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Sample records for glucose testing cbs

  1. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... screening test between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The test may be done earlier if you ...

  2. Investigation of the effect of glucose syrup and brown sugar as low-cost substrate for lipid production by Mortierella alpine CBS 754.68

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saed Montazeri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arachidonic acid is an important essential fatty acid in human nutrition. The filamentous fungus Mortierella alpina has been identified as a promising producer of arachidonic acid. Mortierella alpine can accumulate up to 40% (w/w lipid, of which up to 40% can be arachidonic acid. Materials and methods: Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68 was cultivated in low cost substrate such as glucose syrup, brown sugar and starch for lipid and arachidonic acid production. The reduced sugar, total lipids and content of ARA were determined by dinitrosalicylic acid method, soxhlet and Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS respectively. Results: The carbon sources were applied at 70 g/l and nitrogen source (soybean powder at 10 g/lit. The results showed that lipid in dry biomass in glucose syrup, starch and brown sugar media were obtained 32, 25 and 13 % w/w respectively. The arachidonic acid contents of lipid in the glucose syrup, starch and brown sugar media were 41, 33 and 31 % w/w respectively. Discussion and conclusion: Lipid fatty acid compositions are affected by the growth of microorganism. Cell membrane fatty acids such as stearic acid and oleic acid increased substantially concomitant with increases in the amount of biomass. Biomass and oil production efficiency fell due to inappropriate brown sugar medium.

  3. CSF glucose test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the space surrounding the spinal cord and brain. ... Abnormal results include higher and lower glucose levels. Abnormal results may be due to: Infection (bacterial or fungus) Inflammation of the central nervous system Tumor

  4. En vision for CBS?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Kommentar. CBS’ ry for at være et moderne Business University med forskere fra hele verden og forskningsmæssig dynamik faldt på gulvet. Udfordringen er nu at få samlet CBS forskere om en fælles vision.......Kommentar. CBS’ ry for at være et moderne Business University med forskere fra hele verden og forskningsmæssig dynamik faldt på gulvet. Udfordringen er nu at få samlet CBS forskere om en fælles vision....

  5. Glucose in Urine Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... glucose test to help make a diagnosis. References American Diabetes Association [Internet]. Arlington (VA): American Diabetes Association; c1995–2017. Checking Your Blood Glucose [cited 2017 ...

  6. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for energy. People with untreated diabetes have high blood glucose levels. Most often, the first tests used to diagnose ... in people who are not pregnant are: Fasting blood glucose level: diabetes is diagnosed if it is higher than ...

  7. Prediction of Glucose Tolerance without an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Babbar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionImpaired glucose tolerance (IGT is diagnosed by a standardized oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. However, the OGTT is laborious, and when not performed, glucose tolerance cannot be determined from fasting samples retrospectively. We tested if glucose tolerance status is reasonably predictable from a combination of demographic, anthropometric, and laboratory data assessed at one time point in a fasting state.MethodsGiven a set of 22 variables selected upon clinical feasibility such as sex, age, height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbA1c, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, serum potassium, fasting levels of insulin, C-peptide, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, proinsulin, prolactin, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, HDL, uric acid, liver transaminases, and ferritin, we used supervised machine learning to estimate glucose tolerance status in 2,337 participants of the TUEF study who were recruited before 2012. We tested the performance of 10 different machine learning classifiers on data from 929 participants in the test set who were recruited after 2012. In addition, reproducibility of IGT was analyzed in 78 participants who had 2 repeated OGTTs within 1 year.ResultsThe most accurate prediction of IGT was reached with the recursive partitioning method (accuracy = 0.78. For all classifiers, mean accuracy was 0.73 ± 0.04. The most important model variable was fasting glucose in all models. Using mean variable importance across all models, fasting glucose was followed by NEFA, triglycerides, HbA1c, and C-peptide. The accuracy of predicting IGT from a previous OGTT was 0.77.ConclusionMachine learning methods yield moderate accuracy in predicting glucose tolerance from a wide set of clinical and laboratory variables. A substitution of OGTT does not currently seem to be feasible. An important constraint could be the limited reproducibility of glucose tolerance status during a

  8. Isolation, purification and characterization of a novel glucose oxidase from Penicillium sp. CBS 120262 optimally active at neutral pH

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, C

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available of glucose in diabetics [17]. Enhancement of the properties of GOX is still receiving attention [8], presumably due to the current and extensive applications base of this enzyme. This article describes the production, puriWcation and characterisation of a...Ver was modiWed from the manufacturer’s protocol to contain glycerol (20% v/v), CHAPS (2% w/v) and IPG buVer (0.4%). Samples (200 �l of 1 mg ml¡1 protein) were loaded onto the Immobi- line strips using the rehydration loading protocol [22]. The loaded...

  9. Blood Glucose Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Glucose Monitoring; 317 p. National Cancer ...

  10. Characterization of the intravenous glucose tolerance test and the combined glucose-insulin test in donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, F J; Aguilera-Aguilera, R; Gonzalez-De Cara, C A; Toribio, R E; Estepa, J C; Perez-Ecija, A

    2015-12-01

    Glucose-insulin dynamic challenges such as the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and combined glucose-insulin test (CGIT) have not been described in donkeys. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the IVGTT and CGIT in healthy adult donkeys, and (2) to establish normal glucose-insulin proxies. Sixteen donkeys were used and body morphometric variables obtained each. For the IVGTT, glucose (300 mg/kg) was given IV. For the CGIT, glucose (150 mg/kg) followed by recombinant insulin (0.1 IU/kg) were administered IV. Blood samples for glucose and insulin determinations were collected over 300 min. In the IVGTT the positive phase lasted 160.9 ± 13.3 min, glucose concentration peaked at 323.1 ± 9.2 mg/dL and declined at a rate of 1.28 ± 0.15 mg/dL/min. The glucose area under the curve (AUC) was 21.4 ± 1.9 × 10(3) mg/dL/min and the insulin AUC was 7.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) µIU/mL/min. The positive phase of the CGIT curve lasted 44 ± 3 min, with a glucose clearance rate of 2.01 ± 0.18 mg/dL/min. The negative phase lasted 255.9 ± 3 min, decreasing glucose concentration at rate of -0.63 ± 0.06 mg/dL/min, and reaching a nadir (33.1 ± 3.6 mg/dL) at 118.3 ± 6.3 min. The glucose and insulin AUC values were 15.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) mg/dL/min and 13.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) µIU/mL/min. This is the first study characterizing CGIT and IVGTT, and glucose-insulin proxies in healthy adult donkeys. Distinct glucose dynamics, when compared with horses, support the use of species-specific protocols to assess endocrine function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Heterogeneity in glucose response curves during an oral glucose tolerance test and associated cardiometabolic risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Simmons, Rebecca Kate; Vistisen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    patterns of plasma glucose change during the oral glucose tolerance test. Cardiometabolic risk factor profiles were compared between the identified groups. Using latent class trajectory analysis, five glucose response curves were identified. Despite similar fasting and 2-h values, glucose peaks and peak......We aimed to examine heterogeneity in glucose response curves during an oral glucose tolerance test with multiple measurements and to compare cardiometabolic risk profiles between identified glucose response curve groups. We analyzed data from 1,267 individuals without diabetes from five studies...... in Denmark, the Netherlands and the USA. Each study included between 5 and 11 measurements at different time points during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, resulting in 9,602 plasma glucose measurements. Latent class trajectories with a cubic specification for time were fitted to identify different...

  12. Association between blood glucose level derived using the oral glucose tolerance test and glycated hemoglobin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Young Geon; Park, Jin Soo; Ahn, Young Hwan; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-05-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is widely used as a marker of glycemic control. Translation of the HbA1c level to an average blood glucose level is useful because the latter figure is easily understood by patients. We studied the association between blood glucose levels revealed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c levels in a Korean population. A total of 1,000 subjects aged 30 to 64 years from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort were included. Fasting glucose levels, post-load glucose levels at 30, 60, and 120 minutes into the OGTT, and HbA1c levels were measured. Linear regression of HbA1c with mean blood glucose levels derived using the OGTT revealed a significant correlation between these measures (predicted mean glucose [mg/dL] = 49.4 × HbA1c [%] - 149.6; R (2) = 0.54, p Glucose (ADAG) study and Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort. Discrepancies between our results and those of the ADAG study and DCCT cohort may be attributable to differences in the test methods used and the extent of insulin secretion. More studies are needed to evaluate the association between HbA1c and self monitoring blood glucose levels.

  13. Oral glucose tolerance test and continuous glucose monitoring to assess diabetes development in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente León, María; Bilbao Gassó, Laura; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Campos Martorrell, Ariadna; Gartner Tizzano, Silvia; Yeste Fernández, Diego; Carrascosa Lezcano, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) undergo a slow and progressive process toward diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is recommended to diagnose impaired glucose levels in these patients. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) measures glucose profiles under real-life conditions. To compare OGTT and CGM results in CF patients. Paired OGTT and 6-day CGM profiles (146.2±9.1h/patient) were performed in 30 CF patients aged 10-18 years. According to OGTT, 14 patients had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 14 abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT), and two cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD). In 27 patients (13 NGT, 13 AGT, 1 CFRD), CGM showed glucose values ranging from 140 to 200mg/dL during similar monitoring times (2%-14% with NGT, 1%-16.9% with AGT, and 3% with CFRD). Glucose peak levels ≥200mg/dL were seen in seven patients (3 NGT, 3 AGT, 1 CFRD). According to CGM, two patients had all glucose values under 140mg/dL (1 NGT, 1 AGT). Seventeen patients had glucose levels ranging from 140 to 200mg/dL (10 NGT, 6 AGT, 1 CFRD). Ten patients (3 NGT, 7 AGT) had glucose values ≥200mg/dL for ≤1% of the monitoring time and one (CFRD) for >1% of the monitoring time. OGTT results did not agree with those of the CGM. CGM allows for diagnosis of glucose changes not detected by OGTT. Such changes may contribute to optimize pre-diabetes management in CF patients. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Random blood glucose testing in dental practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barasch, Andrei; Safford, Monika M; Qvist, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasing. Instances of patients' not having received a diagnosis have been reported widely, as have instances of poor control of DM or prediabetes among patient's who have the disease. These facts indicate that blood glucose screening is needed....

  15. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test among Adolescents with Impaired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: Oral glucose tolerance test was done for a cohort of 68 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years with impaired fasting blood glucose detected at a school screening. Age, sex, anthropometric measures (height, weight, BMI and BMI percentiles were determined using appropriate methods. Blood pressure and family ...

  16. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Revisted | Mshelia | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The present review was undertaken to create the required utilization of oral glucose tolerance test in a developing country with a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Sources of data: This review is primarily based on available literature on local and international studies on oral glucose ...

  17. Glucose in vaginal secretions before and after oral glucose tolerance testing in women with and without recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrström, Sophia; Yu, Anna; Rylander, Eva

    2006-12-01

    To measure the change of glucose in vaginal secretions during glucose tolerance testing in women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and in healthy control subjects. Thirty-eight women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and 45 healthy, age-matched controls completed a health questionnaire regarding general and gynecologic health and food and alcohol habits. They all underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and a vaginal examination. Vaginal secretion was collected from the proximal part of the vagina. Glucose in plasma and in vaginal secretions were measured at fasting and after 2 hours and analyzed with the hexokinase method. A sample size analysis showed that the number of subjects included in the study was sufficient for a beta value of 0.80, at the significance level of alpha=.05, at a difference in glucose in vaginal secretions of 30% after oral glucose tolerance test. In healthy women, the median level of glucose in vaginal secretions was 5.2 mM before and 3.7 mM after oral glucose tolerance test, and plasma glucose was 5.0 mM before and 5.8 mM after oral glucose tolerance test. No significant difference was seen regarding change of glucose level in vaginal secretions and plasma glucose after testing, compared with before oral glucose tolerance testing. There were no differences between women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and control subjects regarding change in glucose level in vaginal secretions or in plasma during oral glucose tolerance test. II-2.

  18. Stable-label intravenous glucose tolerance test minimal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avogaro, A.; Bristow, J.D.; Bier, D.M.; Cobelli, C.; Toffolo, G.

    1989-01-01

    The minimal model approach to estimating insulin sensitivity (Sl) and glucose effectiveness in promoting its own disposition at basal insulin (SG) is a powerful tool that has been underutilized given its potential applications. In part, this has been due to its inability to separate insulin and glucose effects on peripheral uptake from their effects on hepatic glucose inflow. Prior enhancements, with radiotracer labeling of the dosage, permit this separation but are unsuitable for use in pregnancy and childhood. In this study, we labeled the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) dosage with [6,6- 2 H 2 ]glucose, [2- 2 H]glucose, or both stable isotopically labeled glucose tracers and modeled glucose kinetics in six postabsorptive, nonobese adults. As previously found with the radiotracer model, the tracer-estimated S*l derived from the stable-label IVGTT was greater than Sl in each case except one, and the tracer-estimated SG* was less than SG in each instance. More importantly, however, the stable-label IVGTT estimated each parameter with an average precision of +/- 5% (range 3-9%) compared to average precisions of +/- 74% (range 7-309%) for SG and +/- 22% (range 3-72%) for Sl. In addition, because of the different metabolic fates of the two deuterated tracers, there were minor differences in basal insulin-derived measures of glucose effectiveness, but these differences were negligible for parameters describing insulin-stimulated processes. In conclusion, the stable-label IVGTT is a simple, highly precise means of assessing insulin sensitivity and glucose effectiveness at basal insulin that can be used to measure these parameters in individuals of all ages, including children and pregnant women

  19. [Homocysteine levels and polymorphisms of MTHFR and CBS genes in Colombian patients with superficial and deep venous thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Claudia; García, Reggie; Cruz, Edith; Prieto, Karol; Bermúdez, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Thrombosis develops when the hemostatic system is incorrectly activated due to the unbalance between procoagulant, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic mechanisms allowing the formation of a clot within a blood vessel. The risk factors of this pathology can be acquired or can be genetic. To analyze in a Colombian population with diagnosis of venous thrombosis, lipid profile, glucose and homocystein levels, to calculate the alleles and genotypic frequencies of polymorphisms c.699 C>T, c.1080 C>T, c.844ins68 of the cystathionine ß synthase and the c.677 C>T of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genes. Thirty three patients and their controls were studied. The biochemical test was carried out by colorimetric methods and immunoassay. In this survey we used the restriction fragments longitude polymorphism (RLFP) technique to identify the polymorphisms mentioned. The association study was performed through the chi square test. We confirmed that gene alterations increase risk for pathology; we found statistically significant differences in the group with hypercholesterolemia in presence of the polymorphism c.699 C>T in the CBS gene, showing a protective effect in the individuals carrying this genetic variation. Likewise, we found a statistical trend for an eventual protective effect of the CBS c.844ins68 polymorphism to venous thrombotic disease. There were not any statistically significant differences in homocystein levels between cases and controls; nevertheless, the variability in the plasma concentrations was greater in the group of cases.

