; P = .0007), had a higher body mass index (33.7 vs 30.1 kg/m(2); P = .0009), had a higher mean baseline daily urgency urinary incontinence episodes (5.7 vs 4.2 episodes; P urinary incontinence episodes, -4.4 vs -3.3; P = .0013), and were less likely to experience urinary tract infection (9% vs 27%; P = .0011). In sequence-positive samples, 8 major bacterial clusters were identified; 7 clusters were dominated not only by a single genus, most commonly Lactobacillus (45%) or Gardnerella (17%), but also by other taxa (25%). The remaining cluster had no dominant genus (13%). DNA sequencing confirmed urinary bacterial DNA in many women with urgency urinary incontinence who had no signs of infection. Sequence status was associated with baseline urgency urinary incontinence episodes, treatment response, and posttreatment urinary tract infection risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in late-onset urea cycle disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Mercedes; Martins, Cecilia; Pérez-Dueñas, Belén; Gómez-López, Lilian; Murgui, Empar; Fons, Carmen; García-Cazorla, Angels; Artuch, Rafael; Jara, Fernando; Arranz, José A; Häberle, Johannes; Briones, Paz; Campistol, Jaume; Pineda, Mercedes; Vilaseca, Maria A

    2010-03-01

    Inherited urea cycle disorders represent one of the most common groups of inborn errors of metabolism. Late-onset urea cycle disorders caused by partial enzyme deficiencies may present with unexpected clinical phenotypes. We report 9 patients followed up in our hospital presenting late-onset urea cycle disorders who initially manifested neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental symptoms (the most prevalent neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnoses were mental retardation, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], language disorder, and delirium). Generally, these clinical pictures did not benefit from pharmacological treatment. Conversely, dietary treatment improved the symptoms. Regarding biochemical data, 2 patients showed normal ammonium but high glutamine levels. This study highlights the fact that neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental findings are common among the initial symptomatology of late-onset urea cycle disorders. The authors recommend that unexplained or nonresponsive neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental symptoms appearing during childhood or adolescence be followed by a study of ammonia and amino acid plasmatic levels to rule out a urea cycle disorder.

  20. Foliar absorption of 15N labeled urea by tea plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshina, Tsuguo; Kozai, Shuji; Ishigaki, Kozo

    1978-01-01

    The effect of foliar application on the nitrogen nutrient status of tea shoots has been studied using 15 N labelled urea. Furthermore, the difference in nitrogen utilization by tea plant between foliar applied and top dressed nitrogen was investigated using 15 N labelled urea and ammonium sulfate. The foliar application of urea increased the amount of chlorophyll and total nitrogen in the new shoot, and the foliar application was more effective under shading condition. The urea sprayed upon old leaves prior to the opening of new leaf translocated to the new shoots. However, the foliar application after the opening of new leaf was more effective on nitrogen absorption by new shoots than one prior to that, and rather than top dressing for new shoots. It could be recognized that the foliar application of urea raises the nitrogen nutrient status of tea leaves in summer. (author)

  1. Urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation in Danish overweight/obese children and youths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloppenborg, Julie Tonsgaard; Fonvig, Cilius Esman; Johannesen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    study we investigated the relationships between urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation concentrations and the degree of obesity and glucose metabolism in overweight compared to lean children. 42 (24 girls) and 35 lean (19 girls) children and adolescents were recruited from the Registry of the Danish...... or glucose metabolism in lean and obese children. However, sub-analyses adjusted for age, sex and the degree of obesity showed positive associations between the two hour glucose (2 h glucose) and the urinary markers 8-oxoGuo (p=0.02, r(2)= 0.63) and 8-oxodG (p=0.046, r(2)= 0.48) and between the insulinogenic...... index and 8-oxoGuo (p=0.03, r(2)=0.60) in the 12 obese children exhibiting impaired glucose tolerance. Excretion of the urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation and the degree of obesity or the glucose metabolism were not associated in this study. Nevertheless, obese children with impaired glucose...

  2. Utilization of urea-nitrogen-15 in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boda, K.; Varady, J.; Havassy, I.

    1976-01-01

    In Merino sheep a series of experiments were carried out investigating exogenous and endogenous urea utilization. On the experimental sheep with isolated jejunum, rumen and intestine fistula, re-entral intestine cannulae, and after intra-ruminal or intra-intestinal 15 N-urea administration it was found that urea- 15 N takes part in the nitrogen recycling, and is utilized in the nitrogen pool. In experiments with synthetic protein-free diet, low protein diet and high nitrogen diet, after the intravenous administration of 15 N-urea the following findings were made: The results of experiments with synthetic diet, where the only nitrogen source was perorally (for 3-6 months) and then intravenously (for 3 months) administered urea, indicated the ability of ruminants to replace fully the nitrogen in the feed under certain conditions by increased endogenous urea recirculation. The results of the experiments with various nitrogen intakes showed that considerable amounts of urea- 15 N (44-96% from the given dose) were retained. Nitrogen compounds synthetized from blood urea- 15 N were recycled through the alimentary tract. Its secretion predominated in the forestomachs, abomasum and duodenum, and its reabsorption took place in the intestinal tract. From the 15 N incorporated into the nitrogenous substances which passed through the duodenum, 73-84% was reabsorbed. The retained 15 N was incorporated into the microbial and plasma proteins and its amide-N. On the basis of these results it is concluded that in addition to the rumeno-hepatal circulation, the entero-hepatal circulation of nitrogenous substances, including endogenous nitrogen, also plays an important role quantitatively and perhaps qualitatively in the process of re-utilizing the blood urea N for proteosynthesis and synthesis of other N-metabolites in ruminants. The hydrolysis of endogenous urea in the gastro-intestinal tract of ruminants and its utilization is a natural process indispensable for the maintenance of

  3. Hardness evaluation of cured urea-formaldehyde resins with different formaldehyde/urea mole ratios using nanoindentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byung-Dae Park; Charles R. Frihart; Yan Yu; Adya P. Singh

    2013-01-01

    To understand the influence of formaldehyde/urea (F/U) mole ratio on the properties of urea–formaldehyde (UF) resins, this study investigated hardness of cured UF resins with different F/U mole ratios using a nanoindentation method. The traditional Brinell hardness (HB) method was also used...

  4. Dispersion Interactions between Urea and Nucleobases Contribute to the Destabilization of RNA by Urea in Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasavajhala, Koushik; Bikkina, Swetha; Patil, Indrajit; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Priyakumar, U. Deva

    2015-01-01

    Urea has long been used to investigate protein folding and, more recently, RNA folding. Studies have proposed that urea denatures RNA by participating in stacking interactions and hydrogen bonds with nucleic acid bases. In this study, the ability of urea to form unconventional stacking interactions with RNA bases is investigated using ab initio calculations (RI-MP2 and CCSD(T) methods with the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set). A total of 29 stable nucleobase-urea stacked complexes are identified in which the intermolecular interaction energies (up to −14 kcal/mol) are dominated by dispersion effects. Natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) calculations further confirm strong interactions between urea and nucleobases. Calculations on model systems with multiple urea and water molecules interacting with a guanine base lead to a hypothesis that urea molecules along with water are able to form cage-like structures capable of trapping nucleic acid bases in extrahelical states by forming both hydrogen bonded and dispersion interactions, thereby contributing to the unfolding of RNA in the presence of urea in aqueous solution. PMID:25668757

  5. Development of melamine modified urea formaldehyde resins based o nstrong acidic pH catalyzed urea formaldehyde polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse

    2009-01-01

    To upgrade the performance of urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin bonded particleboards, melamine modified urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resins based on strong acidic pH catalyzed UF polymers were investigated. The study was conducted in a series of two experiments: 1) formulation of MUF resins based on a UF polymer catalyzed with strong acidic pH and 2) determination of the...

  6. Computational and Pharmacological Evaluation of Ferrocene-Based Acyl Ureas and Homoleptic Cadmium Carboxylate Derivatives for Anti-diabetic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Bano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated possible anti-diabetic effect of ferrocene-based acyl ureas: 4-ferrocenyl aniline (PFA, 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl-3-(4-ferrocenylphenyl urea (DPC1, 1-(3-chlorobenzoyl-3-(4-ferrocenylphenyl urea (DMC1, 1-(2-chlorobenzoyl-3-(4-ferrocenylphenyl urea (DOC1 and homoleptic cadmium carboxylates: bis (diphenylacetato cadmium (II (DPAA, bis (4-chlorophenylacetato cadmium (II (CPAA, using in silico and in vivo techniques. PFA, DPC1, DMC1, DOC1, DPAA and CPAA exhibited high binding affinities (ACE ≥ −350 Kcal/mol against targets: aldose reductase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1, C-alpha glucosidase and glucokinase, while showed moderate affinities (ACE ≥ −250 Kcal/mol against N-alpha glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV, phosphorylated-Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, whereas revealed lower affinities (ACE < −250 Kcal/mol vs. alpha amylase, protein tyrosine phosphatases 1B, glycogen phosphorylase and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase. In alloxan (300 mg/Kg-induced diabetic mice, DPAA and DPC1 (1–10 mg/Kg at day 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20th decreased blood glucose levels, compared to diabetic control group and improved the treated animals body weight. DPAA (10 mg/Kg and DPC1 (5 mg/Kg in time-dependent manner (30–120 min. enhanced tolerance of oral glucose overload in mice. DPAA and DPCI dose-dependently at 1, 5, and 10 mg/Kg decreased glycosylated hemoglobin levels in diabetic animals, as caused by metformin. These results indicate that aforementioned derivatives of ferrocene and cadmium possess anti-diabetic potential.

  7. Hyperammonemia associated with distal renal tubular acidosis or urinary tract infection: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clericetti, Caterina M; Milani, Gregorio P; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Bianchetti, Mario G; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Giannini, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    Hyperammonemia usually results from an inborn error of metabolism or from an advanced liver disease. Individual case reports suggest that both distal renal tubular acidosis and urinary tract infection may also result in hyperammonemia. A systematic review of the literature on hyperammonemia secondary to distal renal tubular acidosis and urinary tract infection was conducted. We identified 39 reports on distal renal tubular acidosis or urinary tract infections in association with hyperammonemia published between 1980 and 2017. Hyperammonemia was detected in 13 children with distal renal tubular acidosis and in one adult patient with distal renal tubular acidosis secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism. In these patients a negative relationship was observed between circulating ammonia and bicarbonate levels (P urinary tract infection was complicated by acute hyperammonemia and symptoms and signs of acute neuronal dysfunction, such as an altered level of consciousness, convulsions and asterixis, often associated with signs of brain edema, such as anorexia and vomiting. Urea-splitting bacteria were isolated in 28 of the 31 cases. The urinary tract was anatomically or functionally abnormal in 30 of these patients. This study reveals that both altered distal renal tubular acidification and urinary tract infection may be associated with relevant hyperammonemia in both children and adults.

  8. Changes in urinary response in the soccer practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. López-Mata

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical parameters and urinary sediment changes before and after a soccer game. Seventeen players were selected from a selective universitary men's soccer team (age 21,8 ± 1,38 years, weight 73,2 ± 11,8 kg, height 1,71 ± 0,07 m and BMI 24,7 ± 2.3 kg/m2. Chemical parameters of the urine (specific gravity, pH, leukocytes, nitrite, proteins, glucose, bodies ketones, urobilinogene, bilirubin and erythrocytes and sediment (leukocytes, erythrocytes, crystals, epithelial cells, bacteria, casts, and mucine filaments were determined. We found a significant increase of specific gravity before and after of competition (1,019 ± 0.005 vs 1,025 ± 0.004; p= 0,0001, pH (6,0 ± 0,91 vs 5,35 ± 0,60; p= 0,008 urinary and in presence of bilirubin (0% vs 41,2%; p= 0,01. In urinary sediment was found a significant rise in the presence of casts (0% vs 29,4%; p= 0,04 and mucin filaments (11,7% vs 64,7% p= 0,004. Although some changes were found in urinary parameters, these chances may have been influenced by an increase in renal reabsortion of water.Key words: Soccer, urinary parameters, bilirubin, mucin, casts

  9. Changes in urinary response in the soccer practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. López-Mata

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical parameters and urinary sediment changes before and after a soccer game. Seventeen players were selected from a selective universitary men's soccer team (age 21,8 ± 1,38 years, weight 73,2 ± 11,8 kg, height 1,71 ± 0,07 m and BMI 24,7 ± 2.3 kg/m2. Chemical parameters of the urine (specific gravity, pH, leukocytes, nitrite, proteins, glucose, bodies ketones, urobilinogene, bilirubin and erythrocytes and sediment (leukocytes, erythrocytes, crystals, epithelial cells, bacteria, casts, and mucine filaments were determined. We found a significant increase of specific gravity before and after of competition (1,019 ± 0.005 vs 1,025 ± 0.004; p= 0,0001, pH (6,0 ± 0,91 vs 5,35 ± 0,60; p= 0,008 urinary and in presence of bilirubin (0% vs 41,2%; p= 0,01. In urinary sediment was found a significant rise in the presence of casts (0% vs 29,4%; p= 0,04 and mucin filaments (11,7% vs 64,7% p= 0,004. Although some changes were found in urinary parameters, these chances may have been influenced by an increase in renal reabsortion of water. Key words: Soccer, urinary parameters, bilirubin, mucin, casts

  10. Localization and regulation of a facilitative urea transporter in the kidney of the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Minoru; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Konno, Norifumi; Wakasugi, Tatsuya; Matsuda, Kouhei

    2009-01-01

    Urea is the major excretory end product of nitrogen metabolism in most chelonian reptiles. In the present study, we report the isolation of a 1632 base pair cDNA from turtle kidney with one open reading frame putatively encoding a 403-residue protein, the turtle urea transporter (turtle UT). The first cloned reptilian UT has high homology with UTs (facilitated urea transporters) cloned from vertebrates, and most closely resembles the UT-A subfamily. Injection of turtle UT cRNA into Xenopus oocytes induced a 6-fold increase in [(14)C]urea uptake that was inhibited by phloretin. The turtle UT mRNA expression and tissue distribution were examined by RT-PCR with total RNA from various tissues. Expression of turtle UT mRNA was restricted to the kidney, and no signal was detected in the other tissues, such as brain, heart, alimentary tract and urinary bladder. An approximately 58 kDa protein band was detected in membrane fractions of the kidney by western blot using an affinity-purified antibody that recognized turtle UT expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In an immunohistochemical study using the anti-turtle UT antibody, UT-immunopositive cells were observed along the distal tubule but not in the collecting duct. In turtles under dry conditions, plasma osmolality and urea concentration increased, and using semi-quantitative RT-PCR the UT mRNA expression level in the kidney was found to increase 2-fold compared with control. The present results, taken together, suggest that the turtle UT probably contributes to urea transport in the distal tubule segments of the kidney in response to hyperosmotic stress under dry conditions.

  11. Effects of dietary crude protein and rumen-degradable protein concentrations on urea recycling, nitrogen balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsvangwa, T; Davies, K L; McKinnon, J J; Christensen, D A

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how interactions between dietary crude protein (CP) and rumen-degradable protein (RDP) concentrations alter urea-nitrogen recycling, nitrogen (N) balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in lactating Holstein cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (711±21kg of body weight; 91±17d in milk at the start of the experiment) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments and 29-d experimental periods. Four cows in one Latin square were fitted with ruminal cannulas to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The dietary treatment factors were CP (14.9 vs. 17.5%; dry matter basis) and RDP (63 vs. 69% of CP) contents. Dietary RDP concentration was manipulated by including unprocessed or micronized canola meal. Diet adaptation (d 1-20) was followed by 8d (d 21-29) of sample and data collection. Continuous intrajugular infusions of [(15)N(15)N]-urea (220mg/d) were conducted for 4d (d 25-29) with concurrent total collections of urine and feces to estimate N balance and whole-body urea kinetics. Proportions of [(15)N(15)N]- and [(14)N(15)N]-urea in urinary urea, and (15)N enrichment in feces were used to calculate urea kinetics. For the low-CP diets, cows fed the high-RDP diet had a greater DM intake compared with those fed the low-RDP diet, but the opposite trend was observed for cows fed the high-CP diets. Dietary treatment had no effect on milk yield. Milk composition and milk component yields were largely unaffected by dietary treatment; however, on the low-CP diets, milk fat yield was greater for cows fed the low-RDP diet compared with those fed the high-RDP diet, but it was unaffected by RDP concentration on the high-CP diets. On the high-CP diets, milk urea nitrogen concentration was greater in cows fed the high-RDP diet compared with those fed the low-RDP diet, but it was unaffected by RDP concentration on the low-CP diets. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to

  12. Effect of urea on protein-ligand association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanian, Lora; Son, Ikbae; Chalikian, Tigran V

    2017-12-01

    We combine experimental and theoretical approaches to investigate the influence of a cosolvent on a ligand-protein association event. We apply fluorescence measurements to determining the affinity of the inhibitor tri-N-acetylglucosamine [(GlcNAc) 3 ] for lysozyme at urea concentrations ranging from 0 to 8M. Notwithstanding that, at room temperature and neutral pH, lysozyme retains its native conformation up to the solubility limit of urea, the affinity of (GlcNAc) 3 for the protein steadily decreases as the concentration of urea increases. We analyze the urea dependence of the binding free energy within the framework of a simplified statistical thermodynamics-based model that accounts for the excluded volume effect and direct solute-solvent interactions. The analysis reveals that the detrimental action of urea on the inhibitor-lysozyme binding originates from competition between the free energy contributions of the excluded volume effect and direct solute-solvent interactions. The free energy contribution of direct urea-solute interactions narrowly overcomes the excluded volume contribution thereby resulting in urea weakening the protein-ligand association. More broadly, the successful application of the simple model employed in this work points to the possibility of its use in quantifying the stabilizing/destabilizing action of individual cosolvents on biochemical folding and binding reactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dissolution of lignin in green urea aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyu; Li, Ying; Qiu, Xueqing; Liu, Di; Yang, Dongjie; Liu, Weifeng; Qian, Yong

    2017-12-01

    The dissolution problem is the main obstacle for the value-added modification and depolymerization of industrial lignin. Here, a green urea aqueous solution for complete dissolution of various lignin is presented and the dissolution mechanism is analyzed by AFM, DLS and NMR. The results show that the molecular interaction of lignin decreases from 32.3 mN/m in pure water to 11.3 mN/m in urea aqueous solution. The immobility of 1H NMR spectra and the shift of 17O NMR spectra of urea in different lignin/urea solutions indicate that the oxygen of carbonyl in urea and the hydrogen of hydroxyl in lignin form new hydrogen bonds and break the original hydrogen bonds among lignin molecules. The shift of 1H NMR spectra of lignin and the decrease of interactions in model compound polystyrene indicate that urea also breaks the π-π interactions between aromatic rings of lignin. Lignin dissolved in urea aqueous has good antioxidant activity and it can scavenge at least 63% free radicals in 16 min.

  14. Molecular Mechanisms of Urea Transport in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Janet D.; Blount, Mitsi A.; Sands, Jeff M.

    2012-01-01

    In the late 1980s, urea permeability measurements produced values that could not be explained by paracellular transport or lipid phase diffusion. The existence of urea transport proteins were thus proposed and less than a decade later, the first urea transporter was cloned. The SLC14A family of urea transporters has two major subgroups, designated SLC14A1 (or UT-B) and Slc14A2 (or UT-A). UT-B and UT-A gene products are glycoproteins located in various extra-renal tissues however, a majority of the resulting isoforms are found in the kidney. The UT-B (Slc14A1) urea transporter was originally isolated from erythrocytes and two isoforms have been reported. In kidney, UT-B is located primarily in the descending vasa recta. The UT-A (Slc14A2) urea transporter yields 6 distinct isoforms, of which 3 are found chiefly in the kidney medulla. UT-A1 and UT-A3 are found in the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD), while UT-A2 is located in the thin descending limb. These transporters are crucial to the kidney’s ability to concentrate urine. The regulation of urea transporter activity in the IMCD involves acute modification through phosphorylation and subsequent movement to the plasma membrane. UT-A1 and UT-A3 accumulate in the plasma membrane in response to stimulation by vasopressin or hypertonicity. Long term regulation of the urea transporters in the IMCD involves altering protein abundance in response to changes in hydration status, low protein diets, or adrenal steroids. Urea transporters have been studied using animal models of disease including diabetes mellitus, lithium intoxication, hypertension, and nephrotoxic drug responses. Exciting new genetically engineered mouse models are being developed to study these transporters. PMID:23007461

  15. Urinary Incontinence in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Neki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Incontinence (UI is dened any involuntary leakage of urine. It is twice as common in women as in men and affects at least 1 in 3 older women. It is not a normal result of aging. Rather it is a medical problem that is often curable and should be treated. Urine is stored in the bladder and emptied via the urethra. During urination, muscles of the bladder wall contract, forcing urine from the bladder into the urethra. Sphincter muscles surrounding the urethra relax thus releasing urine from the body. Incontinence occurs if bladder muscles suddenly contract or sphincter muscles are not strong enough to contain urine. The diagnosis of geriatric urinary incontinence includes evaluation for overow incontinence, functional incontinence and stress incontinence. The treatment goal should be realistic and aim to improve the patient's functional status and quality of life. Best treatment outcomes can only be achieved by a holistic treatment approach.

