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Sample records for glucose testing meters

  1. Your Glucose Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco ... 164KB) En Español Basic Facts 7 Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter ...

  2. The bacterial contamination rate of glucose meter test strips in the hospital setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid A.; Saeb, Amr T. M.; AlNaqeb, Dhekra M.; AlQumaidi, Hamed M.; AlMogbel, Turki A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the rate of bacterial contamination of the multi-use vial and single-use packed glucose meter strips, and to identify the type and frequency of various bacterial contamination in different hospital wards. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted by a team from the Strategic Center for Diabetes Research in 7 general hospitals in the Central region of Saudi Arabia during the period from August to September 2014 to assess the bacterial contamination rate of the unused strips. A total of 10,447 strips were cultured using proper agar media and incubated both aerobically and anaerobically. Results: The total bacterial contamination rate for the multi-use vials glucose strips was 31.7%, while single-use packed strips were not contaminated at all. Ministry of Health hospitals had the highest contamination rates compared with other hospitals. Critical, obstetric, and surgical wards had the highest bacterial isolates number, where most were in the risk group 3 according to the National Institute of Health guidelines. Staphylococcus species were the most common bacteria found. Conclusion: Glucose meter strips should be recognized as a source of bacterial contamination that could be behind serious hospital acquired infections. The hospital infection control team should adopt proper measures to implement protocols for glucose meter cleaning and glucose strips handling. PMID:27570855

  3. Performance of a new meter designed for assisted monitoring of blood glucose and point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrury, Sandra; Srinivasan, Aparna; Mahoney, John J

    2013-03-01

    Blood glucose (BG) meters used for assisted monitoring of blood glucose (AMBG) require different attributes compared with meters designed for home use. These include safety considerations (i.e., minimized risk of blood-borne pathogen transmission), capability for testing multiple blood sample types, and enhanced performance specifications. The OneTouch® Verio™Pro+ BG meter is designed to incorporate all of these attributes. Meter accuracy was assessed in clinical studies with arterial, venous, and capillary blood samples with a hematocrit range of 22.9-59.8%. The effect of interferents, including anticoagulants, on accuracy was evaluated. The meter disinfection protocol was validated, and instructions for use and user acceptance of the system were assessed. A total of 97% (549/566) of BG measures from all blood sample types and 95.5% (191/200) of arterial blood samples were within ±12 mg/dl or 12.5% of reference measurements. The system was unaffected by 4 anticoagulants and 57 of 59 endogenous and exogenous compounds; it was affected by 2 compounds: pralidoxime iodide and xylose. Bleach wipes were sufficient to disinfect the meter. Users felt that the meter's quality control (QC) prompts would help them to comply with regulatory requirements. The meter provided accurate measurements of different blood samples over a wide hematocrit range and was not affected by 57 physiologic and therapeutic compounds. The QC prompts and specific infection-mitigating design further aid to make this meter system practical for AMBG in care facilities. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. Evaluation of the effects of insufficient blood volume samples on the performance of blood glucose self-test meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Schipper, Christina; Ramljak, Sanja; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Forst, Thomas; Musholt, Petra B

    2013-11-01

    Accuracy of blood glucose readings is (among other things) dependent on the test strip being completely filled with sufficient sample volume. The devices are supposed to display an error message in case of incomplete filling. This laboratory study was performed to test the performance of 31 commercially available devices in case of incomplete strip filling. Samples with two different glucose levels (60-90 and 300-350 mg/dl) were used to generate three different sample volumes: 0.20 µl (too low volume for any device), 0.32 µl (borderline volume), and 1.20 µl (low but supposedly sufficient volume for all devices). After a point-of-care capillary reference measurement (StatStrip, NovaBiomedical), the meter strip was filled (6x) with the respective volume, and the response of the meters (two devices) was documented (72 determinations/meter type). Correct response was defined as either an error message indicating incomplete filling or a correct reading (±20% compared with reference reading). Only five meters showed 100% correct responses [BGStar and iBGStar (both Sanofi), ACCU-CHEK Compact+ and ACCU-CHEK Mobile (both Roche Diagnostics), OneTouch Verio (LifeScan)]. The majority of the meters (17) had up to 10% incorrect reactions [predominantly incorrect readings with sufficient volume; Precision Xceed and Xtra, FreeStyle Lite, and Freedom Lite (all Abbott); GlucoCard+ and GlucoMen GM (both Menarini); Contour, Contour USB, and Breeze2 (all Bayer); OneTouch Ultra Easy, Ultra 2, and Ultra Smart (all LifeScan); Wellion Dialog and Premium (both MedTrust); FineTouch (Terumo); ACCU-CHEK Aviva (Roche); and GlucoTalk (Axis-Shield)]. Ten percent to 20% incorrect reactions were seen with OneTouch Vita (LifeScan), ACCU-CHEK Aviva Nano (Roche), OmniTest+ (BBraun), and AlphaChek+ (Berger Med). More than 20% incorrect reactions were obtained with Pura (Ypsomed), GlucoCard Meter and GlucoMen LX (both Menarini), Elite (Bayer), and MediTouch (Medisana). In summary, partial and

  5. Evaluation of different disinfectants on the performance of an on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmaga, Don; Dubois, Jeffrey A; Lyon, Martha E

    2011-11-01

    Off-meter dosed photometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meters have been reported to be susceptible to interference by hydrogen-peroxide-based disinfecting agents. The objective of this study was to determine if a single application of hydrogen-peroxide-containing Accel® wipe to disinfect an on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meter will influence its performance. The performance of five on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meters was determined before and after disinfecting the devices with a single application of either CaviWipes® (14.3% isopropanol and 0.23% diisobutyl-phenoxy-ethoxyethyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride) or Accel (0.5% hydrogen peroxide) wipes. Replicate glucose measurements were conducted before disinfecting the devices, immediately after disinfecting, and then 1 and 2 min postdisinfecting, with measurements in triplicate. Analysis was sequentially completed for five different meters. Results were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (Analyze-it software). No clinical ( .05) in glucose concentration were detected when the on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meters were disinfected with either CaviWipes or Accel wipes and measured immediately or 1 or 2 min postdisinfecting. No clinically significant difference in glucose concentration was detected between meters (glucose oxidase amperometric-based glucose meters are not analytically susceptible to interference by a single application of hydrogen-peroxide-containing Accel disinfectant wipes. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. The accuracy of self monitoring blood glucose meter systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many patients were referred to Kololo polyclinic laboratory to have their blood glucose checked because the values obtained on the patients' glucose meter systems did not tally with familiar clinical signs and symptoms. This prompted an experimental set up to check glucose meter systems using a larger number of patients.

  7. Interference studies with two hospital-grade and two home-grade glucose meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Martha E; Baskin, Leland B; Braakman, Sandy; Presti, Steven; Dubois, Jeffrey; Shirey, Terry

    2009-10-01

    Interference studies of four glucose meters (Nova Biomedical [Waltham, MA] StatStrip [hospital grade], Roche Diagnostics [Indianapolis, IN] Accu-Chek Aviva [home grade], Abbott Diabetes Care [Alameda, CA] Precision FreeStyle Freedom [home grade], and LifeScan [Milpitas, CA] SureStep Flexx [hospital grade]) were evaluated and compared to the clinical laboratory plasma hexokinase reference method (Roche Hitachi 912 chemistry analyzer). These meters were chosen to reflect the continuum of care from hospital to home grade meters commonly seen in North America. Within-run precision was determined using a freshly prepared whole blood sample spiked with concentrated glucose to give three glucose concentrations. Day-to-day precision was evaluated using aqueous control materials supplied by each vendor. Common interferences, including hematocrit, maltose, and ascorbate, were tested alone and in combination with one another on each of the four glucose testing devices at three blood glucose concentrations. Within-run precision for all glucose meters was glucose meters. Ascorbate caused differences (percentage change from a sample without added interfering substances) of >5% with pyrroloquinolinequinone (PQQ)-glucose dehydrogenase-based technologies (Aviva and Freestyle) and the glucose oxidase-based Flexx meter. Maltose strongly affected the PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase-based meter systems. When combinations of interferences (ascorbate, maltose, and hematocrit mixtures) were tested, the extent of the interference was up to 193% (Aviva), 179% (FreeStyle), 25.1% (Flexx), and 5.9% (StatStrip). The interference was most pronounced at low glucose (3.9-4.4 mmol/L). All evaluated glucose meter systems demonstrated varying degrees of interference by hematocrit, ascorbate, and maltose mixtures. PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase-based technologies showed greater susceptibility than glucose oxidase-based systems. However, the modified glucose oxidase-based amperometric method (Nova StatStrip) was

  8. The relationships between common measures of glucose meter performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmoth, Daniel R

    2012-09-01

    Glucose meter performance is commonly measured in several different ways, including the relative bias and coefficient of variation (CV), the total error, the mean absolute relative deviation (MARD), and the size of the interval around the reference value that would be necessary to contain a meter measurement at a specified probability. This fourth measure is commonly expressed as a proportion of the reference value and will be referred to as the necessary relative deviation. A deeper understanding of the relationships between these measures may aid health care providers, patients, and regulators in comparing meter performances when different measures are used. The relationships between common measures of glucose meter performance were derived mathematically. Equations are presented for calculating the total error, MARD, and necessary relative deviation using the reference value, relative bias, and CV when glucose meter measurements are normally distributed. When measurements are also unbiased, the CV, total error, MARD, and necessary relative deviation are linearly related and are therefore equivalent measures of meter performance. The relative bias and CV provide more information about meter performance than the other measures considered but may be difficult for some audiences to interpret. Reporting meter performance in multiple ways may facilitate the informed selection of blood glucose meters. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  9. Effects of simulated altitude on blood glucose meter performance: implications for in-flight blood glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olateju, Tolu; Begley, Joseph; Flanagan, Daniel; Kerr, David

    2012-07-01

    Most manufacturers of blood glucose monitoring equipment do not give advice regarding the use of their meters and strips onboard aircraft, and some airlines have blood glucose testing equipment in the aircraft cabin medical bag. Previous studies using older blood glucose meters (BGMs) have shown conflicting results on the performance of both glucose oxidase (GOX)- and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH)-based meters at high altitude. The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of four new-generation BGMs at sea level and at a simulated altitude equivalent to that used in the cabin of commercial aircrafts. Blood glucose measurements obtained by two GDH and two GOX BGMs at sea level and simulated altitude of 8000 feet in a hypobaric chamber were compared with measurements obtained using a YSI 2300 blood glucose analyzer as a reference method. Spiked venous blood samples of three different glucose levels were used. The accuracy of each meter was determined by calculating percentage error of each meter compared with the YSI reference and was also assessed against standard International Organization for Standardization (ISO) criteria. Clinical accuracy was evaluated using the consensus error grid method. The percentage (standard deviation) error for GDH meters at sea level and altitude was 13.36% (8.83%; for meter 1) and 12.97% (8.03%; for meter 2) with p = .784, and for GOX meters was 5.88% (7.35%; for meter 3) and 7.38% (6.20%; for meter 4) with p = .187. There was variation in the number of time individual meters met the standard ISO criteria ranging from 72-100%. Results from all four meters at both sea level and simulated altitude fell within zones A and B of the consensus error grid, using YSI as the reference. Overall, at simulated altitude, no differences were observed between the performance of GDH and GOX meters. Overestimation of blood glucose concentration was seen among individual meters evaluated, but none of the results obtained would have resulted in

  10. How Should Blood Glucose Meter System Analytical Performance Be Assessed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, David A

    2015-08-31

    Blood glucose meter system analytical performance is assessed by comparing pairs of meter system and reference instrument blood glucose measurements measured over time and across a broad array of glucose values. Consequently, no single, complete, and ideal parameter can fully describe the difference between meter system and reference results. Instead, a number of assessment tools, both graphical (eg, regression plots, modified Bland-Altman plots, and error grid analysis) and tabular (eg, International Organization for Standardization guidelines, mean absolute difference, and mean absolute relative difference) have been developed to evaluate meter system performance. The strengths and weaknesses of these methods of presenting meter system performance data, including a new method known as Radar Plots, are described here. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  11. Accuracy of Handheld Blood Glucose Meters at High Altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; Krabbe, Hans G.; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Fokkert, Marion J.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Rienks, Rienk; Bilo, Karin M.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e. g., high-altitude trekking), reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs) are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior

  12. The accuracy of home glucose meters in hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Alper; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Uckaya, Gokhan; Kilic, Selim; Tapan, Serkan; Taslipinar, Abdullah; Aydogdu, Aydogan; Yazici, Mahmut; Yilmaz, Mahmut Ilker; Serdar, Muhittin; Erbil, M Kemal; Kutlu, Mustafa

    2010-08-01

    Home glucose meters (HGMs) may not be accurate enough to sense hypoglycemia. We evaluated the accuracy and the capillary and venous comparability of five different HGMs (Optium Xceed [Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA, USA], Contour TS [Bayer Diabetes Care, Basel, Switzerland], Accu-Chek Go [Roche Ltd., Basel, Switzerland], OneTouch Select [Lifescan, Milpitas, CA, USA], and EZ Smart [Tyson Bioresearch Inc., Chu-Nan, Taiwan]) in an adult population. The insulin hypoglycemia test was performed to 59 subjects (56 males; 23.6 +/- 3.2 years old). Glucose was measured from forearm venous blood and finger capillary samples both before and after regular insulin (0.1 U/kg) was injected. Venous samples were analyzed in the reference laboratory by the hexokinase method. In vitro tests for method comparison and precision analyses were also performed by spiking the glucose-depleted venous blood. All HGMs failed to sense hypoglycemia to some extend. EZ Smart was significantly inferior in critical error Zone D, and OneTouch Select was significantly inferior in the clinically unimportant error Zone B. Accu-Chek Go, Optium Xceed, and Contour TS had similar performances and were significantly better than the other two HGMs according to error grid analysis or International Organization for Standardization criteria. The in vitro tests were consistent with the above clinical data. The capillary and venous consistencies of Accu-Chek Go and OneTouch Select were better than the other HGMs. The present results show that not all the HGMs are accurate enough in low blood glucose levels. The patients and the caregivers should be aware of these restrictions of the HGMs and give more credit to the symptoms of hypoglycemia than the values obtained by the HGMs. Finally, these results indicate that there is a need for the revision of the accuracy standards of HGMs in low blood glucose levels.

  13. Analytic evaluation of a new glucose meter system in 15 different critical care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsios, John V; Ashby, Lori A; Haverstick, Doris M; Bruns, David E; Scott, Mitchell G

    2013-09-01

    Maintaining appropriate glycemic control in critically ill patients reduces morbidity and mortality. The use of point-of-care (POC) glucose devices is necessary to obtain rapid results at the patient's bedside. However, the devices should be thoroughly tested in the intended population before implementation. The use of POC glucose meters in critically ill patients has been questioned both in the literature and by regulatory agencies. The aim of this study was to determine if the ACCU-CHEK® Inform II system (Roche Diagnostics) POC glucose meter demonstrated the desired accuracy and precision, as defined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline POCT12-A3, in a large number of critically ill patients from multiple intensive care settings at two academic medical centers. A total of 1200 whole blood meter results from 600 patients were compared with central laboratory plasma values. Whole blood aliquots from venous samples were used to obtain duplicate meter results with the remaining sample being processed to obtain plasma for central laboratory testing within 5 min of meter testing. A total of 1185 (98.8%) of the new meter's glucose values were within ± 12.5% (± 12 mg/dl for values ≥ 100 mg/dl) of the comparative laboratory glucose values, and 1198 (99.8%) were within ± 20% (± 20 mg/dl for values meter system appears to have sufficient analytic accuracy for use in critically ill patients. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  14. Screening for hypoglycemia at the bedside in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with the Abbott PCx glucose meter

    OpenAIRE

    Balion, Cynthia; Grey, Vijaylaxmi; Ismaila, Afisi; Blatz, Susan; Seidlitz, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Point of care (POC) glucose meters are routinely used as a screening tool for hypoglycemia in a neonatal setting. Glucose meters however, lack the same accuracy as laboratory instruments for glucose measurement. In this study we investigated potential reasons for this inaccuracy and established a cut off value for confirmatory testing. Methods In this prospective study, all patients in the neonatal intensive care unit who had a plasma glucose test ordered were eligible to ...

  15. [Evaluation of Optium Xceed (Abbott) and One Touch Ultra (Lifescan) glucose meters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, S; Lacour, B; Hennequin-Le Meur, C

    2008-01-01

    In order to build a continuous quality improvement approach for control of glucose meters in clinical divisions at Necker-Enfants Malades hospital, the analytical performances (precision and accuracy) of 2 glucose meters have been evaluated in our laboratory according to SFBC recommendations. Fifty-six heparinized whole blood specimens from patients and thirty-nine from healthy volunteers were analyzed on each of the two meters and compared to plasma glucose measurement on the Roche Hitachi 917 system. The correlation coefficient was 0.938 for Optium Xceed and 0.911 for One Touch Ultra. However, 14.7% and 18.9% of the results (n = 95) for respectively Optium Xceed and One Touch Ultra were discordant, i.e. higher than a 20% difference compared to reference blood glucose concentrations. Inaccuracy was more important for low glucose concentrations (glucose concentrations. Capillary blood glucose concentrations must therefore be interpreted with caution concerning the diagnosis of hypoglycemia and treatment of unstable patients. Moreover, quality control of glucose meters (blood glucose determinations concurrently at bedside and in the laboratory) is difficult to perform. It also raises questions about the responsibility of "point-of-care testing", an area still subject to discussion.

  16. Factors interfering with the accuracy of five blood glucose meters used in Chinese hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hong; Zhang, Guo-jun; Kang, Xi-xiong; Yuan, Hui; Lv, Yan-wei; Wang, Wen-wen; Randall, Rollins

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing in China. Glucose control is very important in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of five glucose meters used in Chinese hospitals with a reference method, in the absence and presence of various factors that may interfere with the meters. Within-run precision of the meters was evaluated include Roche Accu-Chek Inform®, Abbott Precision PCx FreeStyle®, Bayer Contour®, J&J LifeScan SureStep Flexx®, and Nova Biomedical StatStrip®. The interference of hematocrit level, maltose, ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, galactose, dopamine, and uric acid were tested in three levels of blood glucose, namely low, medium, and high concentrations. Accuracy (bias) of the meters and analytical interference by various factors were evaluated by comparing results obtained in whole blood specimens with those in plasma samples of the whole blood specimens run on the reference method. Impact of oxygen tension on above five blood glucose meters was detected. Precision was acceptable and slightly different between meters. There were no significant differences in the measurements between the meters and the reference method. The hematocrit level significantly interfered with all meters, except StatStrip. Measurements were affected to varying degrees by different substances at different glucose levels, e.g. acetaminophen and ascorbic acid (Freestyle), maltose and galactose (FreeStyle, Accu-Chek), uric acid (FreeStyle, Bayer Contour), and dopamine (Bayer Contour). The measurements with the five meters showed a good correlation with the plasma hexokinase reference method, but most were affected by the hematocrit level. Some meters also showed marked interference by other substances. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Variable classifications of glycemic index determined by glucose meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Hsueh Amanda; Wu, Ming-Chang; Lin, Jenshinn

    2010-07-01

    THE STUDY EVALUATED AND COMPARED THE DIFFERENCES OF GLUCOSE RESPONSES, INCREMENTAL AREA UNDER CURVE (IAUC), GLYCEMIC INDEX (GI) AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF GI VALUES BETWEEN MEASURED BY BIOCHEMICAL ANALYZER (FUJI AUTOMATIC BIOCHEMISTRY ANALYZER (FAA)) AND THREE GLUCOSE METERS: Accue Chek Advantage (AGM), BREEZE 2 (BGM), and Optimum Xceed (OGM). Ten healthy subjects were recruited for the study. The results showed OGM yield highest postprandial glucose responses of 119.6 +/- 1.5, followed by FAA, 118.4 +/- 1.2, BGM, 117.4 +/- 1.4 and AGM, 112.6 +/- 1.3 mg/dl respectively. FAA reached highest mean IAUC of 4156 +/- 208 mg x min/dl, followed by OGM (3835 +/- 270 mg x min/dl), BGM (3730 +/- 241 mg x min/dl) and AGM (3394 +/- 253 mg x min/dl). Among four methods, OGM produced highest mean GI value than FAA (87 +/- 5) than FAA, followed by BGM and AGM (77 +/- 1, 68 +/- 4 and 63 +/- 5, pOGM are more variable methods to determine IAUC, GI and rank GI value of food than FAA. The present result does not necessarily apply to other glucose meters. The performance of glucose meter to determine GI value of food should be evaluated and calibrated before use.

  18. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... screening test between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The test may be done earlier if you ...

  19. Performance of a Modern Glucose Meter in ICU and General Hospital Inpatients: 3 Years of Real-World Paired Meter and Central Laboratory Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ray; Isakow, Warren; Kollef, Marin H; Scott, Mitchell G

    2017-09-01

    Due to accuracy concerns, the Food and Drug Administration issued guidances to manufacturers that resulted in Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services stating that the use of meters in critically ill patients is "off-label" and constitutes "high complexity" testing. This is causing significant workflow problems in ICUs nationally. We wished to determine whether real-world accuracy of modern glucose meters is worse in ICU patients compared with non-ICU inpatients. We reviewed glucose results over the preceding 3 years, comparing results from paired glucose meter and central laboratory tests performed within 60 minutes of each other in ICU versus non-ICU settings. Seven ICU and 30 non-ICU wards at a 1,300-bed academic hospital in the United States. A total of 14,763 general medicine/surgery inpatients and 20,970 ICU inpatients. None. Compared meter results with near simultaneously performed laboratory results from the same patient by applying the 2016 U.S. Food and Drug Administration accuracy criteria, determining mean absolute relative difference and examining where paired results fell within the Parkes consensus error grid zones. A higher percentage of glucose meter results from ICUs than from non-ICUs passed 2016 Food and Drug Administration accuracy criteria (p meter results with laboratory results. At 1 minute, no meter result from ICUs posed dangerous or significant risk by error grid analysis, whereas at 10 minutes, less than 0.1% of ICU meter results did, which was not statistically different from non-ICU results. Real-world accuracy of modern glucose meters is at least as accurate in the ICU setting as in the non-ICU setting at our institution.

  20. Screening for hypoglycemia at the bedside in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU with the Abbott PCx glucose meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila Afisi

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Point of care (POC glucose meters are routinely used as a screening tool for hypoglycemia in a neonatal setting. Glucose meters however, lack the same accuracy as laboratory instruments for glucose measurement. In this study we investigated potential reasons for this inaccuracy and established a cut off value for confirmatory testing. Methods In this prospective study, all patients in the neonatal intensive care unit who had a plasma glucose test ordered were eligible to participate. Demographic information, sample collection information (nine variables and a recent hematocrit value were recorded for each sample. Glucose measurements were taken at the bedside on the glucose meter (RN PCx as well as in the laboratory on both the glucose meter (LAB PCx and the laboratory analyzer (PG. Data were analyzed by simple and mixed-effects regression analysis and by analysis of a receiver operator characteristics (ROC curve. Results There were 475 samples analyzed from 132 patients. RN PCx values were higher than PG values (mean = 4.9%, while LAB PCx results were lower (mean = -5.2% than PG values. Only 31% of the difference between RN PCx – PG and 46% of the difference for LAB PCx – PG could be accounted for by the variables tested. The largest proportion of variance between PCx and PG measurements was explained by hematocrit (about 30% with a greater effect seen at glucose concentrations ≤4.0 mmol/L (≤72 mg/dL(48% and 40% for RN PCx and LAB PCx, respectively. The ROC analysis showed that for detection of all cases of hypoglycemia (PG Conclusion The large difference between glucose results obtained by PCx glucose meter compared to the laboratory analyzer can be explained in part by hematocrit and low glucose concentration. These results emphasize that the glucose meter is useful only as a screening device for neonatal hypoglycemia and that a screening cut off value must be established.

  1. Smart metering. Conformance tests for electricity meters; Smart Metering. Konformitaetstests an Stromzaehlern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bormann, Matthias; Pongratz, Siegfried [VDE Pruef- und Zertifizierungsinstitut, Offenbach (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Introduction of communication technologies into today's energy network enables the interworking between the domains of smart metering, smart grid, smart home and e-mobility as well as the creation and provisioning of new innovative services such as efficient load adjustment. Due to this convergence the new energy networks are becoming increasingly complex. Ensuring the interworking between all network elements (e.g. electricity meters, gateways) in these smart energy networks is of utmost importance. To this end conformance and interoperability tests have to be defined to ensure that services work as expected. (orig.)

  2. New, small, fast acting blood glucose meters--an analytical laboratory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitgasser, Raimund; Hofmann, Manuela; Gappmayer, Brigitta; Garstenauer, Christa

    2007-09-22

    Patients and medical personnel are eager to use blood glucose meters that are easy to handle and fast acting. We questioned whether accuracy and precision of these new, small and light weight devices would meet analytical laboratory standards and tested four meters with the above mentioned conditions. Approximately 300 capillary blood samples were collected and tested using two devices of each brand and two different types of glucose test strips. Blood from the same samples was used for comparison. Results were evaluated using maximum deviation of 5% and 10% from the comparative method, the error grid analysis, the overall deviation of the devices, the linear regression analysis as well as the CVs for measurement in series. Of all 1196 measurements a deviation of less than 5% resp. 10% from the reference method was found for the FreeStyle (FS) meter in 69.5% and 96%, the Glucocard X Meter (GX) in 44% and 75%, the One Touch Ultra (OT) in 29% and 60%, the Wellion True Track (WT) in 28.5% and 58%. The error grid analysis gave 99.7% for FS, 99% for GX, 98% for OT and 97% for WT in zone A. The remainder of the values lay within zone B. Linear regression analysis resembled these results. CVs for measurement in series showed higher deviations for OT and WT compared to FS and GX. The four new, small and fast acting glucose meters fulfil clinically relevant analytical laboratory requirements making them appropriate for use by medical personnel. However, with regard to the tight and restrictive limits of the ADA recommendations, the devices are still in need of improvement. This should be taken into account when the devices are used by primarily inexperienced persons and is relevant for further industrial development of such devices.

  3. Blood glucose meters employing dynamic electrochemistry are stable against hematocrit interference in a laboratory setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Musholt, Petra B; Schipper, Christina; Demircik, Filiz; Hengesbach, Carina; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Forst, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Hematocrit (HCT) is known to be a confounding factor that interferes with many blood glucose (BG) measurement technologies, resulting in wrong readings. Dynamic electrochemistry has been identified as one possible way to correct for these potential deviations. The purpose of this laboratory investigation was to assess the HCT stability of four BG meters known to employ dynamic electrochemistry (BGStar and iBGStar, Sanofi; Wavesense Jazz, AgaMatrix; Wellion Linus, MedTrust) in comparison with three other devices (GlucoDock, Medisana; OneTouch Verio Pro, LifeScan; FreeStyle Freedom InsuLinx, Abbott-Medisense). Venous heparinized blood was immediately aliquoted after draw and manipulated to contain three different BG concentrations (60-90, 130-160, and 280-320 mg/dl) and five different HCT levels (25%, 35%, 45%, 55%, and 60%). After careful oxygenation to normal blood oxygen pressure, each of the resulting 15 different samples was measured six times with three devices and three strip lots of each meter. The YSI Stat 2300 served as laboratory reference method. Stability to HCT influence was assumed when less than 10% difference occurred between the highest and lowest mean glucose deviations in relation to HCT concentrations [hematocrit interference factor (HIF)]. Five of the investigated self-test meters showed a stable performance with the different HCT levels tested in this investigation: BGStar (HIF 4.6%), iBGStar (6.6%), Wavesense Jazz (4.1%), Wellion Linus (8.5%), and OneTouch Verio Pro (6.2%). The two other meters were influenced by HCT (FreeStyle InsuLinx 17.8%; GlucoDock 46.5%). In this study, meters employing dynamic electrochemistry, as used in the BGStar and iBGStar devices, were shown to correct for potential HCT influence on the meter results. Dynamic electrochemistry appears to be an effective way to handle this interfering condition. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. Blood Glucose Meters Employing Dynamic Electrochemistry Are Stable against Hematocrit Interference in a Laboratory Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Musholt, Petra B.; Schipper, Christina; Demircik, Filiz; Hengesbach, Carina; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Forst, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Hematocrit (HCT) is known to be a confounding factor that interferes with many blood glucose (BG) measurement technologies, resulting in wrong readings. Dynamic electrochemistry has been identified as one possible way to correct for these potential deviations. The purpose of this laboratory investigation was to assess the HCT stability of four BG meters known to employ dynamic electrochemistry (BGStar and iBGStar, Sanofi; Wavesense Jazz, AgaMatrix; Wellion Linus, MedTrust) in comparison with three other devices (GlucoDock, Medisana; OneTouch Verio Pro, LifeScan; FreeStyle Freedom InsuLinx, Abbott-Medisense). Methods Venous heparinized blood was immediately aliquoted after draw and manipulated to contain three different BG concentrations (60–90, 130–160, and 280–320 mg/dl) and five different HCT levels (25%, 35%, 45%, 55%, and 60%). After careful oxygenation to normal blood oxygen pressure, each of the resulting 15 different samples was measured six times with three devices and three strip lots of each meter. The YSI Stat 2300 served as laboratory reference method. Stability to HCT influence was assumed when less than 10% difference occurred between the highest and lowest mean glucose deviations in relation to HCT concentrations [hematocrit interference factor (HIF)]. Results Five of the investigated self-test meters showed a stable performance with the different HCT levels tested in this investigation: BGStar (HIF 4.6%), iBGStar (6.6%), Wavesense Jazz (4.1%), Wellion Linus (8.5%), and OneTouch Verio Pro (6.2%). The two other meters were influenced by HCT (FreeStyle InsuLinx 17.8%; GlucoDock 46.5%). Conclusions In this study, meters employing dynamic electrochemistry, as used in the BGStar and iBGStar devices, were shown to correct for potential HCT influence on the meter results. Dynamic electrochemistry appears to be an effective way to handle this interfering condition. PMID:24351179

  5. Field test of coordinated ramp metering (CRM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    This project has focused on field implementation and testing of a Coordinated Ramp Metering (CRM) algorithm at California State Route 99 : Northbound corridor in Sacramento between Calvine Road and the SR50 interchange after 12th Ave. It is a 9 mile ...

  6. Screening for hypoglycemia at the bedside in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with the Abbott PCx glucose meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balion, Cynthia; Grey, Vijaylaxmi; Ismaila, Afisi; Blatz, Susan; Seidlitz, Wendy

    2006-11-03

    Point of care (POC) glucose meters are routinely used as a screening tool for hypoglycemia in a neonatal setting. Glucose meters however, lack the same accuracy as laboratory instruments for glucose measurement. In this study we investigated potential reasons for this inaccuracy and established a cut off value for confirmatory testing. In this prospective study, all patients in the neonatal intensive care unit who had a plasma glucose test ordered were eligible to participate. Demographic information, sample collection information (nine variables) and a recent hematocrit value were recorded for each sample. Glucose measurements were taken at the bedside on the glucose meter (RN PCx) as well as in the laboratory on both the glucose meter (LAB PCx) and the laboratory analyzer (PG). Data were analyzed by simple and mixed-effects regression analysis and by analysis of a receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve. There were 475 samples analyzed from 132 patients. RN PCx values were higher than PG values (mean = 4.9%), while LAB PCx results were lower (mean = -5.2%) than PG values. Only 31% of the difference between RN PCx--PG and 46% of the difference for LAB PCx--PG could be accounted for by the variables tested. The largest proportion of variance between PCx and PG measurements was explained by hematocrit (about 30%) with a greater effect seen at glucose concentrations LAB PCx, respectively). The ROC analysis showed that for detection of all cases of hypoglycemia (PG < 2.6 mmol/L)(PG < 47 mg/dL) the PCx screening cut off value would need to be set at 3.8 mmol/L (68 mg/dL) requiring 20% of all samples to have confirmatory analysis by the laboratory method. The large difference between glucose results obtained by PCx glucose meter compared to the laboratory analyzer can be explained in part by hematocrit and low glucose concentration. These results emphasize that the glucose meter is useful only as a screening device for neonatal hypoglycemia and that a screening

  7. Ultrasonic flow-meter test in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Y.; Uno, O.; Kamei, M.

    1978-01-01

    As a part of the R and D programme for the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU, an ultrasonic flow-meter (USFM) test is being carried out in sodium in the O-Arai Engineering Center of PNC. Prior to the present test, an in-water test was done at the manufacturer's as a preliminary investigation. The results reported here are the results up to the present. Calibration tests using the actual fluid were conducted on a 12-inch ultrasonic flow-meter with guide rods fabricated for sodium flow measurement. The test conditions in sodium were a temperature of 200 approximately 400 0 C and flow-rates of 0 approximately 6m/s. The main results are: (1) The linearity of output signal was good and accuracy was within 1%; (2) The alternating type of the USFM was much better than the fixed type in temperature change; (3) 2MHz of transducer frequency was better than 3MHz in sodium; (4) The S/N ratio of the ultrasonic signal and the length/diameter effect in a wide range in sodium surpassed the in-water test. (author)

  8. Cook and Chill: Effect of Temperature on the Performance of Nonequilibrated Blood Glucose Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Sherine; Steele, Dominic; Clarke, Sarah; Gribben, Cathryn; Bexley, Anne-Marie; Laan, Remmert; Kerr, David

    2015-08-20

    Exposure to extreme temperature can affect the performance of blood glucose monitoring systems. The aim was to determine the non-equilibrated performance of these systems at extreme high and low temperatures that can occur in daily life. The performances of 5 test systems, (1) Abbott FreeStyle Freedom Lite, (2) Roche AccuChek Aviva, (3) Bayer Contour, (4) LifeScan OneTouch Verio, and (5) Sanofi BG Star, were compared after "cooking" (50°C for 1 hour) or "chilling" (-5°C for 1 hour) with room temperature controls (23°C) using whole blood with glucose concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 mg/dl. The equilibration period (time from the end of incubation to when the test system is operational) was between 1 and 8 minutes, and each test system took between 15 and 30 minutes after incubation to obtain stable measurements at room temperature. Incubating the strips at -5°C or 50°C had little effect on the glucose measurement, whereas incubating the meters introduced bias in performance between 0 and 15 minutes but not subsequently, compared to room temperature controls and at all 3 glucose levels. Compensating technologies embedded within blood glucose monitoring systems studied here perform well at extreme temperatures. People with diabetes need to be alerted to this feature to avoid perceptions of malperformance of their devices and the possible inability to get blood glucose readings on short notice (eg, during time of suspected rapid change or before an unplanned meal). © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  9. Evaluation of Blood Glucose Meter Efficacy in an Antenatal Diabetes Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Rachel T; Donnelly, Vanessa C; Glastras, Sarah J; Preda, Veronica A; Sheriff, Nisa; Ward, Peter; Hocking, Samantha L; Fulcher, Gregory R

    2016-02-01

    The optimal treatment of diabetes in pregnancy requires accurate measurement of blood glucose levels, in order to minimize adverse outcomes for both mother and neonate. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is routinely used to measure glycemic control and to assess whether treatment targets are being met; however, the accuracy of blood glucose meters in pregnancy is unclear. Pregnant women with gestational, type 1, or type 2 diabetes mellitus were eligible to participate. Nonfasting capillary blood glucose levels were measured in duplicate using the BGStar(®) (Sanofi, Sydney, Australia) and FreeStyle Lite(®) (Abbott, Sydney) blood glucose meters. Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for plasma glucose, hematocrit, and glycated hemoglobin. Capillary blood glucose was compared with plasma glucose and further assessed according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2013 standards. One hundred ten women were recruited, providing 96 samples suitable for analysis. The mean ± SD laboratory plasma glucose level was 4.6 ± 1.4 mmol/L; the BGStar and FreeStyle Lite capillary blood glucose values were 5.3 ± 1.4 mmol/L and 5.0 ± 1.3 mmol/L, respectively. Both meters showed a positive bias (0.42 mmol/L for the FreeStyle Lite and 0.65 mmol/L for the BGStar). Furthermore, neither meter fulfilled the ISO 15197:2013 standards, and there was a nonsignificant improvement in meter performance at blood glucose levels of ≤4.2 mmol/L. Hematocrit did not affect the results of either blood glucose meter. Clarke Error Grid analysis demonstrated that approximately 70% of the results of both meters would lead to appropriate clinical action. The BGStar and FreeStyle Lite blood glucose meters did not meet ISO 15197:2013 recommendations for blood glucose monitoring systems when assessed in a population of women with diabetes in pregnancy. Clinicians should consider this difference in blood glucose readings when making diabetes

  10. Relative accuracy of the BD Logic and FreeStyle blood glucose meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    The BD Logic((R)) (Becton, Dickinson and Co., Franklin Lakes, NJ) and FreeStyle((R)) (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) meters are used to transmit data directly to insulin pumps for calculation of insulin doses and to calibrate continuous glucose sensors as well as to monitor blood glucose levels. The accuracy of the two meters was evaluated in two inpatient studies conducted by the Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet). In both studies, meter glucose measurements made with either venous or capillary blood were compared with reference glucose measurements made by the DirecNet Central Laboratory at the University of Minnesota using a hexokinase enzymatic method. The BD Logic tended to read lower than the laboratory reference regardless of whether venous (median difference = -9 mg/dL) or capillary blood (median difference = -7 mg/dL) was used. This resulted in lower accuracy of the BD Logic compared with the FreeStyle meter based on the median relative absolute difference (RAD) for both venous blood (median RAD, 9% vs. 5%, P blood (median RAD, 11% vs. 6%, P = 0.008). The greatest discrepancy in the performance of the two meters was at higher reference glucose values. Accuracy was not significantly different when the reference was < or = 70 mg/dL. The BD Logic meter is less accurate than the FreeStyle meter.

  11. Evaluation of a new portable glucose meter designed for the use in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, E; Moretti, S; Tschuor, F; Reusch, C E

    2009-09-01

    Portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs) are useful in the management of diabetes mellitus in cats. In the present study we compared the performance of two PBGMs: the AlphaTRAK (Abbott Animal Health, Maidenhead, England) specifically developed for dogs and cats, and the Ascensia ELITE (Bayer HealthCare, Zurich, Switzerland) developed for humans. Quality parameters, including precision and accuracy, were better for the AlphaTRAK meter compared to Ascensia ELITE. While the AlphaTRAK meter results did not differ from the reference method, results from the Ascensia ELITE were significantly (Pblood glucose levels in cats.

  12. Glucose meters: evaluation of the new formulation measuring strips from Roche (Accu-Chek) and Abbott (MediSense).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeski, G; Jones, B W; Tilley, V; Greenslade, M N; Russell, A W

    2010-07-01

    Both Roche and Abbott have released new glucose meter strips. They supply the entire Australian hospital market. The present study compared the performance of the new strips utilizing various specimen types (capillary, venous lithium heparin whole blood, venous lithium heparin plasma and serum) and evaluated how well they comply with the International Standards Organization (ISO) 15197 criteria. The study included imprecision, patient comparison and interference studies. Participants with and without diabetes were recruited to evaluate the performance of various specimen types against the Beckman DxC800 glucose method. The strips were tested for different interferences: galactose, maltose, lactose, Icodextrin, Intragam, paracetamol, sodium, ascorbic acid, variable strip storage temperature, haematocrit, haemolysis and lipaemia. The imprecision of the two strips was approximately 5% or less, except for the Abbott strip at very low values (1.4 mmol/L), approximately 7%. In total, 78% and 84%, respectively, of the results from the finger prick capillary specimens with the Roche (Accu-Chek Performa meter) and Abbott (Optium Xceed meter) strips, not 95% or greater as recommended by the ISO guideline, were within the recommended limits compared with reference plasma estimation on laboratory analysers. Galactose, ascorbic acid, haematocrit and sodium on the Roche and ascorbic acid and haematocrit on the Abbott strip continue to interfere to a variable degree with the glucose measurement. Analytically small differences exist between the glucose meter strips. The most significant analytical difference with the strips was at low glucose levels when compared with laboratory analyses and this may be of clinical importance. The impact of some of the interferences is variable between the two strips. Individuals, health-care professionals and health-care institutions should consider these data when selecting glucose meters for the management of people with diabetes mellitus.

  13. CSF glucose test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the space surrounding the spinal cord and brain. ... Abnormal results include higher and lower glucose levels. Abnormal results may be due to: Infection (bacterial or fungus) Inflammation of the central nervous system Tumor

  14. A glucose meter evaluation co-designed with both health professional and consumer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Harmony; Chan, Huan; Logan, Florence J; Heenan, Helen F; Taylor, Lynne; Murray, Chris; Florkowski, Christopher M; Frampton, Christopher M A; Lunt, Helen

    2013-11-22

    Health consumer's input into assessment of medical device safety is traditionally given either as part of study outcome (trial participants) or during post marketing surveillance. Direct consumer input into the methodological design of device assessment is less common. We discuss the difference in requirements for assessment of a measuring device from the consumer and clinician perspectives, using the example of hand held glucose meters. Around 80,000 New Zealanders with diabetes recently changed their glucose meter system, to enable ongoing access to PHARMAC subsidised meters and strips. Consumers were most interested in a direct comparison of their 'old' meter system (Accu-Chek Performa) with their 'new' meter system (CareSens brand, including the CareSens N POP), rather than comparisons against a laboratory standard. This direct comparison of meter/strip systems showed that the CareSens N POP meter read around 0.6 mmol/L higher than the Performa system. Whilst this difference is unlikely to result in major errors in clinical decision making such as major insulin dosing errors, this information is nevertheless of interest to consumers who switched meters so that they could maintain access to PHARMAC subsidised meters and strips. We recommend that when practical, the consumer perspective be incorporated into study design related to medical device assessment.

  15. Importance of manually entering blood glucose readings when wireless-compatible meters are not being used with an insulin pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Kimberly A; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Wang, Yuxia; Tang, Yuanyuan; Gill, Elizabeth C; Mitchell, Adela; Wright, Nancy; Deeb, Larry C

    2013-07-01

    The objective was to determine if there were differences in blood glucose monitoring (BGM) data downloaded from insulin pumps of patients who use meters that wirelessly transmit data to their insulin pumps (i.e., wireless group) and those who do not (i.e., nonwireless group). Blood glucose monitoring data were downloaded from the meters and insulin pumps of 47 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Independent and paired t tests compared BGM data downloaded from meters and BGM data downloaded from insulin pumps. There were significant differences in BGM data downloaded from the insulin pumps of patients using wireless meters compared to those using nonwireless meters. Wireless patients appeared to engage in more BGM, had more low and in-range BG readings and fewer very high BG readingss than nonwireless patients. However, a comparison of BGM data downloaded from meters and insulin pumps of nonwireless patients indicated that their insulin pump data significantly underestimated the number of BGM readings conducted, as well as the number of low and in-range readings, while overestimating the number of very high BGM readings. Because patients who use nonwireless-compatible meters do not manually enter their low and in-range BGM readings into the insulin pump, BGM data downloaded only from pumps may provide an incomplete representation of BGM frequency or results. It is recommended that patients use meters that directly communicate with pumps or perform bolus calculations. Patients should be educated about the importance of manually entering all BGM readings if they do not use a wireless-compatible meter with their insulin pump. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  16. Transforming the blood glucose meter into a general healthcare meter for in vitro diagnostics in mobile health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian; Zhang, Jingjing; Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in mobile network and smartphones have provided an enormous opportunity for transforming in vitro diagnostics (IVD) from central labs to home or other points of care (POC). A major challenge to achieving the goal is a long time and high costs associated with developing POC IVD devices in mobile Health (mHealth). Instead of developing a new POC device for every new IVD target, we and others are taking advantage of decades of research, development, engineering and continuous improvement of the blood glucose meter (BGM), including those already integrated with smartphones, and transforming the BGM into a general healthcare meter for POC IVDs of a wide range of biomarkers, therapeutic drugs and other analytical targets. In this review, we summarize methods to transduce and amplify selective binding of targets by antibodies, DNA/RNA aptamers, DNAzyme/ribozymes and protein enzymes into signals such as glucose or NADH that can be measured by commercially available BGM, making it possible to adapt many clinical assays performed in central labs, such as immunoassays, aptamer/DNAzyme assays, molecular diagnostic assays, and enzymatic activity assays onto BGM platform for quantification of non-glucose targets for a wide variety of IVDs in mHealth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Accuracy of Capillary and Arterial Whole Blood Glucose Measurements Using a Glucose Meter in Patients under General Anesthesia in the Operating Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karon, Brad S; Donato, Leslie J; Larsen, Chelsie M; Siebenaler, Lindsay K; Wells, Amy E; Wood-Wentz, Christina M; Shirk-Marienau, Mary E; Curry, Timothy B

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a glucose meter with surgical patients under general anesthesia in the operating room. Glucose measurements were performed intraoperatively on 368 paired capillary and arterial whole blood samples using a Nova StatStrip (Nova Biomedical, USA) glucose meter and compared with 368 reference arterial whole blood glucose measurements by blood gas analyzer in 196 patients. Primary outcomes were median bias (meter minus reference), percentage of glucose meter samples meeting accuracy criteria for subcutaneous insulin dosing as defined by Parkes error grid analysis for type 1 diabetes mellitus, and accuracy criteria for intravenous insulin infusion as defined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Time under anesthesia, patient position, diabetes status, and other variables were studied to determine whether any affected glucose meter bias. Median bias (interquartile range) was -4 mg/dl (-9 to 0 mg/dl), which did not differ from median arterial meter bias of -5 mg/dl (-9 to -1 mg/dl; P = 0.32). All of the capillary and arterial glucose meter values met acceptability criteria for subcutaneous insulin dosing, whereas only 89% (327 of 368) of capillary and 93% (344 of 368) arterial glucose meter values met accuracy criteria for intravenous insulin infusion. Time, patient position, and diabetes status were not associated with meter bias. Capillary and arterial blood glucose measured using the glucose meter are acceptable for intraoperative subcutaneous insulin dosing. Whole blood glucose on the meter did not meet accuracy guidelines established specifically for more intensive (e.g., intravenous insulin) glycemic control in the acute care environment.

  18. Evaluation of the agreement among three handheld blood glucose meters and a laboratory blood analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; Mitchell, Mark A; Schuster, Patricia J; Freeman, Diana; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-02-01

    To determine the degree of agreement between 3 commercially available point-of-care blood glucose meters and a laboratory analyzer for measurement of blood glucose concentrations in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 20 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A 26-gauge needle and 3-mL syringe were used to obtain a blood sample (approx 0.5 mL) from a jugular vein of each parrot. Small volumes of blood (0.6 to 1.5 microL) were used to operate each of the blood glucose meters, and the remainder was placed into lithium heparin microtubes and centrifuged. Plasma was harvested and frozen at -30 degrees C. Within 5 days after collection, plasma samples were thawed and plasma glucose concentrations were measured by means of the laboratory analyzer. Agreement between pairs of blood glucose meters and between each blood glucose meter and the laboratory analyzer was evaluated by means of the Bland-Altman method, and limits of agreement (LOA) were calculated. None of the results of the 3 blood glucose meters agreed with results of the laboratory analyzer. Each point-of-care blood glucose meter underestimated the blood glucose concentration, and the degree of negative bias was not consistent (meter A bias, -94.9 mg/dL [LOA, -148.0 to -41.7 mg/dL]; meter B bias, -52 mg/dL [LOA, -107.5 to 3.5 mg/dL]; and meter C bias, -78.9 mg/dL [LOA, -137.2 to -20.6 mg/dL]). On the basis of these results, use of handheld blood glucose meters in the diagnosis or treatment of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and other psittacines cannot be recommended.

  19. How Satisfied Are Patients When Their Choice of Funded Glucose Meter Is Restricted to a Single Brand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Christy; Lunt, Helen; Downie, Michelle; Kendall, Deborah

    2017-09-01

    Many governments and insurers are driving down the cost of medical devices, including glucose meters, by the central management of purchasing decisions. We report patients' responses to an "enforced" change in brand of glucose meter, one year after the introduction of a national sole supplier arrangement for funded glucose meters and strips. Specialist diabetes clinic attendees from two geographical locations completed a questionnaire one year after the final meter changeover date. In the first location, consecutive patients were asked to complete a glucose meter satisfaction questionnaire during their clinic visit. In the second location, this questionnaire was mailed to clinic attendees. Responses to open questions were analyzed thematically. Response rates were 85% and 31% from the first and second locations, respectively and 378 questionnaires were suitable for analysis, 309 from the first and 69 from the second location. Insulin users composed 90% of participants. Results from the two locations were broadly similar. Most participants adapted well to the changeover, however 36% reported ongoing dissatisfaction with their "new" meter. The commonest concern, expressed by 23% of participants, related to meter accuracy and precision. One year after glucose meter changeover, a third of participants expressed dissatisfaction with their meter, with many participants describing a failure to adapt to the sole supplier arrangement. Providing a choice of meters and strips, ideally from two or more brands that have demonstrable differences in technical and ergonomic features, is likely to produce higher overall patient satisfaction than is a sole supplier arrangement.

  20. Development and Testing of Infrared Water Current Meter | Ezenne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuous monitoring of the river flow is essential for assessing water availability. River flow velocity is crucial to simulate discharge hydrographs of water in the hydrological system.This study developed a digital water current meter with infrared. The infrared current meter was tested using Ebonyi River at Obollo-Etiti and ...

  1. Use of a Connected Glucose Meter and Certified Diabetes Educator Coaching to Decrease the Likelihood of Abnormal Blood Glucose Excursions: The Livongo for Diabetes Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Janelle; Bollyky, Jenna; Schneider, Jennifer

    2017-07-11

    The Livongo for Diabetes Program offers members (1) a cellular technology-enabled, two-way messaging device that measures blood glucose (BG), centrally stores the glucose data, and delivers messages back to the individual in real time; (2) unlimited BG test strips; and (3) access to a diabetes coaching team for questions, goal setting, and automated support for abnormal glucose excursions. The program is sponsored by at-risk self-insured employers, health plans and provider organizations where it is free to members with diabetes or it is available directly to the person with diabetes where they cover the cost. The objective of our study was to evaluate BG data from 4544 individuals with diabetes who were enrolled in the Livongo program from October 2014 through December 2015. Members used the Livongo glucose meter to measure their BG levels an average of 1.8 times per day. We estimated the probability of having a day with a BG reading outside of the normal range (70-180 mg/dL, or 3.9-10.0 mmol/L) in months 2 to 12 compared with month 1 of the program, using individual fixed effects to control for individual characteristics. Livongo members experienced an average 18.4% decrease in the likelihood of having a day with hypoglycemia (BG 180 mg/dL) in months 2-12 compared with month 1 as the baseline. The biggest impact was seen on hyperglycemia for nonusers of insulin. We do not know all of the contributing factors such as medication or other treatment changes during the study period. These findings suggest that access to a connected glucose meter and certified diabetes educator coaching is associated with a decrease in the likelihood of abnormal glucose excursions, which can lead to diabetes-related health care savings. ©Janelle Downing, Jenna Bollyky, Jennifer Schneider. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 11.07.2017.

  2. Analysis of the Nova Stat Strip® Glucose Meter for Real-Time Blood Glucose Determinations During Glucose Clamp Studies: “Don't Swap Horses in Midstream”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Lutz

    2010-01-01

    Proper performance of glucose clamps is critically dependent on reliable blood glucose (BG) measurements. A number of requirements have to be fulfilled by a system that aims to replace the laboratory devices that are currently in use. Many more aspects need to be taken into account besides the accuracy of BG measurement. It might very well be that the BG meter studied by Rabiee and colleagues in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology fulfills most or all of such requirements; however, these aspects have to be tested more thoroughly before one switches from an established measurement method to the Nova Stat Strip® glucometer. PMID:20920441

  3. Impact of Glucose Meter Error on Glycemic Variability and Time in Target Range During Glycemic Control After Cardiovascular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karon, Brad S; Meeusen, Jeffrey W; Bryant, Sandra C

    2015-08-25

    We retrospectively studied the impact of glucose meter error on the efficacy of glycemic control after cardiovascular surgery. Adult patients undergoing intravenous insulin glycemic control therapy after cardiovascular surgery, with 12-24 consecutive glucose meter measurements used to make insulin dosing decisions, had glucose values analyzed to determine glycemic variability by both standard deviation (SD) and continuous overall net glycemic action (CONGA), and percentage glucose values in target glucose range (110-150 mg/dL). Information was recorded for 70 patients during each of 2 periods, with different glucose meters used to measure glucose and dose insulin during each period but no other changes to the glycemic control protocol. Accuracy and precision of each meter were also compared using whole blood specimens from ICU patients. Glucose meter 1 (GM1) had median bias of 11 mg/dL compared to a laboratory reference method, while glucose meter 2 (GM2) had a median bias of 1 mg/dL. GM1 and GM2 differed little in precision (CV = 2.0% and 2.7%, respectively). Compared to the period when GM1 was used to make insulin dosing decisions, patients whose insulin dose was managed by GM2 demonstrated reduced glycemic variability as measured by both SD (13.7 vs 21.6 mg/dL, P meter error (bias) was associated with decreased glycemic variability and increased percentage of values in target glucose range for patients placed on intravenous insulin therapy following cardiovascular surgery. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. Accuracy and precision of four value-added blood glucose meters: the Abbott Optium, the DDI Prodigy, the HDI True Track, and the HypoGuard Assure Pro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Catherine A; Kane, Michael P; Bakst, Gary; Busch, Robert S; Abelseth, Jill M; Hamilton, Robert A

    2009-09-01

    This study compared the accuracy and precision of four value-added glucose meters. Finger stick glucose measurements in diabetes patients were performed using the Abbott Diabetes Care (Alameda, CA) Optium, Diagnostic Devices, Inc. (Miami, FL) DDI Prodigy, Home Diagnostics, Inc. (Fort Lauderdale, FL) HDI True Track Smart System, and Arkray, USA (Minneapolis, MN) HypoGuard Assure Pro. Finger glucose measurements were compared with laboratory reference results. Accuracy was assessed by a Clarke error grid analysis (EGA), a Parkes EGA, and within 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of the laboratory value criteria (chi2 analysis). Meter precision was determined by calculating absolute mean differences in glucose values between duplicate samples (Kruskal-Wallis test). Finger sticks were obtained from 125 diabetes patients, of which 90.4% were Caucasian, 51.2% were female, 83.2% had type 2 diabetes, and average age of 59 years (SD 14 years). Mean venipuncture blood glucose was 151 mg/dL (SD +/-65 mg/dL; range, 58-474 mg/dL). Clinical accuracy by Clarke EGA was demonstrated in 94% of Optium, 82% of Prodigy, 61% of True Track, and 77% of the Assure Pro samples (P Abbott Optium was significantly more accurate than the other meter systems, whereas the HDI True Track was significantly less accurate and less precise compared to the other meter systems.

  5. Demonstration of disinfection procedure for the development of accurate blood glucose meters in accordance with ISO 15197:2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Ye; Chang, Jung-Tzu; Chu, Chun-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Despite measures to reduce disease transmission, a risk can occur when blood glucose meters (BGMs) are used on multiple individuals or by caregivers assisting a patient. The laboratory and in-clinic performance of a BGM system before and after disinfection should be demonstrated to guarantee accurate readings and reliable control of blood glucose (BG) for patients. In this study, an effective disinfection procedure, conducting wiping 10 times to assure a one minute contact time of the disinfectant on contaminated surface, was first demonstrated using test samples of the meter housing materials, including acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), and polycarbonate (PC), in accordance with ISO 15197:2013. After bench studies comprising 10,000 disinfection cycles, the elemental compositions of the disinfected ABS, PMMA, and PC samples were almost the same as in the original samples, as indicated by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. Subsequently, the validated disinfection procedure was then directly applied to disinfect 5 commercial BGM systems composed of ABS, PMMA, or PC to observe the effect of the validated disinfection procedure on meter accuracy. The results of HBsAg values after treatment with HBV sera and disinfectant wipes for each material were less than the LoD of each material of 0.020 IU/mL. Before and after the multiple disinfection cycles, 900 of 900 samples (100%) were within the system accuracy requirements of ISO 15197:2013. All of the systems showed high performance before and after the series of disinfection cycles and met the ISO 15197:2013 requirements. In addition, our results demonstrated multiple cleaning and disinfection cycles that represented normal use over the lifetime of a meter of 3–5 years. Our validated cleaning and disinfection procedure can be directly applied to other registered disinfectants for cleaning commercial BGM products in the future. PMID:28683148

  6. Glucose in Urine Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... glucose test to help make a diagnosis. References American Diabetes Association [Internet]. Arlington (VA): American Diabetes Association; c1995–2017. Checking Your Blood Glucose [cited 2017 ...

  7. Transmutation of Personal Glucose Meters into Portable and Highly Sensitive Microbial Pathogen Detection Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Zhaowei; Gao, Nan; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2015-10-07

    Herein, for the first time, we presented a simple and general approach by using personal glucose meters (PGM) for portable and ultrasensitive detection of microbial pathogens. Upon addition of pathogenic bacteria, glucoamylase-quaternized magnetic nanoparticles (GA-QMNPS) conjugates were disrupted by the competitive multivalent interactions between bacteria and QMNPS, resulting in the release of GA. After magnetic separation, the free GA could catalyze the hydrolysis of amylose into glucose for quantitative readout by PGM. In such way, PGM was transmuted into a bacterial detection device and extremely low detection limits down to 20 cells mL(-1) was achieved. More importantly, QMNPS could inhibit the growth of the bacteria and destroy its cellular structure, which enabled bacteria detection and inhibition simultaneously. The simplicity, portability, sensitivity and low cost of presented work make it attractive for clinical applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Evaluation of newly developed veterinary portable blood glucose meter with hematocrit correction in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akihiro; Oda, Hitomi; Onozawa, Eri; Shono, Saori; Sako, Toshinori

    2017-10-07

    This study evaluated the accuracy of a newly developed veterinary portable blood glucose meter (PBGM) with hematocrit correction in dogs and cats. Sixty-one dogs and 31 cats were used for the current study. Blood samples were obtained from each dog and cat one to six times. Acceptable results were obtained in error grid analysis between PBGM and reference method values (glucose oxidation methods) in both dogs and cats. Bland-Altman plot analysis revealed a mean difference between the PBGM value and reference method value of -1.975 mg/dl (bias) in dogs and 1.339 mg/dl (bias) in cats. Hematocrit values did not affect the results of the veterinary PBGM. Therefore, this veterinary PBGM is clinically useful in dogs and cats.

  9. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for energy. People with untreated diabetes have high blood glucose levels. Most often, the first tests used to diagnose ... in people who are not pregnant are: Fasting blood glucose level: diabetes is diagnosed if it is higher than ...