  20. [Effects of coca chewing on the glucose tolerance test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza Guzmán, M; Peñaloza Imaña, R; Echalar Afcha, L; Aguilar Valerio, M; Spielvogel, H; Sauvain, M

    1997-01-01

    The effects of coca chewing on the glucose tolerance test were measured. The subjects were 14 habitual coca chewers and 14 non-chewers. All were of Aymara ancestry and came from a rural community from the "Altiplano" close to the city of La Paz. The coca users chewed coca leaves during 3 1/2 hours of the test. The non-chewers showed a significant hypoglycemia at 120 minutes of the test. This effect was not observed in the coca chewers. The hormonal counter-regulation response to hypoglycemia worked perfectly in non-chewers, since glucose levels reached normal values at 180 minutes of the test. These results suggest that coca chewers, at high altitude do not present hypoglycemia, due to an antagonic action of coca metabolites on insulin; allowing a greater availability of glucose in the organism. This would have a positive effect on metabolism in an environment of hypobaric hypoxia, known to lead to situations of hypoglycemia.

  1. Plasma Volume Expansion Resulting from Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Hahn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To quantify the degree of plasma volume expansion that occurs during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT. Methods. Twenty healthy volunteers (mean age, 28 years underwent IVGTTs in which 0.3 g/kg of glucose 30% was injected as a bolus over 1 min. Twelve blood samples were collected over 75 min. The plasma glucose and blood hemoglobin concentrations were used to calculate the volume distribution (Vd and the clearance (CL of both the exogenous glucose and the injected fluid volume. Results. The IVGTT caused a virtually instant plasma volume expansion of 10%. The half-life of the glucose averaged 15 min and the plasma volume expansion 16 min. Correction of the fluid kinetic model for osmotic effects after injection reduced CL for the infused volume by 85%, which illustrates the strength of osmosis in allocating fluid back to the intracellular fluid space. Simulations indicated that plasma volume expansion can be reduced to 60% by increasing the injection time from 1 to 5 min and reducing the glucose load from 0.3 to 0.2 g/kg. Conclusion. A regular IVGTT induced an acute plasma volume expansion that peaked at 10% despite the fact that only 50–80 mL of fluid were administered.

  2. Development and testing of a fluorescence biosensor for glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloraefy, Mamdouh; Pfefer, Joshua; Ramella-Roman, Jessica; Sapsford, Kim

    2012-06-01

    Rapid, accurate, and minimally-invasive biosensors for glucose measurement have the potential to enhance management of diabetes mellitus and improve patient outcome in intensive care settings. Recent studies have indicated that implantable biosensors based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) can provide high sensitivity in quantifying glucose concentrations. However, standard approaches for determining the potential for interference from other biological constituents have not been established. The aim of this work was to design and optimize a FRET-based glucose sensor and assess its specificity to glucose. A sensor based on competitive binding between concanavalin A and dextran, labeled with long-wavelength acceptor and donor fluorophores, was developed. This process included optimization of dextran molecular weight and donor concentration, acceptor to donor ratio, and hydrogel concentration, as well as the number of polymer layers for encapsulation. The biosensor performance was characterized in terms of its response to clinically relevant glucose concentrations. The potential for interference and the development of test methods to evaluate this effect were studied using a potential clinical interferent, maltose. Results indicated that our biosensor had a prediction accuracy of better than 11% and that the robustness to maltose was highly dependent on glucose level.

  3. Conversion of C6 and C5 sugars in undetoxified wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, rich in both glucan and xylan. This stresses the importance of utilizing both C6 and C5 sugars for conversion into ethanol in order to improve the process economics. During processing of the hydrolysate degradation...... products such as acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural are formed, which are known to inhibit microbial growth at higher concentrations. In the current study, conversion of both glucose and xylose sugars into ethanol in wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates was investigated without detoxification...... using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054, a native xylose utilizing yeast strain. The sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield (Yp/s) ranged from 88-100% and 0.33-0.41 ± 0.02 g/g, respectively, in all the hydrolysates tested. Hydrolysate after wet explosion at 185°C and 6 bar O2, composed...

  4. Comparative effectiveness of 50g glucose challenge test and risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of 50g glucose challenge test and risk factor based screening in detection of ... Mean maternal and gestational ages at recruitment were 30.8+1.2 years and ... Predictive Value, PPV - 20%) compared to risk factors only (PPV- 11.1%).

  5. Participation in blood glucose test, knowledge and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus causes great health complications which include cardiovascular diseases and nerve damage. Aim: To ascertain the participation in blood glucose test, knowledge of diabetes mellitus (DM) and prevalence of hyperglycemia among traders at New market, Enugu State. Methods: The study is a ...

  6. The glucose breath test: a diagnostic test for small bowel stricture(s) in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Daniel; Boston, Francis M; Blank, David; Yalovsky, Morty; Mishkin, Seymour

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether an indirect noninvasive indicator of proximal bacterial overgrowth, the glucose breath test, was of diagnostic value in inflammatory bowel disease. Twenty four of 71 Crohn's disease patients tested had a positive glucose breath test. No statistical conclusions could be drawn between the Crohn's disease activity index and glucose breath test status. Of patients with radiologic evidence of small bowel stricture(s), 96.0% had a positive glucose breath test, while only one of 46 negative glucose breath test patients had a stricture. The positive and negative predictive values for a positive glucose breath test as an indicator of stricture formation were 96.0% and 97.8%, respectively. This correlation was not altered in Crohn's disease patients with fistulae or status postresection of the terminal ileum. The data in ulcerative colitis were nondiagnostic. In conclusion, the glucose breath test appears to be an accurate noninvasive inexpensive diagnostic test for small bowel stricture(s) and secondary bacterial overgrowth in Crohn's disease.

  7. Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelius, Caroline; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Kardas, Marek

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary chloroplast thylakoids have previously been found to reduce food intake and body weight in animal models, and to change metabolic profiles in humans in mixed-food meal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effects of thylakoids on glucose...... metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones during an oral glucose tolerance test in pigs fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Six pigs were fed a high fat diet (36 energy% fat) for one month before oral glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg d-glucose) was performed. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study......, either with or without addition of 0.5 g/kg body weight of thylakoid powder. RESULTS: The supplementation of thylakoids to the oral glucose tolerance test resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations during the first hour, increased plasma cholecystokinin concentrations during the first two hours...

  8. Clinical assessment of blood glucose homeostasis in horses: comparison of a continuous glucose monitoring system with a combined intravenous glucose and insulin test protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P J; Wiedmeyer, C E; LaCarrubba, A; Messer, N T; Dingfelder, H A; Cogswell, A M; Amorim, J R R; Ganjam, V K

    2011-01-01

    The combined glucose-insulin test (CGIT) is helpful for evaluating insulin sensitivity. A continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) reports changes in interstitial glucose concentrations as they occur in the blood. Use of the CGMS minimizes animal contact and may be useful when performing a CGIT. Results obtained using a CGMS are useful for the evaluation of glucose responses during the evaluation of insulin sensitivity in equids. Seven mature, obese ponies. Ponies were equipped with CGMS for determination of interstitial glucose concentrations. Glucose (150 mg/kg, i.v.) and insulin (0.1 U/kg, i.v.) were administered and blood glucose concentrations determined at (minutes after time zero) 1, 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 with a hand-held glucometer. Blood chemistry results were compared with simultaneously obtained results using CGMS. Concordance coefficients determined for comparison of blood glucose concentrations determined by a hand-held glucometer and those determined by CGMS after the zero time point were 0.623, 0.764, 0.834, 0.854, and 0.818 (for delays of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively). Interstitial glucose concentrations obtained by the CGMS compared favorably to blood glucose concentrations. CGMS may be useful for assessment of glucose dynamics in the CGIT. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Comparison of blood glucose test strips in the detection of neonatal hypoglycaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkins, B H; Kalra, D

    1982-01-01

    Blood glucose levels were estimated in 101 neonatal blood samples using three glucose test strip methods and the results compared with those from a laboratory. BM-test-glycemie 20-800 test strips and Reflotest-hypoglycemie test strips gave a rapid and reliable estimate of blood glucose level in the range 0-8 mmol/l (0-140 mg/100 ml). Dextrostix test strips tended to overestimate all blood glucose levels.

  10. Using Ice Cream for Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Glucose Tolerance: An Alternative to the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanprasertpinyo, Wandee; Bhirommuang, Nattapimon; Surawattanawiset, Titiporn; Tangsermwong, Thanwarin; Phanachet, Pariya; Sriphrapradang, Chutintorn

    2017-12-01

    Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a sensitive and reliable test for diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). However, poor patient tolerance of glucose solutions is common. We aim to compare the diagnostic value of an ice cream test with a standard OGTT. A total of 104 healthy adults were randomly assigned to either 75-g OGTT or ice cream, followed by a crossover to the other test. Most patients were females (71%). Mean age was 37 ± 12 years, and body mass index was 24.2 ± 3.9kg/m 2 . Diabetes mellitus and IGT, as diagnosed by 75-g OGTT, were 4.8% and 6.7%, respectively. The 2-hour plasma glucose levels were 110 ± 55.5mg/dL with 75-g glucose and 97.52 ± 40.7mg/dL with ice cream. The correlation coefficient of 2-hour plasma glucose for the 2 tests was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.75-0.87; P ice cream test would have missed 5.76% of those at high risk for diabetes mellitus (impaired fasting glucose and IGT) or diabetes. An ice cream test may serve as an alternative to a 75-g OGTT. Before applying this test in clinical practice, it needs to be validated in a larger population. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Study on the Glucose and Immunoreactive Insulin Response during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kang Won; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mu Ho

    1973-01-01

    The blood glucose and plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels were measured during aral glucose tolerance test in 7 healthy subjects and 6 patients with chronic liver diseases. The glucose tolerance was impaired in 5 of the 6 patients and normal in I. Plasma IRI responses were markedly increased and delayed in all patients, suggesting endogenous insulin resistance. Patients with more glucose intolerance showed less increase in plasma IRI than the group with less intolerance. lt is suggested that some insulin antagonists may decrease the peripheral insulin sensitivity and stimulate compensatory hyperactivity of pancreatic islets. If the compensatory hyperactivity is inadequate due to gemetic predisposition to diabetes mellitus or exhaustion of β-cells of pancreatic islets, the glucose intolerance and overt diabetes mellitus may ensue.

  12. A Study on the Glucose and Immunoreactive Insulin Response during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Kang Won; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mu Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-03-15

    The blood glucose and plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels were measured during aral glucose tolerance test in 7 healthy subjects and 6 patients with chronic liver diseases. The glucose tolerance was impaired in 5 of the 6 patients and normal in I. Plasma IRI responses were markedly increased and delayed in all patients, suggesting endogenous insulin resistance. Patients with more glucose intolerance showed less increase in plasma IRI than the group with less intolerance. lt is suggested that some insulin antagonists may decrease the peripheral insulin sensitivity and stimulate compensatory hyperactivity of pancreatic islets. If the compensatory hyperactivity is inadequate due to gemetic predisposition to diabetes mellitus or exhaustion of beta-cells of pancreatic islets, the glucose intolerance and overt diabetes mellitus may ensue.

  13. Association of serum orosomucoid with 30-min plasma glucose and glucose excursion during oral glucose tolerance tests in non-obese young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Ayaka; Minato, Satomi; Yano, Megumu; Takeuchi, Mika; Kitaoka, Kaori; Kurata, Miki; Yoshino, Gen; Wu, Bin; Kazumi, Tsutomu; Fukuo, Keisuke

    2018-01-01

    Inflammatory markers are elevated in insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. We tested whether serum orosomucoid (ORM) is associated with postload glucose, β-cell dysfunction and IR inferred from plasma insulin kinetics during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). 75 g OGTTs were performed with multiple postload glucose and insulin measurements over a 30-120 min period in 168 non-obese Japanese women (aged 18-24 years). OGTT responses, serum adiponectin and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) were cross-sectionally analyzed by analysis of variance and then Bonferroni's multiple comparison procedure. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analyses were used to identify most important determinants of ORM. Of 168 women, 161 had normal glucose tolerance. Postload glucose levels and the area under the glucose curve (AUCg) increased in a stepwise fashion from the first through the third ORM tertile. In contrast, there was no or modest, if any, association with fat mass index, trunk/leg fat ratio, adiponectin, hsCRP, postload insulinemia, the Matsuda index and homeostasis model assessment IR. In multivariable models, which incorporated the insulinogenic index, the Matsuda index and HOMA-IR, 30 min glucose (standardized β: 0.517) and AUCg (standardized β: 0.495) explained 92.8% of ORM variations. Elevated circulating orosomucoid was associated with elevated 30 min glucose and glucose excursion in non-obese young Japanese women independently of adiposity, IR, insulin secretion, adiponectin and other investigated markers of inflammation. Although further research is needed, these results may suggest a clue to identify novel pathways that may have utility in monitoring dysglycemia within normal glucose tolerance.