  16. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnes, Stian Langeland; Rortveit, Guri; Bø, Kari; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2007-04-01

    To investigate incidence and prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and associated risk factors. The data collection was conducted as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We present questionnaire data about urinary incontinence obtained from 43,279 women (response rate 45%) by week 30. We report data on any incontinence, in addition to type, frequency, and amount of incontinence. Potential risk factors were investigated by logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of incontinence increased from 26% before pregnancy to 58% in week 30. The corresponding figures for nulliparous women were 15% and 48%, and for parous women 35% and 67%. The cumulative incidence was 46%. Stress urinary incontinence was the most common type of incontinence in week 30 of pregnancy, experienced by 31% of nulliparous and 42% of parous women. The majority of pregnant women had leakage less than once per week and droplets only, both before and during pregnancy. Parity was a strong and significant risk factor for incontinence in adjusted analyses both before pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4-2.7 for primiparous and OR 3.3, 95% CI 3.1-3.5 for multiparous women) and during pregnancy (ORs 2.0, 95% CI 1.9-2.1 and 2.1, 95% CI 2.0-2.2, respectively). Age and body mass index were weaker, but still statistically significant, risk factors. The prevalence of urinary incontinence increases substantially during pregnancy. Incontinence both before and during pregnancy seems to be associated with parity, age, and body mass index. II.

  17. Managing urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Saadeh, Sermin A.; Mattoo, Tej K.

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-sta...

  18. Studies investigating the excretion of acetyl urea in the milk of dairy cows receiving oral doses of 14C acetyl urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergner, H.; Kijora, C.; Goersch, R.

    1976-01-01

    2 experimental cows were fed acetyl urea several weeks before the trial was started. The first cow received a daily amount of 200 g and the second cow 855 g. On the first day of experiment both cows were given 5 mCi of 14 C acetyl urea intraruminally. Up to 6 hrs after the beginning of the experiment acetyl urea in blood plasma was shown to contain a higher proportion of 14 C activity than urea. 0.21 g urea and 0.18 g acetyl urea were contained in 1 kg of milk from cow No 1 while 1 kg of milk from cow No 2 contained 0.18 g urea and 0.12 g acetyl urea. The feeding of acetyl urea to dairy cows is not recommended on the basis of the fact that any further contamination of human nutrition with foreign substances should be possibly avoided. (author)

  19. Studies investigating the excretion of acetyl urea in the milk of dairy cows receiving oral doses of /sup 14/C acetyl urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergner, H; Kijora, C; Goersch, R [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin

    1976-01-01

    2 experimental cows were fed acetyl urea several weeks before the trial was started. The first cow received a daily amount of 200 g and the second cow 855 g. On the first day of experiment both cows were given 5 mCi of /sup 14/C acetyl urea intraruminally. Up to 6 hrs after the beginning of the experiment acetyl urea in blood plasma was shown to contain a higher proportion of /sup 14/C activity than urea. 0.21 g urea and 0.18 g acetyl urea were contained in 1 kg of milk from cow No 1 while 1 kg of milk from cow No 2 contained 0.18 g urea and 0.12 g acetyl urea. The feeding of acetyl urea to dairy cows is not recommended on the basis of the fact that any further contamination of human nutrition with foreign substances should be possibly avoided.

  20. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  1. Urinary concentrating processes in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Nielsen, B.

    1979-01-01

    Avian and mammalian kidneys can produce a urine hyperosmotic to the blood by means of a renal countercurrent system. Birds are uricotelic; mammals are ureotelic. It is proposed that the inner medulla present in mammalian, but not in avian kidneys serves specifically to accumulate urea in the inner and outer medulla. Among mammalian kidneys the degree to which urea accumulates in the inner medulla is inversely related to the complexity of the vascular bundles (in the outer medulla) and the cortical urea recycling index. A model is proposed for urea recycling via the vascular bundles. The renal pelvis varies in size among mammals. Its relative size is unrelated to the type of vascular bundles, cortical recycling index; or urea accumulation in the inner medulla. Since urine refluxes into the renal pelvis during rising urine flow only, the function of the pelvis could be that of bringing the more dilute urine into contact with the outer medulla and underlying capillaries, thereby aiding in reducing the urea concentration in outer and inner medulla during rising urine flow. The size of the renal pelvis may be related to the volume of the inner medulla. Other factors may also be involved. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 FIG. 12 FIG. 13 PMID:538955

  2. Efeito do período de coleta de urina, dos níveis de concentrado e de fontes protéicas sobre a excreção de creatinina, de uréia e de derivados de purina e a produção microbiana em bovinos Nelore Effect of urinary collection days, concentrate levels and protein sources on creatinine, urea and purine derivatives excretions and microbial protein synthesis in Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analívia Martins Barbosa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O efeito do período de coleta de urina sobre a excreção urinária de creatinina, uréia e derivados de purinas (DP, as purinas absorvidas e a produção de compostos nitrogenados microbianos (Nmic foi avaliado em bovinos Nelore de quatro categorias: novilhas, machos castrados, machos não-castrados e vacas em lactação. A produção de Nmic obtida em amostras spot de urina foi comparada àquela obtida via coleta total. Dezesseis animais da raça Nelore mantidos em confinamento foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, tendo nas parcelas os tratamentos em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (dois níveis de concentrado, 25 ou 50%, e quatro categorias de bovinos, novilhas, machos castrados, machos não-castrados e vacas em lactação e nas subparcelas os seis dias de coleta. Não houve interação entre níveis de concentrado, categorias de animal e dias de coleta para as variáveis avaliadas. O volume urinário não foi influenciado pelos níveis de concentrado e os dias de coleta, contudo, foi significativamente maior para as vacas. A excreção de creatinina não foi afetada pelos tratamentos e dias de coletas, observando-se média de 27,1 mg/kg0,75. As purinas absorvidas e a produção de Nmic também não foram influenciadas pelos tratamentos e os dias de coleta. A produção de Nmic, estimada pela amostra spot de urina, não diferiu daquela obtida pela coleta total, nem entre os níveis de concentrado ou entre as categorias de animal. Concluiu-se que o período de coleta de urina de 24 horas é suficiente para experimentos utilizando animais Nelore, independentemente de serem novilhas, machos castrados ou não-castrados ou vacas, e que a coleta de amostra spot de urina também pode ser usada para estimar a produção de Nmic.The effects of collection days on urinary excretion of creatinine and purine derivatives (PD, absorbed purines and microbial N synthesis (Nmic were evaluated in different

  3. Decrease in Urinary Creatinine Excretion in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynkevich, Elena; Flamant, Martin; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Metzger, Marie; Thervet, Eric; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Vrtovsnik, François; Houillier, Pascal; Froissart, Marc; Stengel, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about muscle mass loss in early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). We used 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate to assess determinants of muscle mass and its evolution with kidney function decline. We also described the range of urinary creatinine concentration in this population. Methods We included 1072 men and 537 women with non-dialysis CKD stages 1 to 5, all of them with repeated measurements of glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) by 51Cr-EDTA renal clearance and several nutritional markers. In those with stage 1 to 4 at baseline, we used a mixed model to study factors associated with urinary creatinine excretion rate and its change over time. Results Baseline mean urinary creatinine excretion decreased from 15.3±3.1 to 12.1±3.3 mmol/24 h (0.20±0.03 to 0.15±0.04 mmol/kg/24 h) in men, with mGFR falling from ≥60 to creatinine excretion at baseline. Mean annual decline in mGFR was 1.53±0.12 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year and that of urinary creatinine excretion rate, 0.28±0.02 mmol/24 h per year. Patients with fast annual decline in mGFR of 5 mL/min/1.73 m2 had a decrease in urinary creatinine excretion more than twice as big as in those with stable mGFR, independent of changes in urinary urea as well as of other determinants of low muscle mass. Conclusions Decrease in 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate may appear early in CKD patients, and is greater the more mGFR declines independent of lowering protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea. Normalizing urine analytes for creatininuria may overestimate their concentration in patients with reduced kidney function and low muscle mass. PMID:25401694

  4. Citrulline for urea cycle disorders in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Matsumoto, Shirou; Kido, Jun; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Ohura, Toshihiro; Endo, Fumio

    2017-04-01

    The amino acid l-citrulline is used as a therapeutic agent for urea cycle disorders (UCD) including ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency (CPSD), and N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency. There are few reports, however, on the use of l-citrulline in Japan and little consensus regarding the effects of l-citrulline. We conducted a questionnaire survey of patients undergoing l-citrulline treatment for a UCD to evaluate the current status of this therapy. The survey included patient background, details of l-citrulline treatment, clinical examination data, treatment, frequency of vomiting, and liver transplantation. We retrospectively investigated 43 questionnaire respondents (OTCD, n = 33; CPSD, n = 10). The weight of male OTCD patients improved by +0.79 SD, and the ammonia level decreased by a mean of 44.3 μmol/L in all patients. The protein intake of all patients and of male OTCD patients increased by 0.14 g/kg/day and 0.17 g/kg/day, respectively. l-Citrulline effectively reduced ammonia level, increased protein intake, and improved weight gain in UCD patients. l-Citrulline should be considered a standard therapy in OTCD and CPSD patients. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. Urea utilization in growing lambs. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbrich, M.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization quota of NPN and pure feed protein for body protein synthesis was calculated on the basis of N balance experiments with 15 N-labelled urea with the help of model concepts of a 3-pool model and its mathematical usage. In lambs weighing 13 kg the efficiency of amino acid and nucleic acid synthesis in the non-amino acid N pool was 64%. This results in a total utilization quota for NPN and pure protein in the ration of 40% and 60%, resp. Lambs weighing 27 kg showed an efficiency in amino acid and nucleic acid synthesis in the non-AA N pool of 77% and in the AA N pool of 60%. The total utilization quota of NPN was 47% and that of pure protein 56%. The pure protein in the ration was thus about twice as well utilized for total protein synthesis and for protein syntesis for crude protein retention as the NPN compounds in the ration. (author)

  6. Mechanochemical synthesis of thioureas, ureas and guanidines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Štrukil

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the recent progress in the synthesis of ureas, thioureas and guanidines by solid-state mechanochemical ball milling is highlighted. While the literature is abundant on their preparation in conventional solution environment, it was not until the advent of solvent-free manual grinding using a mortar and pestle and automated ball milling that new synthetic opportunities have opened. The mechanochemical approach not only has enabled the quantitative synthesis of (thioureas and guanidines without using bulk solvents and the generation of byproducts, but it has also been established as a means to develop "click-type" chemistry for these classes of compounds and the concept of small molecule desymmetrization. Moreover, mechanochemistry has been demonstrated as an effective tool in reaction discovery, with emphasis on the reactivity differences in solution and in the solid state. These three classes of organic compounds share some structural features which are reflected in their physical and chemical properties, important for application as organocatalysts and sensors. On the other hand, the specific and unique nature of each of these functionalities render (thioureas and guanidines as the key constituents of pharmaceuticals and other biologically active compounds.

  7. Highly sensitive urea sensing with ion-irradiated polymer foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Dietmar; Muñoz Hernandez, Gerardo; Alfonta, Lital

    2012-01-01

    Recently we prepared urea-sensors by attaching urease to the inner walls of etched ion tracks within thin polymer foil. Here, alternative track-based sensor configurations are examined where the enzyme remained in solution. The conductivities of systems consisting of two parallel irradiated polymer foils and confining different urea/urease mixtures in between were examined. The correlations between conductivity and urea concentration differed strongly for foils with unetched and etched tracks, which points at different sensing mechanisms – tentatively attributed to the adsorption of enzymatic reaction products on the latent track entrances and to the enhanced conductivity of reaction product-filled etched tracks, respectively. All examined systems enable in principle, urea sensing. They point at the possibility of sensor cascade construction for more sensitive or selective sensor systems.

  8. Habit modification of epsomite in the presence of urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingom, S.; Podder, J.; Narayana Kalkura, S.; Bocelli, G.

    2003-01-01

    The pure and urea doped epsomite (MgSO 4·7H 2O) crystals were grown at low temperature by the slow cooling technique. The effect of pH on the growth rate of pure MgSO 4·7H 2O was studied. It was found that the higher pH values increased the growth rate and the size of the crystals. The quantity of urea present in the doped magnesium sulphate crystals was estimated. The incorporation of urea into the mother solution was found to promote the growth rate. The habit of the crystals changed from orthorhombic to tetragonal. Further, there was an increase of microhardness of the crystals on doping of urea.

  9. Isocyanate leading to Guanidines/Urea derivatives formation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 6. Zinc catalyzed Guanylation reaction of Amines with Carbodiimides/ Isocyanate leading to Guanidines/Urea derivatives formation. JAYEETA BHATTACHARJEE MITALI SACHDEVA INDRANI BANERJEE TARUN K PANDA. Regular Article Volume 128 ...

  10. Deprotection of oximes using urea nitrate under microwave irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A new mild and efficient method for the cleavage of oximes to carbonyl compounds using readily available urea nitrate in acetonitrile-water (95 : 5), under microwave irradiation within 2 min, in good yields is reported.

  11. 77 FR 64464 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-821-801] Solid Urea From the Russian... published the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea... the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea from Russia. See Solid Urea From...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ... you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your ... glucose is above 240 mg/dl, check your urine for ketones. If you have ketones, do not ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is above 240 ... ketones. If you have ketones, do not exercise. Exercising when ketones are present may make your blood ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose ... glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future- ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High ... We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor Student Resources Patient Access to Research Research Resources Practice ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get ... the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has ...

  19. Synthesis, Characterization, and Sensitivity Analysis of Urea Nitrate (UN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    determined. From the results of the study, UN is safe to store under normal operating conditions. 15. SUBJECT TERMS urea, nitrate , sensitivity, thermal ...HNO3). Due to its simple composition, ease of manufacture, and higher detonation parameters than ammonium nitrate , it has become one of the...an H50 value of 10.054 ± 0.620 inches. 5. Conclusions From the results of the thermal analysis study, it can be concluded that urea nitrate is

  20. INHIBITION OF SWARMING BY UREA AND ITS DIAGNOSTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-swarming property of urea and effects on antibiotic susceptibility among 52 uropathogenic Proteus strains from Lagos, Nigeria were investigated. Urea caused a reduction in swarming and number of swarmed cells at 0.5% (n = 42, DOCZ = 15.5mm), 0.75% (n= 24, DOCZ = 10.7mm), 1% (n = 17, DOCZ = 3.4mm) and ...

  1. Serum urea and creatinine levels in Nigerian human malaria patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum urea and creatinine levels were determined in malaria patients infected with P. falciparum. Serum urea levels decreased significantly (P<0.05) in both mild (4.10 ±1.10 mmol/L) and moderate (4.40 ±1.40 mmol/L) parasitaemia when compared to control subjects (5.50 ±1.40 mmol/L). On the other hand, serum ...

  2. [Blood glucose self monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascher, Thomas C; Stechemesser, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Self monitoring of blood glucose contributes to the integrated management of diabetes mellitus. It, thus, should be available for all patients with diabetes mellitus type-1 and type-2. Self monitoring of blood glucose improves patients safety, quality of life and glucose control. The current article represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association for the use of blood glucose self monitoring according to current scientific evidence.

  3. Synthesis of 15N-labelled urea and methylenediurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, T.P.; Jones, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    A new technique was developed for the large-scale synthesis of 15 N-labelled urea at low enrichment levels. The synthesis is based on nucleophilic displacement of the phenoxide ion from phenyl carbonate and uses anhydrous ammonia as the nucleophile. In previous reports a copper catalyst was used; however, in this study it was found that the copper resulted in product decomposition and tar formation, which makes product purification difficult. A novel set of reaction conditions was developed: no catalyst was used, and no product decomposition or tar formation occurred. The reaction product was easily purified, and consistently high yields of 15 N-labelled urea were obtained. 15 N-labelled methylenediurea was prepared by the dilute solution reaction of formalin with 15 N-labelled urea. The methodology developed for the reclamation of unreacted urea resulted in minimum loss of labelled urea. High performance liquid chromatography has been used to determine the chemical purity of both urea and methylenediurea. (author)

  4. Urea-induced oxidative damage in Elodea densa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleva, Maria; Borisova, Galina; Chukina, Nadezda; Prasad, M N V

    2015-09-01

    Urea being a fertilizer is expected to be less toxic to plants. However, it was found that urea at 100 mg L(-1) caused the oxidative stress in Elodea leaves due to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation that are known to stimulate antioxidant pathway. Urea at a concentration of 500 and 1000 mg L(-1) decreased low-molecular-weight antioxidants. In this case, the antioxidant status of plants was supported by the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and guaiacol peroxidase. A significant increase in the soluble proteins and -SH groups was observed with high concentrations of urea (30-60 % of control). Thus, the increased activity of antioxidant enzymes, low-molecular-weight antioxidants, and induced soluble protein thiols are implicated in plant resistance to oxidative stress imposed by urea. We found that guaiacol peroxidase plays an important role in the removal of the peroxide in Elodea leaves exposed to 1000 mg L(-1)of urea.

  5. Slow-release urea in supplement fed to beef steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Replacing regular urea (RU by slow-release urea (SRU at two levels of non-protein nitrogen (NPN in concentrate, offered with low-quality roughage, was evaluated in beef steers on dry matter intake (DMI, ruminal fermentation parameters, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, total tract apparent digestibility of diets and in situ degradability of nitrogen sources. Eight ruminally cannulated steers were allocated into two 4x4 Latin squares, totalizing four treatments: 40 NPN/0 SRU: 40% of concentrate crude protein (CP as NPN, resulting from 0% of SRU and 100% of RU; 40 NPN/50 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 50% of SRU and 50% of RU; 40 NPN/100 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU; 80 NPN/100 SRU: 80% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU. Results showed that partial substitution of regular urea by slow-release urea did not alter dry matter intake, pattern of ruminal fermentation or plasma urea nitrogen concentrations and increased the total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein in steers diets. The increase in non-protein nitrogen content in crude protein of the concentrate could compromise feed intake and the efficiency of nutrient utilization in the steers fed complete diets based on low quality forage.

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type ... Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C and eAG Hypoglycemia (Low blood glucose) Hyperglycemia (High blood glucose) Dawn Phenomenon ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... how often you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ... I Treat Hyperglycemia? You can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is ...

  8. Can Urinary Catheterization Before Birth Reduce Postpartum Urinary Retention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet B. Şentürk

    2016-04-01

    Results: The time to first micturition was determined to be shorter in the group where urinary catheterization was applied before birth, the PUR rate was lower and the amount of residual urine was less (p0.05. Conclusion: Urinary catheterization before birth reduces the rate of PUR.

  9. Evaluation of the contribution of recycled urea to the synthesis of the microbial of protein in the rumen using sup 15 N labelled urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Dehneh, A M [Michigan State Univ. (USA) Dept. of Animal Science

    1990-01-01

    Urea {sup 15}N was continually infused into the juglar vein for 3 days in two duodenally cannulated cows fed diets of 1:2 and 2:1 forage: concentrate. Duodenal digesta samples were taken every 3 hours, and coccygeal blood and milk were sampled twice daily. Urine was collected for 5 days starting 1 day before infusion and total feces for 3 days during infusion. Fecal samples were also taken twice daily during the 5 days of collection. Urinary excretion of {sup 15}N accounted for about 90% of that which existed from the body; whereas, feces and milk each accounted for about 5%. Recovery of {sup 15}N during the infusion period ranged from 30 to 50% of that infused. Estimates using {sup 15}N ratios, as percent of the total N passing into the duodenum, that was bacterial N, were 50% to 90% and appeared directly proportional to dry matter intake of cows. Recycled-N incorporated into rumen microbes was greater (24% verses 14% of N in bacteria passing into the duodenum) in cows fed the high concentrate than the high forage diet. Also, incorporation of recycled N into rumen microbes was higher in the lactating than the dry cow (24% verses 14%) and the flow of nitrogen from the rumen to the small intestine was greater for the concentrate than the forage diet (122.O% verses 101.0% of nitrogen intake). (author). 27 refs.