  10. Prediction of Glucose Tolerance without an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Babbar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionImpaired glucose tolerance (IGT is diagnosed by a standardized oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. However, the OGTT is laborious, and when not performed, glucose tolerance cannot be determined from fasting samples retrospectively. We tested if glucose tolerance status is reasonably predictable from a combination of demographic, anthropometric, and laboratory data assessed at one time point in a fasting state.MethodsGiven a set of 22 variables selected upon clinical feasibility such as sex, age, height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbA1c, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, serum potassium, fasting levels of insulin, C-peptide, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, proinsulin, prolactin, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, HDL, uric acid, liver transaminases, and ferritin, we used supervised machine learning to estimate glucose tolerance status in 2,337 participants of the TUEF study who were recruited before 2012. We tested the performance of 10 different machine learning classifiers on data from 929 participants in the test set who were recruited after 2012. In addition, reproducibility of IGT was analyzed in 78 participants who had 2 repeated OGTTs within 1 year.ResultsThe most accurate prediction of IGT was reached with the recursive partitioning method (accuracy = 0.78. For all classifiers, mean accuracy was 0.73 ± 0.04. The most important model variable was fasting glucose in all models. Using mean variable importance across all models, fasting glucose was followed by NEFA, triglycerides, HbA1c, and C-peptide. The accuracy of predicting IGT from a previous OGTT was 0.77.ConclusionMachine learning methods yield moderate accuracy in predicting glucose tolerance from a wide set of clinical and laboratory variables. A substitution of OGTT does not currently seem to be feasible. An important constraint could be the limited reproducibility of glucose tolerance status during a

  11. Performance of strip-based glucose meters and cassette-based blood gas analyzer for monitoring glucose levels in a surgical intensive care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claerhout, Helena; De Prins, Martine; Mesotten, Dieter; Van den Berghe, Greet; Mathieu, Chantal; Van Eldere, Johan; Vanstapel, Florent

    2016-01-01

    We verified the analytical performance of strip-based handheld glucose meters (GM) for prescription use, in a comparative split-sample protocol using blood gas samples from a surgical intensive care unit (ICU). Freestyle Precision Pro (Abbott), StatStrip Connectivity Meter (Nova), ACCU-CHEK Inform II (Roche) were evaluated for recovery/linearity, imprecision/repeatability. The GMs and the ABL90 (Radiometer) blood gas analyzer (BGA) were tested for relative accuracy vs. the comparator hexokinase glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (HK/G6PDH) assay on a Cobas c702 analyzer (Roche). Recovery of spiked glucose was linear up to 19.3 mmol/L (347 mg/dL) with a slope of 0.91-0.94 for all GMs. Repeatability estimated by pooling duplicate measurements on samples below (n=9), in (n=51) or above (n=80) the 4.2-5.9 mM (74-106 mg/dL) range were for Freestyle Precision Pro: 4.2%, 4.0%, 3.6%; StatStrip Connectivity Meter: 4.0%, 4.3%, 4.5%; and ACCU-CHEK Inform II: 1.4%, 2.5%, 3.5%. GMs were in agreement with the comparator method. The BGA outperformed the GMs, with a MARD of 3.9% compared to 6.5%, 5.8% and 4.4% for the FreeStyle, StatStrip and ACCU-CHEK, respectively. Zero % of the BGA results deviated more than the FDA 10% criterion as compared to 9.4%, 3.7% and 2.2% for the FreeStyle, StatStrip and ACCU-CHEK, respectively. For all GMs, icodextrin did not interfere. Variation in the putative influence factors hematocrit and O2 tension could not explain observed differences with the comparator method. GMs quantified blood glucose in whole blood at about the 10% total error criterion, proposed by the FDA for prescription use.

  12. The Impact of 200 Meter Breast Stroke Swimming Activity on Blood Glucose Level of The Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahrastani, S.; Badri, H.; Argantos, A.; Yuniarti, E.

    2018-04-01

    Blood sugar in the human body is very important, as it is a source of energy for humans. Fasting blood sugar needs to be recognized, because it is an indicator of a person’s health. The research that has been done aims to determine the effect of physical activity on fasting blood sugar. This research is a quasi-experimental research. The research was conducted on 15 students of FIK UNP Padang, who have passed the swimming course. Blood was taken before and after doing physical exercise activity of 200 meter breaststroke swimming. Data collection was conducted with tests and measurements. The data analysis technique used inference statistics with t test formula, with α = 0.05. From the results it is obtained that there is a very significant impact on blood sugar levels after 200 meters breaststroke swimming activity with p <0.05

  13. Reliability of 4-meter and 10-meter walk tests after lower extremity surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unver, Bayram; Baris, Refik Hilmi; Yuksel, Ertugrul; Cekmece, Senol; Kalkan, Serpil; Karatosun, Vasfi

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the test-retest reliability of the 4-meter walk test (4 MWT) and 10-meter walk test (10 MWT) in patients undergoing lower extremity surgery during inpatient rehabilitation. In all, 102 patients with total hip arthroplasty (THA), total knee arthroplasty (TKA), lower extremity fracture (LEF) and soft tissue operation were recruited. Patients performed two 4 MWT and two 10 MWT trials on the same day. The same researcher performed all the measurements to avoid inter-rater variability. The 4 MWT and 10 MWT were shown to have excellent test-retest reliability. The ICCs for the 4 MWT and 10 MWT were found as 0.94 and 0.95, respectively. The SEMs for the 4 MWT and 10 MWT were 2.0 and 5.5 seconds, respectively. The smallest real difference at the 95% confidence level (SRD95) was 5.5 seconds for the 4 MWT and 12.2 seconds for 10 MWT and SRD95 percentage was 31.2 for the 4 MWT and 28.5 for the 10 MWT. Both the 4 MWT and the 10 MWT have excellent reliability in patients undergoing lower extremity surgery such as TKA, THA, LEF and soft tissue operation during inpatient rehabilitation. Clinicians and researchers can be confident that changes above the SRD95s for the different patient groups, for both sexes and with regard to weight-bearing status, represent a real clinical change in rehabilitation process. Implications for Rehabilitation The 4 MWT and the 10 MWT are simple methods and were also shown to be reliable measurement methods in many patient groups. This study illustrates that the test-retest reliability of the 4 MWT and 10 MWT are excellent in patients undergoing lower extremity surgery during inpatient rehabilitation (ICC: 0.94 for 4 MWT, ICC: 0.95 for 10 MWT). Clinicians and researchers can be confident that changes above the SRD95s for the different patient groups, for both sexes and with regard to weight-bearing status represent a real clinical change in rehabilitation process.

  14. Modal Test of Six-Meter Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nijo; Buehrle, Ralph; Templeton, Justin; Lindell, Mike; Hancock, Sean M.

    2014-01-01

    A modal test was performed on the six-meter Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) test article to gain a firm understanding of the dynamic characteristics of the unloaded structure within the low frequency range. The tests involved various configurations of the HIAD to understand the influence of the tri-torus, the varying pressure within the toroids and the influence of straps. The primary test was conducted utilizing an eletrodynamic shaker and the results were verified using a step relaxation technique. The analysis results show an increase in the structure's stiffness with respect to increasing pressure. The results also show the rise of coupled modes with the tri-torus configurations. During the testing activity, the attached straps exhibited a behavior that is similar to that described as fuzzy structures in the literature. Therefore extensive tests were also performed by utilizing foam to mitigate these effects as well as understand the modal parameters of these fuzzy sub structures. Results are being utilized to update the finite element model of the six-meter HIAD and to gain a better understanding of the modeling of complex inflatable structures.

  15. Detection of glutathione based on MnO2 nanosheet-gated mesoporous silica nanoparticles and target induced release of glucose measured with a portable glucose meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qingqing; Zhang, Ruirui; Kong, Rongmei; Kong, Weisu; Zhao, Wenzhi; Qu, Fengli

    2017-12-08

    The authors describe a novel method for the determination of glutathione (GSH). Detection is based on target induced release of glucose from MnO 2 nanosheet-gated aminated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). In detail, glucose is loaded into the pores of MSNs. Negatively charged MnO 2 nanosheets are assembled on the MSNs through electrostatic interactions. The nanosheets are reduced by GSH, and this results in the release of glucose which is quantified by using a commercial electrochemical glucose meter. GSH can be quantified by this method in the 100 nM to 10 μM concentration range, with a 34 nM limit of detection. Graphical abstract Glucose is loaded into the pores of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). MnO 2 nanosheets are assembled on MSNs through electrostatic interactions. Glutathione (GSH) can reduce the nanosheets, and this results in the release of glucose which is quantified by using a commercial glucose meter.

  16. Evaluation of an Electrochemical Point-of-Care Meter for Measuring Glucose Concentration in Blood from Periparturient Dairy Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, A A; Hiew, M W H; Townsend, J R; Messick, J B; Constable, P D

    2015-01-01

    The Precision Xtra(®) meter is a promising low cost electrochemical point-of-care unit for measuring blood glucose concentration ([gluc]) in cattle blood. The meter uses an algorithm that assumes the intra-erythrocyte [gluc] equals the plasma [gluc] on a molal basis, and that the hematocrit is similar in humans and cattle. The primary objective was to determine the accuracy of the meter for measuring plasma [gluc] in dairy cattle. Secondary objectives were to characterize the influence of hematocrit and sample temperature on the measured value for [gluc]. A total of 106 periparturient Holstein-Friesian cattle. Blood and plasma samples (1,109) were obtained and Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to determine the accuracy of the meter against the reference method (plasma hexokinase assay). Multivariable regression and linear regression were used to determine the effect of hematocrit and sample temperature on the plasma [gluc] measured by the meter. Intra-erythrocyte [gluc] was 18% of plasma [gluc] on a molar basis. Sample temperature had a significant linear effect on plasma [gluc] as measured by the meter for 3/5 plasma samples when measured [gluc] > 160 mg/dL. The meter utilizes an algorithm that is optimized for human blood and is inaccurate when applied to bovine blood. Until a cattle-specific algorithm is developed, we recommend using plasma as the analyte instead of blood and calculating plasma [gluc] using the equation: [gluc] = 0.66 × [gluc]p-meter + 15, where [gluc]p-meter is the value reported by the meter. If blood is measured, then we recommend using the equation: [gluc] = 0.90 × [gluc]b-meter + 15. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Performance of a glucose meter with a built-in automated bolus calculator versus manual bolus calculation in insulin-using subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Allen; Taylor, Elizabeth J; Patel, Mona; Ward, Jeanne; Alva, Shridhara; Lawrence, Andrew; Ng, Ronald

    2012-03-01

    Patients consider multiple parameters in adjusting prandial insulin doses for optimal glycemic control. Difficulties in calculations can lead to incorrect doses or induce patients to administer fixed doses, rely on empirical estimates, or skip boluses. A multicenter study was conducted with 205 diabetes subjects who were on multiple daily injections of rapid/ short-acting insulin. Using the formula provided, the subjects manually calculated two prandial insulin doses based on one high and one normal glucose test result, respectively. They also determined the two doses using the FreeStyle InsuLinx Blood Glucose Monitoring System, which has a built-in, automated bolus calculator. After dose determinations, the subjects completed opinion surveys. Of the 409 insulin doses manually calculated by the subjects, 256 (63%) were incorrect. Only 23 (6%) of the same 409 dose determinations were incorrect using the meter, and these errors were due to either confirmed or potential deviations from the study instructions by the subjects when determining dose with meter. In the survey, 83% of the subjects expressed more confidence in the meter-calculated doses than the manually calculated doses. Furthermore, 87% of the subjects preferred to use the meter than manual calculation to determine prandial insulin doses. Insulin-using patients made errors in more than half of the manually calculated insulin doses. Use of the automated bolus calculator in the FreeStyle InsuLinx meter minimized errors in dose determination. The patients also expressed confidence and preference for using the meter. This may increase adherence and help optimize the use of mealtime insulin. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  18. Blood Glucose Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Glucose Monitoring; 317 p. National Cancer ...

  19. Blood glucose monitoring and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: meter downloads versus self-report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Shanna M; Crimmins, Nancy A; Hood, Korey K

    2011-09-01

    Reported frequencies of blood glucose monitoring (BGM) by both adolescents and their caregivers serve as adherence proxies when meter downloads are not available. Yet, correlates of reported BGM frequencies and their predictive utility are understudied. To identify sociodemographic, psychological, and disease-specific correlates of reported BGM frequencies in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and to explore the predictive utility of BGM indices on glycemic control. Study participants included caregivers and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (N=143, 13-18 yr) receiving diabetes treatment at a tertiary care setting. At the initial visit, adolescents and caregivers reported on daily BGM frequencies. A sub-sample provided meter downloads. Adolescents also completed a depression inventory. Three months later, adolescents provided blood sampling for A1c assessment. Multivariate general linear modeling identified that older adolescent age and more depressive symptoms were associated with reports of less frequent BGM. Two stepwise multivariate regression models examined the predictive utility of BGM indices (i.e., adolescent-reported BGM, caregiver-reported BGM, meter download) on glycemic control. Caregiver-reported BGM frequency predicted glycemic control in the absence of meter download data (pmeter download data were the most robust predictor of glycemic control (pMeter downloads have the most robust association with glycemic control when contextual variables are considered. Caregiver-reported BGM frequencies can serve as reliable substitutes in the absence of meter download, but they may not be as reliable in adolescents with depressive symptoms. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Reducing patient identification errors related to glucose point-of-care testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Alreja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patient identification (ID errors in point-of-care testing (POCT can cause test results to be transferred to the wrong patient′s chart or prevent results from being transmitted and reported. Despite the implementation of patient barcoding and ongoing operator training at our institution, patient ID errors still occur with glucose POCT. The aim of this study was to develop a solution to reduce identification errors with POCT. Materials and Methods: Glucose POCT was performed by approximately 2,400 clinical operators throughout our health system. Patients are identified by scanning in wristband barcodes or by manual data entry using portable glucose meters. Meters are docked to upload data to a database server which then transmits data to any medical record matching the financial number of the test result. With a new model, meters connect to an interface manager where the patient ID (a nine-digit account number is checked against patient registration data from admission, discharge, and transfer (ADT feeds and only matched results are transferred to the patient′s electronic medical record. With the new process, the patient ID is checked prior to testing, and testing is prevented until ID errors are resolved. Results: When averaged over a period of a month, ID errors were reduced to 3 errors/month (0.015% in comparison with 61.5 errors/month (0.319% before implementing the new meters. Conclusion: Patient ID errors may occur with glucose POCT despite patient barcoding. The verification of patient identification should ideally take place at the bedside before testing occurs so that the errors can be addressed in real time. The introduction of an ADT feed directly to glucose meters reduced patient ID errors in POCT.

  1. Characterization of the intravenous glucose tolerance test and the combined glucose-insulin test in donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, F J; Aguilera-Aguilera, R; Gonzalez-De Cara, C A; Toribio, R E; Estepa, J C; Perez-Ecija, A

    2015-12-01

    Glucose-insulin dynamic challenges such as the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and combined glucose-insulin test (CGIT) have not been described in donkeys. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the IVGTT and CGIT in healthy adult donkeys, and (2) to establish normal glucose-insulin proxies. Sixteen donkeys were used and body morphometric variables obtained each. For the IVGTT, glucose (300 mg/kg) was given IV. For the CGIT, glucose (150 mg/kg) followed by recombinant insulin (0.1 IU/kg) were administered IV. Blood samples for glucose and insulin determinations were collected over 300 min. In the IVGTT the positive phase lasted 160.9 ± 13.3 min, glucose concentration peaked at 323.1 ± 9.2 mg/dL and declined at a rate of 1.28 ± 0.15 mg/dL/min. The glucose area under the curve (AUC) was 21.4 ± 1.9 × 10(3) mg/dL/min and the insulin AUC was 7.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) µIU/mL/min. The positive phase of the CGIT curve lasted 44 ± 3 min, with a glucose clearance rate of 2.01 ± 0.18 mg/dL/min. The negative phase lasted 255.9 ± 3 min, decreasing glucose concentration at rate of -0.63 ± 0.06 mg/dL/min, and reaching a nadir (33.1 ± 3.6 mg/dL) at 118.3 ± 6.3 min. The glucose and insulin AUC values were 15.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) mg/dL/min and 13.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) µIU/mL/min. This is the first study characterizing CGIT and IVGTT, and glucose-insulin proxies in healthy adult donkeys. Distinct glucose dynamics, when compared with horses, support the use of species-specific protocols to assess endocrine function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Density meters utilizing ionizing radiation: definitions and test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This standard is applicable to density meters utilizing ionizing radiation, designed for the measurement of the density of liquids, slurries or fluidized solids. The standard applies to transmission-type instruments only. Reference to compliance with this standard shall identify any deviations and the reasons for such deviations. Safety aspects are not included but should fulfill the requirements of all relevant internationally accepted standards

  3. Heterogeneity in glucose response curves during an oral glucose tolerance test and associated cardiometabolic risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Simmons, Rebecca Kate; Vistisen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    patterns of plasma glucose change during the oral glucose tolerance test. Cardiometabolic risk factor profiles were compared between the identified groups. Using latent class trajectory analysis, five glucose response curves were identified. Despite similar fasting and 2-h values, glucose peaks and peak......We aimed to examine heterogeneity in glucose response curves during an oral glucose tolerance test with multiple measurements and to compare cardiometabolic risk profiles between identified glucose response curve groups. We analyzed data from 1,267 individuals without diabetes from five studies...... in Denmark, the Netherlands and the USA. Each study included between 5 and 11 measurements at different time points during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, resulting in 9,602 plasma glucose measurements. Latent class trajectories with a cubic specification for time were fitted to identify different...

  4. Development of in-service meter testing (ISMET); Developpement de test de compteurs en service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullathorne, D. [BG Technology Ltd. (United Kingdom); Finnerty, G. [BG Transco plc. (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Managing a population of 19 million meters in the UK is a massive task for Transco, the UK's principal regulated gas transporter. Adopting a cost-effective approach to all aspects of mater work is crucial in today's regulated business environment. It was from a critical review of mater work processes that a need was identified for new test equipment to reinforce the introduction of a mater re-use policy. This would reduce mater transportation and refurbishment costs. BG Technology and Transco have jointly developed some low cost equipment suitable for testing residential gas meters used by Transco's Competent Person (TCP) workforce or by trained local depot operatives. The test equipment can determine whether the meter meets the national requirements for registration performance and hence can be re-used without refurbishment at central workshops. The equipment has been shown to be technically feasible in the laboratory. Field testing has allowed rapid development of working prototypes and provided a basis for conducting simple inter-rig comparison to verify the acceptability of the test method. The pilot trial has shown that the project objectives have been met, in providing low cost test equipment for widespread use by properly trained personnel. (authors)

  5. Study on the system-level test method of digital metering in smart substation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Min; Hu, Juan; Li, Fuchao; Luo, Ruixi; Li, Jinsong; Ai, Bing

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, the test methods of digital metering system in smart substation are used to test and evaluate the performance of a single device, but these methods can only effectively guarantee the accuracy and reliability of the measurement results of a digital metering device in a single run, it does not completely reflect the performance when each device constitutes a complete system. This paper introduced the shortages of the existing test methods. A system-level test method of digital metering in smart substation was proposed, and the feasibility of the method was proved by the actual test.

  6. Is there a suitable point-of-care glucose meter for tight glycemic control? Evaluation of one home-use and four hospital-use meters in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijzen, Karlijn; Moolenaar, David L J; Weusten, Jos J A M; Pluim, Hendrik J; Demir, Ayse Y

    2012-11-01

    Implementation of tight glycemic control (TGC) and avoidance of hypoglycemia in intensive care unit (ICU) patients require frequent analysis of blood glucose. This can be achieved by accurate point-of-care (POC) hospital-use glucose meters. In this study one home-use and four different hospital-use POC glucose meters were evaluated in critically ill ICU patients. All patients (n = 80) requiring TGC were included in this study. For each patient three to six glucose measurements (n = 390) were performed. Blood glucose was determined by four hospital-use POC glucose meters, Roche Accu-Check Inform II System, HemoCue Glu201DM, Nova StatStrip, Abbott Precision Xceed Pro, and one home-use POC glucose meter, Menarini GlucoCard Memory PC. The criteria described in ISO 15197, Dutch TNO quality guideline and in NACB/ADA-2011 were applied in the comparisons. According to the ISO 15197, the percentages of the measured values that fulfilled the criterion were 99.5% by Roche, 95.1% by HemoCue, 91.0% by Nova, 96.6% by Abbott, and 63.3% by Menarini. According to the TNO quality guideline these percentages were 96.1% , 91.0% , 81.8% , 94.2% , and 47.7% , respectively. Application of the NACB/ADA guideline resulted in percentages of 95.6%, 89.2%, 77.9%, 93.4%, and 45.4%, respectively. When ISO 15197 was applied, Roche, HemoCue and Abbott fulfilled the criterion in this patient population, whereas Nova and Menarini did not. However, when TNO quality guideline and NACB/ADA 2011 guideline were applied only Roche fulfilled the criteria.

  7. Lessons from wet gas flow metering systems using differential measurements devices: Testing and flow modelling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazin, J.; Couput, J.P.; Dudezert, C. et al

    2005-07-01

    A significant number of wet gas meters used for high GVF and very high GVF are based on differential pressure measurements. Recent high pressure tests performed on a variety of different DP devices on different flow loops are presented. Application of existing correlations is discussed for several DP devices including Venturi meters. For Venturi meters, deviations vary from 9% when using the Murdock correlation to less than 3 % with physical based models. The use of DP system in a large domain of conditions (Water Liquid Ratio) especially for liquid estimation will require information on the WLR This obviously raises the question of the gas and liquid flow metering accuracy in wet gas meters and highlight needs to understand AP systems behaviour in wet gas flows (annular / mist / annular mist). As an example, experimental results obtained on the influence of liquid film characteristics on a Venturi meter are presented. Visualizations of the film upstream and inside the Venturi meter are shown. They are completed by film characterization. The AP measurements indicate that for a same Lockhart Martinelli parameter, the characteristics of the two phase flow have a major influence on the correlation coefficient. A 1D model is defined and the results are compared with the experiments. These results indicate that the flow regime influences the AP measurements and that a better modelling of the flow phenomena is needed even for allocation purposes. Based on that, lessons and way forward in wet gas metering systems improvement for allocation and well metering are discussed and proposed. (author) (tk)

  8. [Development and test of a wheat chlorophyll, nitrogen and water content meter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Sun, Ming; Han, Shu-Qing; Xia, Jin-Wen

    2011-08-01

    A portable meter was developed which can detect chlorophyll, nitrogen and moisture content of wheat leaf simultaneously, and can supply enough data for guiding fertilization and irrigation. This meter is composed of light path and electronic circuit. And this meter uses 660, 940 and 1450 nm LED together with narrow band filters as the active light source. The hardware circuit consists of micro-controller, LED drive circuit, detector, communication circuit, keyboard and LCD circuit. The meter was tested in the field and performed well with good repeatability and accuracy. The relative errors of chlorophyll and nitrogen test were about 10%, relative error for water content was 4%. The coefficients of variation of the three indices were all below 1.5%. All of these prove that the meter can be applied under the field condition to guide the wheat production.

  9. [Blood-sugar self control. A means for the diabetic of controlling his metabolic management. Quality control of a battery-run pocket size reflectometer (glucose-meter)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, F; Jörgens, V; Chantelau, E; Berchtold, P; Berger, M

    1980-07-26

    Home blood glucose monitoring by diabetic patients has recently been advocated as an effective means to improve metabolic control. The Glucocheck apparatus, a pocket-size battery-driven reflectance-meter (in Germany commercially available under the name Glucose-meter), has been evaluated for accuracy and practicability. In 450 blood glucose measurements, the variance between the values obtained using the Glucocheck apparatus and routine clinical laboratory procedures was +/- 11.7%. Especially in the low range of blood glucose concentrations, the Glucocheck method was very reliable. The quantitative precision of the Glucocheck method depends, however, quite considerably on the ability of the patient to use the apparatus correctly. In order to profit from Glucocheck in clinical practice, particular efforts to educate the patients in its use are necessary.

  10. The four-meter confrontation visual field test.

    OpenAIRE

    Kodsi, S R; Younge, B R

    1992-01-01

    The 4-m confrontation visual field test has been successfully used at the Mayo Clinic for many years in addition to the standard 0.5-m confrontation visual field test. The 4-m confrontation visual field test is a test of macular function and can identify small central or paracentral scotomas that the examiner may not find when the patient is tested only at 0.5 m. Also, macular sparing in homonymous hemianopias and quadrantanopias may be identified with the 4-m confrontation visual field test....

  11. Development of a calibration methodology and tests of kerma area product meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Nathalia Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The quantity kerma area product (PKA) is important to establish reference levels in diagnostic radiology exams. This quantity can be obtained using a PKA meter. The use of such meters is essential to evaluate the radiation dose in radiological procedures and is a good indicator to make sure that the dose limit to the patient's skin doesn't exceed. Sometimes, these meters come fixed to X radiation equipment, which makes its calibration difficult. In this work, it was developed a methodology for calibration of PKA meters. The instrument used for this purpose was the Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC). It was developed to be used as a reference to check the calibration of PKA and air kerma meters that are used for dosimetry in patients and to verify the consistency and behavior of systems of automatic exposure control. Because it is a new equipment, which, in Brazil, is not yet used as reference equipment for calibration, it was also performed the quality control of this equipment with characterization tests, the calibration and an evaluation of the energy dependence. After the tests, it was proved that the PDC can be used as a reference instrument and that the calibration must be performed in situ, so that the characteristics of each X-ray equipment, where the PKA meters are used, are considered. The calibration was then performed with portable PKA meters and in an interventional radiology equipment that has a PKA meter fixed. The results were good and it was proved the need for calibration of these meters and the importance of in situ calibration with a reference meter. (author)

  12. Relation between size of contrast meter and radiographic density difference for radiographic test aluminium welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda, Tomio; Hirayama, Kazuo; Masaoka, Naotoshi; Fujita, Minoru.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of contrast meter with difference surface area (5.0 mm x 5.0 mm, 10.0 mm x 10.0 mm, 15.0 mm x 15.0 mm, 30.0 mm x 30.0 mm) and separated type on radiographic density difference (Δ D) were investigated for radiographic test of aluminum welds. It was found that the effect of scattered radiation on contrast meter represented highest at test specimen thickness of 20 mm, and Δ D was constant as the size was increased from 10.0 mm x 10.0 mm to 15.0 mm x 15.0 mm for aluminum contrast meter. For this reason, a proposal of the contrast meter with 10.0 mm x 10.0 mm (surface area) has made to replace (15.0 mm x 15 mm) at amendment of JIS Z 3105. (auth.)

  13. The performance of a glucose-ketone meter in the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis in patients with type 2 diabetes in the emergency room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgari, Christina; Tentolouris, Nicholas

    2010-07-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious metabolic complication. One of its precipitating causes is insulin omission. DKA requires early diagnosis and strict glucose control, which increases the use of glucose meters in the Emergency Room (ER). We aimed to determine the performance of a glucose-ketone meter in the diagnosis of DKA. From 450 type 2 diabetes mellitus insulin-treated patients attending the ER with a capillary glucose level >13.9 mmol/L, 50 patients (26 men and 24 women, mean age 60.2 +/- 8.2 years) had DKA. Capillary glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB) were measured with the Precision-Xtra device (Abbott Laboratories, Abingdon, UK). Serum glucose and biochemical parameters were measured on an automatic analyzer; serum beta-OHB was determined using an enzymatic end-point spectrophotometric method. Urine ketones were determined using a semiquantitative assay (Ketodiastix, Bayer Diagnostics, Stoke Poges, Slough, UK). Serum and capillary beta-OHB values were highly correlated (r = 0.99, P 3.0 mmol/L) had the highest performance (sensitivity 99.87%, specificity 92.89%, positive predictive value 92.89%) for the diagnosis of DKA compared with serum ketonemia (sensitivity 90.45%, specificity 88.65%, positive predictive value 87.76%) or ketonuria (sensitivity 89.89%, specificity 52.73%, positive predictive value 41.87%). Implementation of measures such as home glucose and ketone monitoring can possibly decrease the number of hospital admissions due to DKA.

  14. Plasma-equivalent glucose at the point-of-care: evaluation of Roche Accu-Chek Inform and Abbott Precision PCx glucose meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghys, Timothy; Goedhuys, Wim; Spincemaille, Katrien; Gorus, Frans; Gerlo, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Glucose testing at the bedside has become an integral part of the management strategy in diabetes and of the careful maintenance of normoglycemia in all patients in intensive care units. We evaluated two point-of-care glucometers for the determination of plasma-equivalent blood glucose. The Precision PCx and the Accu-Chek Inform glucometers were evaluated. Imprecision and bias relative to the Vitros 950 system were determined using protocols of the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The effects of low, normal, and high hematocrit levels were investigated. Interference by maltose was also studied. Within-run precision for both instruments ranged from 2-5%. Total imprecision was less than 5% except for the Accu-Chek Inform at the low level (2.9 mmol/L). Both instruments correlated well with the comparison instrument and showed excellent recovery and linearity. Both systems reported at least 95% of their values within zone A of the Clarke Error Grid, and both fulfilled the CLSI quality criteria. The more stringent goals of the American Diabetes Association, however, were not reached. Both systems showed negative bias at high hematocrit levels. Maltose interfered with the glucose measurements on the Accu-Chek Inform but not on the Precision PCx. Both systems showed satisfactory imprecision and were reliable in reporting plasma-equivalent glucose concentrations. The most stringent performance goals were however not met.

  15. Test on the reactor with the portable digital reactivity meter for physical experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Liyuan

    2010-01-01

    Test must be performed on the zero power reactor During the development of portable digital reactivity meter for physical experiment, in order to check its measurement function and accuracy. It describes the test facility, test core, test methods, test items and test results. The test results show that the instrument satisfy the requirements of technical specification, and satisfy the reactivity measurement in the physical experiments on reactors. (authors)

  16. FibroMeters: a family of blood tests for liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calès, P; Boursier, J; Oberti, F; Hubert, I; Gallois, Y; Rousselet, M-C; Dib, N; Moal, V; Macchi, L; Chevailler, A; Michalak, S; Hunault, G; Chaigneau, J; Sawadogo, A; Lunel, F

    2008-09-01

    FibroMeters are blood tests for liver fibrosis with several specificities: two main diagnostic targets (fibrosis stage and area of fibrosis); adaptation to specific causes; and results confirmed by an expert system. Thus, FibroMeters comprise six different tests: one for staging and one for quantitation of liver fibrosis in each of the three main causes of chronic liver disease-chronic viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). FibroMeters display a high overall diagnostic accuracy and are the only tests to correctly classify 100% of HCV patients without fibrosis or with cirrhosis. They have 90% predictive values in a higher proportion of patients than with other usual blood tests. A 90% correct classification is available in 100% of HCV patients with the following reliable diagnostic intervals: F0/1, F1/2, F2+/-1, F3+/-1. In real-life conditions, the reproducibility of FibroMeters is higher than that of liver biopsy or ultrasonographic elastometry. FibroMeters are robust tests with the most stable diagnostic performance across different centers. Optional tests are also available, such as a specific one for cirrhosis, which has a diagnostic accuracy of 93.0% (AUROC: 0.92) and a 100% positive predictive value for diagnosis of HCV cirrhosis. Determination by FibroMeters of the area of fibrosis - the only direct, non-invasive, quantitative measurement of liver fibrosis - are especially useful for following-up cirrhosis as it correlates well with clinical events. FibroMeters are also very accurate in HVB or HIV-HCV co-infected patients. The tests specific for ALD and NAFLD also have a high diagnostic accuracy (AUROCs: 0.96 and 0.94, respectively, for significant fibrosis).

  17. OOK power model based dynamic error testing for smart electricity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xuewei; Chen, Jingxia; Jia, Xiaolu; Zhu, Meng; Yuan, Ruiming; Jiang, Zhenyu

    2017-01-01

    This paper formulates the dynamic error testing problem for a smart meter, with consideration and investigation of both the testing signal and the dynamic error testing method. To solve the dynamic error testing problems, the paper establishes an on-off-keying (OOK) testing dynamic current model and an OOK testing dynamic load energy (TDLE) model. Then two types of TDLE sequences and three modes of OOK testing dynamic power are proposed. In addition, a novel algorithm, which helps to solve the problem of dynamic electric energy measurement’s traceability, is derived for dynamic errors. Based on the above researches, OOK TDLE sequence generation equipment is developed and a dynamic error testing system is constructed. Using the testing system, five kinds of meters were tested in the three dynamic power modes. The test results show that the dynamic error is closely related to dynamic power mode and the measurement uncertainty is 0.38%. (paper)

  18. OOK power model based dynamic error testing for smart electricity meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewei; Chen, Jingxia; Yuan, Ruiming; Jia, Xiaolu; Zhu, Meng; Jiang, Zhenyu

    2017-02-01

    This paper formulates the dynamic error testing problem for a smart meter, with consideration and investigation of both the testing signal and the dynamic error testing method. To solve the dynamic error testing problems, the paper establishes an on-off-keying (OOK) testing dynamic current model and an OOK testing dynamic load energy (TDLE) model. Then two types of TDLE sequences and three modes of OOK testing dynamic power are proposed. In addition, a novel algorithm, which helps to solve the problem of dynamic electric energy measurement’s traceability, is derived for dynamic errors. Based on the above researches, OOK TDLE sequence generation equipment is developed and a dynamic error testing system is constructed. Using the testing system, five kinds of meters were tested in the three dynamic power modes. The test results show that the dynamic error is closely related to dynamic power mode and the measurement uncertainty is 0.38%.

  19. Association between blood glucose level derived using the oral glucose tolerance test and glycated hemoglobin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Young Geon; Park, Jin Soo; Ahn, Young Hwan; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-05-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is widely used as a marker of glycemic control. Translation of the HbA1c level to an average blood glucose level is useful because the latter figure is easily understood by patients. We studied the association between blood glucose levels revealed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c levels in a Korean population. A total of 1,000 subjects aged 30 to 64 years from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort were included. Fasting glucose levels, post-load glucose levels at 30, 60, and 120 minutes into the OGTT, and HbA1c levels were measured. Linear regression of HbA1c with mean blood glucose levels derived using the OGTT revealed a significant correlation between these measures (predicted mean glucose [mg/dL] = 49.4 × HbA1c [%] - 149.6; R (2) = 0.54, p Glucose (ADAG) study and Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort. Discrepancies between our results and those of the ADAG study and DCCT cohort may be attributable to differences in the test methods used and the extent of insulin secretion. More studies are needed to evaluate the association between HbA1c and self monitoring blood glucose levels.

  20. Testing and qualification of CIRCE venturi-nozzle flow meter for large scale experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, W.; Forgione, N.; Oriolo, F.; Tarantino, M.; Agostini, P.; Benamati, G.; Bertacci, G.; Elmi, N.; Alemberti, A.; Cinotti, L.; Scaddozzo, G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is focused on the tests carried out at the ENEA Brasimone Centre for the qualification of a large Venturi-Nozzle flow meter operating in Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE). Such flow meter has been selected to provide flow rate measurements during the thermal-hydraulic tests that will be performed on the experimental facility CIRCE. This large-scale facility is installed at the ENEA Brasimone Centre for studying the fluid-dynamics and operating behaviour of ADS reactor plants, as well as to qualify several components intended to be used in the LBE technology. The Venturi-Nozzle flow meter has been supplied by the Euromisure s.r.l., together with the calculated theoretical characteristic equation. The results obtained by the tests performed allowed to qualify this theoretical curve supplied by the manufacturer, that presents a very good agreement especially at high flow rate values. (authors)

  1. Testing and performance of electrolytic oxygen meters for use in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.G.; Thompson, R.

    1983-01-01

    The performance of yttria-doped thoria ceramic electrochemical oxygen meters in liquid sodium is described. Tests were carried out using laboratory loops. Temperature coefficients of the oxygen meters have been measured between 380 0 C and 480 0 C, and the response to changes in oxygen level using cold-trap temperatures from 125 0 C to 250 0 C was determined. The ceramic has been shown to give good performance over lifetimes exceeding 400 days in some cases. The temperature coefficients and response to oxygen level changes are in good agreement with thermodynamic predictions. The effect of running the meters in high-oxygen sodium has been studied and a general mode of failure has been shown to be grain-boundary attack by oxygen/sodium solutions. The effect of #betta#-radiation on the meters has been studied. The meters with a metal/metal oxide reference electrode were unaffected by dose rates up to 52860 mGy h - 1 . Meters with an air reference electrode do show an effect as a voltage reduction at levels down to 2420 mGy h - 1 . This effect was temperature-dependent and was insignificant at 500 0 C. (orig.)

  2. TRL Assessment of Solar Sail Technology Development Following the 20-Meter System Ground Demonstrator Hardware Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Roy M.; Adams, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office sponsored two separate, independent solar sail system design and development demonstration activities during 2002-2005. ATK Space Systems of Goleta, CA was the prime contractor for one development team and L' Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA was the prime contractor for the other development team. The goal of these activities was to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by the year 2006. Component and subsystem fabrication and testing were completed successfully, including the ground deployment of 10-meter and 20-meter demonstration hardware systems under vacuum conditions. The deployment and structural testing of the 20-meter solar sail systems was conducted in the 30 meter diameter Space Power Facility thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in April though August, 2005. This paper will present the results of the TRL assessment following the solar sail technology development activities associated with the design, development, analysis and testing of the 20-meter system ground demonstrators.

  3. Development and evaluation of an automated system for testing current meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Saretta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Current meters are equipment widely used for estimating flow velocity in rivers and streams. Periodic calibrations of current meters are important to ensure the quality of measurements, but the required testing facilities are complex and only available in a few institutions. However, advances in electronics and automation may contribute to developing simple and reliable calibration systems. Thus, this study aimed to develop an automated system for testing current meters, which consisted of a trapezoidal channel, a step motor, a tow car and a management system, composed of a supervisory application and microprocessed modules to control the motor and the data acquisition. Evaluations of the displacement velocity showed that it matched the reference value up to 1.85 m s-1 for a vertical-axis current meter and 2.3 m s-1 for a horizontal-axis one. The developed system showed reliability during tests, for both current meter movement and data acquisition. The management of the system based on the developed modules and the supervisory application improved its user interface, turning all the procedure into a simple task.

  4. Oral glucose tolerance test and continuous glucose monitoring to assess diabetes development in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente León, María; Bilbao Gassó, Laura; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Campos Martorrell, Ariadna; Gartner Tizzano, Silvia; Yeste Fernández, Diego; Carrascosa Lezcano, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) undergo a slow and progressive process toward diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is recommended to diagnose impaired glucose levels in these patients. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) measures glucose profiles under real-life conditions. To compare OGTT and CGM results in CF patients. Paired OGTT and 6-day CGM profiles (146.2±9.1h/patient) were performed in 30 CF patients aged 10-18 years. According to OGTT, 14 patients had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 14 abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT), and two cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD). In 27 patients (13 NGT, 13 AGT, 1 CFRD), CGM showed glucose values ranging from 140 to 200mg/dL during similar monitoring times (2%-14% with NGT, 1%-16.9% with AGT, and 3% with CFRD). Glucose peak levels ≥200mg/dL were seen in seven patients (3 NGT, 3 AGT, 1 CFRD). According to CGM, two patients had all glucose values under 140mg/dL (1 NGT, 1 AGT). Seventeen patients had glucose levels ranging from 140 to 200mg/dL (10 NGT, 6 AGT, 1 CFRD). Ten patients (3 NGT, 7 AGT) had glucose values ≥200mg/dL for ≤1% of the monitoring time and one (CFRD) for >1% of the monitoring time. OGTT results did not agree with those of the CGM. CGM allows for diagnosis of glucose changes not detected by OGTT. Such changes may contribute to optimize pre-diabetes management in CF patients. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Random blood glucose testing in dental practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barasch, Andrei; Safford, Monika M; Qvist, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasing. Instances of patients' not having received a diagnosis have been reported widely, as have instances of poor control of DM or prediabetes among patient's who have the disease. These facts indicate that blood glucose screening is needed....

  6. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test among Adolescents with Impaired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: Oral glucose tolerance test was done for a cohort of 68 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years with impaired fasting blood glucose detected at a school screening. Age, sex, anthropometric measures (height, weight, BMI and BMI percentiles were determined using appropriate methods. Blood pressure and family ...

  7. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Revisted | Mshelia | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The present review was undertaken to create the required utilization of oral glucose tolerance test in a developing country with a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Sources of data: This review is primarily based on available literature on local and international studies on oral glucose ...

  8. Glucose in vaginal secretions before and after oral glucose tolerance testing in women with and without recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrström, Sophia; Yu, Anna; Rylander, Eva

    2006-12-01

    To measure the change of glucose in vaginal secretions during glucose tolerance testing in women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and in healthy control subjects. Thirty-eight women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and 45 healthy, age-matched controls completed a health questionnaire regarding general and gynecologic health and food and alcohol habits. They all underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and a vaginal examination. Vaginal secretion was collected from the proximal part of the vagina. Glucose in plasma and in vaginal secretions were measured at fasting and after 2 hours and analyzed with the hexokinase method. A sample size analysis showed that the number of subjects included in the study was sufficient for a beta value of 0.80, at the significance level of alpha=.05, at a difference in glucose in vaginal secretions of 30% after oral glucose tolerance test. In healthy women, the median level of glucose in vaginal secretions was 5.2 mM before and 3.7 mM after oral glucose tolerance test, and plasma glucose was 5.0 mM before and 5.8 mM after oral glucose tolerance test. No significant difference was seen regarding change of glucose level in vaginal secretions and plasma glucose after testing, compared with before oral glucose tolerance testing. There were no differences between women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and control subjects regarding change in glucose level in vaginal secretions or in plasma during oral glucose tolerance test. II-2.

  9. Performance testing of Tesla NNG 601 activity meter in nuclear medicine department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husak, V.; Kleinbauer, K.

    1980-01-01

    The results are presented of testing activity meter Tesla NNG 601 the production of which began in Czechoslovakia in 1978. The meter is provided with a shielded well-type ionization chamber, the well 42 mm in diameter and 140 mm deep. The parameters of the instrument linearity, volume dependence, accuracy and stability, correctness of calibration were compared with those of other instruments (Searle Analytic, Picker and Capinted). The volume dependence of the Czechoslovak NNG 601 instrument is higher than that in the other instruments, other parameters are the same of better

  10. An iterative method for accelerated degradation testing data of smart electricity meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Xie, Jinzhe

    2017-01-01

    In order to evaluate the performance of smart electricity meter (SEM), we must spend a lot of time censoring its status. For example, if we assess to the meter stability of the SEM which needs several years at least according to the standards. So accelerated degradation testing (ADT) is a useful method to assess the performance of the SEM. As we known, the Wiener process is a prevalent method to interpret the performance degradation. This paper proposes an iterative method for ADT data of SEM. The simulation study verifies the application and superiority of the proposed model than other ADT methods.

  11. Primary flow meter for calibrating a sniffer test leak artefact by a pressure rise method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Kenta; Yoshida, Hajime

    2014-10-01

    Sniffer tests are used to locate leaks in equipment during operation. The sensitivity of a sniffer leak detector must be calibrated against a known gas flow to atmospheric pressure generated by a sniffer test leak artefact. We have developed a primary flow meter for calibrating gas flows to atmospheric pressure through the leak artefact. The flow meter is based on a pressure rise method and two chambers are used to measure the pressure rise with small uncertainty even at atmospheric pressure. The calibration range of the flow rate is 5 × 10-7 Pa m3 s-1 to 7 × 10-4 Pa m3 s-1 to atmospheric pressure at 23.0 °C with a minimum uncertainty of 1.4% (k = 2), as well as 4 × 10-8 Pa m3 s-1 to 5 × 10-4 Pa m3 s-1 to a vacuum at 23.0 °C. The long term stability of the flow meter was determined as 0.41% by repeated measurements of the conductance of the leak artefact. In case of the flow rate into a vacuum, the flow meter was successfully linked to the international reference value of CCM.P-K12 by a lab-internal comparison.

  12. Stable-label intravenous glucose tolerance test minimal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avogaro, A.; Bristow, J.D.; Bier, D.M.; Cobelli, C.; Toffolo, G.

    1989-01-01

    The minimal model approach to estimating insulin sensitivity (Sl) and glucose effectiveness in promoting its own disposition at basal insulin (SG) is a powerful tool that has been underutilized given its potential applications. In part, this has been due to its inability to separate insulin and glucose effects on peripheral uptake from their effects on hepatic glucose inflow. Prior enhancements, with radiotracer labeling of the dosage, permit this separation but are unsuitable for use in pregnancy and childhood. In this study, we labeled the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) dosage with [6,6- 2 H 2 ]glucose, [2- 2 H]glucose, or both stable isotopically labeled glucose tracers and modeled glucose kinetics in six postabsorptive, nonobese adults. As previously found with the radiotracer model, the tracer-estimated S*l derived from the stable-label IVGTT was greater than Sl in each case except one, and the tracer-estimated SG* was less than SG in each instance. More importantly, however, the stable-label IVGTT estimated each parameter with an average precision of +/- 5% (range 3-9%) compared to average precisions of +/- 74% (range 7-309%) for SG and +/- 22% (range 3-72%) for Sl. In addition, because of the different metabolic fates of the two deuterated tracers, there were minor differences in basal insulin-derived measures of glucose effectiveness, but these differences were negligible for parameters describing insulin-stimulated processes. In conclusion, the stable-label IVGTT is a simple, highly precise means of assessing insulin sensitivity and glucose effectiveness at basal insulin that can be used to measure these parameters in individuals of all ages, including children and pregnant women

  13. [Effects of coca chewing on the glucose tolerance test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza Guzmán, M; Peñaloza Imaña, R; Echalar Afcha, L; Aguilar Valerio, M; Spielvogel, H; Sauvain, M

    1997-01-01

    The effects of coca chewing on the glucose tolerance test were measured. The subjects were 14 habitual coca chewers and 14 non-chewers. All were of Aymara ancestry and came from a rural community from the "Altiplano" close to the city of La Paz. The coca users chewed coca leaves during 3 1/2 hours of the test. The non-chewers showed a significant hypoglycemia at 120 minutes of the test. This effect was not observed in the coca chewers. The hormonal counter-regulation response to hypoglycemia worked perfectly in non-chewers, since glucose levels reached normal values at 180 minutes of the test. These results suggest that coca chewers, at high altitude do not present hypoglycemia, due to an antagonic action of coca metabolites on insulin; allowing a greater availability of glucose in the organism. This would have a positive effect on metabolism in an environment of hypobaric hypoxia, known to lead to situations of hypoglycemia.

  14. Plasma Volume Expansion Resulting from Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Hahn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To quantify the degree of plasma volume expansion that occurs during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT. Methods. Twenty healthy volunteers (mean age, 28 years underwent IVGTTs in which 0.3 g/kg of glucose 30% was injected as a bolus over 1 min. Twelve blood samples were collected over 75 min. The plasma glucose and blood hemoglobin concentrations were used to calculate the volume distribution (Vd and the clearance (CL of both the exogenous glucose and the injected fluid volume. Results. The IVGTT caused a virtually instant plasma volume expansion of 10%. The half-life of the glucose averaged 15 min and the plasma volume expansion 16 min. Correction of the fluid kinetic model for osmotic effects after injection reduced CL for the infused volume by 85%, which illustrates the strength of osmosis in allocating fluid back to the intracellular fluid space. Simulations indicated that plasma volume expansion can be reduced to 60% by increasing the injection time from 1 to 5 min and reducing the glucose load from 0.3 to 0.2 g/kg. Conclusion. A regular IVGTT induced an acute plasma volume expansion that peaked at 10% despite the fact that only 50–80 mL of fluid were administered.

  15. Development and testing of a fluorescence biosensor for glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloraefy, Mamdouh; Pfefer, Joshua; Ramella-Roman, Jessica; Sapsford, Kim

    2012-06-01

    Rapid, accurate, and minimally-invasive biosensors for glucose measurement have the potential to enhance management of diabetes mellitus and improve patient outcome in intensive care settings. Recent studies have indicated that implantable biosensors based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) can provide high sensitivity in quantifying glucose concentrations. However, standard approaches for determining the potential for interference from other biological constituents have not been established. The aim of this work was to design and optimize a FRET-based glucose sensor and assess its specificity to glucose. A sensor based on competitive binding between concanavalin A and dextran, labeled with long-wavelength acceptor and donor fluorophores, was developed. This process included optimization of dextran molecular weight and donor concentration, acceptor to donor ratio, and hydrogel concentration, as well as the number of polymer layers for encapsulation. The biosensor performance was characterized in terms of its response to clinically relevant glucose concentrations. The potential for interference and the development of test methods to evaluate this effect were studied using a potential clinical interferent, maltose. Results indicated that our biosensor had a prediction accuracy of better than 11% and that the robustness to maltose was highly dependent on glucose level.

  16. Development of a portable test densimeter for natural gas meters; Entwicklung eines transportablen Dichtepruefgeraetes fuer Erdgasmessstationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellado, B.G.; Kleinrahm, R.; Loesch, H.W.; Wagner, W. [Bochum Univ. (Germany); Brandt, O.; Boden, R. [Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

    2001-04-01

    For the accurate measurement of gas density in natural gas meter runs, a special test densimeter has been developed. It covers a temperature range from 0 C to 50 C at pressures up to 100 bar; its total uncertainty is {<=}{+-}0.05% for densities {>=}20 kg/m{sup 3}. The new densimeter has been specially designed as a portable device for in situ checking of commercial gas density transducers (with vibrating thin-walled metal cylinders or vibrating forks as density sensors) installed in natural gas meter runs with density converters or differential-producing meters. Also, it can be used in natural gas meter runs with PTZ converters to check the density calculated by the converter or to check verification measurements. This paper describes the measurement principle and the design of the densimeter and presents the results of field measurements performed. (orig.) [German] Zur genauen Messung der Dichte von Erdgasen unter Betriebsbedingungen wurde ein spezielles Dichtepruefgeraet entwickelt. Der Einsatz des Geraetes ist bei Gastemperaturen von 0 C bis 50 C und bei Druecken bis 100 bar moeglich; die Gesamtmessunsicherheit betraegt {<=}{+-}0,05% fuer Dichten {>=}20 kg/m{sup 3}. Das neue Dichtepruefgeraet ist gezielt als transportables Geraet zur Online-Pruefung von kommerziellen Betriebsdichteaufnehmern (mit Schwingzylindern oder Schwinggabeln als Dichtesensor) in Erdgasmessstationen mit Dichte-Mengenumwertern oder Wirkdruckgaszaehlern entwickelt worden. Es kann ebenfalls in Messstationen mit Zustands-Mengenumwertern zur Kontrolle der vom Umwerter errechneten Betriebsdichte oder zur Kontrolle von Revisions-Messungen eingesetzt werden. Im folgenden Artikel werden das Messprinzip, der Aufbau des Geraetes und der Einsatz vor Ort beschrieben. (orig.)

  17. Test-retest reliability and sensitivity of the 20-meter walk test among patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyl, Jillian M; Driban, Jeffrey B; McAdams, Erica; Price, Lori Lyn; McAlindon, Timothy E

    2013-05-10

    The 20-meter walk test is a physical function measure commonly used in clinical research studies and rehabilitation clinics to measure gait speed and monitor changes in patients' physical function over time. Unfortunately, the reliability and sensitivity of this walk test are not well defined and, therefore, limit our ability to evaluate real changes in gait speed not attributable to normal variability. The aim of this study was to assess the test-restest reliability and sensitivity of the 20-meter walk test, at a self-selected pace, among patients with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to suggest a standardized protocol for future test administration. This was a measurement reliability study. Fifteen consecutive people enrolled in a randomized-controlled trial of intra-articular corticosteroid injections for knee OA participated in this study. All participants completed 4 trials on 2 separate days, 7 to 21 days apart (8 trials total). Each day was divided into 2 sessions, which each involved 2 walking trials. We compared walk times between trials with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Similar analyses compared average walk times between sessions. To confirm these analyses, we also calculated Spearman correlation coefficients to assess the relationship between sessions. Finally, smallest detectable differences (SDD) were calculated to estimate the sensitivity of the 20-meter walk test. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests between trials within the same session demonstrated that trials in session 1 were significantly different and in the subsequent 3 sessions, the median differences between trials were not significantly different. Therefore, the first session of each day was considered a practice session, and the SDD between the second session of each day were calculated. SDD was -1.59 seconds (walking slower) and 0.15 seconds (walking faster). Practice trials and a standardized protocol should be used in administration of the 20-meter walk test. Changes in walk time

  18. API testing program - calibration of microprocessor based flowmeters for integrated metering systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot, Kenneth D. [Omni Flow Computers, Inc., Stafford, TX (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Microprocessor based flowmeter technologies for liquids, such as Coriolis mass meters, and Ultrasonic flowmeters hold great promise. These technologies offer many advantages, such as no rotating parts, self-diagnostic checks, which can help anticipate and warn of impending failures before they have a major impact on the measurement. These meters are substantially different though than other primary devices due to their heavy reliance on the accompanying secondary electronics. One method to prove that they are accurate would be proving the flowmeter, using a pipe prover or small volume prover (SVP), but these proving methods are designed to count 'real time' pulses from a turbine or PD meter between a known volume, they are not designed to count 'time delayed' 'manufactured pulses' from a microprocessor. There are limitations of the manufactured pulse train and it affects the ability of the flowmeter to be proved using current proving technology. The author of this paper, a chairman of an American Petroleum Institute working group, investigated how the 'microprocessor generated pulses' produced by these types of flowmeters, interacted with the existing measurement technologies in use today. Several microprocessor based flowmeter technologies have been tested, including; Ultrasonic, Coriolis, and Helical Turbine with pulse multiplying preamplifier. Wherever possible, flowmeters of various sizes, and from several vendors have been tested. A significant amount of data has been collected which sheds light into why these types of flowmeters are sometimes difficult to prove. This paper describes the API testing program, and the methodology behind it. It presents results and findings, and offers specific recommendations that may eventually be incorporated into API documents and/or standards in the future. (author)

  19. Evaluating Laboratory Performance on Point-of-Care Glucose Testing with Six Sigma Metric for 151 Institutions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yang; Wang, Wei; He, Falin; Zhong, Kun; Wang, Zhiguo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to use Six Sigma(SM) (Motorola Trademark Holdings, Libertyville, IL) techniques to analyze the quality of point-of-care (POC) glucose testing measurements quantitatively and to provide suggestions for improvement. In total, 151 laboratories in China were included in this investigation in 2014. Bias and coefficient of variation were collected from an external quality assessment and an internal quality control program, respectively, for POC glucose testing organized by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories. The σ values and the Quality Goal Index were used to evaluate the performance of POC glucose meters. There were 27, 30, 57, and 37 participants in the groups using Optium Xceed™ (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA), Accu-Chek(®) Performa (Roche, Basel, Switzerland), One Touch Ultra(®) (Abbott), and "other" meters, respectively. The median of the absolute value of percentage difference varied among different lots and different groups. Among all the groups, the Abbott One Touch Ultra group had the smallest median of absolute value of percentage difference except for lot 201411, whereas the "other" group had the largest median in all five lots. More than 85% of participate laboratories satisfied the total allowable error (TEa) requirement in International Organization for Standardization standard 15197:2013, and 85.43% (129/151) of laboratories obtained intralaboratory coefficient of variations less than 1/3TEa. However, Six Sigma techniques suggested that 41.72% (63/151) to 65.56% (99/151) of the laboratories needed to improve their POC glucose testing performance, in either precision, trueness, or both. Laboratories should pay more attention on the practice of POC glucose testing and take actions to improve their performance. Only in this way can POC glucose testing really function well in clinical practice.

  20. Applicability of an Indirect VO2max Test: Its Association with the 400 Meters Freestyle Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Veronese da Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the VO2max using a previously validated indirect test for non-expert adult swimmers and to verify its connection with the 400 meters freestyle test. A total of 17 non-expert male swimmers (21.5 ± 3.12 years were evaluated. Body composition measurements included body weight (74 ± 9.41 kg, height (172.9 ± 5.21 cm and body fat percentage (15.2 ± 4.15 %. Two tests were conducted on different days; the 400 meters freestyle (400 MF and the Progressive Swim Test (PSwT, respectively. The participant's heart rate frequency before and after the test (BHR and AHR was analyzed, as well as the subjective perception of effort (RPE, the number of laps covered (NLP, and the time of test execution measured in minutes. Significant differences were identified in all variables (p - 0.60 was found between AHR and execution time (r > - 0.70, as well as between the VO2max estimated by the PSwT and the 400 MF performance test (r > - 0.70. The Bland-Altman Plot showed that the values discovered were within the established concordance limits of 95% (±1.96 SD. A negative correlation between a swimming test and a test that estimates the VO2max occurred, and the PSwT showed results of greater approximation of the aerobic power of non-expert swimmers. In conclusion, the PSwT is applicable for non-expert adult swimmers.

  1. Performance tests of a 2-meter grasshopper monochromator at photon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, Mihiro; Maezawa, Hideki; Sasaki, Taizo; Suzuki, Yoshio; Iguchi, Yasuo.

    1984-12-01

    A 2-meter grasshopper monochromator was installed and adjusted at BL-11A in Photon Factory, and performance tests were carried out. The usable photon energy range for the monochromator is 90 to 1000 eV for a 2400 grooves/mm grating, and the flux is 10 8 - 10 9 photons/sec for entrance and exit slit widths of 15 μm. A resolving power of about 2000 is realized at 250 eV for this slit width. (author)

  2. Comparative effectiveness of 50g glucose challenge test and risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of 50g glucose challenge test and risk factor based screening in detection of ... Mean maternal and gestational ages at recruitment were 30.8+1.2 years and ... Predictive Value, PPV - 20%) compared to risk factors only (PPV- 11.1%).

  3. Participation in blood glucose test, knowledge and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus causes great health complications which include cardiovascular diseases and nerve damage. Aim: To ascertain the participation in blood glucose test, knowledge of diabetes mellitus (DM) and prevalence of hyperglycemia among traders at New market, Enugu State. Methods: The study is a ...

  4. Automatic control of NASA Langley's 0.3-meter cryogenic test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeaux, J. J.; Balakrishna, S.

    1980-01-01

    Experience during the past 6 years of operation of the 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center has shown that there are problems associated with efficient operation and control of cryogenic tunnels using manual control schemes. This is due to the high degree of process crosscoupling between the independent control variables (temperature, pressure, and fan drive speed) and the desired test condition (Mach number and Reynolds number). One problem has been the inability to maintain long-term accurate control of the test parameters. Additionally, the time required to change from one test condition to another has proven to be excessively long and much less efficient than desirable in terms of liquid nitrogen and electrical power usage. For these reasons, studies have been undertaken to: (1) develop and validate a mathematical model of the 0.3-meter cryogenic tunnel process, (2) utilize this model in a hybrid computer simulation to design temperature and pressure feedback control laws, and (3) evaluate the adequacy of these control schemes by analysis of closed-loop experimental data. This paper will present the results of these studies.