  14. Assessment of time to glucose peak during an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Witte, Daniel R; Vistisen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    We read with interest the article from Chung et al. on the association between time to glucose peak and prediabetes.(1) We agree with the authors in that the morphology of the glucose curve is worth investigating as an additional indicator of prediabetes and diabetes risk. This is a rather well...

  15. Using Glucose Tolerance Tests to Model Insulin Secretion and Clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Shannon

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the studies described in this paper is to develop theoretically and to validate experimentally mathematical compartment models which can be used to predict plasma insulin levels in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. In the case of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM, the C-peptide levels in the plasma were measured as part of routine glucose tolerance tests in order to estimate the prehepatic insulin secretion rates. In the case of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM, a radioactive labelled insulin was used to measure the absorption rate of insulin after a subcutaneous injection of insulin. Both models gave close fits between theoretical estimates and experimental data, and, unlike other models, it is not necessary to seed these models with initial estimates.

  16. Endurance and failure characteristics of modified Vasco X-2, CBS 600 and AISI 9310 spur gears. [aircraft construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1980-01-01

    Gear endurance tests and rolling-element fatigue tests were conducted to compare the performance of spur gears made from AISI 9310, CBS 600 and modified Vasco X-2 and to compare the pitting fatigue lives of these three materials. Gears manufactured from CBS 600 exhibited lives longer than those manufactured from AISI 9310. However, rolling-element fatigue tests resulted in statistically equivalent lives. Modified Vasco X-2 exhibited statistically equivalent lives to AISI 9310. CBS 600 and modified Vasco X-2 gears exhibited the potential of tooth fracture occurring at a tooth surface fatigue pit. Case carburization of all gear surfaces for the modified Vasco X-2 gears results in fracture at the tips of the gears.

  17. Inorganic phosphorus decrease after intravenous glucose tolerance test is associated with insulin resistance in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Cincović, Marko R.; Djoković, Radojica; Belić, Branislavav; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Toholj, Bojan; Stojanac, Nenad; Stevančević, Ognjen; Starič, Jože

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic phosphorus (Pi) concentration in blood decreases during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) due to the increase in the level of insulin and glucose. The objective of the present study was to determine the relationship between the intensity of Pi decrease with a dynamic change of insulin and glucose during IVGTT (AUC - total area under curve, AUC increment - area under curve from start of IVGTT to time of maximal response and glucose CR-clearance rate), as well as RQUICKI (...

  18. Coffee Consumption Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Alzheimer's disease (CBS 2012), dementia (Health news 2012) and ... the effects of coffee on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance as ..... mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes. ... transporter family: Structure, function and tissue-.

  19. Radioimmunoassay of Plasma Insulin during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Thyrotoxicosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-03-15

    Blood glucose and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) were measured during oral glucose tolerance test in 15 thyrotoxic patients and 8 normal controls, to study the glucose metabolism in thyrotoxicosis. Following were the results;1) In thyrotoxicosis, there is noticed late rise and late fall of plasma IRI during oral glucose tolerance test, like as phenomenon of mild diabetes mellitus. 2) When the thyrotoxic patients were divided into normal and abnormal responsive groups after the level of blood glucose by Wilkerson Criteria, no significant difference in plasma IRI levels were noticed between two groups. 3) This result may be interpreted as relative deficiency of insulin secretion from panaceas and suggest genetically related defects.

  20. 21 CFR 862.1340 - Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...). Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolism disorders including diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia. (b) Classification. Class...

  1. Comparision between bed side testing of blood glucose by glucometer vs centralized testing in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Ayaz; Siddiqui, Imran; Jabbar, Abdul; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Sabir, Salman; Alam, Shahryar; Ghani, Farooq

    2007-01-01

    To determine the accuracy, turnaround time and cost effectiveness of bedside monitoring of blood glucose levels by non-laboratory health care workers and centralized testing of blood glucose by automated analyzer in a tertiary care hospital. The study was conducted in Section of Chemical Pathology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology and Section of Endocrinology Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University and Hospital Karachi, from April 2005 to March 2006. One hundred and ten patients were included in the study. The blood glucose levels were analyzed on glucometer (Precision Abbott) by finger stick, using Biosensor Technology. At the same time venous blood was obtained to analyze glucose in clinical laboratory on automated analyzer (SYNCHRON CX7) by glucose oxidase method. We observed good correlation between bed side glucometer and laboratory automated analyzer for glucose values between 3.3 mmol/L (60 mg/dl) and 16.7 (300 mg/dl). A significant difference was observed for glucose values less than 3.3 mmol/L (p = 0.002) and glucose values more than 16.67 mmol/l (p = 0.049). Mean Turnaround time for glucometer and automated analyzer were 0.08 hours and 2.49 hours respectively. The cost of glucose testing with glucometer was 48.8% lower than centralized lab based testing. Bedside glucometer testing, though less expensive does not have good accuracy in acutely ill patient with either very high or very low blood glucose levels.

  2. ANALISIS PENGARUH KESUKSESAN IMPLEMENTASI CORE BANKING SYSTEM (CBS DENGAN BERBASIS MODEL DELONE DAN MCLEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiana Andarwati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCore Banking System (CBS is banking application system implementation to improve service customers, but whether the bank knew that CBS was categorized applied successfully or not.The purpose of theseresearch are determine the successful implementation of CBS using models DeLone and Mclean IS Success consisting of six variables are system quality , information quality, usage , user satisfaction , individual impact , and impact organizations. Test the hypothesis using the Partial Least Suare (PLS.The results of this study are the quality of the system on the intensity of use and user satisfaction are positive and significant,the quality of information on the intensity of use is positive and significant and then user satisfaction isnegative and not significant, the influence of the intensity of use of the employment impacts of individual positive and significant, user satisfaction to the impact of individual positivel and significant, the intensity of use of the user satisfaction the positive and significant, and the impact individual on the impact of the organizationis positive and significant. So, as to impact individual the best relationship of the impact organization 

  3. The Added Value of Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing in Pre-Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijf, Yoeri M.; Hermanides, Jeroen; Serlie, Mireille J.; Hoekstra, Joost B.; Soeters, Maarten R.

    2011-01-01

    With the increased acceptance of glycated hemoglobin measurement as the test of choice for the diagnosis and detection of diabetes, doubts which surround the use of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in detecting disturbances in glucose levels have become even more apparent. Metabolically, there

  4. Analysis of results of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin releasing test in hepatogenic diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Haoming; Fu Qiang; Tian Xiaoping; Su Cainu

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical values of OGTT and insulin releasing test in hepatogenic diabetics. Method: OGTT was performed by enzymes method and insulin releasing test by RIA in 30 patients with hepatogenic diabetes, 31 cases with II diabetes and 35 controls. Results: During OGTT, blood glucose levels at various time were about the same in hepatogenic diabetics and II diabetics (P < 0.05), except at 180 min (P < 0.01). Basal hyperinsulinemia was present is hepatogenic diabetics. Conclusion: OGTT and insulin releasing test had a definite clinical value in the differential diagnosis of hepatogenic diabetics

  5. Evaluation of commercial glucometer test strips for potential measurement of glucose in tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kyoung Ha; Jensen, Gary C; Balijepalli, Anant S; Cohan, Bruce E; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2014-02-04

    Tear glucose measurements have been suggested as a potential alternative to blood glucose monitoring for diabetic patients. While previous work has reported that there is a correlation between blood and tear glucose levels in humans, this link has not been thoroughly established and additional clinical studies are needed. Herein, we evaluate the potential of using commercial blood glucose test strips to measure glucose in tears. Of several blood glucose strips evaluated, only one brand exhibits the low detection limit required for quantitating glucose in tears. Calibration of these strips in the range of 0-100 μM glucose with an applied potential of 150 mV to the working electrode yields a sensitivity of 0.127 nA/μM and a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 9 μM. The strips also exhibit ≤13% error (n = 3) for 25, 50, and 75 μM glucose in the presence of 10 μM acetaminophen, 100 μM ascorbic acid, and 100 μM uric acid. Measurements of glucose in tears from nine normal (nondiabetic) fasting human subjects using strips yielded glucose values within the range of 5-148 μM (mean = 47 μM, median = 43 μM), similar to those for human tears reported by others with more complex LC-MS methods. The glucometer strip method could facilitate more clinical studies to determine whether tear glucose and blood glucose levels sufficiently correlate for application to routine measurements in tears to supplement blood glucose testing. This would be especially helpful for children, adolescents, other Type 1 diabetics, and also for Type 2 diabetics who require treatment with insulin and cannot tolerate multiple finger sticks per day.

  6. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test among Adolescents with Impaired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    Tamunopriye Jaja, Boma Okoh. Department of Paediatrics, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers. State ... history of diabetes mellitus and 17(25%) had hypertension. Seven (10.3%) of the ... Oral Glucose Tolerance among Adolescents - Jaja T, Okoh B degree of insulin resistance leading to ...

  7. Proposed diagnostic thresholds for gestational diabetes mellitus according to a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, P; Sørensen, B

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To study if established diagnostic threshold values for gestational diabetes based on a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test can be supported by maternal and perinatal outcomes. METHODS: Historical cohort study of 3260 pregnant women examined for gestational diabetes on the basis of risk...... indicators. Information on oral glucose tolerance test results and clinical outcomes were collected from medical records. RESULTS: There was an increased risk of delivering a macrosomic infant in women with 2-h capillary blood glucose of 7.8-8.9 mmol/l compared with women with 2-h glucose ... mellitus. Until these results are available, a 2-h threshold level of 9.0 mmol/l after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test seems acceptable....

  8. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of study is to determine whether glucose pump test (GPT) is used for surveillance of native AV fistulas by using Doppler US as reference. Methods: In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US and GPT. For GPT, glucose was infused to 16 mL/min by ...

  9. User's manual for CBS3DS, version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C. J.; Deshpande, M. D.

    1995-10-01

    CBS3DS is a computer code written in FORTRAN 77 to compute the backscattering radar cross section of cavity backed apertures in infinite ground plane and slots in thick infinite ground plane. CBS3DS implements the hybrid Finite Element Method (FEM) and Method of Moments (MoM) techniques. This code uses the tetrahedral elements, with vector edge basis functions for FEM in the volume of the cavity/slot and the triangular elements with the basis functions for MoM at the apertures. By virtue of FEM, this code can handle any arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional cavities filled with inhomogeneous lossy materials; due to MoM, the apertures can be of any arbitrary shape. The User's Manual is written to make the user acquainted with the operation of the code. The user is assumed to be familiar with the FORTRAN 77 language and the operating environment of the computer the code is intended to run.

  10. Adipose tissue insulin receptor and glucose transporter 4 expression, and blood glucose and insulin responses during glucose tolerance tests in transition Holstein cows with different body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakson, H; Karis, P; Ling, K; Ilves-Luht, A; Samarütel, J; Henno, M; Jõudu, I; Waldmann, A; Reimann, E; Pärn, P; Bruckmaier, R M; Gross, J J; Kaart, T; Kass, M; Ots, M

    2018-01-01

    Glucose uptake in tissues is mediated by insulin receptor (INSR) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of body condition during the dry period on adipose tissue mRNA and protein expression of INSR and GLUT4, and on the dynamics of glucose and insulin following the i.v. glucose tolerance test in Holstein cows 21 d before (d -21) and after (d 21) calving. Cows were grouped as body condition score (BCS) ≤3.0 (thin, T; n = 14), BCS = 3.25 to 3.5 (optimal, O; n = 14), and BCS ≥3.75 (overconditioned, OC; n = 14). Blood was analyzed for glucose, insulin, fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Adipose tissue was analyzed for INSR and GLUT4 mRNA and protein concentrations. During the glucose tolerance test 0.15 g/kg of body weight glucose was infused; blood was collected at -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min, and analyzed for glucose and insulin. On d -21 the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose was smallest in group T (1,512 ± 33.9 mg/dL × min) and largest in group OC (1,783 ± 33.9 mg/dL × min), and different between all groups. Basal insulin on d -21 was lowest in group T (13.9 ± 2.32 µU/mL), which was different from group OC (24.9 ± 2.32 µU/mL. On d -21 the smallest AUC 5-60 of insulin in group T (5,308 ± 1,214 µU/mL × min) differed from the largest AUC in group OC (10,867 ± 1,215 µU/mL × min). Time to reach basal concentration of insulin in group OC (113 ± 14.1 min) was longer compared with group T (45 ± 14.1). The INSR mRNA abundance on d 21 was higher compared with d -21 in groups T (d -21: 3.3 ± 0.44; d 21: 5.9 ± 0.44) and O (d -21: 3.7 ± 0.45; d 21: 4.7 ± 0.45). The extent of INSR protein expression on d -21 was highest in group T (7.3 ± 0.74 ng/mL), differing from group O (4.6 ± 0.73 ng/mL), which had the lowest expression. The amount of GLUT4 protein on d -21 was lowest in group OC (1.2 ± 0.14 ng/mL), different from group O (1.8 ± 0.14 ng/mL), which had the highest amount

  11. Oral glucose tolerance test predicts increased carotid plaque burden in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorarinn A Bjarnason

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes are established risk factors for atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the atherosclerotic plaque burden in the carotid arteries of patients with acute coronary syndrome according to their glycemic status.Patients with acute coronary syndrome and no previous history of type 2 diabetes were consecutively included in the study. Glucose metabolism was evaluated with fasting glucose in plasma, HbA1c and a standard two-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries was evaluated with a standardized ultrasound examination where total plaque area was measured and patients classified as having no plaque or a significant plaque formation.A total of 245 acute coronary syndrome patients (male 78%, 64 years (SD: 10.9 were included. The proportion diagnosed with normal glucose metabolism, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes was 28.6%, 64.1% and 7.3%, respectively. A significant atherosclerotic plaque was found in 48.5%, 66.9% and 72.2% of patients with normal glucose metabolism, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, respectively. An incremental increase in total plaque area was found from normal glucose metabolism to prediabetes (25.5% and from normal glucose metabolism to type 2 diabetes (35.9% (p = 0.04. When adjusted for conventional cardiovascular risk factors the OR of having significant atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries was 2.17 (95% CI 1.15-4.15 for patients with newly diagnosed dysglycemia compared to patients with normal glucose metabolism. When additionally adjusted for the 2-hour plasma glucose after glucose loading (2hPG the OR attenuated to 1.77 (95% CI 0.83-3.84.Newly detected dysglycemia is an independent predictor of significant atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries with oral glucose tolerance test as a major determinant of carotid plaque burden in this group of individuals with acute coronary syndrome.