  10. Evaluation of the contribution of recycled urea to the synthesis of the microbial of protein in the rumen using 15N labelled urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dehneh, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Urea 15 N was continually infused into the juglar vein for 3 days in two duodenally cannulated cows fed diets of 1:2 and 2:1 forage: concentrate. Duodenal digesta samples were taken every 3 hours, and coccygeal blood and milk were sampled twice daily. Urine was collected for 5 days starting 1 day before infusion and total feces for 3 days during infusion. Fecal samples were also taken twice daily during the 5 days of collection. Urinary excretion of 15 N accounted for about 90% of that which existed from the body; whereas, feces and milk each accounted for about 5%. Recovery of 15 N during the infusion period ranged from 30 to 50% of that infused. Estimates using 15 N ratios, as percent of the total N passing into the duodenum, that was bacterial N, were 50% to 90% and appeared directly proportional to dry matter intake of cows. Recycled-N incorporated into rumen microbes was greater (24% verses 14% of N in bacteria passing into the duodenum) in cows fed the high concentrate than the high forage diet. Also, incorporation of recycled N into rumen microbes was higher in the lactating than the dry cow (24% verses 14%) and the flow of nitrogen from the rumen to the small intestine was greater for the concentrate than the forage diet (122.O% verses 101.0% of nitrogen intake). (author). 27 refs

  11. Speed associated with plasma pH, oxygen content, total protein and urea in an 80 km race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R M; Hess, T M; Williams, C A; Kronfeld, D S; Griewe-Crandell, K M; Waldron, J E; Graham-Thiers, P M; Gay, L S; Splan, R K; Saker, K E; Harris, P A

    2002-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that endurance performance may be related quantitatively to changes in blood, we measured selected blood variables then determined their reference ranges and associations with speed during an 80 km race. The plan had 46 horses in a 2 x 2 factorial design testing a potassium-free electrolyte mix and a vitamin supplement. Blood samples were collected before the race, at 21, 37, 56 and 80 km, and 20 min after finishing, for assay of haematocrit, plasma pH, pO2, pCO2, [Na+], [K+], [Ca++], [Mg++], [Cl-], lactate, glucose, urea, cortisol, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbate, creatine kinase, aspartate amino transferase, lipid hydroperoxides, total protein, albumin and creatinine, and erythrocyte glutathione and glutathione peroxidase. Data from 34 finishers were analysed statistically. Reference ranges for resting and running horses were wide and overlapping and, therefore, limiting with respect to evaluation of individual horses. Speed correlations were most repeatable, with variables reflecting blood oxygen transport (enabling exercise), acidity and electrolytes (limiting exercise) and total protein (enabling then, perhaps, limiting). Stepwise regressions also included plasma urea concentration (limiting). The association of speed with less plasma acidity and urea suggests the potential for fat adaptation and protein restriction in endurance horses, as found previously in Arabians performing repeated sprints. Conditioning horses fed fat-fortified and protein-restricted diets may not only improve performance but also avoid grain-associated disorders.

  12. Pengaruh Suplementasi Baking Soda dalam Pakan terhadap Urea Darah dan Urea Susu Sapi Perah Laktasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Harjanti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to assess the effect of suplementation of sodium bicarbonate in feed rations on the concentration of Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN and Milk Urea Nitrogen (MUN of lactating dairy cattle. The materials used were 12 lactating Friesian Holstein cattle in the 1th lactation period and the month lactation of 5 and 6th. The experiment used a completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The experimental treatmens were basal ration (T0, and basal ration supplemented with 0,8 % (T0 and 1 % (T2 of sodium bicarbonate, on a dry matter (DM basis. The parameters determined were crude protein intake (CPI and the concentration of BUN and MUN. The data were analyzed using variance the F-test. The result showed that the CPI, and the concentration of BUN and MUN were not affected by the treatments. The CPI were 2.097,43 ; 2.079,19 and 2.053,17 g/d. The concentration of BUN were 14,04 ; 13,05 and 12,75 mg/dl, whereas the concentration of MUN were 12,43 ; 10,01 and 10,07 mg/dl for T0, T1 dan T2 respectively. Overall, 0,8 and 1% of sodium bicarbonate supplementations into feed ration was not found to significantly alter the quantity of crude protein intake and the concentration of BUN and MUN in lactating dairy cattle in the present study.

  13. Hyperpolarized 13C-Urea MRI for the assessment of the urea gradient in the porcine kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søvsø Szocska Hansen, Esben; Stewart, Neil James; Wild, Jim Michael

    Renal anatomical and pathophysiological alterations are directly associated with the fluid and electrolyte balance in the kidney, which is regulated by the extracellular corticomedullary osmolality gradient. We introduce a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to monitor...... treatment resulted in an increased urea accumulation in the cortical space. This work demonstrates intra-renal functional assessment with hyperpolarized 13C-urea MRI in multi-papillary kidneys....

  14. Whole body glucose kinetics in type I diabetes studied with [6,6-2H] and [U-13C]-glucose and the artificial B-cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmaun, D.; Cirillo, D.; Koziet, J.; Chauvet, D.; Young, V.R.; Robert, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Dynamic aspects of whole body glucose metabolism were assessed in ten young adult insulin-dependent (type I) diabetic men. Using a primed, continuous intravenous infusion of [6,6- 2 H]glucose and [U- 13 C]glucose, endogenous production, tissue uptake, carbon recycling, and oxidation of glucose were measured in the postabsorptive state. These studies were undertaken after blood glucose had been maintained overnight at 5.9 +/- 0.4 mmol/L (n = 10), and on another night at 10.5 +/- 0.4 mmol/L (n = 4) or 15.2 +/- 0.6 mmol/L (n = 6). In the normoglycemic state, endogenous glucose production averaged 2.15 +/- 0.13 mg x kg-1 x min-1. This value, as well as the rate of glucose carbon recycling (0.16 +/- 0.04 mg x kg-1 x min-1) and glucose oxidation (1.52 +/- 0.16 mg x kg-1 x min-1) are comparable to those found in nondiabetic controls. In the hyperglycemic states at 10 or 15 mmol/L, endogenous glucose production was increased by 11% (P less than .01) and 60% (P less than .01) compared to the normoglycemic states, respectively. Glucose carbon recycling contributed only a small percentage to this variation in glucose production (15% at the 15 mmol/L glucose level). This suggests that if gluconeogenesis participates in the increased glucose output, it is not dependent on a greater systemic supply of three-carbon precursors. The increased rate of glucose production in the hyperglycemic state was quantitatively offset by a rise in urinary glucose excretion. Glucose tissue uptake, as well as glucose oxidation, did not vary between normoglycemic and hyperglycemic states

  15. Urinary carbonic anhydrase VI as a biomarker for kidney disease in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishita, Toshiho; Yatsu, Juro; Watanabe, Kazuo; Ochiai, Hideharu; Ichihara, Nobutsune; Orito, Kensuke; Arishima, Kazuyoshi

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated whether carbonic anhydrase (CA)-VI has utility as a biomarker in swine kidney disease. Serum chemistry, histopathology, immunohistochemical staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analyses were performed. In the kidney of normal healthy pigs, CA-VI was localized in the epithelial cells of the renal distal straight tubules. CA-VI levels were 16 ± 35 ng/g wet tissue and 50 ± 66 ng/mL in normal pig kidney and urine, respectively, and 136 ± 173 ng/mL in the urine of pigs with kidney disease. CA-VI urinary concentration was not correlated with urinary urea nitrogen (UUN), urinary creatinine (Cre), or urinary albumin levels in pigs with kidney disease. However, UUN and Cre levels were positively correlated in the urine of pigs with kidney disease. These data suggest that urinary CA-VI may represent a biomarker for kidney disease in pigs, particularly for disorders affecting distal straight tubules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efectividad de la pomada de urea en las verrugas plantares Effectiveness of the urea ointment in the feet warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Chacón Eduardo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo un ensayo clinicoterapéutico en 60 pacientes atendidos en la consulta de Dermatología del Hospital Provincial Docente “Dr. Joaquín Castillo Duany” de Santiago de Cuba, durante el 2008, con el fin evaluar la efectividad de la pomada de urea en las verrugas plantares. Se conformaron 2 grupos (de estudio y control: los primeros recibieron pomada de urea al 20 % y los segundos pomada salicílica al 40 %. La pomada de urea resultó más eficaz para eliminar las manifestaciones clínicas de esa lesión, en un período de 6 a 8 semanas y no hubo reacciones adversas.A clinical therapeutical trial was made in 60 patients assisted at the Dermatology department of "Dr. Joaquín Castillo Duany" Teaching Provincial Hospital from Santiago de Cuba, during 2008, aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of the urea ointment in the feet warts. They conformed to 2 groups (study and control: the first group received urea ointment at 20% and the second one salicylic ointment at 40%. The urea ointment was more effective to eliminate the clinical manifestations of that lesion, in a period of 6 to 8 weeks and there were not adverse reactions.

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting View more Partner Message About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? ...

  20. Urinary tract trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.E. (Sunnybrook Medical Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1983-09-01

    From a practical point of view, a woman who has blunt injury to the pelvic area with hematuria from the lower urinary tract, has a contused or ruptured bladder. In a man, such a situation calls for retrograde urethrography to determine if the injury is in the urethra or the bladder because the two organs are investigated differently. In both sexes, such injuries are usually associated with pelvic fractures. Massive bladder displacement and severe hemorrhage should alert one to the need for pelvic angiography to find and embolize the bleeding site within the first 24 hours after injury. For blunt trauma to the upper urinary tract an intravenous urogram with tomography is still the main examination. However, a normal intravenous urogram does not exclude serious injury. Therefore, if signs or symptoms persist, a computerized tomographic (CT) examination should be performed if available. Otherwise, a radionuclide study is advisable. Non-excretion on intravenous urography with tomography calls for selective renal arteriography to delineate the etiology. There can be serious renal trauma in the absence of hematuria, which may occur with renal pedicle injury or avulsion of the ureter. Minor forniceal ruptures may occasionally mask severe posterior renal lacerations.

  1. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  2. Minimal sampling protocol for accurate estimation of urea production: a study with oral [13C]urea in fed and fasted piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, Michiel J. S.; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Dainty, Jack R.; Kulik, Willem; Jakobs, Cornelis; de Meer, Kees

    2005-01-01

    An oral [13C]urea protocol may provide a simple method for measurement of urea production. The validity of single pool calculations in relation to a reduced sampling protocol was assessed. In eight fed and five fasted piglets, plasma urea enrichments from a 10 h sampling protocol were measured

  3. New bioemulsifiers produced by Candida lipolytica using D-glucose and babassu oil as carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance-Harrop Mabel H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida lipolytica IA 1055 produced extracellular biosurfactants with emulsification activity by fermentation using babassu oil and D-glucose as carbon sources. Natural seawater diluted at 50% supplemented with urea, ammonium sulfate, and phosphate was used as economic basal medium. The best results were achieved with the YSW-B2 medium, which contained urea, ammonium sulfate, and babassu oil and with YSW-B3 medium, which contained urea, ammonium sulfate, phosphate, and babassu oil, kept under fed batch fermentation for 60 hours with 5% of babassu oil. For the two media, the maximum specific growth rates were 0.02 h-1 and 0.04 h-1; the generation times were 34.6 h-1 and 17.3 h-1, and the emulsification activities were 0.666 and 0.158 units, respectively. The molecules of these new bioemulsifiers were contituted of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.

  4. Modeling and measurement of boiling point elevation during water vaporization from aqueous urea for SCR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Ho Jin; Lee, Joon Sik

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of water vaporization is the first step to anticipate the conversion process of urea into ammonia in the exhaust stream. As aqueous urea is a mixture and the urea in the mixture acts as a non-volatile solute, its colligative properties should be considered during water vaporization. The elevation of boiling point for urea water solution is measured with respect to urea mole fraction. With the boiling-point elevation relation, a model for water vaporization is proposed underlining the correction of the heat of vaporization of water in the urea water mixture due to the enthalpy of urea dissolution in water. The model is verified by the experiments of water vaporization as well. Finally, the water vaporization model is applied to the water vaporization of aqueous urea droplets. It is shown that urea decomposition can begin before water evaporation finishes due to the boiling-point elevation

  5. Nitrogen utilization and transformation in red soil fertilized with urea and ryegrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gang; Zhang Qinzheng; Ye Qingfu; Zhu Zhujun; Xi Haifu; He Zhenli

    1998-01-01

    The influence of fertilization with urea and ryegrass on nitrogen utilization and transformation in red soil has been studied by using 15 N tracer method. When urea and ryegrass were applied alone or in combination, the percentage of N uptaken by ryegrass for labelled urea was 3 and 1.7 times that from labelled ryegrass for the application rate of 200 mgN·kg -1 and 100 mgN·kg -1 , respectively; combining application of ryegrass and urea reduced uptake of urea N and increased uptake of ryegrass N by ryegrass plant, but the percentage of N residue in soil increased for urea and decreased for ryegrass; when urea and ryegrass were applied alone, the percentage of N residue in soil from labelled ryegrass was more than 69% while that from labelled urea was less than 25%, and much more ryegrass N was incorporated into humus than urea N

  6. Modeling and measurement of boiling point elevation during water vaporization from aqueous urea for SCR applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan, Ho Jin; Lee, Joon Sik [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Understanding of water vaporization is the first step to anticipate the conversion process of urea into ammonia in the exhaust stream. As aqueous urea is a mixture and the urea in the mixture acts as a non-volatile solute, its colligative properties should be considered during water vaporization. The elevation of boiling point for urea water solution is measured with respect to urea mole fraction. With the boiling-point elevation relation, a model for water vaporization is proposed underlining the correction of the heat of vaporization of water in the urea water mixture due to the enthalpy of urea dissolution in water. The model is verified by the experiments of water vaporization as well. Finally, the water vaporization model is applied to the water vaporization of aqueous urea droplets. It is shown that urea decomposition can begin before water evaporation finishes due to the boiling-point elevation.

  7. Urea controlled hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium aluminum carbonate hydroxide rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhu, Jianfeng; Liu, Hui

    2018-03-01

    In this study, ammonium aluminum carbonate hydroxide (AACH) rods were controllably prepared using the hydrothermal method by manipulating the amount of urea in the reaction system. The experimental results showed that AACH in rod shape was able to be gradually transformed from γ-AlOOH in cluster shape during the molar ratios of urea to Al in the reactants were ranged from 8 to 10, and the yield of AACH has increased accordingly. When the molar ratio of urea to Al reaches 11, pure AACH rods with a diameter of 500 nm and a length of 10 μm approximately was able to be produced. Due to the slow decomposition of urea during the hydrothermal reaction, the nucleation and growth of AACH crystal proceed step by step. Therefore, the crystal can fully grow on each crystal plane and eventually produce a highly crystalline rod-shaped product. The role of urea in controlling the morphology and yield of AACH was also discussed in this paper systematically.

  8. Porous Cross-Linked Polyimide-Urea Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Nguyen, Baochau N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Porous cross-linked polyimide-urea networks are provided. The networks comprise a subunit comprising two anhydride end-capped polyamic acid oligomers in direct connection via a urea linkage. The oligomers (a) each comprise a repeating unit of a dianhydride and a diamine and a terminal anhydride group and (b) are formulated with 2 to 15 of the repeating units. The subunit was formed by reaction of the diamine and a diisocyanate to form a diamine-urea linkage-diamine group, followed by reaction of the diamine-urea linkage-diamine group with the dianhydride and the diamine to form the subunit. The subunit has been cross-linked via a cross-linking agent, comprising three or more amine groups, at a balanced stoichiometry of the amine groups to the terminal anhydride groups. The subunit has been chemically imidized to yield the porous cross-linked polyimide-urea network. Also provided are wet gels, aerogels, and thin films comprising the networks, and methods of making the networks.

  9. Urea cycle disorders: brain MRI and neurological outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bireley, William R; Van Hove, Johan L K; Gallagher, Renata C; Fenton, Laura Z

    2012-04-01

    Urea cycle disorders encompass several enzyme deficiencies that can result in cerebral damage, with a wide clinical spectrum from asymptomatic to severe. The goal of this study was to correlate brain MRI abnormalities in urea cycle disorders with clinical neurological sequelae to evaluate whether MRI abnormalities can assist in guiding difficult treatment decisions. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with urea cycle disorders and symptomatic hyperammonemia. Brain MRI images were reviewed for abnormalities that correlated with severity of clinical neurological sequelae. Our case series comprises six urea cycle disorder patients, five with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and one with citrullinemia type 1. The observed trend in distribution of brain MRI abnormalities as the severity of neurological sequelae increased was the peri-insular region first, extending into the frontal, parietal, temporal and, finally, the occipital lobes. There was thalamic restricted diffusion in three children with prolonged hyperammonemia. Prior to death, this site is typically reported to be spared in urea cycle disorders. The pattern and extent of brain MRI abnormalities correlate with clinical neurological outcome in our case series. This suggests that brain MRI abnormalities may assist in determining prognosis and helping clinicians with subsequent treatment decisions.

  10. Urea cycle disorders: brain MRI and neurological outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bireley, William R. [University of Colorado, Department of Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Van Hove, Johan L.K. [University of Colorado, Department of Genetics and Inherited Metabolic Diseases, Aurora, CO (United States); Gallagher, Renata C. [Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Genetics and Inherited Metabolic Diseases, Aurora, CO (United States); Fenton, Laura Z. [Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Urea cycle disorders encompass several enzyme deficiencies that can result in cerebral damage, with a wide clinical spectrum from asymptomatic to severe. The goal of this study was to correlate brain MRI abnormalities in urea cycle disorders with clinical neurological sequelae to evaluate whether MRI abnormalities can assist in guiding difficult treatment decisions. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with urea cycle disorders and symptomatic hyperammonemia. Brain MRI images were reviewed for abnormalities that correlated with severity of clinical neurological sequelae. Our case series comprises six urea cycle disorder patients, five with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and one with citrullinemia type 1. The observed trend in distribution of brain MRI abnormalities as the severity of neurological sequelae increased was the peri-insular region first, extending into the frontal, parietal, temporal and, finally, the occipital lobes. There was thalamic restricted diffusion in three children with prolonged hyperammonemia. Prior to death, this site is typically reported to be spared in urea cycle disorders. The pattern and extent of brain MRI abnormalities correlate with clinical neurological outcome in our case series. This suggests that brain MRI abnormalities may assist in determining prognosis and helping clinicians with subsequent treatment decisions. (orig.)

  11. Urea cycle disorders: brain MRI and neurological outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bireley, William R.; Van Hove, Johan L.K.; Gallagher, Renata C.; Fenton, Laura Z.

    2012-01-01

    Urea cycle disorders encompass several enzyme deficiencies that can result in cerebral damage, with a wide clinical spectrum from asymptomatic to severe. The goal of this study was to correlate brain MRI abnormalities in urea cycle disorders with clinical neurological sequelae to evaluate whether MRI abnormalities can assist in guiding difficult treatment decisions. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with urea cycle disorders and symptomatic hyperammonemia. Brain MRI images were reviewed for abnormalities that correlated with severity of clinical neurological sequelae. Our case series comprises six urea cycle disorder patients, five with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and one with citrullinemia type 1. The observed trend in distribution of brain MRI abnormalities as the severity of neurological sequelae increased was the peri-insular region first, extending into the frontal, parietal, temporal and, finally, the occipital lobes. There was thalamic restricted diffusion in three children with prolonged hyperammonemia. Prior to death, this site is typically reported to be spared in urea cycle disorders. The pattern and extent of brain MRI abnormalities correlate with clinical neurological outcome in our case series. This suggests that brain MRI abnormalities may assist in determining prognosis and helping clinicians with subsequent treatment decisions. (orig.)

  12. Urinary Retention Associated with Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Takeru; Ohta, Hirotsugu; Yokota, Akira; Yarimizu, Shiroh; Nishizawa, Shigeru

    Patients often exhibit urinary retention following a stroke. Various neuropathological and animal studies have implicated the medulla oblongata, pons, limbic system, frontal lobe as areas responsible for micturition control, although the exact area responsible for urinary retention after stroke is not clear. The purpose of this study was to identify the stroke area responsible for urinary retention by localizing the areas where strokes occur. We assessed 110 patients with cerebral infarction and 27 patients with cerebral hemorrhage (78 men, 59 women; mean age, 73.0 years) who had been admitted to our hospital between October, 2012 and September, 2013. We used computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the stroke location, and evaluated whether post-stroke urinary retention occurred. Twelve (8.8%) of the 137 patients (7 men, 5 women; mean age, 78.8 years) exhibited urinary retention after a stroke. Stroke occurred in the right/left dominant hemisphere in 7 patients; nondominant hemisphere in 1; cerebellum in 3; and brainstem in 1. Strokes in the dominant hemisphere were associated with urinary retention (P = 0.0314), particularly in the area of the insula (P < 0.01). We concluded that stroke affecting the insula of the dominant hemisphere tends to cause urinary retention.