  5. A novel method for sensitive, low-cost and portable detection of hepatitis B surface antigen using a personal glucose meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taebi, Saeed; Keyhanfar, Mehrnaz; Noorbakhsh, Abdollah

    2018-04-12

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the major public health problem leading cause of death worldwide. The most important diagnostic marker for this infection is hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). In this study, a novel, inexpensive, portable and sensitive ELISA method was designed and investigated for diagnosis of HBsAg based on the functionalized Fe 3 O 4 and Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles, with the strategy for detecting the concentration of glucose using a cheap and accessible personal glucose meter (PGM). The ELISA system was constructed using hepatitis B antibody against HBsAg immobilized on streptavidin coated magnetic iron oxide particles (S-Fe 3 O 4 ) as the capture antibody (Ab 1 ). In addition, another hepatitis B antibody against different epitope of HBsAg (Ab 2 ) and glucoamylase both were immobilized on Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles. After formation of the sandwich immune complex between Ab 1 and Ab 2 immobilized on S-Fe 3 O 4 and Al 2 O 3 NPs, respectively, through HBsAg, starch was converted into glucose using glucoamylase. Then, the glucose concentration was measured using PGM. The concentration of HBsAg was calculated based on the linear relation between the concentrations of HBsAg and glucose. Under optimal conditions, this assay showed detection limit values of 0.3 to 0.4 ng ml -1 for "ay" and "ad" subtypes of HBsAg, respectively. The results indicate that the designed assay is comparable to the commercial kits in terms of sensitivity, on-site, specificity, cost, simplicity, portability and reproducibility. The presented method can be used in disadvantaged areas of the world and blood transfusion centers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of using PGMs for HBSAg detection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The glucose breath test: a diagnostic test for small bowel stricture(s) in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Daniel; Boston, Francis M; Blank, David; Yalovsky, Morty; Mishkin, Seymour

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether an indirect noninvasive indicator of proximal bacterial overgrowth, the glucose breath test, was of diagnostic value in inflammatory bowel disease. Twenty four of 71 Crohn's disease patients tested had a positive glucose breath test. No statistical conclusions could be drawn between the Crohn's disease activity index and glucose breath test status. Of patients with radiologic evidence of small bowel stricture(s), 96.0% had a positive glucose breath test, while only one of 46 negative glucose breath test patients had a stricture. The positive and negative predictive values for a positive glucose breath test as an indicator of stricture formation were 96.0% and 97.8%, respectively. This correlation was not altered in Crohn's disease patients with fistulae or status postresection of the terminal ileum. The data in ulcerative colitis were nondiagnostic. In conclusion, the glucose breath test appears to be an accurate noninvasive inexpensive diagnostic test for small bowel stricture(s) and secondary bacterial overgrowth in Crohn's disease.

  7. 4-Meter Gait Speed Test in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: INTERRATER RELIABILITY USING A STOPWATCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisca, Gianna Waldrich; Fava, Lucas Rodrigues; Morita, Andrea Akemi; Machado, Felipe Vilaça Cavallari; Pitta, Fabio; Hernandes, Nidia Aparecida

    2017-12-14

    4-meter gait speed (4MGS) is increasingly used to assess functional performance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the current literature lacks information regarding some technical standards for this test. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare and to evaluate the interrater reliability between a stopwatch and video recording used as timing systems for the 4MGS in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as to verify the interrater reliability between 2 observers measuring the 4MGS time using a manual stopwatch. Fifty-one patients performed the 4MGS using 4 different protocols (random order): walking at the usual and maximum speed in a 4-meter course and walking at the same 2 speeds on an 8-m course using a 2-m acceleration zone, a 4-meter timing area, and a 2-m deceleration zone. Gait speed was measured simultaneously using a stopwatch and a video recording. In a subanalysis (n = 24), 2 independent observers timed the 4MGS using a stopwatch. There was no significant difference in comparison between the 2 timing methods (P > .05 for all), and the reliability between video recording and stopwatch was excellent in all 4MGS studied protocols (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.91). Moreover, when comparing gait speed measured by 2 observers using a stopwatch, no significant difference was found among all proposed protocols (P > .05 for all), and there was also excellent reliability between the 2 independent observers (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.94). The stopwatch, a low-cost and feasible tool, is reliable as a timing device for the 4MGS in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  8. Blood glucose measurement in patients with suspected diabetic ketoacidosis: a comparison of Abbott MediSense PCx point-of-care meter values to reference laboratory values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Fidela S J; Miller, Moses; Nichols, James; Smithline, Howard; Crabb, Gillian; Pekow, Penelope

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare blood glucose levels measured by a point of care (POC) device to laboratory measurement using the same sample venous blood from patients with suspected diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). A descriptive correlational design was used for this IRB-approved quality assurance project. The study site was the 50-bed BMC emergency department (ED) which has an annual census of over 100,000 patient visits. The convenience sample consisted of 54 blood samples from suspected DKA patients with orders for hourly blood draws for glucose measurement. Spearman correlations of the glucose POC values, reference lab values, and differences between the two, were evaluated. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the association between the acidosis status and FDA acceptability of POC values. Patient age range was 10-86 years; 63% were females; 46% had a final diagnosis of DKA. POC values underestimated glucose levels 93% of the time. There was a high correlation between the lab value and the magnitude of the difference, (lab minus POC value) indicating that the higher the true glucose value, the greater the difference between the lab and the POC value. A chi-square test showed no overall association between acidosis and FDA-acceptability. The POC values underestimated lab reported glucose levels in 50 of 54 cases even with the use of same venous sample sent to the lab, which make it highly unreliable for use in monitoring suspected DKA patients.

  9. Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelius, Caroline; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Kardas, Marek

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary chloroplast thylakoids have previously been found to reduce food intake and body weight in animal models, and to change metabolic profiles in humans in mixed-food meal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effects of thylakoids on glucose...... metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones during an oral glucose tolerance test in pigs fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Six pigs were fed a high fat diet (36 energy% fat) for one month before oral glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg d-glucose) was performed. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study......, either with or without addition of 0.5 g/kg body weight of thylakoid powder. RESULTS: The supplementation of thylakoids to the oral glucose tolerance test resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations during the first hour, increased plasma cholecystokinin concentrations during the first two hours...

  10. Fatigue Test Design: Scenarios for Biaxial Fatigue Testing of a 60-Meter Wind Turbine Blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Current practice in commercial certification of wind turbine blades is to perform separate flap and lead-lag fatigue tests. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has been researching and evaluating biaxial fatigue testing techniques and demonstrating various options, typically on smaller-scale test articles at the National Wind Technology Center. This report evaluates some of these biaxial fatigue options in the context of application to a multimegawatt blade certification test program at the Wind Technology Testing Center in Charlestown, Massachusetts.

  11. Clinical assessment of blood glucose homeostasis in horses: comparison of a continuous glucose monitoring system with a combined intravenous glucose and insulin test protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P J; Wiedmeyer, C E; LaCarrubba, A; Messer, N T; Dingfelder, H A; Cogswell, A M; Amorim, J R R; Ganjam, V K

    2011-01-01

    The combined glucose-insulin test (CGIT) is helpful for evaluating insulin sensitivity. A continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) reports changes in interstitial glucose concentrations as they occur in the blood. Use of the CGMS minimizes animal contact and may be useful when performing a CGIT. Results obtained using a CGMS are useful for the evaluation of glucose responses during the evaluation of insulin sensitivity in equids. Seven mature, obese ponies. Ponies were equipped with CGMS for determination of interstitial glucose concentrations. Glucose (150 mg/kg, i.v.) and insulin (0.1 U/kg, i.v.) were administered and blood glucose concentrations determined at (minutes after time zero) 1, 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 with a hand-held glucometer. Blood chemistry results were compared with simultaneously obtained results using CGMS. Concordance coefficients determined for comparison of blood glucose concentrations determined by a hand-held glucometer and those determined by CGMS after the zero time point were 0.623, 0.764, 0.834, 0.854, and 0.818 (for delays of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively). Interstitial glucose concentrations obtained by the CGMS compared favorably to blood glucose concentrations. CGMS may be useful for assessment of glucose dynamics in the CGIT. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Strain gauge validation experiments for the Sandia 34-meter VAWT (Vertical Axis Wind Turbine) test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Herbert J.

    1988-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has erected a research oriented, 34- meter diameter, Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine near Bushland, Texas. This machine, designated the Sandia 34-m VAWT Test Bed, is equipped with a large array of strain gauges that have been placed at critical positions about the blades. This manuscript details a series of four-point bend experiments that were conducted to validate the output of the blade strain gauge circuits. The output of a particular gauge circuit is validated by comparing its output to equivalent gauge circuits (in this stress state) and to theoretical predictions. With only a few exceptions, the difference between measured and predicted strain values for a gauge circuit was found to be of the order of the estimated repeatability for the measurement system.

  13. Comparison of blood glucose test strips in the detection of neonatal hypoglycaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkins, B H; Kalra, D

    1982-01-01

    Blood glucose levels were estimated in 101 neonatal blood samples using three glucose test strip methods and the results compared with those from a laboratory. BM-test-glycemie 20-800 test strips and Reflotest-hypoglycemie test strips gave a rapid and reliable estimate of blood glucose level in the range 0-8 mmol/l (0-140 mg/100 ml). Dextrostix test strips tended to overestimate all blood glucose levels.

  14. Commentary on "Performance of a glucose meter with a built-in automated bolus calculator versus manual bolus calculation in insulin-using subjects".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Paolo; Vehí, Josep; Revert, Ana; Calm, Remei; Bondia, Jorge

    2012-03-01

    Since the early 2000s, there has been an exponentially increasing development of new diabetes-applied technology, such as continuous glucose monitoring, bolus calculators, and "smart" pumps, with the expectation of partially overcoming clinical inertia and low patient compliance. However, its long-term efficacy in glucose control has not been unequivocally proven. In this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Sussman and colleagues evaluated a tool for the calculation of the prandial insulin dose. A total of 205 insulin-treated patients were asked to compute a bolus dose in two simulated conditions either manually or with the bolus calculator built into the FreeStyle InsuLinx meter, revealing the high frequency of wrong calculations when performed manually. Although the clinical impact of this study is limited, it highlights the potential implications of low diabetesrelated numeracy in poor glycemic control. Educational programs aiming to increase patients' empowerment and caregivers' knowledge are needed in order to get full benefit of the technology. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  15. Test of prototype liquid-water-content meter for aircraft use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Hermann E.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the effort undertaken to meet the objectives of National Science Foundation Grant ATM-9207345 titled 'Test of Prototype Liquid-Water-Content Meter for Aircraft Use.' Three activities were proposed for testing the new aircraft instrument, PVM-100A: (1) Calibrate the PVM-100A in a facility where the liquid-water-content (LWC) channel, and the integrated surface area channel (PSA) could be compared to standard means for LWC and PSA measurements. Scaling constant for the channels were to be determined in this facility. The fog/wind tunnel at ECN, Petten, The Netherlands was judged the most suitable facility for this effort. (2) Expose the PVM-100A to high wind speeds similar to those expected on research aircraft, and test the anti-icing heaters on the PVM-100A under typical icing conditions expected in atmospheric clouds. The high-speed icing tunnel at NRC, Ottawa, Canada was to be utilized. (3) Operate the PVM-100A on an aircraft during cloud penetrations to determine its stability and practicality for such measurements. The C-131A aircraft of the University of Washington was the aircraft of opportunity for these-tests, which were to be conducted during the 4-week Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June of 1992.

  16. Evaluation and testing of metering pumps for high-level nuclear waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.E.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Blair, H.T.

    1986-06-01

    The metering pump system that delivers high-level liquid wastes (HLLW) slurry to a melter is an integral subsystem of the vitrification process. The process of selecting a pump for this application began with a technical review of pumps typically used for slurry applications. The design and operating characteristics of numerous pumps were evaluated against established criteria. Two pumps, an air-displacement slurry (ADS) pump and an air-lift pump, were selected for further development. In the development activity, from FY 1983 to FY 1985, the two pumps were subjected to long-term tests using simulated melter feed slurries to evaluate the pumps' performances. Throughout this period, the designs of both pumps were modified to better adapt them for this application. Final reference designs were developed for both the air-displacement slurry pump and the air-lift pump. Successful operation of the final reference designs has demonstrated the feasibility of both pumps. A fully remote design of the ADS pump has been developed and is currently undergoing testing at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Five designs of the ADS pump were tested and evaluated. The initial four designs proved the operating concept of the ADS pump. Weaknesses in the ADS pump system were identified and eliminated in later designs. A full-scale air-lift pump was designed and tested as a final demonstration of the air-lift pump's capabilities

  17. Using Ice Cream for Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Glucose Tolerance: An Alternative to the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanprasertpinyo, Wandee; Bhirommuang, Nattapimon; Surawattanawiset, Titiporn; Tangsermwong, Thanwarin; Phanachet, Pariya; Sriphrapradang, Chutintorn

    2017-12-01

    Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a sensitive and reliable test for diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). However, poor patient tolerance of glucose solutions is common. We aim to compare the diagnostic value of an ice cream test with a standard OGTT. A total of 104 healthy adults were randomly assigned to either 75-g OGTT or ice cream, followed by a crossover to the other test. Most patients were females (71%). Mean age was 37 ± 12 years, and body mass index was 24.2 ± 3.9kg/m 2 . Diabetes mellitus and IGT, as diagnosed by 75-g OGTT, were 4.8% and 6.7%, respectively. The 2-hour plasma glucose levels were 110 ± 55.5mg/dL with 75-g glucose and 97.52 ± 40.7mg/dL with ice cream. The correlation coefficient of 2-hour plasma glucose for the 2 tests was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.75-0.87; P ice cream test would have missed 5.76% of those at high risk for diabetes mellitus (impaired fasting glucose and IGT) or diabetes. An ice cream test may serve as an alternative to a 75-g OGTT. Before applying this test in clinical practice, it needs to be validated in a larger population. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Portable and quantitative point-of-care monitoring of Escherichia coli O157:H7 using a personal glucose meter based on immunochromatographic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haoran; Zhao, Guangying; Dou, Wenchao

    2018-06-01

    Here we innovate a portable and quantitative immunochromatographic assay (ICA) with a personal glucose meter (PGM) as readout for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7). The carboxyl group coated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by a one pot method and used as carriers of invertase and monoclonal antibody against E. coli O157:H7. Initially, the invertase and antibody double functionalized MNPs (Invertase-MNPs-IgG) conjugates were prepared and used as label probe in this assay system. Before laminating onto the baking card, the absorbent pad was soaked in sucrose solution and desiccated. MNPs produced brown band at the detection zone of the ICA when acting as direct labels. As they were also coupled with invertase, the invertase catalyzed the hydrolysis of sucrose on the absorbent pad into glucose, which was detected by the PGM. To increase the sensitivity, antibody functionalized MNPs were used to enrich E. coli O157:H7 from sample solution. The innovative aspect of this approach lies in the visualization and quantification of E. coli O157:H7 through Invertase-MNPs-IgG and the detection of glucose concentration using PGM. Although the feasibility is demonstrated using E. coli O157:H7 as a model analyte, this approach can be easily developed to be a universal analysis system and applied to detection of a wide variety of foodborne pathogens and protein biomarkers. This study proposed a qualitative and quantitative analysis device for the clinic diagnostics and food safety analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a calibration methodology and tests of kerma area product meters; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de calibracao e testes de medidores de produto Kerma-Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Nathalia Almeida

    2013-07-01

    The quantity kerma area product (PKA) is important to establish reference levels in diagnostic radiology exams. This quantity can be obtained using a PKA meter. The use of such meters is essential to evaluate the radiation dose in radiological procedures and is a good indicator to make sure that the dose limit to the patient's skin doesn't exceed. Sometimes, these meters come fixed to X radiation equipment, which makes its calibration difficult. In this work, it was developed a methodology for calibration of PKA meters. The instrument used for this purpose was the Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC). It was developed to be used as a reference to check the calibration of PKA and air kerma meters that are used for dosimetry in patients and to verify the consistency and behavior of systems of automatic exposure control. Because it is a new equipment, which, in Brazil, is not yet used as reference equipment for calibration, it was also performed the quality control of this equipment with characterization tests, the calibration and an evaluation of the energy dependence. After the tests, it was proved that the PDC can be used as a reference instrument and that the calibration must be performed in situ, so that the characteristics of each X-ray equipment, where the PKA meters are used, are considered. The calibration was then performed with portable PKA meters and in an interventional radiology equipment that has a PKA meter fixed. The results were good and it was proved the need for calibration of these meters and the importance of in situ calibration with a reference meter. (author)

  20. The radiochromic dye film dose meter as a possible test of particle track theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.W.; Jensen, M.; Katz, R.

    1980-09-01

    The response characteristic of the thin-film radiometric dye cyanide plastic dose meter to ionizing radiation of electrons and heavy charged particles is investigated as a possible test of the particle track theory worked out by Robert Katz and coworkers. Dose response curves for low-LET radiation have been investigated and are used for a quality estimation of the response for protons and oxygen ions at 16 and 4 MeV/amu, respectively. A bleaching effect on the colouration at high doses intimates that the target cannot be interpreted lieerally, but it might still be possinle to transfer the function of the macroscopic dose response to a theoretical dose response curve in a microscopic scale for a single ion. From this relation the macroscopic dose response curve can be determined qhen the film is irradiated with heavy ions. It will be shown theoretically that for protons there is no saturation in the track core, whereas calculations for oxygen ions show a heavy saturation in the track core, which means that a part of the ions loose their energy ineffectively. We can conclude that itis possible qualitatively to predict the dose response curve for high-LET particles by means of the dose response curve for low-LET radiation. (author)

  1. A Study on the Glucose and Immunoreactive Insulin Response during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kang Won; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mu Ho

    1973-01-01

    The blood glucose and plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels were measured during aral glucose tolerance test in 7 healthy subjects and 6 patients with chronic liver diseases. The glucose tolerance was impaired in 5 of the 6 patients and normal in I. Plasma IRI responses were markedly increased and delayed in all patients, suggesting endogenous insulin resistance. Patients with more glucose intolerance showed less increase in plasma IRI than the group with less intolerance. lt is suggested that some insulin antagonists may decrease the peripheral insulin sensitivity and stimulate compensatory hyperactivity of pancreatic islets. If the compensatory hyperactivity is inadequate due to gemetic predisposition to diabetes mellitus or exhaustion of β-cells of pancreatic islets, the glucose intolerance and overt diabetes mellitus may ensue.

  2. A Study on the Glucose and Immunoreactive Insulin Response during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Kang Won; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mu Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-03-15

    The blood glucose and plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels were measured during aral glucose tolerance test in 7 healthy subjects and 6 patients with chronic liver diseases. The glucose tolerance was impaired in 5 of the 6 patients and normal in I. Plasma IRI responses were markedly increased and delayed in all patients, suggesting endogenous insulin resistance. Patients with more glucose intolerance showed less increase in plasma IRI than the group with less intolerance. lt is suggested that some insulin antagonists may decrease the peripheral insulin sensitivity and stimulate compensatory hyperactivity of pancreatic islets. If the compensatory hyperactivity is inadequate due to gemetic predisposition to diabetes mellitus or exhaustion of beta-cells of pancreatic islets, the glucose intolerance and overt diabetes mellitus may ensue.

  3. A comparison of at-home walking and 10-meter walking test parameters of individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Katsuhito; Hori, Hideaki; Muramatsu, Ken

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the difference in gait parameters of at-home walking and the 10-meter walking test results of individuals with hemiparesis. [Subjects] A total of 14 hemiparetic stroke recovery patients participated in this study. Inclusion criteria were: living at home, the ability to walk independently, and demonstrated low extremity on recovery stages III-V on the Brunnstrom Approach. The average age of the subjects was 66 years. [Methods] We used video surveillance and the inked footprint technique to record usual walking speed and maximum speed patterns both in subjects' homes and during the 10-meter walking test. From these methods, walking speed, stride length, and step rate were calculated. [Results] While both usual and maximum walking speeds of the 10-meter walking test correlated with stride length and step rate, at-home walking speeds only significantly correlated with stride length. [Conclusion] Walking patterns of the 10-meter walking test are quantifiably distinct from those demonstrated in patients' homes, and this difference is mainly characterized by stride length. In order to enhance in-home walking ability, exercises that improve length of stride rather than step rate should be recommended.

  4. Association of serum orosomucoid with 30-min plasma glucose and glucose excursion during oral glucose tolerance tests in non-obese young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Ayaka; Minato, Satomi; Yano, Megumu; Takeuchi, Mika; Kitaoka, Kaori; Kurata, Miki; Yoshino, Gen; Wu, Bin; Kazumi, Tsutomu; Fukuo, Keisuke

    2018-01-01

    Inflammatory markers are elevated in insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. We tested whether serum orosomucoid (ORM) is associated with postload glucose, β-cell dysfunction and IR inferred from plasma insulin kinetics during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). 75 g OGTTs were performed with multiple postload glucose and insulin measurements over a 30-120 min period in 168 non-obese Japanese women (aged 18-24 years). OGTT responses, serum adiponectin and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) were cross-sectionally analyzed by analysis of variance and then Bonferroni's multiple comparison procedure. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analyses were used to identify most important determinants of ORM. Of 168 women, 161 had normal glucose tolerance. Postload glucose levels and the area under the glucose curve (AUCg) increased in a stepwise fashion from the first through the third ORM tertile. In contrast, there was no or modest, if any, association with fat mass index, trunk/leg fat ratio, adiponectin, hsCRP, postload insulinemia, the Matsuda index and homeostasis model assessment IR. In multivariable models, which incorporated the insulinogenic index, the Matsuda index and HOMA-IR, 30 min glucose (standardized β: 0.517) and AUCg (standardized β: 0.495) explained 92.8% of ORM variations. Elevated circulating orosomucoid was associated with elevated 30 min glucose and glucose excursion in non-obese young Japanese women independently of adiposity, IR, insulin secretion, adiponectin and other investigated markers of inflammation. Although further research is needed, these results may suggest a clue to identify novel pathways that may have utility in monitoring dysglycemia within normal glucose tolerance.

  5. 77 FR 40586 - Draft NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ...-01] Draft NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter... Technology (NIST) seeks comments on Draft NISTIR 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter... conformance test requirements for the firmware upgradeability process for the Advanced Metering Infrastructure...

  6. Characteristic tests of ionization chamber and GM counter survey meters for beta-rays, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Shin-ichi; Bingo, Kazuyoshi; Kajimoto, Yoichi

    1979-03-01

    To estimate a beta-ray absorbed dose rate of contaminated skin, measurements were done twice by a survey meter without and with a filter, keeping the distance from the contaminated skin surface to the survey meter at 10 mm. The absorbed dose rate was obtained multiplying a net reading (equals a reading of survey meter's indicator measured without the filter minus that measured with the filter) by a multiplying factor. Calibrations were made with reference plane sources of natural uranium, 198 Au and 204 Tl, varying their area. The five types of ionization chamber survey meters had nearly same multiplying factors when the diameter of source was larger than the diameter of the chamber cylinder. Estimation of the absorbed doses due to beta-emitting nuclides was possible when the measured value without filter was larger by 20% or more than that of with filter. In the case of small sources, the multiplying factor varied significantly with area of the source. The multiplying factors agreed within +-30% in the respective types i.e. manufacturers and in maximum beta-ray energies from 0.7 up to 2.5 MeV. In the source to detector distance of 1 cm +-0.2 cm, the multiplying factor varied within +-20%. The multiplying factor of a GM counter survey meter varied with beta-ray energy, the multiplying factor for uranium was 1/3 that of 204 Tl. (author)

  7. Assessment of time to glucose peak during an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Witte, Daniel R; Vistisen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    We read with interest the article from Chung et al. on the association between time to glucose peak and prediabetes.(1) We agree with the authors in that the morphology of the glucose curve is worth investigating as an additional indicator of prediabetes and diabetes risk. This is a rather well...

  8. Using Glucose Tolerance Tests to Model Insulin Secretion and Clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Shannon

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the studies described in this paper is to develop theoretically and to validate experimentally mathematical compartment models which can be used to predict plasma insulin levels in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. In the case of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM, the C-peptide levels in the plasma were measured as part of routine glucose tolerance tests in order to estimate the prehepatic insulin secretion rates. In the case of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM, a radioactive labelled insulin was used to measure the absorption rate of insulin after a subcutaneous injection of insulin. Both models gave close fits between theoretical estimates and experimental data, and, unlike other models, it is not necessary to seed these models with initial estimates.

  9. Testing of the McMath-Pierce 0.8-Meter East Auxiliary Telescope's Acquisition and Slewing Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard; Ray, Jimmy; Prause, Lori; Douglass, David; Branston, Detrick; Genet, Russell M.

    2015-09-01

    Following mediocre results with pointing tests of the McMath-Pierce 0.8-meter East Auxiliary Telescope in April 2014, a team of astronomers/engineers met again in May 2014 to test other pointing models and assess the telescope's ability to point with enough accuracy to permit the efficient use of speckle interferometry. Results show that accurate collimation is a pre-requisite for such accuracy. Once attained, the telescope performs extremely well.

  10. Inorganic phosphorus decrease after intravenous glucose tolerance test is associated with insulin resistance in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Cincović, Marko R.; Djoković, Radojica; Belić, Branislavav; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Toholj, Bojan; Stojanac, Nenad; Stevančević, Ognjen; Starič, Jože

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic phosphorus (Pi) concentration in blood decreases during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) due to the increase in the level of insulin and glucose. The objective of the present study was to determine the relationship between the intensity of Pi decrease with a dynamic change of insulin and glucose during IVGTT (AUC - total area under curve, AUC increment - area under curve from start of IVGTT to time of maximal response and glucose CR-clearance rate), as well as RQUICKI (...

  11. Radioimmunoassay of Plasma Insulin during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Thyrotoxicosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-03-15

    Blood glucose and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) were measured during oral glucose tolerance test in 15 thyrotoxic patients and 8 normal controls, to study the glucose metabolism in thyrotoxicosis. Following were the results;1) In thyrotoxicosis, there is noticed late rise and late fall of plasma IRI during oral glucose tolerance test, like as phenomenon of mild diabetes mellitus. 2) When the thyrotoxic patients were divided into normal and abnormal responsive groups after the level of blood glucose by Wilkerson Criteria, no significant difference in plasma IRI levels were noticed between two groups. 3) This result may be interpreted as relative deficiency of insulin secretion from panaceas and suggest genetically related defects.

  12. 21 CFR 862.1340 - Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...). Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolism disorders including diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia. (b) Classification. Class...

  13. Nuclear electronic equipment for control and monitoring boards. Specifications and test methods of direct current period meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquefort, Henri; Chapelot; Ramard; Tardif; Tournier; Vaux

    1973-11-01

    After a few words of introduction, mention of the main notations used and the definition of certain terms, the field of application of the document is outlined and a list of references given. The main specifications of electronic 'direct current period meter' subassemblies for the monitoring, control and safety of nuclear reactors are then defined and the corresponding test methods described. The apparatus measures on a logarithmic scale the neutron fluence rate of a reactor by means of an ionisation chamber and supplies 'period' data relative to the fluence rate variation in time. The specifications and test methods are given for the different components: logarithmic amplifier, time derivative unit, threshold releases, high tension supply for ionisation chamber, auxiliary circuits and finally the complete period meter. (author) [fr

  14. Test plan for evaluation of primary exhaust ventilation flow meters for double shell hydrogen watch list tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willingham, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    This document is a plan for testing four different flow meters for use in the primary exhaust ventilation ducts of Double Shell Tanks on the hydrogen watch list that do not already have this capability. This currently includes tanks 241-AW-101, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-104, 241-AN-105, and 241-SY-103. The anticipated airflow velocity in these tanks range from 0.25 m/s(50 ft/min) to 1.78 m/s (350 ft/min). Past experiences at Hanford are forcing the evaluation and selection of instruments to be used at the low flow and relatively high humidity conditions found in these tanks. Based on the results of this test, a flow meter shall be chosen for installation in the primary exhaust ventilation ducts of the above mentioned waste tanks

  15. Conceptual basis for the radiometric dye film dose meter as a test of particle track theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.W.

    1980-05-01

    This report is a summary of a lecture held at the Danish-Polish Symposium on Radiation Chemistry in Warsaw, October 1979, describing an initiated work connected to the particle track theory worked out by R. Katz and coworkers. A short description is given of the theory and the applicability of the theory in the use of the radiometric dye cyanide film dose meter as a detector in radiation of different qualities. A few experimental results are given. (author)

  16. The impact of clinical trial design on cost-effectiveness analyses: illustration from a published study of the one-touch ultrasmart blood glucose meter for insulin-using diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunis, Sandra L; Minshall, Michael E

    2008-06-01

    One source of variation in cost-effectiveness analyses stems from the characteristics of the study upon which each is based. This report provides cost-effectiveness analyses using data from a recently published randomized clinical trial (RCT) comparing an integrated glucose meter/electronic logbook to a conventional glucose meter/paper logbook in helping to control hemoglobin A1c in type 1 or type 2 diabetes. RCT participants and health care professionals (HCPs) were "blinded" to results of meter downloads until week 16, when participants chose systems. They returned to "usual care" and could obtain meter results and share them with their HCPs. Those eligible returned 26-65 weeks later for an observational visit. The CORE Diabetes Model was used to estimate the 60-year cost-effectiveness of the electronic (vs. conventional) meter. With no price premium, the newer technology represented a dominant strategy (greater effectiveness/lower costs) based on the RCT alone or on the RCT + observational visit. With a $100.00/year premium, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $28,053 based on the RCT, but the electronic monitor was dominant when simulations included observational visit results. One plausible reason for the greater benefits of the electronic monitor with the observational period included was the ability of patients and HCPs to make better clinical and lifestyle modifications based on fully available, formatted data. Because the advantages of the electronic meter are based on timely access to accurate feedback, the importance of naturalistic, unblinded studies for technology assessments can be appreciated. Addressing the methodological issues discussed here can help integrate clinical and economic outcomes for diabetes care innovations.

  17. Mobile diabetes intervention study: testing a personalized treatment/behavioral communication intervention for blood glucose control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Charlene C; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Shardell, Michelle; Weed, Kelly; Clough, Suzanne S; Peeples, Malinda; Terrin, Michael; Bronich-Hall, Lauren; Barr, Erik; Lender, Dan

    2009-07-01

    National data find glycemic control is within target (A1ccommunication system, using mobile phones and patient/physician portals to allow patient-specific treatment and communication. All physicians receive American Diabetes Association (ADA) Guidelines for diabetes care. Patients with poor diabetes control (A1c> or =7.5%) at baseline (n=260) are enrolled in study groups based on PCP randomization. All study patients receive blood glucose (BG) meters and a year's supply of testing materials. Patients in three treatment groups select one of two mobile phone models, receive one-year unlimited mobile phone data and service plan, register on the web-based individual patient portal and receive study treatment phone software based on study assignment. Control group patients receive usual care from their PCP. The primary outcome is mean change in A1c over a 12-month intervention period. Traditional methods of disease management have not achieved adequate control for BG and other conditions important to persons with diabetes. Tools to improve communication between patients and PCPs may improve patient outcomes and be satisfactory to patients and physicians. This RCT is ongoing.

  18. Comparision between bed side testing of blood glucose by glucometer vs centralized testing in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Ayaz; Siddiqui, Imran; Jabbar, Abdul; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Sabir, Salman; Alam, Shahryar; Ghani, Farooq

    2007-01-01

    To determine the accuracy, turnaround time and cost effectiveness of bedside monitoring of blood glucose levels by non-laboratory health care workers and centralized testing of blood glucose by automated analyzer in a tertiary care hospital. The study was conducted in Section of Chemical Pathology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology and Section of Endocrinology Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University and Hospital Karachi, from April 2005 to March 2006. One hundred and ten patients were included in the study. The blood glucose levels were analyzed on glucometer (Precision Abbott) by finger stick, using Biosensor Technology. At the same time venous blood was obtained to analyze glucose in clinical laboratory on automated analyzer (SYNCHRON CX7) by glucose oxidase method. We observed good correlation between bed side glucometer and laboratory automated analyzer for glucose values between 3.3 mmol/L (60 mg/dl) and 16.7 (300 mg/dl). A significant difference was observed for glucose values less than 3.3 mmol/L (p = 0.002) and glucose values more than 16.67 mmol/l (p = 0.049). Mean Turnaround time for glucometer and automated analyzer were 0.08 hours and 2.49 hours respectively. The cost of glucose testing with glucometer was 48.8% lower than centralized lab based testing. Bedside glucometer testing, though less expensive does not have good accuracy in acutely ill patient with either very high or very low blood glucose levels.

  19. The Added Value of Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing in Pre-Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijf, Yoeri M.; Hermanides, Jeroen; Serlie, Mireille J.; Hoekstra, Joost B.; Soeters, Maarten R.

    2011-01-01

    With the increased acceptance of glycated hemoglobin measurement as the test of choice for the diagnosis and detection of diabetes, doubts which surround the use of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in detecting disturbances in glucose levels have become even more apparent. Metabolically, there

  20. Analysis of results of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin releasing test in hepatogenic diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Haoming; Fu Qiang; Tian Xiaoping; Su Cainu

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical values of OGTT and insulin releasing test in hepatogenic diabetics. Method: OGTT was performed by enzymes method and insulin releasing test by RIA in 30 patients with hepatogenic diabetes, 31 cases with II diabetes and 35 controls. Results: During OGTT, blood glucose levels at various time were about the same in hepatogenic diabetics and II diabetics (P < 0.05), except at 180 min (P < 0.01). Basal hyperinsulinemia was present is hepatogenic diabetics. Conclusion: OGTT and insulin releasing test had a definite clinical value in the differential diagnosis of hepatogenic diabetics

  1. Metering apparatus and tariffs for electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Conference papers presented cover system economies and tariff structure with papers on pricing of electricity and new metering technologies. Other topics reviewed include metering apparatus design, electronic metering apparatus and solid phase metering technology. Meter data retrieval, bulk supply metering, test equipment and maintenance, and legal requirements and standards are discussed. (author)

  2. Evaluation of commercial glucometer test strips for potential measurement of glucose in tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kyoung Ha; Jensen, Gary C; Balijepalli, Anant S; Cohan, Bruce E; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2014-02-04

    Tear glucose measurements have been suggested as a potential alternative to blood glucose monitoring for diabetic patients. While previous work has reported that there is a correlation between blood and tear glucose levels in humans, this link has not been thoroughly established and additional clinical studies are needed. Herein, we evaluate the potential of using commercial blood glucose test strips to measure glucose in tears. Of several blood glucose strips evaluated, only one brand exhibits the low detection limit required for quantitating glucose in tears. Calibration of these strips in the range of 0-100 μM glucose with an applied potential of 150 mV to the working electrode yields a sensitivity of 0.127 nA/μM and a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 9 μM. The strips also exhibit ≤13% error (n = 3) for 25, 50, and 75 μM glucose in the presence of 10 μM acetaminophen, 100 μM ascorbic acid, and 100 μM uric acid. Measurements of glucose in tears from nine normal (nondiabetic) fasting human subjects using strips yielded glucose values within the range of 5-148 μM (mean = 47 μM, median = 43 μM), similar to those for human tears reported by others with more complex LC-MS methods. The glucometer strip method could facilitate more clinical studies to determine whether tear glucose and blood glucose levels sufficiently correlate for application to routine measurements in tears to supplement blood glucose testing. This would be especially helpful for children, adolescents, other Type 1 diabetics, and also for Type 2 diabetics who require treatment with insulin and cannot tolerate multiple finger sticks per day.

  3. Test of a cryogenic set-up for a 10 meter long liquid nitrogen cooled superconducting power cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træholt, Chresten; Rasmussen, Carsten; Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa

    2000-01-01

    High temperature superconducting power cables may be cooled by a forced flow of sub-cooled liquid nitrogen. One way to do this is to circulate the liquid nitrogen (LN2) by means of a mechanical pump through the core of the cable and through a sub-cooler.Besides the cooling station, the cryogenics...... cable. We report on our experimental set-up for testing a 10 meter long high temperature superconducting cable with a critical current of 3.2 kA at 77K. The set-up consists of a custom designed cable end termination, current lead, coolant feed-through, liquid nitrogen closed loop circulation system...

  4. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test among Adolescents with Impaired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    Tamunopriye Jaja, Boma Okoh. Department of Paediatrics, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers. State ... history of diabetes mellitus and 17(25%) had hypertension. Seven (10.3%) of the ... Oral Glucose Tolerance among Adolescents - Jaja T, Okoh B degree of insulin resistance leading to ...

  5. Proposed diagnostic thresholds for gestational diabetes mellitus according to a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, P; Sørensen, B

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To study if established diagnostic threshold values for gestational diabetes based on a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test can be supported by maternal and perinatal outcomes. METHODS: Historical cohort study of 3260 pregnant women examined for gestational diabetes on the basis of risk...... indicators. Information on oral glucose tolerance test results and clinical outcomes were collected from medical records. RESULTS: There was an increased risk of delivering a macrosomic infant in women with 2-h capillary blood glucose of 7.8-8.9 mmol/l compared with women with 2-h glucose ... mellitus. Until these results are available, a 2-h threshold level of 9.0 mmol/l after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test seems acceptable....

  6. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of study is to determine whether glucose pump test (GPT) is used for surveillance of native AV fistulas by using Doppler US as reference. Methods: In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US and GPT. For GPT, glucose was infused to 16 mL/min by ...

  7. Quench protection test results and comparative simulations on the first 10 meter prototype dipoles for the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Mateos, F.; Gerin, G.; Marquis, A.

    1996-01-01

    The first 10 meter long dipole prototypes made by European Industry within the framework of the R and D program for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have been tested at CERN. As a part of the test program, a series of quench protection tests have been carried out in order to qualify the basic protection scheme foreseen for the LHC dipoles (quench heaters and cold diodes). Results are presented on the quench heater performance, and on the maximum temperatures and voltages observed during quenches under the so-called machine conditions. Moreover, an update of the quench simulation package specially developed at CERN (QUABER 2) has been recently made. Details on this new version of QUABER are given. Simulation runs have been made specifically to validate the model with the results from the measurements on quench protection mentioned above

  8. Adipose tissue insulin receptor and glucose transporter 4 expression, and blood glucose and insulin responses during glucose tolerance tests in transition Holstein cows with different body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakson, H; Karis, P; Ling, K; Ilves-Luht, A; Samarütel, J; Henno, M; Jõudu, I; Waldmann, A; Reimann, E; Pärn, P; Bruckmaier, R M; Gross, J J; Kaart, T; Kass, M; Ots, M

    2018-01-01

    Glucose uptake in tissues is mediated by insulin receptor (INSR) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of body condition during the dry period on adipose tissue mRNA and protein expression of INSR and GLUT4, and on the dynamics of glucose and insulin following the i.v. glucose tolerance test in Holstein cows 21 d before (d -21) and after (d 21) calving. Cows were grouped as body condition score (BCS) ≤3.0 (thin, T; n = 14), BCS = 3.25 to 3.5 (optimal, O; n = 14), and BCS ≥3.75 (overconditioned, OC; n = 14). Blood was analyzed for glucose, insulin, fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Adipose tissue was analyzed for INSR and GLUT4 mRNA and protein concentrations. During the glucose tolerance test 0.15 g/kg of body weight glucose was infused; blood was collected at -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min, and analyzed for glucose and insulin. On d -21 the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose was smallest in group T (1,512 ± 33.9 mg/dL × min) and largest in group OC (1,783 ± 33.9 mg/dL × min), and different between all groups. Basal insulin on d -21 was lowest in group T (13.9 ± 2.32 µU/mL), which was different from group OC (24.9 ± 2.32 µU/mL. On d -21 the smallest AUC 5-60 of insulin in group T (5,308 ± 1,214 µU/mL × min) differed from the largest AUC in group OC (10,867 ± 1,215 µU/mL × min). Time to reach basal concentration of insulin in group OC (113 ± 14.1 min) was longer compared with group T (45 ± 14.1). The INSR mRNA abundance on d 21 was higher compared with d -21 in groups T (d -21: 3.3 ± 0.44; d 21: 5.9 ± 0.44) and O (d -21: 3.7 ± 0.45; d 21: 4.7 ± 0.45). The extent of INSR protein expression on d -21 was highest in group T (7.3 ± 0.74 ng/mL), differing from group O (4.6 ± 0.73 ng/mL), which had the lowest expression. The amount of GLUT4 protein on d -21 was lowest in group OC (1.2 ± 0.14 ng/mL), different from group O (1.8 ± 0.14 ng/mL), which had the highest amount

  9. 40 CFR 201.23 - Test site, weather conditions and background noise criteria for measurement at a 30 meter (100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... background noise criteria for measurement at a 30 meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and... and background noise criteria for measurement at a 30 meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from... meters (4 feet) above the ground at the microphone location, except as provided in paragraph (c) of this...

  10. Oral glucose tolerance test predicts increased carotid plaque burden in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorarinn A Bjarnason

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes are established risk factors for atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the atherosclerotic plaque burden in the carotid arteries of patients with acute coronary syndrome according to their glycemic status.Patients with acute coronary syndrome and no previous history of type 2 diabetes were consecutively included in the study. Glucose metabolism was evaluated with fasting glucose in plasma, HbA1c and a standard two-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries was evaluated with a standardized ultrasound examination where total plaque area was measured and patients classified as having no plaque or a significant plaque formation.A total of 245 acute coronary syndrome patients (male 78%, 64 years (SD: 10.9 were included. The proportion diagnosed with normal glucose metabolism, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was 28.6%, 64.1% and 7.3%, respectively. A significant atherosclerotic plaque was found in 48.5%, 66.9% and 72.2% of patients with normal glucose metabolism, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, respectively. An incremental increase in total plaque area was found from normal glucose metabolism to prediabetes (25.5% and from normal glucose metabolism to type 2 diabetes (35.9% (p = 0.04. When adjusted for conventional cardiovascular risk factors the OR of having significant atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries was 2.17 (95% CI 1.15-4.15 for patients with newly diagnosed dysglycemia compared to patients with normal glucose metabolism. When additionally adjusted for the 2-hour plasma glucose after glucose loading (2hPG the OR attenuated to 1.77 (95% CI 0.83-3.84.Newly detected dysglycemia is an independent predictor of significant atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries with oral glucose tolerance test as a major determinant of carotid plaque burden in this group of individuals with acute coronary syndrome.

  11. Internet-Based Contingency Management to Improve Adherence with Blood Glucose Testing Recommendations for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The current study used Internet-based contingency management (CM) to increase adherence with blood glucose testing to at least 4 times daily. Four teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes earned vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos over a Web site. Participants submitted a mean of 1.7 and 3.1 blood glucose tests per day during the 2…

  12. Hydrogen meter prooftesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.; Mettler, G.W.

    1976-04-01

    Two diffusion type hydrogen meters have been tested on the Prototype Applications Loop (PAL). The ANL designed unit was used to monitor hydrogen in sodium during FFTF startup and over a wide range of hydrogen concentrations resulting from chemical additions to the sodium and cover gas. A commercially available meter was added and its performance compared with the ANL unit. Details of the test work are described

  13. The real world of blood glucose point-of-care testing (POCT) system running in China teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Fei; Xie, Yun; Shi, Bing-Yin; Niu, Min; Guo, Hui; Cao, Yan; Liu, Bing-Li; Yan, Reng-Na; Su, Xiao-Fei; Wu, Jin-Dan; Zhang, Dan-Feng; Chen, Li-Ming; Ma, Jian-Hua

    2018-06-01

     The blood glucose point-of-care testing (POCT) system is important in the decision-making process involving patients suspected of having hypoglycemia. To investigate the real world of the POCT system being used in teaching hospitals in China. The survey was conducted by Hisend Research Group from May 2015 to July 2015 in four teaching hospitals in China. The survey questions were referred to the ISO 15197:2013 standard requirements for the use of the POCT system in a hospital setting. A total of 170 subjects were included from 4 hospitals, which included nursing staff, nurse unit managers, employees from the department of medical instruments, and staff members employed by the clinical laboratories in the Tianjin Metabolism Hospital, Nanjing First Hospital, First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, and the First hospital affiliated with the Xi'an Transportation University. The average score for the four hospitals surveyed in this study was 66.6, which varied from 46.1 to 79.7. The main factors influencing the scores were the multiple choices of blood-glucose meters, and the quality control assessment. Our data indicates that the real world use of the POCT system in hospital settings in China needs more closer adherence to a quality management framework.

  14. Testing of the large bore single aperture 1-meter superconducting dipoles made with phenolic inserts

    CERN Document Server

    Boschmann, H; Dubbeldam, R L; Kirby, G A; Lucas, J; Ostojic, R; Russenschuck, Stephan; Siemko, A; Taylor, T M; Vanenkov, I; Weterings, W

    1998-01-01

    Two identical single aperture 1-metre superconducting dipoles have been built in collaboration with HMA Power Systems and tested at CERN. The 87.8 mm aperture magnets feature a single layer coil wound using LHC main dipole outer layer cable, phenolic spacer type collars, and a keyed two part structural iron yoke. The magnets are designed as models of the D1 separation dipole in the LHC experimental insertions, whose nominal field is 4.5 T at 4.5 K. In this report we present the test results of the two magnets at 4.3 K and 1.9 K.

  15. Overview of the 6 Meter HIAD Inflatable Structure and Flexible TPS Static Load Test Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Greg; Kazemba, Cole; Johnson, Keith; Calomino, Anthony; Hughes, Steve; Cassell, Alan; Cheatwood, Neil

    2014-01-01

    To support NASAs long term goal of landing humans on Mars, technologies which enable the landing of heavy payloads are being developed. Current entry, decent, and landing technologies are not practical for this class of payloads due to geometric constraints dictated by current launch vehicle fairing limitations. Therefore, past and present technologies are now being explored to provide a mass and volume efficient solution to atmospheric entry, including Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIADs). At the beginning of 2014, a 6m HIAD inflatable structure with an integrated flexible thermal protection system (TPS) was subjected to a static load test series to verify the designs structural performance. The 6m HIAD structure was constructed in a stacked toroid configuration using nine inflatable torus segments composed of fiber reinforced thin films, which were joined together using adhesives and high strength textile woven structural straps to help distribute the loads throughout the inflatable structure. The 6m flexible TPS was constructed using multiple layers of high performance materials to protect the inflatable structure from heat loads that would be seen during atmospheric entry. To perform the static load test series, a custom test fixture was constructed. The fixture consisted of a structural tub rim with enough height to allow for displacement of the inflatable structure as loads were applied. The bottom of the tub rim had an airtight seal with the floor. The centerbody of the inflatable structure was attached to a pedestal mount as seen in Figure 1. Using an impermeable membrane seal draped over the test article, partial vacuum was pulled beneath the HIAD, resulting in a uniform static pressure load applied to the outer surface. During the test series an extensive amount of instrumentation was used to provide many data sets including: deformed shape, shoulder deflection, strap loads, cord loads, inflation pressures, and applied static load

  16. Tests of 1.5 meter model 50mm SSC collider dipoles at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wake, M.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Coulter, K.; Delchamps, S.; Gourlay, S.; Jaffery, T.S.; Kinney, W.; Koska, W.; Lamm, M.J.; Strait, J.; Sims, R.; Winters, M.

    1991-05-01

    A series of 50mm diameter 1.5m model magnets have been constructed. The test of these magnets gave convincing results concerning the design of the 50mm cross section of the SSC collider dipoles. 9 refs., 6 figs

  17. Accuracy of bedside glucose measurement from three glucometers in critically ill patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; Klein Gunnewiek, J.M.T.; Prinsen, M.A.; Willems, J.L.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Implementation of strict glucose control in most intensive care units has resulted in increased use of point-of-care glucose devices in the intensive care unit. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of point-of-care testing glucose meters among critically ill patients

  18. Tale of two sites: capillary versus arterial blood glucose testing in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbami, Felix; Segal, Scott; Schnipper, Jeffrey L; Stopfkuchen-Evans, Matthias; Mills, Jonathan; Rogers, Selwyn O

    2012-04-01

    Pre- and intraoperative glycemic control has been identified as a putative target to improve outcomes of surgical patients. Glycemic control requires frequent monitoring of blood glucose levels with appropriate adjustments. However, monitoring standards have been called into question, especially in cases in which capillary samples are used. Point-of-care testing (POCT) using capillary samples and glucometers has been noted to give relatively accurate results for critically ill patients. However, the package inserts of most glucometers warn that they should not be used for patients in shock. This has led clinicians to doubt their accuracy in the operating room. The accuracy of capillary samples when tested in patients undergoing surgical procedures has not been proven. This study aims to determine the accuracy of intraoperative blood glucose values using capillary samples relative to arterial samples. A prospective study was conducted by collecting paired capillary and arterial samples of patients undergoing major operations at a tertiary medical center from August 2009 to May 2011. Subjects were a convenience sample of patients who had arterial lines and needed glucose testing while undergoing the procedure. Precision Xceed Pro (Abbott) handheld glucometers were used to obtain the blood glucose values. Our primary outcome of interest was the degree of correlation between capillary and arterial blood glucose values or the degree to which arterial glucose levels can be predicted by capillary glucose samples. We used linear regression and the Student t tests for statistical analyses. Seventy-two-paired samples were collected. Of the cases, 54% were major abdominal operations, whereas 24% were vascular operations. The mean values ± standard deviation for glucose levels were 146 ± 35 mg/dL (capillary) and 147 ± 36 mg/dL (arterial). The mean time ± standard deviation between the collection of both samples was 3.5 ± 1.3 minutes. The regression coefficient showed a

  19. Tests of a 3 meter curved superconducting beam transport dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allinger, J.E.; Carroll, A.S.; Danby, G.T.; DeVito, B.; Jackson, J.W.; Leonhardt, W.J.; Prodell, A.G.; Weisenbloom, J.

    1981-01-01

    Initial tests of one of the curved 3 m long superconducting dipole magnets intended to generate 6.0 T and produce a 20.4 0 bend in the primary proton beam to a new D-target station at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS have been completed. Although this magnet, whose window frame design generally follows that of the successful 8 0 and Model T superconducting dipoles, demonstrates many of the desirable characteristics of these earlier magnets such as excellent quench propagation and good ramping properties, it has only reached a disappointingly low magnetic field of 3.5 to 4.0 T. Because of the great interest in superconducting magnet technology, this report will describe the diagnostic tests performed and plans for future modifications

  20. Estimate of uncertainties correlated and no correlated associated to performance tests of activity meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, C.H.S.; Teixeira, G.J.; Peixoto, J.G.P.

    2014-01-01

    Activimeters should undergo performance for verifying the functionality tests as technical recommendations. This study estimated the associated expanded uncertainties uncorrelated to the results conducted on three instruments, two detectors with ionization chamber and one with Geiger Mueller tubes. For this we used a standard reference source and screened certified by the National Institute of Technology and Standardization. The methodology of this research was based on the protocols listed in the technical document of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Later two quantities were correlated presenting real correlation and improving expanded uncertainty 3.7%. (author)

  1. Construction and testing of the two meter diameter TPC thin superconducting solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Eberhard, P.H.; Ross, R.R.; Taylor, J.D.

    1979-08-01

    High energy colliding beam physics often requires large detectors which contain large volumes of magnetic field. The TPC (Time Projection Chamber) experiment at PEP will use a 1.5T magnetic field within a cylindrical volume which is 2.04m in diameter bounded by iron poles which are separated by a gap of 3.25m. The TPC magnet, built in 1979 by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), is the largest high current density superconducting magnet built to date. It is designed to operate at a current density of 7 x 10 8 Am -2 and a stored energy of 11MJ, and it is protected by shorted secondary windings during a quench. The paper describes the basic parameters of the TPC magnet and the results of the first subassembly tests at LBL

  2. Charge Meter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 4. Charge Meter: Easy Way to Measure Charge and Capacitance: Some Interesting Electrostatic Experiments. M K Raghavendra V Venkataraman. Classroom Volume 19 Issue 4 April 2014 pp 376-390 ...

  3. Adverse effects during the oral glucose tolerance test in post-bariatric surgery patients

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade,Heliana Fernanda de Albuquerque; Pedrosa,William; Diniz,Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Passos,Valéria Maria Azeredo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is used in the screening of gestational diabetes, in diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in conjunction with fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence and risk factors of adverse effects of OGTT in patients who underwent bariatric surgery, in addition to proposing standardization for ordering the OGTT in these patients. Subjects and methods This study assessed the incidence of adverse ...

  4. Continuous glucose monitoring and its relationship to hemoglobin A1c and oral glucose tolerance testing in obese and prediabetic youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christine L; Pyle, Laura; Newnes, Lindsey; Nadeau, Kristen J; Zeitler, Philip S; Kelsey, Megan M

    2015-03-01

    The optimal screening test for diabetes and prediabetes in obese youth is controversial. We examined whether glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) or the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a better predictor of free-living glycemia as measured by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). This was a cross-sectional study of youth 10-18 years old, body mass index (BMI) 85th percentile or greater, with diabetes risk factors. Participants (n = 118) with BMI 85th percentile or greater, not on medications for glucose management, were recruited from primary care and pediatric endocrinology clinics around Denver, Colorado. HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, and 2-hour glucose were collected and all participants wore a blinded CGM for 72 hours. CGM outcomes were determined and descriptive statistics calculated. Performance characteristics at current American Diabetes Association cutpoints were compared with CGM outcomes. CGM data were successfully collected on 98 obese youth. Those with prediabetes had significantly higher average glucose, area under the curve (AUC), peak glucose, and time greater than 120 and greater than 140 mg/dL (P obese youth, HbA1c and 2-hour glucose performed equally well at predicting free-living glycemia on CGM, suggesting that both are valid tests for dysglycemia screening.

  5. Measuring fitness of Kenyan children with polyparasitic infections using the 20-meter shuttle run test as a morbidity metric.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya L Bustinduy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available To date, there has been no standardized approach to the assessment of aerobic fitness among children who harbor parasites. In quantifying the disability associated with individual or multiple chronic infections, accurate measures of physical fitness are important metrics. This is because exercise intolerance, as seen with anemia and many other chronic disorders, reflects the body's inability to maintain adequate oxygen supply (VO(2 max to the motor tissues, which is frequently linked to reduced quality-of-life in terms of physical and job performance. The objective of our study was to examine the associations between polyparasitism, anemia, and reduced fitness in a high risk Kenyan population using novel implementation of the 20-meter shuttle run test (20mSRT, a well-standardized, low-technology physical fitness test.Four villages in coastal Kenya were surveyed during 2009-2010. Children 5-18 years were tested for infection with Schistosoma haematobium (Sh, malaria, filaria, and geohelminth infections by standard methods. After anthropometric and hemoglobin testing, fitness was assessed with the 20 mSRT. The 20 mSRT proved easy to perform, requiring only minimal staff training. Parasitology revealed high prevalence of single and multiple parasitic infections in all villages, with Sh being the most common (25-62%. Anemia prevalence was 45-58%. Using multiply-adjusted linear modeling that accounted for household clustering, decreased aerobic capacity was significantly associated with anemia, stunting, and wasting, with some gender differences.The 20 mSRT, which has excellent correlation with VO(2, is a highly feasible fitness test for low-resource settings. Our results indicate impaired fitness is common in areas endemic for parasites, where, at least in part, low fitness scores are likely to result from anemia and stunting associated with chronic infection. The 20 mSRT should be used as a common metric to quantify physical fitness and compare sub

  6. Enhanced Predictive Capability of a 1-Hour Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Bhatt, Deepak L; Nielsen, Mette L

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the 1-h blood glucose measurement would be a more suitable screening tool for assessing the risk of diabetes and its complications than the 2-h measurement. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective population-based cohort study of 4,867 men, randomly...... selected from prespecified birth cohorts between 1921 and 1949, who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test with blood glucose measurements at 0, 1, and 2 h. Subjects were followed for up to 39 years, with registry-based recording of events. Discriminative abilities of elevated 1-h (≥8.6 mmol/L) versus 2......-h (≥7.8 mmol/L) glucose for predicting incident type 2 diabetes, vascular complications, and mortality were compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis, Cox proportional hazards regression, and net reclassification improvement. RESULTS: Median age was 48 years (interquartile range [IQR] 48-49). During...

  7. Passive flux meter measurement of water and nutrient flux in saturated porous media: bench-scale laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaehyun; Annable, Michael D; Jawitz, James W; Hatfield, Kirk

    2007-01-01

    The passive nutrient flux meter (PNFM) is introduced for simultaneous measurement of both water and nutrient flux through saturated porous media. The PNFM comprises a porous sorbent pre-equilibrated with a suite of alcohol tracers, which have different partitioning coefficients. Water flux was estimated based on the loss of loaded resident tracers during deployment, while nutrient flux was quantified based on the nutrient solute mass captured on the sorbent. An anionic resin, Lewatit 6328 A, was used as a permeable sorbent and phosphate (PO4(3-)) was the nutrient studied. The phosphate sorption capacity of the resin was measured in batch equilibration tests as 56 mg PO4(3-) g(-1), which was determined to be adequate capacity to retain PO4(3-) loads intercepted over typical PNFM deployment periods in most natural systems. The PNFM design was validated with bench-scale laboratory tests for a range of 9.8 to 28.3 cm d(-1) Darcy velocities and 6 to 43 h deployment durations. Nutrient and water fluxes measured by the PNFM averaged within 6 and 12% of the applied values, respectively, indicating that the PNFM shows promise as a tool for simultaneous measurement of water and nutrient fluxes.

  8. Effect of degree of lipomobilization on results of glucose test in dairy cows in heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cincović M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cows exposed to heat stress exhibit a decreased ability to mobilize lipids due to increased sensitivity to insulin, which is expressed in a decreased concentration of NEFA. However, certain cows can preserve the level of lipid mobilization after adapting to heat stress. We assumed that cows that have a preserved ability to mobilize lipids are less sensitive to insulin and that they have a lower tolerance for glucose. The aim of this work was to compare the results of an intravenous glucose tolerance test in cows that exhibited, in prolonged heat stress, a decreased (NEFA0.30 mmol/l ability for lipid mobilization. Glucose concentration and NEFA concentration were measured following intravenous application of glucose. The mean glycaemic index value did not differ statistically significantly between the two groups of cows at 10, 15 and 20 minutes after glucose application (p>0.05, but there was a tendency at 10 and 15 minutes for the glycaemia to be higher in cows with preserved lipomobilization (p<0.1. At 30, 60 and 90 minutes after glucose application, glycaemia was statistically significantly higher (p<0.01; p<0.05 and p<0.05 in the group of cows with preserved lipomobilization. The glycaemic index values (mmol/l shown in the same order (30, 60 and 90 minutes were as follows 9.91±0.21: 9.23±0.41; 5.41±0.5: 4.67±0.33 and 4.31±0.39: 3.47±0.37. The mean value for NEFA concentration in samples originating from the two experimental groups of cows did not differ statistically significantly following glucose application. The NEFA concentration showed a tendency to be higher in cows with preserved lipid mobilization in comparison with cows with decreased lipomobilization at 20 and 30 minutes after glucose application (p<0.1. Following the intravenous glucose tolerance test, NEFA and glucose concentrations were in a significant negative correlation, and that correlation was more expressed in cows with decreased lipomobilization. Cows with preserved

  9. Changes in blood glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests and blood biochemical values in adult female Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamine, Akari; Shimozuru, Michito; Shibata, Haruki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2012-02-01

    The metabolic mechanisms to circannual changes in body mass of bears have yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) has a metabolic mechanism that efficiently converts carbohydrates into body fat by altering insulin sensitivity during the hyperphagic stage before hibernation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the changes in blood biochemical values and glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) during the active season (August, early and late November). Four, adult, female bears (5-17 years old) were anesthetized with 6 mg/kg TZ (tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl) in combination with 0.1 mg/kg acepromazine maleate. The bears were injected intravenously with glucose (0.5 g/kg of body mass), and blood samples were obtained before, at, and intermittently after glucose injection. The basal triglycerides concentration decreased significantly with increase in body mass from August to November. Basal levels of plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were not significantly different among groups. The results of IVGTT demonstrated the increased peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in early November. In contrast, peripheral insulin resistance was indicated by the exaggerated insulin response in late November. Our findings suggest that bears shift their glucose and lipid metabolism from the stage of normal activity to the hyperphagic stage in which they show lipogenic-predominant metabolism and accelerate glucose uptake by increasing the peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  10. Evaluation of a point-of-care electrochemical meter to detect subclinical ketosis and hypoglycaemia in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakian, A; Tehrani-Sharif, M; Mokhber-Dezfouli, M R; Nouri, M; Constable, P D

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate and validate a hand-held electrochemical meter (Precision Xtra®) as a screening test for subclinical ketosis and hypoglycaemia in lactating dairy cattle. Method comparison study using a convenience sample. Blood samples were collected into plain tubes from the coccygeal vessels of 181 Holstein cows at 2-4 weeks of lactation during summer in Iran. Blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration (BHB) and glucose concentration were immediately measured by the electrochemical meter after applying 20 μL of blood to the reagent strip. Passing-Bablok regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to determine the accuracy of the meter against laboratory reference methods (BHB dehydrogenase and glucose oxidase). Serum BHB ranged from 0.1 to 7.3 mmol/L and serum glucose ranged from 0.9 to 5.1 mmol/L. Passing-Bablok regression analysis indicated that the electrochemical meter and reference methods were linearly related for BHB and glucose, with a slope estimate that was not significantly different from 1.00. Clinically minor, but statistically significant, differences were present for the intercept value for Passing-Bablok regression analysis for BHB and glucose, and bias estimates in the Bland-Altman plots for BHB and glucose. The electrochemical meter provided a clinically useful method to detect subclinical ketosis and hypoglycaemia in lactating dairy cows. Compared with other method validation studies using the meter, we attributed the improved performance of the electrochemical meter to application of a fixed volume of blood (20 μL) to the reagent strip, use of the meter in hot ambient conditions and use of glucose oxidase as the reference method for glucose analysis. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  11. ' ORAL GLUCOSE-TOLERANCE TESTS AND SERUM INSULIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    :s of the pellagra and kwashior- kor groups. on admission as well as after recovery, were compared with each other for significant differences at the 5°~ level of significance using variance analyses." The same tests were done in both groups to ...