  12. Internet-Based Contingency Management to Improve Adherence with Blood Glucose Testing Recommendations for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The current study used Internet-based contingency management (CM) to increase adherence with blood glucose testing to at least 4 times daily. Four teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes earned vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos over a Web site. Participants submitted a mean of 1.7 and 3.1 blood glucose tests per day during the 2…

  13. Tale of two sites: capillary versus arterial blood glucose testing in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbami, Felix; Segal, Scott; Schnipper, Jeffrey L; Stopfkuchen-Evans, Matthias; Mills, Jonathan; Rogers, Selwyn O

    2012-04-01

    Pre- and intraoperative glycemic control has been identified as a putative target to improve outcomes of surgical patients. Glycemic control requires frequent monitoring of blood glucose levels with appropriate adjustments. However, monitoring standards have been called into question, especially in cases in which capillary samples are used. Point-of-care testing (POCT) using capillary samples and glucometers has been noted to give relatively accurate results for critically ill patients. However, the package inserts of most glucometers warn that they should not be used for patients in shock. This has led clinicians to doubt their accuracy in the operating room. The accuracy of capillary samples when tested in patients undergoing surgical procedures has not been proven. This study aims to determine the accuracy of intraoperative blood glucose values using capillary samples relative to arterial samples. A prospective study was conducted by collecting paired capillary and arterial samples of patients undergoing major operations at a tertiary medical center from August 2009 to May 2011. Subjects were a convenience sample of patients who had arterial lines and needed glucose testing while undergoing the procedure. Precision Xceed Pro (Abbott) handheld glucometers were used to obtain the blood glucose values. Our primary outcome of interest was the degree of correlation between capillary and arterial blood glucose values or the degree to which arterial glucose levels can be predicted by capillary glucose samples. We used linear regression and the Student t tests for statistical analyses. Seventy-two-paired samples were collected. Of the cases, 54% were major abdominal operations, whereas 24% were vascular operations. The mean values ± standard deviation for glucose levels were 146 ± 35 mg/dL (capillary) and 147 ± 36 mg/dL (arterial). The mean time ± standard deviation between the collection of both samples was 3.5 ± 1.3 minutes. The regression coefficient showed a

  14. Adverse effects during the oral glucose tolerance test in post-bariatric surgery patients

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade,Heliana Fernanda de Albuquerque; Pedrosa,William; Diniz,Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Passos,Valéria Maria Azeredo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is used in the screening of gestational diabetes, in diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in conjunction with fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence and risk factors of adverse effects of OGTT in patients who underwent bariatric surgery, in addition to proposing standardization for ordering the OGTT in these patients. Subjects and methods This study assessed the incidence of adverse ...

  15. Ethanol production using whole plant biomass of Jerusalem artichoke by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS1555.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonghun; Park, Jang Min; Kim, Chul Ho

    2013-03-01

    Jerusalem artichoke is a low-requirement sugar crop containing cellulose and hemicellulose in the stalk and a high content of inulin in the tuber. However, the lignocellulosic component in Jerusalem artichoke stalk reduces the fermentability of the whole plant for efficient bioethanol production. In this study, Jerusalem artichoke stalk was pretreated sequentially with dilute acid and alkali, and then hydrolyzed enzymatically. During enzymatic hydrolysis, approximately 88 % of the glucan and xylan were converted to glucose and xylose, respectively. Batch and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of both pretreated stalk and tuber by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS1555 were effectively performed, yielding 29.1 and 70.2 g/L ethanol, respectively. In fed-batch fermentation, ethanol productivity was 0.255 g ethanol per gram of dry Jerusalem artichoke biomass, or 0.361 g ethanol per gram of glucose, with a 0.924 g/L/h ethanol productivity. These results show that combining the tuber and the stalk hydrolysate is a useful strategy for whole biomass utilization in effective bioethanol fermentation from Jerusalem artichoke.

  16. Continuous glucose monitoring and its relationship to hemoglobin A1c and oral glucose tolerance testing in obese and prediabetic youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christine L; Pyle, Laura; Newnes, Lindsey; Nadeau, Kristen J; Zeitler, Philip S; Kelsey, Megan M

    2015-03-01

    The optimal screening test for diabetes and prediabetes in obese youth is controversial. We examined whether glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) or the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a better predictor of free-living glycemia as measured by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). This was a cross-sectional study of youth 10-18 years old, body mass index (BMI) 85th percentile or greater, with diabetes risk factors. Participants (n = 118) with BMI 85th percentile or greater, not on medications for glucose management, were recruited from primary care and pediatric endocrinology clinics around Denver, Colorado. HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, and 2-hour glucose were collected and all participants wore a blinded CGM for 72 hours. CGM outcomes were determined and descriptive statistics calculated. Performance characteristics at current American Diabetes Association cutpoints were compared with CGM outcomes. CGM data were successfully collected on 98 obese youth. Those with prediabetes had significantly higher average glucose, area under the curve (AUC), peak glucose, and time greater than 120 and greater than 140 mg/dL (P obese youth, HbA1c and 2-hour glucose performed equally well at predicting free-living glycemia on CGM, suggesting that both are valid tests for dysglycemia screening.

  17. Enhanced Predictive Capability of a 1-Hour Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Bhatt, Deepak L; Nielsen, Mette L

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the 1-h blood glucose measurement would be a more suitable screening tool for assessing the risk of diabetes and its complications than the 2-h measurement. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective population-based cohort study of 4,867 men, randomly...... selected from prespecified birth cohorts between 1921 and 1949, who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test with blood glucose measurements at 0, 1, and 2 h. Subjects were followed for up to 39 years, with registry-based recording of events. Discriminative abilities of elevated 1-h (≥8.6 mmol/L) versus 2......-h (≥7.8 mmol/L) glucose for predicting incident type 2 diabetes, vascular complications, and mortality were compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis, Cox proportional hazards regression, and net reclassification improvement. RESULTS: Median age was 48 years (interquartile range [IQR] 48-49). During...

  18. Energy Balance of the Netherlands. CBS versus IEA, Eurostat and UNFCCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segers, R.

    2010-03-01

    The physical energy system of the Netherlands is described in the so-called Energy balance of CBS (Statistics Netherlands). The statistical office of Europe (Eurostat) and the International Energy Agency (IEA) also publish an energy balance of the Netherlands. They use data provided to these organizations by CBS. The main lines of these balances are the same as the CBS balance. Nevertheless, there are quite a number of differences, despite the use of the same basic data. [nl

  19. Effect of degree of lipomobilization on results of glucose test in dairy cows in heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cincović M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cows exposed to heat stress exhibit a decreased ability to mobilize lipids due to increased sensitivity to insulin, which is expressed in a decreased concentration of NEFA. However, certain cows can preserve the level of lipid mobilization after adapting to heat stress. We assumed that cows that have a preserved ability to mobilize lipids are less sensitive to insulin and that they have a lower tolerance for glucose. The aim of this work was to compare the results of an intravenous glucose tolerance test in cows that exhibited, in prolonged heat stress, a decreased (NEFA0.30 mmol/l ability for lipid mobilization. Glucose concentration and NEFA concentration were measured following intravenous application of glucose. The mean glycaemic index value did not differ statistically significantly between the two groups of cows at 10, 15 and 20 minutes after glucose application (p>0.05, but there was a tendency at 10 and 15 minutes for the glycaemia to be higher in cows with preserved lipomobilization (p<0.1. At 30, 60 and 90 minutes after glucose application, glycaemia was statistically significantly higher (p<0.01; p<0.05 and p<0.05 in the group of cows with preserved lipomobilization. The glycaemic index values (mmol/l shown in the same order (30, 60 and 90 minutes were as follows 9.91±0.21: 9.23±0.41; 5.41±0.5: 4.67±0.33 and 4.31±0.39: 3.47±0.37. The mean value for NEFA concentration in samples originating from the two experimental groups of cows did not differ statistically significantly following glucose application. The NEFA concentration showed a tendency to be higher in cows with preserved lipid mobilization in comparison with cows with decreased lipomobilization at 20 and 30 minutes after glucose application (p<0.1. Following the intravenous glucose tolerance test, NEFA and glucose concentrations were in a significant negative correlation, and that correlation was more expressed in cows with decreased lipomobilization. Cows with preserved

  20. Changes in blood glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests and blood biochemical values in adult female Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamine, Akari; Shimozuru, Michito; Shibata, Haruki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2012-02-01

    The metabolic mechanisms to circannual changes in body mass of bears have yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that the Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) has a metabolic mechanism that efficiently converts carbohydrates into body fat by altering insulin sensitivity during the hyperphagic stage before hibernation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the changes in blood biochemical values and glucose and insulin responses to intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) during the active season (August, early and late November). Four, adult, female bears (5-17 years old) were anesthetized with 6 mg/kg TZ (tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl) in combination with 0.1 mg/kg acepromazine maleate. The bears were injected intravenously with glucose (0.5 g/kg of body mass), and blood samples were obtained before, at, and intermittently after glucose injection. The basal triglycerides concentration decreased significantly with increase in body mass from August to November. Basal levels of plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were not significantly different among groups. The results of IVGTT demonstrated the increased peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in early November. In contrast, peripheral insulin resistance was indicated by the exaggerated insulin response in late November. Our findings suggest that bears shift their glucose and lipid metabolism from the stage of normal activity to the hyperphagic stage in which they show lipogenic-predominant metabolism and accelerate glucose uptake by increasing the peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  1. ' ORAL GLUCOSE-TOLERANCE TESTS AND SERUM INSULIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    :s of the pellagra and kwashior- kor groups. on admission as well as after recovery, were compared with each other for significant differences at the 5°~ level of significance using variance analyses." The same tests were done in both groups to ...

  2. Efficacy of 50-G Glucose Challenge Test in The Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan İnan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim in this study was to investigate the efficacy of 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and to determine a cut-off value for screening. Methods: 50-g GCT was performed in 444 pregnant women at 24-28 gestational weeks. The threshold was taken as 130 mg/dl in order not to miss GDM cases. A plasma glucose level of ≥130 mg/dl at the first hour was considered to be a positive result and 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was given to these women. Results: The cut-off value for 50-g GCT was found to be 145 mg/dl. The sensitivity and specificity of the test for predicting GDM at the levels of ≥145 mg/dl were determined to be 96.30% and 80.34%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the test at the level of 88 mg/dl determined for fasting blood glucose cut-off value were found to be 48.15% and 70.84%, respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded that the efficacy in making diagnosis of GDM was increased at the first hour blood glucose levels of ≥145 mg/dl, especially in 50-g GCT, and fasting blood glucose level could not be a good screening test for GDM. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 181-6

  3. A 31 bp VNTR in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene is associated with reduced CBS activity and elevated post-load homocysteine levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lievers, K.J.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Heil, S.G.; Boers, G.H.J.; Verhoef, P.; Oppenraaij-Emmerzaal, D. van; Heijer, M. den; Trijbels, J.M.F.; Blom, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular defects in genes encoding enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism may account for mild hyperhomocysteinaemia, an independent and graded risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although heterozygosity for cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency has been excluded as a major

  4. A 31 bp VNTR in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene is associated with reduced CBS activity and elevated post-load homocysteine levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lievers, K.J.; Kluijtmans, L.A.; Heil, S.G.; Boers, G.H.J.; Verhoef, P.; Oppenraay-Emmerzaal, van D.; Heijer, den M.; Trijbels, F.J.M.; Blom, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular defects in genes encoding enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism may account for mild hyperhomocysteinaemia, an independent and graded risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although heterozygosity for cystathionine -synthase (CBS) deficiency has been excluded as a major

  5. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Pre-transplantation glucose testing for predicting new-onset diabetes mellitus after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Prasad, G V; Huang, M; Bandukwala, F; Nash, M M; Rapi, L; Montada-Atin, T; Meliton, G; Zaltzman, J S

    2009-02-01

    New-onset diabetes after renal transplantation (NODAT) adversely affects graft and patient survival. However, NODAT risk based on pre-transplant blood glucose (BG) levels has not been defined. Our goal was to identify the best pre-transplant testing method and cut-off values. We performed a case-control analysis of non-diabetic recipients who received a live donor allograft with at least 6 months post-transplant survival. Pre-transplant glucose abnormalities were excluded through 75 g oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) and random BG (RBG) measurement. NODAT was defined based on 2003 Canadian Diabetes Association criteria. Multivariate logistic and Cox regression analysis was performed to determine independent predictor variables for NODAT. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine threshold BG values for diabetes risk. 151 recipients met initial entry criteria. 12 had pre-transplant impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance, among who 7 (58%) developed NODAT. In the remaining 139, 24 (17%) developed NODAT. NODAT risk exceeded 25% for those with pre-transplant RBG > 6.0 mmol/l and 50% if > 7.2 mmol/l. Pre-transplant RBG provided the highest AUC (0.69, p = 0.002) by ROC analysis. Increasing age (p = 0.025), acute rejection (p = 0.011), and RBG > 6.0 mmol/l (p = 0.001) were independent predictors of NODAT. Pre-transplant glucose testing is a specific marker for NODAT. Patients can be counseled of their incremental risk even within the normal BG range if the OGTT is normal.