  13. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michno, Mikolaj; Sydor, Antoni

    Review of urinary tract infections in adults including etiology, pathogenesis, classification and the most important therapeutic recommendations. Urinary tract infections are still a common clinical problem occurring more often in sexually active women, pregnancy, elderly , after catherization of a urinary bladder and urological surgery as well as in the co-existence of diabetes or nephrolithiasis. Due to the anatomical differences, women suffer more often than men. The main etiological factor is Escherichia coli, even though it plays a lesser role in the complicated infections, than in non-complicated ones. Apart from that, the infections may also be caused by atypical microbes, viruses and fungi. Relapses as well as reinfections are typical features of urinary tract infections and in some cases prolonged infections can spread from lower to upper urinary tract contributing to pyelonephritis, urosepsis or even death. These long-term infections can progress in a hidden, insidious, oligosymptomatic or asymptomatic manner leading to irreversible, progressive deterioration of renal function. They can also mask other diseases such as tuberculosis or neoplasms of the urinary tract, which leads to the delayed diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections is a complex problem, often requiring specialized procedures as well as hospitalization. The choice of a therapy is determined by the type of infection, general condition, age and coexisting diseases. Rapid diagnosis and implementation of proper pharmacotherapy may shorten the time of treatment and hospitalization, preventing serious complications and reinfections.

  14. Substituição do farelo de soja por uréia ou amiréia para vacas em final de lactação - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1234 Replacement of soybean meal by urea or starea in diets for late lactation cows urea and starea in diets for lactation cows - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1234

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Imaizumi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para estudar a substituição parcial do farelo de soja (FS por uréia, na forma extrusada com milho (A150S ou convencional (U. No experimento 1 utilizou-se 38 vacas em final de lactação. A substituição não afetou (P > 0,05 a produção de leite e leite corrigido para gordura, o teor e produção de proteína, a produção de sólidos totais e as concentrações plasmáticas de glicose e N-uréico. O tratamento U aumentou (P 0,05. A substituição parcial do farelo de soja por uréia é uma alternativa viável para vacas em final de lactação. O processamento da uréia não apresentou vantagens em relação à forma convencionalTwo trials were conducted to study the partial replacement of soybean meal (FS by urea (U in diets for late lactation cows. Conventional urea was compared to extruded urea (A150S. In trial 1, 38 late lactation cows were used. The partial replacement of soybean meal by urea sources or the urea processing did not affect milk and 3.5% FCM yields, protein content and yield, total solids yield, and plasma urea N and glucose. Feeding U increased milk fat and total solids content. In trial 2, five dry cows, fitted with ruminal canulas were used. Dry matter intake, total tract nutrient digestibility’s, rumen VFA molar concentration, plasma urea-N and plasma glucose were not affected by treatments (p > 0.05. The partial replacement of soybean meal by urea is an alternative to reduce costs of diets for late lactating cows. Extrusion of urea did not show any advantage compared to conventional urea

  15. The urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornbury, J.R.; Weiss, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Introduction of new methods and enhancement of traditional radiologic methods have greatly influenced the use of imaging to diagnose and treat patients who have urinary tract disease. In the past, plain films of the abdomen and excretory urography were the starting point in the diagnostic imaging process. Today, either computed tomography (CT) or ultrasonography may be requested initially. Choosing the appropriate method has become more complex because of the variety that confronts the physician. If physicians think critically about the selection of patients before requesting an imaging examination, they can improve their use of such examinations. First, the physician must hypothesize a differential diagnosis. Particularly important is the action of linking the use of the diagnostic test to the choice of treatment. The following paragraphs present the most frequently used (or most useful) examinations for the specific diagnostic problem situations that are discussed subsequently

  16. Preventing urinary incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Diane K; Cardozo, Linda; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich

    2013-10-01

    This review examines the evidence to date, analyzes specific risk factors and assesses the ability to prevent urinary incontinence in women, while providing clinical recommendations. More extraordinary risk factors such as ethnicity and race, mixed and fecal incontinence, iatrogenic and neurogenic factors should be discussed in a follow-up report. Studies have revealed that certain factors place women at risk for developing urinary incontinence, including age, obesity, diabetes, pregnancy and delivery, high-impact physical exercise factors and estrogen deficiency. Healthcare providers should screen women who are at risk for developing urinary incontinence and institute specific interventions, specifically behavioral and even rehabilitative techniques, to prevent this prevalent and distressing condition.

  17. Measuring brain glucose phosphorylation with labeled glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brondsted, H.E.; Gjedde, A.

    1988-01-01

    This study tested whether glucose labeled at the C-6 position generates metabolites that leave brain so rapidly that C-6-labeled glucose cannot be used to measure brain glucose phosphorylation (CMRGlc). In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, the parietal cortex uptake of [ 14 C]glucose labeled in the C-6 position was followed for times ranging from 10 s to 60 min. We subtracted the observed radioactivity from the radioactivity expected with no loss of labeled metabolites from brain by extrapolation of glucose uptake in an initial period when loss was negligible. The observed radioactivity was a monoexponentially declining function of the total radioactivity expected in the absence of metabolite loss. The constant of decline was 0.0077.min-1 for parietal cortex. Metabolites were lost from the beginning of the experiment. However, with correction for the loss of labeled metabolites, it was possible to determine an average CMRGlc between 4 and 60 min of circulation of 64 +/- 4 (SE; n = 49) mumol.hg-1.min-1

  18. Urinary alpha 1-microglobulin as an indicator protein of renal tubular dysfunction caused by environmental cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohyama, C.; Kobayashi, E.; Saito, H.; Sugihara, N.; Nakano, A.; Mitane, Y.

    1986-06-01

    An epidemiologic investigation was carried out to clarify the significance of the urinary excretion of alpha 1-microglobulin (alpha 1-MG) in people aged 50 years and over living in a Cd-polluted area in Japan. Approximately 80% of the population participated in the health examination. The urinary and serum levels and the relative clearance of alpha 1-MG to creatinine clearance were compared with various parameters (age, urinary beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-MG), total protein, Cd, Cu and Zn, serum beta 2-MG, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen and relative clearances of alpha 1-MG, beta 2-MG, inorganic phosphate and uric acid). It was found that the urinary excretion of alpha 1-MG is closely associated with the urinary Cd and Cu and with the indices of renal dysfunction listed above. These results suggest that the urinary alpha 1-MG level markedly reflects a degree of proximal tubular dysfunction and that it may be useful as one of the screening measures for proximal tubular dysfunction caused by environmental Cd exposure.

  19. Radiation effects on n-hexane-urea inclusion compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Nobuaki; Ozasa, Senichi; Ichikawa, Takahisa

    1987-01-01

    n-hexane-urea inclusion compounds were γ-irradiated at room temperature and dimers from n-hexane were found to form. Additive effects of 1-hexene, 1-chloropentane, and n-hexylamine to the formation of the dimers have been studied. For the comparison liquid n-hexane systems were also γ-irradiated under the same conditions. The radiation-induced reactions in the inclusion compounds are discussed together with the reactions in the liquid n-hexane systems. The dimers from n-hexane in the inclusion compounds are presumably formed by dimerization of hexyl radicals; the hexyl radicals are possibly produced by hydrogen abstraction of hydrogen atom and/or urea radicals from n-hexane included in urea. (author)

  20. Synergistic mechanism of combinative application of bensulfuron and urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Liuqing; Huang Shiwen; Zhou Hongjie; Ye Guibiao

    1998-01-01

    Nutrient culture study was initiated to examine the synergistic mechanism of combinative application of bensulfuron and urea for weed control. The absorption of 14 C-bensulfuron and their distribution in Lindernia procumbens (Krock.) Philcox were also investigated to determine the variation between two methods (combinative use of 14 C-bensulfuron plus urea and 14 C-bensulfuron alone). One hour after combinative application of 14 C-bensulfuron plus urea, the highest amount of 14 C-activity in L. procumbens were obtained. However, when 14 C-bensulfuron applied alone, total absorption of 14 C-activity was much lower in the 1st hour and then it slowly increased with time. The distribution of 14 C-bensulfuron in root of L. procumbens plant was the highest and that in leaves was the lowest

  1. Android integrated urea biosensor for public health awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranali P. Naik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Integration of a biosensor with a wireless network on the Android 4.2.1 (Jelly Bean platform has been demonstrated. The present study reports an android integrated user friendly Flow injection analysis-Enzyme thermistor (FIA-ET urea biosensor system. This android-integrated biosensor system will facilitate enhanced consumer health and awareness alongside abridging the gap between the food testing laboratory and the concerned higher authorities. Data received from a flow injection mode urea biosensor has been exploited as an integration point among the analyst, the food consumer and the responsible higher authorities. Using the urea biosensor as an example, an alarm system has also been demonstrated both graphically and through text message on a mobile handset. The presented sensor integrated android system will also facilitate decision making support system in various fields of food quality monitoring and clinical analysis.

  2. Biosensor Urea Berbasis Biopolimer Khitin Sebagai Matriks Immobilisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazruddin Nazaruddin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian tentang biosensor urea menggunakan biopolimer khitin sebagai matriks immobilisasi telah dilakukan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui kinerja biosensor yang dihasilkan yang meliputi sensitivitas, trayek pengukuran, limit deteksi, waktu respon, koefisien selektifitas, dan waktu hidup. Penelitian meliputi beberapa tahap yaitu pembuatan membran polimer khitin dan immobilisasi enzim urease, pelekatan membran khitin pada elektroda pH, dan pengukuran parameter kinerja elektroda. Hasil pengukuran menunjukkan sensitivitas biosensor urea berbasis membran khitin adalah 19,11 mV/dekade, trayek pengukuran 10-4 – 10-8 M, limit deteksi 10-8 M, waktu respon 3,10–6,02 menit, dengan urutan kekuatan ion penggangu: NH4Cl > NaCl > CH3COONa > campuran garam > KCl > CaCl2 > asam askorbat. Kata kunci: biosensor, immobilisasi, khitin, urea

  3. Acid-Urea Gel Electrophoresis and Western Blotting of Histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzalin, Catherine A; Mahadevan, Louis C

    2017-01-01

    Acid-urea gel electrophoresis offers significant advantages over SDS-PAGE for analysis of post-translational protein modifications, being capable of resolving proteins of similar size but varying in charge. Hence, it can be used to separate protein variants with small charge-altering differences in primary sequence, and is particularly useful in the analysis of histones whose charge variation arises from post-translational modification, such as phosphorylation or acetylation. On acid-urea gels, histones that carry multiple modifications, each with a characteristic charge, are resolved into distinct bands, the so-called "histone ladder." Thus, the extent and distribution of different modification states of histones can be visualized. Here, we describe the analysis of histone H3 by acid-urea gel electrophoresis and western blotting.

  4. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Urinary Incontinence During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balik, Gülşah; Güven, Emine Seda G; Tekin, Yeşim B; Şentürk, Şenol; Kağitci, Mehmet; Üstüner, Işık; Mete Ural, Ülkü; Şahin, Figen K

    2016-05-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) can frequently be seen in pregnant women. Pregnancy and delivery have been considered as risk factors in the occurrence of pelvic floor dysfunction and determinants of LUTS. The main associated risk factor is parity. In the present study, we aim to determine the frequency of LUTS and urinary incontinence (UI) during pregnancy and the associated risk factors. This prospective study was carried out in a total of 250 women during their 28- and 40-gestational week checks. The Urinary Distress Inventory-6, the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7, and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form were used to determine LUTS and its effect on quality of life. The mean age and gestational age of the participants were 29.41 ± 5.70 year (range 18-44) and 35.45 ± 2.98 weeks (range 28-40), respectively. The prevalence of LUTS was 81.6%. The prevalence of UI during pregnancy was 37.2%. Stress urinary incontinence, urge urinary incontinence and mixed urinary incontinence were diagnosed as 15.6, 4.8 and 16.8%, respectively. We found that advanced age, smoking and multiparity were risk factors associated with incontinence. Incontinence reduced pregnant women's quality of life. Lower urinary tract symptoms are commonly seen among pregnant women and these symptoms negatively affect the quality of life of pregnant women. Advanced age, smoking and multiparity were risk factors associated with urinary incontinence and LUTS. Obstetricians should be on the lookout for individual urological problems in pregnancy. Resolving any urological issues and cessation of smoking for the affected individuals will help alleviate the problem. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ...

  6. Biostable glucose permeable polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A new biostable glucose permeable polymer has been developed which is useful, for example, in implantable glucose sensors. This biostable glucose permeable polymer has a number of advantageous characteristics and, for example, does not undergo hydrolytic cleavage and degradation, thereby providing...... a composition that facilitates long term sensor stability in vivo. The versatile characteristics of this polymer allow it to be used in a variety of contexts, for example to form the body of an implantable glucose sensor. The invention includes the polymer composition, sensor systems formed from this polymer...

  7. Urea metabolism in Zebu calves fed on diets of dierent crude protein contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P.K.; Singh, U.B.; Verma, D.N.; Lal, M.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1974-01-01

    The entry rates of urea into the body pool of urea have been estimated in Zebu calves using a single injection isotope dilution technique using 14 C-urea. The excretion rates of urea were calculated by estimating total urine over 24 h and urea content. The calves were fed 2 levels of crude protein, i.e., 25 percent lower and 25 percent higher than NRC recommendations. Results show that the degradation of urea is significantly better in animals given rations low in crude protein contents. (M.G.B.)

  8. Waste-to-Chemicals for a Circular Economy: The Case of Urea Production (Waste-to-Urea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonetti, Elena; Iaquaniello, Gaetano; Salladini, Annarita; Spadaccini, Luca; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    2017-03-09

    The economics and environmental impact of a new technology for the production of urea from municipal solid waste, particularly the residue-derived fuel (RdF) fraction, is analyzed. Estimates indicate a cost of production of approximately €135 per ton of urea (internal rate of return more than 10 %) and savings of approximately 0.113 tons of CH 4 and approximately 0.78 tons of CO 2 per ton of urea produced. Thus, the results show that this waste-to-urea (WtU) technology is both economically valuable and environmentally advantageous (in terms of saving resources and limiting carbon footprint) for the production of chemicals from municipal solid waste in comparison with both the production of urea with conventional technology (starting from natural gas) and the use of RdF to produce electrical energy (waste-to-energy). A further benefit is the lower environmental impact of the solid residue produced from RdF conversion. The further benefit of this technology is the possibility to realize distributed fertilizer production. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. KOMBINASI PENAMBAHAN UREA DAN EM-4 TERHADAP KUALITAS BOKASHI CAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dzulfikri Haidla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study is to determine the effect of EM-4 and Urea addition on the liquid Bokashi quality of chicken manure. The field research was conducted at California Papaya Farm Pulau Sari, Pelaihari, and the nutrient levels of liquid Bokashi are then analyzed in the laboratory of PPLH Banjarbaru. The research was conducted from February to March 2015. It used Complete Randomized Design (CRD of factorial pattern 2 with three levels of treatment and three replications, the first factor is the addition of urea, consisting of three levels those are 0 g, 7.5 g, 15 g, the second factor is the addition of EM-4, consisting of three levels those are 0 ml, 25 ml, 50 ml, so that the number of trial units becomes 27 units. The variables measured are the Levels of Nitrogen (N, Phosphorous (P, Potassium (K, C-Organic, temperature, pH, color, smell, and texture. Quantitative observation data were analyzed using ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT, while the qualitative observation data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. The results showed that the interaction between the addition of EM-4 and Urea were able to increase levels of nutrients N, P, K, C-Organic, and the temperature of the liquid Bokashi. Overall obtained treatment provision of EM-4 25 ml and 15 g Urea is the best treatment among other treatments. The addition of EM-4 was able to increase the levels of N, K, C-Organic and liquid Bokashi temperature, but it is unable to increase levels of the element P. Giving Urea can increase the levels of nutrients N, P, K, C-Organic, and the temperature of the liquid Bokashi. In observation of the organoleptic treatment with the addition of EM-4 and Urea, it tends to produce materials with better color, smell, and texture than the control treatment.

  10. The glucose oxidase-peroxidase assay for glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glucose oxidase-peroxidase assay for glucose has served as a very specific, sensitive, and repeatable assay for detection of glucose in biological samples. It has been used successfully for analysis of glucose in samples from blood and urine, to analysis of glucose released from starch or glycog...

  11. Colorimetric Glucose Assay Based on Magnetic Particles Having Pseudo-peroxidase Activity and Immobilized Glucose Oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinkova, Pavla; Opatrilova, Radka; Kruzliak, Peter; Styriak, Igor; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic particles (MPs) are currently used as a suitable alternative for peroxidase in the construction of novel biosensors, analytic and diagnostic methods. Their better chemical and thermal stabilities predestine them as appropriate pseudo-enzymatic catalysts. In this point of view, our research was focused on preparation of simply and fast method for immobilization of glucose oxidase onto surface of MPs with peroxidase-like activity. Spectrophotometric method (wavelength 450 nm) optimized for glucose determination using modified MPs has been successfully developed. Concentration curve for optimization of method was assayed, and Michaelis-Menten constant (K m) calculated, maximum reaction rate (V max), limit of detection, and correlation coefficient were determined to be 0.13 mmol/l (2.34 mg/dl), 1.79 pkat, 3.74 µmol/l (0.067 mg/dl), and 0.996, respectively. Interferences of other sugars such as sucrose, sorbitol, deoxyribose, maltose, and fructose were determined as well as effect of substances presenting in plasma (ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, trolox, and urea). Results in comparison with positive and negative controls showed no interferences of the other sugars and no influence of plasma substances to measuring of glucose. The constructed method showed corresponding results with linear dependence and a correlation coefficient of 0.997. Possibility of repeated use of modified MPs was successfully proved.

  12. Survey of risk factors urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    A Dehghani; M zahedi; M moezzi; M dafei; H Falahzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective ...

  13. On-farm treatment of straws and stovers with urea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.

    2002-01-01

    The nutritional value of cereal crop residues to ruminants is constrained by low N and high fibre contents. These constraints can be alleviated by treatment with alkali, the most suitable of which, for smallholder use, is urea. However, it has not widely been used in Africa. Whilst in some areas, cost and availability of urea will be a factor, it may also be that the flexibility of the technique is not appreciated. The scope for adaptation at each stage of the procedure is reviewed, showing that the farmer does have options to develop a system suitable for a range of conditions. (author)

  14. 1-(o-Tol­yl)thio­urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Rodrigo S.; Ribeiro, Leandro; Ellena, Javier; Estévez-Hernández, Osvaldo; Duque, Julio

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, C8H10N2S, the o-tolyl group and the thio­urea core are planar. The mean planes of the two groups are almost perpendicular [82.19 (8)°]. The thio­urea group is in the thio­amide form, in which resonance is present. In the crystal structure, mol­ecules are linked by inter­molecular N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds, forming two infinite chains parallel to the (110) and (10) planes. PMID:21201662

  15. Effect of Urea Addition on Soda Pulping of Oak Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Nam-Seok; Matsumoto, Yuji; Cho, Hee-Yeon; Shin, Soo-Jeong; Oga, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted to find a sulfur-free additive for alkaline pulping liquors that would have an effect similar to that of sulfide in kraft pulping. Some reagents that partially fulfill this role have been found, but they are too expensive to be used in the quantities required to make them effective. As an alternative method to solve air pollution problem and difficulty of pulp bleaching of kraft pulping process, NaOH-Urea pulping was applied. The properties of NaOH-Urea pul...

  16. Characterization and comparison of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacologic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuo Tahara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT 2 offer a novel approach to treating type 2 diabetes by reducing hyperglycaemia via increased urinary glucose excretion. In the present study, the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and pharmacologic properties of all six SGLT2 inhibitors commercially available in Japan were investigated and compared. Based on findings in normal and diabetic mice, the six drugs were classified into two categories, long-acting: ipragliflozin and dapagliflozin, and intermediate-acting: tofogliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin, and luseogliflozin. Long-acting SGLT2 inhibitors exerted an antihyperglycemic effect with lower variability of blood glucose level via a long-lasting increase in urinary glucose excretion. In addition, ipragliflozin and luseogliflozin exhibited superiority over the others with respect to fast onset of pharmacological effect. Duration and onset of the pharmacologic effects seemed to be closely correlated with the pharmacokinetic properties of each SGLT2 inhibitor, particularly with respect to high distribution and long retention in the target organ, the kidney. While all six SGLT2 inhibitors were significantly effective in increasing urinary glucose excretion and reducing hyperglycemia, our findings suggest that variation in the quality of daily blood glucose control associated with duration and onset of pharmacologic effects of each SGLT2 inhibitor might cause slight differences in rates of improvement in type 2 diabetes.