  12. Calibration voltage test of non invasive meter for radiodiagnostic on equipment of constant potential X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Manoel M.O.; Peixoto, J. Guilherme P.; Pereira, Marco A.G.S.

    2009-01-01

    This work evaluates the utilization of the non invasive voltage meter PTW Diavolt Universal in industrial X ray equipment of constant potential. With the performed measurements, the conclusion is that conclusion is possible, once his use limits are identified

  13. Efficacy of 50-G Glucose Challenge Test in The Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan İnan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim in this study was to investigate the efficacy of 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and to determine a cut-off value for screening. Methods: 50-g GCT was performed in 444 pregnant women at 24-28 gestational weeks. The threshold was taken as 130 mg/dl in order not to miss GDM cases. A plasma glucose level of ≥130 mg/dl at the first hour was considered to be a positive result and 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was given to these women. Results: The cut-off value for 50-g GCT was found to be 145 mg/dl. The sensitivity and specificity of the test for predicting GDM at the levels of ≥145 mg/dl were determined to be 96.30% and 80.34%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the test at the level of 88 mg/dl determined for fasting blood glucose cut-off value were found to be 48.15% and 70.84%, respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded that the efficacy in making diagnosis of GDM was increased at the first hour blood glucose levels of ≥145 mg/dl, especially in 50-g GCT, and fasting blood glucose level could not be a good screening test for GDM. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 181-6

  14. Portable wireless metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, L [Powtel Monitoring Systems, Inc., Ajax, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Portable meters were discussed as alternatives to standard billing meters for temporary installations. Current, voltage and power factor at a distribution station were measured to calculate kW and kVAR, using an easy to install product that communicates live readings directly to the existing billing system. A background of situations where temporary metering is a possible alternative to regular meters was presented. Use of electronic, clamp on Electronic Recording Ammeters (ERA) and their drawbacks were discussed. An improved temporary metering solution using FM radio transmission to deliver live data to a receiving device, the Eagle Series 3500, was introduced. Improvements over previous ERA systems were discussed, including accuracy, lack of batteries, immediate confirmation of functionality, current, voltage and power factor monitoring, direct feed to billing system, line crew savings, need for only a single unit at any given site, bi-directional power flow metering, independent report storage media, and a portable voltage and P.F. diagnostic tool. Details of trial applications at the Utopia distribution station west of Barrie, ON were presented. This technology was said to be still in the testing stage, but its flexibility and economy were sonsidered to be very promising for future application.

  15. The TiltMeter app is a novel and accurate measurement tool for the weight bearing lunge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cylie M; Caserta, Antoni J; Haines, Terry P

    2013-09-01

    The weight bearing lunge test is increasing being used by health care clinicians who treat lower limb and foot pathology. This measure is commonly established accurately and reliably with the use of expensive equipment. This study aims to compare the digital inclinometer with a free app, TiltMeter on an Apple iPhone. This was an intra-rater and inter-rater reliability study. Two raters (novice and experienced) conducted the measurements in both a bent knee and straight leg position to determine the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was also established. Allied health practitioners were recruited as participants from the workplace. A preconditioning stretch was conducted and the ankle range of motion was established with the weight bearing lunge test position with firstly the leg straight and secondly with the knee bent. The measurement device and each participant were randomised during measurement. The intra-rater reliability and inter-rater reliability for the devices and in both positions were all over ICC 0.8 except for one intra-rater measure (Digital inclinometer, novice, ICC 0.65). The inter-rater reliability between the digital inclinometer and the tilmeter was near perfect, ICC 0.96 (CI: 0.898-0.983); Concurrent validity ICC between the two devices was 0.83 (CI: -0.740 to 0.445). The use of the Tiltmeter app on the iPhone is a reliable and inexpensive tool to measure the available ankle range of motion. Health practitioners should use caution in applying these findings to other smart phone equipment if surface areas are not comparable. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Pre-transplantation glucose testing for predicting new-onset diabetes mellitus after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Prasad, G V; Huang, M; Bandukwala, F; Nash, M M; Rapi, L; Montada-Atin, T; Meliton, G; Zaltzman, J S

    2009-02-01

    New-onset diabetes after renal transplantation (NODAT) adversely affects graft and patient survival. However, NODAT risk based on pre-transplant blood glucose (BG) levels has not been defined. Our goal was to identify the best pre-transplant testing method and cut-off values. We performed a case-control analysis of non-diabetic recipients who received a live donor allograft with at least 6 months post-transplant survival. Pre-transplant glucose abnormalities were excluded through 75 g oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) and random BG (RBG) measurement. NODAT was defined based on 2003 Canadian Diabetes Association criteria. Multivariate logistic and Cox regression analysis was performed to determine independent predictor variables for NODAT. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine threshold BG values for diabetes risk. 151 recipients met initial entry criteria. 12 had pre-transplant impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance, among who 7 (58%) developed NODAT. In the remaining 139, 24 (17%) developed NODAT. NODAT risk exceeded 25% for those with pre-transplant RBG > 6.0 mmol/l and 50% if > 7.2 mmol/l. Pre-transplant RBG provided the highest AUC (0.69, p = 0.002) by ROC analysis. Increasing age (p = 0.025), acute rejection (p = 0.011), and RBG > 6.0 mmol/l (p = 0.001) were independent predictors of NODAT. Pre-transplant glucose testing is a specific marker for NODAT. Patients can be counseled of their incremental risk even within the normal BG range if the OGTT is normal.

  18. Precision and costs of techniques for self-monitoring of serum glucose levels.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiasson, J. L.; Morrisset, R.; Hamet, P.

    1984-01-01

    The poor correlation between serum and urine glucose measurements has led to the development of new techniques for monitoring the blood glucose level in diabetic patients. Either a nurse or the patient can perform these tests, which involve spreading a single drop of blood onto a reagent strip. A colour change that is proportional to the serum glucose level can be read visually or with a reflectance meter. Evaluated against simultaneous serum glucose levels determined by the hospital biochemi...

  19. Increasing ICA512 autoantibody titers predict development of abnormal oral glucose tolerance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanda, Srinath

    2018-03-01

    Determine if autoantibody titer magnitude and variability predict glucose abnormalities in subjects at risk for type 1 diabetes. Demographic information, longitudinal autoantibody titers, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) data were obtained from the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study. Subjects (first and second degree relatives of individuals with type 1 diabetes) with at least 2 diabetes autoantibodies were selected for analysis. Autoantibody titer means were calculated for each subject for the duration of study participation and the relationship between titer tertiles and glucose value tertiles from OGTTs (normal, impaired, and diabetes) was assessed with a proportional odds ordinal regression model. A matched pairs analysis was used to examine the relationship between changes in individual autoantibody titers and 120-minute glucose values. Titer variability was quantified using cumulative titer standard deviations. We studied 778 subjects recruited in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study between 2006 and 2014. Increased cumulative mean titer values for both ICA512 and GAD65 (estimated increase in proportional odds = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.39, 1.87, P < 1 × 10 -9 and 1.17, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.32, P = .016, respectively) were associated with peak 120-minute glucose values. While fluctuating titer levels were observed in some subjects, no significant relationship between titer standard deviation and glucose values was observed. ICA512 autoantibody titers associate with progressive abnormalities in glucose metabolism in subjects at risk for type 1 diabetes. Fluctuations in autoantibody titers do not correlate with lower rates of progression to clinical disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. 1993 triggered lighnting test program: Environments within 20 meters of the lighting channel and small area temporary protection concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R.J.; Schnetzer, G.H.

    1994-03-01

    Vertical electric fields, azimuthal magnetic fields, and earth step potentials at ground level have been measured at 10 and 20 meters from the base of triggered lightning flashes. For incident stroke peak currents in the range of 4.4 to 29 kA, vertical electric field change amplitudes as high as 210 kV/m were observed at 10 m, with rise times of the order of a few microseconds. Magnetic fields were found to follow Ampere`s law closely at both 10 and 20 m. Earth step potentials measured over a 0.5-m radial distance at the 10-m and 20m stations were linear with and had the same waveforms as the stroke currents. The step voltages exhibited a l/r distance dependence between the two measurement distances. A model that incorporates the presence of a thin surface layer, due to rain water saturation, of much higher conductivity than the bulk of the underlying earth is proposed to explain the observed behavior. Tests were also carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of several concepts for protecting a small exposed object, such as a piece of ordnance at the site of a transportation accident, from either a direct strike or from the indirect effects of electromagnetic fields produced by a nearby lightning flash to ground. Photographs of the occurrence of significant radial filamentary arcing along the surface of the ground from the strike points were acquired. This type of arcing, with a maximum radial extent of at least 20 m, was observed on six of seven of triggered flashes and on all strokes of 15-kA peak amplitude or higher.

  1. Performance of a new test strip for freestyle blood glucose monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, John Paul; Brazg, Ronald; Bernstein, Robert M; Taylor, Elizabeth; Patel, Mona; Ward, Jeanne; Alva, Shridhara; Chen, Ting; Welsh, Zoë; Amor, Walter; Bhogal, Claire; Ng, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    a new strip, designed to enhance the ease of use and minimize interference of non-glucose sugars, has been developed to replace the current FreeStyle (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) blood glucose test strip. We evaluated the performance of this new strip. laboratory evaluation included precision, linearity, dynamic range, effects of operating temperature, humidity, altitude, hematocrit, interferents, and blood reapplication. System accuracy, lay user performance, and ease of use for finger capillary blood testing and accuracy for venous blood testing were evaluated at clinics. Lay users also compared the speed and ease of use between the new strip and the current FreeStyle strip. for glucose concentrations blood glucose results obtained by lay users fell within ± 5, 10, and 15 mg/dL, respectively, of the reference. For glucose concentrations ≥75 mg/dL, 68%, 95%, 99%, and 99% of the lay user results fell within  ±  5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, respectively, of the reference. Comparable accuracy was obtained in the venous blood study. Lay users found the new test strip easy to use and faster and easier to use than the current FreeStyle strip. The new strip maintained accuracy under various challenging conditions, including high concentrations of various interferents, sample reapplication up to 60 s, and extremes in hematocrit, altitude, and operating temperature and humidity. our results demonstrated excellent accuracy of the new FreeStyle test strip and validated the improvements in minimizing interference and enhancing ease of use.

  2. Disposable glucose test strip for whole blood with integrated sensing/diffusion-limiting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhencheng [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Fang Cheng, E-mail: fangpingchuan@163.co [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang Hongyan; He Jishan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2009-12-30

    A disposable glucose test strip with an integrated sensing/diffusion-limiting layer was developed. A formulation containing filler, glucose oxidase and electronic mediator was screen-printed over two carbon electrodes to form an integrated sensing/diffusion-limiting layer. On rehydration, the integrated layer does not break up, but swells to form a gelled and three-dimensional meshy reaction zone on the surface of the underlying conductive elements in which reactants and mediator move freely, but interfering species such as red blood cells containing oxygenated hemoglobin are excluded. On the same time, the integrated layer maintains a rate of permeation of the analyte through it with a variation of less than 10% at temperatures ranging from 15 deg. C to 42 deg. C. This biosensor is substantially insensitive to interferents and essentially independent to relevant temperature, which provides a more reliable reading of actual blood glucose value in human whole blood.

  3. Comparative study of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose vs the oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosis of diabetes in people with tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aftab, H.; Ambreen, A.; Jamil, M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To compare HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose assessment, with the 2-h oral glucose tolerance test as reference, in screening for diabetes in people with turberculosis. Methods: Individuals (N=268) with newly diagnosed smear-positive tuberculosis were screened for diabetes at a tertiary hospital...... in Lahore, Pakistan. Diabetes diagnosis was based on WHO criteria: thresholds were ≥48 mmol/mol (≥6.5%) for HbA1c and ≥7.0mmol/l for fasting plasma glucose. Results: The proportion of participants diagnosed with diabetes was 4.9% (n =13) by oral glucose tolerance test, while 11.9% (n =32) and 14.6% (n =39...... the two tests (P=0.07). Conclusions: HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose performed equally in terms of diagnosing new diabetes cases in individuals with tuberculosis, but the proportion of participants falsely classified as positive was higher for fasting plasma glucose. This may be explained by acute blood...

  4. In vitro antioxidant, hypoglycemic and oral glucose tolerance test of banana peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Navghare

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Banana fruit is claimed to have antidiabetic effects despite its high calorie content, and its peels also contain vital phytoconstituents including gallocatechin. Previously banana pulp has been studied for antihyperglycemic effects, and in the present investigation antihyperglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of inner peels of Musa sapientum (EMS, Musa paradisiaca (EMP, Musa cavendish (EMC and Musa acuminata (EMA fruit was evaluated using oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic rats. In vitro antioxidant study was conducted using DPPH, H2O2 radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing power assay. Wistar rats were divided into fourteen groups and twelve groups received different doses of aforementioned extracts, while control group received gum acacia solution and remaining group received standard drug, glimepiride. All the rats received glucose load at a dose of 2 g/kg body weight. Groups treated with EMC and EMA showed significant decrease in glucose level (p < 0.01 at 150 min as compared to control group. In hypoglycemic study, only EMP 500 mg/kg, p.o. treated group revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in glucose level at 120 min, while other groups did not show any sign of hypoglycemia. In glucose tolerance test, animals treated with EMC and EMA depicted dose dependent antihyperglycemic effect at 150 min while EMS and EMP showed significant reduction in plasma glucose at higher doses. In a similar fashion, EMA i.e. M. acuminata demonstrated highest antioxidant activity followed by EMC against DPPH radical. In ferric reducing power and H2O2 scavenging assay, EMA demonstrated maximal antioxidant activity when compared with other extracts.

  5. Individuals achieve more accurate results with meters that are codeless and employ dynamic electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Anoop; Wiley, Meg; Iyengar, Sridhar; Nadeau, Dan; Carnevale, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that controlling blood glucose can reduce the onset and progression of the long-term microvascular and neuropathic complications associated with the chronic course of diabetes mellitus. Improved glycemic control can be achieved by frequent testing combined with changes in medication, exercise, and diet. Technological advancements have enabled improvements in analytical accuracy of meters, and this paper explores two such parameters to which that accuracy can be attributed. Four blood glucose monitoring systems (with or without dynamic electrochemistry algorithms, codeless or requiring coding prior to testing) were evaluated and compared with respect to their accuracy. Altogether, 108 blood glucose values were obtained for each system from 54 study participants and compared with the reference values. The analysis depicted in the International Organization for Standardization table format indicates that the devices with dynamic electrochemistry and the codeless feature had the highest proportion of acceptable results overall (System A, 101/103). Results were significant when compared at the 10% bias level with meters that were codeless and utilized static electrochemistry (p = .017) or systems that had static electrochemistry but needed coding (p = .008). Analytical performance of these blood glucose meters differed significantly depending on their technologic features. Meters that utilized dynamic electrochemistry and did not require coding were more accurate than meters that used static electrochemistry or required coding. 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. Oxyanion flux characterization using passive flux meters: Development and field testing of surfactant-modified granular activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jimi; Rao, P. S. C.; Poyer, Irene C.; Toole, Robyn M.; Annable, M. D.; Hatfield, K.

    2007-07-01

    We report here on the extension of Passive Flux Meter (PFM) applications for measuring fluxes of oxyanions in groundwater, and present results for laboratory and field studies. Granular activated carbon, with and without impregnated silver (GAC and SI-GAC, respectively), was modified with a cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA), to enhance the anion exchange capacity (AEC). Langmuir isotherm sorption maxima for oxyanions measured in batch experiments were in the following order: perchlorate >> chromate > selenate, consistent with their selectivity. Linear sorption isotherms for several alcohols suggest that surfactant modification of GAC and SI-GAC reduced (˜ 30-45%) sorption of alcohols by GAC. Water and oxyanion fluxes (perchlorate and chromate) measured by deploying PFMs packed with surfactant-modified GAC (SM-GAC) or surfactant-modified, silver-impregnated GAC (SM-SI-GAC) in laboratory flow chambers were in close agreement with the imposed fluxes. The use of SM-SI-GAC as a PFM sorbent was evaluated at a field site with perchlorate contamination of a shallow unconfined aquifer. PFMs packed with SM-SI-GAC were deployed in three existing monitoring wells with a perchlorate concentration range of ˜ 2.5 to 190 mg/L. PFM-measured, depth-averaged, groundwater fluxes ranged from 1.8 to 7.6 cm/day, while depth-averaged perchlorate fluxes varied from 0.22 to 1.7 g/m 2/day. Groundwater and perchlorate flux distributions measured in two PFM deployments closely matched each other. Depth-averaged Darcy fluxes measured with PFMs were in line with an estimate from a borehole dilution test, but much smaller than those based on hydraulic conductivity and head gradients; this is likely due to flow divergence caused by well-screen clogging. Flux-averaged perchlorate concentrations measured with PFM deployments matched concentrations in groundwater samples taken from one well, but not in two other wells, pointing to the need for additional field testing. Use of

  7. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zongbing

    1996-02-01

    The importance and the usual methods of reactivity measurement in a nuclear reactor are presented. Emphasis is put upon the calculation principle, software and hardware components, main specifications, application, as well as the features of the digital reactivity meter. The test results of operation in various reactors shown that the meter possess the following features: high accuracy, short response time, low output noise, high resolution, wide measuring range, simple and flexible to operate, high stability and reliability. In addition, the reactivity meter can save the measuring data automatically and have a perfect capability of self-verifying. It not only meet the requirement of the reactivity measurement in nuclear power plant, but also can be applied to various types of reactors. (1 tab.)

  8. Monitoring of prestressed concrete pressure vessels. 1. An overview of concrete embedment strain instrumentation and calibration test results for selected concrete embedment strain meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Hurtt, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    The report presents results of calibration tests on strain meters. The approach was divided into two phases: (1) an overview of meter performance criteria for PCPV applications and techniques for strain measurements in concrete and (2) procurement of commercially available gages and their evaluation to assess the reliability of manufacturer-supplied calibration factors. Calibration test results for gages embedded in 15.2-cm-diam by 54-cm cylindrical concrete specimens indicated that calibration factors should be determined (verified) by embedding samples of the gages in test specimens fabricated using a representative mix and that further research should be conducted on other measurement techniques based on inductance, capacitance, semiconductors, and fluidic principles

  9. Advanced Metering Infrastructure based on Smart Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi

    By specifically designating penetrations rates of advanced meters and communication technologies, devices and systems, this paper introduces that the penetration of advanced metering is important for the future development of electric power system infrastructure. It examines the state of the technology and the economical benefits of advanced metering. One result of the survey is that advanced metering currently has a penetration of about six percent of total installed electric meters in the United States. Applications to the infrastructure differ by type of organization. Being integrated with emerging communication technologies, smart meters enable several kinds of features such as, not only automatic meter reading but also distribution management control, outage management, remote switching, etc.

  10. Correlations between cerebral glucose metabolism and neuropsychological test performance in nonalcoholic cirrhotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Alan H; Weissenborn, Karin; Bokemeyer, Martin; Tietge, U; Burchert, Wolfgang

    2002-03-01

    Many cirrhotics have abnormal neuropsychological test scores. To define the anatomical-physiological basis for encephalopathy in nonalcoholic cirrhotics, we performed resting-state fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic scans and administered a neuropsychological test battery to 18 patients and 10 controls. Statistical parametric mapping correlated changes in regional glucose metabolism with performance on the individual tests and a composite battery score. In patients without overt encephalopathy, poor performance correlated with reductions in metabolism in the anterior cingulate. In all patients, poor performance on the battery was positively correlated (p glucose metabolism in bifrontal and biparietal regions of the cerebral cortex and negatively correlated with metabolism in hippocampal, lingual, and fusiform gyri and the posterior putamen. Similar patterns of abnormal metabolism were found when comparing the patients to 10 controls. Metabolic abnormalities in the anterior attention system and association cortices mediating executive and integrative function form the pathophysiological basis for mild hepatic encephalopathy.

  11. Incretin responses to oral glucose and mixed meal tests and changes in fasting glucose levels during 7 years of follow-up: The Hoorn Meal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutters, F.; Rauh, S. P.; Nijpels, G.; Holst, J. J.; Beulens, J. W.; Alssema, M.; Dekker, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    We conducted the first prospective observational study in which we examined the association between incretin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and mixed meal test (MMT) at baseline and changes in fasting glucose levels 7 years later, in individuals who were non-diabetic at baseline. We used data from the Hoorn Meal Study; a population-based cohort study among 121 subjects, aged 61.0±6.7y. GIP and GLP-1 responses were determined at baseline and expressed as total and incremental area under the curve (tAUC and iAUC). The association between incretin response at baseline and changes in fasting glucose levels was assessed using linear regression. The average change in glucose over 7 years was 0.43 ± 0.5 mmol/l. For GIP, no significant associations were observed with changes in fasting glucose levels. In contrast, participants within the middle and highest tertile of GLP-1 iAUC responses to OGTT had significantly smaller increases (actually decreases) in fasting glucose levels; -0.28 (95% confidence interval: -0.54;-0.01) mmol/l and -0.39 (-0.67;-0.10) mmol/l, respectively, compared to those in the lowest tertile. The same trend was observed for tAUC GLP-1 following OGTT (highest tertile: -0.32 (0.61;-0.04) mmol/l as compared to the lowest tertile). No significant associations were observed for GLP-1 responses following MMT. In conclusion, within our non-diabetic population-based cohort, a low GLP-1 response to OGTT was associated with a steeper increase in fasting glucose levels during 7 years of follow-up. This suggests that a reduced GLP-1 response precedes glucose deterioration and may play a role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:29324870

  12. Evaluation of 12 blood glucose monitoring systems for self-testing: system accuracy and measurement reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckmann, Guido; Baumstark, Annette; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Link, Manuela; Haug, Cornelia

    2014-02-01

    Systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) have to provide accurate and reproducible blood glucose (BG) values in order to ensure adequate therapeutic decisions by people with diabetes. Twelve SMBG systems were compared in a standardized manner under controlled laboratory conditions: nine systems were available on the German market and were purchased from a local pharmacy, and three systems were obtained from the manufacturer (two systems were available on the U.S. market, and one system was not yet introduced to the German market). System accuracy was evaluated following DIN EN ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 15197:2003. In addition, measurement reproducibility was assessed following a modified TNO (Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research) procedure. Comparison measurements were performed with either the glucose oxidase method (YSI 2300 STAT Plus™ glucose analyzer; YSI Life Sciences, Yellow Springs, OH) or the hexokinase method (cobas(®) c111; Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) according to the manufacturer's measurement procedure. The 12 evaluated systems showed between 71.5% and 100% of the measurement results within the required system accuracy limits. Ten systems fulfilled with the evaluated test strip lot minimum accuracy requirements specified by DIN EN ISO 15197:2003. In addition, accuracy limits of the recently published revision ISO 15197:2013 were applied and showed between 54.5% and 100% of the systems' measurement results within the required accuracy limits. Regarding measurement reproducibility, each of the 12 tested systems met the applied performance criteria. In summary, 83% of the systems fulfilled with the evaluated test strip lot minimum system accuracy requirements of DIN EN ISO 15197:2003. Each of the tested systems showed acceptable measurement reproducibility. In order to ensure sufficient measurement quality of each distributed test strip lot, regular evaluations are required.

  13. Development and test results of a flight management algorithm for fuel conservative descents in a time-based metered traffic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, C. E.; Cannon, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    A simple flight management descent algorithm designed to improve the accuracy of delivering an airplane in a fuel-conservative manner to a metering fix at a time designated by air traffic control was developed and flight tested. This algorithm provides a three dimensional path with terminal area time constraints (four dimensional) for an airplane to make an idle thrust, clean configured (landing gear up, flaps zero, and speed brakes retracted) descent to arrive at the metering fix at a predetermined time, altitude, and airspeed. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard pressure and temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm is described. The results of the flight tests flown with the Terminal Configured Vehicle airplane are presented.

  14. Oscillatory dynamics of an intravenous glucose tolerance test model with delay interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiangyun; Kuang, Yang; Makroglou, Athena; Mokshagundam, Sriprakash; Li, Jiaxu

    2017-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become prevalent pandemic disease in view of the modern life style. Both diabetic population and health expenses grow rapidly according to American Diabetes Association. Detecting the potential onset of T2DM is an essential focal point in the research of diabetes mellitus. The intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) is an effective protocol to determine the insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, and pancreatic β-cell functionality, through the analysis and parameter estimation of a proper differential equation model. Delay differential equations have been used to study the complex physiological phenomena including the glucose and insulin regulations. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to model the time delay in IVGTT modeling. This novel approach uses two parameters to simulate not only both discrete time delay and distributed time delay in the past interval, but also the time delay distributed in a past sub-interval. Normally, larger time delay, either a discrete or a distributed delay, will destabilize the system. However, we find that time delay over a sub-interval might not. We present analytically some basic model properties, which are desirable biologically and mathematically. We show that this relatively simple model provides good fit to fluctuating patient data sets and reveals some intriguing dynamics. Moreover, our numerical simulation results indicate that our model may remove the defect in well known Minimal Model, which often overestimates the glucose effectiveness index.

  15. Postprandial Reactive Hypoglycaemia: Varying Presentation Patterns on Extended Glucose Tolerance Tests and Possible Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive hypoglycemia is a state characterised by sympathetic or neuroglycopenic symptoms associated with hypoglycaemia in the postprandial state resulting in considerable distress to the patient. It is our practice to carry out either extended glucose tolerance tests (eGTTs or mixed meal tests in these patients. We describe two patients who experienced hypoglycaemic symptoms early and late during eGTT. The patient who experienced symptoms early, in contrast to the patient who presented with late symptoms, did not possess any characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Based on clinical symptoms, glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid (FFA levels, we speculate on possible mechanisms that may have accounted for each of their presentation patterns. We then discuss low glycaemic index diet which will be the mainstay of management.

  16. Frequency of impaired oral glucose tolerance test in high risk pregnancies for gestational diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naheed, F.; Narijo, S.; Kammeruddin, K.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the frequency of impaired oral glucose tolerance test in high risk pregnancies for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). A total of 50 high risk pregnancies for gestational diabetes mellitus were selected through outpatient department of obstetrics. Data was collected according to certain obstetric and non-obstetric risk factors for GDM as inclusion criteria through a designed proforma i.e. family history of diabetes, macrosomia (i.e, wt > 3.5 kg), abortions, grand multiparity, a sudden increase in weight (>1 kg/wk) during pregnancy, age > 35 years, early neonatal deaths/sudden IUDS, polyhydramnios, urogenital infections (vulvo-vaginal candidiasis and UTI), previous history of GDM, congenital abnormalities (with or without polyhydramnios) and multiple pregnancy. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and analyzed according to American Diabetic Association criteria, 2004. The most frequent risk factors were family history of diabetes mellitus in 1st degree relative and large for dates babies in 18 patients. Similarly, high risk factors such as history of abortions and grand multiparity were present in 16 and 14 pregnant women respectively. Least common factors, which contributed for GDM, were polyhydramnios in 4 cases and perinatal mortality (due to congenital anomalies of foetus, intrauterine deaths or neonatal deaths) seen only in 5 cases. Overall impaired oral glucose tolerance test was found in 24%. Most patients had one (17%) or two risk factors commonly (23%). Only 2% had shown five or more risk factors. Oral glucose tolerance test is a useful diagnostic tool to detect GDM in high risk pregnancies, depending upon the high frequency of number of risk factors in each individual. (author)

  17. Improving Detection of Prediabetes in Children and Adults: Using Combinations of Blood Glucose Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ike Solomon Okosun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine combinations of blood glucose tests: oral glucose tolerance (OGT, fasting plasma glucose (FBG and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C that are associated with highest diagnostic rates of prediabetes in non-diabetic American children and adults.Methods: The 2007-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys data were used for this study. Overall and specific prevalence of prediabetes (defined using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were determined across age, race/ethnicity, sex and BMI categories.Results: FPG+HbA1C test was associated with significantly higher diagnostic rates of prediabetes across age, race/ethnicity and BMI. Estimates of overall prevalence of prediabetes using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were 20.3%, 24.2%, 33% and 34.3%, respectively. Compared to OGT+FPG, the use of HbA1C+FPG test in screening was associated with 44.8%, 135%, 38.6% and 35.9% increased prevalence of prediabetes in non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Mexican-American and other racial/ethnic men, respectively. The corresponding values in women were 67.8%, 140%, 37.2% and 42.6%, respectively. Combined use of all blood glucose tests did not improve the overall and gender-specific prediabetes prevalence beyond what was observed using HbA1C+FPG test.Conclusions: HbA1C criteria were associated with higher diagnosis rates of prediabetes than FPG and OGT tests in non-diabetic American children and adults. Using a combination of HbA1C and FPG test in screening for prediabetes reduces intrinsic systematic bias in using just HbA1C testing and offers the benefits of each test. A well-defined HbA1C that takes into consideration race/ethnicity, gender, age and body mass index may improve detection of prediabetes in population and clinical settings.

  18. A flight management algorithm and guidance for fuel-conservative descents in a time-based metered air traffic environment: Development and flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    A simple airborne flight management descent algorithm designed to define a flight profile subject to the constraints of using idle thrust, a clean airplane configuration (landing gear up, flaps zero, and speed brakes retracted), and fixed-time end conditions was developed and flight tested in the NASA TSRV B-737 research airplane. The research test flights, conducted in the Denver ARTCC automated time-based metering LFM/PD ATC environment, demonstrated that time guidance and control in the cockpit was acceptable to the pilots and ATC controllers and resulted in arrival of the airplane over the metering fix with standard deviations in airspeed error of 6.5 knots, in altitude error of 23.7 m (77.8 ft), and in arrival time accuracy of 12 sec. These accuracies indicated a good representation of airplane performance and wind modeling. Fuel savings will be obtained on a fleet-wide basis through a reduction of the time error dispersions at the metering fix and on a single-airplane basis by presenting the pilot with guidance for a fuel-efficient descent.

  19. Preliminary test results of a flight management algorithm for fuel conservative descents in a time based metered traffic environment. [flight tests of an algorithm to minimize fuel consumption of aircraft based on flight time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, C. E.; Cannon, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    A flight management algorithm designed to improve the accuracy of delivering the airplane fuel efficiently to a metering fix at a time designated by air traffic control is discussed. The algorithm provides a 3-D path with time control (4-D) for a test B 737 airplane to make an idle thrust, clean configured descent to arrive at the metering fix at a predetermined time, altitude, and airspeed. The descent path is calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard pressure and temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithms and the results of the flight tests are discussed.

  20. Review of Pre-Analytical Errors in Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Rachita; Patel, Suprava; Sahoo, Sibashish; Mohapatra, Eli

    2018-03-13

    The pre-pre-analytical and pre-analytical phases form a major chunk of the errors in a laboratory. The process has taken into consideration a very common procedure which is the oral glucose tolerance test to identify the pre-pre-analytical errors. Quality indicators provide evidence of quality, support accountability and help in the decision making of laboratory personnel. The aim of this research is to evaluate pre-analytical performance of the oral glucose tolerance test procedure. An observational study that was conducted overa period of three months, in the phlebotomy and accessioning unit of our laboratory using questionnaire that examined the pre-pre-analytical errors through a scoring system. The pre-analytical phase was analyzed for each sample collected as per seven quality indicators. About 25% of the population gave wrong answer with regard to the question that tested the knowledge of patient preparation. The appropriateness of test result QI-1 had the most error. Although QI-5 for sample collection had a low error rate, it is a very important indicator as any wrongly collected sample can alter the test result. Evaluating the pre-analytical and pre-pre-analytical phase is essential and must be conducted routinely on a yearly basis to identify errors and take corrective action and to facilitate their gradual introduction into routine practice.

  1. Response of plasma glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids to intravenous glucose tolerance tests in dairy cows during a 670-day lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marett, L C; Auldist, M J; Moate, P J; Wales, W J; Macmillan, K L; Dunshea, F R; Leury, B J

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated the metabolic response of dairy cows undergoing an extended lactation to a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. The experiment used 12 multiparous Holstein cows that calved in late winter in a seasonally calving pasture-based system and were managed for a 670-d lactation by delaying rebreeding. In each of four 5-wk experimental periods commencing at approximately 73, 217, 422, and 520 (±9.1) days in milk (DIM), cows were offered a diet of perennial ryegrass (73 and 422 DIM) or pasture hay and silage (217 and 520 DIM) supplemented with 1kg of DM grain (control; CON) or 6kg of DM grain (GRN) as a ration. Daily energy intake was approximately 160 and 215 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow for the CON and GRN treatments, respectively. At all other times, cows were managed as a single herd and grazed pasture supplemented with grain to an estimated minimum daily total intake of 180 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow. Cows were fitted with an indwelling jugular catheter during the final week of each experimental period. The standard intravenous glucose tolerance test using 0.3g of glucose per kilogram of body weight was performed on each cow at approximately 100, 250, 460, and 560 DIM. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) responses were measured. Milk yield, milk solids yield, body weight, and basal plasma glucose were greater in the GRN compared with the CON treatment. The area under the plasma response curve relative to baseline (AUC) for glucose, insulin, and NEFA and their apparent fractional clearance rates indicated varied whole body responsiveness to insulin in terms of glucose metabolism throughout the 670-d lactation. The glucose AUC 0 to 20 min postinfusion was increased at 560 DIM, indicating reduced utilization of glucose by the mammary gland at this stage of lactation. The NEFA clearance rate, 6 to 30 min postinfusion, was greater at 460 and 560 DIM. These data indicated an

  2. Effect of adrenal medullectomy on metabolic responses to chronic intermittent hypoxia in the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mi-Kyung; Han, Woobum; Joo, Hoon; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Shiota, Masakazu; Stefanovski, Darko; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2017-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with type 2 diabetes. We have previously developed a mouse model of intermittent hypoxia (IH) mimicking oxyhemoglobin desaturations in patients with sleep apnea and have shown that IH increases fasting glucose, hepatic glucose output, and plasma catecholamines. We hypothesize that adrenal medulla modulates glucose responses to IH and that such responses can be prevented by adrenal medullectomy. We performed adrenal medullectomy or sham surgery in lean C57BL/6J mice, which were exposed to IH or intermittent air (control) for 4 wk followed by the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) in unanesthetized unrestrained animals. IH was administered during the 12-h light phase (9 AM to 9 PM) by decreasing inspired oxygen from 21 to 6.5% 60 cycles/h. Insulin sensitivity (S I ), insulin independent glucose disposal [glucose effectiveness (S G )], and the insulin response to glucose (AIR G ) were determined using the minimal model method. In contrast to our previous data obtained in restrained mice, IH did not affect fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin levels in sham-operated mice. IH significantly decreased S G but did not affect S I and AIR G Adrenal medullectomy decreased fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin levels and increased glycogen synthesis in the liver in hypoxic mice but did not have a significant effect on the FSIVGTT metrics. We conclude that, in the absence of restraints, IH has no effect on glucose metabolism in lean mice with exception of decreased S G , whereas adrenal medullectomy decreases fasting glucose and insulin levels in the IH environment. NEW & NOTEWORTHY To our knowledge, this is the first study examining the role of adrenal catecholamines in glucose metabolism during intermittent hypoxia (IH) in unanesthetized unrestrained C57BL/6J mice. We report that IH did not affect fasting glucose and insulin levels nor insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion during, whereas glucose

  3. The 100-meter timed test: Normative data in healthy males and comparative pilot outcome data for use in Duchenne muscular dystrophy clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Lindsay N; Miller, Natalie F; Berry, Katherine M; Yin, Han; Rolf, Kimberly E; Flanigan, Kevin M; Mendell, Jerry R; Lowes, Linda P

    2017-05-01

    Timed walking tests are often used to measure function in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Our objective was to evaluate the 100 meter timed test (100m), a fixed distance test of maximal performance, for use in DMD. To this end, we sought to establish normative 100m performance in healthy controls, compare DMD performance to controls, and evaluate the reliability of 100m. Seventy-two boys with DMD (18 steroid-naïve, 54 on steroids) and 599 controls (4-14 years) completed the 100m as speedily as possible on a 25-meter track. Repeat testing was completed between 1 and 42 days later and again at 1 year in a subgroup of 96 control boys. Additionally 35 DMD boys were followed longitudinally (5-19 months). Descriptive statistics are presented by age and cohort. There was a significant difference in performance between groups (p  0.90, p < 0.001). Normative data can be used to determine percent-predicted 100m times to quantify the severity of running impairment in children with a motor deficit. Performance of 100m follows the natural history established by other outcome measures in DMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Walking ability in patients with glioblastoma: prognostic value of the Berg Balance Scale and the 10 meter walk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljehult, Monique Mesot; Buus, Lise; Liljehult, Jacob; Rasmussen, Birthe Krogh

    2017-11-01

    Primary brain tumors frequently cause considerable functional impairments and the survival time when diagnosed with glioblastoma is 14.6 months. The aim of this study was to examine if baseline postural control and walking ability in patients with glioblastoma could predict long term walking ability and 1 year mortality. Data were gathered from prospective recordings in a brain cancer database supplemented by retrospective review of electronic patient records. We included 109 patients with glioblastoma, 47 women and 62 men with mean age 65 years. At admission 84 patients were tested with Berg Balance Scale and 57 were tested with 10 meter walk test. Binary logistic regression analysis showed no statistical significance in favour of the 10 meter walk test. Berg Balance Scale showed an ability to predict walking ability 4-8 months after admission. The risk of dying within a year was 6.9 times higher in patients who lost their ability to walk within 4-8 months of the first admission. This study showed that Berg Balance Scale has some ability to predict the loss of walking ability 4-8 months after admission. This could be an important indicator pin pointing patients most in need of more intensive specialized neurorehabilitation efforts early in the disease course.

  5. Influence of the time of day and fasting duration on glucose level following a 1-hour, 50-gram glucose challenge test in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchalli Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the time of day (TD of glucose measurement and the fasting duration (FD influence the glucose levels in adults. Few studies have examined the effects of the TD and FD on the glucose level following a 1-hour, 50-gram glucose challenge test (GCT in pregnant women in screening for or diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the TD (morning, afternoon, night and the FD (the time of the last food ingestion as follows: ≤1 hour, 1-2 hours, and >2 hours by examining their combined effects on the glucose levels following a 50-gram GCT in pregnant women. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the data of 1,454 non-diabetic pregnant Taiwanese women in a prospective study. Multiple linear regression and multiple logistic regression were used to estimate the relationships between the 9 TD-FD groups and the continuous and binary glucose levels (cut-off at 140 mg/dL following a 50-gram GCT, after adjusting for maternal age, nulliparity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and weight gain. Different TD and FD groups were associated with variable glucose responses to the 50-gram GCT, some of which were significant. The estimate coefficients (β of the TD-FD groups "night, ≤1 hr" and "night, 1-2 hr" revealed significantly lower glucose concentrations [β (95% confidence interval [CI]: -6.46 (-12.53, -0.38 and -6.85 (-12.50, -1.20] compared with the "morning, >2 hr" group. The TD-FD groups "afternoon, ≤1 hr" and "afternoon, 1-2 hr" showed significantly lower odds ratios (OR of a positive GCT; the adjusted ORs (95% CI were 0.54 (0.31-0.95 and 0.58 (0.35-0.96, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the importance of standardizing the TD and FD for the 1-hour, 50-gram GCT. In screening for and diagnosing GDM, the TD and FD are modifiable factors that should be considered in clinical practice and epidemiological studies.

  6. Effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin on productivity and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J; Harper, M; Giallongo, F; Bravo, D M; Wall, E H; Hristov, A N

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin (RPC) supplementation on feed intake, milk yield and composition, nutrient utilization, fecal microbial ecology, and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design balanced for residual effects with three 28-d periods. Each period consisted of 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for data collection and sampling. Treatments were 0 (control), 100, and 200 mg of RPC/cow per day. They were mixed with a small portion of the total mixed ration and top-dressed. Glucose tolerance test was conducted once during each experimental period by intravenous administration of glucose at a rate of 0.3 g/kg of body weight. Dry matter intake was not affected by RPC. Milk yield tended to increase for RPC treatments compared to the control. Feed efficiency was linearly increased by RPC supplementation. Concentrations of fat, true protein, and lactose in milk were not affected by RPC. Apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein was linearly increased, and fecal nitrogen excretion was linearly decreased by RPC supplementation. Rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin did not affect the composition of fecal bacteria. Glucose concentration in serum was not affected by RPC supplementation post glucose challenge. However, compared to the control, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration at 5, 10, and 40 min post glucose challenge. The area under the insulin concentration curve was also decreased 25% by RPC. Concentration of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in serum were not affected by RPC following glucose administration. In this study, RPC tended to increase milk production and increased feed efficiency in dairy cows. In addition, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration during the glucose tolerance test, but glucose concentration was not affected

  7. Prospective evaluation of FibroTest®, FibroMeter®, and HepaScore® for staging liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B: comparison with hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Vincent; Sturm, Nathalie; Faure, Patrice; Trocme, Candice; Marlu, Alice; Hilleret, Marie-Noëlle; Morel, Françoise; Zarski, Jean-Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Fibrosis blood tests have been validated in chronic hepatitis C. Their diagnostic accuracy is less documented in hepatitis B. The aim of this study was to describe the diagnostic performance of FibroTest®, FibroMeter®, and HepaScore® for liver fibrosis in hepatitis B compared to hepatitis C. 510 patients mono-infected with hepatitis B or C and matched on fibrosis stage were included. Blood tests were performed the day of the liver biopsy. Histological lesions were staged according to METAVIR. Fibrosis stages were distributed as followed: F0 n=76, F1 n=192, F2 n=132, F3 n=54, F4 n=56. Overall diagnostic performance of blood tests were similar between hepatitis B and C with AUROC ranging from 0.75 to 0.84 for significant fibrosis, 0.82 to 0.85 for extensive fibrosis and 0.84 to 0.87 for cirrhosis. Optimal cut-offs were consistently lower in hepatitis B compared to hepatitis C, especially for the diagnosis of extensive fibrosis and cirrhosis, with decreased sensitivity and negative predictive values. More hepatitis B than C patients with F ⩾3 were underestimated: FibroTest®: 47% vs. 26%, FibroMeter®: 24% vs. 6%, HepaScore®: 41% vs. 24%, pfibrosis underestimation. Overall the diagnostic performance of blood tests is similar in hepatitis B and C. The risk of underestimating significant fibrosis and cirrhosis is however greater in hepatitis B and cannot be entirely corrected by the use of more stringent cut-offs. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cross-cultural differences in meter perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalender, Beste; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2013-03-01

    We examined the influence of incidental exposure to varied metrical patterns from different musical cultures on the perception of complex metrical structures from an unfamiliar musical culture. Adults who were familiar with Western music only (i.e., simple meters) and those who also had limited familiarity with non-Western music were tested on their perception of metrical organization in unfamiliar (Turkish) music with simple and complex meters. Adults who were familiar with Western music detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with simple meter but not in Turkish music with complex meter. Adults with some exposure to non-Western music that was unmetered or metrically complex detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with both simple and complex meters, but they performed better on patterns with a simple meter. The implication is that familiarity with varied metrical structures, including those with a non-isochronous tactus, enhances sensitivity to the metrical organization of unfamiliar music.

  9. Impact of streptozotocin on altering normal glucose homeostasis during insulin testing in diabetic rats compared to normoglycemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinna NA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nidal A Qinna,1 Adnan A Badwan2 1Department of Pharmacology and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of Petra, 2Research and Innovation Centre, The Jordanian Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Co. Plc. (JPM, Amman, Jordan Abstract: Streptozotocin (STZ is currently the most used diabetogenic agent in testing insulin and new antidiabetic drugs in animals. Due to the toxic and disruptive nature of STZ on organs, apart from pancreas, involved in preserving the body’s normal glucose homeostasis, this study aims to reassess the action of STZ in inducing different glucose response states in diabetic rats while testing insulin. Diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats induced with STZ were classified according to their initial blood glucose levels into stages. The effect of randomizing rats in such a manner was investigated for the severity of interrupting normal liver, pancreas, and kidney functions. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic actions of subcutaneously injected insulin in diabetic and nondiabetic rats were compared. Interruption of glucose homeostasis by STZ was challenged by single and repeated administrations of injected insulin and oral glucose to diabetic rats. In diabetic rats with high glucose (451–750 mg/dL, noticeable changes were seen in the liver and kidney functions compared to rats with lower basal glucose levels. Increased serum levels of recombinant human insulin were clearly indicated by a significant increase in the calculated maximum serum concentration and area under the concentration–time curve. Reversion of serum glucose levels to normal levels pre- and postinsulin and oral glucose administrations to STZ diabetic rats were found to be variable. In conclusion, diabetic animals were more responsive to insulin than nondiabetic animals. STZ was capable of inducing different levels of normal glucose homeostasis disruption in rats. Both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic actions of insulin were

  10. MSFC Test Results for Selected Mirrors: Brush-Wellman/Goodrich 0.5 meter Joined-Beryllium Mirror; IABG 0.5 meter C/SiC Mirror; Xinetics 0.5 meter SiC Mirror; and Kodak 0.23 meter SiO2 Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaway, James; Blackwell, Lisa; Matthews, Gary; Eng, Ron; Stahl, Phil; Hraba, John; Thornton, Gary

    2002-01-01

    The results of cryo tests performed at the XRCF on the above mirrors will be presented. Each mirror was tested from room-temperature to around 30 K. The first three were tested together on a 3-mirror stand in the large chamber using the PhaseCam interferometer, while the Kodak mirror was tested in the small chamber using the EPI interferometer.

  11. Usefulness of a 50-meter round walking test for fall prediction in the elderly requiring long-term care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiya, Mizuki; Murata, Shin; Otao, Hiroshi; Ihara, Takehiko; Mizota, Katsuhiko; Asami, Toyoko

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to verify the usefulness of a 50-m round walking test developed as an assessment method for walking ability in the elderly. [Subjects] The subjects were 166 elderly requiring long-term care individuals (mean age, 80.5 years). [Methods] In order to evaluate the factors that had affected falls in the subjects in the previous year, we performed the 50-m round walking test, functional reach test, one-leg standing test, and 5-m walking test and measured grip strength and quadriceps strength. [Results] The 50-m round walking test was selected as a variable indicating fall risk based on the results of multiple logistic regression analysis. The cutoff value of the 50-m round walking test for determining fall risk was 0.66 m/sec. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.64. The sensitivity of the cutoff value was 65.7%, the specificity was 63.6%, the positive predictive value was 55.0%, the negative predictive value was 73.3%, and the accuracy was 64.5%. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the 50-m round walking test is a potentially useful parameter for the determination of fall risk in the elderly requiring long-term care. PMID:26834327

  12. Family Housing Metering Test. A Test Program to Determine the Feasibility of Installing Utility Meters in Military Family Housing, Developing Energy Ceilings, and Operating a Penalty Billing System for Occupants Who Overconsume Energy. Volume II. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    implementation. 5.2 NORM PAMPHLET The norm pamphlet is a short, picture-oriented brochure to introduce military housing occupants to the use of the energy...tne final version of the pamplet , feedbaci roejrdiag the. draf t version sill be solicited from the fiefl test par- ticipants. rhe followlag is a rouga

  13. Effects of ambient temperature on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity test outcomes in normal and obese C57 male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudele, Anete; Rasmussen, Gitte Marie; Mayntz, David; Malte, Hans; Lund, Sten; Wang, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Mice are commonly used as animal models to study human metabolic diseases, but experiments are typically performed at room temperature, which is far below their thermoneutral zone and is associated with elevated heart rate, food intake, and energy expenditure. We set out to study how ambient temperature affects glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in control and obese male mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were housed at room temperature (23°C) for 6 weeks and fed either control or high fat diet. They were then fasted for 6 h before glucose or insulin tolerance tests were performed at 15, 20, 25, or 30°C. To ensure that behavioral thermoregulation did not counterbalance the afflicted ambient temperatures, oxygen consumption was determined on mice with the same thermoregulatory opportunities as during the tests. Decreasing ambient temperatures increased oxygen consumption and body mass loss during fasting in both groups. Mice fed high fat diet had improved glucose tolerance at 30°C and increased levels of fasting insulin followed by successive decrease of fasting glucose. However, differences between control and high-fat diet mice were present at all temperatures. Ambient temperature did not affect glucose tolerance in control group and insulin tolerance in either of the groups. Ambient temperature affects glucose metabolism in mice and this effect is phenotype specific. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  14. Prediction Of Low Birth Weight Using Low Glucose Challenge Test In Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari Tanha F

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: We conducted this study To find relationship between maternal glucose challenge test (GCT levels and fetal body weight (BW. Materials and Methods: We analyzed five hundred women with singleton pregnancy, who had GCT at 24-28 week during pregnancy. All of them had no history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus or other medical disease before pregnancy or during previous pregnancy, and all of them had weight gain appropriate with their pre pregnancy body mass index (BMI. Also nobody had history of drug abuse or smoking. In this descriptive–analytic survey, maternal age, gravidity, BMI,GCT level ,gestational age (GA , sex of neonate, rout of delivery , newborn weight and apgar score were evaluated .The student’s T-test and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. We used Pearson coefficient and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and chi-square test for determination GCT threshold. Results: We found rate of small for gestational age (SGA in newborns statistically was significant, who their maternal GCT level was ≤ 80mg/dl, P value: 0/018, specificity 89%, sensitivity 58% and confidence interval: 95% (0/162-0/545. Conclusion: Low GCT level has association with SGA and can be used as a predictive test and may be an indication for dietary intervention.

  15. Cutpoints for screening blood glucose concentrations in healthy senior cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve-Johnson, Mia K; Rand, Jacquie S; Vankan, Dianne; Anderson, Stephen T; Marshall, Rhett; Morton, John M

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the reference interval for screening blood glucose in senior cats, to apply this to a population of obese senior cats, to compare screening and fasting blood glucose, to assess whether screening blood glucose is predicted by breed, body weight, body condition score (BCS), behaviour score, fasting blood glucose and/or recent carbohydrate intake and to assess its robustness to changes in methodology. Methods The study included a total of 120 clinically healthy client-owned cats aged 8 years and older of varying breeds and BCSs. Blood glucose was measured at the beginning of the consultation from an ear/paw sample using a portable glucose meter calibrated for cats, and again after physical examination from a jugular sample. Fasting blood glucose was measured after overnight hospitalisation and fasting for 18-24 h. Results The reference interval upper limit for screening blood glucose was 189 mg/dl (10.5 mmol/l). Mean screening blood glucose was greater than mean fasting glucose. Breed, body weight, BCS, behaviour score, fasting blood glucose concentration and amount of carbohydrate consumed 2-24 h before sampling collectively explained only a small proportion of the variability in screening blood glucose. Conclusions and relevance Screening blood glucose measurement represents a simple test, and cats with values from 117-189 mg/dl (6.5-10.5 mmol/l) should be retested several hours later. Cats with initial screening blood glucose >189 mg/dl (10.5 mmol/l), or a second screening blood glucose >116 mg/dl (6.4 mmol/l) several hours after the first, should have fasting glucose and glucose tolerance measured after overnight hospitalisation.

  16. Design and initial testing of a one-bladed 30-meter-diameter rotor on the NASA/DOE mod-O wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, R. D.; Ensworth, C. B. F.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of a one-bladed horizontal-axis wind turbine has been of interest to wind turbine designers for many years. Many designs and economic analyses of one-bladed wind turbines have been undertaken by both United States and European wind energy groups. The analyses indicate significant economic advantages but at the same time, significant dynamic response concerns. In an effort to develop a broad data base on wind turbine design and operations, the NASA Wind Energy Project Office has tested a one-bladed rotor at the NASA/DOE Mod-O Wind Turbine Facility. This is the only known test on an intermediate-sized one-bladed rotor in the United States. The 15.2-meter-radius rotor consists of a tip-controlled blade and a counterweight assembly. A rigorous test series was conducted in the Fall of 1985 to collect data on rotor performance, drive train/generator dynamics, structural dynamics, and structural loads. This report includes background information on one-bladed rotor concepts, and Mod-O one-bladed rotor test configuration, supporting design analysis, the Mod-O one-blade rotor test plan, and preliminary test results.

  17. Evolution, calibration, and operational characteristics of the two-dimensional test section of the Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladson, Charles L.; Ray, Edward J.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is a review of the development of the world's first cryogenic pressure tunnel, the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT). Descriptions of the instrumentation, data acquisition systems, and physical features of the two-dimensional 8- by 24-in, (20.32 by 60.96 cm) and advanced 13- by 13-in (33.02 by 33.02 cm) adaptive-wall test-section inserts of the 0.3-m TCT are included. Basic tunnel-empty Mach number distributions, stagnation temperature distributions, and power requirements are included. The Mach number capability of the facility is from about 0.20 to 0.90. Stagnation pressure can be varied from about 80 to 327 K.

  18. Useful method to monitor the physiological effects of alcohol ingestion by combination of micro-integrated laser Doppler blood flow meter and arm-raising test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Wataru; Nogami, Hirofumi; Ito, Hiroki; Gotanda, Takeshi; Peng, Yao; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Furue, Masutaka; Higurashi, Eiji; Sawada, Renshi

    2012-10-01

    Alcohol has a variety of effects on the human body, affecting both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. We examined the peripheral blood flow of alcohol drinkers using a micro-integrated laser Doppler blood flow meter (micro-electromechanical system blood flow sensor). An increased heart rate and blood flow was recorded at the earlobe after alcohol ingestion, and we observed strong correlation between blood flow, heart rate, and breath alcohol content in light drinkers; but not heavy drinkers. We also found that the amplitude of pulse waves measured at the fingertip during an arm-raising test significantly decreased on alcohol consumption, regardless of the individual's alcohol tolerance. Our micro-electromechanical system blood flow sensor successfully detected various physiological changes in peripheral blood circulation induced by alcohol consumption.

  19. Successful well test application of portable multi-phase flow meter for high gas-volume and high water-cut wells in east Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaura, Jiten D.; Finley, D.B. [PT Halliburton Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia); Sudradjat, Wangsa; Riyanto, Latief [Tota E and P Indonesie, Jakarta (Indonesia); Halverson, Martin [FlowSys AS, Bergen (Norway)

    2004-07-01

    Recently, testing was needed on production wells in East Kalimantan. The wells were in a mature field, and productivity from the wells field featured high water cut (WC) and extremely high gas-volume fractions (GVF). The WC and GVF ranged from 80 to 100% and 90 to 100%, respectively. Moreover, most of the wells are low productivity so they are very sensitive to back-pressure. The high WC, high GVF and low-productivity from these wells in this area present an extreme challenge for accurate production measurement. Barges are commonly used to perform well services in the swamp area of this marginal field, and production allocations from wells in this difficult area were previously monitored and measured with conventional well-test equipment on-board a well testing barge. The well test equipment traditionally used requires a large footprint, and the associated flaring presents an environmental situation in this sensitive swamp area. Hence, the MPFM solution was chosen. To better meet the challenges presented by the testing conditions, a portable multiphase flow meter (MPFM) was chosen to perform the testing from the well-testing barge. For comparative purposes, the MPFM was installed on the barge immediately upstream of the well testing equipment. Initial measurements with the MPFM yielded results that were {+-} 30% of the test separator reading. A slight modification was introduced to the MPFM system in the form of a gas knock-out (GKO) vessel. Subsequent measurements with the modified MPFM system yielded readings that were {+-}10% of the test separator reading. (author)

  20. Prevalence of endocrine diseases and abnormal glucose tolerance tests in 340 caucasian premenopausal women with hirsutism as the referral diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Andersen, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    with hirsutism as the referral diagnosis. INTERVENTION(S): Hormone analyses and ACTH tests during cycle days 2-8, 2 hours of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and vaginal ultrasound. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): End diagnosis, fasting, 30-, 60-, and 120-minute oral glucose-stimulated levels of insulin....... During OGTT, 4.9% (13 of 263) had previously undiagnosed diabetes; no significant difference in diabetes prevalence was found between idiopathic hirsutism and PCOS. For 50.8%, fasting insulin values were in the upper quartile for a reference population. CONCLUSION(S): Initial evaluation of hirsute...

  1. Depressive Symptoms Are Negatively Associated with Glucose Testing and Eating Meals on Time among Individuals with Diabetes in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hapunda, Given; Abubakar, Amina; Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    and adult patients. Regression analysis indicated that there was no association between total diabetes self-care and the depression total score. However, depression was associated with poor glucose testing and not eating meals on time by patients with diabetes. CONCLUSION: Some variance on poor self......-care was explained by demographic characteristics, specifically age, body mass index, and to some extent, socioeconomic status. Recognition and successful treatment of depression in patients with diabetes might help to optimize self-care behaviors, especially glucose testing and eating meals on time. However...

  2. Polymer Optical Fiber Compound Parabolic Concentrator fiber tip based glucose sensor: In-Vitro Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Janting, Jakob; Aasmul, Soren

    2016-01-01

    We present in-vitro sensing of glucose using a newly developed efficient optical fiber glucose sensor based on a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) tipped polymer optical fiber (POF). A batch of 9 CPC tipped POF sensors with a 35 mm fiber length is shown to have an enhanced fluorescence pickup...... efficiency with an average increment factor of 1.7 as compared to standard POF sensors with a plane cut fiber tip. Invitro measurements for two glucose concentrations (40 and 400 mg/dL) confirm that the CPC tipped sensors efficiently can detect both glucose concentrations. it sets the footnote at the bottom...