  7. Reducing patient identification errors related to glucose point-of-care testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Alreja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patient identification (ID errors in point-of-care testing (POCT can cause test results to be transferred to the wrong patient′s chart or prevent results from being transmitted and reported. Despite the implementation of patient barcoding and ongoing operator training at our institution, patient ID errors still occur with glucose POCT. The aim of this study was to develop a solution to reduce identification errors with POCT. Materials and Methods: Glucose POCT was performed by approximately 2,400 clinical operators throughout our health system. Patients are identified by scanning in wristband barcodes or by manual data entry using portable glucose meters. Meters are docked to upload data to a database server which then transmits data to any medical record matching the financial number of the test result. With a new model, meters connect to an interface manager where the patient ID (a nine-digit account number is checked against patient registration data from admission, discharge, and transfer (ADT feeds and only matched results are transferred to the patient′s electronic medical record. With the new process, the patient ID is checked prior to testing, and testing is prevented until ID errors are resolved. Results: When averaged over a period of a month, ID errors were reduced to 3 errors/month (0.015% in comparison with 61.5 errors/month (0.319% before implementing the new meters. Conclusion: Patient ID errors may occur with glucose POCT despite patient barcoding. The verification of patient identification should ideally take place at the bedside before testing occurs so that the errors can be addressed in real time. The introduction of an ADT feed directly to glucose meters reduced patient ID errors in POCT.

  8. Increasing ICA512 autoantibody titers predict development of abnormal oral glucose tolerance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanda, Srinath

    2018-03-01

    Determine if autoantibody titer magnitude and variability predict glucose abnormalities in subjects at risk for type 1 diabetes. Demographic information, longitudinal autoantibody titers, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) data were obtained from the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study. Subjects (first and second degree relatives of individuals with type 1 diabetes) with at least 2 diabetes autoantibodies were selected for analysis. Autoantibody titer means were calculated for each subject for the duration of study participation and the relationship between titer tertiles and glucose value tertiles from OGTTs (normal, impaired, and diabetes) was assessed with a proportional odds ordinal regression model. A matched pairs analysis was used to examine the relationship between changes in individual autoantibody titers and 120-minute glucose values. Titer variability was quantified using cumulative titer standard deviations. We studied 778 subjects recruited in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study between 2006 and 2014. Increased cumulative mean titer values for both ICA512 and GAD65 (estimated increase in proportional odds = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.39, 1.87, P < 1 × 10 -9 and 1.17, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.32, P = .016, respectively) were associated with peak 120-minute glucose values. While fluctuating titer levels were observed in some subjects, no significant relationship between titer standard deviation and glucose values was observed. ICA512 autoantibody titers associate with progressive abnormalities in glucose metabolism in subjects at risk for type 1 diabetes. Fluctuations in autoantibody titers do not correlate with lower rates of progression to clinical disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Thermomyces lanuginosus CBS 395.62/b Strain as Rich Source of α-Galactosidase Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang D. Nguyen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen Thermomyces lanuginosus strains, cultivated on raffinose and sucrose, were ranked on the basis of α-galactosidase activities. T. lanuginosus CBS 395.62/b strain showed the highest α-galactosidase activity on both investigated carbohydrates. Several carbon sources were tested as potential inducers for the α-galactosidase synthesis. On melibiose substrate α-galactosidase activity was higher in the intracellular fraction than in the filtrate of the fermentation broth, although both values were very low and did not reach the value of 1 U/mL. Raffinose, sucrose and Lactosucrose® proved to be inducers for α-galactosidase production. The highest titer (about 30 U/mL was achieved on 1 % sucrose and 0.45 % ammonium acetate. The optimum sucrose and ammonium acetate concentrations, at which about 90 U/mL α-galactosidase activity was reached during an 8-day fermentation, were 3 and 0.9 %, respectively.

  10. Performance of a new test strip for freestyle blood glucose monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, John Paul; Brazg, Ronald; Bernstein, Robert M; Taylor, Elizabeth; Patel, Mona; Ward, Jeanne; Alva, Shridhara; Chen, Ting; Welsh, Zoë; Amor, Walter; Bhogal, Claire; Ng, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    a new strip, designed to enhance the ease of use and minimize interference of non-glucose sugars, has been developed to replace the current FreeStyle (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) blood glucose test strip. We evaluated the performance of this new strip. laboratory evaluation included precision, linearity, dynamic range, effects of operating temperature, humidity, altitude, hematocrit, interferents, and blood reapplication. System accuracy, lay user performance, and ease of use for finger capillary blood testing and accuracy for venous blood testing were evaluated at clinics. Lay users also compared the speed and ease of use between the new strip and the current FreeStyle strip. for glucose concentrations blood glucose results obtained by lay users fell within ± 5, 10, and 15 mg/dL, respectively, of the reference. For glucose concentrations ≥75 mg/dL, 68%, 95%, 99%, and 99% of the lay user results fell within  ±  5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, respectively, of the reference. Comparable accuracy was obtained in the venous blood study. Lay users found the new test strip easy to use and faster and easier to use than the current FreeStyle strip. The new strip maintained accuracy under various challenging conditions, including high concentrations of various interferents, sample reapplication up to 60 s, and extremes in hematocrit, altitude, and operating temperature and humidity. our results demonstrated excellent accuracy of the new FreeStyle test strip and validated the improvements in minimizing interference and enhancing ease of use.

  11. Disposable glucose test strip for whole blood with integrated sensing/diffusion-limiting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhencheng [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Fang Cheng, E-mail: fangpingchuan@163.co [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang Hongyan; He Jishan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2009-12-30

    A disposable glucose test strip with an integrated sensing/diffusion-limiting layer was developed. A formulation containing filler, glucose oxidase and electronic mediator was screen-printed over two carbon electrodes to form an integrated sensing/diffusion-limiting layer. On rehydration, the integrated layer does not break up, but swells to form a gelled and three-dimensional meshy reaction zone on the surface of the underlying conductive elements in which reactants and mediator move freely, but interfering species such as red blood cells containing oxygenated hemoglobin are excluded. On the same time, the integrated layer maintains a rate of permeation of the analyte through it with a variation of less than 10% at temperatures ranging from 15 deg. C to 42 deg. C. This biosensor is substantially insensitive to interferents and essentially independent to relevant temperature, which provides a more reliable reading of actual blood glucose value in human whole blood.

  12. Comparative study of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose vs the oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosis of diabetes in people with tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aftab, H.; Ambreen, A.; Jamil, M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To compare HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose assessment, with the 2-h oral glucose tolerance test as reference, in screening for diabetes in people with turberculosis. Methods: Individuals (N=268) with newly diagnosed smear-positive tuberculosis were screened for diabetes at a tertiary hospital...... in Lahore, Pakistan. Diabetes diagnosis was based on WHO criteria: thresholds were ≥48 mmol/mol (≥6.5%) for HbA1c and ≥7.0mmol/l for fasting plasma glucose. Results: The proportion of participants diagnosed with diabetes was 4.9% (n =13) by oral glucose tolerance test, while 11.9% (n =32) and 14.6% (n =39...... the two tests (P=0.07). Conclusions: HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose performed equally in terms of diagnosing new diabetes cases in individuals with tuberculosis, but the proportion of participants falsely classified as positive was higher for fasting plasma glucose. This may be explained by acute blood...

  13. In vitro antioxidant, hypoglycemic and oral glucose tolerance test of banana peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Navghare

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Banana fruit is claimed to have antidiabetic effects despite its high calorie content, and its peels also contain vital phytoconstituents including gallocatechin. Previously banana pulp has been studied for antihyperglycemic effects, and in the present investigation antihyperglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of inner peels of Musa sapientum (EMS, Musa paradisiaca (EMP, Musa cavendish (EMC and Musa acuminata (EMA fruit was evaluated using oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic rats. In vitro antioxidant study was conducted using DPPH, H2O2 radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing power assay. Wistar rats were divided into fourteen groups and twelve groups received different doses of aforementioned extracts, while control group received gum acacia solution and remaining group received standard drug, glimepiride. All the rats received glucose load at a dose of 2 g/kg body weight. Groups treated with EMC and EMA showed significant decrease in glucose level (p < 0.01 at 150 min as compared to control group. In hypoglycemic study, only EMP 500 mg/kg, p.o. treated group revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in glucose level at 120 min, while other groups did not show any sign of hypoglycemia. In glucose tolerance test, animals treated with EMC and EMA depicted dose dependent antihyperglycemic effect at 150 min while EMS and EMP showed significant reduction in plasma glucose at higher doses. In a similar fashion, EMA i.e. M. acuminata demonstrated highest antioxidant activity followed by EMC against DPPH radical. In ferric reducing power and H2O2 scavenging assay, EMA demonstrated maximal antioxidant activity when compared with other extracts.

  14. Cbs (Contrastrain Based Schedulling Adalah Faktor Penentu Keberhasilan Perusahanan Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Achmadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In a highly competitive industry faces today ranging from small or home-based printing to using machine that can print offset a hundred thousand copies per hour. But, the increasing competition resulted in requiring a faster production time from order entry, print proff until the production process to delivery to customers. Often times in case of orders which will result in the concurrent PPIC will experience vertigo in the setting of production schedules which have concurrent delivery time. Often will end up with no receipt of orders due to difficulties in the production schedule, especially if the orders require the same offset machine and cylinder wear the same length, while the number of cylinders is limited. Therefore, the printing company should be able to do so in the conduct of a penetration timing of production can easily be simulated and implemented on the ground. CBS (Base Constraint scheduling is a technique to do the scheduling of production so that production can be carried out smoothly and quickly that fulfill the promise made to customers. In scheduling, there are several techniques that can be used are: FCFS (First Came First Serve, EDD (Earliest Date, and LCLS (Last Came Last Serve. So, it is required to be able to do way better scheduling to get results quickly in this fast changing schedules.

  15. Correlations between cerebral glucose metabolism and neuropsychological test performance in nonalcoholic cirrhotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Alan H; Weissenborn, Karin; Bokemeyer, Martin; Tietge, U; Burchert, Wolfgang

    2002-03-01

    Many cirrhotics have abnormal neuropsychological test scores. To define the anatomical-physiological basis for encephalopathy in nonalcoholic cirrhotics, we performed resting-state fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic scans and administered a neuropsychological test battery to 18 patients and 10 controls. Statistical parametric mapping correlated changes in regional glucose metabolism with performance on the individual tests and a composite battery score. In patients without overt encephalopathy, poor performance correlated with reductions in metabolism in the anterior cingulate. In all patients, poor performance on the battery was positively correlated (p glucose metabolism in bifrontal and biparietal regions of the cerebral cortex and negatively correlated with metabolism in hippocampal, lingual, and fusiform gyri and the posterior putamen. Similar patterns of abnormal metabolism were found when comparing the patients to 10 controls. Metabolic abnormalities in the anterior attention system and association cortices mediating executive and integrative function form the pathophysiological basis for mild hepatic encephalopathy.