  17. Spectroscopic studies of europium-tetracyclines complexes and their applications in detection of hydrogen peroxide and urea peroxide; Estudos espectroscopicos dos complexos europio-tetraciclinas e suas aplicacoes na detecao de peroxido de hidrogenio e peroxido de ureia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, Andrea Nastri

    2010-07-01

    In this work were studied the spectroscopic properties of trivalent europium ion complexed with components of tetracycline family, chlorotetracycline, oxytetracycline and metacycline, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and urea peroxide. Optical parameters were obtained such as absorption, emission, lifetime and calibration curves were constructed for luminescence spectra. Experiments were carried out with both inorganic compounds and europium-tetracyclines complexes in order to verify possible interferences. Studies for glucose determination were also described using europium-tetracyclines complexes as biosensors. Results show that europium tetracyclines complexes emit a narrow band in the visible region and, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide or urea peroxide there is a greater enhancement in their luminescence and lifetime. Thus, europium-tetracyclines complexes studied can be used as biosensors for hydrogen and urea peroxides determination as a low cost and room temperature method. An indirect method for glucose determination was studied by adding glucose oxidase enzyme in europium-tetracyclines complex in the presence of glucose promoting as product hydrogen peroxide. (author)

  18. Protein Carbamylation in Peritoneal Dialysis and the Effect of Low Glucose Plus Amino Acid Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottier, Caitlin; Perl, Jeffrey; Freeman, Megan; Thadhani, Ravi; Berg, Anders; Kalim, Sahir

    2018-01-01

    Protein carbamylation is a post-translational urea-driven protein modification associated with mortality. Free amino acids (AAs) competitively inhibit protein carbamylation and parenteral AA therapy reduces carbamylation in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) yields differences in urea clearance and AA balance compared with HD, but the influence of PD and intraperitoneal AA solutions on carbamylation is unclear. Thus, we first measured carbamylated albumin (C-Alb; a marker of carbamylation load) in 100 diabetic HD patients frequency-matched by age, sex, and race to 98 diabetic PD subjects from the IMPENDIA trial, which originally compared the metabolic effects of low-glucose PD solutions (incorporating icodextrin and AAs) to a control group (dextrose-only solutions). We then determined the effects of the AA-enriched PD solutions by measuring the 6-month change in C-Alb within the IMPENDIA cohort by treatment allocation (48 treated vs 50 controls). Peritoneal dialysis patients, when compared with HD patients, had higher baseline urea and higher C-Alb. Among IMPENDIA participants, there was no difference in C-Alb change in either arm, but treated subjects showed a trend towards increased carbamylation. Treated subjects also demonstrated an increase in urea, possibly explaining the carbamylation trend. In summary, carbamylation levels in PD patients appeared higher than in matched HD patients. A regimen of AA and low-glucose PD solutions did not reduce C-Alb in IMPENDIA subjects. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing quite a lot. Why? Because it ... you have a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill ...

  20. URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN ADULTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Infection of the urinary tract (UTI) is frequently encountered in clinical practice — in the USA these ... Asymptomatic UTI is identified when organisms can be isolated in appropriate numbers .... Pregnancy ... men, so pre-treatment urine culture is.

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Illnesses & Injuries Relax & Unwind People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for ... ll never want to have one again! To help keep those bacteria out of your urinary tract, ...

  2. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a UTI. That's because their urethras are much shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get ...

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These things happen because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Ahhh! That feels better. Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a ... away properly, they stay on your skin. In girls, this means they can grow near the opening ...

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... five to six times a day but never think twice about? Answer: Pee! But if you have ... urinary tract infection, or UTI, you're probably thinking about peeing quite a lot. Why? Because it ...

  6. Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activities, such as golfing, playing tennis, bowling, running, biking, weight lifting, gardening or mowing, and vacuuming for ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Urinary Incontinence Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  7. [Ultrasound of the urinary system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Grau, A; Herzog, R; Díaz-Rodriguez, N; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound techniques are able to provide a fairly complete examination of the urinary system, achieving a high sensitivity in relevant-pathology detection, especially in the kidney, bladder and prostate. Early detection of pathologies such as tumors or urinary tract obstructions, sometimes even before their clinical manifestation, has improved their management and prognosis in many cases. This, added to its low cost and harmlessness, makes ultrasound ideal for early approaches and follow-up of a wide number of urinary system pathologies. In this article, the ultrasound characteristics of the main urinary system pathologies that can be diagnosed by this technique, are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Reverse iontophoresis of urea in health and chronic kidney disease: a potential diagnostic and monitoring tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebah, Leonard M; Read, Ian; Sayce, Andrew; Morgan, Jane; Chaloner, Christopher; Brenchley, Paul; Mitra, Sandip

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) need regular monitoring, usually by blood urea and creatinine measurements, needing venepuncture, frequent attendances and a healthcare professional, with significant inconvenience. Noninvasive monitoring will potentially simplify and improve monitoring. We tested the potential of transdermal reverse iontophoresis of urea in patients with CKD and healthy controls. Methods Using a MIC 2® Iontophoresis Controller, reverse iontophoresis was applied on the forearm of five healthy subjects (controls) and 18 patients with CKD for 3–5 h. Urea extracted at the cathode was measured and compared with plasma urea. Results Reverse iontophoresis at 250 μA was entirely safe for the duration. Cathodal buffer urea linearly correlated with plasma urea after 2 h (r = 0·82, P urea (y) from cathodal urea after 2 and 3 h, respectively. Cathodal urea concentration in controls was significantly lower than in patients with CKD after a minimum current application of 2 h (P urea cut-off of 30 μM gave a sensitivity of 83·3% and positive predictive value of 87% CKD. During haemodialysis, the fall in cathodal urea was able to track that of blood urea. Conclusion Reverse iontophoresis is safe, can potentially discriminate patients with CKD and healthy subjects and is able to track blood urea changes on dialysis. Further development of the technology for routine use can lead to an exciting opportunity for its use in diagnostics and monitoring. PMID:22409780

  9. Urinary tract infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedberry-Ross, Sherry; Pohl, Hans G

    2008-03-01

    Urinary tract infections can be a significant source of morbidity in the pediatric population. The mainstay of evaluating urinary tract infections in children has been physical examination, urinalysis and culture, and renal and bladder sonography and contrast cystography. However, novel clinical paradigms now consider the importance of various risk factors, such as bacterial virulence and antibiotic-resistance patterns, elimination disorders, and the role of innate immunity and inflammation in determining the likelihood of renal cortical scarring.

  10. Controversies in urinary iodine determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Soldin, Offie Porat

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is associated with increased prevalence of goiter, increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, and is the world’s leading cause of intellectual deficits. Iodine nutritional status of a population is assessed by measurements of urinary iodine concentrations which are also used to define, indicate, survey and monitor iodine deficiency and consequently its treatment. Several methods are available for urinary iodine determination. Discussed here are some of the limitat...

  11. Urea Recycling Contributes to Nitrogen Retention in Calves Fed Milk Replacer and Low-Protein Solid Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, H.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Røjen, B.A.; Baal, van J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Urea recycling, with urea originating from catabolism of amino acids and hepatic detoxification of ammonia, is particularly relevant for ruminant animals, in which microbial protein contributes substantially to the metabolizable protein supply. However, the quantitative contribution of urea

  12. Artificial urinary sphincter implantation: an important component of complex surgery for urinary tract reconstruction in patients with refractory urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Liao, Limin

    2018-01-08

    We review our outcomes and experience of artificial urinary sphincter implantation for patients with refractory urinary incontinence from different causes. Between April 2002 and May 2017, a total of 32 patients (median age, 40.8 years) with urinary incontinence had undergone artificial urinary sphincter placement during urinary tract reconstruction. Eighteen patients (56.3%) were urethral injuries associated urinary incontinence, 9 (28.1%) had neurogenic urinary incontinence and 5 (15.6%) were post-prostatectomy incontinence. Necessary surgeries were conducted before artificial urinary sphincter placement as staged procedures, including urethral strictures incision, sphincterotomy, and augmentation cystoplasty. The mean follow-up time was 39 months. At the latest visit, 25 patients (78.1%) maintained the original artificial urinary sphincter. Four patients (12.5%) had artificial urinary sphincter revisions. Explantations were performed in three patients. Twenty-four patients were socially continent, leading to the overall success rate as 75%. The complication rate was 28.1%; including infections (n = 4), erosions (n = 4), and mechanical failure (n = 1). The impact of urinary incontinence on the quality of life measured by the visual analogue scale dropped from 7.0 ± 1.2 to 2.2 ± 1.5 (P urinary sphincter implantation in our center are unique, and the procedure is an effective treatment as a part of urinary tract reconstruction in complicated urinary incontinence cases with complex etiology.

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page ... and-how-tos, . In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood ...

  14. Blood Glucose Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Cadamuro, Janne

    2018-01-01

    The measurement of fasting plasma glucose may be biased by a time-dependent decrease of glucose in blood tubes, mainly attributable to blood cell metabolism when glycolysis is not rapidly inhibited or blood cells cannot be rapidly separated from plasma. Although glycolysis inhibitors such as sodium...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for ... is checking your blood glucose often. Ask your doctor how often you should ... associated with hyperglycemia. How Do I Treat Hyperglycemia? ...

  16. Urinary Bisphenol A Concentration and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Wang, Xu; Chen, Qian; Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Zhao, Shasha; Wang, Weiye; Zhang, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Jun; Ouyang, Fengxiu

    2017-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been associated with variable metabolic effects in animal models. It is unknown whether BPA exposure affects glucose tolerance in pregnancy. We aimed to investigate whether maternal urinary BPA concentration is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study included 620 pregnant women from Shanghai, China 2012-2013. Maternal urinary BPA concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). GDM (n = 79) was diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG). Multivariate regressions were used to explore the relationships of urinary BPA with GDM, plasma glucose levels in the 75-g 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), birth weight, and ponder index. The geometric mean of BPA was 1.32 μg/L. After adjustment for maternal age, education, husband smoking status, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), and urinary creatinine concentration, plasma glucose at 2 hours in the 75-g OGTT was 0.36 mmol/L lower (95% confidence index [CI] = -0.73, 0.01) for women with urine BPA in the high versus the low tertile. For each unit increase in natural log-transformed BPA, the odds of GDM was reduced by 27% (odds ratio (OR) = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.56, 0.97), the birth weight decreased by 25.70 g (95% CI = -54.48, 3.07), and ponder index was decreased by 0.02 (100 g/cm) (95% CI = -0.03, 0.00). Higher maternal urinary BPA concentrations were associated with reduced risk of GDM and marginally lower birth weight and ponder index.

  17. Brain Glucose Metabolism Controls Hepatic Glucose and Lipid Production

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Tony K.T.

    2007-01-01

    Brain glucose-sensing mechanisms are implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and hypoglycemic-induced hormonal counter-regulation. This commentary discusses recent findings indicating that the brain senses glucose to regulate both hepatic glucose and lipid production.

  18. Nanomaterials in glucose sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Burugapalli, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    The smartness of nano-materials is attributed to their nanoscale and subsequently unique physicochemical properties and their use in glucose sensing has been aimed at improving performance, reducing cost and miniaturizing the sensor and its associated instrumentation. So far, portable (handheld) glucose analysers were introduced for hospital wards, emergency rooms and physicians' offices; single-use strip systems achieved nanolitre sampling for painless and accurate home glucose monitoring; advanced continuous monitoring devices having 2 to 7 days operating life are in clinical and home use; and continued research efforts are being made to develop and introduce increasingly advanced glucose monitoring systems for health as well as food, biotechnology, cell and tissue culture industries. Nanomaterials have touched every aspect of biosensor design and this chapter reviews their role in the development of advanced technologies for glucose sensing, and especially for diabetes. Research shows that overall, nanomat...

  19. Assessment of Health Effects of Exogenous Urea: Summary and Key Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Aisha S; Lee, Janice S; Keshava, Channa; Hotchkiss, Andrew; Persad, Amanda S

    2018-05-01

    Urea has been utilized as a reductant in diesel fuels to lower emission of nitrogen oxides, igniting interest in probable human health hazards associated with exposure to exogenous urea. Here, we summarize and update key findings on potential health effects of exogenous urea, including carcinogenicity. No definitive target organs for oral exposure were identified; however, results in animal studies suggest that the liver and kidney could be potential target organs of urea toxicity. The available human-subject literature suggests that the impact on lung function is minimal. Based on the literature on exogenous urea, we concluded that there was inadequate information to assess the carcinogenic potential of urea, or perform a quantitative assessment to derive reference values. Given the limited information on exogenous urea, additional research to address gaps for exogenous urea should include long-term cancer bioassays, two-generation reproductive toxicity studies, and mode-of-action investigations.

  20. Study of a composite from reactive blending of methylol urea resin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... Urea formaldehyde resin cannot be used as a paint binder because of its ... In our previous experiments, we reported the synthesis of methylol urea ..... Analysis Study of the Curing of Phenol Formaldehyde Novalack. Resins.

  1. Diminished renal urea excretion in the llama at reduced food intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, W.; Engelhardt, W. von

    1976-01-01

    Renal urea excretion was studied in three llamas under various feeding conditions. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated from inulin clearance. Tubular reabsorbed urea was the difference between glomerular filtered and renal excreted urea. Plasma urea concentration increased significantly when feeding was reduced by 40% and 60%, not applicable to a straw diet. With reduced hay feeding and on a straw diet only a slight and insignificant decrease was observed in renal urea excretion, with only a 3% lowering in GFR and glomerular filtered urea. With a straw diet, the glomerular filtered urea was significantly below the controls. The fraction of filtered urea reabsorbed in the tubules was constant (36%-47%). Very high reabsorption (87%) on a supplemented straw dietwas observed in one llama which after nearly 6 months on this low protein diet - could be shown to have lost only 5% of its body weight

  2. Radioimmunoassay for urinary albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, J.; Floyd, M.; Cannon, D.C.; Kahan, B.

    1978-01-01

    We describe a rapid, sensitive, and precise radioimmunoassay for urinary albumin (U/sub alb/). Aliquots of diluted urine were incubated at room temperature for 1 h with 125 I-labelled albumin and a rabbit antiserum monospecifid for human albumin. Phase separation was effected by the double-antibody technique. The dose-response curve was linear in the range of 15.6 to 10,000 ng, equivalent to 4 to 3000 mg/liter of urine. The limit of sensitivity was 16 ng of albumin. The coefficient of assay variation was 4.8%, both at 44 mg/liter and at 1304 mg/liter. A displacement curve obtained with a serially diluted urine sample of high albumin concentration was completely superimposable with the curve for which human albumin was used as a standard. In 26 normal individuals the range for U/sub alb/ was 2.2 to 12.6 mg/24 h, and for albumin clearance (C/sub alb/), 1.8 x 10 -5 --19.6 x 10 -5 ml/min. After renal homografts in 25 patients, U/sub alb/ ranged from 16.9 to 9928 mg/24 h, and C/sub alb/ from 2.7 x 10 -4 to 1.7 x 10 -1 ml/min. Both increased U/sub alb/ and C/sub alb/ correlated well with the severity of renal homograft rejection

  3. Loss of sugar detection by GLUT2 affects glucose homeostasis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Stolarczyk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammals must sense the amount of sugar available to them and respond appropriately. For many years attention has focused on intracellular glucose sensing derived from glucose metabolism. Here, we studied the detection of extracellular glucose concentrations in vivo by invalidating the transduction pathway downstream from the transporter-detector GLUT2 and measured the physiological impact of this pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We produced mice that ubiquitously express the largest cytoplasmic loop of GLUT2, blocking glucose-mediated gene expression in vitro without affecting glucose metabolism. Impairment of GLUT2-mediated sugar detection transiently protected transgenic mice against starvation and streptozotocin-induced diabetes, suggesting that both low- and high-glucose concentrations were not detected. Transgenic mice favored lipid oxidation, and oral glucose was slowly cleared from blood due to low insulin production, despite massive urinary glucose excretion. Kidney adaptation was characterized by a lower rate of glucose reabsorption, whereas pancreatic adaptation was associated with a larger number of small islets. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Molecular invalidation of sugar sensing in GLUT2-loop transgenic mice changed multiple aspects of glucose homeostasis, highlighting by a top-down approach, the role of membrane glucose receptors as potential therapeutic targets.

  4. Urea adsorption by activated carbon prepared from palm kernel shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Chee-Heong; Sim, Yoke-Leng; Yeoh, Fei-Yee

    2017-07-01

    Dialysis treatment is crucial for patients suffer from renal failure. The dialysis system removes the uremic toxin to a safe level in a patient's body. One of the major limitations of the current hemodialysis system is the capability to efficiently remove uremic toxins from patient's body. Nanoporous materials can be applied to improve the treatment. Palm kernel shell (PKS) biomass generated from palm oil mills can be utilized to prepare high quality nanoporous activated carbon (AC) and applied for urea adsorption in the dialysis system. In this study, AC was prepared from PKS via different carbonization temperatures and followed by carbon dioxide gas activation processes. The physical and chemical properties of the samples were studied. The results show that the porous AC with BET surface areas ranging from 541 to 622 m2g-1 and with total pore volumes varying from 0.254 to 0.297 cm3g-1, are formed with different carbonization temperatures. The equilibrium constant for urea adsorption by AC samples carbonized at 400, 500 and 600 °C are 0.091, 0.287 and 0.334, respectively. The increase of carbonization temperatures from 400 to 600 °C resulted in the increase in urea adsorption by AC predominantly due to increase in surface area. The present study reveals the feasibility of preparing AC with good porosity from PKS and potentially applied in urea adsorption application.

  5. Dietary management of urea cycle disorders : European practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, S.; Almeida, M. F.; Assoun, M.; Baruteau, J.; Bernabei, S. M.; Bigot, S.; Champion, H.; Daly, A.; Dassy, M.; Dawson, S.; Dixon, M.; Dokoupil, K.; Dubois, S.; Dunlop, C.; Evans, S.; Eyskens, F.; Faria, A.; Favre, E.; Ferguson, C.; Goncalves, C.; Gribben, J.; Heddrich-Ellerbrok, M.; Jankowski, C.; Janssen-Regelink, R.; Jouault, C.; Laguerre, C.; Le Verge, S.; Link, R.; Lowry, S.; Luyten, K.; MacDonald, A.; Maritz, C.; McDowell, S.; Meyer, U.; Micciche, A.; Robertson, L. V.; Rocha, J. C.; Rohde, C.; Saruggia, I.; Sjoqvist, E.; Stafford, J.; Terry, A.; Thom, R.; Vande Kerckhove, K.; van Rijn, M.; van Teeffelen-Heithoff, A.; van Wegberg, A.; van Wyk, K.; Vasconcelos, C.; Vestergaard, H.; Webster, D.; White, F. J.; Wildgoose, J.; Zweers, H.; Robert, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is no published data comparing dietary management of urea cycle disorders (UCD) in different countries. Methods: Cross-sectional data from 41 European Inherited Metabolic Disorder (IMD) centres (17 UK, 6 France, 5 Germany, 4 Belgium, 4 Portugal, 2 Netherlands, 1 Denmark, 1 Italy, 1

  6. Urea Cycle Disorders in Neonates: Six Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kıymet Çelik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urea cycle disorders are a group of diseases associated with hyperammonemia, which causes severe neurological sequelae, seizures and psychomotor retardation. In this study, six newborn cases diagnosed between 2010-2014 as citrullinemia Type I (four cases and argininosuccinic aciduria (two cases are presented in terms of clinical course and treatment responses.