  3. Prevalence of interfering substances with point-of-care glucose testing in a community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, John H; Mason, Debra; Barnes, Deborah L; Kollins, Jerry

    2009-01-15

    This study determined the prevalence of interfering substances with a glucometer using the glucose dehydrogenase pyrroloquinolinequinone method of point-of-care glucose testing (POCGT) and identified the percentage of patients with orders for an insulin product during the interference time interval. A retrospective chart review was conducted for all inpatients with biochemically-identified interfering substances over a 12-month period. The interfering substance report identified all patients with serum uric acid concentrations greater than 10 mg/dL, hematocrit less than 20% or greater than 55%, serum total bilirubin concentrations greater than 20 mg/dL, serum acetaminophen concentrations greater than 8 mg/dL, and serum triglyceride concentrations greater than 5000 mg/dL. Of 6885 hospital admissions during the 12-month study period, 84 patients (1.2%) were identified as having interfering substances. Interfering substances were identified an average mean +/- S.D. of 4.88 +/- 15.56 days following hospital admission. Two patients had interfering substances identified in the emergency department before hospital admission. Five patients (four with total bilirubin and one with uric acid) had initial concentrations below the interference threshold. These concentrations increased during hospitalization to high enough levels to cause interference with POCGT. Since the average length of stay for the identified patients was 10.49 days, an average of 17% of the hospital stay was impacted by an interfering substance. Substances remained at interfering concentrations until the time of discharge in 30% of the patients. Over a 12-month period, interfering substance were identified in1.2% of patients admitted to a hospital. Thirty-six percent of those patients had an active order for an insulin product during the interference time interval.

  4. Conceptual design for the field test and evaluation of the gas-phase UF6 enrichment meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strittmatter, R.B.; Leavitt, J.N.; Slice, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    An in-line enrichment monitor is being developed to provide real-time enrichment data for the gas-phase UF 6 feed stream of an enrichment plant. Data from proof-of-principle measurements using a laboratory prototype system are presented. A conceptual design for an enrichment monitor to be field tested and evaluated at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant is reported

  5. Smart meter status report from Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, D.

    2006-01-01

    An update of Toronto Hydro's smart metering program was presented. Electricity demand is expected to keep increasing, and there is presently insufficient generation to match supply needs in Ontario. The smart metering program was introduced to aid in the Ontario government's energy conservation strategy, as well as to address peak supply problems that have led to power outages. It is expected that the smart metering program will reduce provincial peak supply by 5 per cent, as the meters support both time-of-use rates and critical peak pricing. Over 800,000 smart meters will be supplied to customers by 2007, and all 4.3 million homes in Toronto will have a smart meter by 2010. In order to meet targets for 2010, the utility will continue to install more 15,000 meters each month for the next 4 years. While the Ontario government has planned and coordinated the rollout and developed smart metering specifications and standards, Toronto Hydro is responsible for the purchase, installation, operation and maintenance of the meters. Advance testing of each meter is needed to ensure billing accuracy, and customer education on meter use is also. The complexity of the metering program has led the utility to establish a rigid project management process. Customer education pilot program are currently being conducted. Experience gained during the earlier phases of the program have enabled the utility to select appropriate metering systems based on density, topography and physical conditions. Project expenditures have been within budget due to improved project estimating and planning. The metering program has been conducted in tandem with the utility's peakSAVER program, a residential and small commercial load control program that has been successful in reducing summer peak demand by cycling air conditioners without causing discomfort. It was concluded that the utility will continue with its mass deployment of smart meters, and is currently preparing its call center to handled

  6. Determining pancreatic β-cell compensation for changing insulin sensitivity using an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Malin, Steven K; Karstoft, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide responses during an OGTT are informative for both research and clinical practice in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to use such information to determine insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion so as to calculate an oral glucose disposition index...

  7. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Blood flow rates of AV fistula can be affected by osmotic and oncotic pressures of blood and arterial blood pressures. Sodium, glucose, hemoglobin, and albumin are significant effectors, created osmotic and oncotic pressures [Table 3]. Blood levels of hemoglobin. (Hb), albumin, sodium (Na), and glucose ...

  8. Fasting Triglycerides and Glucose Index as a Diagnostic Test for Insulin Resistance in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Romero, Fernando; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; Jiménez-Flores, J Rafael; Simental-Mendia, Luis E; Méndez-Cruz, René; Murguía-Romero, Miguel; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha

    2016-07-01

    Although the Glucose and Triglyceride levels (TyG) index is useful for identification of insulin resistance (IR) in different ethnic groups, it has not been evaluated in young adults. We undertook this study to evaluate the TyG index as a diagnostic test for IR in young adults. A total of 5,538 healthy young adults, 3,795 (68.5%) non-pregnant women and 1,743 (31.5%) men, with an average age of 19.2 ± 1.4 years, were enrolled in a population-based cross-sectional study. To estimate diagnostic characteristics of the TyG index, a randomized subsample of the target population (n = 75) was under euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp test. Using the cutoff values obtained in the clamp study, the diagnostic concordance between TyG index and HOMA-IR was evaluated in the overall population. The TyG index was calculated as the Ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)]/2. Normal weight, overweight, and obesity were identified in 3,632 (65.6%), 1,355 (24.5%), and 551 (9.9%) participants. A total of 346 (9.1%) men and 278 (15.9%) women exhibited IR. The best cutoff value of TyG index for diagnosis of IR was 4.55 (sensitivity 0.687, negative predictive value (NPV) 0.844, and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) 0.47) for women and 4.68 (sensitivity 0.673, NPV 0.900, and NLR 0.45) for men. In normal-weight individuals the diagnostic concordance between TyG index and HOMA-IR was 0.934 and 0.915, in the overweight subjects was 0.908 and 0.895 and, in the obese participants 0.916 and 0.950, for men and women, respectively. TyG index may be useful for screening IR in young adults. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the performance of the OneTouch Select Plus blood glucose test system against ISO 15197:2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setford, Steven; Smith, Antony; McColl, David; Grady, Mike; Koria, Krisna; Cameron, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    Assess laboratory and in-clinic performance of the OneTouch Select(®) Plus test system against ISO 15197:2013 standard for measurement of blood glucose. System performance assessed in laboratory against key patient, environmental and pharmacologic factors. User performance was assessed in clinic by system-naïve lay-users. Healthcare professionals assessed system accuracy on diabetes subjects in clinic. The system demonstrated high levels of performance, meeting ISO 15197:2013 requirements in laboratory testing (precision, linearity, hematocrit, temperature, humidity and altitude). System performance was tested against 28 interferents, with an adverse interfering effect only being recorded for pralidoxime iodide. Clinic user performance results fulfilled ISO 15197:2013 accuracy criteria. Subjects agreed that the color range indicator clearly showed if they were low, in-range or high and helped them better understand glucose results. The system evaluated is accurate and meets all ISO 15197:2013 requirements as per the tests described. The color range indicator helped subjects understand glucose results and supports patients in following healthcare professional recommendations on glucose targets.

  10. A single dual-emissive nanofluorophore test paper for highly sensitive colorimetry-based quantification of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yujie; Liu, Cui; Zhang, Ruilong; Zhang, Liying; Du, Shuhu; Liu, Bianhua; Han, Ming-Yong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2016-12-15

    Fluorescent test papers are promising for the wide applications in the assays of diagnosis, environments and foods, but unlike classical dye-absorption-based pH test paper, they are usually limited in the qualitative yes/no type of detection by fluorescent brightness, and the colorimetry-based quantification remains a challenging task. Here, we report a single dual-emissive nanofluorophore probe to achieve the consecutive color variations from blue to red for the quantification of blood glucose on its as-prepared test papers. Red quantum dots were embedded into silica nanoparticles as a stable internal standard emission, and blue carbon dots (CDs) were further covalently linked onto the surface of silica, in which the ratiometric fluorescence intensity of blue to red is controlled at 5:1. While the oxidation of glucose induced the formation of Fe(3+) ions, the blue emission of CDs was thus quenched by the electron transfer from CDs to Fe(3+), displaying a serial of consecutive color variations from blue to red with the dosage of glucose. The high-quality test papers printed by the probe ink exhibited a dosage-sensitive allochromatic capability with the clear differentiations of ~5, 7, 9, 11mM glucose in human serum (normal: 3-8mM). The blood glucose determined by the test paper was almost in accordance with that measured by a standard glucometer. The method reported here opens a window to the wide applications of fluorescent test paper in biological assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Insulin resistance and lipid profile during an oral glucose tolerance test in women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zx; Wu, Y; Zhu, Xy; Fang, Q; Chen, Dq

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare changes in insulin levels during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) during pregnancy and those with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Overall, 105 pregnant women between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation, 50 with NGT and 55 with GDM according to NDDG standard, were enrolled into the study. The levels of fasting blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) and the insulin levels, blood glucose levels at 1, 2 and 3 hours post oral glucose administration during an OGTT (5.8, 10.6, 9.2 and 8.1 mmol/L, respectively) were measured. Then, insulin resistance (IR) index was calculated. There was no significant difference in fasting, 3-h insulin levels and 3-h blood glucose levels between those with NGT and those with GDM (P > 0.05). However, 1-h and 2-h insulin levels, fasting and 1-h and 2-h blood glucose levels in women with GDM were significantly higher than those in the NGT group (P < 0.05). Fasting TC and TG levels in the GDM group were significantly higher than those with NGT (P = 0.031 and P = 0.025, respectively). Correlation analysis showed that TG and TC levels were positively correlated with homoeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) (r = 0.67 and r = 0.78, respectively; P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that insulin sensitivity in women with GDM was significantly lower than that observed in those with NGT. Reducing IR and blood lipids in women with GDM could potentially improve maternal and foetal outcomes.

  12. To test or not to test: A cross-sectional survey of the psychosocial determinants of self-testing for cholesterol, glucose, and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinant Geert-Jan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although self-tests are increasingly available and widely used, it is not clear whether their use is beneficial to the users, and little is known concerning the determinants of self-test use. The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of self-test use for cholesterol, glucose, and HIV, and to examine whether these are similar across these tests. Self-testing was defined as using in-vitro tests on body materials, initiated by consumers with the aim of diagnosing a particular disorder, condition, or risk factor for disease. Methods A cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among 513 self-testers and 600 non-testers, assessing possible determinants of self-test use. The structured questionnaire was based on the Health Belief Model, Theory of Planned Behavior, and Protection Motivation Theory. Data were analyzed by means of logistic regression. Results The results revealed that perceived benefits and self-efficacy were significantly associated with self-testing for all three conditions. Other psychosocial determinants, e.g. gender, cues to action, perceived barriers, subjective norm, and moral obligation, seemed to be more test-specific. Conclusions Psychosocial determinants of self-testing are not identical for all tests and therefore information about self-testing needs to be tailored to a specific test. The general public should not only be informed about advantages of self-test use but also about the disadvantages. Designers of information about self-testing should address all aspects related to self-testing to stimulate informed decision making which, in turn, will result in more effective self-test use.

  13. Microprocessor controlled digital period meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Rusch, G.K.

    1980-01-01

    A microprocessor controlled digital period meter has been developed and tested operationally on a reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The principle of operation is the mathematical relationship between asymptotic periods and pulse counting circuitry. This relationship is used to calculate and display the reactor periods over a range of /plus or minus/1 second to /plus or minus/999 seconds. The time interval required to update each measurement automatically varies from 8 seconds at the lowest counting rates to 2 seconds at higher counting rates. The paper will describe hardware and software design details and show the advantages of this type of Period Meter over the conventional circuits. 1 ref

  14. Effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Abreu

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats. We hypothesized that plasma glucose might be decreased in the exercised group during heavy (more intense exercise. Twenty-four 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary and exercised groups. The prescription of endurance exercise training intensity was determined as 60% of the maximum intensity reached at the incremental speed test. The animals were trained by running on a motorized treadmill, five days/week for a total period of 67 weeks. Plasma glucose during the constant speed test in the exercised group at 20 m/min was reduced at the 14th, 21st and 28th min compared to the sedentary group, as well at 25 m/min at the 21st and 28th min. Plasma glucose during the incremental speed test was decreased in the exercised group at the moment of exhaustion (48th min compared to the sedentary group (27th min. Endurance training positively modulates the mitochondrial activity and capacity of substrate oxidation in muscle and liver. Thus, in contrast to other studies on high load of exercise, the effects of endurance training on the decrease of plasma glucose during constant and incremental speed tests was significantly higher in exercised than in sedentary rats and associated with improved muscle and hepatic oxidative capacity, constituting an important non-pharmacological intervention tool for the prevention of insulin resistance, including type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  15. The Association Between Low 50 g Glucose Challenge Test Values and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hayan; Lee, Joonho; Lee, Byung-Wan; Kwon, Ja-Young; Kim, Young-Han

    2018-01-11

    The implications of low values on the 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) in pregnancy are not clearly defined. Few studies have evaluated the influence of maternal low GCT values on obstetrical outcomes. This study aimed to compare pregnancy outcomes between women with low 50 g GCT values and those with normal values. Women undergoing gestational diabetes mellitus screening at 24-28 weeks of gestational age between January 2010 and December 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. Women with multifetal pregnancies, prepregnancy type I or II diabetes, GCT performed before 24 or after 28 weeks of gestational age, and women undergoing multiple GCTs in the same pregnancy were excluded. Low GCT values and normal GCT values were defined as ≤85 mg/dL and 86-130 mg/dL, respectively. Of 3875 screened subjects, 519 (13.4%) women were included in the low GCT group and 3356 (86.6%) in the normal GCT group. Low GCT women had a significantly higher rate of small for gestational age (SGA) infants than normal GCT women (10.8% vs. 7.9%, p = 0.02). Cesarean section and postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) were less frequent in low GCT women than in normal women (32.6% vs. 42.8%, p values. Low GCT values were independently associated with an increased risk of SGA.

  16. Glucose patterns during an oral glucose tolerance test and associations with future diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Vistisen, Dorte; Glümer, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    classes. Results: Four distinct glucose patterns during the OGTT were identified. One pattern was characterised by high 30 min but low 2 h glucose values. Participants with this pattern had an increased risk of developing diabetes compared with participants with lower 30 min and 2 h glucose levels (HR 4...

  17. Smart Metering System for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacios-Garcia, Emilio; Guan, Yajuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    suppliers, but they can also play a big role in the control of the Microgrid since the recorded power and energy profiles can be integrated in energy management systems (EMS). In addition, basic power quality (PQ) disturbance can de detected and reported by some advanced metering systems. Thus, this paper...... will expose an example of Smart Meters integration in a Microgrid scenario, which is the Intelligent Microgrid Lab of Aalborg University (AAU). To do this, first the installation available in the Microgrid Lab will be introduced. Then, three different test scenarios and their respective results...... will be presented, regarding the capabilities of this system and the advantages of integration the Smart Meters information in the Microgrid control....

  18. A minimally invasive system for glucose area under the curve measurement using interstitial fluid extraction technology: evaluation of the accuracy and usefulness with oral glucose tolerance tests in subjects with and without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Kazuhiko; Hirota, Yushi; Hashimoto, Naoko; Ogawa, Wataru; Sato, Toshiyuki; Okada, Seiki; Hagino, Kei; Asakura, Yoshihiro; Kikkawa, Yasuo; Kojima, Junko; Maekawa, Yasunori; Nakajima, Hiromu

    2012-06-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of managing postprandial hyperglycemia, but adequate monitoring of postprandial glucose remains difficult because of wide variations in levels. We have therefore developed a minimally invasive system to monitor postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC). This system involves no blood sampling and uses interstitial fluid glucose (IG) AUC (IG-AUC) as a surrogate marker of postprandial glucose. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of this system by comparing data with the findings of oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in subjects with and without diabetes. The glucose AUC monitoring system was validated by OGTTs in 37 subjects with and 10 subjects without diabetes. A plastic microneedle array was stamped on the forearm to extract IG. A hydrogel patch was then placed on the pretreated area to accumulate IG. Glucose and sodium ion concentrations in the hydrogel were measured to calculate IG-AUC at 2-h postload glucose. Plasma glucose (PG) levels were measured every 30 min to calculate reference PG-AUC. IG-AUC correlated strongly with reference PG-AUC (r=0.93) over a wide range. The level of correlation between IG-AUC and maximum PG level was also high (r=0.86). The painless nature of the technique was confirmed by the response of patients to questionnaires. The glucose AUC monitoring system using IG provided good estimates of reference PG-AUC and maximum PG level during OGTTs in subjects with and without diabetes. This system provides easy-to-use monitoring of glucose AUC, which is a good indicator of postprandial glucose.

  19. Effect of test meals of varying dietary fiber content on plasma insulin and glucose response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J G; Coffman, K P; Reid, R L; Krall, J M; Albrink, M J

    1981-03-01

    To assess the effect of dietary fiber on glucose tolerance four different meals of varying fiber content but identical protein fat and carbohydrate content were fed to eight healthy men aged 22 to 45. Each meal provided 75 g of carbohydrate as liquid glucose formula, as brown rice, pinto beans, or All Bran. The mean plasma glucose and insulin responses were highest following the formula, and least for All Bran and pinto beans. Rice produced nearly as great a rise in insulin and glucose as did the formula. The rank of each meal by content of neutral detergent fiber was nearly the inverse of the rank by magnitude of the insulin response evoked, fiber content being greatest in All Bran (18 g) and pinto beans (16.2 g), low in rice (2.8 g) and absent from the formula. It was concluded that dietary fiber dampened the insulin response to a high carbohydrate meal.

  20. Digital temperature meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, S

    1982-01-01

    Digital temperature meter for precise temperature measurements is presented. Its parts such as thermostat, voltage-frequency converter and digital frequency meter are described. Its technical parameters such as temperature range 50degC-700degC, measurement precision 1degC, measurement error +-1degC are given. (A.S.).

  1. Radioisotope conveyor ash meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savelov, V.D.

    1994-01-01

    Radioisotope conveyor ash meter realizes persistent measuring of ashiness of coal and products of its enrichment on the belt conveyor without contact. The principle of ash meter acting is based on functional dependence of the gamma radiation flows backscattering intensity of radioisotope sources from the ash volume content in the controlled fuel. Facility consists from the ashiness transducer and the processing and control device

  2. Optical cycle power meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A bicycle power meter for measuring power generated when riding a bicycle, the power meter comprising a position-sensitive radiation detector (409) attachable to a component of a crank set (404) of bicycle, and a radiation source (408) attachable to the component of the crank set and configured t...

  3. Ultrasonic flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad; Snijders, G.J.; Volker, A.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to an ultrasonic flow meter comprising a flow tube for the fluid whose flow rate is to be determined. The flow meter comprises a transmitting element for emitting ultrasonic waves, which is provided on the outer jacket of the flow tube. A receiving element, which is provided on

  4. Fructose intervention for 12 weeks does not impair glycemic control or incretin hormone responses during oral glucose or mixed meal tests in obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matikainen, N; Söderlund, S; Björnson, E

    2017-01-01

    were measured during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and triglycerides (TG), GLP-1, GIP and PYY during a mixed meal test before and after fructose intervention. Fructose intervention did not worsen glucose and insulin responses during OGTT, and GLP-1 and GIP responses during OGTT and fat-rich meal...... responses during OGTT or GLP-1, GIP or PYY responses during a mixed meal. Therefore, fructose intake, even accompanied with mild weight gain, increases in liver fat and worsening of postprandial TG profile, does not impair glucose tolerance or gut incretin response to oral glucose or mixed meal challenge....

  5. Tentative type test of a non-invasive high-voltage meter with respect to the quantity of practical peak voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto, J.G.P.; Selbach, H.J.; Kramer, H.M.; Lange, B.

    2001-04-01

    In Working Group 3 of Sub-committee 62C of the international electrotechnical commission (IEC) a new project is underway [1] with the objective of specifying requirements for the performance characteristics of instruments for the non-invasive measurement of the X-ray tube voltage in diagnostic radiology. In this draft the X-ray tube voltage is specified in terms of the practical peak voltage [2]. The objective of the present work is to perform a tentative type test, based on the ''Requirements for Instruments for Non-invasive Measurements of the X-ray Tube Voltage'' defined in the IEC draft, with a commercially available non-invasive high-voltage meter. The instrument was modified so that the practical peak voltage can be measured. It is shown that the instrument, with the modifications made, is suitable for the non-invasive measurement of the practical peak voltage between 50 kV and 150 kV within the required limits of variation of the response. (orig.)

  6. ORNL Pocket Meter Program: internal operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.D.; Miller, J.H.; Dunsmore, M.R.

    1984-12-01

    The ORNL Pocket Meter Program is designed for auditing the approximate photon radiation exposure of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) radiation workers. Although pocket meters are considered to be a secondary personnel dosimetry system at ORNL, they are valuable indicators of unplanned exposures if proper procedures are followed for testing, calibrating, deploying, wearing, processing, and recording data. 4 figures, 1 table

  7. Performance testing of Zymomonas mobilis metabolically engineered for cofermentation of glucose, xylose, and arabinose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, Hugh G; Rousseau, Joyce D

    2002-01-01

    IOGEN Corporation of Ottawa, Canada, has recently built a 40t/d biomass-to-ethanol demonstration plant adjacent to its enzyme production facility. It has partnered with the University of Toronto to test the C6/C5 cofermenta-tion performance characteristics of the National Renewable Energy Labora-tory's metabolically engineered Zymomonas mobilis using various biomass hydrolysates. IOGEN's feedstocks are primarily agricultural wastes such as corn stover and wheat straw. Integrated recombinant Z. mobilis strain AX101 grows on D-xylose and/or L-arabinose as the sole carbon/energy sources and ferments these pentose sugars to ethanol in high yield. Strain AX101 lacks the tetracycline resistance gene that was a common feature of other recombinant Zm constructs. Genomic integration provides reliable cofermentation performance in the absence of antibiotics, another characteristic making strain AX101 attractive for industrial cellulosic ethanol production. In this work, IOGEN's biomass hydrolysate was simulated by a pure sugar medium containing 6% (w/v) glucose, 3% xylose, and 0.35% arabinose. At a level of 3 g/L (dry solids), corn steep liquor with inorganic nitrogen (0.8 g/L of ammonium chloride or 1.2 g/L of diammonium phosphate) was a cost-effective nutritional supplement. In the absence of acetic acid, the maximum volumetric ethanol productivity of a continuous fermentation at pH 5.0 was 3.54 g/L x h. During prolonged continuous fermentation, the efficiency of sugar-to-ethanol conversion (based on total sugar load) was maintained at >85%. At a level of 0.25% (w/v) acetic acid, the productivity decreased to 1.17 g/L x h at pH 5.5. Unlike integrated, xylose-utilizing rec Zm strain C25, strain AX101 produces less lactic acid as byproduct, owing to the fact that the Escherichia coli arabinose genes are inserted into a region of the host chromosome tentatively assigned to the gene for D-lactic acid dehydrogenase. In pH-controlled batch fermentations with sugar mixtures, the

  8. The association between brain-derived neurotrophic factor and central pulse pressure after an oral glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Te; Chen, Chen-Huan; Wang, Jun-Sing; Fu, Chia-Po; Lee, Wen-Jane; Liang, Kae-Woei; Lin, Shih-Yi; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng

    2018-01-01

    Arterial stiffening blunts postprandial vasodilatation. We hypothesized that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may modulate postprandial central pulse pressure, a surrogate marker for arterial stiffening. A total of 82 non-diabetic subjects received a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after overnight fasting. Serum BDNF concentrations were determined at 0, 30, and 120min to calculate the area under the curve (AUC). Brachial and central blood pressures were measured using a noninvasive central blood pressure monitor before blood withdrawals at 0 and 120min. With the median AUC of BDNF of 45(ng/ml)∗h as the cutoff value, the central pulse pressure after glucose intake was significantly higher in the subjects with a low BDNF than in those with a high BDNF (63±16 vs. 53±11mmHg, P=0.003), while the brachial pulse pressure was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P=0.099). In a multivariate linear regression model, a lower AUC of BDNF was an independent predictor of a higher central pulse pressure after oral glucose intake (linear regression coefficient-0.202, 95% confidence interval-0.340 to -0.065, P=0.004). After oral glucose challenge, a lower serum BDNF response is significantly associated with a higher central pulse pressure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Balanced Flow Meters without Moving Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R.; VanBuskirk, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Balanced flow meters are recent additions to an established class of simple, rugged flow meters that contain no moving parts in contact with flow and are based on measurement of pressure drops across objects placed in flow paths. These flow meters are highly accurate, minimally intrusive, easily manufacturable, and reliable. A balanced flow meter can be easily mounted in a flow path by bolting it between conventional pipe flanges. A balanced flow meter can be used to measure the flow of any of a variety of liquids or gases, provided that it has been properly calibrated. Relative to the standard orifice-plate flow meter, the balanced flow meter introduces less turbulence and two times less permanent pressure loss and is therefore capable of offering 10 times greater accuracy and repeatability with less dissipation of energy. A secondary benefit of the reduction of turbulence is the reduction of vibration and up to 15 times less acoustic noise generation. Both the balanced flow meter and the standard orifice-plate flow meter are basically disks that contain holes and are instrumented with pressure transducers on their upstream and downstream faces. The most obvious difference between them is that the standard orifice plate contains a single, central hole while the balanced flow meter contains multiple holes. The term 'balanced' signifies that in designing the meter, the sizes and locations of the holes are determined in an optimization procedure that involves balancing of numerous factors, including volumetric flow, mass flow, dynamic pressure, kinetic energy, all in an effort to minimize such undesired effects as turbulence, pressure loss, dissipation of kinetic energy, and non-repeatability and nonlinearity of response over the anticipated range of flow conditions. Due to proper balancing of these factors, recent testing demonstrated that the balanced flow-meter performance was similar to a Venturi tube in both accuracy and pressure recovery, but featured reduced

  10. Predictive performance for population models using stochastic differential equations applied on data from an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas Bech; Overgaard, R.V.; Madsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Several articles have investigated stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in PK/PD models, but few have quantitatively investigated the benefits to predictive performance of models based on real data. Estimation of first phase insulin secretion which reflects beta-cell function using models of ...... obtained from the glucose tolerance tests. Since, the estimation time of extended models was not heavily increased compared to basic models, the applied method is concluded to have high relevance not only in theory but also in practice....

  11. Evaluation of a 1-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Campos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the performance of a 1-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, a cohort of 4998 women, 20 years or older, without previous diabetes being treated in prenatal care clinics in Brazil answered a questionnaire and performed a 75-g OGTT including fasting, 1-h and 2-h glucose measurements between their 24th and 28th gestational weeks. Pregnancy outcomes were transcribed from medical registries. GDM was defined according to WHO criteria (fasting: ≥126 mg/dL; 2-h value: ≥140 mg/dL and macrosomia as a birth weight equal to or higher than 4000 g. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC were compared and diagnostic properties of various cut-off points were evaluated. The AUCs for the prediction of macrosomia were 0.606 (0.572-0.637 for the 1-h and 0.589 (0.557-0.622 for the 2-h plasma glucose test. Similar predictability was demonstrable regarding combined adverse outcomes: 0.582 (0.559-0.604 for the 1-h test and 0.572 (0.549-0.595 for the 2-h test. When the 1-h glucose test was evaluated against a diagnosis of GDM defined by the 2-h glucose test, the AUC was 0.903 (0.886-0.919. The cut-off point that maximized sensitivity (83% and specificity (83% was 141 mg/dL, identifying 21% of the women as positive. A cut-off point of 160 mg/dL, with lower sensitivity (62%, had higher specificity (94%, labeling 8.6% as positive. Detection of GDM can be done with a 1-h 75-g OGTT: the value of 160 mg/dL has the same diagnostic performance as the conventional 2-h value (140 mg/dL. The simplification of the test may improve coverage and timing of the diagnosis of GDM.

  12. Short-term glucagon stimulation test of C-peptide effect on glucose utilization in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojto, Viliam; Rausova, Zuzana; Chrenova, Jana; Dedik, Ladislav

    2015-12-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the use of a four-point glucagon stimulation test of C-peptide effect on glucose utilization in type 1 diabetic patients using a new mathematical model. A group of 32 type 1 diabetic patients and a group of 10 healthy control subjects underwent a four-point glucagon stimulation test with blood sampling at 0, 6, 15 and 30 min after 1 mg glucagon bolus intravenous administration. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models of C-peptide effect on glucose utilization versus area under curve (AUC) were used. A two-sample t test and ANOVA with Bonferroni correction were used to test the significance of differences between parameters. A significant difference between control and patient groups regarding the coefficient of whole-body glucose utilization and AUC C-peptide/AUC glucose ratio (p ≪ 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively) was observed. The high correlation (r = 0.97) between modeled coefficient of whole-body glucose utilization and numerically calculated AUC C-peptide/AUC glucose ratio related to entire cohort indicated the stability of used method. The short-term four-point glucagon stimulation test allows the numerically calculated AUC C-peptide/AUC glucose ratio and/or the coefficient of whole-body glucose utilization calculated from model to be used to diagnostically identify type 1 diabetic patients.

  13. Gingival crevicular blood for screening of blood glucose level in patients with & without diabetes: a chair-side test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, M V; Brahmbhatt, N A; Sahayata, V; Bhavsar, N V

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes is a pandemic disease with increasing prevalence and serious complications. Periodontitis being one of its presentation and is its sixth recognized complication. This study compares blood glucose levels in gingival crevicular blood of patients with and without diabetes elicited during routine periodontal probing and venous blood sample. Seventy patients with moderate gingivitis and periodontitis positive for bleeding on probing were chosen. All the subjects were divided in two groups, group I consisted of 35 diabetic and group II of 35 non-diabetic subjects. Blood from the gingiva of the most inflamed site was collected with the test strip of a glucose self-monitoring device, and the blood glucose levels were measured. At the same time, intravenous blood was collected for measurement in a laboratory glucose analyzer. Gingival index and probing pocket depth were evaluated for each subject at same time. The mean GCB levels and VB derived from all samples were 156.07 ± 49.23 mg dl(-1) and 156 ± 49.89 mg dl(-1) , respectively, for diabetic group and 90.80 ± 11.07 and 93.41 ± 9.30 for non-diabetic group. In both the groups, the difference between GCB and VB glucose levels was non-significant (P > 0.005). Highly significant correlation between GCB and VB (r = 0.972 for diabetic and r = 0.721 for non-diabetic) in both the groups was found. The data from this study show that GCB collected during diagnostic periodontal examination can be an excellent source for estimation of blood sugar or glucometric analysis. This technique is also suitable for routine screening of diabetic and early diagnosis of unknown diabetic cases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Glucose pump test can be used to measure blood flow rate of native arteriovenous fistula in chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Y C; Selcuk, N Y; Altıntepe, L; Güney, I; Yavuz, S

    2018-01-01

    In chronic hemodialysis patients, the low flow of vascular access may leads to inadequate dialysis, increased rate of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality. It was found that surveillance should be performed for native arteriovenous (AV) should not be performed for AV graft in various studies. However, surveillance was done in graft AV fistulas in most studies. Doppler ultrasonography (US) was suggested for surveillance of AV fistulas by the last vascular access guideline of National Kidney Foundation Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF KDOQI). The aim of study is to determine whether glucose pump test (GPT) is used for surveillance of native AV fistulas by using Doppler US as reference. In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US and GPT. For GPT, glucose was infused to 16 mL/min by pump and was measured at basal before the infusion and 11 s after the start of the infusion by glucometer. Doppler US was done by an expert radiologist. Used statistical tests were Mann-Whitney U test, Friedman test, regression analysis, and multiple regression analysis. Median values of blood flow rates measured by GPT (707 mL/min) and by Doppler US (700 mL/min) were not different (Z = 0.414, P = 0.678). Results of GPT and Doppler US measurements were positive correlate by regression analysis. The mean GPT value of diabetic patients (n = 39; 908 mL/min) was similar to that of nondiabetic patients (n = 54; 751 mL/min; Z = 1.31, P = 0.188). GPT values measured at three different dialysis session did not differ from each other that by Friedman test (F = 0.92, P = 0.39). This showed that GPT was stable and reliable. Glucose pump test can be used to measure blood flow rate of native AV fistula. GPT is an accurate and reliable test.

  15. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copie, M.; Valantic, B.

    1978-01-01

    Digital reactivity meters (DRM) are mostly used as measuring instruments, e.g. for calibration of control rods, and there are only a few cases of their incorporation into the control systems of the reactors. To move in this direction there is more development work needed. First of all, fast algorithms are needed for inverse kinetics equations to relieve the computer for more important tasks of reactor model solving in real time. The next problem, currently under investigation, is the incorporation of the reactor thermal-hydraulic model into the DRM so that it can be used in the power range. Such an extension of DHM allows presentation not only of the instantaneous reactivity of the system, but also the inserted reactivity can be estimated from the temperature reactivity feed-backs. One of the applications of this concept is the anomalous digital reactivity monitor (ADRN) as part of the reactor protection system. As a solution of the first problem, a fast algorithm for solving the inverse kinetics equations has been implemented in the off-line program RODCAL on CDC 1700 computer and tested for its accuracy by performing different control rod calibrations on the reactor TRIGA

  16. IDegLira Improves Both Fasting and Postprandial Glucose Control as Demonstrated Using Continuous Glucose Monitoring and a Standardized Meal Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Jens J; Buse, John B; Rodbard, Helena W; Linjawi, Sultan; Woo, Vincent C; Boesgaard, Trine Welløv; Kvist, Kajsa; Gough, Stephen C

    2015-10-06

    IDegLira is a novel, fixed-ratio combination of the long-acting basal insulin, insulin degludec, and the long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide. We studied the effect of IDegLira versus its components on postprandial glucose (PPG) in type 2 diabetes. In this substudy, 260 (15.6%) of the original 1663 patients with inadequate glycemic control participating in a 26-week, open-label trial (DUAL I) were randomized 2:1:1 to once-daily IDegLira, insulin degludec or liraglutide. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) for 72 hours and a meal test were performed. At week 26, IDegLira produced a significantly greater decrease from baseline in mean PPG increment (normalized iAUC0-4h) than insulin degludec (estimated treatment difference [ETD] -12.79 mg/dl [95% CI: -21.08; -4.68], P = .0023) and a similar magnitude of decrease as liraglutide (ETD -1.62 mg/dl [95% CI: -10.09; 6.67], P = .70). CGM indicated a greater reduction in change from baseline in PPG increment (iAUC0-4h) for IDegLira versus insulin degludec over all 3 main meals (ETD -6.13 mg/dl [95% CI: -10.27, -1.98], P = .0047) and similar reductions versus liraglutide (ETD -1.80 mg/dl [95% CI: -2.52, 5.95], P = .4122). Insulin secretion ratio and static index were greater for IDegLira versus insulin degludec (P = .048 and P = .006, respectively) and similar to liraglutide (P = .45 and P = .895, respectively). Once-daily IDegLira provides significantly better PPG control following a mixed meal test than insulin degludec. The improvement is at least partially explained by higher endogenous insulin secretion and improved beta cell function with IDegLira. The benefits of liraglutide on PPG control are maintained across all main meals in the combination. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Clinical chemistry measurements with commercially available test slides on a smartphone platform: Colorimetric determination of glucose and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Boonloed, Anukul; Sleszynski, Neal; Koesdjojo, Myra; Armstrong, Chadd; Bracha, Shay; Remcho, Vincent T

    2015-08-25

    Rapidly increasing healthcare costs in economically advantaged countries are currently unsustainable, while in many developing nations, even 50-year-old technologies are too expensive to implement. New and unconventional technologies are being explored as solutions to this problem. In this study, we examined the use of a smartphone as the detection platform for 2 well-developed, relatively inexpensive, commercially available clinical chemistry assays as a model for rapid and inexpensive clinical diagnostic testing. An Apple iPhone 4 camera phone equipped with a color analysis application (ColorAssist) was combined with Vitros® glucose and urea colorimetric assays. Color images of assay slides at various concentrations of glucose or urea were collected with the iPhone 4 and quantitated in three different spectral ranges (red/green/blue or RGB) using the ColorAssist app. When the diffuse reflectance data was converted into absorbance, it was possible to quantitate glucose or blood urea nitrogen (BUN) over their clinically important concentration ranges (30-515mg/dl for glucose or 2-190mg/dl for BUN), with good linearity (R(2)=0.9994 or 0.9996, respectively [n=5]). Data collected using the iPhone 4 and canine serum samples were in agreement with results from the instrumental "gold standard" (Beckman Coulter AU480 Chemistry System) (R(2)=0.9966 and slope=1.0001 for glucose; R(2)=0.9958 and slope=0.9454 for BUN). Glucose determinations of serum samples made using this smartphone method were as accurate as or more accurate than a commercial colorimetric dry slide analyzer (Heska® Element DC Chemistry Analyzer, Loveland, CO) and 2 glucometers: ReliOn® Ultima (Abbott Diabetes Care Inc) and Presto® (AgaMatrix Inc.H). BUN determinations made using the smartphone approach were comparable in accuracy to the Heska instrument. This demonstration shows that smartphones have the potential to be used as simple, effective colorimetric detectors for quantitative diagnostic tests

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  19. Miscoding and other user errors: importance of ongoing education for proper blood glucose monitoring procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, Linda E

    2008-07-01

    This article reviews the literature to date and reports on a new study that documented the frequency of manual code-requiring blood glucose (BG) meters that were miscoded at the time of the patient's initial appointment in a hospital-based outpatient diabetes education program. Between January 1 and May 31, 2007, the type of BG meter and the accuracy of the patient's meter code (if required) and procedure for checking BG were checked during the initial appointment with the outpatient diabetes educator. If indicated, reeducation regarding the procedure for the BG meter code entry and/or BG test was provided. Of the 65 patients who brought their meter requiring manual entry of a code number or code chip to the initial appointment, 16 (25%) were miscoded at the time of the appointment. Two additional problems, one of dead batteries and one of improperly stored test strips, were identified and corrected at the first appointment. These findings underscore the importance of checking the patient's BG meter code (if required) and procedure for testing BG at each encounter with a health care professional or providing the patient with a meter that does not require manual entry of a code number or chip to match the container of test strips (i.e., an autocode meter).

  20. Correlação entre o desempenho de jogadores de futebol no teste de sprint de 30m e no teste de salto vertical Correlation between performance of Soccer players in the 30-meter sprint test and in the vertical jump test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barbosa Coelho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi determinar o nível de correlação entre o desempenho nos 10m iniciais, dos 20m finais e no tempo total do teste de sprint de 30m, com o do salto vertical com contra-movimento (CMJ entre jogadores de futebol. Participaram do estudo 167 jogadores das categorias profissional (N. 94 e júnior (N. 73. Foram determinadas as velocidades dos jogadores em 10m (V10, 20m (V20 e no total de 30m (V30. A habilidade de salto foi avaliada através do CMJ. Para correlacionar os dados, foi utilizado o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson com nível de significância de pThe aim of the present study was to determine the association between the results in the counter movement jump (CMJ and the results in the first 10 meters, in the final 20 meters and the in the total 30 meters of a 30-meter sprint. One-hundred and sixty seven Soccer players from the professional (N. 93 and under twenty (N. 74 categories, from a Brazilian first division Soccer club participated in the study. The sprint test consisted of a 30-meter run timed at the 10-meter and at the 30-meter marks. The jump capacity was assessed through the CMJ. Pearson's correlation (r was used to determine the association between these variables. The significance level adopted was p<.05. The U-20 players presented faster V10 and slower V20 than the professionals (p<.05. The correlation (r between CMJ and V10, V20 and V30 were .239, .370 and .408, respectively, for the U20 group and .381, .381 and .470, respectively, for the professional group. Evaluating the two categories together the correlation were; r= 0,293, 0,386 and 0,441 to V10, V20 and V30 respectively. The correlation between CMJ and V10 was weak and moderate for V20 and V30. In the professional category the correlation between CMJ and all the other parameters was moderate. It is probable that higher correlation values for CMJ and V10 for the professionals could be attributed to specific training effects.

  1. Testing isotopic labeling with [¹³C₆]glucose as a method of advanced glycation sites identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielmas, Martyna; Kijewska, Monika; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2012-12-01

    The Maillard reaction occurring between reducing sugars and reactive amino groups of biomolecules leads to the formation of a heterogeneous mixture of compounds: early, intermediate, and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). These compounds could be markers of certain diseases and of the premature aging process. Detection of Amadori products can be performed by various methods, including MS/MS techniques and affinity chromatography on immobilized boronic acid. However, the diversity of the structures of AGEs makes detection of these compounds more difficult. The aim of this study was to test a new method of AGE identification based on isotope (13)C labeling. The model protein (hen egg lysozyme) was modified with an equimolar mixture of [(12)C(6)]glucose and [(13)C(6)]glucose and then subjected to reduction of the disulfide bridges followed by tryptic hydrolysis. The digest obtained was analyzed by LC-MS. The glycation products were identified on the basis of characteristic isotopic patterns resulting from the use of isotopically labeled glucose. This method allowed identification of 38 early Maillard reaction products and five different structures of the end glycation products. This isotopic labeling technique combined with LC-MS is a sensitive method for identification of advanced glycation end products even if their chemical structure is unknown. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical significance of low result of 1-h 50-g glucose-challenge test in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oawada, Nozomi; Aoki, Shigeru; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Obata, Soichiro; Seki, Kazuo; Hirahara, Fumiki

    2018-01-31

    The objective of this study is to examine the effect of low-glucose value on the 1-h 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT) on neonatal body weight in low-risk Asian singleton pregnant women. We retrospectively analyzed women who delivered a singleton neonate at term at a tertiary center and underwent GCT at 24-28 weeks of gestation between June 2001 and June 2015. The low GCT group was defined as low-birth weight, and macrosomia. The χ 2 test, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t test were used. There were 313 low GCT groups and 4611 control. The low GCT group were younger, had lower prepregnancy body weight, higher stature, and lower prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). After adjusting these variables, the low GCT group had a lower rate of LGA and a higher rate of SGA. Neonatal body weight is more influenced by maternal physique than by low GCT result (standardized coefficient (β); GCT 0.071, height 0.188, prepregnancy BMI 0.143). Neonatal body weight was only slightly influenced by low GCT result, but markedly influenced by maternal physique, such as height and prepregnancy BMI.

  3. Comparison of surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity with parameters of the intravenous glucose tolerance test in early lactation dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Nores, V; Castillo, C; Hernandez, J; Abuelo, A

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between different surrogate indices and parameters of the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in dairy cows at the start of their lactation. Ten dairy cows underwent IVGTT on Days 3 to 7 after calving. Areas under the curve during the 90 min after infusion, peak and nadir concentrations, elimination rates, and times to reach half-maximal and basal concentrations for glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate were calculated. Surrogate indices were computed using the average of the IVGTT basal samples, and their correlation with the IVGTT parameters studied through the Spearman's rank test. No statistically significant or strong correlation coefficients (P > 0.05; |ρ| insulin sensitivity measures derived from the IVGTT and any of the surrogate indices. Therefore, these results support that the assessment of insulin sensitivity in early lactation cattle cannot rely on the calculation of surrogate indices in just a blood sample, and the more laborious tests (ie, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test or IVGTT) should be employed to predict the sensitivity of the peripheral tissues to insulin accurately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis with chloride meter (Sherwood M926S chloride analyzer®) and sweat test analysis system (CFΔ collection system®) compared to the Gibson Cooke method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiralioğlu, Nagehan; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Doğru, Deniz; Kiper, Nural

    2016-01-01

    Sweat test with Gibson Cooke (GC) method is the diagnostic gold standard for cystic fibrosis (CF). Recently, alternative methods have been introduced to simplify both the collection and analysis of sweat samples. Our aim was to compare sweat chloride values obtained by GC method with other sweat test methods in patients diagnosed with CF and whose CF diagnosis had been ruled out. We wanted to determine if the other sweat test methods could reliably identify patients with CF and differentiate them from healthy subjects. Chloride concentration was measured with GC method, chloride meter and sweat test analysis system; also conductivity was determined with sweat test analysis system. Forty eight patients with CF and 82 patients without CF underwent the sweat test, showing median sweat chloride values 98.9 mEq/L with GC method, 101 mmol/L with chloride meter, 87.8 mmol/L with sweat test analysis system. In non-CF group, median sweat chloride values were 16.8 mEq/L with GC method, 10.5 mmol/L with chloride meter, and 15.6 mmol/L with sweat test analysis system. Median conductivity value was 107.3 mmol/L in CF group and 32.1 mmol/L in non CF group. There was a strong positive correlation between GC method and the other sweat test methods with a statistical significance (r=0.85) in all subjects. Sweat chloride concentration and conductivity by other sweat test methods highly correlate with the GC method. We think that the other sweat test equipments can be used as reliably as the classic GC method to diagnose or exclude CF.

  5. A Scalable Smart Meter Data Generator Using Spark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Danalachi, Sergiu

    2017-01-01

    Today, smart meters are being used worldwide. As a matter of fact smart meters produce large volumes of data. Thus, it is important for smart meter data management and analytics systems to process petabytes of data. Benchmarking and testing of these systems require scalable data, however, it can ...

  6. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkus, B.; Anac, H.; Alsan, S.; Erk, S.

    1991-01-01

    Nowadays, various digital methods making use of microcomputers for neutron detector signals and determining the reactivity by numerical calculations are used in reactor control systems in place of classical reactivity meters. In this work, a calculation based on the ''The Time Dependent Transport Equation'' has been developed for determining the reactivity numerically. The reactivity values have been obtained utilizing a computer-based data acquisition and control system and compared with the analog reactivity meter values as well as the values calculated from the ''Inhour Equation''

  7. Validation of different measures of insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism in dairy cows using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test as the gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koster, J; Hostens, M; Hermans, K; Van den Broeck, W; Opsomer, G

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present research was to compare different measures of insulin sensitivity in dairy cows at the end of the dry period. To do so, 10 clinically healthy dairy cows with a varying body condition score were selected. By performing hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) tests, we previously demonstrated a negative association between the insulin sensitivity and insulin responsiveness of glucose metabolism and the body condition score of these animals. In the same animals, other measures of insulin sensitivity were determined and the correlation with the HEC test, which is considered as the gold standard, was calculated. Measures derived from the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) are based on the disappearance of glucose after an intravenous glucose bolus. Glucose concentrations during the IVGTT were used to calculate the area under the curve of glucose and the clearance rate of glucose. In addition, glucose and insulin data from the IVGTT were fitted in the minimal model to derive the insulin sensitivity parameter, Si. Based on blood samples taken before the start of the IVGTT, basal concentrations of glucose, insulin, NEFA, and β-hydroxybutyrate were determined and used to calculate surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity, such as the homeostasis model of insulin resistance, the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index including β-hydroxybutyrate. Correlation analysis revealed no association between the results obtained by the HEC test and any of the surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity. For the measures derived from the IVGTT, the area under the curve for the first 60 min of the test and the Si derived from the minimal model demonstrated good correlation with the gold standard. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oral glucose tolerance test significantly impacts the prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance among Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome: lessons from a large database of two tertiary care centers on the Indian subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Dhingra, Atul; Nisar, Sobia; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Shah, Zaffar Amin; Rashid, Aafia; Masoodi, Shariq; Gupta, Nandita

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) among Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and analyze the role of oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) test on its estimation. Cross-sectional clinical study. Tertiary care center. A total of 2,014 women with PCOS diagnosed on the basis of the Rotterdam 2003 criteria were enrolled, and the data of 1,746 subjects were analyzed. In addition to recording clinical, biochemical, and hormone parameters, a 75 g OGTT was administered. Prevalence of AGT and impact of age, body mass index (BMI), family history, and OGTT on its prevalence. The mean age of subjects was 23.8 ± 5.3 years, with a mean BMI of 24.9 ± 4.4 kg/m(2). The overall prevalence of AGT was 36.3% (6.3% diabetes and 30% impaired fasting plasma glucose/impaired glucose tolerance) using American Diabetes Association criteria. The glucose intolerance showed a rising trend with advancing age (30.3%, 35.4%, 51%, and 58.8% in the second, third, fourth, and fifth decades, respectively) and increasing BMI. Family history of diabetes mellitus was present in 54.6% (953/1,746) subjects, and it did not correlate with any of the studied parameters except waist circumference and BMI. Sensitivity was better with 2-hour post-OGTT glucose values as compared with fasting plasma glucose, since using fasting plasma glucose alone would have missed the diagnosis in 107 (6.1%) subjects. We conclude that AGT is high among young Indian women with PCOS and that it is not predicted by family history of type 2 DM. OGTT significantly improves the detection rate of AGT among Indian women with PCOS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Hydrogen meter for service in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.

    1983-11-01

    This standard establishes the requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, quality assurance, examination, and acceptance testing of a hydrogen meter and auxiliary equipment for use in radioactive or nonradioactive liquid sodium service. The meter shall provide a continuous and accurate indication of the hydrogen impurity concentration over the range 0.03 to 10 ppM hydrogen in sodium at temperatures between 800 and 1000 0 F (427 and 538 0 C). The meter may also be used to rapidly monitor changes in hydrogen concentration, over the same concentration range, and, therefore can be used as a sensor for sodium-water reactions in LMFBR steam generators

  10. Conducted interference on smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyer, Cornelis H.A.; Leferink, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The increasing conducted interference caused by modern electronic equipment is causing more problems for electronic, or static, energy meters. These meters are called smart meters when equipped with a communication link, and are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. It is known that

  11. Gastric emptying, glucose responses, and insulin secretion after a liquid test meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willms, B; Werner, J; Holst, J J

    1996-01-01

    yr; body mass index, 30.0 +/- 5.2 kg/m2; hemoglobin A1c, 10.5 +/- 1.2%) were studied in the fasting state (plasma glucose, 11.1 +/- 1.1 mmol/L). A liquid meal of 400 mL containing 8% amino acids and 50 g sucrose (327 Kcal) was administered at time zero by a nasogastric tube. Gastric volume......The aim of the study was to investigate whether inhibition of gastric emptying of meals plays a role in the mechanism of the blood glucose-lowering action of glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36) amide [GLP-1-(7-36) amide] in type 2 diabetes. Eight poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients (age, 58 +/- 6...... to normal fasting values (5.4 +/- 0.7 mmol/L) within 3-4 h, whereas insulin was stimulated in most, but not all, patients, and glucagon remained at the basal level or was slightly suppressed. In conclusion, GLP-1-(7-36) amide inhibits gastric emptying in type 2 diabetic patients. Together...

  12. Water velocity meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C. W.; Smith, D. L.

    1970-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive drag sphere velocity meter with a zero to 6 ft/sec range measures steady-state flow. When combined with appropriate data acquisition system, it is suited to applications where large numbers of simultaneous measurements are needed for current mapping or velocity profile determination.

  13. Carbon activity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.; Krankota, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    A carbon activity meter utilizing an electrochemical carbon cell with gaseous reference electrodes having particular application for measuring carbon activity in liquid sodium for the LMFBR project is described. The electrolyte container is electroplated with a thin gold film on the inside surface thereof, and a reference electrode consisting of CO/CO 2 gas is used. (U.S.)

  14. Educational intervention together with an on-line quality control program achieve recommended analytical goals for bedside blood glucose monitoring in a 1200-bed university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor; Rodriguez-Oliva, Manuel; Sánchez-Pozo, Cristina; Fernández-Gallardo, María Francisca; Goberna, Raimundo

    2005-01-01

    Portable meters for blood glucose concentrations are used at the patients bedside, as well as by patients for self-monitoring of blood glucose. Even though most devices have important technological advances that decrease operator error, the analytical goals proposed for the performance of glucose meters have been recently changed by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) to reach nurses in a 1200-bed University Hospital to achieve recommended analytical goals, so that we could improve the quality of diabetes care. We used portable glucose meters connected on-line to the laboratory after an educational program for nurses with responsibilities in point-of-care testing. We evaluated the system by assessing total error of the glucometers using high- and low-level glucose control solutions. In a period of 6 months, we collected data from 5642 control samples obtained by 14 devices (Precision PCx) directly from the control program (QC manager). The average total error for the low-level glucose control (2.77 mmol/l) was 6.3% (range 5.5-7.6%), and even lower for the high-level glucose control (16.66 mmol/l), at 4.8% (range 4.1-6.5%). In conclusion, the performance of glucose meters used in our University Hospital with more than 1000 beds not only improved after the intervention, but the meters achieved the analytical goals of the suggested ADA/National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry criteria for total error (<7.9% in the range 2.77-16.66 mmol/l glucose) and optimal total error for high glucose concentrations of <5%, which will improve the quality of care of our patients.

  15. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  16. Net metering study of switching effects on electromechanical meters[Report prepared for the Measurement Canada Electricity Net Metering Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Overberghe, L. [Measurement Canada, London, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-03

    The feasibility of introducing net metering in the electricity sector was evaluated with particular reference to a project administered by Measurement Canada and Electro-Federation Canada (MicroPower Connect) in collaboration with Natural Resources Canada. The objective of the Measurement Canada Electricity Net Metering Project is to identify and eliminate the barriers introduced by the Electricity and Gas Inspection Act regarding the introduction of net metering. The purpose was to design a device that would allow rotation reversal in a residential electromechanical single phase meter. The device should approximate any fluctuations found in a typical net metering system. A series of tests were conducted to understand the influences, on errors, of forward-to-reverse and reverse-to-forward transitions, specifically to find evidence of error migration and mechanical stress. The project was designed to find and measure the effects of forward reverse switching on an electromechanical meter resulting from a change in energy flow. Twenty metres were calibrated in the forward direction in series from light load to high load. Power factor was not adjustable. Test points were then applied in both the forward and reverse directions. The exercise yielded individual errors which were aggregated to show average found errors after 3,000 transitions. Small shifts in errors were apparent and there was no evidence to support a disk flutter theory. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Nency Takara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05, Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. RESULTS: The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® meters were 428 (263-688 L/min, 450 (350-800 L/min, 420 (310-720 L/min, 380 (300-735 L/min, 400 (310-685 L/min and 415 (335-610 L/min, respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone® (p<0.001 and Galemed ® (p<0.01 meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed® meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone® meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  18. Incretin responses to oral glucose and mixed meal tests and changes in fasting glucose levels during 7 years of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopman, A D M; Rutters, F; Rauh, S P

    2018-01-01

    . We used data from the Hoorn Meal Study; a population-based cohort study among 121 subjects, aged 61.0±6.7y. GIP and GLP-1 responses were determined at baseline and expressed as total and incremental area under the curve (tAUC and iAUC). The association between incretin response at baseline...... and changes in fasting glucose levels was assessed using linear regression. The average change in glucose over 7 years was 0.43 ± 0.5 mmol/l. For GIP, no significant associations were observed with changes in fasting glucose levels. In contrast, participants within the middle and highest tertile of GLP-1 iAUC...... responses to OGTT had significantly smaller increases (actually decreases) in fasting glucose levels; -0.28 (95% confidence interval: -0.54;-0.01) mmol/l and -0.39 (-0.67;-0.10) mmol/l, respectively, compared to those in the lowest tertile. The same trend was observed for tAUC GLP-1 following OGTT (highest...

  19. IDegLira Improves Both Fasting and Postprandial Glucose Control as Demonstrated Using Continuous Glucose Monitoring and a Standardized Meal Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J; Buse, John B; Rodbard, Helena W

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: IDegLira is a novel, fixed-ratio combination of the long-acting basal insulin, insulin degludec, and the long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide. We studied the effect of IDegLira versus its components on postprandial glucose (PPG) in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this su...

  20. Point-of-care testing on admission to the intensive care unit: lactate and glucose independently predict mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jan; Blobner, Manfred; Busch, Raymonde; Moser, Norman; Kochs, Eberhard; Luppa, Peter B

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to retrospectively investigate whether parameters of routine point-of-care testing (POCT) predict hospital mortality in critically ill surgical patients on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Arterial blood analyses of 1551 patients on admission to the adult surgical ICU of the Technical University Munich were reviewed. POCT was performed on a blood gas analyser. The association between acid-base status and mortality was evaluated. Metabolic acidosis was defined by base excess (BE) lactate >50% of BE, anion gap (AG)-acidosis by AG >16 mmol/L, hyperchloraemic acidosis by chloride >115 mmol/L. Metabolic alkalosis was defined by BE ≥3 mmol/L. Logistic regression analysis identified variables independently associated with mortality. Overall mortality was 8.8%. Mortality was greater in male patients (p=0.012). Mean age was greater in non-survivors (p55 mm Hg (mortality 23.1%). Three hundred and seventy-seven patients presented with acidosis (mortality 11.4%), thereof 163 patients with lactic acidosis (mortality 19%). Mortality for alkalosis (174 patients) was 12.1%. Mean blood glucose level for non-survivors was higher compared to survivors (plactate, glucose, age, male gender as independent predictors of mortality. Lactate and glucose on ICU admission independently predict mortality. BE and AG failed as prognostic markers. Lactic acidosis showed a high mortality rate implying that lactate levels should be obtained on ICU admission. Prevalence of hyperchloraemic acidosis was low. Metabolic alkalosis was associated with an increased mortality. Further studies on this disturbance and its attendant high mortality are warranted.

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ...

  2. EMMNet: Sensor Networking for Electricity Meter Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ting Lin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  3. EMMNet: sensor networking for electricity meter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi-Ting; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Hua; Qu, Yu-Gui; Huang, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Xiu-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  4. Gamma absorption meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincklage, R.D. von.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption meter consists of a radiation source, a trough for the absorbing liquid and a detector. It is characterized by the fact that there is a foil between the detector and the trough, made of a material whose binding energy of the K electrons is a little greater than the energy of the photons emitted by the radiation source. The source of radiation and foil are replaceable. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Ethnic differences in cross-sectional associations between impaired glucose regulation, identified by oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c values, and cardiovascular disease in a cohort of European and South Asian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, S V; Tillin, T; Mayet, J; Shibata, D K; Wright, A; Heasman, J; Beauchamp, N; Forouhi, N G; Hughes, A D; Chaturvedi, N

    2016-03-01

    We contrasted impaired glucose regulation (prediabetes) prevalence, defined according to oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c values, and studied cross-sectional associations between prediabetes and subclinical/clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of European and South Asian origin. For 682 European and 520 South Asian men and women, aged 58-85 years, glycaemic status was determined by oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c thresholds. Questionnaires, record review, coronary artery calcification scores and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging established clinical plus subclinical coronary heart and cerebrovascular disease. Prediabetes was more prevalent in South Asian participants when defined by HbA1c rather than by oral glucose tolerance test criteria. Accounting for age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and waist-hip ratio, prediabetes was associated with coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in European participants, most obviously when defined by HbA1c rather than by oral glucose tolerance test [odds ratios for HbA1c -defined prediabetes 1.60 (95% CI 1.07, 2.39) for coronary heart disease and 1.57 (95% CI 1.00, 2.51) for cerebrovascular disease]. By contrast, non-significant associations were present between oral glucose tolerance test-defined prediabetes only and coronary heart disease [odds ratio 1.41 (95% CI 0.84, 2.36)] and HbA1c -defined prediabetes only and cerebrovascular disease [odds ratio 1.39 (95% CI 0.69, 2.78)] in South Asian participants. Prediabetes defined by HbA1c or oral glucose tolerance test criteria was associated with cardiovascular disease (defined as coronary heart and/or cerebrovascular disease) in Europeans [odds ratio 1.95 (95% CI 1.31, 2.91) for HbA1c prediabetes criteria] but not in South Asian participants [odds ratio 1.00 (95% CI 0.62, 2.66); ethnicity interaction P = 0.04]. Prediabetes appeared to be less associated with cardiovascular disease in the South Asian than in the European

  6. Evaluation of the Sealing Ability of Three Obturation Techniques Using a Glucose Leakage Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Olczak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of three different canal filling techniques. Sixty-four roots of extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were prepared using ProTaper® rotary instruments. The specimens were then randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (n=16 and 2 control groups (n=8. The root canals were filled using cold lateral compaction (CLC group, continuous wave condensation technique using the Elements Obturation Unit® (EOU group, and ProTaper obturators (PT group. For the negative control group, 8 roots were filled using lateral compaction as in the CLC group, and the teeth were covered twice with a layer of nail varnish (NCG group. Another 8 roots were filled using lateral compaction, but without sealer, and these were used as the positive control (PCG group. A glucose leakage model was used for quantitative evaluation of microleakage for 24 hours and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 weeks. No significant difference in the cumulative amount of leakage was found between the three experimental groups at all observation times. The lateral condensation of cold gutta-percha can guarantee a similar seal of canal fillings as can be achieved by using thermal methods, in the round canals.