  16. Incretin responses to oral glucose and mixed meal tests and changes in fasting glucose levels during 7 years of follow-up: The Hoorn Meal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutters, F.; Rauh, S. P.; Nijpels, G.; Holst, J. J.; Beulens, J. W.; Alssema, M.; Dekker, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    We conducted the first prospective observational study in which we examined the association between incretin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and mixed meal test (MMT) at baseline and changes in fasting glucose levels 7 years later, in individuals who were non-diabetic at baseline. We used data from the Hoorn Meal Study; a population-based cohort study among 121 subjects, aged 61.0±6.7y. GIP and GLP-1 responses were determined at baseline and expressed as total and incremental area under the curve (tAUC and iAUC). The association between incretin response at baseline and changes in fasting glucose levels was assessed using linear regression. The average change in glucose over 7 years was 0.43 ± 0.5 mmol/l. For GIP, no significant associations were observed with changes in fasting glucose levels. In contrast, participants within the middle and highest tertile of GLP-1 iAUC responses to OGTT had significantly smaller increases (actually decreases) in fasting glucose levels; -0.28 (95% confidence interval: -0.54;-0.01) mmol/l and -0.39 (-0.67;-0.10) mmol/l, respectively, compared to those in the lowest tertile. The same trend was observed for tAUC GLP-1 following OGTT (highest tertile: -0.32 (0.61;-0.04) mmol/l as compared to the lowest tertile). No significant associations were observed for GLP-1 responses following MMT. In conclusion, within our non-diabetic population-based cohort, a low GLP-1 response to OGTT was associated with a steeper increase in fasting glucose levels during 7 years of follow-up. This suggests that a reduced GLP-1 response precedes glucose deterioration and may play a role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:29324870

  17. Evaluation of 12 blood glucose monitoring systems for self-testing: system accuracy and measurement reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckmann, Guido; Baumstark, Annette; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Link, Manuela; Haug, Cornelia

    2014-02-01

    Systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) have to provide accurate and reproducible blood glucose (BG) values in order to ensure adequate therapeutic decisions by people with diabetes. Twelve SMBG systems were compared in a standardized manner under controlled laboratory conditions: nine systems were available on the German market and were purchased from a local pharmacy, and three systems were obtained from the manufacturer (two systems were available on the U.S. market, and one system was not yet introduced to the German market). System accuracy was evaluated following DIN EN ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 15197:2003. In addition, measurement reproducibility was assessed following a modified TNO (Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research) procedure. Comparison measurements were performed with either the glucose oxidase method (YSI 2300 STAT Plus™ glucose analyzer; YSI Life Sciences, Yellow Springs, OH) or the hexokinase method (cobas(®) c111; Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) according to the manufacturer's measurement procedure. The 12 evaluated systems showed between 71.5% and 100% of the measurement results within the required system accuracy limits. Ten systems fulfilled with the evaluated test strip lot minimum accuracy requirements specified by DIN EN ISO 15197:2003. In addition, accuracy limits of the recently published revision ISO 15197:2013 were applied and showed between 54.5% and 100% of the systems' measurement results within the required accuracy limits. Regarding measurement reproducibility, each of the 12 tested systems met the applied performance criteria. In summary, 83% of the systems fulfilled with the evaluated test strip lot minimum system accuracy requirements of DIN EN ISO 15197:2003. Each of the tested systems showed acceptable measurement reproducibility. In order to ensure sufficient measurement quality of each distributed test strip lot, regular evaluations are required.

  18. Oscillatory dynamics of an intravenous glucose tolerance test model with delay interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiangyun; Kuang, Yang; Makroglou, Athena; Mokshagundam, Sriprakash; Li, Jiaxu

    2017-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become prevalent pandemic disease in view of the modern life style. Both diabetic population and health expenses grow rapidly according to American Diabetes Association. Detecting the potential onset of T2DM is an essential focal point in the research of diabetes mellitus. The intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) is an effective protocol to determine the insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, and pancreatic β-cell functionality, through the analysis and parameter estimation of a proper differential equation model. Delay differential equations have been used to study the complex physiological phenomena including the glucose and insulin regulations. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to model the time delay in IVGTT modeling. This novel approach uses two parameters to simulate not only both discrete time delay and distributed time delay in the past interval, but also the time delay distributed in a past sub-interval. Normally, larger time delay, either a discrete or a distributed delay, will destabilize the system. However, we find that time delay over a sub-interval might not. We present analytically some basic model properties, which are desirable biologically and mathematically. We show that this relatively simple model provides good fit to fluctuating patient data sets and reveals some intriguing dynamics. Moreover, our numerical simulation results indicate that our model may remove the defect in well known Minimal Model, which often overestimates the glucose effectiveness index.

  19. Postprandial Reactive Hypoglycaemia: Varying Presentation Patterns on Extended Glucose Tolerance Tests and Possible Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive hypoglycemia is a state characterised by sympathetic or neuroglycopenic symptoms associated with hypoglycaemia in the postprandial state resulting in considerable distress to the patient. It is our practice to carry out either extended glucose tolerance tests (eGTTs or mixed meal tests in these patients. We describe two patients who experienced hypoglycaemic symptoms early and late during eGTT. The patient who experienced symptoms early, in contrast to the patient who presented with late symptoms, did not possess any characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Based on clinical symptoms, glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid (FFA levels, we speculate on possible mechanisms that may have accounted for each of their presentation patterns. We then discuss low glycaemic index diet which will be the mainstay of management.

  20. Frequency of impaired oral glucose tolerance test in high risk pregnancies for gestational diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naheed, F.; Narijo, S.; Kammeruddin, K.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the frequency of impaired oral glucose tolerance test in high risk pregnancies for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). A total of 50 high risk pregnancies for gestational diabetes mellitus were selected through outpatient department of obstetrics. Data was collected according to certain obstetric and non-obstetric risk factors for GDM as inclusion criteria through a designed proforma i.e. family history of diabetes, macrosomia (i.e, wt > 3.5 kg), abortions, grand multiparity, a sudden increase in weight (>1 kg/wk) during pregnancy, age > 35 years, early neonatal deaths/sudden IUDS, polyhydramnios, urogenital infections (vulvo-vaginal candidiasis and UTI), previous history of GDM, congenital abnormalities (with or without polyhydramnios) and multiple pregnancy. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and analyzed according to American Diabetic Association criteria, 2004. The most frequent risk factors were family history of diabetes mellitus in 1st degree relative and large for dates babies in 18 patients. Similarly, high risk factors such as history of abortions and grand multiparity were present in 16 and 14 pregnant women respectively. Least common factors, which contributed for GDM, were polyhydramnios in 4 cases and perinatal mortality (due to congenital anomalies of foetus, intrauterine deaths or neonatal deaths) seen only in 5 cases. Overall impaired oral glucose tolerance test was found in 24%. Most patients had one (17%) or two risk factors commonly (23%). Only 2% had shown five or more risk factors. Oral glucose tolerance test is a useful diagnostic tool to detect GDM in high risk pregnancies, depending upon the high frequency of number of risk factors in each individual. (author)

  1. Improving Detection of Prediabetes in Children and Adults: Using Combinations of Blood Glucose Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ike Solomon Okosun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine combinations of blood glucose tests: oral glucose tolerance (OGT, fasting plasma glucose (FBG and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C that are associated with highest diagnostic rates of prediabetes in non-diabetic American children and adults.Methods: The 2007-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys data were used for this study. Overall and specific prevalence of prediabetes (defined using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were determined across age, race/ethnicity, sex and BMI categories.Results: FPG+HbA1C test was associated with significantly higher diagnostic rates of prediabetes across age, race/ethnicity and BMI. Estimates of overall prevalence of prediabetes using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were 20.3%, 24.2%, 33% and 34.3%, respectively. Compared to OGT+FPG, the use of HbA1C+FPG test in screening was associated with 44.8%, 135%, 38.6% and 35.9% increased prevalence of prediabetes in non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Mexican-American and other racial/ethnic men, respectively. The corresponding values in women were 67.8%, 140%, 37.2% and 42.6%, respectively. Combined use of all blood glucose tests did not improve the overall and gender-specific prediabetes prevalence beyond what was observed using HbA1C+FPG test.Conclusions: HbA1C criteria were associated with higher diagnosis rates of prediabetes than FPG and OGT tests in non-diabetic American children and adults. Using a combination of HbA1C and FPG test in screening for prediabetes reduces intrinsic systematic bias in using just HbA1C testing and offers the benefits of each test. A well-defined HbA1C that takes into consideration race/ethnicity, gender, age and body mass index may improve detection of prediabetes in population and clinical settings.

  2. Analysis of MTHFR, CBS, Glutathione, Taurine, and Hydrogen Sulfide Levels in Retinas of Hyperhomocysteinemic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xuezhi; Navneet, Soumya; Wang, Jing; Roon, Penny; Chen, Wei; Xian, Ming; Smith, Sylvia B

    2017-04-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) is implicated in certain retinal neurovascular diseases, although whether it is causative remains uncertain. In isolated ganglion cells (GCs), mild Hhcy induces profound death, whereas retinal phenotypes in Hhcy mice caused by mutations in remethylation (methylene tetrahydrofolatereductase [Mthfr+/-]) or transsulfuration pathways (cystathionine β-synthase [Cbs+/-]) demonstrate mild GC loss and mild vasculopathy. The current work investigated compensation in vivo of one pathway for the other, and, because the transsulfuration pathway yields cysteine necessary for formation of glutathione (GSH), taurine, and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), they were analyzed also. Retinas isolated from wild-type (WT), Mthfr+/-, and Cbs+/- mice (12 and 22 weeks) were analyzed for methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), and cystathionase (CTH) RNA/protein levels. Retinas were evaluated for levels of reduced:oxidized GSH (GSH:GSSG), Slc7a11 (xCT), taurine, taurine transporter (TAUT), and H2S. Aside from decreased CBS RNA/protein levels in Cbs+/- retinas, there were minimal alterations in remethylation/transsulfuration pathways in the two mutant mice strains. Glutathione and taurine levels in Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- retinas were similar to WT, which may be due to robust levels of xCT and TAUT in mutant retinas. Interestingly, levels of H2S were markedly increased in retinas of Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- mice compared with WT. Ganglion cell loss and vasculopathy observed in Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- mouse retinas may be milder than expected, not because of compensatory increases of enzymes in remethylation/transsulfuration pathways, but because downstream transsulfuration pathway products GSH, taurine, and H2S are maintained at robust levels. Elevation of H2S is particularly intriguing owing to neuroprotective properties reported for this gasotransmitter.

  3. Review of Pre-Analytical Errors in Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Rachita; Patel, Suprava; Sahoo, Sibashish; Mohapatra, Eli

    2018-03-13

    The pre-pre-analytical and pre-analytical phases form a major chunk of the errors in a laboratory. The process has taken into consideration a very common procedure which is the oral glucose tolerance test to identify the pre-pre-analytical errors. Quality indicators provide evidence of quality, support accountability and help in the decision making of laboratory personnel. The aim of this research is to evaluate pre-analytical performance of the oral glucose tolerance test procedure. An observational study that was conducted overa period of three months, in the phlebotomy and accessioning unit of our laboratory using questionnaire that examined the pre-pre-analytical errors through a scoring system. The pre-analytical phase was analyzed for each sample collected as per seven quality indicators. About 25% of the population gave wrong answer with regard to the question that tested the knowledge of patient preparation. The appropriateness of test result QI-1 had the most error. Although QI-5 for sample collection had a low error rate, it is a very important indicator as any wrongly collected sample can alter the test result. Evaluating the pre-analytical and pre-pre-analytical phase is essential and must be conducted routinely on a yearly basis to identify errors and take corrective action and to facilitate their gradual introduction into routine practice.

  4. Response of plasma glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids to intravenous glucose tolerance tests in dairy cows during a 670-day lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marett, L C; Auldist, M J; Moate, P J; Wales, W J; Macmillan, K L; Dunshea, F R; Leury, B J

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated the metabolic response of dairy cows undergoing an extended lactation to a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. The experiment used 12 multiparous Holstein cows that calved in late winter in a seasonally calving pasture-based system and were managed for a 670-d lactation by delaying rebreeding. In each of four 5-wk experimental periods commencing at approximately 73, 217, 422, and 520 (±9.1) days in milk (DIM), cows were offered a diet of perennial ryegrass (73 and 422 DIM) or pasture hay and silage (217 and 520 DIM) supplemented with 1kg of DM grain (control; CON) or 6kg of DM grain (GRN) as a ration. Daily energy intake was approximately 160 and 215 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow for the CON and GRN treatments, respectively. At all other times, cows were managed as a single herd and grazed pasture supplemented with grain to an estimated minimum daily total intake of 180 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow. Cows were fitted with an indwelling jugular catheter during the final week of each experimental period. The standard intravenous glucose tolerance test using 0.3g of glucose per kilogram of body weight was performed on each cow at approximately 100, 250, 460, and 560 DIM. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) responses were measured. Milk yield, milk solids yield, body weight, and basal plasma glucose were greater in the GRN compared with the CON treatment. The area under the plasma response curve relative to baseline (AUC) for glucose, insulin, and NEFA and their apparent fractional clearance rates indicated varied whole body responsiveness to insulin in terms of glucose metabolism throughout the 670-d lactation. The glucose AUC 0 to 20 min postinfusion was increased at 560 DIM, indicating reduced utilization of glucose by the mammary gland at this stage of lactation. The NEFA clearance rate, 6 to 30 min postinfusion, was greater at 460 and 560 DIM. These data indicated an

  5. Effect of adrenal medullectomy on metabolic responses to chronic intermittent hypoxia in the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mi-Kyung; Han, Woobum; Joo, Hoon; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Shiota, Masakazu; Stefanovski, Darko; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2017-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with type 2 diabetes. We have previously developed a mouse model of intermittent hypoxia (IH) mimicking oxyhemoglobin desaturations in patients with sleep apnea and have shown that IH increases fasting glucose, hepatic glucose output, and plasma catecholamines. We hypothesize that adrenal medulla modulates glucose responses to IH and that such responses can be prevented by adrenal medullectomy. We performed adrenal medullectomy or sham surgery in lean C57BL/6J mice, which were exposed to IH or intermittent air (control) for 4 wk followed by the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) in unanesthetized unrestrained animals. IH was administered during the 12-h light phase (9 AM to 9 PM) by decreasing inspired oxygen from 21 to 6.5% 60 cycles/h. Insulin sensitivity (S I ), insulin independent glucose disposal [glucose effectiveness (S G )], and the insulin response to glucose (AIR G ) were determined using the minimal model method. In contrast to our previous data obtained in restrained mice, IH did not affect fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin levels in sham-operated mice. IH significantly decreased S G but did not affect S I and AIR G Adrenal medullectomy decreased fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin levels and increased glycogen synthesis in the liver in hypoxic mice but did not have a significant effect on the FSIVGTT metrics. We conclude that, in the absence of restraints, IH has no effect on glucose metabolism in lean mice with exception of decreased S G , whereas adrenal medullectomy decreases fasting glucose and insulin levels in the IH environment. NEW & NOTEWORTHY To our knowledge, this is the first study examining the role of adrenal catecholamines in glucose metabolism during intermittent hypoxia (IH) in unanesthetized unrestrained C57BL/6J mice. We report that IH did not affect fasting glucose and insulin levels nor insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion during, whereas glucose

  6. Influence of the time of day and fasting duration on glucose level following a 1-hour, 50-gram glucose challenge test in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchalli Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the time of day (TD of glucose measurement and the fasting duration (FD influence the glucose levels in adults. Few studies have examined the effects of the TD and FD on the glucose level following a 1-hour, 50-gram glucose challenge test (GCT in pregnant women in screening for or diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the TD (morning, afternoon, night and the FD (the time of the last food ingestion as follows: ≤1 hour, 1-2 hours, and >2 hours by examining their combined effects on the glucose levels following a 50-gram GCT in pregnant women. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the data of 1,454 non-diabetic pregnant Taiwanese women in a prospective study. Multiple linear regression and multiple logistic regression were used to estimate the relationships between the 9 TD-FD groups and the continuous and binary glucose levels (cut-off at 140 mg/dL following a 50-gram GCT, after adjusting for maternal age, nulliparity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and weight gain. Different TD and FD groups were associated with variable glucose responses to the 50-gram GCT, some of which were significant. The estimate coefficients (β of the TD-FD groups "night, ≤1 hr" and "night, 1-2 hr" revealed significantly lower glucose concentrations [β (95% confidence interval [CI]: -6.46 (-12.53, -0.38 and -6.85 (-12.50, -1.20] compared with the "morning, >2 hr" group. The TD-FD groups "afternoon, ≤1 hr" and "afternoon, 1-2 hr" showed significantly lower odds ratios (OR of a positive GCT; the adjusted ORs (95% CI were 0.54 (0.31-0.95 and 0.58 (0.35-0.96, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the importance of standardizing the TD and FD for the 1-hour, 50-gram GCT. In screening for and diagnosing GDM, the TD and FD are modifiable factors that should be considered in clinical practice and epidemiological studies.