  7. Dietary management of urea cycle disorders: European practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, S.; Almeida, M.F.; Assoun, M.; Baruteau, J.; Bernabei, S.M.; Bigot, S.; Champion, H.; Daly, A.; Dassy, M.; Dawson, S.; Dixon, M.; Dokoupil, K.; Dubois, S.; Dunlop, C.; Evans, S.; Eyskens, F.; Faria, A.; Favre, E.; Ferguson, C.; Goncalves, C.; Gribben, J.; Heddrich-Ellerbrok, M.; Jankowski, C.; Janssen-Regelink, R.G.; Jouault, C.; Laguerre, C.; Verge, S. Le; Link, R.; Lowry, S.; Luyten, K.; Macdonald, A.; Maritz, C.; McDowell, S.; Meyer, U.; Micciche, A.; Robert, M.; Robertson, L.V.; Rocha, J.C.; Rohde, C.; Saruggia, I.; Sjoqvist, E.; Stafford, J.; Terry, A.; Thom, R.; nde Kerckhove, K. Va; Rijn, M. van de; Teeffelen-Heithoff, A. van; Wegberg, A.M.J. van; Wyk, K. van; Vasconcelos, C.; Vestergaard, H.; Webster, D.; White, F.J.; Wildgoose, J.; Zweers, H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is no published data comparing dietary management of urea cycle disorders (UCD) in different countries. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 41 European Inherited Metabolic Disorder (IMD) centres (17 UK, 6 France, 5 Germany, 4 Belgium, 4 Portugal, 2 Netherlands, 1 Denmark, 1 Italy, 1

  8. Intake, digestion and nitrogen balance of diets blended with urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The diet blended with 3% urea treated cowpea husk gave the highest dry matter intake, growth rate and .... total collection of faeces and urine during the last five days of the trial. .... tissue synthesis of non-essential amino acids from absorbed ...

  9. Environmental factors influencing milk urea nitrogen in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By knowing the milk urea nitrogen (MUN) content of dairy cows, the efficiency of dietary nitrogen utilization can be improved. The main objectives of this study were to identify and quantify environmental factors affecting MUN in South African Holstein cows. This will enable better interpretation of MUN results by accounting ...

  10. Tailoring of analytical performances of urea biosensors using nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouira, W; Barhoumi, H; Maaref, A; Renault, N Jaffrézic; Siadat, M

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the study of enzymatic sensors based on nanoparticles of iron oxide (FeNPs). Urease enzyme was immobilized on FeNPs using layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition method. FeNPs were first coated with polyelectrolytes (PE): Poly (allylamine hydrochloride), PAH and Poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate), PSS for enzyme immobilization and then with enzyme. It has been confirmed through zeta potential measurements of FeNPs that the enzyme is immobilized on the surface. We evaluated the sensitivity of biosensors for urea by potentiometric and capacitive measurements on silicon / silica / FeNP-LBL-urease structures. The recorded capacity-potential curves (C-V) show a significant shift of flat band potential towards negative potentials in the presence of urea, the observed values of sensitivity vary between 30 and 40 mV/p[urea]. It has been shown that the proposed method for the immobilization of urease can increase the dynamic range of urea detection (10 −4 M to 10 −1 M) compared to the immobilization of urease without FeNP (10 −3.5 M to 10 −2.5 M). When the number of PAH-PSS layers was increased the sensitivity of detection was modified. This effect is due to partial inhibition of the enzyme in presence of FeNPs, which was shown by measurements in homogeneous phase.

  11. Reduction in slow intercompartmental clearance of urea during dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, D.J.; Krejcie, T.C.; Avram, M.J.; Chow, M.J.; Del Greco, F.; Atkinson, A.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of urea and inulin were analyzed in five anesthetized dogs during sequential 2-hour periods before, during, and after hemodialysis. The distribution of both compounds after simultaneous intravenous injection was characterized by three-compartment models, and the total volumes of urea (0.66 +/- 0.05 L/kg) and inulin (0.19 +/- 0.01 L/kg) distribution were similar to expected values for total body water and extravascular space, respectively. Intercompartmental clearances calculated before dialysis were used to estimate blood flows to the fast and slow equilibrating compartments. In agreement with previous results, the sum of these flows was similar to cardiac output, averaging 101% of cardiac output measured before dialysis (range 72% to 135%). Dialysis was accompanied by reductions in the slow intercompartmental clearances of urea (81%) and inulin (47%), which reflected a 90% attenuation in blood flow supplying the slow equilibrating compartments. This was estimated to result in a 10% average reduction in the efficiency with which urea was removed by dialysis (range 2.0% to 16.4%). Mean arterial pressure fell by less than 5% during dialysis, but total peripheral resistance increased by 47% and cardiac output fell by 35%. In the postdialysis period, total peripheral resistance and cardiac output returned toward predialysis values, but blood flow to the slow equilibrating peripheral compartment was still reduced by 80%. These changes parallel activation of the renin-angiotensin system, but further studies are required to establish causality

  12. Redox Thermodynamics of Cytochromes c Subjected to Urea Induced Unfolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monari, S.; Ranieri, A.; Di Rocco, G.; van der Zwan, G.; Peressini, S.; Tavagnacco, C.; Millo, D.; Borsari, M.

    2009-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the electron transfer (ET) process for beef heart and yeast cytochromes c and the Lys72Ala/Lys73Ala/Lys79Ala mutant of the latter species subjected to progressive urea-induced unfolding was determined electrochemically. The results indicate the presence of at least three

  13. New urea-absorbing polymers for artificial kidney machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, W. A.; Hsu, G. C.; Marsh, H. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Etherified polymer is made from modified cellulose derivative which is reacted with periodate. It will absorb 2 grams of urea per 100 grams of polymer. Indications are that polymers could be used to help remove uremic wastes in artificial kidneys, or they could be administered orally as therapy for uremia.

  14. Kinetics on cocondensation between phenol and urea through formaldehyde I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunori Yoshida; Bunchiro Tomita; Chung-Yun Hse

    1995-01-01

    The kinetics of the reactions of methylolphenols and urea were investigated using 2- and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a reverse-phase column gave a clear separation between methylolphenols and hydroxybenzylureas. The molar ratios of hydroxybenzylureas to the corresponding methylolphenols in reaction mixtures were...

  15. Biosensor Urea Berbasis Biopolimer Khitin Sebagai Matriks Immobilisasi

    OpenAIRE

    Nazruddin Nazaruddin

    2007-01-01

    Penelitian tentang biosensor urea menggunakan biopolimer khitin sebagai matriks immobilisasi telah dilakukan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui kinerja biosensor yang dihasilkan yang meliputi sensitivitas, trayek pengukuran, limit deteksi, waktu respon, koefisien selektifitas, dan waktu hidup. Penelitian meliputi beberapa tahap yaitu pembuatan membran polimer khitin dan immobilisasi enzim urease, pelekatan membran khitin pada elektroda pH, dan pengukuran parameter kinerja elektroda. H...

  16. Differences in nitrogen and urea metabolism between goats bred for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glacial acetic acid and dried over H2S04 and soda lime to remove radioactivity .... by factors such as rumen ammonia concentration, volatile fatty acid production ... breed differences observed in this study, but the fact that urea excretion rate in ...

  17. Effect of water treated and urea treated neem ( Azadirachta indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a study to evaluate the carcass haematological and biochemical characteristics of broiler birds fed graded levels of water and urea-treated neem kernel cake (NKC), 300 day-old broilers (Cobb, 500) were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments for 56 days. Water and feed were fed adlibitum. The diets were ...

  18. Influence of composted organic waste and urea fertilization on rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The field experiment was conducted at the University of Ghana's Soil and Irrigation Research Centre - Kpong during 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons to evaluate the influence of composted organic waste and urea fertilization on rice yield, Nitrogen-use efficiency and soil chemical characteristics. The study was laid out in a ...

  19. Comparative changes in monthly blood urea nitrogen, total protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the comparative changes in the monthly blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration, total protein (TP) concentration in blood serum and the body condition score of Nguni cows and heifers raised on sweetveld. Twenty-four clinically healthy animals in different parities, namely Parity ...

  20. Increases In Plasma Urea And Creatinine In Experimental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alterations in both plasma urea and creatinine levels were monitored over a period of twenty eight (28) days in experimentally infected rabbits. A total of 15 animals were randomly divided into three groups of n=5. The groups were control (group I), infected and treated (group II) and infected but untreated (group III) ...

  1. Preliminary Study on the Use of Urea Activated Melon ( Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption studies were carried out using urea activated melon (Citrullus colocynthis) husks as a low-cost potential adsorbent to remove cadmium from industrial effluents. Bioabsorption parameters considered were as contact time, adsorbent dosage and adsorbate concentration. Cadmium removal was found to be ...

  2. Preliminary observations on the use of dry urea treatment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raw unprocessed jackbean contains 28 - 30% crude protein but also contains toxic elements that limit its use as feed ingredient for nionogastric animals. A 21 - day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dry urea treatment prior to toasting on its nutritive value for young broiler chicks. One of two batches of raw ...

  3. Effect of protein supplementation and urea treatment on utilization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Authorised User

    Abstract. Six Red Maasai sheep were used to investigate the effects of urea treatment and cotton seed cake supplementation of maize stover on intake, digestibility and rumen fermentation parameters. The basal feeds were Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay (H), untreated maize (Zea mays) stover (US) and treated maize.

  4. Effects of substituting fishmeal with immobilized urea periodate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth trails were conducted with Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings (mean weight 0.88 + 0.02 g) to evaluate the suitability of incorporating immobilized urea periodate oxidized Lignocellulosic Materials (LCMs) namely, Acha (Digitaria exilis (Staph) and Rice (Oryza sativa (L.) straws for substituting fishmeal from the reference ...

  5. Deprotection of oximes using urea nitrate under microwave irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    most of these reagents and the solvent systems used are toxic, corrosive or difficult to handle, especially on a large scale. With increasing environmental concerns, it is important that new 'environmentally friendly' reagents be developed using inexpensive and non-polluting materials. Recently, urea nitrate has been used as ...

  6. Effect of nitrogen concentration of urea ammonium nitrate, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liquid urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) was applied to dryland Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu (Chiov)) and Cynodon hybrid (Coastcross II (L.) (Pers.)) pastures at two levels (207 and 414 kg N/ha/season) and at three concentrations (10, 5; 21 and 42% N) of nitrogen. The degree of leaf scorch increased as both the amount ...

  7. Effect of replacing groundnut cake with urea fermented brewer's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect o replacing groundnut cake with urea fermented brewer's dried grains at 0 25 50, 75 and 100 % graded levels in broiler chick starter diets was investigated. Five dietary treatments were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric to provide 23 % crude protein and 2900 kcal/kg metabolizable energy.

  8. Performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed urea treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of varying levels of urea treated and untreated cowpea husk on the performance of weaner rabbits. Thirty-two mongrel weaner rabbits of both sexes, 6 – 8 weeks old with an average weight of 822g were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments with four rabbits per ...

  9. O interactions in 1,3-diphenyl-urea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The synthesis, X-ray structure and role of intermolecular interactions have been studied in case of 1,3-diphenyl-urea, owing to its medicinal importance. The compound crystallizes in orthorhombic crystal system (space group, 21) with unit cell parameters, = 9.118(3), = 10.558(2), = 11.780(3) Å and = 4.

  10. The effect of urea with urease inhibitors and urea on yield and nitrate content in potato tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Drápal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-year field trial was established on two localities – Žabčice and Valečov in 2010–2012. Seven variants of nitrogen fertilization in four replications have been involved in this experiment – 100% of urea (U, 80% of urea, 60% of urea, 100% of UreaStabil (US, 80% of UreaStabil and 60% of UreaStabil, whilst 100% corresponded to 90 kg N.ha−1 after subtracting the content of Nmin in the soil, and the control variant without fertilization by mineral nitrogen. The two varieties with different lengths of vegetation periods have been chosen for the experiment – the early variety Karin and the mid-early variety Red Anna. In all cases, samples for the yield and qualitative analyses have been taken according to the phenological phase – the beginning of physiological maturity. The obtained results show that the highest average yield has been achieved in the variant of 100% of urea – 40.95 t. ha−1, the yield of this variant was statistically significantly higher than the yield of the other variants of fertilization (P < 0.05. Variants treated by urea without the urease inhibitor reached an average yield of 37.62 t.ha−1. However, this yield was not statistically significantly higher when comparing to the urea with the urease inhibitor (P > 0.05. In regard to localities, a relatively high average yield (44.58 t.ha−1 has been achieved on a characteristically potato-growing locality Valečov. This yield was statistically significantly higher than the one attained on the Žabčice locality (P < 0.05. In respect to varieties, the mid-early variety Red Anna attained a higher average yield (39.65 t. ha−1. Likewise, this yield was statistically significantly higher than the one of the early variety Karin (P < 0.05. The best year was 2012, in which the average yield of 38.73 t.ha−1 was achieved. This yield was statistically significantly higher than the yield of the year 2010 (P < 0.05. As far as nitrates are concerned, the

  11. Effects of slow-release urea on ruminal digesta characteristics and growth performance in beef steers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor-Edwards, C C; Hibbard, G; Kitts, S E

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on ruminal metabolite characteristics in steers and DMI, gain, and G:F in growing beef steers.......Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on ruminal metabolite characteristics in steers and DMI, gain, and G:F in growing beef steers....

  12. Computational regulatory model for detoxification of ammonia from urea cycle in liver

    OpenAIRE

    ALI, Rashith Muhammad MUBARAK; GURUSAMY, Poornima Devi; RAMACHANDRAN, Selvakumar

    2015-01-01

    A nondeterministic finite automaton was designed to monitor enzymatic regulation and detoxification of excess ammonia in the urea cycle and its disorders. The designed machine is used for the diagnosis of deficiency and for regulating the expression of any of the enzymes involved with acceptance and rejection states in the urea cycle. The urea cycle is the metabolism of excess nitrogen produced by the breakdown of protein and other nitrogen-containing molecules in liver. Disorder in the urea ...

  13. Ammonia volatilization from surface-applied nitrogen solution of urea and ammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivellin, Paulo Cezar Ocheuze; Stefanutti, Ronaldo; Lima Filho, Oscar Fontvo de; Tziboy, Edgar Alfredo Tzi; Oliveira Junior, Jovo Alberto de; Bendassolli, Jose Albertino

    1996-08-01

    The urea is one of the fertilizers more utilized in modern agriculture. One of the problems in the urea utilization is the ammonium volatilization, resulting in low utilization of N-fertilizers by the plants.The objective of this study it was to evaluate and to compare in laboratories conditions , utilizing the 15 N technic the soil's ammonium lost by volatilization associated a superficial application of nitrogen corresponding doses like urea solution and urea and ammonium nitrates solution

  14. SERUM AND PAROTID FLUIS UREA-LEVELS IN UNREALOADED HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-four healthy young adult male subjects were given oral doses of urea, and parotid fluid and serum urea levels were studied for 1 to 3 hours. A...highly significant correlation between urea in serum and in parotid fluid (r equals 0.982) was found. The indication was that, with flow rate...carefully controlled, parotid fluid could be used interchangeably with serum in urea determination, regardless of the magnitude of the blood concentration. (Author)

  15. Effect of ornithine on ammonia utilization and urea synthesis in isolated hepatocytes from fed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garwacki, S.; Wiechetek, M.; Souffrant, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of ornithine on the ammonia utilization and urea synthesis in hepatocytes isolated from fed male Wistar rats was investigated. On the basis of the 15 N tracer technique, it was found that ornithine stimulated urea synthesis with an increased utilization of the exogenously marked ammonia for urea, but deminished its utilization in other N-metabolic processes. The results also showed that the stimulation of urea synthesis due to ornithine resulted from the utilization of both exogenous and endogenous sources. (author)

  16. A Facile Method for the Preparation of Unsymmetrical Ureas Utilizing Zirconium(IV) Chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Anna; Kim, Hee-Kwon; Thompson, David H.

    2016-01-01

    A facile synthetic method for the preparation of unsymmetrical ureas from amines is described.Carbamoyl imidazole compounds were prepared by the reaction of 1,1-carbonyldiimidazole with primary or secondary amines, and further activation by treatment with zirconium(IV) chloride to generate the desired urea. This reaction protocol was applied to the synthesis of tri and tetrasubstituted ureas with high yields. This study provides an alternative guideline for the practical preparation of various unsymmetrical ureas.

  17. Green urea synthesis catalyzed by hematite nanowires in magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahya, Noorhana; Qureshi, Saima; Rehman, Zia ur; Alqasem, Bilal; Fai Kait, Chong

    2017-01-01

    The catalytic activity of hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) nanowires under the influence of magnetic field on urea synthesis is considered green. The adsorption and subsequent dissociative reaction of hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases on the α-Fe 2 O 3 (111) nanowires were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The average adsorption energy is −4.12 kcal/mole at different sites. The adsorption of gases resulted in a difference in density and net spin of electrons from 68 to 120 and 0–21 respectively. In addition, it induces magnetic moment value of 36.33 µB, which confirms the enhanced magnetic behaviour of hematite. α-Fe 2 O 3 nanowires (NWs) synthesized by heating iron wire in a box furnace at (750−800) °C and as synthesized α-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles (NPs) were received to use as a catalyst in the magnetic reaction of urea synthesis. X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) confirms the peaks of rhombohedral structure of α-Fe 2 O 3 and Raman spectrum analyses confirms the α-Fe 2 O 3 peaks at 410 cm −1 , 500 cm −1 and 616 cm −1 . The needle-like shape of hematite nanowires with length ranging from 16–25) μm and diameter from 74 to 145 nm confirmed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The magnetic properties of the nanowires exhibited different levels of saturation magnetization, for α-Fe 2 O 3 perpendicularly aligned direction (13.18 emu/g) and random direction (10.73 emu/g). Urea synthesis was done under magnetic field ranges from 0.0 to 2.5 T. The activation energy of α-Fe 2 O 3 NWs for urea production is lower than NPs in the range of 0–1 T, whereas it is reversed for higher magnetic induction values. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the formation of urea at the peaks of 1690–1600 cm −1 . This green urea employing magnetically induced method could be a contender to the Haber-Bosch process currently used by the current industry which utilizes high temperature and high pressure

  18. Effect of Urea on G-Quadruplex Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanyan, Lusine; Ko, Jordan; Kim, Byul G; Vardanyan, Ishkhan; Dalyan, Yeva B; Chalikian, Tigran V

    2017-07-13

    G-quadruplexes represent a class of noncanonical nucleic acid structures implicated in transcriptional regulation, cellular function, and disease. An understanding of the forces involved in stabilization and destabilization of the G-quadruplex conformation relative to the duplex or single-stranded conformation is a key to elucidating the biological role of G-quadruplex-based genomic switches and the quest for therapeutic means for controlled induction or suppression of a G-quadruplex at selected genomic loci. Solute-solvent interactions provide a ubiquitous and, in many cases, the determining thermodynamic force in maintaining and modulating the stability of nucleic acids. These interactions involve water as well as water-soluble cosolvents that may be present in the solution or in the crowded environment in the cell. We present here the first quantitative investigation of the effect of urea, a destabilizing cosolvent, on the conformational preferences of a G-quadruplex formed by the telomeric d[A(G 3 T 2 A) 3 G 3 ] sequence (Tel22). At 20 mM NaCl and room temperature, Tel22 undergoes a two-state urea-induced unfolding transition. An increase in salt mitigates the deleterious effect of urea on Tel22. The urea m-value of Tel22 normalized per change in solvent-accessible surface area, ΔS A , is similar to those for other DNA and RNA structures while being several-fold larger than that of proteins. Our results suggest that urea can be employed as an analytical tool in thermodynamic characterizations of G-quadruplexes in a manner similar to the use of urea in protein studies. We emphasize the need for further studies involving a larger selection of G-quadruplexes varying in sequence, topology (parallel, antiparallel, hybrid), and molecularity (monomolecular, bimolecular, tetramolecular) to outline the advantages and the limits of the use of urea in G-quadruplex studies. A deeper understanding of the effect of solvent and cosolvents on the differential stability of the

  19. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... screening test between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The test may be done earlier if you ...

  20. Epidemiologic Association of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Urinary Calculi: a Population-based Cross-sectional Study in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan-Ping; Lin, Xing-Gu; He, Rong-Quan; Shen, Juan; Sun, Si-Long; Chen, Gang; Wang, Qiu-Yan; Xu, Jian-Feng; Mo, Zeng-Nan

    2018-03-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported to have effects on kidney diseases; however, a link between NAFLD and urinary calculi remains to be confirmed. This study was conducted on a male population based on our previous Fangchenggang Area Male Health and Examination Survey in Guangxi, China in order to estimate the frequency of urinary calculi and assess the association between NAFLD and urinary calculi while controlling for possible confounders. This was a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in the Fangchenggang region in Guangxi, China. The diagnoses of NAFLD and urinary calculi were made by ultrasonography. Clinical and laboratory findings were analyzed to investigate whether NAFLD was a risk factor for urinary calculi. A total of 3719 men were enrolled (age range, 17 to 88 years). Slightly more than a quarter (26.5%) of the participants were diagnosed with NAFLD. The percentage of urinary calculi in all participants was 6.9%, and the percentage of NAFLD patients with urinary calculi (8.4%) was significantly higher than that among patients without NAFLD (6.4%, P < .05). Advanced age; high body mass index; elevated levels of blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; low education; lower or higher physical activity; and NAFLD were independent risk factors for urinary calculi (P < .05). Our results showed that NAFLD was associated with a higher incidence of urinary calculi in this cohort and NAFLD might represent a risk factor for urinary calculi.