  7. Food intake, postprandial glucose, insulin and subjective satiety responses to three different bread-based test meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Jennifer; Atkinson, Fiona; Eisenhauer, Bronwyn; Inamdar, Amar; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2011-12-01

    The effect of bread consumption on overall food intake is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to measure postprandial food intake after a set breakfast containing three different breads. Ten males and 10 females aged 20.1-44.8 years, BMI 18.4-24.8 kg/m(2), consumed two slices of White Bread, Bürgen Wholemeal and Seeds Bread or Lupin Bread (all 1300 kJ) with 10 g margarine and 30 g strawberry jam. Fullness and hunger responses and were measured before and during the test breakfasts. Glucose and insulin responses (incremental area under each two-hour curve (iAUC)) were calculated. Food intake was measured and energy and nutrient intake determined at a buffet meal two hours later. Subjects consumed significantly less energy after the Bürgen Bread meal compared to the White Bread meal (2548 ± 218 vs. 3040±328kJ, Bürgen Bread vs. White Bread, PBread (PBread (PBread. Lupin Bread and Bürgen Bread produced smaller postprandial glucose responses (79 ± 7, 74 ± 4, 120 ± 10 mmol/L min iAUC, Lupin, Bürgen and White Bread respectively, PBread respectively, Pbreads differed in their short-term satiation capacity. Further studies are needed to demonstrate any potential benefit for weight management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of hypoglycemia with continuous interstitial and traditional blood glucose monitoring using the FreeStyle Navigator Continuous Glucose Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarraugh, Geoffrey; Bergenstal, Richard

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the analysis was to compare detection of hypoglycemic episodes (glucose 15 min) with the FreeStyle Navigator Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (FSN-CGM) (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) alarms to detection with traditional finger stick testing at an average frequency of eight tests per day. The performance of FSN-CGM alarms was evaluated in a clinic setting using 58 subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) monitoring interstitial glucose concentration over a 5-day period compared to reference YSI measurements (instrument manufactured by YSI, Yellow Springs, OH) at 15-min intervals. Finger stick glucose testing was evaluated in the home environment with 91 subjects with TIDM monitoring with the blood glucose meter integrated into the FreeStyle Navigator (FSN-BG) over a 20-day period. The reference was FSN-CGM with results masked from the subjects. Blood glucose values glucose was <= 85 mg/dL 77.2% of the time. In the home environment, the average FSN-BG testing frequency was 7.9 tests per day. Hypoglycemia was verified within +/- 30 min by FSN-BG measurements <= 85 mg/dL at a rate of 27.5%. Even with a high rate of FSN-BG testing, hypoglycemia detected by FSN-CGM was verified by patients with T1DM very infrequently. A high rate of hypoglycemia detection with a moderate rate of unnecessary alarms can be attained using FSN-CGM.

  9. Anaerobic acidification of glucose in an upflow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoetemeyer, R J; Matthijsen, A J.C.M.; Van den Heuvel, J C; Cohen, A; Boelhouwer, C

    1982-01-01

    Glucose (10 and 50 kg/cubic meters) was effectively biodegraded to mainly butyrate, lactate, and acetate in an anaerobic upflow reactor at minimum residence times of 26 and 82 minutes, respectivelyly. Sludge granulation occurred at residence times of 1 and 6 hours, respective, which increased biomass retention. Maximum glucose conversion was 450 and 630 kg/cubic meters-day.

  10. MULTICHANNEL DISTRIBUTION METER: A VERITABLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Usually, commercial home owners preferred the installation of one or few .... communication (GSM) based solution were presented. The authors ... meters. The proposed meters in their work uses .... The most probable data entry component to ...

  11. Estimation of Insulin Resistance in Mexican Adults by the [13C]Glucose Breath Test Corrected for Endogenous Total CO2 Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ibarra-Pastrana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of the [13C]glucose breath test for measuring insulin resistance in Mexican adults with different glycemic states. Research Design and Methods. Fifty-eight adults underwent a [13C]glucose breath test with simultaneous measurement of total CO2 production by indirect calorimetry, at baseline and 90 minutes after the ingestion of 15 g of dextrose and 25 mg of [13C]glucose. HOMA was used as a marker of insulin resistance. Results. We found an inverse correlation between HOMA and the breath test δ13CO2 (‰, r=-0.41 (P=0.001. After adjusting for total CO2 production, correlations between HOMA and fasting glucose were less strong but remained significant. An ROC curve was constructed using δ13CO2 (‰ and HOMA values; the cut-off point was 9.99‰ δ13CO2, corresponding to a sensitivity of 80.0 (95% CI: 51.9, 95.7 and a specificity of 67.4 (95% CI: 51.5, 80.9. Conclusions. The [13C]glucose breath test is a simple noninvasive procedure but was not sufficiently robust for an accurate diagnosis of insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that the test might be helpful in identifying individuals who are not IR, which in turn may contribute to improved diabetes prevention.

  12. Metering Plan: Intelligent Operational Strategies Through Enhanced Metering Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Jason E.

    2016-07-27

    The Sustainability Program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has adopted a “triple-bottom-line” approach of environmental stewardship, social responsibility, and economic prosperity to its operations. Metering at PNNL works in support of all three, specifically to measure and inform building energy use and greenhouse gas emissions and minimize water use. The foundation for metering at PNNL is a core goal set, which consists of four objectives: providing accurate data without interruption, analyzing data while it is still new, providing actionable recommendations to operations management, and ensuring PNNL’s compliance with contract metering requirements. These core objectives guide the decisions that we make during annual planning and as we operate throughout the year. This 2016 edition of the Metering Plan conveys the metering practices for and vision of the Sustainability Program. Changes in this plan from the 2015 edition include updated tables and an enhanced discussion on energy tracking systems used at PNNL. This plan also discusses updated benchmarking strategies using PNNL’s graphics and analytics tool, BuildingOS by Lucid Design Group. This plan presents our progress toward the metering goals shared by all federal agencies and highlights our successful completion of metering requirements. Currently, PNNL is fully compliant with the applicable legislative and Executive Order metering requirements. PNNL’s approach to the installation of new meters will be discussed. Perhaps most importantly, this plan details the analysis techniques utilized at PNNL that rely on the endless streams of data newly available as a result of increased meter deployment over the last several years. Previous Metering Plans have documented specific meter connection schemes as PNNL focused on deploying meters in a first step toward managing energy and water use. This plan serves not only to highlight PNNL’s successful completion of agency metering goals, but

  13. Dietary patterns predict changes in two-hour post-oral glucose tolerance test plasma glucose concentrations in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cathrine; Toft, Ulla; Tetens, Inge; Carstensen, Bendix; Jørgensen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2009-03-01

    We examined whether the adherence to major dietary patterns at baseline of 5824 nondiabetic Danes (30-60 y) enrolled in the nonpharmacological Inter99 intervention predicted changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postchallenge 2-h plasma glucose (2h-PG) concentrations during a 5 y period and whether a potential association was dependent on baseline glucose tolerance status. Through principal component analysis, a score for a traditional dietary pattern (characterized by higher intakes of high-fat sandwich spreads, red meat, potatoes, butter and lard, low-fat fish, sandwich meat, and sauces) and a score for a modern dietary pattern (characterized by higher intakes of vegetables, fruit, vegetable oil/vinegar dressing, poultry, pasta, rice, and cereals) were estimated for each person at baseline. Random effect models adjusting for relevant confounders were used to estimate changes in repetitive measures of FPG and 2h-PG. A higher modern score (of 1 SD) predicted an annual decrease in 2h-PG of 0.015 mmol/L (P dressing, poultry, pasta, rice, and cereals.

  14. The effect of an instant hand sanitizer on blood glucose monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John J; Ellison, John M; Glaeser, Danielle; Price, David

    2011-11-01

    People with diabetes mellitus are instructed to clean their skin prior to self-monitoring of blood glucose to remove any dirt or food residue that might affect the reading. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers have become popular when soap and water are not available. The aim of this study was to determine whether a hand sanitizer is compatible with glucose meter testing and effective for the removal of exogenous glucose. We enrolled 34 nonfasting subjects [14 male/20 female, mean ages 45 (standard deviation, 9.4)] years, 2 with diagnosed diabetes/32 without known diabetes]. Laboratory personnel prepared four separate fingers on one hand of each subject by (1) cleaning the second finger with soap and water and towel drying (i.e., control finger), (2) cleaning the third finger with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, (3) coating the fourth finger with cola and allowing it to air dry, and (4) coating the fifth finger with cola and then cleaning it with the instant hand sanitizer after the cola had dried. Finger sticks were performed on each prepared finger and blood glucose was measured. Several in vitro studies were also performed to investigate the effectiveness of the hand sanitizer for removal of exogenous glucose.z Mean blood glucose values from fingers cleaned with instant hand sanitizer did not differ significantly from the control finger (p = .07 and .08, respectively) and resulted in 100% accurate results. Blood glucose data from the fourth (cola-coated) finger were substantially higher on average compared with the other finger conditions, but glucose data from the fifth finger (cola-coated then cleaned with hand sanitizer) was similar to the control finger. The data from in vitro experiments showed that the hand sanitizer did not adversely affect glucose meter results, but when an exogenous glucose interference was present, the effectiveness of the hand sanitizer on glucose bias (range: 6% to 212%) depended on the surface area and degree of dilution. In our study

  15. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, ...

  16. Monitor blood glucose - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... directions that come with your meter. Get the supplies ready, including a new test strip and disposable ... Endocrinology and Health Care Ethics, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH. Review provided by VeriMed ...

  17. Smart meter incorporating UWB technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, T.A.; Khan, A.B.; Babar, M.; Taj, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Smart Meter is a key element in the evolving concept of Smart Grid, which plays an important role in interaction between the consumer and the supplier. In general, the smart meter is an intelligent digital energy meter that measures the consumption of electrical energy and provides other additional

  18. Smart metering design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weranga, K S K; Chandima, D P

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the present day trends and the requirements, this Brief focuses on smart metering of electricity for next generation energy efficiency and conservation. The contents include discussions on the smart metering concepts and existing technologies and systems as well as design and implementation of smart metering schemes together with detailed examples.

  19. Net metering: zero electricity bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangi, A.; Khan, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide move towards renewable energy sources, environmental concerns and decentralization of the power sector have made net metering an attractive option for power generation at small scale. This paper discusses the net metering, economical issues of renewable sources in Pakistan, technical aspects, installation suitability according to varying terrain, existing utility rules and formulation of legislation for net metering making it economically attractive. (author)

  20. Good standards for smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenkamp, R.A.; Huitema, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines what lessons can be learned from the rollout of smart meters in the Netherlands to improve the European smart meter standardization. This study is based on the case of the Dutch meter rollout which preparations started in 2005 but finally was delayed until 2011 by governmental

  1. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Glaucia Nency; Ruas, Gualberto; Pessoa, Bruna Varanda; Jamami, Luciana Kawakami; Di Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires; Jamami, Mauricio

    2010-05-01

    To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF) from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone, Assess, Galemed, Personal Best and Vitalograph peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (pmeters were 428 (263-688 L/min), 450 (350-800 L/min), 420 (310-720 L/min), 380 (300-735 L/min), 400 (310-685 L/min) and 415 (335-610 L/min), respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone(R) (pmeters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  2. TNFα dynamics during the oral glucose tolerance test vary according to the level of insulin resistance in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette, Laetitia; Lacroix, Marilyn; Battista, Marie-Claude; Doyon, Myriam; Moreau, Julie; Ménard, Julie; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Perron, Patrice; Hivert, Marie-France

    2014-05-01

    TNFα is suspected to play a role in inflammation and insulin resistance leading to higher risk of metabolic impairment. Controversies exist concerning the role of TNFα in gestational insulin resistance. We investigated the interrelations between TNFα and insulin resistance in a large population-based cohort of pregnant women. Women (n = 756) were followed prospectively at 5-16 weeks and 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. Anthropometric measures and blood samples were collected at both visits. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted at the second trimester to assess insulin sensitivity status (homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance and Matsuda index). TNFα was measured at the first trimester (nonfasting) and at each time point of the OGTT. Participants were 28.4 ± 4.4 years old and had a mean body mass index of 25.5 ± 5.5 kg/m(2) at first trimester. Median TNFα levels were 1.56 (interquartile range, 1.18-2.06) pg/mL at first trimester and 1.61 (interquartile range, 1.12-2.13) pg/mL at second trimester (1 h after glucose load). At second trimester, higher TNFα levels were associated with higher insulin resistance index levels (r = 0.37 and -0.30 for homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance and Matsuda index, respectively; P insulin resistance showed a continuing decrease in TNFα levels during the OGTT, whereas women who were more insulin sensitive showed an increase in TNFα at hour 1 and a decrease at hour 2 of the test. Higher insulin resistance is associated with higher levels of circulating TNFα at first and second trimesters of pregnancy. TNFα level dynamics during an OGTT at second trimester vary according to insulin-resistance state.

  3. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahadi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study The goal was to evaluate and compare the effects of aqueous extract of the seeds of chicory, Cichorium intybus L., on glucose tolerance test (GTT and blood biochemical indices of experimentally-induced hyperglycemic rats.MethodsLate stage and early stage of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ, respectively. Within each group, one subgroup received daily i. p. injections of chicory extract (125 mg/kg body weight, for 28 days. Body weight and fasting blood sugar (FBS were measured weekly. Blood was analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and sera for alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, nitric oxide (NO, triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC, total protein, and insulin on days 10 and 28 after treatment. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT along with insulin determination was performed on a different set of rats in which the chicory-treated groups received the extract for 10 days.ResultsDuring 4 weeks of treatment, chicory prevented body-weight loss and decreased FBS. ALT activities and levels of TG, TC and HbA1c decreased, and concentration of NO increased in the chicory treated groups (p < 0.05. Unlike late-stage diabetes, fasting serum insulin concentrations were higher and GTT pattern approximated to normal in chicory-treated earlystage diabetic rats.ConclusionsChicory appeared to have short-term (about 2 hours, as far as GTT is concerned and longterm (28 days, in this study effects on diabetes. Chicory may be useful as a natural dietary supplement for slowing down the pace of diabetes progress, and delaying the development of its complications.

  4. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghamarian Abdolreza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose of the study The goal was to evaluate and compare the effects of aqueous extract of the seeds of chicory, Cichorium intybus L., on glucose tolerance test (GTT and blood biochemical indices of experimentally-induced hyperglycemic rats. Methods Late stage and early stage of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ, respectively. Within each group, one subgroup received daily i. p. injections of chicory extract (125 mg/kg body weight, for 28 days. Body weight and fasting blood sugar (FBS were measured weekly. Blood was analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and sera for alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, nitric oxide (NO, triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC, total protein, and insulin on days 10 and 28 after treatment. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT along with insulin determination was performed on a different set of rats in which the chicory-treated groups received the extract for 10 days. Results During 4 weeks of treatment, chicory prevented body-weight loss and decreased FBS. ALT activities and levels of TG, TC and HbA1c decreased, and concentration of NO increased in the chicory treated groups (p Conclusions Chicory appeared to have short-term (about 2 hours, as far as GTT is concerned and long-term (28 days, in this study effects on diabetes. Chicory may be useful as a natural dietary supplement for slowing down the pace of diabetes progress, and delaying the development of its complications.

  5. A radon meter chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, R.

    1990-01-01

    The meter consists of a cylindrical house with two openings, at the ends, one of which is equipped with an alpha particle detector and the other covered with a metal net. The house is manufactured in an isolating material e.g. plastic, with a metallic layer applied to all internal surfaces. The metallic layer and net are kept at a positive electric potential, compared to the alpha detector, in order to attract the radon daughters to the detector and achieve a high efficiency. (L.E.)

  6. Opinion and knowledge among hospital medical staff regarding diagnosis of diabetes and proper usage of a specific test tube for glucose analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Dayan, Y; Bogaiov, A; Boaz, M; Landau, Z; Wainstein, J

    2014-02-01

    Accuracy of blood sugar values, as examined by glucose analysis, has significant importance on the diagnosis of diabetes and follow up of diabetes treatment. Usage of a designated test tube significantly improves the accuracy of measurement. Knowledge of the medical staff is a major determinant in the current usage of such a technology. The aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge exhibited by medical staff in the diabetes field and specifically for the usage of a designated tube to test blood glucose level. A prospective study. The staff of the internal and surgical departments and outpatient clinics at the Wolfson Medical Center completed a questionnaire that assessed the level of knowledge about the designated glucose test tube, other randomly used test tubes, the parameters that influence the blood glucose values in a non-designated tube and the diagnosis of diabetes. A number of 160 questionnaires (50% from internal departments, 36% from surgical departments and 14% from outpatient clinics) were analysed. The majority of the staff members (65%) knew that diabetes is diagnosed by glucose levels in blood. Of the 35% that did not know, 91% were nurses. The majority (75%) knew that diabetes is diagnosed during fasting conditions; however, most of the staff indicated that 12 h is needed. Only 25% knew of the designated test tube, and most of the staff indicated that a regular chemistry tube was the tube of choice for them. The staff exhibited poor level of knowledge regarding the parameters that influence the quality of the test. Staff members are not aware of the various aspects of diabetes diagnosis and the designated test tube for glucose measurements, and most of them use a tube that gives inaccurate measurements, therefore there is an urgent need to improve diabetes knowledge among staff members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. PROPERTIES OF NEW SALTS OF 2-(5-(ADAMANTANE-1-YL-4-R-1,2,4-TRIAZOLE-3-YLTIOACETIC ACIDS IN THE GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Odyntsova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of glucose in the blood is one of the integral indicators of the internal environment that reflects the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats in the body. Glucose is a key component of human metabolism. The level of blood sugar is one of the most important controlled constants of body that defines homeostasis and displays the status of carbohydrate metabolism. Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia is a dangerous condition when blood glucose is critically low. The aim of research. The aim of our study was pharmacological screening of the effects of the newly synthesized salts of 2-(5-adamantane-1-yl-4-R-1,2,4-tirazol-3-yltioacetic acids on glucose blood level in experimental animals. Materials and methods. The compounds have been synthesized at the Department of Inorganic Chemistry and Toxicology of Zaporozhye State Medical University (the Head of the chair, Professor Panasenko O.I.. Blood glucose levels of saults of2-(5-adamantane-1-yl-4-R-1,2,4-tirazol-3-yltioacetic acids in rats have been evaluated by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IGTT. IGTT was reproduced by glucose load on animals in a dose of 2 g / kg of rat’s body weight. White nonlinear rats weighing 160-230 g were involved in experiments. Animals were divided into 13 groups of 7 animals in each group: the 1st is intact one; the 2nd is control one with glycemia (untreated, the 3rd group of the animals received glibenclamide in the dose of 1 mg / kg; the groups 3-13 received 1,2,4-triazole derivatives. The compounds were dissolved in purified water at the rate of 1 ml per 100 g of animals’ weight and were injected intraperitoneally. Glucose content in blood has been measured by glucosidase method using glucometer «Accu Chek Active» in 30 minutes from the load moment. The research results have been processed by modern statistical methods of analysis on a personal computer using a standard software package Microsoft Office 2010 (Microsoft Excel and

  8. Insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and differences in curves of plasma glucose and insulin in the intermediate points of the standard glucose tolerance test in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; González Albarrán, Olga; Guisado Vasco, Pablo; Lamas Ferreiro, Adelaida; Máiz Carro, Luis

    2015-02-01

    diabetes has become a co-morbidity with a negative impact on nutritional status, lung function and survival in cystic fibrosis. To identify any changes in intermediate points after a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, and insulin resistance in cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. It was carried out a retrospective analysis in a cohort of 64 patients affected of cystic fibrosis, older than 14 years, using the first pathological OGTT. Peripheral insulin resistance was measured using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA- IR), and pancreatic β-cell function was calculated according to Wareham. Time to maximum plasma insulin and glucose levels and area under the curve (AUC0-120) were also measured. Twenty-eight women and 36 men with a mean age of 26.8 years were enrolled, of whom 26.7% had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 18.3% cystic fibrosis-related diabetes without fasting hyperglycemia (CFRD w/o FPG), 10% indeterminate (INDET), and 45% impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). HOMA-IR values were not significantly different between the diagnostic categories. Patients with any pathological change had worse β cell function, with a significant delay in insulin secretion, although there were no differences in total insulin production (AUC0-120). Time to maximum glucose levels was significantly shorter in NGT patients as compared to other categories, with glucose AUC0-120 being higher in the different diagnostic categories as compared to NGT. In over half the cases, peak blood glucose levels during a standard OGTT are reached in the intermediate time points, rather than at the usual time of 120minutes. Patients with cystic fibrosis and impaired glucose metabolism have a delayed insulin secretion during the standard OGTT due to loss of first-phase insulin secretion, with no differences in total insulin production. Absence of significant changes in HOMA-IR suggests that β-cell dysfunction is the main pathogenetic

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page ... and-how-tos, . In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood ...

  10. Stigma and Glucose Levels: Testing Ego Depletion and Arousal Explanations of Stereotype Threat Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Andrew M.; Willer, Robb

    2011-01-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that when stigmatized group membership is made salient, group members' cognitive performance is lowered; however, the mechanism through which this effect operates is not well understood. This study tests between arousal and ego depletion accounts of stereotype threat by examining whether stereotype threat effects…

  11. Appraisal of timing for oral glucose tolerance testing in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-17

    Feb 17, 2015 ... test (OGTT) in our center and to determine their relationship with ... Materials and Methods: The records of women referred to the metabolic clinic for OGTT over a .... Health workers alike. ... as possible long‑term adverse effects on the offspring. ... may initiate future metabolic disorders including type 2 DM.

  12. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US .... Arterial blood pressure from nonvascular access arm was measured by aneroid sphygmomanometer. The patients did not .... to detect differences in treatments across multiple test attempts. P < 0.05 ...

  13. Effect of single oral doses of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, on incretin and plasma glucose levels after an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herman, Gary A; Bergman, Arthur; Stevens, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: In response to a meal, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are released and modulate glycemic control. Normally these incretins are rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). DPP-4 inhibitors are a novel class of oral antihyperglyce......CONTEXT: In response to a meal, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are released and modulate glycemic control. Normally these incretins are rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). DPP-4 inhibitors are a novel class of oral...... antihyperglycemic agents in development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The degree of DPP-4 inhibition and the level of active incretin augmentation required for glucose lowering efficacy after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine...... concentrations; and sitagliptin pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: Sitagliptin dose-dependently inhibited plasma DPP-4 activity over 24 h, enhanced active GLP-1 and GIP levels, increased insulin/C-peptide, decreased glucagon, and reduced glycemic excursion after OGTTs administered at 2 and 24 h after single oral 25...

  14. Assessment of the implementation regulations for smart meters; Beoordeling uitvoeringsregelingen Slimme Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boekema, J.

    2011-03-15

    TNO (Netherlands) assessed whether the smart meter is reliable and future proof. By request of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation (ELI) an assessment was conducted of the requirements for smart meters and, as formulated in the Order in Council 'Decree on remotely readable metering devices', based on 48 tests regarding security, privacy and future stability. Taking into account a number of described recommendations, TNO deems the legislation and implementation schemes sufficient to allow for safe, reliable and future proof implementation of smart meters in the Netherlands. [Dutch] TNO heeft beoordeeld of de slimme meter betrouwbaar en toekomstvast is. Ten behoeve van het ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie (ELI) zijn de eisen die aan slimme meters worden gesteld, en zoals verwoord in de AmvB 'Besluit op afstand uitleesbare meetinrichtingen', beoordeeld aan de hand van 48 toetsen over zekerheid (security), persoonlijke levenssfeer (privacy) en toekomstvastheid. Met inachtneming van een aantal omschreven aanbevelingen, vindt TNO wetgeving en uitvoeringsregelingen zodanig dat daarmee een veilige, betrouwbare en toekomstvaste slimme meter geimplementeerd kan worden in Nederland.

  15. Patterns, Policy and Appropriateness: A 12-Year Utilization Review of Blood Glucose Test Strip Use in Insulin Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Jamie; Friesen, Kevin J; Okunnu, Anuoluwapo; Bugden, Shawn

    2017-08-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to the rising costs of the use of blood glucose test strips (BGTS). Insulin users have generally been treated as a single homogeneous group, resulting in policies that cap usage (8.2 strips/day) in provincial drug insurance programs. The objective of this study was to conduct a utilization review of BGTS by insulin users and to evaluate use patterns against current insulin use patterns and BGTS policy. BGTS usage was examined in a cohort of insulin users with type 1 and type 2 diabetes over a 12-year period (2001 to 2013) using the population-based administrative data in Manitoba, Canada. Total BGTS strip use increased by 121%, from $4.3 to $9.5 million. However, the number of insulin users also increased by 115%. Use has been stable at 1.5 strips per day per person since 2004 by insulin users with type 2 diabetes but has risen from 1.9 to 3.0 strips per day per person in those with type 1 diabetes. Mean daily test strip use was below the number of daily tests recommended for patients using insulin as per the current Canadian guidelines, with 11% and 15% of insulin users with type 1 and type 2 diabetes not claiming any BGTS use and a further 15% (type 1) and 28% (type 2) using fewer than 1 strip per day. BGTS use per insulin user has been stable for most of the past decade, and the vast majority of use falls well below provincial insurance caps. The amount of low-level testing (0 to <1 strip/day) suggests that greater attention should be directed to ensuring a safe level of testing by all insulin users. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Portable wireless metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, L

    1996-12-31

    Electric utilities often face situations where conventional distribution station billing meters have been removed from service. This paper presents an innovative alternative to traditional solutions to the temporary billing situation such as the use of clamp-on devices called electronic recording ammeters. It examines how Ontario Hydro is measuring current, voltage, and power factor at a distribution station to calculate kilowatts and kVAR using an easy-to-install product that communicates its live readings directly to an existing billing system. The devices used for the measurements can be easily attached to a power line with a hotstick and contain a special core which senses current flow and powers appropriate electronics, which digitizes voltage and current data and transmits it via low-power FM radio for subsequent data storage and processing. The paper includes results of field trials and outlines the advantages of using the device.

  17. GAS METERING PUMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  18. Radiation dose rate meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; Siebentritt, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A combined dose rate meter and charger unit therefor which does not require the use of batteries but on the other hand produces a charging potential by means of a piezoelectric cylinder which is struck by a manually triggered hammer mechanism. A tubular type electrometer is mounted in a portable housing which additionally includes a geiger-muller (Gm) counter tube and electronic circuitry coupled to the electrometer for providing multi-mode operation. In one mode of operation, an rc circuit of predetermined time constant is connected to a storage capacitor which serves as a timed power source for the gm tube, providing a measurement in terms of dose rate which is indicated by the electrometer. In another mode, the electrometer indicates individual counts

  19. Two laboratory methods for the calibration of GPS speed meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yin; Sun, Qiao; Du, Lei; Yu, Mei; Bai, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The set-ups of two calibration systems are presented to investigate calibration methods of GPS speed meters. The GPS speed meter calibrated is a special type of high accuracy speed meter for vehicles which uses Doppler demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the measured speed of a moving target. Three experiments are performed: including simulated calibration, field-test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical speed meter. The experiments are conducted at specific speeds in the range of 40–180 km h −1 with the same GPS speed meter as the device under calibration. The evaluation of measurement results validates both methods for calibrating GPS speed meters. The relative deviations between the measurement results of the GPS-based high accuracy speed meter and those of the optical speed meter are analyzed, and the equivalent uncertainty of the comparison is evaluated. The comparison results justify the utilization of GPS speed meters as reference equipment if no fewer than seven satellites are available. This study contributes to the widespread use of GPS-based high accuracy speed meters as legal reference equipment in traffic speed metrology. (paper)

  20. Validity of the reduced-sample insulin modified frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test using the nonlinear regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Anne E; Luercio, Marcella F; Frempong, Barbara A; Ricks, Madia; Sen, Sabyasachi; Kushner, Harvey; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K

    2009-02-01

    The disposition index, the product of the insulin sensitivity index (S(I)) and the acute insulin response to glucose, is linked in African Americans to chromosome 11q. This link was determined with S(I) calculated with the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model and data from the reduced-sample insulin-modified frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT). However, the application of the nonlinear regression approach to calculate S(I) using data from the Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT has been challenged as being not only inaccurate but also having a high failure rate in insulin-resistant subjects. Our goal was to determine the accuracy and failure rate of the Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT using the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model. With S(I) from the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT considered the standard and using the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model, we compared the agreement between S(I) from the Full- and Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT protocols. One hundred African Americans (body mass index, 31.3 +/- 7.6 kg/m(2) [mean +/- SD]; range, 19.0-56.9 kg/m(2)) had FSIGTs. Glucose (0.3 g/kg) was given at baseline. Insulin was infused from 20 to 25 minutes (total insulin dose, 0.02 U/kg). For the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT, S(I) was calculated based on the glucose and insulin samples taken at -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,10, 12, 14, 16, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 150, and 180 minutes. For the Reduced-Sample-FSIGT, S(I) was calculated based on the time points that appear in bold. Agreement was determined by Spearman correlation, concordance, and the Bland-Altman method. In addition, for both protocols, the population was divided into tertiles of S(I). Insulin resistance was defined by the lowest tertile of S(I) from the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT. The distribution of subjects across tertiles was compared by rank order and kappa statistic. We found that the rate of failure of resolution of S(I) by

  1. How to use your peak flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meter - how to use; Asthma - peak flow meter; Reactive airway disease - peak flow meter; Bronchial asthma - peak ... 2014:chap 55. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program website. How to use a peak flow meter. ...

  2. Test-retest studies of cerebral glucose metabolism using fluorine-18 deoxyglucose: validation of method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.A.; Di Chiro, G.; Zukerberg, B.W.; Bairamian, D.; Larson, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    In studies using [ 18 F]deoxyglucose (FDG), one often wants to compare metabolic rates following stimulation (drug or motor-sensory) with the baseline values. However, because of reproducibility problems with baseline variations of 25% in the same individual not uncommon, the global effect of the stimulation may be difficult to see. One approach to this problem is to perform the two studies sequentially. This means that, with the 110-min half-life of 18 F, one must take into account the residual activity from the first study when calculating metabolic rates for the second. We performed TEST-RETEST baseline studies on four subjects, with a 1-hr interval between injections. These studies were done without stimulation, in order to validate the repeatability of the method. To reduce the amount of residual activity from the first study, the first injection was only 2 mCi in three cases, and only 1 mCi in one case, out of a total injected dose of 5 mCi. A correction for residual activity was included in the RETEST calculation of metabolic rate. The results showed a global metabolic shift between the two studies of 2% to 9%. An error analysis shows that the shift could be further reduced if anatomically comparable scans are done at comparable postinjection times

  3. Activity meters: Calibration and quality assurance measures by the manufacturer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pychlau, P.

    1992-01-01

    A manufacturer of ionisation chambers gives a general idea of such quality assurance programs as may be implemented after an agreement has been reached at the EC level on a guideline for activity meters. Further issues discussed include the final controls, calibration of activity meters by the manufacturer and the advantages that the participation in cooperate tests would offer over a mandatory calibration of activity meters. (orig./DG) [de

  4. Development of a hand-held fast neutron survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, T.; Tsujimura, N.; Yamano, T.

    2011-01-01

    A neutron survey meter with a ZnS(Ag) scintillator to measure recoil protons was built. The detection probe weighs ∼2 kg, therefore providing us with true portability. Performance tests exhibited satisfactory neutron dosimetry characteristics in unmoderated or lightly moderated fission neutron fields and in particular work environments at a mixed oxide fuel facility. This new survey meter will augment a routine of neutron monitoring that is inconveniently being carried out by moderator-based neutron survey meters. (authors)

  5. Comprehensive evaluation of the Berthold LB1200 survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.W.

    1986-05-01

    The performance of two Berthod LB1200 survey meters was evaluated under the influence of a range of beta and photon radiation energies and environmental conditions likely to be encountered in the field. The survey meters responded satisfactorily to the range of beta particle and photon radiation energies emitted by most radioisotopes commonly used in Canada. The survey meters performed acceptably under most of the environmental conditions tested here with the exception of radiofrequency interference and electrostatic charge

  6. Micro-gen metering solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elland, J.; Dickson, J.; Cranfield, P.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to investigate the regulation of domestic electricity metering work and identify the most economic options for micro-generator installers to undertake work on electricity meters. A micro-generation unit is defined as an energy conversion system converting non-electrical energy into electrical energy and can include technologies such as photovoltaic systems, small-scale wind turbines, micro-hydroelectric systems, and combined heat and power systems. Details of six tasks are given and cover examination of the existing framework and legal documentation for metering work, the existing technical requirements for meter operators, meter operator personnel accreditation, appraisal of options for meter changes and for micro-generation installation, document change procedures, industry consultation, and a review of the costs implications of the options.

  7. Glucose Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  8. Portable digital reactivity meter for power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, G [Nuklear-Ingenieur Service G.m.b.H., Hanau (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-07-01

    A digital reactivity meter has been developed, which can be used for all kinds of kinetic reactivity measurements in PWR's and BWR's. The input signals may be supplied by standard neutron detectors of the reactor. The hardware configuration consists of a minicomputer with ADC and DAC, a 'Silent' terminal and a high speed paper tape reader/punch. It is easily transportable. The reactivity meter solves the inverse kinetics equations for 6 delayed neutron groups, simultaneously for up to 8 logarithmic or linear neutron flux signals. It has been successfully tested at Biblis A PWR and the KRB BWR.

  9. Multiphase flow metering: 4 years on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcone, G.; Hewitt, G.F.; Alimonti, C.; Harrison, B.

    2005-07-01

    Since the authors' last review in 2001 [1], the use of Multiphase Flow Metering (MFM) within the oil and gas industry continues to grow apace, being more popular in some parts of the world than others. Since the early 1990's, when the first commercial meters started to appear, there have been more than 1,600 field applications of MFM for field allocation, production optimisation and mobile well testing. As the authors predicted, wet gas metering technology has improved to such an extent that its use has rapidly increased worldwide. A ''who's who'' of the MFM sector is provided, which highlights the mergers in the sector and gives an insight into the meters and measurement principles available today. Cost estimates, potential benefits and reliability in the field of the current MFM technologies are revisited and brought up to date. Several measurements technologies have resurfaced, such as passive acoustic energy patterns, infrared wavelengths, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT), and they are becoming commercial. The concept of ''virtual metering'', integrated with ''classical MFM'', is now widely accepted. However, sometimes the principles of the MFM measurements themselves are forgotten, submerged in the sales and marketing hype. (author) (tk)

  10. Genetic Association Analysis of Fasting and 1- and 2-Hour Glucose Tolerance Test Data Using a Generalized Index of Dissimilarity Measure for the Korean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyong Yee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucose tolerance tests have been devised to determine the speed of blood glucose clearance. Diabetes is often tested with the standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, along with fasting glucose level. However, no single test may be sufficient for the diagnosis, and the World Health Organization (WHO/International Diabetes Federation (IDF has suggested composite criteria. Accordingly, a single multi-class trait was constructed with three of the fasting phenotypes and 1- and 2-hour OGTT phenotypes from the Korean Association Resource (KARE project, and the genetic association was investigated. All of the 18 possible combinations made out of the 3 sets of classification for the individual phenotypes were taken into our analysis. These were possible due to a method that was recently developed by us for estimating genomic associations using a generalized index of dissimilarity. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that were found to have the strongest main effect are reported with the corresponding genes. Four of them conform to previous reports, located in the CDKAL1 gene, while the other 4 SNPs are new findings. Two-order interacting SNP pairs of are also presented. One pair (rs2328549 and rs6486740 has a prominent association, where the two single-nucleotide polymorphism locations are CDKAL1 and GLT1D1. The latter has not been found to have a strong main effect. New findings may result from the proper construction and analysis of a composite trait.

  11. IMPORTANT: Fluke is recalling Digital Clamp Meters

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Fluke is voluntarily recalling four models of Digital Clamp Meters: Fluke 373, 374, 375 and 376. If you own one of these clamp meters, please stop using it and send it back to Fluke for repair even if you have not experienced problems.   Description of the problem: "The printed circuit assembly may not be properly fastened to the test lead input jack. This may result in inaccurate voltage readings, including a low or no-voltage reading on a circuit energised with a hazardous voltage, presenting a shock, electrocution or thermal burn hazard." To determine if your clamp meter is affected by this recall notice, and for more information, click here.

  12. Evaluation of fasting state-/oral glucose tolerance test-derived measures of insulin release for the detection of genetically impaired β-cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke A Herzberg-Schäfer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To date, fasting state- and different oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-derived measures are used to estimate insulin release with reasonable effort in large human cohorts required, e.g., for genetic studies. Here, we evaluated twelve common (or recently introduced fasting state-/OGTT-derived indices for their suitability to detect genetically determined β-cell dysfunction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cohort of 1364 White European individuals at increased risk for type 2 diabetes was characterized by OGTT with glucose, insulin, and C-peptide measurements and genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs known to affect glucose- and incretin-stimulated insulin secretion. One fasting state- and eleven OGTT-derived indices were calculated and statistically evaluated. After adjustment for confounding variables, all tested SNPs were significantly associated with at least two insulin secretion measures (p≤0.05. The indices were ranked according to their associations' statistical power, and the ranks an index obtained for its associations with all the tested SNPs (or a subset were summed up resulting in a final ranking. This approach revealed area under the curve (AUC(Insulin(0-30/AUC(Glucose(0-30 as the best-ranked index to detect SNP-dependent differences in insulin release. Moreover, AUC(Insulin(0-30/AUC(Glucose(0-30, corrected insulin response (CIR, AUC(C-Peptide(0-30/AUC(Glucose(0-30, AUC(C-Peptide(0-120/AUC(Glucose(0-120, two different formulas for the incremental insulin response from 0-30 min, i.e., the insulinogenic indices (IGI(2 and IGI(1, and insulin 30 min were significantly higher-ranked than homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-B; p<0.05. AUC(C-Peptide(0-120/AUC(Glucose(0-120 was best-ranked for the detection of SNPs involved in incretin-stimulated insulin secretion. In all analyses, HOMA-β displayed the highest rank sums and, thus, scored last. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With AUC(Insulin(0

  13. Mechanism-based population modelling for assessment of L-cell function based on total GLP-1 response following an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas B.; Jusko, William J.; Gao, Wei

    2011-01-01

    was to build a mechanism-based population model that describes the time course of total GLP-1 and provides indices for capability of secretion in each subject. The goal was thus to model the secretion of GLP-1, and not its effect on insulin production. Single 75 g doses of glucose were administered orally......GLP-1 is an insulinotropic hormone that synergistically with glucose gives rise to an increased insulin response. Its secretion is increased following a meal and it is thus of interest to describe the secretion of this hormone following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The aim of this study....... The individual estimates of absorption rate constants were used in the model for GLP-1 secretion. Estimation of parameters was performed using the FOCE method with interaction implemented in NONMEM VI. The final transit/indirect-response model obtained for GLP-1 production following an OGTT included two...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for ... is checking your blood glucose often. Ask your doctor how often you should ... associated with hyperglycemia. How Do I Treat Hyperglycemia? ...

  15. Evaluation of non destructive testing to characterize the resistance of the prefabricated system of columns and floor tiles for single family homes of a level: permeability meter, determination of wave velocity by ultrasound, Schmidt sclerometer and metal detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada Chacon, Dannell

    2014-01-01

    Non destructive testing are determined to be correlated with resistance to compression and flexion of elements belonging to prefabricated system of columns and floor tiles for single family homes of a level. The characteristics of the non destructive testing are described, such as: measurer of permeability, Schmidt sclerometer, determination of wave velocity by ultrasound and metal detector. The columns and floor tiles are elaborated with 2 mixtures of different resistances at 28 days. The first more than 30 MPa and the second less than 25 MPa are sampled together with the control cylinders necessary to obtain the actual resistance according to ASTM C39. Last resistance testings to compression and Schmidt sclerometer are realized to control cylinders to 1, 2, and 4 weeks after being cast. Non destructive testings (permeability meter Torrent, Schmidt sclerometer and determination of wave velocity by ultrasound) are performed in columns and floor tiles to 1, 2, and 4 weeks after being cast. Last resistance testings to flexion is obtained by means of destructive tests of the columns and floor tiles sampled. The correlation of the data obtained is determined to derive values of compression resistance from non destructive testing [es

  16. Low-speed tests of a high-aspect-ratio, supercritical-wing transport model equipped with a high-lift flap system in the Langley 4- by 7-meter and Ames 12-foot pressure tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, H. L., Jr.; Kjelgaard, S. O.

    1983-01-01

    The Ames 12-Foot Pressure Tunnel was used to determine the effects of Reynolds number on the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced, high-aspect-ratio, supercritical wing transport model equipped with a full span, leading edge slat and part span, double slotted, trailing edge flaps. The model had a wing span of 7.5 ft and was tested through a free stream Reynolds number range from 1.3 to 6.0 x 10 to 6th power per foot at a Mach number of 0.20. Prior to the Ames tests, an investigation was also conducted in the Langley 4 by 7 Meter Tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.3 x 10 to 6th power per foot with the model mounted on an Ames strut support system and on the Langley sting support system to determine strut interference corrections. The data obtained from the Langley tests were also used to compare the aerodynamic charactertistics of the rather stiff, 7.5-ft-span steel wing model tested during this investigation and the larger, and rather flexible, 12-ft-span aluminum-wing model tested during a previous investigation. During the tests in both the Langley and Ames tunnels, the model was tested with six basic wing configurations: (1) cruise; (2) climb (slats only extended); (3) 15 deg take-off flaps; (4) 30 deg take-off flaps; (5) 45 deg landing flaps; and (6) 60 deg landing flaps.

  17. [Impact of area under the curve of oral glucose tolerance test on pregnant woman with gestational diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congyue; Su, Shiping; Liu, Chunhong; Zhang, Li; Yang, Huixia

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether area under the curve (AUC) of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) could work as a predictor of outcomes of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on condition that blood glucose is controlled. A total of 1 796 women who had a standard antenatal care in Peking University First Hospital and gave single live births from July 1, 2011 to December 31, 2 013 were included. They should be diagnosed of GDM by the diagnosis criteria of gestational diabetes published by the Ministry of Health of PRC and diabetes pre-pregnancy excluded. Data were analyzed with SPSS 17.0, grouping by AUC. (1) Women with higher AUC had a rising trend of age and a downward trend of gestational weight gain, however, not statistically significant [specifically, in the four group of less than 15.00 mmol · L⁻¹ · h⁻¹, 15.00 to 16.79 mmol · L⁻¹ · h⁻¹, 16.80 to 17.99 mmol · L⁻¹ · h⁻¹ and 18.00 mmol · L⁻¹ · h⁻¹ or more, gestational weight gain was (15.3 ± 5.2), (14.1 ± 4.8), (13.5 ± 4.7) and (13.1 ± 4.8) kg]. The prevalence of macrosomia raised while AUC increased. Those with an AUC of lower than 15.00 (mmol · L⁻¹ · h⁻¹) had a lower risk of macrosomia (P = 0.04). But those with an AUC of 18.00 (mmol · L⁻¹ · h⁻¹) or more had a higher risk of macrosomia (P = 0.02). There was a rising trend in premature birth and preeclampsia with AUC increasing but not significant (the prevalence of premature birth was 4.38%, 5.36%, 7.71% and 7.94% while that of preeclampsia was 2.85%, 4.69%, 4.67% and 5.08% in these four groups). (2) The prevalence of macrosomia was 12.76% (54/423) when overweight pre-pregnancy, significantly higher compared with 5.87% (65/1 107) in normal group. The prevalence of preeclampsia was 5.91% (25/423) and 3.34% (37/1 107) in those two groups, which was also significantly different. The obese group had a statistically highest prevalence of preeclampsia of 9.23% (12/130). (3) AUC (P AUC, as well as pre-pregnancy BMI and

  18. Research on Operation Assessment Method for Energy Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Xu, Renheng

    2018-03-01

    The existing electric energy meter rotation maintenance strategy regularly checks the electric energy meter and evaluates the state. It only considers the influence of time factors, neglects the influence of other factors, leads to the inaccuracy of the evaluation, and causes the waste of resources. In order to evaluate the running state of the electric energy meter in time, a method of the operation evaluation of the electric energy meter is proposed. The method is based on extracting the existing data acquisition system, marketing business system and metrology production scheduling platform that affect the state of energy meters, and classified into error stability, operational reliability, potential risks and other factors according to the influencing factors, based on the above basic test score, inspecting score, monitoring score, score of family defect detection. Then, according to the evaluation model according to the scoring, we evaluate electric energy meter operating state, and finally put forward the corresponding maintenance strategy of rotation.

  19. A Method of Evaluating Operation of Electric Energy Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Li, Tianyang; Cao, Fei; Chu, Pengfei; Zhao, Xinwang; Huang, Rui; Liu, Liping; Zhang, Chenglin

    2018-05-01

    The existing electric energy meter rotation maintenance strategy regularly checks the electric energy meter and evaluates the state. It only considers the influence of time factors, neglects the influence of other factors, leads to the inaccuracy of the evaluation, and causes the waste of resources. In order to evaluate the running state of the electric energy meter in time, a method of the operation evaluation of the electric energy meter is proposed. The method is based on extracting the existing data acquisition system, marketing business system and metrology production scheduling platform that affect the state of energy meters, and classified into error stability, operational reliability, potential risks and other factors according to the influencing factors, based on the above basic test score, inspecting score, monitoring score, score of family defect detection. Then, according to the evaluation model according to the scoring, we evaluate electric energy meter operating state, and finally put forward the corresponding maintenance strategy of rotation.

  20. The business of self-monitoring of blood glucose: a market profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mark D

    2009-09-01

    The market for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) approached $8.8 billion worldwide in 2008. Yet despite dramatic double-digit growth in sales of SMBG products since 1980, the business is now facing declining prices and slower dollar growth. Given that SMBG meters and test strips are viewed by consumers and insurers as essentially generic products, it will be extremely challenging for new market entrants to displace well-entrenched existing competitors without a truly innovative technology. Also, in the face of declining glucose test strip prices, market expansion can only occur through identification of more of the undiagnosed diabetes population and convincing existing diabetes patients to adopt glucose testing or to test more frequently. Ultimately, a combination of technology innovations, patient education, and economic incentives may be needed to significantly expand the SMBG market and build sustainable long-term dollar growth for SMBG vendors. 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  1. Quality control of the activity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Marlon da Silva Brandão; Sá, Lídia Vasconcelos de

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To carry out a comparative analysis of national and international standards regarding the quality control of the activity meter used in Nuclear Medicine Services in Brazil. Material and methods: Quality control protocols from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) were pointed out and compared with requirements from both regulatory Brazilian agencies, National Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) and National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Results: The daily routine tests recommended by the regulatory agencies do not have significant differences; in contrast the tests with higher periodicities like (accuracy, linearity and precision) have differences discrepant. Conclusion: In view of the comparative analysis carried out, it is suggested that the national recommendations for the quality control tests of the activity meter should be checked and evaluated, with emphasis on the semiannual and annual periodicity tests. (author)

  2. Blood Test: Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Definition: Hyperglycemia Definition: Hypoglycemia What Is Gestational Diabetes? Hypoglycemia ...

  3. Effect of intrapleural oxytocin injection on blood glucose level in rat (rattus norvegicous).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezhkam, Y; Dezhkam, N

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Oxytocin on energy metabolism is still question. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exogenous oxytocin injection in different dose and timetable on blood glucose level in rat. In this study 16 adult female rats were divided into 2 groups (Treatment 1(T1) and Treatment 2(T2)). T1 with 8 adult female rats received 0.2 IU/Kg oxytocin via intrapleural (IP) and blood glucose level was tested at 0th, 20th, 40th and 60th min after injection by collecting the blood from jugular vein. In T2 eight female rats received 0.4 IU/kg oxytocin via IP taking blood glucose measure at the same minutes as T1. The experiment tested in three replicates. Blood glucose meter (Model: 3TMSO1G) was used with glucose smart blood glucose monitoring system to the measurement of blood glucose level in rats. Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS (SAS, version 9) PDIFF was used to compare least square means among treatments adjusting by tukey test. There were hypoglycemic tendency in the changes of the blood glucose level in both T1 and T2, 20th min after injection (88.79 ± 3.28, 68.58 ± 3.63, respectively), while in the remaining subjects (4th and 60th min) blood glucose level increased (115.54 ± 4, 79.7 ± 2.09 and 136.33 ± 5.8, 123.54 ± 0.9, respectively). These results showed that blood glucose level in T1 significantly higher than T2 (p blood glucose level very fast.

  4. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    of the so-called big data possible. This can improve energy management, e.g., help utilities improve the management of energy and services, and help customers save money. As this regard, the paper focuses on building an innovative software solution to streamline smart meter data analytic, aiming at dealing......Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social......-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, data-mining and the emerging cloud computing technologies make the collection, management, and analysis...

  5. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the following cases, you may use a raw exhaust flow meter signal that does not give the actual value... dew and pressure, p total at the flow meter inlet. Use these values in emission calculations according... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.230 Raw exhaust...

  6. Fructose intervention for 12 weeks does not impair glycemic control or incretin hormone responses during oral glucose or mixed meal tests in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matikainen, N; Söderlund, S; Björnson, E; Bogl, L H; Pietiläinen, K H; Hakkarainen, A; Lundbom, N; Eliasson, B; Räsänen, S M; Rivellese, A; Patti, L; Prinster, A; Riccardi, G; Després, J-P; Alméras, N; Holst, J J; Deacon, C F; Borén, J; Taskinen, M-R

    2017-06-01

    Incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are affected early on in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiologic studies consistently link high fructose consumption to insulin resistance but whether fructose consumption impairs the incretin response remains unknown. As many as 66 obese (BMI 26-40 kg/m 2 ) male subjects consumed fructose-sweetened beverages containing 75 g fructose/day for 12 weeks while continuing their usual lifestyle. Glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and GIP were measured during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and triglycerides (TG), GLP-1, GIP and PYY during a mixed meal test before and after fructose intervention. Fructose intervention did not worsen glucose and insulin responses during OGTT, and GLP-1 and GIP responses during OGTT and fat-rich meal were unchanged. Postprandial TG response increased significantly, p = 0.004, and we observed small but significant increases in weight and liver fat content, but not in visceral or subcutaneous fat depots. However, even the subgroups who gained weight or liver fat during fructose intervention did not worsen their glucose, insulin, GLP-1 or PYY responses. A minor increase in GIP response during OGTT occurred in subjects who gained liver fat (p = 0.049). In obese males with features of metabolic syndrome, 12 weeks fructose intervention 75 g/day did not change glucose, insulin, GLP-1 or GIP responses during OGTT or GLP-1, GIP or PYY responses during a mixed meal. Therefore, fructose intake, even accompanied with mild weight gain, increases in liver fat and worsening of postprandial TG profile, does not impair glucose tolerance or gut incretin response to oral glucose or mixed meal challenge. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University

  7. NOMEX - a universal diagnostic dosemeter, mA.s, and kV meter for acceotance test measurements and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, G.; Pychlau, P.; Schuele, E.

    1992-01-01

    A universal diagnostic dosemeter is introduced which was designed for acceptance test measurements and quality assurance. It can also be used for periodic constancy checks. To facilitate the comprehensive tests, the NOMEX can measure all important quantities, such as dose and dose rate, mean peak voltage, exposure time, mA.s product, dose per mA.s, dose per pulse, attenuation factor, relative standard deviation and length dose product in CT. All these quantities, except the mA.s product, are measured non-invasively. The instrument's concept, its applications and technical data are described. (author)

  8. Wall adjustment strategy software for use with the NASA Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel adaptive wall test section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.

    1988-01-01

    The Wall Adjustment Strategy (WAS) software provides successful on-line control of the 2-D flexible walled test section of the Langley 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. This software package allows the level of operator intervention to be regulated as necessary for research and production type 2-D testing using and Adaptive Wall Test Section (AWTS). The software is designed to accept modification for future requirements, such as 3-D testing, with a minimum of complexity. The WAS software described is an attempt to provide a user friendly package which could be used to control any flexible walled AWTS. Control system constraints influence the details of data transfer, not the data type. Then this entire software package could be used in different control systems, if suitable interface software is available. A complete overview of the software highlights the data flow paths, the modular architecture of the software and the various operating and analysis modes available. A detailed description of the software modules includes listings of the code. A user's manual is provided to explain task generation, operating environment, user options and what to expect at execution.

  9. Slow recovery of blood glucose in the insulin tolerance test during the prepartum transition period negatively impacts the nutritional status and reproductive performance postpartum of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsu-Hsun; Kida, Katsuya; Miura, Ryotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Miyamoto, Akio; Kawashima, Chiho; Haneda, Shingo; Miyake, Yoh-Ichi; Matsui, Motozumi

    2012-04-01

    In peripartum dairy cows, insulin resistance (IR) increases to adjust the direction of energy to lactation after calving. To investigate the effect of prepartum IR on postpartum reproductive performance, the insulin tolerance test (ITT) was applied to 15 cows at 3 weeks (Pre21) and 10 days (Pre10) before the predicted calving date. Blood glucose area under the curve (AUC(glu)) within 120 min after administration of 0.05 IU/kg-BW insulin was calculated. The occurrence of first ovulation, days to first artificial insemination (AI) and first AI conception rate were recorded. Nutritional status postpartum was evaluated by blood chemical analysis. Based on AUC(glu) changes from Pre21 to Pre10, cows were classified into either the AUC-up group (AUC(glu) increase, n=5) or the AUC-down group (AUC(glu) decrease, n=10). There was no difference in the decrease in blood glucose at 30 min after insulin injection between groups, although glucose recovery from 30 to 60 min during the ITT was slow at Pre10 in the AUC-up group. The AUC-up group had a higher number of days to first AI and high glucose, total protein, globulin, γ-glutamyltransferase, triacylglycerol levels and a low albumin-globulin ratio at the 14th day postpartum. The present study infers that prepartum slow glucose recovery rather than insulin sensitivity might increase the potential for subclinical health problems postpartum and thus suppress reproductive performance. During the prepartum transition period, glucose dynamics in the ITT can be considered as a new indicator for the postpartum metabolic status and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

  10. Rational use of blood glucose test strips for self-monitoring in patients with diabetes mellitus: Economic impact in the Portuguese healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso, Teresa; Furtado, Cláudia

    2017-12-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose is important for diabetes management in insulin-treated patients, but its effectiveness in patients treated with oral glucose lowering drugs only is not fully supported by current evidence. This paper aims to characterise the prescription patterns of blood glucose test strips (BGTS) in Portugal and estimate the potential cost-savings from the rational use of BGTS. A retrospective analysis of the Portuguese database of electronic medical prescriptions to assess the patterns of BGTS prescription. The database was searched for prescription, from 01 January 2016 to 31 December 2016, of insulin and other antidiabetics, as well as the associated prescriptions of BGTS. 894,637 patients were prescribed antidiabetic medicines during 2016, 82.7% of which were prescribed oral glucose lowering drugs only. BGTS were prescribed to 456,179 patients, being more frequently prescribed in insulin-treated patients. Still, 42.8% of patients treated with oral glucose lowering drugs only were also prescribed BGTS, with large proportion of those being prescribed antidiabetic drugs with lower risk of causing hypoglycaemia and, even so, >200 BGTS/year. Several scenarios for a more rational use of BGTS were estimated to result in cost-savings of up to €9.5 million per year. BGTS were prescribed to more than a third of patients treated with oral glucose lowering drugs only, despite accumulating evidence of their limited effectiveness in this population, resulting in substantial economic burden to the healthcare system. Given the estimated potential cost-savings, rational use of BGTS should be encouraged in Portugal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of various indices derived from an oral glucose tolerance test in the prediction of conversion from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye An; Ku, Eu Jeong; Khang, Ah Reum; Hong, Eun Shil; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Choi, Sung Hee; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2014-11-01

    The clinical implications of prediabetes for development of type 2 diabetes may differ for Asian ethnicity. We investigated various indices derived from a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in people with prediabetes to predict their future risk of diabetes. We recruited 406 consecutive subjects with prediabetes from 2005 to 2006 and followed them up every 3-6 months for up to 9 years. Prediabetes was defined as isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), combined glucose intolerance (CGI), or isolated elevated HbA1c (5.7-6.4%, 39-46 mmol/mol) without IFG or IGT. The rate of diabetes conversion was compared between prediabetes categories. The association of glycemic indices with development of diabetes was also investigated. Eighty-one patients were diagnosed with diabetes during the 9-year follow-up (median 46.0 months). The rate of diabetes conversion was higher in subjects with CGI (31.9%), or isolated IGT (18.5%) than in those with isolated IFG (15.2%) or isolated elevated HbA1c (10.9%). Surrogate markers reflecting β-cell dysfunction were more closely associated with diabetes conversion than insulin resistance indices. Subjects with a 30-min postload glucose ≥ 165 mg/dL and a 30-min C-peptide prediabetic subjects. In Asians, at least Koreans, β-cell dysfunction seems to be the major determinant for diabetes conversion. A combination of high glucose and low C-peptide levels at 30 min after OGTT may be a good predictor for diabetes conversion in this population. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Sensitivity and specificity of a hand-held milk electrical conductivity meter compared to the California mastitis test for mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosgate, G T; Petzer, I M; Karzis, J

    2013-04-01

    Screening tests for mastitis can play an important role in proactive mastitis control programs. The primary objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of milk electrical conductivity (EC) to the California mastitis test (CMT) in commercial dairy cattle in South Africa using Bayesian methods without a perfect reference test. A total of 1848 quarter milk specimens were collected from 173 cows sampled during six sequential farm visits. Of these samples, 25.8% yielded pathogenic bacterial isolates. The most frequently isolated species were coagulase negative Staphylococci (n=346), Streptococcus agalactiae (n=54), and Staphylococcus aureus (n=42). The overall cow-level prevalence of mastitis was 54% based on the Bayesian latent class (BLC) analysis. The CMT was more accurate than EC for classification of cows having somatic cell counts >200,000/mL and for isolation of a bacterial pathogen. BLC analysis also suggested an overall benefit of CMT over EC but the statistical evidence was not strong (P=0.257). The Bayesian model estimated the sensitivity and specificity of EC (measured via resistance) at a cut-point of >25 mΩ/cm to be 89.9% and 86.8%, respectively. The CMT had a sensitivity and specificity of 94.5% and 77.7%, respectively, when evaluated at the weak positive cut-point. EC was useful for identifying milk specimens harbouring pathogens but was not able to differentiate among evaluated bacterial isolates. Screening tests can be used to improve udder health as part of a proactive management plan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The long-term follow up study of acute pancreatitis by means of pancreatic scintigraphy, secretin test and oral glucose tolerance test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Harukuni

    1975-01-01

    Morphologic and functional alternations of the pancreas following acute pancreatitis were studied in 29 patients. At the time of attack a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis had been confirmed by laparotomy in 27 cases, and by clinical picture and by serum amylase levels in 2 cases. The average duration of follow up was 56.3 months. Normal images were obtained in 17 of 29 cases. According to secretin tests, 4 of these had slight to moderately decreased exocrine function; the test were within normal limits. 12 cases with normal image had abnormal oral glucose tolerance curves similar to those fund in mild to moderate diabetes. 10 of the 12 cases with abnormal scintigrams showed decreased isotope uptake in all or part of the pancreas, while 2 showed no uptake at all. These changes were mast apparent in the tail of the pancreas. Ten of the 12 cases with abnormal images had some degree of decreased exocrine function. All 12 had the abnormal GTT curve of diabetes, 4 who had severe diabetes with markedly decreased exocrine function and poor image of the pancreas. In 4 cases the histopathological findings obtained at the time of laparotomy, were shown to be very consistent with the scintigraphic features. It was demonstrated by both scintigraphs and function tests that the alcoholic factor plays a very important role in the prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis resulted in chronic pancreatitis in 4 cases, (14 %) of the remaining 8 cases with abnormal scintigram, it is postulated that the inflamatory process subsided allowing time for cicatrical fibrosis to occur. Follow-up to trace and study of these alternations of the pancreas necessary in future. (Evans, J.)