  7. Effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin on productivity and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J; Harper, M; Giallongo, F; Bravo, D M; Wall, E H; Hristov, A N

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin (RPC) supplementation on feed intake, milk yield and composition, nutrient utilization, fecal microbial ecology, and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design balanced for residual effects with three 28-d periods. Each period consisted of 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for data collection and sampling. Treatments were 0 (control), 100, and 200 mg of RPC/cow per day. They were mixed with a small portion of the total mixed ration and top-dressed. Glucose tolerance test was conducted once during each experimental period by intravenous administration of glucose at a rate of 0.3 g/kg of body weight. Dry matter intake was not affected by RPC. Milk yield tended to increase for RPC treatments compared to the control. Feed efficiency was linearly increased by RPC supplementation. Concentrations of fat, true protein, and lactose in milk were not affected by RPC. Apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein was linearly increased, and fecal nitrogen excretion was linearly decreased by RPC supplementation. Rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin did not affect the composition of fecal bacteria. Glucose concentration in serum was not affected by RPC supplementation post glucose challenge. However, compared to the control, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration at 5, 10, and 40 min post glucose challenge. The area under the insulin concentration curve was also decreased 25% by RPC. Concentration of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in serum were not affected by RPC following glucose administration. In this study, RPC tended to increase milk production and increased feed efficiency in dairy cows. In addition, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration during the glucose tolerance test, but glucose concentration was not affected

  8. CBS, GPS VE GOOGLE EARTH TEKNOLOJİLERİNİN COĞRAFYA DERSLERİNDE KULLANIMI

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRCİ, ALİ; KARABURUN, AHMET

    2013-01-01

    ÖZETBu çalışma CBS, GPS ve Google Earth teknolojilerinin birlikte kullanıldığı bir etkinliğin ortaöğretim coğrafya derslerindeki uygulanabilirliğinin test edilmesi amacı ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışma İstanbul İl Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü ve Fatih Üniversitesi işbirliği ile İstanbul’da görev yapan coğrafya öğretmenlerine verilen CBS kursu sırasında gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışmaya İstanbul’daki 19 ilçede yer alan 25 farklı ortaöğretim kurumunda çalışan 25 coğrafya öğretmeni katılmıştır. Çalışm...

  9. Impact of streptozotocin on altering normal glucose homeostasis during insulin testing in diabetic rats compared to normoglycemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinna NA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nidal A Qinna,1 Adnan A Badwan2 1Department of Pharmacology and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of Petra, 2Research and Innovation Centre, The Jordanian Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Co. Plc. (JPM, Amman, Jordan Abstract: Streptozotocin (STZ is currently the most used diabetogenic agent in testing insulin and new antidiabetic drugs in animals. Due to the toxic and disruptive nature of STZ on organs, apart from pancreas, involved in preserving the body’s normal glucose homeostasis, this study aims to reassess the action of STZ in inducing different glucose response states in diabetic rats while testing insulin. Diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats induced with STZ were classified according to their initial blood glucose levels into stages. The effect of randomizing rats in such a manner was investigated for the severity of interrupting normal liver, pancreas, and kidney functions. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic actions of subcutaneously injected insulin in diabetic and nondiabetic rats were compared. Interruption of glucose homeostasis by STZ was challenged by single and repeated administrations of injected insulin and oral glucose to diabetic rats. In diabetic rats with high glucose (451–750 mg/dL, noticeable changes were seen in the liver and kidney functions compared to rats with lower basal glucose levels. Increased serum levels of recombinant human insulin were clearly indicated by a significant increase in the calculated maximum serum concentration and area under the concentration–time curve. Reversion of serum glucose levels to normal levels pre- and postinsulin and oral glucose administrations to STZ diabetic rats were found to be variable. In conclusion, diabetic animals were more responsive to insulin than nondiabetic animals. STZ was capable of inducing different levels of normal glucose homeostasis disruption in rats. Both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic actions of insulin were

  10. Effects of ambient temperature on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity test outcomes in normal and obese C57 male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudele, Anete; Rasmussen, Gitte Marie; Mayntz, David; Malte, Hans; Lund, Sten; Wang, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Mice are commonly used as animal models to study human metabolic diseases, but experiments are typically performed at room temperature, which is far below their thermoneutral zone and is associated with elevated heart rate, food intake, and energy expenditure. We set out to study how ambient temperature affects glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in control and obese male mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were housed at room temperature (23°C) for 6 weeks and fed either control or high fat diet. They were then fasted for 6 h before glucose or insulin tolerance tests were performed at 15, 20, 25, or 30°C. To ensure that behavioral thermoregulation did not counterbalance the afflicted ambient temperatures, oxygen consumption was determined on mice with the same thermoregulatory opportunities as during the tests. Decreasing ambient temperatures increased oxygen consumption and body mass loss during fasting in both groups. Mice fed high fat diet had improved glucose tolerance at 30°C and increased levels of fasting insulin followed by successive decrease of fasting glucose. However, differences between control and high-fat diet mice were present at all temperatures. Ambient temperature did not affect glucose tolerance in control group and insulin tolerance in either of the groups. Ambient temperature affects glucose metabolism in mice and this effect is phenotype specific. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  11. Prediction Of Low Birth Weight Using Low Glucose Challenge Test In Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari Tanha F

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: We conducted this study To find relationship between maternal glucose challenge test (GCT levels and fetal body weight (BW. Materials and Methods: We analyzed five hundred women with singleton pregnancy, who had GCT at 24-28 week during pregnancy. All of them had no history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus or other medical disease before pregnancy or during previous pregnancy, and all of them had weight gain appropriate with their pre pregnancy body mass index (BMI. Also nobody had history of drug abuse or smoking. In this descriptive–analytic survey, maternal age, gravidity, BMI,GCT level ,gestational age (GA , sex of neonate, rout of delivery , newborn weight and apgar score were evaluated .The student’s T-test and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. We used Pearson coefficient and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and chi-square test for determination GCT threshold. Results: We found rate of small for gestational age (SGA in newborns statistically was significant, who their maternal GCT level was ≤ 80mg/dl, P value: 0/018, specificity 89%, sensitivity 58% and confidence interval: 95% (0/162-0/545. Conclusion: Low GCT level has association with SGA and can be used as a predictive test and may be an indication for dietary intervention.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of the Yeast Pachysolen tannophilus CBS 4044/NRRL Y-2460

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Kaas, Rolf Sommer; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2012-01-01

    A draft genome sequence of the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus CBS 4044/NRRL Y-2460 is presented. The organism has the potential to be developed as a cell factory for biorefineries due to its ability to utilize waste feedstocks. The sequenced genome size was 12,238,196 bp, consisting of 34 scaffolds...

  13. Genome sequencing and analysis of the versatile cell factory Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pel, Herman J.; de Winde, Johannes H.; Archer, David B.

    2007-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is widely exploited by the fermentation industry for the production of enzymes and organic acids, particularly citric acid. We sequenced the 33.9-megabase genome of A. niger CBS 513.88, the ancestor of currently used enzyme production strains. A high level...... clusters for fumonisin and ochratoxin A synthesis....

  14. Genome sequencing and analysis of the versatile cell factory Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, Herman J.; de Winde, Johannes H.; Archer, David B.; Dyer, Paul S.; Hofmann, Gerald; Schaap, Peter J.; Turner, Geoffrey; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Andersen, Mikael R.; Bendtsen, Jannick D.; Benen, Jacques A. E.; van den Berg, Marco; Breestraat, Stefaan; Caddick, Mark X.; Contreras, Roland; Cornell, Michael; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Danchin, Etienne G. J.; Debets, Alfons J. M.; Dekker, Peter; van Dijck, Piet W. M.; van Dijk, Alard; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; d'Enfert, Christophe; Geysens, Steven; Groot, Gert S. P.; de Groot, Piet W. J.; Guillemette, Thomas; Henrissat, Bernard; Herweijer, Marga; van den Hombergh, Johannes P. T. W.; van den Hondel, Cees A. M. J. J.; van der Heijden, Rene T. J. M.; van der Kaaij, Rachel M.; Klis, Frans M.; Kools, Harrie J.; Kubicek, Christian P.; van Kuyk, Patricia A.; Lauber, Juergen; Lu, Xin; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Meulenberg, Rogier; Menke, Hildegard; Mortimer, Martin A.; Nielsen, Jens; Oliver, Stephen G.; Olsthoorn, Maurien; Pal, Karoly; van Peij, Noel N. M. E.; Ram, Arthur F. J.; Rinas, Ursula; Roubos, Johannes A.; Sagt, Cees M. J.; Schmoll, Monika; Sun, Jibin; Ussery, David; Varga, Janos; Vervecken, Wouter; de Vondervoort, Peter J. J. van; Wedler, Holger; Wosten, Han A. B.; Zeng, An-Ping; van Ooyen, Albert J. J.; Visser, Jaap; Stam, Hein; Enfert, Christophe d’; Lauber, Jürgen; Goosen, Coenie; de Vries, Ronald P.

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is widely exploited by the fermentation industry for the production of enzymes and organic acids, particularly citric acid. We sequenced the 33.9-megabase genome of A. niger CBS 513.88, the ancestor of currently used enzyme production strains. A high level of

  15. CBS mutations and MTFHR SNPs causative of hyperhomocysteinemia in Pakistani children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shahnaz; Maqbool, Saadia; Azam, Maleeha; Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz; Qamar, Raheel

    2018-03-29

    Three index patients with hyperhomocysteinemia and ocular anomalies were screened for cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms. Genotyping of hyperhomocysteinemia associated MTHFR polymorphisms C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) was done by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Sanger sequencing was performed for CBS exonic sequences along with consensus splice sites. In the case of MTHFR polymorphisms, all the patients were heterozygous CT for the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C677T and were therefore carriers of the risk allele (T), while the patients were homozygous CC for the risk genotype of the SNP A1298C. CBS sequencing resulted in the identification of two novel mutations, a missense change (c.467T>C; p.Leu156Pro) in exon 7 and an in-frame deletion (c.808_810del; p.Glu270del) in exon 10. In addition, a recurrent missense mutation (c.770C>T; p.Thr257Met) in exon 10 of the gene was also identified. The mutations were present homozygously in the patients and were inherited from the carrier parents. This is the first report from Pakistan where novel as well as recurrent CBS mutations causing hyperhomocysteinemia and lens dislocation in three patients from different families are being reported with the predicted effect of the risk allele of the MTHFR SNP in causing hyperhomocysteinemia.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the Animal and Human Pathogen Malassezia pachydermatis Strain CBS 1879

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, Sergio; González, Andrés; Ohm, Robin A.; Wösten, Han A. B.; de Cock, Hans; Restrepo, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis is a basidiomycetous yeast that causes infections in humans and animals. Here, we report the genome sequence of Malassezia pachydermatis strain CBS 1879, which will facilitate the study of mechanisms underlying pathogenicity of the only non-lipid-dependent Malasezzia species. PMID:26472839

  17. Prevalence of endocrine diseases and abnormal glucose tolerance tests in 340 caucasian premenopausal women with hirsutism as the referral diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Andersen, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    with hirsutism as the referral diagnosis. INTERVENTION(S): Hormone analyses and ACTH tests during cycle days 2-8, 2 hours of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and vaginal ultrasound. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): End diagnosis, fasting, 30-, 60-, and 120-minute oral glucose-stimulated levels of insulin....... During OGTT, 4.9% (13 of 263) had previously undiagnosed diabetes; no significant difference in diabetes prevalence was found between idiopathic hirsutism and PCOS. For 50.8%, fasting insulin values were in the upper quartile for a reference population. CONCLUSION(S): Initial evaluation of hirsute...