  1. 40 CFR 721.9920 - Urea, (hexahydro-6-methyl-2-oxopyrimidinyl)-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urea, (hexahydro-6-methyl-2... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9920 Urea, (hexahydro-6-methyl-2-oxopyrimidinyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance urea, (hexahydro-6...

  2. 78 FR 67335 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-821-801] Solid Urea From the Russian... of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea from the Russian Federation... of the antidumping duty order on solid urea from Russia.\\1\\ We invited interested parties to comment...

  3. Effect of Microbial Interaction on Urea Metabolism in Chinese Liquor Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Qun; Lin, Jianchun; Cui, Kaixiang; Du, Rubin; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Urea is the primary precursor of the carcinogen ethyl carbamate in fermented foods. Understanding urea metabolism is important for controlling ethyl carbamate production. Using Chinese liquor as a model system, we used metatranscriptome analysis to investigate urea metabolism in spontaneous food

  4. 21 CFR 177.1900 - Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1900 Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. Urea-formaldehyde resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface...

  5. Superspace group descriptions of the symmetries of incommensurate urea inclusion compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanSmaalen, S; Harris, KDM

    1996-01-01

    Urea inclusion compounds are a class of incommensurate composite crystals. The urea molecules form a three-dimensionally connected network, with approximate space group symmetry P6(1)22. This network contains tunnels (channels), which accommodate guest molecules. The periodicities of the urea

  6. 40 CFR 418.30 - Applicability; description of the urea subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the urea...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Urea Subcategory § 418.30 Applicability; description of the urea subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the...

  7. 75 FR 78243 - Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0650; FRL-8855-5] Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea.... 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213, methidathion, case no. 0034, and methyl parathion, case no. 0153... pesticides in the table below--propionic acid and salts, case 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213, methidathion...

  8. GC-MS DETERMINATION OF RATIOS OF STABLE-ISOTOPE LABELED TO NATURAL UREA USING [(CN2)-C-13-N-15]UREA FOR STUDYING UREA KINETICS IN SERUM AND AS A MEANS TO VALIDATE ROUTINE METHODS FOR THE QUANTITATIVE ASSAY OF UREA IN DIALYSATE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOLTHERS, BG; TEPPER, T; WITHAG, A; NAGEL, GT; DEHAAN, THY; VANLEEUWEN, JJ; STEGEMAN, CA; HUISMAN, RM

    A GC-MS determination of urea in serum or spent dialysate is described, using (CN2)-C-13-N-15-labelled urea and assaying the area ratio of labelled to natural urea by mass fragmentographic monitoring of fragments m/e 153 and 156, after its eventual conversion into the trimethylsilylether-derivative

  9. 78 FR 46571 - Solid Urea From the Russian Federation: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-821-801] Solid Urea From the Russian... (the Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on solid urea... subject to the order is solid urea. The product is currently classified under the Harmonized Tariff...

  10. Role of urea in the postprandial urine concentration cycle of the insectivorous bat Antrozous pallidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, John E

    2004-02-01

    Insectivorous bats, which feed once daily, produce maximally concentrated urine only after feeding. The role of urea as an osmolyte in this process was investigated in pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) in the laboratory. Following a 24-h fast, plasma and urine were sampled before and 2 h after feeding in postprandial (PP) animals and before and 2 h after similar treatment without feeding in nonfed (NF) animals. Food consumption by PP animals and handling of NF animals had no effect on blood water content as measured by hematocrit and plasma oncotic pressure. Food consumption increased both plasma osmolality (P(osm)) and plasma urea (P(urea)) by as much as 15%. Food consumption also increased urine osmolality (U(osm)) and urine urea (U(urea)) by 50-100%. Feeding increased U(osm) regardless of changes in P(osm), and elevation of U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). In NF bats, P(osm) and P(urea) were unchanged, while U(osm) and U(urea) increased by as much as 25%. Again, increased U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). The PP urine concentration cycle of pallid bats resulted from increased urea excretion in response to apparent rapid urea synthesis. Bats rapidly metabolized protein and excreted urea following feeding when body water was most plentiful.

  11. Imaging Renal Urea Handling in Rats at Millimeter Resolution using Hyperpolarized Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reed, Galen D; von Morze, Cornelius; Verkman, Alan S

    2016-01-01

    of the renal urea handling process: glomerular filtration and the inner-medullary urea transporter (UT)-A1 and UT-A3 mediated urea concentrating process. Simple motion correction and subspace denoising algorithms are presented to aid in the multi exponential data analysis. Furthermore, a T2-edited, ultra long...

  12. Comparison of amino acid oxidation and urea metabolism in haemodialysis patients during fasting and meal intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeneman, JM; Kingma, HA; Stellaard, F; de Jong, PE; Reijngoud, DJ; Huisman, RM

    Background. The PNA (protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance) is used to calculate protein intake from urea kinetics. One of the essential assumptions in the calculation of PNA is that urea accumulation in haemodialysis (HD) patients is equivalent to amino acid oxidation. However, urea is

  13. Effect of diet and physiological state on recycling of urea in Merino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The recycling of urea to the rumen was studied in Merino ewes during differentp hysiologicals tates using radioactivet racers. The results showed that although the proportion of urea recycled differed, similar amounts were recycled in dry and pregnant sheep over a wide range of N intake. Urea recycling increased ...

  14. Effect of diet anil physiological state on recycling of urea in Merino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recycling of urea to the rumen was studied in Merino ewes during different physiological states using radioactive tracers. The results showed that although the proportion of urea recycled differed, similar amounts were recycled in dry and pregnant sheep over a wide range of N intake. Urea recycling increased ...

  15. effect of combined use of urea and goat dung manure on celosia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three field experiments were conducted to investigate the separate and combined effects of urea and goat dung manure on leaf nutrient contents, growth and yield of Celosia argentea in southwest Nigeria. Each experiment involved 7 treatments namely: no treatment, 10t/ha goat dung, 125 kg/ha urea, 125 kg/ha urea + ...

  16. Leiomyoma of urinary bladder with bladder stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farouk, K.; Gondal, M.; Khan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder is a rare benign mesenchymal tumour. We describe here a case of leiomyoma of the urinary bladder in a 65-year-old gentleman who presented with haematuria, passage of clots and combined obstructive and irritative urinary symptoms. The investigations revealed a vesical calculus and a mass on the left lateral wall of the urinary bladder. Cystolitholapaxy and transurethral resection of the tumour was performed. Histopathological report of the resected tumour revealed a leiomyoma of the urinary bladder. So far, a leiomyoma of the urinary bladder and a concomitant vesical calculus have not been described in literature. (author)

  17. Effects of subacute and chronic lead treatment on glucose homestasis and renal cyclic AMP metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, A; Merali, Z; Kacew, S; Singhal, R L

    1976-01-01

    The effects of chronic oral ingestion of lead in doses ranging from 20 to 80 ppM were compared with those seen after the subacute exposure of rats to a 10 mg/kg daily dose of the heavy metal for 7 days. Irrespective of the treatment regimen used, lead treatment significantly increased the activities of renal pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-diphosphatase and glucose 6-phosphatase. The observed enhancement of kidney gluconeogenic enzymes in chronically treated animals was associated with a stimulation of the adenylate cyclase-cyclic AMP system, a rise in blood glucose and urea as well as a depression in hepatic glycogen and serum immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels. In contrast, subacute exposure to lead failed to significantly alter cyclic AMP metabolism and the concentrations of liver glycogen, blood glucose, serum urea or IRI. Whereas the insulinogenic index (the ratio of serum IRI to blood glucose concentration) was markedly suppressed in chronically treated rats, this ratio remained within normal limits following subacute exposure to the heavy metal. However, a marked decrease in the insulinogenic index was observed in subacutely treated rats 15 min after the administration of a glucose load. The data provide evidence to show that increased glucose synthesis as well as suppressed pancreatic function may be responsible for lead-induced disturbances in glucose homeostasis.

  18. Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection - UTI) in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Urinary Tract & How It Works Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection—UTI) in Adults View or Print All ... Bladder infections are the most common type of urinary tract infection (UTI), but any part of your urinary ...

  19. Reference Ranges of Serum Blood Urea Nitrogen, Creatinine Concentration and Ultrasonographic Measurement of the Kidneys in Term Healthy Newborns in the Neonatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şebnem Kader

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acute kidney injury is an important problem in neonates. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study to determine normal serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine reference ranges and ranges of ultrasonographic measurement of kidneys in healthy term newborns. Study Design: Blood samples were collected from total 357 healthy newborns at birth (n=45, 1st (n=30, 3rd (n=61, 7th (n=34, 10th (n=132, 14th (n=36, and 28th (n=19 days of life. Renal ultrasonographic was performed by the same two radiologists on 81 newborns aged 10 days. Results: Serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations have reached to the highest level at the first day of life and have returned to cord level at the third day of life. There were gradually decrease in serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels after the first day of life. There were significant difference in both right and left renal length, width, and volumes in terms of gender and these parameters were statistically higher in boys than girls (p<0.05. Birth weight of the boys (3548±539g was statistically higher than girls (3307±405 g (p=0.028. There was a positive correlation between birth weight and right (r=0.38, p=0.000 and left kidney volumes (r=0.44, p=0.000. Conclusion: Our findings showed that measured blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels changed in accordance with postnatal days and there was a positive correlation between kidney volume and birth weight of newborns. We concluded that these findings are important for evaluation of acute kidney injury and for screening of for urinary tract anomalies in neonates

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the space surrounding the spinal cord and brain. ... Abnormal results include higher and lower glucose levels. Abnormal results may be due to: Infection (bacterial or fungus) Inflammation of the central nervous system Tumor

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  9. Nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Christiane; Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: A reliable method to detect biochemical nocturnal hypoglycemia is highly needed, especially in patients with recurrent severe hypoglycemia. We evaluated reliability of nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes at high risk of severe...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  10. Modelling and mutational analysis of Aspergillus nidulans UreA, a member of the subfamily of urea/H+ transporters in fungi and plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguinetti, Manuel; Amillis, Sotiris; Pantano, Sergio; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Ramón, Ana

    2014-01-01

    We present the first account of the structure–function relationships of a protein of the subfamily of urea/H+ membrane transporters of fungi and plants, using Aspergillus nidulans UreA as a study model. Based on the crystal structures of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus sodium/galactose symporter (vSGLT) and of the Nucleobase-Cation-Symport-1 benzylhydantoin transporter from Microbacterium liquefaciens (Mhp1), we constructed a three-dimensional model of UreA which, combined with site-directed and classical random mutagenesis, led to the identification of amino acids important for UreA function. Our approach allowed us to suggest roles for these residues in the binding, recognition and translocation of urea, and in the sorting of UreA to the membrane. Residues W82, Y106, A110, T133, N275, D286, Y388, Y437 and S446, located in transmembrane helixes 2, 3, 7 and 11, were found to be involved in the binding, recognition and/or translocation of urea and the sorting of UreA to the membrane. Y106, A110, T133 and Y437 seem to play a role in substrate selectivity, while S446 is necessary for proper sorting of UreA to the membrane. Other amino acids identified by random classical mutagenesis (G99, R141, A163, G168 and P639) may be important for the basic transporter's structure, its proper folding or its correct traffic to the membrane. PMID:24966243

  11. Green urea synthesis catalyzed by hematite nanowires in magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Noorhana; Qureshi, Saima; Rehman, Zia ur; Alqasem, Bilal; Fai Kait, Chong

    2017-04-01

    The catalytic activity of hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanowires under the influence of magnetic field on urea synthesis is considered green. The adsorption and subsequent dissociative reaction of hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases on the α-Fe2O3 (111) nanowires were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The average adsorption energy is -4.12 kcal/mole at different sites. The adsorption of gases resulted in a difference in density and net spin of electrons from 68 to 120 and 0-21 respectively. In addition, it induces magnetic moment value of 36.33 μB, which confirms the enhanced magnetic behaviour of hematite. α-Fe2O3 nanowires (NWs) synthesized by heating iron wire in a box furnace at (750-800) °C and as synthesized α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) were received to use as a catalyst in the magnetic reaction of urea synthesis. X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) confirms the peaks of rhombohedral structure of α-Fe2O3 and Raman spectrum analyses confirms the α-Fe2O3 peaks at 410 cm-1, 500 cm-1 and 616 cm-1. The needle-like shape of hematite nanowires with length ranging from 16-25) μm and diameter from 74 to 145 nm confirmed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The magnetic properties of the nanowires exhibited different levels of saturation magnetization, for α-Fe2O3 perpendicularly aligned direction (13.18 emu/g) and random direction (10.73 emu/g). Urea synthesis was done under magnetic field ranges from 0.0 to 2.5 T. The activation energy of α-Fe2O3 NWs for urea production is lower than NPs in the range of 0-1 T, whereas it is reversed for higher magnetic induction values. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the formation of urea at the peaks of 1690-1600 cm-1. This green urea employing magnetically induced method could be a contender to the Haber-Bosch process currently used by the current industry which utilizes high temperature and high pressure.

  12. Alcoholic Hepatitis Markedly Decreases the Capacity for Urea Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Glavind

    Full Text Available Data on quantitative metabolic liver functions in the life-threatening disease alcoholic hepatitis are scarce. Urea synthesis is an essential metabolic liver function that plays a key regulatory role in nitrogen homeostasis. The urea synthesis capacity decreases in patients with compromised liver function, whereas it increases in patients with inflammation. Alcoholic hepatitis involves both mechanisms, but how these opposite effects are balanced remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate how alcoholic hepatitis affects the capacity for urea synthesis. We related these findings to another measure of metabolic liver function, the galactose elimination capacity (GEC, as well as to clinical disease severity.We included 20 patients with alcoholic hepatitis and 7 healthy controls. The urea synthesis capacity was quantified by the functional hepatic nitrogen clearance (FHNC, i.e., the slope of the linear relationship between the blood α-amino nitrogen concentration and urea nitrogen synthesis rate during alanine infusion. The GEC was determined using blood concentration decay curves after intravenous bolus injection of galactose. Clinical disease severity was assessed by the Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis Score and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score.The FHNC was markedly decreased in the alcoholic hepatitis patients compared with the healthy controls (7.2±4.9 L/h vs. 37.4±6.8 L/h, P<0.01, and the largest decrease was observed in those with severe alcoholic hepatitis (4.9±3.6 L/h vs. 9.9±4.9 L/h, P<0.05. The GEC was less markedly reduced than the FHNC. A negative correlation was detected between the FHNC and MELD score (rho = -0.49, P<0.05.Alcoholic hepatitis markedly decreases the urea synthesis capacity. This decrease is associated with an increase in clinical disease severity. Thus, the metabolic failure in alcoholic hepatitis prevails such that the liver cannot adequately perform the metabolic up-regulation observed in other stressful

  13. UREA BREATH TEST – ITS ROLE IN DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joško Osredkar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Each year many patients visit their physicians complaining of digestive symptoms, most commonly functional dyspepsia (»indigestion« or gastroesophageal reflux (»heartburn«. However, many patients with abdominal discomfort are actually suffering from gastric or duodenal ulcers that are commonly caused by H. pylori and thus are curable. Clearing the infection usually heals the ulcer and prevents relapse, so an accurate diagnosis is important. There are several options for diagnosing H. pylori infection: serology to detect antibodies against the bacterium; endoscopic biopsy for urease testing (H. pylori produce a urease that breaks down urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide; histology with special stains; or culture. Unfortunately, these procedures are invasive, expensive and not always accurate. Serological tests require a blood sample and tell only that a patient has been exposed to H. pylori at some time in the past, but not whether the patient is currently infected. Endoscopy and biopsy can detect current infection — the CLO test urease test allows rapid detection of H. pylori in gastric biopsy specimens — but endoscopy and biopsy are unpleasant medical procedures.Recently, noninvasive, sensitive, specific, easy to perform and patient’s well accepted methods had been developed known as urea breath test (UBT. When an infected person swallows a dose of urea labeled with an isotope of carbon — carbon-13 (13C or carbon-14 (14C – H. pylori in the gastric mucosa break down the labeled urea to form ammonia and labeled carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is absorbed into the bloodstream and excreted via the lungs. The patient then exhales into a device that measures the level of carbon dioxide. The urea breath test is specific for H. pylori (it detects only urease-producing bacteria, it is sensitive (the labeled urea reaches a large area of the stomach and thus reflects total gastric urease activity and the results can be

  14. Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/007377.htm Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Placement of tension-free vaginal tape is surgery to help control stress urinary ...

  15. Urinary Incontinence: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor, or surgery. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Start Here Urinary Incontinence (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Urinary Tract Health (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) ...

  16. Urea uptake enhances barrier function and antimicrobial defense in humans by regulating epidermal gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether-Beck, Susanne; Felsner, Ingo; Brenden, Heidi; Kohne, Zippora; Majora, Marc; Marini, Alessandra; Jaenicke, Thomas; Rodriguez-Martin, Marina; Trullas, Carles; Hupe, Melanie; Elias, Peter M.; Krutmann, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Urea is an endogenous metabolite, known to enhance stratum corneum hydration. Yet, topical urea anecdotally also improves permeability barrier function, and it appears to exhibit antimicrobial activity. Hence, we hypothesized that urea is not merely a passive metabolite, but a small-molecule regulator of epidermal structure and function. In 21 human volunteers, topical urea improved barrier function in parallel with enhanced antimicrobial peptide (LL-37 and β-defensin-2) expression. Urea both stimulates expression of, and is transported into keratinocytes by two urea transporters, UT-A1 and UT-A2, and by aquaporin 3, 7 and 9. Inhibitors of these urea transporters block the downstream biological effects of urea, which include increased mRNA and protein levels for: (i) transglutaminase-1, involucrin, loricrin and filaggrin; (ii) epidermal lipid synthetic enzymes, and (iii) cathelicidin/LL-37 and β-defensin-2. Finally, we explored the potential clinical utility of urea, showing that topical urea applications normalized both barrier function and antimicrobial peptide expression in a murine model of atopic dermatitis (AD). Together, these results show that urea is a small-molecule regulator of epidermal permeability barrier function and antimicrobial peptide expression after transporter uptake, followed by gene regulatory activity in normal epidermis, with potential therapeutic applications in diseased skin. PMID:22418868

  17. Quantifying why urea is a protein denaturant, whereas glycine betaine is a protein stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Emily J.; Pegram, Laurel M.; Capp, Michael W.; Pollock, Michelle N.; Record, M. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    To explain the large, opposite effects of urea and glycine betaine (GB) on stability of folded proteins and protein complexes, we quantify and interpret preferential interactions of urea with 45 model compounds displaying protein functional groups and compare with a previous analysis of GB. This information is needed to use urea as a probe of coupled folding in protein processes and to tune molecular dynamics force fields. Preferential interactions between urea and model compounds relative to their interactions with water are determined by osmometry or solubility and dissected using a unique coarse-grained analysis to obtain interaction potentials quantifying the interaction of urea with each significant type of protein surface (aliphatic, aromatic hydrocarbon (C); polar and charged N and O). Microscopic local-bulk partition coefficients Kp for the accumulation or exclusion of urea in the water of hydration of these surfaces relative to bulk water are obtained. Kp values reveal that urea accumulates moderately at amide O and weakly at aliphatic C, whereas GB is excluded from both. These results provide both thermodynamic and molecular explanations for the opposite effects of urea and glycine betaine on protein stability, as well as deductions about strengths of amide NH—amide O and amide NH—amide N hydrogen bonds relative to hydrogen bonds to water. Interestingly, urea, like GB, is moderately accumulated at aromatic C surface. Urea m-values for protein folding and other protein processes are quantitatively interpreted and predicted using these urea interaction potentials or Kp values. PMID:21930943

  18. Effect of urea on the photoactivity of titania powder prepared by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Ping; Deng Changsheng; Gu Mingyuan; Dai Xiaming

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of nanocrystalline titania powders from the hydrolysis of Ti(OBu n ) 4 in the presence of urea was investigated. DRS results showed that a redshift occurred in the absorption edge of titania with increasing the content of urea. XRD results indicated that urea showed a retarding effect on the transformation of titania from anatase to rutile. Moreover, the addition of urea resulted in a higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area as well as a larger average pore size of TiO 2 nanoparticles. The average pore size of urea/TiO 2 gels calcined at 500 deg. C increased with the increase of urea content, while the specific surface area increased with the amount of urea to reach a maximum at 10% and then decreased with further increase of the amount of urea. The maximal specific surface area of 64.4 m 2 g -1 was obtained for 10% urea/TiO 2 gels calcined at 500 deg. C, which showed an average particle size of 15 nm and pore size distribution in the range of mesopores centered at 5.8 nm. The photocatalytic experiments exhibited that titania nanoparticles prepared in the presence of urea could effectively photodegrade methyl orange under visible light irradiation due to the redshift of the absorption edge. The maximum photoactivity was achieved when the content of urea was 10%, which was attributed to the higher specific surface area

  19. Alanine Counteracts the Destabilizing Effect that Urea has on RNase-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowhan, Rimpy K; Ali, Fasil; Bhat, Mohd Y; Rahman, Safikur; Singh, Laishram R; Ahmad, Faizan; Dar, Tanveer A

    2016-01-01

    It is generally believed that organisms use and accumulate methylamine osmolytes to prevent urea's damaging effect on protein stability and activity. However, urea-rich cells not only accumulate methylamines but also many other methylated and non-methylated compounds as well. But, so far it is not known whether osmolytes that are not accumulated in urea-rich cells could also confer urea-counteracting properties. We investigated the behavior of a non-methylamine osmolyte, alanine for its counteracting effect against urea denaturation of a model protein, ribonuclease A (RNase-A). We have measured structure and thermodynamic parameters (Tm, ΔHm, and ΔGD°) of RNase-A in the presence of alanine, urea and their combination. The results were also compared with the ability of glycine (osmolyte lacking one methyl group when compared with alanine) to counter urea's effect on protein stability. We observed that alanine but not glycine counteracts urea's harmful effect on RNase-A stability. The results indicated that alanine (in addition to methylamine osmolytes) may serve as an alternate urea-counteractant. Since glycine fails to protect RNase-A from urea's destabilizing effect, it seems that methylation to glycine might have some evolutionary significance to protect proteins against harmful effects of urea.