  14. The long-term follow up study of acute pancreatitis by means of pancreatic scintigraphy, secretin test and oral glucose tolerance test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, H [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-03-01

    Morphologic and functional alternations of the pancreas following acute pancreatitis were studied in 29 patients. At the time of attack a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis had been confirmed by laparotomy in 27 cases, and by clinical picture and by serum amylase levels in 2 cases. The average duration of follow up was 56.3 months. Normal images were obtained in 17 of 29 cases. According to secretin tests, 4 of these had slight to moderately decreased exocrine function; the test were within normal limits. 12 cases with normal image had abnormal oral glucose tolerance curves similar to those fund in mild to moderate diabetes. 10 of the 12 cases with abnormal scintigrams showed decreased isotope uptake in all or part of the pancreas, while 2 showed no uptake at all. These changes were mast apparent in the tail of the pancreas. Ten of the 12 cases with abnormal images had some degree of decreased exocrine function. All 12 had the abnormal GTT curve of diabetes, 4 who had severe diabetes with markedly decreased exocrine function and poor image of the pancreas. In 4 cases the histopathological findings obtained at the time of laparotomy, were shown to be very consistent with the scintigraphic features. It was demonstrated by both scintigraphs and function tests that the alcoholic factor plays a very important role in the prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis resulted in chronic pancreatitis in 4 cases, (14 %) of the remaining 8 cases with abnormal scintigram, it is postulated that the inflamatory process subsided allowing time for cicatrical fibrosis to occur. Follow-up to trace and study of these alternations of the pancreas necessary in future.

  15. Smart metering - energy data management at every meter point; Smart Metering - Energiedatenmanagement an jedem Zaehlpunkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller-Giessbach, D.; Kiel, E. [LogicaCMG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    The demise of monopolistic structures in the German energy market has also led to a change of perspective on metering. New requirements have to be met. Even in mass processing jobs such as meter reading it is no longer sufficient to simply read consumption data off a technically reliable meter or have customers do this themselves in preparation of billing. Currently used meters were not designed with a mind to demand management, environmental protection through energy conservation, changes in consumer behaviour or new service offers. This has been recognised in many European countries since the beginning of the present decade. The traditional task of metering is developing into a more comprehensive energy data management that takes account of the needs of customers, energy suppliers and regulatory requirements.

  16. Beyond revenue metering -- a new age for automatic meter reading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chebra, R. J. [RJC Consulting L.L.C., PQ (Canada)

    2002-10-01

    Advanced metering, data management, and communications possibilities of automated meter reading are explored. Applications in the area of demand side management, including load reduction, peak shaving and load shifting, new tariff structures based on the 'time of use incentive/penalty' approach, and information grade metering are emphasized. Based on trends and expectations, it is predicted that AMR will continue to experience rapid growth and deployment as new services are made available to the mass market. For example, technological advances will enable the industry to make 'time of use metering ' more attractive and beneficial to residential consumers, and embedded intelligence will make it possible to achieve more holistic energy environments.

  17. Accuracy and precision evaluation of seven self-monitoring blood glucose systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chih-Yi; Hsu, Cheng-Teng; Ho, Cheng-Shiao; Su, Ting-En; Wu, Ming-Hsun; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2011-05-01

    Self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) systems play a critical role in management of diabetes. SMBG systems should at least meet the minimal requirement of the World Health Organization's ISO 15197:2003. For tight glycemic control, a tighter accuracy requirement is needed. Seven SMBG systems were evaluated for accuracy and precision: Bionime Rightest(™) GM550 (Bionime Corp., Dali City, Taiwan), Accu-Chek(®) Performa (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN), OneTouch(®) Ultra(®)2 (LifeScan Inc., Milpitas, CA), MediSense(®) Optium(™) Xceed (Abbott Diabetes Care Inc., Alameda, CA), Medisafe (TERUMO Corp., Tokyo, Japan), Fora(®) TD4227 (Taidac Technology Corp., Wugu Township, Taiwan), and Ascensia Contour(®) (Bayer HealthCare LLC, Mishawaka, IN). The 107 participants (44 men and 63 women) were between 23 and 91 years old. The analytical results of seven SMBG systems were compared with those of plasma analyzed with the hexokinase method (Olympus AU640, Olympus America Inc., Center Valley, PA). The imprecision of the seven blood glucose meters ranged from 1.1% to 4.7%. Three of the seven blood glucose meters (42.9%) fulfilled the minimum accuracy criteria of ISO 15197:2003. The mean absolute relative error value for each blood glucose meter was calculated and ranged from 6.5% to 12.0%. More than 40% of evaluated SMBG systems meet the minimal accuracy criteria requirement of ISO 15197:2003. However, considering tighter criteria for accuracy of ±15%, only the Bionime Rightest GM550 meets this requirement. Because SMBG systems play a critical role in management of diabetes, manufacturers have to strive to improve accuracy and precision and to ensure the good quality of blood glucose meters and test strips.

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  16. Tests with different kind of k Vp-meters in standard X-rays beams used for instruments calibration, in diagnostic radiology level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucena, Rodrigo Ferreira de; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Caldas, Linda V. E.; Vivolo, Vitor

    2008-01-01

    In this work, tests were carried out in one X-ray system, Medicor Moevek Roentgengyara, Model Neo-Diagnomax, (single-phase, full wave rectified) that operate in the range from 40 kV to 100 kV, and fixed 6 mA in the fluoroscopic mode, with total filtration of 2.5 mmAl. It was used as reference system an invasive system from Radcal, model Dynalyzer III (trade mark). The equipment tested were three non-invasive instruments, one PTW,model Diavolt (trade mark), and two Victoreen, model NERO (trade mark). It was performed measurements with those equipment, in the range from 50 kV to 100 kV, in steps of 10 kV and current of 6 mA (fixed). The quantity measured was kVp max . The results showed the maximum variation of 3 % for one NERO (trade mark) and 1 % for the other equipment of the same type, and 0,3 % for Diavolt (trade mark) related to the invasive reference measurement system. The differences in the obtained values could be caused by the different kind of equipment used in that, their manufacturer calibration and aged. (author)

  17. Nutritional status and random blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride test among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel in Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiy, I.; Razalee, S.; Zalifah, M. K.; Zulkeffeli, M. J.

    2013-11-01

    With the rising trend of obesity among the general population, it is also important to assess the obesity and health status among military population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel as well as the relationship between selected socio-demographics factors, antropometric profiles, body composition and random blood test value. A cross sectional study involving 378 male military personnel aged between 20 to 48 years old was conducted at two MA bases in Kuala Lumpur between November and December 2012. Antropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Tanita TBF-300A). Mean height, weight, BMI, WC, body fat percentage, age, monthly income and duration of service were 1.71 ± 0.6 m, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg, 24.6 ± 4.1 kg/m2, 87.0 ± 10.0 cm, 23.4 ± 6.6%, 29.1 ± 5.5 years, RM 2115.12 ± 860.70 and 9.9 ± 5.6 years respectively. According to WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 3.2% of the subjects were underweight, 54.8% normal, 32.8% overweight and 9.3% obese. It was obeserved that 40.2% of the subjects had waist circumference value of 90 cm or more and were considered high risk for diebetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study found that BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.925, pselected for random blood test found that 4.6%, 3.5% and 26.0% had diabetes, high cholesterol and high triglyceride respectively. There was a weak correlation between random blood glucose level with weight (r=0.221, pattention to the existence of overweight and obesity as well as the risk of non-communicable diseases among military population. Therefore, future intervention from the aspect of nutritional education and health awareness can benefit thus optimizing the health status of MA military personnel.

  18. Oral glucose tolerance test performance in olanzapine-treated schizophrenia-spectrum patients is predicted by BMI and triglycerides but not olanzapine dose or duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, Jeffrey; Roy, Sayon; Gupta, Ankur; Langleben, Daniel D; Elman, Igor

    2017-07-01

    Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is associated with glucoregulatory abnormalities, but the nature of this link is not fully elucidated. This is the first olanzapine oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) study to consider treatment dose and duration, and to compare complementary indices respectively assessing insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) and resistance (homeostasis model assessment). Body mass index (BMI), body composition, plasma lipids, and oGTT were measured in olanzapine-treated nondiabetic patients with DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 35). While only one previously undiagnosed participant met diabetes criteria based on fasting plasma glucose alone (≥126 mg/dL), seven were diagnosed with oGTT (2-hr plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL). Multiple regression analyses revealed that the Matsuda index correlated with BMI (p triglycerides (p = 0.01), but not with age, olanzapine dose, olanzapine treatment duration, or plasma cholesterol. Homeostasis model assessment and fasting plasma glucose correlated with triglycerides only (p triglycerides may be implicated in olanzapine-related glucoregulatory abnormalities. The lack of correlation between glucoregulatory abnormalities and olanzapine dose or treatment duration suggests preexisting metabolic disturbances and/or disturbances arising early in the course of treatment. Clinicians prescribing antipsychotics should consider oGTT, especially in patients with obesity and/or hypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Automated borehole gravity meter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenhiser, Th.V.; Wirtz, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    An automated borehole gravity meter system for measuring gravity within a wellbore. The gravity meter includes leveling devices for leveling the borehole gravity meter, displacement devices for applying forces to a gravity sensing device within the gravity meter to bring the gravity sensing device to a predetermined or null position. Electronic sensing and control devices are provided for (i) activating the displacement devices, (ii) sensing the forces applied to the gravity sensing device, (iii) electronically converting the values of the forces into a representation of the gravity at the location in the wellbore, and (iv) outputting such representation. The system further includes electronic control devices with the capability of correcting the representation of gravity for tidal effects, as well as, calculating and outputting the formation bulk density and/or porosity

  20. SSC 17-meter dipole magnet DD000Z test results and investigation of coil failure: The report of the open-quotes Zclose quotes Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombes, R.; Lundy, R.; Schneider, W.; Wanderer, P.

    1988-03-01

    Following the failure of the lower inner coil of magnet DD000Z on November 3, 1987, a committee was formed on November 11 and given the following charges: 'To review the events leading up to and including the failure of the coils of magnet DD000Z. The intent of the review will be to determine the cause of the failure and to make recommendations to reduce the likelihood of such failures in the future. Given the fact that this is the first long magnet to be disassembled, the committee may uncover leads which point to other opportunities for improvement. The committee should follow up on these leads. The committee should prepare a plan to serve as an initial guide for the disassembly and provide guidance as the disassembly progresses.' The committee held its first meeting at FNAL on 17 and 18 Nov to review the record of events leading up to the failure and to establish an initial disassembly procedure. This was followed by further meetings at FNAL, BNL, and CDG, leading to this final report. Committee activities included interviewing personnel who had been involved in the design, assembly and testing of DD000Z, reviewing all documents relating to the magnet and its failure, and participating in and providing guidance during the disassembly. The intention of the committee was to report factual findings, to consider well founded hypotheses, not to consider conjecture and to avoid speculation

  1. Pseudohyperglycemia: Effects of Unwashed Hand after Fruit Peeling or Handling on Fingertips Blood Glucose Monitoring Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olamoyegun, M A; Oloyede, T; Adewoye, O G; Abdulkarim, S O; Adeleke, A A

    2016-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is an important component of management for diabetes mellitus (DM), especially in T1DM and T2DM patients who are on insulin therapy. Adequate blood glucose monitoring and prompt intervention are necessary to prevent blood glucose (BG) fluctuation and delay long-term diabetes complications. People with DM are advised to clean their hands before SMBG to remove any dirt or food residue that might affect the reading. The study tested the hypothesis that falsely elevated BG levels from fingertip occur after peeling or handling fruits in an unwashed hand. Fifty apparently healthy nondiabetes volunteers were enrolled. Capillary BG samples were collected from the fingertips after peeling or handling apple, orange, banana, watermelon, and pawpaw, followed by no hand washing for 1 h, cleaning the fingertip with alcohol swab once, five times, and washing hand thoroughly with tap water and drying. These samples were then analyzed with two different glucose meters. The mean BG values, measured from fingertip blood samples after peeling, and handling any of the fruits followed by no hand washing were significantly high, even after cleaning fingertip with a swab of alcohol once. However, there were no significant difference in BG levels measured after peeling and handling fruits followed by hand washing and the level of BG before peeling and handling fruits. Handling of peeled fruits with no hand washing with tap water is associated with overestimation of capillary BG (Pseudohyperglycemia) monitored with glucose meters.

  2. Predictive performance for population models using stochastic differential equations applied on data from an oral glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Jonas B; Overgaard, Rune V; Madsen, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Ingwersen, Steen H

    2010-02-01

    Several articles have investigated stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in PK/PD models, but few have quantitatively investigated the benefits to predictive performance of models based on real data. Estimation of first phase insulin secretion which reflects beta-cell function using models of the OGTT is a difficult problem in need of further investigation. The present work aimed at investigating the power of SDEs to predict the first phase insulin secretion (AIR (0-8)) in the IVGTT based on parameters obtained from the minimal model of the OGTT, published by Breda et al. (Diabetes 50(1):150-158, 2001). In total 174 subjects underwent both an OGTT and a tolbutamide modified IVGTT. Estimation of parameters in the oral minimal model (OMM) was performed using the FOCE-method in NONMEM VI on insulin and C-peptide measurements. The suggested SDE models were based on a continuous AR(1) process, i.e. the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, and the extended Kalman filter was implemented in order to estimate the parameters of the models. Inclusion of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) process caused improved description of the variation in the data as measured by the autocorrelation function (ACF) of one-step prediction errors. A main result was that application of SDE models improved the correlation between the individual first phase indexes obtained from OGTT and AIR (0-8) (r = 0.36 to r = 0.49 and r = 0.32 to r = 0.47 with C-peptide and insulin measurements, respectively). In addition to the increased correlation also the properties of the indexes obtained using the SDE models more correctly assessed the properties of the first phase indexes obtained from the IVGTT. In general it is concluded that the presented SDE approach not only caused autocorrelation of errors to decrease but also improved estimation of clinical measures obtained from the glucose tolerance tests. Since, the estimation time of extended models was not heavily increased compared to basic models, the applied method

  3. Measuring methods in power metering 2013; Elektrizitaetsmesstechnik 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahmann, Martin; Zayer, Peter (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The book addresses technical and economic issues of power metering, data communication and data processing. Smart metering is the key issue discussed in all 14 contributions: 1. The perspective of Smart Metering in Europe through 2020; 2. Introduction of Smart Metering in Austria; 3. Metering after the amended EnWG 2011; 4. The FNN project ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Technological requirements of Smart Grid and Smart Market; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomic Aspects of Smart Grids and Electromobility''; 7. Load management as a key element of energy transition; 8. Added value in Smart Metering as a result of Smart Home applications, 9. The main cost factors of the new metering systems; 10. BSI protection profile: Smart Meter Gateway certification; 11. The influence of new boundary conditions in metering on intercompany processes; 12. Reliable time allotment via internet; 13. Recommendations of the EEG Clearing Authority on metering problems; 14. Outline quality management manual for state-authorized test services for electric power, gas, water, and heat. [German] Dieses Buch richtet seinen Blick sowohl auf technische wie auch auf energiewirtschaftliche Themen rund um das Thema Mess- und Zaehltechnik sowie die inzwischen immer bedeutsamer werdende zugehoerige Datenkommunikations- und Datenverarbeitungstechnik. Eine zunehmende Betrachtung des Smart Metering als einen Teilaspekt des grossen Themas Smart Grid bildet die gemeinsame Klammer um die Beitraege. Die Themen der 14 Beitraege sind: 1. Perspektive Smart Metering in Europa bis 2020; 2. Smart-Meter-Einfuehrung in Oesterreich; 3. Das Messwesen nach der EnWG-Novelle 2011; 4. Das FNN-Projekt ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Anforderungen durch Smart Grid und Smart Market an die intelligente Messtechnik; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomie-Aspekte zu Smart Grid und Elektromobilitaet''; 7. Lastverschiebung als Baustein der Energiewende; 8. Mehrwerte beim Smart

  4. Insulin hypersecretion together with high luteinizing hormone concentration augments androgen secretion in oral glucose tolerance test in women with polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, L; Koskinen, P; Jaatinen, T A; Erkkola, R; Irjala, K; Ruutiainen, K

    1993-08-01

    Female hyperandrogenism is often associated with hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. We evaluated the hormone responses in an oral glucose tolerance test to investigate the interactions of gonadotrophins, insulin, C-peptide and androgens in women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). In 28 patients with ultrasonographically diagnosed PCOD, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance were mainly associated with obesity. Both basal and cumulative sum of insulin to C-peptide ratios were high in obese subjects, suggesting decreasing hepatic removal of insulin caused by obesity. Nevertheless, in some lean PCOD women, despite normal fasting insulin concentrations, insulin hypersecretion existed. The mean concentration of testosterone decreased significantly during the oral glucose tolerance test both in PCOD and control women, and of androstenedione in the PCOD patients only. However, an increase in androgen responses was found in a subgroup of PCOD patients, who had both elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations and hyperinsulinaemic response to oral glucose. In the remaining PCOD patients an inverse correlation between LH and insulin was found. The patients with hyperinsulinaemia together with LH hypersecretion may represent a subgroup of PCOD with deranged regulation of androgen secretion.

  5. Analysis of a quantum nondemolition speed-meter interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdue, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    In the quest to develop viable designs for third-generation optical interferometric gravitational-wave detectors (e.g. LIGO-III and EURO), one strategy is to monitor the relative momentum or speed of the test-mass mirrors rather than monitoring their relative position. This paper describes and analyzes the most straightforward design for a speed meter interferometer that accomplishes this--a design (due to Braginsky, Gorodetsky, Khalili and Thorne) that is analogous to a microwave-cavity speed meter conceived by Braginsky and Khalili. A mathematical mapping between the microwave speed meter and the optical interferometric speed meter is developed and is used to show [in accord with the speed being a quantum nondemolition observable] that in principle the interferometric speed meter can beat the gravitational-wave standard quantum limit (SQL) by an arbitrarily large amount, over an arbitrarily wide range of frequencies, and can do so without the use of squeezed vacuum or any auxiliary filter cavities at the interferometer's input or output. However, in practice, to reach or beat the SQL, this specific speed meter requires exorbitantly high input light power. The physical reason for this is explored, along with other issues such as constraints on performance due to optical dissipation. This analysis forms a foundation for ongoing attempts to develop a more practical variant of an interferometric speed meter and to combine the speed meter concept with other ideas to yield a promising LIGO-III/EURO interferometer design that entails low laser power

  6. Release Profile and Inhibition Test of The Nanoparticles A. Paniculata Extract as Inhibitor of α-Glucosidase in The Process of Carbohydrates Breakdown Into Glucose Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imansari, Farisa; Sahlan, Muhammad; Arbianti, Rita

    2017-07-01

    Andrographis paniculata (A.paniculata) contain the main active substances Andrographolide which helps lower glucose levels in diabetics by inhibiting the enzyme α-glucosidase. The ability of the extract A.paniculata in lowering glucose levels will increase with the technique encapsulation with a coating of composition Chitosan-STPP as a drug delivery to the target organ. This study aimed to get an overview of A.paniculata release profile of nanoparticles in a synthetic fluid media with various concentrations of coating and inhibition testing nasty shard extract in inhibiting the enzyme α-glucosidase. This research resulted in nanoparticles by coating efficiency and loading capacity of chitosan greatest variation of 2% and 1% STPP 60% and 46.29%. chitosan greatest variation of 2% and 1% STPP 60% and 46.29%. The ability of A.paniculata extracts as α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitors has been demonstrated in this study, the percent inhibition of 33.17%.

  7. Associations between postprandial insulin and blood glucose responses, appetite sensations and energy intake in normal weight and overweight individuals: a meta-analysis of test meal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flint, Anne; Gregersen, Nikolaj T.; Gluud, Lise L.

    2007-01-01

    is unclear whether postprandial blood glucose or insulin exerts a regulatory function in short-term appetite regulation in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate, by use of meta-analysis, the role of blood glucose and insulin in short-term appetite sensation and energy intake (EI......) in normal weight and overweight participants. Data from seven test meal studies were used, including 136 healthy participants (ALL) (92 normal weight (NW) and 44 overweight or obese (OW)). All meals were served as breakfasts after an overnight fast, and appetite sensations and blood samples were obtained...... frequently in the postprandial period. Finally, an ad libitum lunch was served. Data were analysed by fixed effects study level (SL) meta-regression analysis and individual participant data (IPD) regression analysis, using STATA software. In SL analysis, postprandial insulin response was associated...

  8. Glucose allostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stumvoll, Michael; Tataranni, P Antonio; Stefan, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    individuals with normal glucose tolerance, normoglycemia can always be maintained by compensatorily increasing AIR in response to decreasing M (and vice versa). This has been mathematically described by the hyperbolic relationship between AIR and M and referred to as glucose homeostasis, with glucose......In many organisms, normoglycemia is achieved by a tight coupling of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta-cell (acute insulin response [AIR]) and the metabolic action of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal (insulin action [M]). It is widely accepted that in healthy...... concentration assumed to remain constant along the hyperbola. Conceivably, glucose is one of the signals stimulating AIR in response to decreasing M. Hypothetically, as with any normally functioning feed-forward system, AIR should not fully compensate for worsening M, since this would remove the stimulus...

  9. Evaluation of 75 g glucose load in non-fasting state [Diabetes in Pregnancy Study group of India (DIPSI criteria] as a diagnostic test for gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reva Tripathi

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed that when 75 g glucose load in non-fasting state was used as a diagnostic test for GDM, almost one quarter of patients with GDM escaped diagnosis as sensitivity values were low. On the other hand, some GDM cases were falsely labelled as normal as this test did not account for cases of fasting hyperglycaemia. In addition, comparison with other OGTTs showed low PPVs. Hence, use of DIPSI criteria for diagnosing GDM must be reconsidered till further validation.

  10. Nutritional status and random blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride test among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel in Kuala Lumpur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadiy, I.; Razalee, S.; Zalifah, M. K. [Nutrition Programme, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Zulkeffeli, M. J. [Department of Health Service, Ministry of Defense, Level 11, Menara Park, 50450 (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    With the rising trend of obesity among the general population, it is also important to assess the obesity and health status among military population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel as well as the relationship between selected socio-demographics factors, antropometric profiles, body composition and random blood test value. A cross sectional study involving 378 male military personnel aged between 20 to 48 years old was conducted at two MA bases in Kuala Lumpur between November and December 2012. Antropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Tanita TBF-300A). Mean height, weight, BMI, WC, body fat percentage, age, monthly income and duration of service were 1.71 ± 0.6 m, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg, 24.6 ± 4.1 kg/m{sup 2}, 87.0 ± 10.0 cm, 23.4 ± 6.6%, 29.1 ± 5.5 years, RM 2115.12 ± 860.70 and 9.9 ± 5.6 years respectively. According to WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 3.2% of the subjects were underweight, 54.8% normal, 32.8% overweight and 9.3% obese. It was obeserved that 40.2% of the subjects had waist circumference value of 90 cm or more and were considered high risk for diebetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study found that BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.925, p<0.05), WC (r=0.852, p<0.05) and body fat percentage. Body fat percentage also show high correlation with weight (r=0.759, p<0.05) and WC (r=0.768, p<0.05. The result from 173 of 378 subjects that were selected for random blood test found that 4.6%, 3.5% and 26.0% had diabetes, high cholesterol and high triglyceride respectively. There was a weak correlation between random blood glucose level with weight (r=0.221, p<0.05), BMI (r=0.243, p<0.05), WC (r=0.298, p<0.05), body fat percentage (r=0.163, p<0.05) and age (r=0.223, p<0.05). Random blood cholesterol level had significant correlation with

  11. Nutritional status and random blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride test among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel in Kuala Lumpur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadiy, I.; Razalee, S.; Zalifah, M. K.; Zulkeffeli, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    With the rising trend of obesity among the general population, it is also important to assess the obesity and health status among military population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel as well as the relationship between selected socio-demographics factors, antropometric profiles, body composition and random blood test value. A cross sectional study involving 378 male military personnel aged between 20 to 48 years old was conducted at two MA bases in Kuala Lumpur between November and December 2012. Antropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Tanita TBF-300A). Mean height, weight, BMI, WC, body fat percentage, age, monthly income and duration of service were 1.71 ± 0.6 m, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg, 24.6 ± 4.1 kg/m 2 , 87.0 ± 10.0 cm, 23.4 ± 6.6%, 29.1 ± 5.5 years, RM 2115.12 ± 860.70 and 9.9 ± 5.6 years respectively. According to WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 3.2% of the subjects were underweight, 54.8% normal, 32.8% overweight and 9.3% obese. It was obeserved that 40.2% of the subjects had waist circumference value of 90 cm or more and were considered high risk for diebetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study found that BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.925, p<0.05), WC (r=0.852, p<0.05) and body fat percentage. Body fat percentage also show high correlation with weight (r=0.759, p<0.05) and WC (r=0.768, p<0.05. The result from 173 of 378 subjects that were selected for random blood test found that 4.6%, 3.5% and 26.0% had diabetes, high cholesterol and high triglyceride respectively. There was a weak correlation between random blood glucose level with weight (r=0.221, p<0.05), BMI (r=0.243, p<0.05), WC (r=0.298, p<0.05), body fat percentage (r=0.163, p<0.05) and age (r=0.223, p<0.05). Random blood cholesterol level had significant correlation with weight

  12. Use of HbA(1C) testing to diagnose pre-diabetes in high risk African American children: a comparison with fasting glucose and HOMA-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sushma; Fleming, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the discriminating power of HbA(1C) with other pre-diabetes diagnostic tests specifically in high-risk African American children. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on a sample of 172 children (70 boys and 102 girls) aged 9-11 years with BMI's above the 85th percentile. Fasting glucose, insulin and HbA(1C) were analyzed from the plasma samples. Of the 172 participants included in this analysis, 21 (12.2%) had HbA(1C) concentrations above the cutoff of 5.7 used to identify pre-diabetes. None (0%) of these 21 participants, however, were observed to have a glucose concentration above the pre-diabetes cutoff of 110 mg/dl, and only 13 of 21 participants had HOMA-IR above the pre-diabetes cutoff of 2.5. When compared to the previously identified glucose cutoff of 110 mg/dl and HOMA-IR cutoff of 2.5 for pre-diabetes, HbA(1C) showed high specificity (88 and 93%, respectively) but very low sensitivity (0 and 21%, respectively). Glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly interrelated, but HbA(1C) was not significantly correlated with these biochemical prediabetes assessment variables, nor with anthropometric (BMIz, WC) risk factors. Our results suggest that HbA(1C) had poor discrimination power to identify prediabetes in overweight and obese 9- to 11-year-old African American children. Future studies are recommended to compare the feasibility, sensitivity and predictive power of different screening tests currently recommended to avoid inadequacy when screening for prediabetes and diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy Theft in the Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Stephen; Podkuiko, Dmitry; McDaniel, Patrick

    Global energy generation and delivery systems are transitioning to a new computerized "smart grid". One of the principle components of the smart grid is an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). AMI replaces the analog meters with computerized systems that report usage over digital communication interfaces, e.g., phone lines. However, with this infrastructure comes new risk. In this paper, we consider adversary means of defrauding the electrical grid by manipulating AMI systems. We document the methods adversaries will use to attempt to manipulate energy usage data, and validate the viability of these attacks by performing penetration testing on commodity devices. Through these activities, we demonstrate that not only is theft still possible in AMI systems, but that current AMI devices introduce a myriad of new vectors for achieving it.

  14. Solutions For Smart Metering Under Harsh Environmental Condicions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunicina N.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The described case study concerns application of wireless sensor networks to the smart control of power supply substations. The solution proposed for metering is based on the modular principle and has been tested in the intersystem communication paradigm using selectable interface modules (IEEE 802.3, ISM radio interface, GSM/GPRS. The solution modularity gives 7 % savings of maintenance costs. The developed solution can be applied to the control of different critical infrastructure networks using adapted modules. The proposed smart metering is suitable for outdoor installation, indoor industrial installations, operation under electromagnetic pollution, temperature and humidity impact. The results of tests have shown a good electromagnetic compatibility of the prototype meter with other electronic devices. The metering procedure is exemplified by operation of a testing company's workers under harsh environmental conditions.

  15. Low Cost Digital Vibration Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, W Vance; Geist, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the development of a low cost, digital Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) vibration meter that reports an approximation to the RMS acceleration of the vibration to which the vibration meter is subjected. The major mechanical element of this vibration meter is a cantilever beam, which is on the order of 500 µm in length, with a piezoresistor deposited at its base. Vibration of the device in the plane perpendicular to the cantilever beam causes it to bend, which produces a measurable change in the resistance of a piezoresistor. These changes in resistance along with a unique signal-processing scheme are used to determine an approximation to the RMS acceleration sensed by the device.

  16. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee; Muzakkir, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr −1 ). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr −1 determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr

  17. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd, E-mail: nur-aira@nm.gov.my; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Muzakkir, Amir [Sinaran Utama Teknologi Sdn Bhd, 43650, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr{sup −1}). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr{sup −1} determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  18. Metering in the gas supply sector; Metering in der Gasversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernekinck, U. [RWE Westfalen-Weser-Ems, Recklinghausen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The new conditions of competition in the gas supply sector have strongly increased the requirements on gas grid operators. Mainly an exact gas metering and -accouting will become more and more important. The systems and procedures are presented in detail in this contribution. (GL)

  19. 40 CFR 761.306 - Sampling 1 meter square surfaces by random selection of halves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling 1 meter square surfaces by...(b)(3) § 761.306 Sampling 1 meter square surfaces by random selection of halves. (a) Divide each 1 meter square portion where it is necessary to collect a surface wipe test sample into two equal (or as...

  20. 40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.117 Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation to...

  1. Measuring brain glucose phosphorylation with labeled glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brondsted, H.E.; Gjedde, A.

    1988-01-01

    This study tested whether glucose labeled at the C-6 position generates metabolites that leave brain so rapidly that C-6-labeled glucose cannot be used to measure brain glucose phosphorylation (CMRGlc). In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, the parietal cortex uptake of [ 14 C]glucose labeled in the C-6 position was followed for times ranging from 10 s to 60 min. We subtracted the observed radioactivity from the radioactivity expected with no loss of labeled metabolites from brain by extrapolation of glucose uptake in an initial period when loss was negligible. The observed radioactivity was a monoexponentially declining function of the total radioactivity expected in the absence of metabolite loss. The constant of decline was 0.0077.min-1 for parietal cortex. Metabolites were lost from the beginning of the experiment. However, with correction for the loss of labeled metabolites, it was possible to determine an average CMRGlc between 4 and 60 min of circulation of 64 +/- 4 (SE; n = 49) mumol.hg-1.min-1

  2. Postchallenge responses of nitrotyrosine and TNF-alpha during 75-g oral glucose tolerance test are associated with the presence of coronary artery diseases in patients with prediabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Chih-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis has demonstrated an exponential relationship between 2-hr postchallenge hyperglycemia and coronary artery disease (CAD. Pulsatile hyperglycemia can acutely increase proinflammatory cytokines by oxidative stress. We hypothesized that postchallenge proinflammatory and nitrosative responses after 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests (75 g-OGTT might be associated with CAD in patients without previously recognized type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods Serial changes of plasma glucose (PG, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and nitrotyrosine levels were analyzed during 75 g-OGTT in 120 patients (81 male; age 62 ± 11 years before coronary angiography. Patients were classified as normal (NGT; 42%, impaired (IGT; 34% and diabetic (T2DM; 24% glucose tolerance by 75 g-OGTT. Results Postchallenge hyperglycemia elicited TNF-α, IL-6 and nitrotyrosine levels time-dependently, and 2-hr median levels of TNF-α (7.1 versus 6.4 pg/ml; P μmol/l; P P Conclusions These results highlight postchallenge proinflammatory and nitrosative responses by 75 g-OGTT, rather than hyperglycemia per se, are associated with CAD in patients without previous recognized diabetes.

  3. [The monophasic pattern in oral glucose tolerance test as a predictive risk factor of type 2 diabetes in obese paediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Martínez, Aura D; Enes, Patricia; Martín-Frías, María; Roldán, Belén; Yelmo, Rosa; Barrio, Raquel

    2017-10-01

    The onset of obesity at young ages is strongly associated with the early development of type 2diabetes (T2D). The shape of the curves of glucose and insulin curves during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) could predict the risk of developing T2D. To analyse the morphology of the OGTT and determine T2D risk factors in a mainly Caucasian population of children and adolescents. Observational retrospective study including 588 patients (309 males, 279 females) with a mean age of 11.1±2years, and of whom 90.3% were Caucasian. Risk factors for T2D were compared in patients with a monophasic or biphasic pattern during the performance of an OGTT, as well as anthropometric and biochemical variables, insulin resistance, and beta-cell function. The shape of the glucose curve was monophasic in 50.2% of patients (50.8% male), biphasic in 48.5% (47.6% males), and indeterminate in 1.3%. The monophasic pattern showed lower insulin-sensitivity and worse beta-cell function. Patients with a biphasic pattern had a higher BMI, waist circumference, and blood pressure, although the results were not significant. Latin-American patients had significantly lower serum glucose levels with higher insulin levels during the OGTT. The pattern of response to an OGTT reflects different metabolic phenotypes. Paediatric patients with a biphasic pattern have lower risk-profiling for T2D. The performing of an OGTT could be useful to implement early intervention strategies in children and adolescents with obesity, in order to prevent the development of pre-diabetes or T2D. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Retrospective analysis of insulin responses to standard dosed oral glucose tests (OGTs) via naso-gastric tubing towards definition of an objective cut-off value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnken, Tobias; Delarocque, Julien; Schumacher, Svenja; Huber, Korinna; Feige, Karsten

    2018-01-19

    Insulin dysregulation (ID) with basal or postprandial hyperinsulinemia is one of the key findings in horses and ponies suffering from the equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Assessment of ID can easily be performed in clinical settings by the use of oral glucose challenge tests. Oral glucose test (OGT) performed with 1 g/kg bodyweight (BW) glucose administered via naso-gastric tube allows the exact administration of a defined glucose dosage in a short time. However, reliable cut-off values have not been available so far. Therefore, the aim of the study was to describe variations in insulin response to OGT via naso-gastric tubing and to provide a clinical useful cut-off value for ID when using the insulin quantification performed with an equine-optimized insulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data visualization revealed no clear separation in the serum insulin concentration of insulin sensitive and insulin dysregulated horses during OGT. Therefore, a model based clustering method was used to circumvent the use of an arbitrary limit for categorization. This method considered all data-points for the classification, taking into account the individual insulin trajectory during the OGT. With this method two clusters were differentiated, one with low and one with high insulin responses during OGT. The cluster of individuals with low insulin response was consistently detected, independently of the initialization parameters of the algorithm. In this cluster the 97.5% quantile of insulin is 110 µLU/mL at 120 min. We suggest using this insulin concentration of 110 µLU/mL as a cut-off value for samples obtained at 120 min in OGT. OGT performed with 1 g/kg BW glucose and administration via naso-gastric tubing can easily be performed under clinical settings. Application of the cut-off value of 110 µLU/mL at 120 min allows assessment of ID in horses.

  5. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary...... participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger...

  6. Arrival metering fuel consumption analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Arrival metering is a method of time-based traffic management that is used by the Federal Aviation Administration to plan and manage streams of arrival traffic during periods of : high demand at busy airports. The Traffic Management Advisor is an aut...

  7. The Thirty-Meter Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The Thirty-Meter Telescope international observatory will enable transformational observations over the full cosmic timeline all the way from the first luminous objects in the Universe to the planets and moons of our own solar system. To realize its full scientific potential, TMT will be equipped with a powerful ...

  8. Rate meter design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peon Aguirre, R.; Fonseca Araujo, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    An electric diagram is proposed to build a geiger detector Rate Meter, to count gamma radiation and X ray. This idea was made up with the prototype construction which has a five scales analogue display (100, 300, 1000, 3000 and 10000 c/s). (Author)

  9. Slow recovery of blood glucose in the insulin tolerance test during the prepartum transition period negatively impacts the nutritional status and reproductive performance postpartum of dairy cows.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hsu-Hsun; Kida, Katsuya; Miura, Ryotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Miyamoto, Akio; Kawashima, Chiho; Haneda, Shingo; Miyake, Yoh-ichi; Matsui, Motozumi

    2012-01-01

    In peripartum dairy cows, insulin resistance (IR) increases to adjust the direction of energy to lactation after calving. To investigate the effect of prepartum IR on postpartum reproductive performance, the insulin tolerance test (ITT) was applied to 15 cows at 3 weeks (Pre21) and 10 days (Pre10) before the predicted calving date. Blood glucose area under the curve (AUCglu) within 120 min after administration of 0.05 IU/kg-BW insulin was calculated. The occurrence of first ovulation, days to...

  10. Remote calibration system of a smart electrical energy meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakariae Jebroni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to control the power grid in real time has opened a new field of research, today researchers are trying to design electrical meters that are completely remote controlled, to create an advanced metering infrastructure. One of the most important processes in the field of measurement is the calibration of measuring instruments. The calibration process of the electrical meters was performed at laboratories. However, the new directives, now, require a regular test of accuracy. Nevertheless, moving each time on site to check the accuracy of a meter can be annoying. To solve this problem our contribution is to propose a new structure of a smart meter that integrates a calibration card, so that, this process is carried out remotely. To be able to calibrate the meter or test its accuracy, we have included an AC-AC converter powered by the electrical grid and that provides a stable voltage independent of the electrical grid in term of frequency and amplitude. The output voltage of the converter is used as the reference signal during calibration or accuracy testing. In this paper, we will present the structure of the calibration card, the study and dimensioning of the converter, as well as the control technique used to eliminate variations of the input voltage. At the end, we will present the results of simulations and experiments.

  11. Liquid ultrasonic flow meters for crude oil measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalivoda, Raymond J.; Lunde, Per

    2005-07-01

    Liquid ultrasonic flow meters (LUFMs) are gaining popularity for the accurate measurement of petroleum products. In North America the first edition of the API standard ''Measurement of liquid hydrocarbons by ultrasonic flow meters using transit time technology'' was issued in February 2005. It addresses both refined petroleum products and crude oil applications. Its field of application is mainly custody transfer applications but it does provide general guidelines for the installation and operation of LUFM's other applications such as allocation, check meters and leak detection. As with all new technologies performance claims are at times exaggerated or misunderstood and application knowledge is limited. Since ultrasonic meters have no moving parts they appear to have fewer limitations than other liquid flow meters. Liquids ultrasonic flow meters, like turbine meters, are sensitive to fluid properties. It is increasingly more difficult to apply on high viscosity products then on lighter hydrocarbon products. Therefore application data or experience on the measurement of refined or light crude oil may not necessarily be transferred to measuring medium to heavy crude oils. Before better and more quantitative knowledge is available on how LUFMs react on different fluids, the arguments advocating reduced need for in-situ proving and increased dependency on laboratory flow calibration (e.g. using water instead of hydrocarbons) may be questionable. The present paper explores the accurate measurement of crude oil with liquid ultrasonic meters. It defines the unique characteristics of the different API grades of crude oils and how they can affect the accuracy of the liquid ultrasonic measurement. Flow testing results using a new LUFM design are discussed. The paper is intended to provide increased insight into the potentials and limitations of crude oil measurement using ultrasonic flow meters. (author) (tk)

  12. FUSION OF VENTURI AND ULTRASONIC FLOW METER FOR ENHANCED FLOW METER CHARACTERISTICS USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Santhosh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a technique for measurement of liquid flow using venturi and ultrasonic flow meter(UFM to have following objectives a to design a multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF architecture for using both the sensors, b improve sensitivity and linearity of venturi and ultrasonic flow meter, and c detect and diagnosis of faults in sensor if any. Fuzzy logic algorithm is used to fuse outputs of both the sensor and train the fuzzy block to produces output which has an improved characteristics in terms of both sensitivity and linearity. For identification of sensor faults a comparative test algorithm is designed. Once trained proposed technique is tested in real life, results show successful implementation of proposed objectives.

  13. Heterogeneity of high-density lipoprotein particles and insulin output during oral glucose tolerance test in men with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, J; Kwaśniak, M; Wybrańska, I; Hartwich, J; Guevara, I; Zdzienicka, A; Kruszelnicka-Kwiatkowska, O; Piwowarska, W; Miszczuk-Jamska, B; Dembińska-Kieć, A

    1996-03-01

    We compared the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and particle heterogeneity in 60 nonobese (normal body mass index, BMI) men suffering from coronary artery disease (CAD) with normolipemia and normoinsulinemia with lower and higher insulin output during the oral glucose tolerance test (silent hyperinsulinemia). The apolipoprotein apoAI, apoAII, and apoE levels were higher in the high insulin response (HI) group than in low insulin response (LI) group. The ratio of apoAI versus total protein and the ratio of apoAI versus total cholesterol were increased in HI compared with LI. The lipid components in HDL were higher in LI than in HI, while for HDL2 they were higher in HI. The fractioning of HDL by gradient gel electrophoresis revealed a different pattern of HDL particles in both groups. The larger particles, HDL2b and HDL2a (mean particle diameters 10.6 and 9.2 nm, respectively), occur more frequently in HI patients (up to 60%) than in LI patients, whereas the smaller particles, HDL3a and HDL3b (mean particle diameters 8.6 and 7.8 nm, respectively), predominate in LI patients. Our results demonstrate that even in the normoglycemic, normocholesterolemic CAD patients, a high insulin output observed during the oral glucose tolerance test may be connected with a different HDL particle pattern, which suggests changes in the reverse cholesterol transport.

  14. Squid based beam current meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.

    1983-01-01

    A SQUID based beam current meter has the capability of measuring the current of a beam with as little as 30 x 155 antiprotons (with a signal to noise ratio of 2). If low noise dc current is used to cancel most of the beam or an up-down counter is used to count auto-resets this sensitivity will be available at any time in the acumulation process. This current meter will therefore be a unique diagnostic tool for optimizing the performance of several Tev I components. Besides requiring liquid helium it seems that its only drawback is not to follow with the above sensitivity a sudden beam change larger than 16 μA, something that could be done using a second one in a less sensitive configuration

  15. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of cloud computing and In-ternet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decision......, mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world dataset as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns along......-making. Now-a-days, smart meter analytics systems consist of analytical algorithms that process massive amounts of data. These analytics algorithms require ample amounts of realistic data for testing and verification purposes. However, it is usually difficult to obtain adequate amounts of realistic data...

  16. Solid state semiconductor detectorized survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Eisuke; Nagase, Yoshiyuki; Furuhashi, Masato

    1987-01-01

    Survey meters are used for measurement of gamma ray dose rate of the space and the surface contamination dencity that the atomic energy plant and the radiation facility etc. We have recently developed semiconductor type survey meter (Commercial name: Compact Survey Meter). This survey meter is a small-sized dose rate meter with excellent function. The special features are using semiconductor type detector which we have developed by our own technique, stablar wide range than the old type, long life, and easy to carry. Now we introduce the efficiency and the function of the survey meter. (author)

  17. Federal Building Metering Guidance (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(e), Metering of Energy Use)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    Guidance defines which federal buildings are appropriate to meter, provides metering prioritization recommendations for agencies with limited resources, and discusses the requirement for agencies to submit metering implementation plans to the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. Assessment of Motivational Cognitions in Diabetes Self-Care: the Motivation Thought Frequency Scales for Glucose Testing, Physical Activity and Healthy Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Sophie C; Kavanagh, David J; Gericke, Christian A; King, Neil; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie

    2017-06-01

    There is a need for improved measurement of motivation for diabetes self-care. The Elaborated Intrusion Theory of Desire offers a coherent framework for understanding and identifying the cognitive-affective events that constitute the subjective experience of motivation and may therefore inform the development of such an instrument. Recent research has shown the resultant Motivation Thought Frequency scale (MTF) to have a stable factor structure (Intensity, Incentives Imagery, Self-Efficacy Imagery, Availability) when applied to physical activity, excessive snacking or alcohol use in the general population. The current study aimed to confirm the four-factor structure of the MTF for glucose testing, physical activity and healthy eating in people with type 2 diabetes. Associations with self-reports of concurrent diabetic self-care behaviours were also examined. Confirmatory factor analyses tested the internal structure, and multiple regressions assessed the scale's relationship with concurrent self-care behaviours. The MTF was completed by 340 adults with type 2 diabetes, and 237 from that sample also reported self-care behaviours. Separate MTFs assessed motivation for glucose testing, physical activity and healthy eating. Self-care was assessed using questions from the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities. The MTF for each goal achieved an acceptable fit on all indices after selected errors within factors were allowed to intercorrelate. Intensity and Self-Efficacy Imagery provided the strongest and most consistent correlations with relevant self-care behaviours. Results provide preliminary support for the MTF in a diabetes sample. Testing of its sensitivity to change and its predictive utility over time is needed.

  19. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.

    2003-01-01

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Versatile operation meter for nuclear information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yong; Xiao Yabin; Wang Shuyuan; Shu Jingfang; Di Shaoliang; Wu Hongbin

    1995-01-01

    This paper states a low-cost, small-volume, multi-function, reproducible and new model intelligent nuclear electronic meter. It's hardware and Software were detailed and the 137 Cs spectrum with this meter was presented

  1. Calibration of dose meters used in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This manual is a practical guide, not a comprehensive textbook, to the instrumentation and procedures necessary to calibrate a radiation dose meter used in clinical practice against a secondary standard dose meter

  2. Responses of plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids to intravenous insulin tolerance tests in dairy cows during a 670-day lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marett, L C; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J; Macmillan, K L; Dunshea, F R; Leury, B J

    2017-04-01

    The metabolic response of dairy cows undergoing an extended lactation to an insulin tolerance test (ITT) was investigated. Twelve multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows that calved in late winter in a pasture-based system were managed for a 670-d lactation by delaying rebreeding. Four 5-wk experimental periods commenced at approximately 73, 217, 422, and 520 d in milk (DIM). Cows were offered a diet of perennial ryegrass (73 and 422 DIM) or pasture hay and silage (217 and 520 DIM) supplemented with 1 kg dry matter (DM) of grain (control; CON) or 6 kg DM of grain (GRN). Daily energy intake was approximately 160 and 215 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow for CON and GRN, respectively. At all other times, cows were managed as a single herd and grazed pasture supplemented with grain to an estimated daily intake of 180 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow. Cows were fitted with a jugular catheter during the final week of each experimental period. An ITT using 0.12 IU of insulin/kg of body weight (BW) was conducted on each cow at approximately 100, 250, 460, and 560 DIM. Cows in the GRN treatment had greater milk yield, milk solids yield, and BW than cows in the CON treatment. Within treatment, individual cow responses to the ITT were highly variable. Plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations declined at all stages of lactation. The clearance rate of plasma glucose was slower before 300 DIM than after 300 DIM, which indicates greater inhibition of hepatic glucose synthesis and uptake of glucose by insulin-dependent tissues later in the lactation. The clearance rate, area under the curve, and recovery of plasma NEFA were greatest at 100 DIM, indicating greater responsiveness to the antilipolytic effect of insulin in early lactation, but also greater lipolytic responsiveness. The variation in response to the ITT was mostly a result of DIM rather than diet. However, the plasma NEFA response showed interactions between diet and DIM, indicating that energy intake

  3. Hardware Design of a Smart Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko; Anthony A. Olaomi

    2014-01-01

    Smart meters are electronic measurement devices used by utilities to communicate information for billing customers and operating their electric systems. This paper presents the hardware design of a smart meter. Sensing and circuit protection circuits are included in the design of the smart meter in which resistors are naturally a fundamental part of the electronic design. Smart meters provides a route for energy savings, real-time pricing, automated data collection and elimina...

  4. Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rodney Stewart; Stuart White; Candice Moy; Ariane Liu; Pierre Mukheibir; Damien Giurco; Thomas Boyle

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering) has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been ...

  5. Hydrothermal Synthesized and Alkaline Activated Carbons Prepared from Glucose and Fructose—Detailed Characterization and Testing in Heavy Metals and Methylene Blue Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Krstić

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the presented paper, activated carbons were prepared from fructose and glucose, and activating agents (KOH, NaOH, LiOH by hydrothermal treatment (HTC treatment. After preparation, samples were characterized in details. Different techniques were used: x-ray powder diffraction analysis, Raman spectral analysis, elemental analysis, and determination of textural and morphological properties. Obtained results showed dependence of investigated properties and the nature of precursors (glucose or fructose as well as the type of hydroxides used as activating agents. After characterization, samples were tested as materials for heavy metals (Pb2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ and methylene blue removal. Also, adsorption experiments were performed on wastewaters taken from tailings of the lead and zinc mine and kinetic of the methylene blue removal was studied. The factors which distinguished the KOH activated samples were high yield (~14%, content of organic carbon (63–74%, porosity and specific surface area (SBET ~700–1360 m2/g, a low degree of the crystal phase, indications that potassium ions may be included in heavy metals removal, good removal of the heavy metal ions (~47–59 mg/g for Pb2+, ~21–27 mg/g for Cd2+ and ~6–10 mg/g for Zn2+ and fast (~10–30 min and good methylene blue (~60–200 mg/g removal.

  6. Burning mouth syndrome: results of screening tests for vitamin and mineral deficiencies, thyroid hormone, and glucose levels-experience at Mayo Clinic over a decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morr Verenzuela, Claudia S; Davis, Mark D P; Bruce, Alison J; Torgerson, Rochelle R

    2017-09-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a disorder characterized by chronic mouth pain in the absence of objective clinical abnormalities. Vitamin or mineral deficiencies may have a role in BMS, but data regarding the prevalence and relevance of hematinic deficiencies are conflicting. We aimed to determine the frequency of specific laboratory abnormalities in patients with BMS. We retrospectively reviewed the results of screening blood tests in patients with BMS at our institution between January 2003 and December 2013. Among 659 patients with BMS, the most common decreased values or deficiencies were vitamin D 3 (15%), vitamin B 2 (15%), vitamin B 6 (5.7%), zinc (5.7%), vitamin B 1 (5.3%), thyrotropin (TSH) (3.2%), vitamin B 12 (0.8%), and folic acid (0.7%). Laboratory values for fasting blood glucose and TSH were increased in 23.7% and 5.2%, respectively. In patients with symptoms of BMS, our results suggest it is reasonable to screen for fasting blood glucose, vitamin D (D 2 and D 3 ), vitamin B 6 , zinc, vitamin B 1 , and TSH. Deficiencies of vitamin B 12 and folic acid were rare (<1% abnormal). © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. Indexes of carbohydrate exchange (CE) and results of toleration test to glucose after effect of low dose of ionizing radiation in late periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    The indexes of tolerance test to glucose and values of generalized criterion (GC) being information index of CE system status were determined for 100 liquidators of Chernobyl accident with purpose of study of carbohydrate exchange (CE) status. Analysis of these mean values was carried out according to participation data in liquidation works, exposition duration, rate of radioactive contamination of zone, absorbed dose of external irradiation and age of examined persons. Contribution of each studied components of radiation factor on CE status is estimated. It is determined that both the absorbed dose and the exposition duration are main factors influencing on CE. In examined group there were 32 men with disorders of CE , 20 of them (GC=18.33±0.48) were placed to group of higher risk, 9 men have high tolerance of organism to glucose (GC=32.84±1.37) and 3 men have diabetes of II type (GC=68.6±2.16). Frequency of cases of liquidators' of Chernobyl accident CE disorders allows to made conclusion that ills have dis-function of endocrine section of pancreas

  8. New Criteria for Assessing the Accuracy of Blood Glucose Monitors meeting, October 28, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John; Roberts, Ruth; Vigersky, Robert A; Schwartz, Frank

    2012-03-01

    Glucose meters (GMs) are routinely used for self-monitoring of blood glucose by patients and for point-of-care glucose monitoring by health care providers in outpatient and inpatient settings. Although widely assumed to be accurate, numerous reports of inaccuracies with resulting morbidity and mortality have been noted. Insulin dosing errors based on inaccurate GMs are most critical. On October 28, 2011, the Diabetes Technology Society invited 45 diabetes technology clinicians who were attending the 2011 Diabetes Technology Meeting to participate in a closed-door meeting entitled New Criteria for Assessing the Accuracy of Blood Glucose Monitors. This report reflects the opinions of most of the attendees of that meeting. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the public, and several medical societies are currently in dialogue to establish a new standard for GM accuracy. This update to the FDA standard is driven by improved meter accuracy, technological advances (pumps, bolus calculators, continuous glucose monitors, and insulin pens), reports of hospital and outpatient deaths, consumer complaints about inaccuracy, and research studies showing that several approved GMs failed to meet FDA or International Organization for Standardization standards in postapproval testing. These circumstances mandate a set of new GM standards that appropriately match the GMs' analytical accuracy to the clinical accuracy required for their intended use, as well as ensuring their ongoing accuracy following approval. The attendees of the New Criteria for Assessing the Accuracy of Blood Glucose Monitors meeting proposed a graduated standard and other methods to improve GM performance, which are discussed in this meeting report. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Chat Closed engagement en -- Have Type 2 Diabetes? - 2017-03-lwt2d-en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ... Pinterest Youtube Instagram Diabetes Stops Here Blog Online Community Site ... Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ... de Cure Women's Series Do-It-Yourself Fundraising Become a Volunteer American Diabetes Month® American Diabetes Association ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics ...

  14. Oxygen restriction as challenge test reveals early high-fat-diet-induced changes in glucose and lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorde, L.P.M.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Derous, D.; Stelt, van der I.; Masania, J.; Rabbani, N.; Thornalley, P.J.; Keijer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Challenge tests stress homeostasis and may reveal deviations in health that remain masked under unchallenged conditions. Ideally, challenge tests are non-invasive and applicable in an early phase of an animal experiment. Oxygen restriction (OxR; based on ambient, mild normobaric hypoxia) is a

  15. Smart Metering. Technological, economic and legal aspects. 2. ed.; Smart Metering. Technologische, wirtschaftliche und juristische Aspekte des Smart Metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler-Schute, Christiana (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    Smart metering comprises more than just meter technology, and the use of information and communication technologies is indispensable. Processes, roles and business models must be reconsidered as further challenges arise in the context of smart metering. For one, there is the operator of the metering points. Secondly, there is the end user who is in the role of an active market partner. Further, there is smart metering as a basic technology, e.g. for smart grids and smart homes. In spite of the need for action, many utilities are reluctant to introduce smart metering. Reasons for this are the cost, a lack of defined standards, and an unclear legal situation. On the other hand, smart metering offers potential for grids and distribution that should be made use of. The authors discuss all aspects of the subject. The point out the chances and limitations of smart metering and present their own experience. [German] Smart Metering geht weit ueber die Zaehlertechnologie hinaus und der Einsatz von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien ist unabdingbar. Damit einhergehend muessen Prozesse, Rollen und auch Geschaeftsmodelle neu durchdacht werden. Denn weitere Herausforderungen stehen im direkten Zusammenhang mit Smart Metering. Das ist zum einen die Rolle des Messstellenbetreibers / Messdienstleisters. Das ist zum anderen der Endnutzer, dem die Rolle des aktiven Marktpartners zugedacht wird. Das ist des Weiteren das Smart Metering als Basistechnologie beispielsweise fuer Smart Grid und Smart Home. Trotz des Handlungsdrucks stehen viele Unternehmen der Energiewirtschaft dem Smart Metering zurueckhaltend gegenueber. Drei gewichtige Gruende werden ins Feld gefuehrt: die Kostenfrage, nicht definierte Standards und die in vielen Bereichen ungeklaerte Gesetzeslage. Demgegenueber bietet das Smart Metering Potenziale fuer Netz und Vertrieb, die es zu nutzen gilt. Die Autoren setzen sich in ihren Beitraegen mit diesen Themen auseinander, zeigen Chancen, aber auch Grenzen des

  16. Aesthetic and emotional effects of meter and rhyme in poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Christian; Menninghaus, Winfried; von Koppenfels, Martin; Raettig, Tim; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Otterbein, Sascha; Kotz, Sonja A

    2013-01-01

    Metrical patterning and rhyme are frequently employed in poetry but also in infant-directed speech, play, rites, and festive events. Drawing on four line-stanzas from nineteenth and twentieth German poetry that feature end rhyme and regular meter, the present study tested the hypothesis that meter and rhyme have an impact on aesthetic liking, emotional involvement, and affective valence attributions. Hypotheses that postulate such effects have been advocated ever since ancient rhetoric and poetics, yet they have barely been empirically tested. More recently, in the field of cognitive poetics, these traditional assumptions have been readopted into a general cognitive framework. In the present experiment, we tested the influence of meter and rhyme as well as their interaction with lexicality in the aesthetic and emotional perception of poetry. Participants listened to stanzas that were systematically modified with regard to meter and rhyme and rated them. Both rhyme and regular meter led to enhanced aesthetic appreciation, higher intensity in processing, and more positively perceived and felt emotions, with the latter finding being mediated by lexicality. Together these findings clearly show that both features significantly contribute to the aesthetic and emotional perception of poetry and thus confirm assumptions about their impact put forward by cognitive poetics. The present results are explained within the theoretical framework of cognitive fluency, which links structural features of poetry with aesthetic and emotional appraisal.

  17. Fundamental principles of rotary displacement meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, J. [Schlumberger Industries, Owenton, KY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The gas meter exists to continually and accurately measure the volume of gas supplied over the complete flow range of the load. In effect the gas meter serves as the {open_quotes}cash register{close_quotes} of the gas industry; its accurate and dependable performance ensures fair dealings for both the supplier and the user. An investment both in and of itself, the gas meter should be chosen as a function of its usefullness both over the short term and the long term. Thus in addition to initial cost, one must take into account various associated factors, costs and benefits, including the following: Design Characteristics Application, suitability, Meter features and options, Operation constraints, Installation, Service and maintenance, Repair and replacement, Life expectancy, Compatibility with complimentary products, Correcting devices, Remote reading capabilities, Data generation and gathering, Upgradeabilty. This paper will look at one positive displacement meter, the Rotary meter, and address the fundamentals principals of the technology as well as looking at some of the benefits derived from its application. Rotary positive displacement meters were introduced at the end of last century. Used primarily for metering transmission sized loads, the meters` measuring capabilities have extended to cover nearly all areas of distribution with exception of domestic applications. Rotary meters are available in rated capacities from 800 cfh to 102,000 cfh and operating pressures from 175 PSIG to 1440 PSIG. The use of rotary meters on load ranges in the 800 to 10,000 cfh category has increased and is replacing the use of diaphragm meters because of the smaller relative size of rotaries, and improvements in rangeabilities in the last few years. Turbine meters are usually the meter of choice on loads over 16,000 cfh unless a meter with high rangeability is required because of varying load characteristics, in which case a large foot mounted rotary might still be selected.