  20. Urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Møller; Novovic, Srdan; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer

    2010-01-01

    In acute pancreatitis (AP), rapid diagnosis and early treatment are of importance for clinical outcome. Urinary trypsinogen-2 has been suggested as a promising diagnostic marker; however, studies using the urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick test (UTDT) have provided varying results.......In acute pancreatitis (AP), rapid diagnosis and early treatment are of importance for clinical outcome. Urinary trypsinogen-2 has been suggested as a promising diagnostic marker; however, studies using the urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick test (UTDT) have provided varying results....

  1. Molecular origin of urea driven hydrophobic polymer collapse and unfolding depending on side chain chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Divya; Folberth, Angelina; van der Vegt, Nico F A

    2017-07-19

    Osmolytes affect hydrophobic collapse and protein folding equilibria. The underlying mechanisms are, however, not well understood. We report large-scale conformational sampling of two hydrophobic polymers with secondary and tertiary amide side chains using extensive molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated free energy of unfolding increases with urea for the secondary amide, yet decreases for the tertiary amide, in agreement with experiment. The underlying mechanism is rooted in opposing entropic driving forces: while urea screens the hydrophobic macromolecular interface and drives unfolding of the tertiary amide, urea's concomitant loss in configurational entropy drives collapse of the secondary amide. Only at sufficiently high urea concentrations bivalent urea hydrogen bonding interactions with the secondary amide lead to further stabilisation of its collapsed state. The observations provide a new angle on the interplay between side chain chemistry, urea hydrogen bonding, and the role of urea in attenuating or strengthening the hydrophobic effect.

  2. Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Tom P. V. M.; Klijn, Aart J.; Vijverberg, Marianne A. W.

    2012-01-01

    Up to 10% of school-age children suffer from recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and/or urinary incontinence. Lower urinary tract problems are, together with asthma, the most important chronic disease of the pediatric age group. Diagnosis must discriminate among those children with functional

  3. Kidneys and Urinary Tract (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidneys and Urinary Tract KidsHealth / For Parents / Kidneys and Urinary Tract What's ... Los riñones y las vías urinarias Kidneys and Urinary Tract Basics Our bodies produce several kinds of wastes, ...

  4. Molecular-dynamics simulations of urea nucleation from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvalaglio, Matteo; Perego, Claudio; Giberti, Federico; Mazzotti, Marco; Parrinello, Michele

    2015-01-06

    Despite its ubiquitous character and relevance in many branches of science and engineering, nucleation from solution remains elusive. In this framework, molecular simulations represent a powerful tool to provide insight into nucleation at the molecular scale. In this work, we combine theory and molecular simulations to describe urea nucleation from aqueous solution. Taking advantage of well-tempered metadynamics, we compute the free-energy change associated to the phase transition. We find that such a free-energy profile is characterized by significant finite-size effects that can, however, be accounted for. The description of the nucleation process emerging from our analysis differs from classical nucleation theory. Nucleation of crystal-like clusters is in fact preceded by large concentration fluctuations, indicating a predominant two-step process, whereby embryonic crystal nuclei emerge from dense, disordered urea clusters. Furthermore, in the early stages of nucleation, two different polymorphs are seen to compete.

  5. Molecular-dynamics simulations of urea nucleation from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvalaglio, Matteo; Perego, Claudio; Giberti, Federico; Mazzotti, Marco; Parrinello, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Despite its ubiquitous character and relevance in many branches of science and engineering, nucleation from solution remains elusive. In this framework, molecular simulations represent a powerful tool to provide insight into nucleation at the molecular scale. In this work, we combine theory and molecular simulations to describe urea nucleation from aqueous solution. Taking advantage of well-tempered metadynamics, we compute the free-energy change associated to the phase transition. We find that such a free-energy profile is characterized by significant finite-size effects that can, however, be accounted for. The description of the nucleation process emerging from our analysis differs from classical nucleation theory. Nucleation of crystal-like clusters is in fact preceded by large concentration fluctuations, indicating a predominant two-step process, whereby embryonic crystal nuclei emerge from dense, disordered urea clusters. Furthermore, in the early stages of nucleation, two different polymorphs are seen to compete. PMID:25492932

  6. The role of nickel in urea assimilation by algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, T A; Bekheet, I A

    1982-12-01

    Nickel is required for urease synthesis by Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Tetraselmis subcordiformis and for growth on urea by Phaeodactylum. There is no requirement for nickel for urea amidolyase synthesis by Chlorella fusca var. vacuolata. Neither copper nor palladium can substitute for nickel but cobalt partially restored urease activity in Phaeodactylum. The addition of nickel to nickel-deficient cultures of Phaeodactylum or Tetraselmis resulted in a rapid increase of urease activity to 7-30 times the normal level; this increase was not inhibited by cycloheximide. It is concluded that nickel-deficient cells over-produce a non-functional urease protein and that either nickel or the functional urease enzyme participates in the regulation of the production of urease protein.

  7. Banding urea and lignosulfonate in corn (Zea mays L.) production and 15N recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkanani, T.; MacKenzie, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    The use of urea in corn (Zea mays L.) production is common. Under current N fertilizer recommendations for corn, urea may have adverse effects on corn growth when applied in a band. The effects of ammonium lignosulfonate (LS) on corn growth and on N uptake from the banded application of urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP) mixtures were investigated on two soils from eastern Quebec. Field experiments were initiated in the first week of May 1991 on an Ormstown silty clay and a Ste. Rosalie clay soils (fine, mixed, nonacid, mesic Typic Humaquepts). Treatments were two rates of urea (30 and 90 kg urea-N ha -1 ) in a combination with DAP (14kg N ha 1 ), with or without banded fertilizer solutions of LS (8 kg N ha -1 ) applied at planting 5 cm to the side and 3 cm below the seed. A no treatment control was included. The low rate of urea compared with the unfertilized plots. When compared with the unfertilized treatment, the high rate of urea and DAP (no LS added) caused 10% increase in grain yield. However, addition of LS to the high rate of urea and DAP increase grain yield by band 20%. In general, LS significantly increased corn N uptake from urea on both soils. Separate 15 N field experiments were initiated in June 1991. Mean recovery of 15 N ranged from 17.8% to 30.9% of the applied labelled urea. The rate of urea-N banded had no significant effect on immobilization, but LS resulted in significantly less 15 N immobilized. These observations suggest that LS can reduce the biological immobilization of urea-N and increase the efficiency of urea fertilizer by reducing the negative effects of banding high levels of urea, while attaining benefits of band placement. (author). 29 refs., 6 tabs

  8. Can low urinary tract symptoms influence postprostatectomy urinary incontinence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienza, Antonio; Hevia, Mateo; Merino, Imanol; Diez-Caballero, Fernando; Rosell, David; Pascual, Juan I; Zudaire, Juan J; Robles, José E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze what kind of urinary symptoms patients have before receiving treatment by radical prostatectomy (RP), and to evaluate their influence on urinary incontinence (UI). Between 2002 and 2012, 758 consecutive patients underwent RP for clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa). Surgery was carried out by open retropubic RP in 545 (73.1%) of patients and laparoscopic RP in 201 (27%) by 5 surgeons who were excluded from data collection and analysis. The following symptoms were collected from the last urological check-ups or pre-operative consultation and classified as: storage symptoms, voiding symptoms, post micturition symptoms, history of acute urinary retention, benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment, history of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). A total of 661 patients were included on analysis: 136 (20.6%) patients reported low urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), 162 (24.5%) were considered incontinent after RP, and 45 (33.1%) of them reported LUTS before surgery. Postprostatectomy urinary incontinence (PPUI) was significantly different in patients with LUTS (117 [22.3%] vs. 45 [33.1%], P=0.009). The presence of any LUTS influence significantly in the appearance of PPUI (OR=1.72 [95% CI: 1.14-2.6), P=0.01). TURP is independently influential in PPUI (OR=6.13 [95% CI: 1.86-20.18], P=0.003). A patient with LUTS before surgery has an increased risk of 70% or even 200% to suffer PPUI and a patient who received treatment by TURP is 6 times at higher risk of PPUI. In conclusion, patients with LUTS are likely to present PPUI. History of TURP is influential by itself over PPUI. A good preoperative consultation is important to assess continence status and to create realistic expectations to patients before RP.

  9. Reverse osmosis membrane of high urea rejection properties. [water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wydeven, T. J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Polymeric membranes suitable for use in reverse osmosis water purification because of their high urea and salt rejection properties are prepared by generating a plasma of an unsaturated hydrocarbon monomer and nitrogen gas from an electrical source. A polymeric membrane is formed by depositing a polymer of the unsaturated monomer from the plasma onto a substrate, so that nitrogen from the nitrogen gas is incorporated within the polymer in a chemically combined form.

  10. [Hyperammonemia type II as an example of urea cycle disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrot-Kawecka, Anna M; Kawecki, Grzegorz P; Duława, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency is the most common inherited urea cycle disorder. Its clinical manifestations as lethargy, vomites, coma and cerebral edema are the effect of the higher concentration of the ammonia in plasma. Hyperammonemia, caused by mutation in ornithine transcarbamylase gene, is often considered as a reason of coma by pediatricians but skipped by internist, although it is the third reason of hepatic coma in adults. This article is the recapitulation of published studies and their implication on everyday clinical practice.

  11. Orphan drugs in development for urea cycle disorders: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häberle J

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Johannes Häberle,1 Shawn E McCandless2 1Division of Metabolism and Children's Research Center, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Center for Human Genetics, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, and Department of Genetics and Genome Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: The urea cycle disorders are caused by deficiency of one of the six hepatic enzymes or two transporters involved in detoxification of ammonia. The resulting hyperammonemia causes severe brain injury unless aggressive steps are taken to reduce the accumulation of ammonia, which is thought to be the most toxic metabolite. This review describes the current state of chronic management of urea cycle disorders, focusing on new and emerging therapies. Management strategies include the mainstay of treatment, namely dietary protein restriction and supplementation with l-arginine or l-citrulline. Several currently approved medications utilize and enhance alternative pathways of waste nitrogen excretion (sodium benzoate, sodium phenylacetate, sodium phenylbutyrate in several formulations, and glycerol phenylbutyrate, working through conjugation of the drug to either glycine (in the case of benzoate or glutamine, the products of which are excreted in the urine. Carglumic acid activates the first committed step of conversion of ammonia to urea, carbamoylphosphate synthetase, and thus effectively treats defective synthesis of the endogenous activator, N-acetylglutamate, whether due to genetic defects or biochemical inhibition of the N-acetylglutamate synthase enzyme. Approaches to neuroprotection during episodes of hyperammonemia are discussed, including the use of controlled hypothermia (brain cooling, as well as proposed, but as yet untested, pharmacologic therapies. Finally, cell-based therapies, including liver transplantation, infusion of fresh or cryopreserved hepatocytes, use of stem cells, and new approaches to gene

  12. Orphan drugs in development for urea cycle disorders: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Häberle, Johannes; McCandless,Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Johannes Häberle,1 Shawn E McCandless2 1Division of Metabolism and Children's Research Center, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Center for Human Genetics, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, and Department of Genetics and Genome Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: The urea cycle disorders are caused by deficiency of one of the six hepatic enzymes or two transporters involved in detoxification of am...

  13. A stochastic model for an urea decomposition system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VSS Yadavalli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability is an important measure in describing the performance of a system. The availability of a decomposition process in an urea production system in the fertilizer industry is considered in this paper. The system contains four subsystems and is supported by a standby unit. An estimation study of the steady state availability of the system is performed and illustrated by means of a numerical example.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of new thiourea and urea derivatives ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hasti Sudhamani et al. N. S/O. O. N. F. O. N. S. O. N ... All the required chemicals were purchased from Sigma. Aldrich and the ... of remaining compounds (8b-g) and urea derivatives. (9a-d). ..... Nicholas J H, John G J, Kendra L B, Paul G C, Harold. B H, Lisa L K ... Nadaradjane A Nicod L Guyon C Xicluna A Robert. J F and ...

  15. Hypothesis: proposals for the management of a neonate at risk of hyperammonaemia due to a urea cycle disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, James Vivian; Ward Platt, Martin Peter; Morris, Andrew Alan Myles

    2008-03-01

    It is difficult to prevent hyperammonaemia in patients with urea cycle disorders that present in the newborn period. This is true, even if treatment is started prospectively because of an affected relative. We propose several additional measures that could be used in conjunction with conventional therapy to improve the metabolic control. Catabolism could be reduced by delivering the babies by elective caesarean section, by starting intravenous glucose immediately after delivery and, possibly, by using beta-blockers or octreotide and insulin. The effectiveness of sodium benzoate and sodium phenylbutyrate might be increased by giving phenobarbital to the mother before delivery and subsequently to the baby to induce the enzymes for conjugation. We would expect the proposed measures to reduce the risk of hyperammonaemia and to improve the outcome for these patients. They have not, however, previously been used in this context, so families would need to be counselled carefully and controlled studies should be undertaken.

  16. Physiological and molecular ontogeny of branchial and extra-branchial urea excretion in posthatch rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Alex M; Wood, Chris M

    2016-02-01

    All teleost fish produce ammonia as a metabolic waste product. In embryos, ammonia excretion is limited by the chorion, and fish must detoxify ammonia by synthesizing urea via the ornithine urea cycle (OUC). Although urea is produced by embryos and larvae, urea excretion (J(urea)) is typically low until yolk sac absorption, increasing thereafter. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and molecular characteristics of J(urea) by posthatch rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Following hatch, whole body urea concentration decreased over time, while J(urea) increased following yolk sac absorption. From 12 to 40 days posthatch (dph), extra-branchial routes of excretion accounted for the majority of J(urea), while the gills became the dominant site for J(urea) only after 55 dph. This represents the most delayed branchial ontogeny of any process studied to date. Urea transporter (UT) gene expression in the gills and skin increased over development, consistent with increases in branchial and extra-branchial J(urea). Following exposure to 25 mmol/l urea, the accumulation and subsequent elimination of exogenous urea was much greater at 55 dph than 12 dph, consistent with increased UT expression. Notably, UT gene expression in the gills of 55 dph larvae increased in response to high urea. In summary, there is a clear increase in urea transport capacity over posthatch development, despite a decrease in OUC activity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of urea cycle disorder in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Kido, Jun; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Endo, Fumio

    2014-08-01

    Urea cycle disorder (UCD) is an inborn error of the metabolic pathway producing urea from ammonia, which occurs primarily in the liver. Decreased excretion of nitrogen in the urea cycle due to deficiency of carbamoyl phosphate synthase I (CPSI), ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), argininosuccinate synthase (ASS), argininosuccinate lyase (ASL), and N-acetyl glutamate synthase (NAGS) causes hyperammonemia. We examined the clinical manifestations, treatment, and prognosis of 177 patients with UCD from January 1999 to March 2009 in Japan. Compared with a previous study conducted in Japan, a larger number of patients survived without mental retardation, even when the peak blood ammonia was >360 μmol/L. In those with peak blood ammonia >360 μmol/L, an indicator of poor prognosis, the frequency of convulsions, mental retardation, brain abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging, hemodialysis, liver transplantation, and intake of non-protein formulas was significantly higher than in those with peak blood ammonia <360 μmol/L. In this article, we have reported the current state of UCD to evaluate prognosis and its relationship with peak blood ammonia and hemodialysis. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. Amperometric urea biosensors based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gautam Das, Hyon Hee Yoon Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite was developed for urea analysis. Oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfonated graphene oxide was carried out by electrochemical methods in an aqueous environment. The structural properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The urease enzyme-immobilized sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite film showed impressive performance in the electroanalytical detection of urea with a detection limit of 0.050 mM and a sensitivity of 0.85 µA·cm-2·mM-1. The biosensor achieved a broad linear range of detection (0.12–12.3 mM with a notable response time of approximately 5 seconds. Moreover, the fabricated biosensor retained 81% of its initial activity (based on sensitivity after 15 days of storage at 4°C. The ease of fabrication coupled with the low cost and good electrochemical performance of this system holds potential for the development of solid-state biosensors for urea detection. Keywords: electrochemical deposition, sulfonated graphene oxide, urease

  19. Urochloa ruziziensis responses to sources and doses of urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João E. S. Lima

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of products that promote reduction of nitrogen (N losses from the urea fertilizer can contribute to increasing its use efficiency in forage grasses. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of N sources and doses on the growth of Urochloa ruziziensis. The experiment was carried out in the growing season of 2007/2008 in Santo Antônio de Goiás-GO, in a Brazilian Oxisol. A completely randomized block was used, with four replicates in a factorial scheme, corresponding to two N sources (conventional urea and urea with urease inhibitor and five N doses (0, 50, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1, divided into equal applications in five periods (Nov 14 to Dec 13, Dec 14 to Jan 12, Jan 13 to Feb 11 - rainy season, Mar 24 to Apr 22 and Jul 10 to Aug 08 - dry season. The effects of the treatments were evaluated for: shoot dry matter, tiller density, total N content in the leaves and relative chlorophyll content. N fertilizer sources did not affect the evaluated variables; however, N fertilization allowed linear increases in all variables with higher values during the rainy period. The relative chlorophyll content in U. ruziziensis had positive correlation with its dry matter productivity.

  20. Synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from urea and methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, M.; Kalevaru, V.N.; Martin, A. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Leibniz Institute for Catalysis; Mueller, K.; Arlt, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany); Strautmann, J.; Kruse, D. [Evonik Industries AG, Marl (Germany). Creavis Technologies and Innovation

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholation of urea with methanol to produce dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is an interesting approach from both the ecological and economical points of view because the urea synthesis usually occurs by the direct use of carbon dioxide. Literature survey reveals that metal oxide catalysts for instance MgO, ZnO, etc. or polyphosphoric acids are mostly used as catalysts for this reaction. In this contribution, we describe the application of ZnO, MgO, CaO, TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2} or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts for the above mentioned reaction. The catalytic activity of different metal oxides towards DMC synthesis was checked and additionally a comparison of achieved conversions with that of predictions made by thermodynamic calculations was also carried out. The achieved conversions are in good agreement with those of calculated ones. The test results reveal that the reaction pressure and temperature have a strong influence on the formation of DMC. Higher reaction pressure improved the yield of DMC. Among different catalysts investigated, ZnO displayed the best performance. The conversion of urea in most cases is close to 100 % and methyl carbamate MC is the major product of the reaction. A part of MC is subsequently converted to DMC, which however depends upon the reaction conditions applied and nature of catalyst used. From the best case, a DMC yield of ca. 8 % could be successfully achieved over ZnO catalyst. (orig.)