  18. The changes in levels of C-P and insulin in glucose tolerance test in rats with experimental non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinqiu; Lei Ming

    2001-01-01

    The changes in levels of C-P and insulin were investigated in the GT test in rats with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In order to establish a model of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), the authors injected rats with small dose streptozocoi (i.v.). Two weeks after the injection, the rats developed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Then, they were fed with high energy diet for eight weeks to form NIDDM. The results showed that the highest peak time of C-P and insulin in NIDDM was remarkably later than that in normal subjects, the highest peak time was in two hours (P < 0.05). The data suggest that level of C-P could accurately respond to level of insulin, and this experimental non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus model is ideal

  19. Multitasking metering enhances generation, transmission operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, E.

    2008-11-15

    The Dairyland Power Cooperative (DPC) which operates from La Crosse, Wisconsin has the capacity to generate and transmit 1000 MW of power to 25 member cooperatives and 20 municipalities who serve over 500,000 customers. When DPC was experiencing diminished service within its analog cellular-based data communications system, it was presented with an opportunity to install a new automated telecommunications system that would provide secure collection of meter readings from all of its substations. DPC decided to evaluate an advanced multifunctional digital meter from Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL). The SEL-734 Revenue Metering System offers complete instantaneous metering functions, including voltages, currents, power, energy and power factor. Other capabilities include predictive demand, time-of-use metering, automatic voltage monitoring, harmonics metering and synchrophasor measurement. From a metering perspective, DPC wanted to perform daily load profiles and interval-by-interval metering of their delivery points for billing purposes. They also wanted to provide real-time monitoring of electricity being delivered for both generation and transmission purposes and to make that information available to a distribution SCADA system for their members. The SEL-734 Revenue Meter was well suited to those needs. The SEL-734 provides very high-accuracy energy metering, load profile data collection, instantaneous power measurements, power quality monitoring, and communicates simultaneously over a modem, serial ports, and wide area networks (WAN). The meter is backed with a ten-year warranty as well as field support engineers. 5 figs.

  20. The 59 meter dash - automatic rapid meter reading in Ronneby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Hans [Enersearch (Sweden); Selander, Lars [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden); Bergstroem, Ulrika [Sydkraft (Sweden)

    1999-02-01

    As a result of deregulation of the telecommunications and energy markets, the utilities in Sweden see opportunities to use power lines for additional profitable applications such as transmission of data; the technology is called Power Line Telecommunications (PLT). The potential advantages are said to be 'massive'. The potential applications include remote security, automatic meter reading, load management and 'smart' home automation. A small scale feasibility study has been carried out in Ronneby in Sweden where it was shown that load management and efficiency improvements can reduce the costs of supplying the town with heat and electricity by about 3%. The Ronneby trial is described in detail. Since Scandinavia makes use of weather-dependent renewables for much of its power generation, load management is an attractive potential application of PLT. (UK)

  1. A importância do teste de tolerância à glicose oral no diagnóstico da intolerância à glicose e diabetes mellitus do tipo 2 em mulheres com síndrome dos ovários policísticos The importance of oral glucose tolerance test in diagnosis of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Pontes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a importância do teste de tolerância à glicose oral (TTGO no diagnóstico da intolerância à glicose (IG e diabetes mellitus do tipo 2 (DM-2 em mulheres com SOP. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo em que foram incluídas 247 pacientes portadoras de SOP, selecionadas de forma aleatória. O diagnóstico de IG foi obtido por meio do TTGO de duas horas com 75 gramas de glicose de acordo com os critérios do World Health Organization (WHO (IG: glicemia plasmática aos 120 minutos >140 mg/dL e 200 mg/dL quanto pela glicemia de jejum segundo os critérios da American Diabetes Association (glicemia de jejum alterada: glicemia plasmática >100 e 126 mg/dL. Para comparar o TTGO com a glicemia de jejum foi aplicado o modelo de regressão logística para medidas repetidas. Para a análise das características clínicas e bioquímicas das pacientes com e sem IG e/ou DM-2 foi utilizada a ANOVA seguida do teste de Tukey. O valor pPURPOSE: To evaluate the importance of the oral glucose tolerance test for the diagnosis of glucose intolerance (GI and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2 in women with PCOS. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 247 patients with PCOS selected at random. The diagnosis of GI was obtained from the two-hour oral glucose tolerance test with 75 g of glucose according to the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO (GI: 120 minutes for plasma glucose >140 mg/dL and 200 mg/dL and fasting glucose using the criteria of the American Diabetes Association (impaired fasting glucose: fasting plasma glucose >100 and 126 mg/dL. A logistic regression model for repeated measures was applied to compare the oral glucose tolerance test with fasting plasma glucose. ANOVA followed by the Tukey test was used for the analysis of the clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with and without GI and/or DM-2. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: PCOS patients had a mean age of 24.8±6.3, and body

  2. Neuroscience of glucose homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Fleur, S E; Fliers, E; Kalsbeek, A

    2014-01-01

    Plasma glucose concentrations are homeostatically regulated and maintained within strict boundaries. Several mechanisms are in place to increase glucose output when glucose levels in the circulation drop as a result of glucose utilization, or to decrease glucose output and increase tissue glucose

  3. Optical position meters analyzed in the noninertial reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarabrin, Sergey P.; Seleznyov, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of general relativity we develop a method for the analysis of the operation of the optical position meters in their photodetectors proper reference frames. These frames are noninertial in general due to the action of external fluctuative forces on meters test masses, including detectors. For comparison we also perform the calculations in the laboratory (globally inertial) reference frame and demonstrate that for certain optical schemes laboratory-based analysis results in unmeasurable quantities, in contrast to the detector-based analysis. We also calculate the response of the simplest optical meters to weak plane gravitational waves and fluctuative motions of their test masses. It is demonstrated that for the round-trip meter analysis in both the transverse-traceless (TT) and local Lorentz (LL) gauges produces equal results, while for the forward-trip meter corresponding results differ in accordance with different physical assumptions (e.g. procedure of clocks synchronization) implicitly underlying the construction of the TT and LL gauges.

  4. Too cheap to meter what?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedekind, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    Full text: 50 years ago, at 17:30 hours, 26 June 1954, in the town of Obninsk, near Moscow, the first nuclear power plant sent electricity to residences and businesses. Atomic energy had crossed the divide from military uses to peaceful ones, demonstrating the potential to fuel civilian electric power plants. The milestone is being marked this year at an IAEA international nuclear power conference in Obninsk. Past experience will be reviewed, but the focus is on meeting future challenges. Though it has come a long way in 50 years, nuclear energy today finds itself in a struggle of the fittest to carve a niche over the next fifty - in the marketplace and in the public eye. Cliches and sound bites tell part of the nuclear story. Visionary talk by nuclear proponents in 1954 was about future energy sources that would be 'too cheap to meter', a phrase critics pounced upon. Today in 2004 the 'too cheap to meter' phrase occasionally haunts the atom, but pops up more often than not in promotional ads for anything from wind power to web sites. Talk of nuclear energy now is of a 'renaissance' and 'second wind.' New nuclear plants are most attractive where energy demand is growing and resources are scarce, and where energy security, air pollution and greenhouse gases are priorities, IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei points out. In cities, towns, and villages, reality is different, or too much the same, depending how you see and live it. Cheap or not, nuclear energy today supplies one-sixth of the world's electricity in some 30 countries. Still, it does not produce enough power. Neither does any other energy source. More than 1.5 billion people have no electricity to meter whatsoever - not from renewables, solar, nuclear, biomass, wind, coal, oil, gas, firewood, or hydrogen, the publicized promise of tomorrow. So what will it take? Maybe bigger blackouts or hotter days than the world has seen. Certainly needed are more attention, action, and money. In dollar terms

  5. Interference by pralidoxime (PAM) salts in clinical laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Sumika; Kohguchi, Katsunori; Tohyama, Kaoru; Watanabe, Mikio; Iwatani, Yoshinori

    2013-02-01

    Drugs sometimes alter the results of clinical laboratory tests. We examined the effects of pralidoxime (PAM) salts, a medicine used to treat organophosphorus poisoning, on clinical laboratory test results for the first time. The effects of PAM salts on glucose (GLU) measurements were examined using a point-of-care testing (POCT) meter, four self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) meters, and two biochemical autoanalyzers. The effects of PAM salts on other clinical tests were also evaluated. The addition of PAM iodide or potassium iodide, but not of PAM chloride or potassium chloride, to blood samples increased the GLU values measured by one POCT meter and 4 SMBG meters using the enzyme electrode (hydrogen peroxidase or oxygen electrode) method. On the other hand, PAM iodide or PAM chloride, but not KI or KCl, affected the values measured at 340 nm by an autoanalyzer using absorption spectrophotometry in 8 of 14 clinical laboratory tests. The absorption spectrum of PAM changed from 294 to 338 nm due to the reaction between PAM and the alkaline buffer, a component of the measuring reagents. PAM iodide increases the GLU values measured by the enzyme electrode method, and PAM salts affected the values measured at 340 nm by absorption spectrophotometry in many other clinical test items. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Chaos based blood glucose noninvasive measurement: new concept and custom study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Non invasive monitoring of Blood Glucose (BG has been a challenge calling for new accurate and fast measurement methods. Objective. To propose new concept of chaos based BG non invasive test aiming at personal customization requirements. Methods. First to build the compact RC model of tissue BG through impedance precision measuring Kit, then to simulate and soft-test BG by Boolean chaotic Codec circuits in soft tool Multisim 13.0, The third to capture the chaotic decoding outputs with the Kit plus PC in calculated signatures of resistor and phase of the tested impedance at the subjects’ left wrist in synchronous test by Bayer BG meter. Results. All in controlled trials of Bayer BG meter, the chaotic BG modelling had gained three new compared formulae in merits of errors less than 1mmol/L and latency less than 1minute. Conclusion. During further verification of this chaotic test paradigm, the opened logic route of above methods will boost measurement experts’ confidence in overcoming future problems of blood glucose monitoring in vivo.

  7. ATD-2 Surface Scheduling and Metering Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppenbarger, Richard A.; Jung, Yoon Chul; Capps, Richard Alan; Engelland, Shawn A.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation describes the concept of ATD-2 tactical surface scheduling and metering. The concept is composed of several elements, including data exchange and integration; surface modeling; surface scheduling; and surface metering. The presentation explains each of the elements. Surface metering is implemented to balance demand and capacity• When surface metering is on, target times from surface scheduler areconverted to advisories for throttling demand• Through the scheduling process, flights with CTOTs will not get addedmetering delay (avoids potential for ‘double delay’)• Carriers can designate certain flights as exempt from metering holds• Demand throttle in Phase 1 at CLT is through advisories sent to rampcontrollers for pushback instructions to the flight deck– Push now– Hold for an advised period of time (in minutes)• Principles of surface metering can be more generally applied to otherairports in the NAS to throttle demand via spot-release times (TMATs Strong focus on optimal use of airport resources• Flexibility enables stakeholders to vary the amount of delay theywould like transferred to gate• Addresses practical aspects of executing surface metering in aturbulent real world environment• Algorithms designed for both short term demand/capacityimbalances (banks) or sustained metering situations• Leverage automation to enable surface metering capability withoutrequiring additional positions• Represents first step in Tactical/Strategic fusion• Provides longer look-ahead calculations to enable analysis ofstrategic surface metering potential usage

  8. Effects of gender, body weight, and blood glucose dynamics on the growth hormone response to the glucagon stimulation test in patients with pituitary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jessica R; Utz, Andrea L; Devin, Jessica K

    2016-02-01

    Body weight blunts the growth hormone (GH) response to provocative stimuli. The appropriate GH cut-off to confirm GH deficiency in obese and overweight patients undergoing the glucagon stimulation test (GST) has recently been questioned. We hypothesized that the peak GH would be inversely related to the nadir blood glucose (BG) after glucagon and that this may be a mechanism influencing peak GH in overweight patients. This retrospective study examined effects of gender, body weight, and BG dynamics on GH response to GST in patients evaluated in our Pituitary Center. Adult patients who underwent GST from September 2009-2014 were included. Continuous variable comparisons were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and categorical data by Fisher's Exact Test. Spearman correlation was used to determine associations between continuous variables. 42 patients (N=28, 66.7% female) had sufficient data for analysis. Obese patients (N=26) had a reduced GH response, summarized as GH area under the curve (AUC) (p=0.03 vs. non-obese patients) and higher BG during GST, summarized as AUC (pAUC (rs=-0.45; p=0.01), peak GH response (rs=-0.42; p=0.02) and nadir BG (rs=0.48; pAUC (rs=-0.38; p=0.03) and peak GH (rs=-0.37; p=0.04) such that patients (N=32) with higher nadir BG had lower peak GH in response to glucagon. Obese patients, particularly women, do not respond as robustly to glucagon stimulation. These data suggest that there exists an altered BG profile during GST in obese individuals, and that a less robust hypoglycemic stimulus may contribute to an impaired GH response. We suggest measuring BG levels during glucagon stimulation testing to assist with clinical interpretation of GH dynamics. The diagnostic accuracy of the GST in patients with known disorders in glucose metabolism and those taking anti-diabetic medications deserves further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Flow-injection amperometric determination of glucose using a biosensor based on immobilization of glucose oxidase onto Au seeds decorated on core Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samphao, Anchalee; Butmee, Preeyanut; Jitcharoen, Juthamas; Švorc, Ľubomír; Raber, Georg; Kalcher, Kurt

    2015-09-01

    An amperometric biosensor based on chemisorption of glucose oxidase (GOx) on Au seeds decorated on magnetic core Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4@Au) and their immobilization on screen-printed carbon electrode bulk-modified with manganese oxide (SPCE{MnO2}) was designed for the determination of glucose. The Fe3O4@Au/GOx modified SPCE{MnO2} was used in a flow-injection analysis (FIA) arrangement. The experimental conditions were investigated in amperometric mode with the following optimized parameters: flow rate 1.7 mL min(-1), applied potential +0.38 V, phosphate buffer solution (PBS; 0.1 mol L(-1), pH 7.0) as carrier and 3.89 unit mm(-2) enzyme glucose oxidase loading on the active surface of the SPCE. The designed biosensor in FIA arrangement yielded a linear dynamic range for glucose from 0.2 to 9.0 mmol L(-1) with a sensitivity of 2.52 µA mM(-1) cm(-2), a detection limit of 0.1 mmol L(-1) and a quantification limit of 0.3 mmol L(-1). Moreover, a good repeatability of 2.8% (number of measurements n=10) and a sufficient reproducibility of 4.0% (number of sensors n=3) were achieved. It was found that the studied system Fe3O4@Au facilitated not only a simpler enzyme immobilization but also provided wider linear range. The practical application of the proposed biosensor for FIA quantification of glucose was tested in glucose sirup samples, honeys and energy drinks with the results in good accordance with those obtained by an optical glucose meter and with the contents declared by the producers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gas meter or flow instrumentation... Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1320-90 Gas meter or flow..., methanol and formaldehyde emissions requires the use of gas meters or flow instrumentation to determine...

  11. Ninth international conference on metering and tariffs for energy supply. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Contributions to the ninth international conference on Metering and Tariffs for Energy Supply are presented. Topics reviewed include legal metrology, regulation and the commercial framework (3 papers); metering in a competitive supply (7 papers); interactive papers (13 papers); standardisation (5 papers); equipment design (5 papers); equipment manufacture and testing (5 papers); data collection and processing (6 papers); securing and enhancing revenue (5 papers); prepayment systems (5 papers); and metering as a business (4 papers). (UK)

  12. Hyperglycemic clamp and oral glucose tolerance test for 3-year prediction of clinical onset in persistently autoantibody-positive offspring and siblings of type 1 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balti, Eric V; Vandemeulebroucke, Evy; Weets, Ilse; Van De Velde, Ursule; Van Dalem, Annelien; Demeester, Simke; Verhaeghen, Katrijn; Gillard, Pieter; De Block, Christophe; Ruige, Johannes; Keymeulen, Bart; Pipeleers, Daniel G; Decochez, Katelijn; Gorus, Frans K

    2015-02-01

    In preparation of future prevention trials, we aimed to identify predictors of 3-year diabetes onset among oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)- and hyperglycemic clamp-derived metabolic markers in persistently islet autoantibody positive (autoAb(+)) offspring and siblings of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The design is a registry-based study. Functional tests were performed in a hospital setting. Persistently autoAb(+) first-degree relatives of patients with T1D (n = 81; age 5-39 years). We assessed 3-year predictive ability of OGTT- and clamp-derived markers using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and Cox regression analysis. Area under the curve of clamp-derived first-phase C-peptide release (AUC(5-10 min); min 5-10) was determined in all relatives and second-phase release (AUC(120-150 min); min 120-150) in those aged 12-39 years (n = 62). Overall, the predictive ability of AUC(5-10 min) was better than that of peak C-peptide, the best predictor among OGTT-derived parameters (ROC-AUC [95%CI]: 0.89 [0.80-0.98] vs 0.81 [0.70-0.93]). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and AUC(5-10 min) provided the best combination of markers for prediction of diabetes within 3 years; (ROC-AUC [95%CI]: 0.92 [0.84-1.00]). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, AUC(5-10 min)) (P = .001) was the strongest independent predictor and interacted significantly with all tested OGTT-derived parameters. AUC(5-10 min) below percentile 10 of controls was associated with 50-70% progression to T1D regardless of age. Similar results were obtained for AUC(120-150 min). Clamp-derived first-phase C-peptide release can be used as an efficient and simple screening strategy in persistently autoAb(+) offspring and siblings of T1D patients to predict impending diabetes.

  13. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as described in § 1065.650, as follows: (1) Use the actual value of calculated raw exhaust in the..., you may use an intake-air flow meter signal that does not give the actual value of raw exhaust, as... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.225 Intake-air...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.220 - Fuel flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... follows: (1) Use the actual value of calculated raw exhaust flow rate in the following cases: (i) For... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.220 Fuel flow meter. (a) Application. You may use fuel flow in combination with a chemical balance of carbon (or oxygen...

  15. A Surface Relief Meter Based on Trinocular Vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, V.G.S.; Sablik, P.W.; Balendonck, J.; Houkes, Z.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    1995-01-01

    The concept for the relief meter being developed, appears to function well, when used with the artificial images. The described matching criterion leads to high matching percentages, and accurate results. The percentage of mismatches is reduced to practically zero for the tested scenes. Future work

  16. Application research of improved 235U enrichment meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Daming; Wu Xin; Lu Zhao; Tang Peijia; Lu Feng; Wang Yunmei

    1998-01-01

    A prototype 235 U enrichment meter based on NaI(Tl) γ spectroscopy is improved and it works under the principle of that the enrichment of 235 U is proportional to the radioactivity of 185 keV γ-ray when the sample is thick infinitely. The data of radioactivity from 235 U can be collected by a notebook computer and the interface control software is written using C++ language. The meter was tested and calibrated using standard fuel rods in fuel fabrication plant. For single fuel rod, the measured value of 235 U enrichment is agreeable with declared value within-1.0%-2.8%

  17. Modelling and calibration of a ring-shaped electrostatic meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jianyong [University of Teesside, Middlesbrough TS1 3BA (United Kingdom); Zhou Bin; Xu Chuanlong; Wang Shimin, E-mail: zhoubinde1980@gmail.co [Southeast University, Sipailou 2, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2009-02-01

    Ring-shaped electrostatic flow meters can provide very useful information on pneumatically transported air-solids mixture. This type of meters are popular in measuring and controlling the pulverized coal flow distribution among conveyors leading to burners in coal-fired power stations, and they have also been used for research purposes, e.g. for the investigation of electrification mechanism of air-solids two-phase flow. In this paper, finite element method (FEM) is employed to analyze the characteristics of ring-shaped electrostatic meters, and a mathematic model has been developed to express the relationship between the meter's voltage output and the motion of charged particles in the sensing volume. The theoretical analysis and the test results using a belt rig demonstrate that the output of the meter depends upon many parameters including the characteristics of conditioning circuitry, the particle velocity vector, the amount and the rate of change of the charge carried by particles, the locations of particles and etc. This paper also introduces a method to optimize the theoretical model via calibration.

  18. Development of PIC-based digital survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Arymaswati Abdullah; Nur Aira Abdul Rahman; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Taiman Kadni; Glam Hadzir Patai Mohamad; Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli; Chong Foh Yong

    2006-01-01

    The need of radiation monitoring and monitoring of radioactive contamination in the workplace is very important especially when x-ray machines, linear accelerators, electron beam machines and radioactive sources are present. The appropriate use of radiation detector is significant in order to maintain a radiation and contamination free workplace. This paper reports on the development of a prototype of PIC-based digital survey meter. This prototype of digital survey meter is a hand held instrument for general-purpose radiation monitoring and surface contamination meter. Generally, the device is able to detect some or all of the three major types of ionizing radiation, namely alpha, beta and gamma. It uses a Geiger-Muller tube as a radiation detector, which converts gamma radiation quanta to electric pulses and further processed by the electronic devices. The development involved the design of the controller, counter and high voltage circuit. All these circuit are assembled and enclosed in a plastic casing together with a GM detector and LCD display to form a prototype survey meter. The number of counts of the pulses detected by the survey meter varies due to the random nature of radioactivity. By averaging the reading over a time-period, more accurate and stable reading is achieved. To test the accuracy and the linearity of the design, the prototype was calibrated using standard procedure at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) in MINT. (Author)

  19. MATLAB-implemented estimation procedure for model-based assessment of hepatic insulin degradation from standard intravenous glucose tolerance test data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nardo, Francesco; Mengoni, Michele; Morettini, Micaela

    2013-05-01

    Present study provides a novel MATLAB-based parameter estimation procedure for individual assessment of hepatic insulin degradation (HID) process from standard frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT) data. Direct access to the source code, offered by MATLAB, enabled us to design an optimization procedure based on the alternating use of Gauss-Newton's and Levenberg-Marquardt's algorithms, which assures the full convergence of the process and the containment of computational time. Reliability was tested by direct comparison with the application, in eighteen non-diabetic subjects, of well-known kinetic analysis software package SAAM II, and by application on different data. Agreement between MATLAB and SAAM II was warranted by intraclass correlation coefficients ≥0.73; no significant differences between corresponding mean parameter estimates and prediction of HID rate; and consistent residual analysis. Moreover, MATLAB optimization procedure resulted in a significant 51% reduction of CV% for the worst-estimated parameter by SAAM II and in maintaining all model-parameter CV% MATLAB-based procedure was suggested as a suitable tool for the individual assessment of HID process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Privacy, technology, and norms: the case of Smart Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Christine; Darras, Brice; Bean, Elyse; Srivastava, Anurag; Frickel, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Norms shift and emerge in response to technological innovation. One such innovation is Smart Meters - components of Smart Grid energy systems capable of minute-to-minute transmission of consumer electricity use information. We integrate theory from sociological research on social norms and privacy to examine how privacy threats affect the demand for and expectations of norms that emerge in response to new technologies, using Smart Meters as a test case. Results from three vignette experiments suggest that increased threats to privacy created by Smart Meters are likely to provoke strong demand for and expectations of norms opposing the technology and that the strength of these normative rules is at least partly conditional on the context. Privacy concerns vary little with actors' demographic characteristics. These findings contribute to theoretical understanding of norm emergence and have practical implications for implementing privacy protections that effectively address concerns of electricity users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Both the frequency of HbA1c testing and the frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose predict metabolic control: A multicentre analysis of 15 199 adult type 1 diabetes patients from Germany and Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, A; Best, F; Biester, T; Grünerbel, A; Kopp, F; Krakow, D; Laimer, M; Wagner, C; Holl, R W

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between metabolic control and frequency of haemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) measurements and of self-monitoring of blood glucose, as well as the interaction of both. Data of 15 199 adult type 1 diabetes patients registered in a standardized electronic health record (DPV) were included. To model the association between metabolic control and frequency of HbA 1c testing or of self-monitoring of blood glucose, multiple hierarchic regression models with adjustment for confounders were fitted. Tukey-Kramer test was used to adjust P values for multiple comparisons. Vuong test was used to compare non-nested models. The baseline variables of the study population were median age 19.9 [Q1; Q3: 18.4; 32.2] years and diabetes duration 10.4 [6.8; 15.7] years. Haemoglobin A 1c was 60.4 [51.5; 72.5] mmol/mol. Frequency of HbA 1c testing was 8.0 [5.0; 9.0] within 2 years, and daily self-monitoring of blood glucose frequency was 5.0 [4.0; 6.0]. After adjustment, a U-shaped association between metabolic control and frequency of HbA 1c testing was observed with lowest HbA 1c levels in the 3-monthly HbA 1c testing group. There was an inverse relationship between self-monitoring of blood glucose and HbA 1c with lower HbA 1c associated with highest frequency of testing (>6 daily measurements). Quarterly HbA 1c testing and frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose were associated with best metabolic control. The adjusted Vuong Z statistic suggests that metabolic control might be better explained by HbA 1c testing compared to self-monitoring of blood glucose (P < .0001). This research reveals the importance of quarterly clinical HbA 1c monitoring together with frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes management to reach and maintain target HbA 1c . Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. RFID-BASED Prepaid Power Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Teymourzadeh, Rozita

    2013-01-01

    An Electric power meter is an important component in electric energy service. In the past, many consumers have complained about reading inaccurate of the electric meter. This research presents the development of an electrical power meter equipped with RFID reader. The RFID reader reads a valid RFID card and activates the power meter so that it can supply electricity. When the credit is about low or before the electricity is auto cut off, an SMS message will be sent to the user’s handphone to ...

  3. Cancer-meter: measure and cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Sunil Kumar; Sharma, Birendra Kumar; Banerjee, Amitabh

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a theory and system on "Cancer-Meter'. This idea came through the statement that "cancer is curable if it is measurable". The Cancer-Meter proves that it is possible. This paper proposes the cancer-meter in two ways, theoretical and electronically, as per the measurement and treatment. By the mathematics, first part is defined but the second part is based on computer programming, electrical and electronics. Thus, the cancer-meter is a programmed-electrical-electronic device which measures and cures the cancer both.

  4. Evaluation of a combined blood glucose monitoring and gaming system (Didget®) for motivation in children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingensmith, Georgeanna J; Aisenberg, Javier; Kaufman, Francine; Halvorson, Mary; Cruz, Eric; Riordan, Mary Ellen; Varma, Chandrasekhar; Pardo, Scott; Viggiani, Maria T; Wallace, Jane F; Schachner, Holly C; Bailey, Timothy

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the performance and acceptability of a blood glucose meter coupled with a gaming system for children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes. During an in-clinic visit, duplicate blood samples were tested by subjects (N = 147; aged 5-24 yr) and health care providers (HCPs) to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the Didget® system. Subjects' meter results were compared against Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) reference results and HCP results using least squares regression and error grid analyses. Precision was measured by average within-subject and within-HCP coefficient of variation (CV). During the home-use component of this study, subjects (n = 58) tested their blood glucose at least two to three times daily for 3-5 d to evaluate routine use of the system. Subjects' meter results showed significant correlations with both YSI (r(2) = 0.94; p motivating, and helpful for building good blood glucose monitoring habits. Most HCPs agreed that the system fulfilled a need in diabetes management. In conclusion, the Didget® system was precise and clinically accurate in the hands of children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Evaluation of the apparent losses caused by water meter under-registration in intermittent water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criminisi, A; Fontanazza, C M; Freni, G; Loggia, G La

    2009-01-01

    Apparent losses are usually caused by water theft, billing errors, or revenue meter under-registration. While the first two causes are directly related to water utility management and may be reduced by improving company procedures, water meter inaccuracies are considered to be the most significant and hardest to quantify. Water meter errors are amplified in networks subjected to water scarcity, where users adopt private storage tanks to cope with the intermittent water supply. The aim of this paper is to analyse the role of two variables influencing the apparent losses: water meter age and the private storage tank effect on meter performance. The study was carried out in Palermo (Italy). The impact of water meter ageing was evaluated in laboratory by testing 180 revenue meters, ranging from 0 to 45 years in age. The effects of the private water tanks were determined via field monitoring of real users and a mathematical model. This study demonstrates that the impact on apparent losses from the meter starting flow rapidly increases with meter age. Private water tanks, usually fed by a float valve, overstate meter under-registration, producing additional apparent losses between 15% and 40% for the users analysed in this study.

  6. Perception of difficulty and glucose control: Effects on academic performance in youth with type I diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Tiffany M; Nguyen, Jacqueline L; Ghai, Kanika; Li, Kathy; Perlmuter, Lawrence

    2015-04-15

    To investigate whether perceptions of task difficulty on neuropsychological tests predicted academic achievement after controlling for glucose levels and depression. Participants were type 1 diabetic adolescents, with a mean age = 12.5 years (23 females and 16 males), seen at a northwest suburban Chicago hospital. The sample population was free of co-morbid clinical health conditions. Subjects completed a three-part neuropsychological battery including the Digit Symbol Task, Trail Making Test, and Controlled Oral Word Association test. Following each task, individuals rated task difficulty and then completed a depression inventory. Performance on these three tests is reflective of neuropsychological status in relation to glucose control. Blood glucose levels were measured immediately prior to and after completing the neuropsychological battery using a glucose meter. HbA1c levels were obtained from medical records. Academic performance was based on self-reported grades in Math, Science, and English. Data was analyzed using multiple regression models to evaluate the associations between academic performance, perception of task difficulty, and glucose control. Perceptions of difficulty on a neuropsychological battery significantly predicted academic performance after accounting for glucose control and depression. Perceptions of difficulty on the neuropsychological tests were inversely correlated with academic performance (r = -0.48), while acute (blood glucose) and long-term glucose levels increased along with perceptions of task difficulty (r = 0.47). Additionally, higher depression scores were associated with poorer academic performance (r = -0.43). With the first regression analysis, perception of difficulty on the neuropsychological tasks contributed to 8% of the variance in academic performance after controlling for peripheral blood glucose and depression. In the second regression analysis, perception of difficulty accounted for 11% of the variance after

  7. FLOW METERS WITH VERY GOOD PERFORMANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Dimitrie CAZACU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the theoretical calculus of a patented flow meter, concerning such the thermodynamic and aerodynamic calculus, as well as the offered precision to measure the flow of the air in any meteorological conditions. In the same time we remark that the proposed flow meter, by its positioning, has not loss of head.

  8. Adjustment equipment for reactor radioactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.P.; Malishev, A.N.; Shebanova, L.E.; Kirilyuk, N.A.; Maksimov, Yu.N.; Bessalov, G.G.; Vikhorev, Yu.V.; Lukyanov, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    An activity meter is described movably located in a channel placed in the peripheral biological shielding of a nuclear reactor. It is connected to a weight moving in a second channel by means of a pulley. This arrangement allows locating the radioactivity meter drive on the outer side of the biological shield and vacating space above the reactor body. (Ha)

  9. 10 CFR 451.7 - Metering requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metering requirements. 451.7 Section 451.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.7 Metering requirements. The net electric energy generated and sold (kilowatt-hours) by the owner or operator of a qualified...

  10. Some problems in calibrating surface contamination meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zigen; LI Xingyuan; Shuai Xiaoping.

    1984-01-01

    It is necessary that instruments are calibrated accurately in order to obtain reliable survey data of surface contamination. Some problems in calibrating surface contamination meters are expounded in this paper. Measurement comparison for beta surface contamination meters is organized within limited scope, thus survey quality is understood, questions are discovered, significance of calibration is expounded further. (Author)

  11. The reactivity meter and core reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siltanen, P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discussed in depth the point kinetic equations and the characteristics of the point kinetic reactivity meter, particularly for large negative reactivities. From a given input signal representing the neutron flux seen by a detector, the meter computes a value of reactivity in dollars (ρ/β), based on inverse point kinetics. The prompt jump point of view is emphasised. (Author)

  12. Determination of Multiphase Flow Meter Reliability and Development of Correction Charts for the Prediction of Oilfield Fluid Flow Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel S. MOFUNLEWI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of field testing of Multiphase Flow Meter (MPFM is to show whether its accuracy compares favourably with that of the Test Separator in accurately measuring the three production phases (oil, gas and water as well as determining meter reliability in field environment. This study evaluates field test results of the MPFM as compared to reference conventional test separators. Generally, results show that MPFM compares favourably with Test Separator within the specified range of accuracy.At the moment, there is no legislation for meter proving technique for MPFM. However, this study has developed calibration charts that can be used to correct and improve meter accuracy.

  13. Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to an oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leder, Lena; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Narverud, Ingunn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diet has a great impact on the risk of developing features of metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We evaluated whether a long-term healthy Nordic diet (ND) can modify the expression of inflammation and lipid metabolism......-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in individuals with MetS. METHODS: A Nordic multicenter randomized dietary study included subjects (n = 213) with MetS, randomized to a ND group or a control diet (CD) group applying an isocaloric study......, and the mRNA gene expression analysis was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We analyzed the mRNA expression changes of 44 genes before and after a 2hOGTT at the beginning and the end of the intervention. RESULTS: The healthy ND significantly down-regulated the expression...

  14. Clinical assessment of the accuracy of blood glucose measurement devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Mitri, Michael; Musholt, Petra B; Sachsenheimer, Daniela; Borchert, Marcus; Yap, Andrew; Forst, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Blood glucose meters for patient self-measurement need to comply with the accuracy standards of the ISO 15197 guideline. We investigated the accuracy of the two new blood glucose meters BG*Star and iBG*Star (Sanofi-Aventis) in comparison to four other competitive devices (Accu-Chek Aviva, Roche Diagnostics; FreeStyle Freedom Lite, Abbott Medisense; Contour, Bayer; OneTouch Ultra 2, Lifescan) at different blood glucose ranges in a clinical setting with healthy subjects and patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. BGStar and iBGStar are employ dynamic electrochemistry, which is supposed to result in highly accurate results. The study was performed on 106 participants (53 female, 53 male, age (mean ± SD): 46 ± 16 years, type 1: 32 patients, type 2: 34 patients, and 40 healthy subjects). Two devices from each type and strips from two different production lots were used for glucose assessment (∼200 readings/meter). Spontaneous glucose assessments and glucose or insulin interventions under medical supervision were applied to perform measurements in the different glucose ranges in accordance with the ISO 15197 requirements. Sample values 400 mg/dL were prepared by laboratory manipulations. The YSI glucose analyzer (glucose oxidase method) served as the standard reference method which may be considered to be a limitation in light of glucose hexokinase-based meters. For all devices, there was a very close correlation between the glucose results compared to the YSI reference method results. The correlation coefficients were r = 0.995 for BGStar and r = 0.992 for iBGStar (Aviva: 0.995, Freedom Lite: 0.990, Contour: 0.993, Ultra 2: 0.990). Error-grid analysis according to Parkes and Clarke revealed both 100% of the readings to be within the clinically acceptable areas (Clarke: A + B with BG*Star (100 + 0), Aviva (97 + 3), and Contour (97 + 3); and 99.5% with iBG*Star (97.5 + 2), Freedom Lite (98 + 1.5), and Ultra 2 (97.5 + 2

  15. Development of a contour meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrada C, F.A.; Sanz, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    The dosimetric calculation in patients that receive radiotherapy treatment it requires the one knowledge of the geometry of some anatomical portions, which differs from a patient to another. Making reference to the specific case of mammary neoplasia, one of the measurements that is carried out on the patient is the acquisition of the contour of the breast, which is determined from a point marked on the breastbone until another point marked on the lateral of the thorax, below the armpit, with the patient located in the irradiation position. This measurement is carried out with the help of a mechanical contour meter that is a device conformed by a series of wires with a polymeric coating, which support on the breast of the patient and it reproduces its form. Then it is transported in the more careful possible form on a paper and the contour is traced with a tracer one. The geometric error associated to this procedure is of ±1 cm, which is sensitive of being reduced. The present work finds its motivation in the patient's radiological protection radiotherapy. The maximum error in dose allowed in radiotherapeutic treatments is 5%. It would be increase the precision and with it to optimize the treatment received by the patient, reducing the error in the acquisition process of the mammary contour. With this objective, a digital device is designed whose operation is based in the application of a spatial transformation on a picture of the mammary contour, which corrects the geometric distortion introduced in the process of the photographic acquisition. An algorithm that allows to obtain a front image (without distortion) of the plane of the contour was developed. A software tool especially developed carries out the processing of the digital images. The maximum geometric error detected in the validation process is 2 mm located on a small portion of the contour. (Author)

  16. Ambiguity effects of rhyme and meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallot, Sebastian; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2018-04-23

    Previous research has shown that rhyme and meter-although enhancing prosodic processing ease and memorability-also tend to make semantic processing more demanding. Using a set of rhymed and metered proverbs, as well as nonrhymed and nonmetered versions of these proverbs, the present study reveals this hitherto unspecified difficulty of comprehension to be specifically driven by perceived ambiguity. Roman Jakobson was the 1st to propose this hypothesis, in 1960. He suggested that "ambiguity is an intrinsic, inalienable feature" of "parallelistic" diction of which the combination of rhyme and meter is a pronounced example. Our results show that ambiguity indeed explains a substantial portion of the rhyme- and meter-driven difficulty of comprehension. Longer word-reading times differentially reflected ratings for ambiguity and comprehension difficulty. However, the ambiguity effect is not "inalienable." Rather, many rhymed and metered sentences turned out to be low in ambiguity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Hydro Ottawa achieves Smart Meter milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    As Ontario's second largest municipal electricity company, Hydro Ottawa serves more than 285,000 residential and business customers in the city of Ottawa and the village of Casselman. Since 2006, the utility has installed more than 230,000 Smart Meters throughout its service territory in an effort to provide better services to its customers. This initiative represents the largest operational advanced metering infrastructure network in Canada. This move was necessary before time-of-use rates can be implemented in Ottawa. The Smart Meters deliver data wirelessly to Hydro Ottawa's Customer Information System for billing and eliminating manual readings. The Smart Meters are designed to promote more efficient use of electricity. The Government of Ontario has passed legislation requiring the installation of Smart Meters throughout the province by the end of 2010

  18. Glucose and cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, M.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Mudde, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association and the World Health Organisation have recently redefined the spectrum of abnormal glucose tolerance. The criteria for diabetes mellitus were sharpened and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were classified as intermediate stages

  19. Comparison of magnetic field meters used for Elf exposure measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magne, I.; Azoulay, A.; Lambrozo, J.; Souques, M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective The question of the biological effects of E.L.F. electromagnetic fields (50/60 Hz) has lead to many experimental and epidemiological works, in occupational exposure and in residential exposure. One of the main difficulties is to integrate the maximum of information about the environmental exposures during the everyday life without limitation to the exposure of the home. The objective of this study is to analyse experimentally the metrology associated with human exposure to 50 Hz magnetic field, in the optic of a study of the French population exposure. Method 4 meters were tested: the E.M.D.E.X. II, currently used in epidemiological studies, the E.M.D.E.X. L.I.T.E., which is more recent, the H.T.300, an Italian meter, and the F.D.3, which is made by Combinova A calibration was performed with an Helmoltz coil. The immunity of these meters to GSM signal was also tested. The influence of the sample rate was evaluated. Results and conclusion The meter chosen for performing the measurements of the exposure study will be selected in function of the following criteria: - easiness of use - precision - low sample rate - memory size and reliability of data stocking - immunity to GSM perturbations. (authors)

  20. INFLUENCE OF FUNCTIONAL ABILITY IN RUNNING 400 AND 800 METERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Elezi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the research was to assess on the grounds of data collected that were used to assess the functional ability of the cardio-respiratory system and the results of running to determine the relation of these sum of variables. Basic statistical indicators of the physiological variables and results of running were calculated. For determining the relation, the regression analysis was used in the manifested space. Criterion variable (running for 100 meters did not demonstrate statistically significant coefficient of multiple variation with predictor variables. The time span in running 400 meters is short in order to engage mechanisms that supply and transform the energy for oxidative processes. Criterion variable (of running 800 meters has demonstrated statistically significant coefficient of multiple correlations with predictor variable and its value was 0.377 tested through F-test. This is understandable given that the time effect of engagement of systems responsible for transfer and transformation of energy compared to time needed for running 400 meters.

  1. Impact of Glucose Tolerance Status, Sex, and Body Size on Glucose Absorption Patterns During OGTTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K.; Pacini, G.; Nolan, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVEWe studied whether patterns of glucose absorption during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were abnormal in individuals with impaired glucose regulation and whether they were related to sex and body size (height and fat-free mass). We also examined how well differences in insulin......, reflected the differences for these parameters between those with normal and impaired glucose regulation as measured by gold-standard tests.CONCLUSIONSGlucose absorption patterns during an OGTT are significantly related to plasma glucose levels and body size, which should be taken into account when.......RESULTSMore rapid glucose absorption (P 0.036) and reduced late glucose absorption (P 0.039) were observed in the i-IFG group relative to NGT and i-IGT groups. Women with i-IGT had a lower early glucose absorption than did men with i-IGT (P = 0.041); however, this difference did not persist when differences in body...

  2. Metabolomic analysis reveals amino-acid responses to an oral glucose tolerance test in women with prior history of gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bentley-Lewis, MD, MBA, MMSc

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Greater change in metabolite levels after a glucose challenge was significantly associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding and higher BMI. Further exploration of these preliminary observations and closer examination of the specific pathways implicated are warranted.

  3. Glucose metabolism of lactobacillus divergens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruyn, I.N.

    1987-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compile an optimal growth and selective medium for Lactobacillus divergens and to determine the pathway by which it metabolised glucose. The optimum growth temperature is 25 o C which is lower than that of most other lactobacilli. Citrate stimulates growth up to a concentration of 1% while acetate inhibits the organism at neutral pH, but it stimulates growth at pH 8.5 up to a concentration of 0.8%. MRS medium was therefore modified in order to obtain maximum growth of the organism. The acetate was omitted, sucrose was substituted for glucose and the pH was adjusted to 8.5. Sucrose was used, since a neutral pH is obtained after sterilisation of glucose in alkaline (pH ≥ 7.5) solution due to the degradation of glucose by the Maillard reaction. Various inhibitors and dyes were tested in order to formulate a selective medium. In the present study differently labelled glucose precursors were fermented by L. divergens and the fermentation products isolated by HPLC. The concentrations of acetate and formate were determined by comparison to a standard while the concentration of lactate and glucose was determined by enzymic assay. The radioactivity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and the positional labelling in lactate and acetate by chemical degradation. Fermentation of D-[U- 14 C]-glucose was included to correct for endogenous product dilution

  4. Investigation and Comparison of Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Skoubo, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    In the later years, there has been an increased focus on new valve types, which yield the possibility to do Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out (SMISMO) control. This includes both digital valves, but proportional valves with separate metering spools and build in pressure sensors are also emerging....... The possibility to independently control the meter-in and meter-out side not only increase the functionality of the system, but also opens up for better performance and/or lowered energy consumption. The focus of the current paper is therefore on investigation and comparison of what may be obtained using...

  5. Glucose Binding Protein as a Novel Optical Glucose Nanobiosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed DWEIK

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of an in vivo optical sensor requires the utilization of Near Infra Red (NIR fluorophores due to their ability to operate within the biological tissue window. Alexa Fluor 750 (AF750 and Alexa Fluor 680 (AF680 were examined as potential NIR fluorophores for an in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET glucose biosensor. AF680 and AF750 found to be a FRET pair and percent energy transfer was calculated. Next, the tested dye pair was utilized in a competitive binding assay in order to detect glucose. Concanavalin A (Con A and dextran have binding affinity, but in the presence of glucose, glucose displaces dextran due to its higher affinity to Con A than dextran. Finally, the percent signal transfer through porcine skin was examined. The results showed with approximately 4.0 mm porcine skin thickness, 1.98 % of the fluorescence was transmitted and captured by the detector.

  6. Different instructions during the ten-meter walking test determined significant increases in maximum gait speed in individuals with chronic hemiparesis Diferentes instruções durante teste de velocidade de marcha determinam aumento significativo na velocidade máxima de indivíduos com hemiparesia crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas R. Nascimento

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of different instructions for the assessment of maximum walking speed during the ten-meter walking test with chronic stroke subjects. METHODS: Participants were instructed to walk under four experimental conditions: (1 comfortable speed, (2 maximum speed (simple verbal command, (3 maximum speed (modified verbal command-"catch a bus" and (4 maximum speed (verbal command + demonstration. Participants walked three times in each condition and the mean time to cover the intermediate 10 meters of a 14-meter corridor was registered to calculate the gait speed (m/s. Repeated-measures ANOVAs, followed by planned contrasts, were employed to investigate differences between the conditions (α=5%. Means, standard deviations and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. RESULTS: The mean values for the four conditions were: (1 0.74m/s; (2 0.85 m/s; (3 0.93 m/s; (4 0.92 m/s, respectively, with significant differences between the conditions (F=40.9; pOBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos de diferentes instruções para avaliação da velocidade de marcha máxima de indivíduos hemiparéticos durante o teste de caminhada de 10 metros. MÉTODOS: Os indivíduos deambularam em quatro condições experimentais: (1 velocidade habitual, (2 velocidade máxima (comando verbal simples, (3 velocidade máxima (comando verbal modificado: pegar ônibus, (4 velocidade máxima (comando verbal + demonstração. Solicitou-se a cada participante que deambulasse três vezes em cada condição, e a média do tempo necessário para percorrer os 10 metros intermediários de um corredor de 14 metros foi utilizada para cálculo da velocidade (m/s. A ANOVA de medidas repetidas, com contrastes pré-planejados, foi utilizada para comparação dos dados (α=5%, sendo apresentados valores de média, desvio-padrão e intervalos de confiança (IC de 95%. RESULTADOS: As médias de velocidade para as quatro condições foram: (1 0,74m/s; (2 0,85m/s; (3 0,93m/s; (4

  7. Sector smart meter audit review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-31

    This paper presented the results of an electricity distributor sector smart meter audit review conducted by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB) for the period of January 1, 2006 to September 30, 2009. The review summarized the results of a questionnaire related to distributors' smart meter regulatory accounting treatment. Seventy-eight distributors responded to the survey. The review included details of: (1) total investments in smart metering initiative for capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operating maintenance and administrative expenses (OM and A), (2) funding dollars received by the distributors, (3) board-approved recoveries for CAPEX and OM and A, (4) recorded stranded meter costs, and (5) number of smart meters installed in the review period. The audit review demonstrated that some distributors incorrectly recorded carrying charges related to smart meter OM and A expenses, and that some smart meter transactions were recorded in accounts other than OEB established accounts in the general ledger. Results of the audit will be used to provide further accounting assistance to electricity distributors. 7 tabs.

  8. Inadequate peak expiratory flow meter characteristics detected by a computerised explosive decompression device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, M.R.; Atkins, P.R.; Pedersen, O.F.

    2003-01-01

    Methods: The dynamic response of mini-Wright (MW), Vitalograph (V), TruZone (TZ), MultiSpiro (MS) and pneumotachograph (PT) flow meters was tested by delivering two differently shaped flow-time profiles from a computer controlled explosive decompression device fitted with a fast response solenoid.......1) and 257 (39.2), respectively, and at ≈200 l/min they were 51 (23.9) and 1 (0.5). All the meters met ATS accuracy requirements when tested with their waveforms. Conclusions: An improved method for testing the dynamic response of flow meters detects marked overshoot (underdamping) of TZ and MS responses...

  9. Comparison of lancing devices for self-monitoring of blood glucose regarding lancing pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Serge; Tshiananga, J K Tshiang; Koubek, Richard

    2009-09-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose empowers diabetes patients to effectively control their blood glucose (BG) levels. A potential barrier to frequent BG controls is lancing pain, intrinsically linked to pricking the finger several times a day. In this study, we compared different state-of-the-art lancing devices from leading manufacturers regarding lancing pain, and we intended to identify lancing devices that are less painful. First, 165 subjects compared 6 different BG monitoring systems-consisting of a lancing device and a BG meter-at home for 36 days and at least 3 BG tests per day. Second, the subjects directly compared 6 different lancing devices-independent from a BG meter-in a laboratory setting. The test results were collected in questionnaires, and lancing pain was rated on a numerical rating scale. One hundred fifty-seven subjects were included in the analysis. Accu-Chek BG monitoring systems were significantly (p competitor BG monitoring systems and were rated by >50% of the subjects as "less painful" than competitor BG monitoring systems. Accu-Chek lancing devices were significantly (p competitor lancing devices and were rated by >60% of the subjects as "less painful" than competitor lancing devices. We found significant differences in lancing pain between lancing devices. Diabetes patients clearly preferred lancing devices that cause less lancing pain. In order to improve patient compliance with respect to an adequate glycemic control, the medical staff should preferentially prescribe lancing devices that cause less lancing pain. 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  10. Water metering in England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zetland

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of water services that began with the privatisation of water companies in 1989 extended to households with the implementation of water metering. Meters 'privatised' water and the cost of provision by allocating to individual households costs that had previously been shared within the community. This (ongoing conversion of common pool to private good has mostly improved economic, environmental and social impacts, but the potential burden of metering on poorer households has slowed the transition. Stronger anti-poverty programmes would be better at addressing this poverty barrier than existing coping mechanisms reliant on subsidies from other water consumers.

  11. A neutron dose equivalent meter at CAEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Shihai; Lu Yan; Wang Heyi; Yuan Yonggang; Chen Xu

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of neutron dose equivalent has been a widespread need in industry and research. In this paper, aimed at improving the accuracy of neutron dose equivalent meter: a neutron dose counter is simulated with MCNP5, and the energy response curve is optimized. The results show that the energy response factor is from 0.2 to 1.8 for neutrons in the energy range of 2.53×10 -8 MeV to 10 MeV Compared with other related meters, it turns that the design of this meter is right. (authors)

  12. Calibration of PKA meters against ion chambers of two geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Junior, Jose N.; Terini, Ricardo A.; Pereira, Marco A.G.; Herdade, Silvio B.

    2011-01-01

    Kerma-area product (KAP or PKA) is a quantity that is independent of the distance to the X-ray tube focal spot and that can be used in radiological exams to assess the effective dose in patients. Clinical KAP meters are generally fixed in tube output and they are usually calibrated on-site by measuring the air kerma with an ion chamber and by evaluating the irradiated area by means of a radiographic image. Recently, a device was marketed (PDC, Patient Dose Calibrator, Radcal Co.), which was designed for calibrating clinical KAP meters with traceability to a standard laboratory. This paper presents a metrological evaluation of two methods that can be used in standard laboratories for the calibration of this device, namely, against a reference 30 cc ionization chamber or a reference parallel plates monitor chamber. Lower energy dependence was also obtained when the PDC calibration was made with the monitor chamber. Results are also shown of applying the PDC in hospital environment to the cross calibration of a clinical KAP meter from a radiology equipment. Results confirm lower energy dependence of the PDC relatively to the tested clinical meter. (author)

  13. Five training sessions improves 3000 meter running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riiser, A; Ripe, S; Aadland, E

    2015-12-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two weeks of endurance training on 3000-meter running performance. Secondary we wanted to assess the relationship between baseline running performance and change in running performance over the intervention period. We assigned 36 military recruits to a training group (N.=28) and a control group. The training group was randomly allocated to one of three sub-groups: 1) a 3000 meter group (test race); 2) a 4x4-minutes high-intensity interval group; 3) a continuous training group. The training group exercised five times over a two-week period. The training group improved its 3000 meter running performance with 50 seconds (6%) compared to the control group (P=0.003). Moreover, all sub-groups improved their performance by 37 to 73 seconds (4-8%) compared to the control group (Ptraining group. We conclude that five endurance training sessions improved 3000 meter running performance and the slowest runners achieved the greatest improvement in running performance.

  14. VLBI observations with the Kunming 40-meter radio telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Longfei; Wang Min; Yang Jun

    2010-01-01

    The Kunming 40-meter radio telescope is situated in the yard of the Yunnan Astronomical Observatory (Longitude: 102.8 0 East, Latitude: 25.0 0 North) and saw its first light in 2006 May. The Kunming station successfully joined the VLBI tracking of China's first lunar probe 'Chang'E-1 together with the other Chinese telescopes: the Beijing Miyun 50-meter radio telescope, Urumqi Nanshan 25-meter radio telescope, and Shanghai Sheshan 25-meter radio telescope, and received the downlinked scientific data together with the Miyun station from October of 2007 to March of 2009. We give an introduction to the new Chinese VLBI facility and investigate its potential applications. Due to its location, the Kunming station can significantly improve the u - v coverage of the European VLBI Network (EVN), in particular, in long baseline observations. We also report the results of the first EVN fringe-test experiment of N09SX1 with the Kunming station. The first fringes in the European telescopes were successfully detected at 2.3 GHz with the ftp-transferred data on 2009 June 17. From scheduling the observations to performing the post correlations, the Kunming station shows its good compatibility to work with the EVN. The imaging result of the extended source 1156+295 further demonstrates that the Kunming station greatly enhances the EVN performance. (research papers)

  15. Intellectual Production Supervision Perform based on RFID Smart Electricity Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Xu, Renheng

    2018-03-01

    This topic develops the RFID intelligent electricity meter production supervision project management system. The system is designed for energy meter production supervision in the management of the project schedule, quality and cost information management requirements in RFID intelligent power, and provide quantitative information more comprehensive, timely and accurate for supervision engineer and project manager management decisions, and to provide technical information for the product manufacturing stage file. From the angle of scheme analysis, design, implementation and test, the system development of production supervision project management system for RFID smart meter project is discussed. Focus on the development of the system, combined with the main business application and management mode at this stage, focuses on the energy meter to monitor progress information, quality information and cost based information on RFID intelligent power management function. The paper introduces the design scheme of the system, the overall client / server architecture, client oriented graphical user interface universal, complete the supervision of project management and interactive transaction information display, the server system of realizing the main program. The system is programmed with C# language and.NET operating environment, and the client and server platforms use Windows operating system, and the database server software uses Oracle. The overall platform supports mainstream information and standards and has good scalability.

  16. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia (HLP is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05 during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05 in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP.

  17. Effects of varying hydraulics on the calibration of eight path chordal ultrasonic meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, E.; Estrada, H.; Regan, J.

    2003-01-01

    Eight path transit time ultrasonic meters are being used in the US, Europe and Japan to support measurement uncertainty power uprates of nuclear power plants. Power uprates rely on the demonstration of improved power accuracy to justify a reduction in the traditional 2% margin between operating power and the power at which loss of coolant accidents and other transients have been analyzed. The flow, density and enthalpy of the feedwater are key elements in the power calculation, and the eight path ultrasonic meters measure the flow and temperature from which these elements are derived. A key element in the uncertainty analysis for these meters is an allowance for the uncertainties that the feedwater flow profiles introduce in the meters' flow calibrations. To minimize and bound this uncertainty calibration tests are performed on each eight path element to be used in an uprate application. This paper describes extensive testing of a prototype eight path meter, results of which have be used to define the sensitivity of 8 path meters to broad variations in flow profiles, both axial and transverse and to establish a methodology whereby the impact of these changes on the uncertainty of the meters can be minimized. This testing confirms the general insensitivity of 8 path chordal systems to axial and transverse fluid velocity profiles. An 8 path chordal system provides a quantitative measurement of the flatness of the axial profile, which allows a quantitative assessment of the differences in hydraulic profile seen by a meter in a plant versus the hydraulic profile seen by that same meter in the calibration lab. Since the sensitivity of the meter's calibration can be established as a function of profile flatness in the lab through parametric testing, the profile flatness in the plant can be used to confirm or to adapt as necessary the calibration coefficient measured in the lab for use in the plant. (author)

  18. Promoting health and reducing costs: a role for reform of self-monitoring of blood glucose provision within the National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, S; Idris, I; Collins, B; Granby, P; Noble, M; Parker, M

    2016-05-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of all options for the self-monitoring of blood glucose funded by the National Health Service, providing guidance for disinvestment and testing the hypothesis that advanced meter features may justify higher prices. Using data from the Health and Social Care Information Centre concerning all 8 340 700 self-monitoring of blood glucose-related prescriptions during 2013/2014, we conducted a cost-minimization analysis, considering both strip and lancet costs, including all clinically equivalent technologies for self-monitoring of blood glucose, as determined by the ability to meet ISO-15197:2013 guidelines for meter accuracy. A total of 56 glucose monitor, test strip and lancet combinations were identified, of which 38 met the required accuracy standards. Of these, the mean (range) net ingredient costs for test strips and lancets were £0.27 (£0.14-£0.32) and £0.04 (£0.02-£0.05), respectively, resulting in a weighted average of £0.28 (£0.18-£0.37) per test. Systems providing four or more advanced features were priced equal to those providing just one feature. A total of £12 m was invested in providing 42 million self-monitoring of blood glucose tests with systems that fail to meet acceptable accuracy standards, and efficiency savings of £23.2 m per annum are achievable if the National Health Service were to disinvest from technologies providing lesser functionality than available alternatives, but at a much higher price. The study uncovered considerable variation in the price paid by the National Health Service for self-monitoring of blood glucose, which could not be explained by the availability of advanced meter features. A standardized approach to self-monitoring of blood glucose prescribing could achieve significant efficiency savings for the National Health Service, whilst increasing overall utilisation and improving safety for those currently using systems that fail to meet acceptable standards for measurement accuracy

  19. Portable radiation meters evaluation in high rates of air kerma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damatto, Willian B.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Vivolo, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    A set of portable meters of ionizing radiation high rates of air kerma (teletectors) commonly used in emergencies in Brazil and sent to the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN were under several tests and analyst is parameters for the detectors behavior were established, specifying their sensitivities and operating characteristics. Applied tests were: reading equipment variation with battery voltage, geotropism effect, energy dependence, the angular dependence and overload. Thus it was possible to determine the most common characteristic found in these equipment (quality control programs). The behavior of 17 portable meters was analyzed and in this study, 10 of them have been tested. It was performed to characterize the gamma irradiating system (radiation dosimetry field) that possesses higher activity in teletectors for testing of larger measuring range. New calibration criteria were established following international recommendations. Therefore, it was made the improvement of the quality control programme of portable meters of ionizing radiation high rates of air kerma calibration laboratory, benefiting the users of such equipment with better consistent calibration measurements. (author)

  20. Bandwidth Analysis of Smart Meter Network Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kardi; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is a net-work infrastructure in Smart Grid, which links the electricity customers to the utility company. This network enables smart services by making it possible for the utility company to get an overview of their customers power consumption and also control...... devices in their costumers household e.g. heat pumps. With these smart services, utility companies can do load balancing on the grid by shifting load using resources the customers have. The problem investigated in this paper is what bandwidth require-ments can be expected when implementing such network...... to utilize smart meters and which existing broadband network technologies can facilitate this smart meter service. Initially, scenarios for smart meter infrastructure are identified. The paper defines abstraction models which cover the AMI scenarios. When the scenario has been identified a general overview...