  18. Depressive Symptoms Are Negatively Associated with Glucose Testing and Eating Meals on Time among Individuals with Diabetes in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hapunda, Given; Abubakar, Amina; Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    and adult patients. Regression analysis indicated that there was no association between total diabetes self-care and the depression total score. However, depression was associated with poor glucose testing and not eating meals on time by patients with diabetes. CONCLUSION: Some variance on poor self......-care was explained by demographic characteristics, specifically age, body mass index, and to some extent, socioeconomic status. Recognition and successful treatment of depression in patients with diabetes might help to optimize self-care behaviors, especially glucose testing and eating meals on time. However...

  19. Polymer Optical Fiber Compound Parabolic Concentrator fiber tip based glucose sensor: In-Vitro Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Janting, Jakob; Aasmul, Soren

    2016-01-01

    We present in-vitro sensing of glucose using a newly developed efficient optical fiber glucose sensor based on a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) tipped polymer optical fiber (POF). A batch of 9 CPC tipped POF sensors with a 35 mm fiber length is shown to have an enhanced fluorescence pickup...... efficiency with an average increment factor of 1.7 as compared to standard POF sensors with a plane cut fiber tip. Invitro measurements for two glucose concentrations (40 and 400 mg/dL) confirm that the CPC tipped sensors efficiently can detect both glucose concentrations. it sets the footnote at the bottom...

  20. Prevalence of interfering substances with point-of-care glucose testing in a community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, John H; Mason, Debra; Barnes, Deborah L; Kollins, Jerry

    2009-01-15

    This study determined the prevalence of interfering substances with a glucometer using the glucose dehydrogenase pyrroloquinolinequinone method of point-of-care glucose testing (POCGT) and identified the percentage of patients with orders for an insulin product during the interference time interval. A retrospective chart review was conducted for all inpatients with biochemically-identified interfering substances over a 12-month period. The interfering substance report identified all patients with serum uric acid concentrations greater than 10 mg/dL, hematocrit less than 20% or greater than 55%, serum total bilirubin concentrations greater than 20 mg/dL, serum acetaminophen concentrations greater than 8 mg/dL, and serum triglyceride concentrations greater than 5000 mg/dL. Of 6885 hospital admissions during the 12-month study period, 84 patients (1.2%) were identified as having interfering substances. Interfering substances were identified an average mean +/- S.D. of 4.88 +/- 15.56 days following hospital admission. Two patients had interfering substances identified in the emergency department before hospital admission. Five patients (four with total bilirubin and one with uric acid) had initial concentrations below the interference threshold. These concentrations increased during hospitalization to high enough levels to cause interference with POCGT. Since the average length of stay for the identified patients was 10.49 days, an average of 17% of the hospital stay was impacted by an interfering substance. Substances remained at interfering concentrations until the time of discharge in 30% of the patients. Over a 12-month period, interfering substance were identified in1.2% of patients admitted to a hospital. Thirty-six percent of those patients had an active order for an insulin product during the interference time interval.

  1. Evaluating Laboratory Performance on Point-of-Care Glucose Testing with Six Sigma Metric for 151 Institutions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yang; Wang, Wei; He, Falin; Zhong, Kun; Wang, Zhiguo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to use Six Sigma(SM) (Motorola Trademark Holdings, Libertyville, IL) techniques to analyze the quality of point-of-care (POC) glucose testing measurements quantitatively and to provide suggestions for improvement. In total, 151 laboratories in China were included in this investigation in 2014. Bias and coefficient of variation were collected from an external quality assessment and an internal quality control program, respectively, for POC glucose testing organized by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories. The σ values and the Quality Goal Index were used to evaluate the performance of POC glucose meters. There were 27, 30, 57, and 37 participants in the groups using Optium Xceed™ (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA), Accu-Chek(®) Performa (Roche, Basel, Switzerland), One Touch Ultra(®) (Abbott), and "other" meters, respectively. The median of the absolute value of percentage difference varied among different lots and different groups. Among all the groups, the Abbott One Touch Ultra group had the smallest median of absolute value of percentage difference except for lot 201411, whereas the "other" group had the largest median in all five lots. More than 85% of participate laboratories satisfied the total allowable error (TEa) requirement in International Organization for Standardization standard 15197:2013, and 85.43% (129/151) of laboratories obtained intralaboratory coefficient of variations less than 1/3TEa. However, Six Sigma techniques suggested that 41.72% (63/151) to 65.56% (99/151) of the laboratories needed to improve their POC glucose testing performance, in either precision, trueness, or both. Laboratories should pay more attention on the practice of POC glucose testing and take actions to improve their performance. Only in this way can POC glucose testing really function well in clinical practice.

  2. Determining pancreatic β-cell compensation for changing insulin sensitivity using an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Malin, Steven K; Karstoft, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide responses during an OGTT are informative for both research and clinical practice in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to use such information to determine insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion so as to calculate an oral glucose disposition index...

  3. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Blood flow rates of AV fistula can be affected by osmotic and oncotic pressures of blood and arterial blood pressures. Sodium, glucose, hemoglobin, and albumin are significant effectors, created osmotic and oncotic pressures [Table 3]. Blood levels of hemoglobin. (Hb), albumin, sodium (Na), and glucose ...

  4. Localization of Glucose Oxidase and Catalase Activities in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, Cor F.B.; Veenhuis, Marten; Visser, Jaap

    The subcellular localization of glucose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.4) in Aspergillus niger N400 (CBS 120.49) was investigated by (immuno)cytochemical methods. By these methods, the bulk of the enzyme was found to be localized in the cell wall. In addition, four different catalases (EC 1.11.1.6) were

  5. Fasting Triglycerides and Glucose Index as a Diagnostic Test for Insulin Resistance in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Romero, Fernando; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; Jiménez-Flores, J Rafael; Simental-Mendia, Luis E; Méndez-Cruz, René; Murguía-Romero, Miguel; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha

    2016-07-01

    Although the Glucose and Triglyceride levels (TyG) index is useful for identification of insulin resistance (IR) in different ethnic groups, it has not been evaluated in young adults. We undertook this study to evaluate the TyG index as a diagnostic test for IR in young adults. A total of 5,538 healthy young adults, 3,795 (68.5%) non-pregnant women and 1,743 (31.5%) men, with an average age of 19.2 ± 1.4 years, were enrolled in a population-based cross-sectional study. To estimate diagnostic characteristics of the TyG index, a randomized subsample of the target population (n = 75) was under euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp test. Using the cutoff values obtained in the clamp study, the diagnostic concordance between TyG index and HOMA-IR was evaluated in the overall population. The TyG index was calculated as the Ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)]/2. Normal weight, overweight, and obesity were identified in 3,632 (65.6%), 1,355 (24.5%), and 551 (9.9%) participants. A total of 346 (9.1%) men and 278 (15.9%) women exhibited IR. The best cutoff value of TyG index for diagnosis of IR was 4.55 (sensitivity 0.687, negative predictive value (NPV) 0.844, and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) 0.47) for women and 4.68 (sensitivity 0.673, NPV 0.900, and NLR 0.45) for men. In normal-weight individuals the diagnostic concordance between TyG index and HOMA-IR was 0.934 and 0.915, in the overweight subjects was 0.908 and 0.895 and, in the obese participants 0.916 and 0.950, for men and women, respectively. TyG index may be useful for screening IR in young adults. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the performance of the OneTouch Select Plus blood glucose test system against ISO 15197:2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setford, Steven; Smith, Antony; McColl, David; Grady, Mike; Koria, Krisna; Cameron, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    Assess laboratory and in-clinic performance of the OneTouch Select(®) Plus test system against ISO 15197:2013 standard for measurement of blood glucose. System performance assessed in laboratory against key patient, environmental and pharmacologic factors. User performance was assessed in clinic by system-naïve lay-users. Healthcare professionals assessed system accuracy on diabetes subjects in clinic. The system demonstrated high levels of performance, meeting ISO 15197:2013 requirements in laboratory testing (precision, linearity, hematocrit, temperature, humidity and altitude). System performance was tested against 28 interferents, with an adverse interfering effect only being recorded for pralidoxime iodide. Clinic user performance results fulfilled ISO 15197:2013 accuracy criteria. Subjects agreed that the color range indicator clearly showed if they were low, in-range or high and helped them better understand glucose results. The system evaluated is accurate and meets all ISO 15197:2013 requirements as per the tests described. The color range indicator helped subjects understand glucose results and supports patients in following healthcare professional recommendations on glucose targets.

  7. A single dual-emissive nanofluorophore test paper for highly sensitive colorimetry-based quantification of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yujie; Liu, Cui; Zhang, Ruilong; Zhang, Liying; Du, Shuhu; Liu, Bianhua; Han, Ming-Yong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2016-12-15

    Fluorescent test papers are promising for the wide applications in the assays of diagnosis, environments and foods, but unlike classical dye-absorption-based pH test paper, they are usually limited in the qualitative yes/no type of detection by fluorescent brightness, and the colorimetry-based quantification remains a challenging task. Here, we report a single dual-emissive nanofluorophore probe to achieve the consecutive color variations from blue to red for the quantification of blood glucose on its as-prepared test papers. Red quantum dots were embedded into silica nanoparticles as a stable internal standard emission, and blue carbon dots (CDs) were further covalently linked onto the surface of silica, in which the ratiometric fluorescence intensity of blue to red is controlled at 5:1. While the oxidation of glucose induced the formation of Fe(3+) ions, the blue emission of CDs was thus quenched by the electron transfer from CDs to Fe(3+), displaying a serial of consecutive color variations from blue to red with the dosage of glucose. The high-quality test papers printed by the probe ink exhibited a dosage-sensitive allochromatic capability with the clear differentiations of ~5, 7, 9, 11mM glucose in human serum (normal: 3-8mM). The blood glucose determined by the test paper was almost in accordance with that measured by a standard glucometer. The method reported here opens a window to the wide applications of fluorescent test paper in biological assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Insulin resistance and lipid profile during an oral glucose tolerance test in women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zx; Wu, Y; Zhu, Xy; Fang, Q; Chen, Dq

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare changes in insulin levels during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) during pregnancy and those with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Overall, 105 pregnant women between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation, 50 with NGT and 55 with GDM according to NDDG standard, were enrolled into the study. The levels of fasting blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) and the insulin levels, blood glucose levels at 1, 2 and 3 hours post oral glucose administration during an OGTT (5.8, 10.6, 9.2 and 8.1 mmol/L, respectively) were measured. Then, insulin resistance (IR) index was calculated. There was no significant difference in fasting, 3-h insulin levels and 3-h blood glucose levels between those with NGT and those with GDM (P > 0.05). However, 1-h and 2-h insulin levels, fasting and 1-h and 2-h blood glucose levels in women with GDM were significantly higher than those in the NGT group (P < 0.05). Fasting TC and TG levels in the GDM group were significantly higher than those with NGT (P = 0.031 and P = 0.025, respectively). Correlation analysis showed that TG and TC levels were positively correlated with homoeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) (r = 0.67 and r = 0.78, respectively; P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that insulin sensitivity in women with GDM was significantly lower than that observed in those with NGT. Reducing IR and blood lipids in women with GDM could potentially improve maternal and foetal outcomes.

  9. To test or not to test: A cross-sectional survey of the psychosocial determinants of self-testing for cholesterol, glucose, and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinant Geert-Jan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although self-tests are increasingly available and widely used, it is not clear whether their use is beneficial to the users, and little is known concerning the determinants of self-test use. The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of self-test use for cholesterol, glucose, and HIV, and to examine whether these are similar across these tests. Self-testing was defined as using in-vitro tests on body materials, initiated by consumers with the aim of diagnosing a particular disorder, condition, or risk factor for disease. Methods A cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among 513 self-testers and 600 non-testers, assessing possible determinants of self-test use. The structured questionnaire was based on the Health Belief Model, Theory of Planned Behavior, and Protection Motivation Theory. Data were analyzed by means of logistic regression. Results The results revealed that perceived benefits and self-efficacy were significantly associated with self-testing for all three conditions. Other psychosocial determinants, e.g. gender, cues to action, perceived barriers, subjective norm, and moral obligation, seemed to be more test-specific. Conclusions Psychosocial determinants of self-testing are not identical for all tests and therefore information about self-testing needs to be tailored to a specific test. The general public should not only be informed about advantages of self-test use but also about the disadvantages. Designers of information about self-testing should address all aspects related to self-testing to stimulate informed decision making which, in turn, will result in more effective self-test use.

  10. Effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Abreu

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats. We hypothesized that plasma glucose might be decreased in the exercised group during heavy (more intense exercise. Twenty-four 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary and exercised groups. The prescription of endurance exercise training intensity was determined as 60% of the maximum intensity reached at the incremental speed test. The animals were trained by running on a motorized treadmill, five days/week for a total period of 67 weeks. Plasma glucose during the constant speed test in the exercised group at 20 m/min was reduced at the 14th, 21st and 28th min compared to the sedentary group, as well at 25 m/min at the 21st and 28th min. Plasma glucose during the incremental speed test was decreased in the exercised group at the moment of exhaustion (48th min compared to the sedentary group (27th min. Endurance training positively modulates the mitochondrial activity and capacity of substrate oxidation in muscle and liver. Thus, in contrast to other studies on high load of exercise, the effects of endurance training on the decrease of plasma glucose during constant and incremental speed tests was significantly higher in exercised than in sedentary rats and associated with improved muscle and hepatic oxidative capacity, constituting an important non-pharmacological intervention tool for the prevention of insulin resistance, including type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  11. The Association Between Low 50 g Glucose Challenge Test Values and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hayan; Lee, Joonho; Lee, Byung-Wan; Kwon, Ja-Young; Kim, Young-Han

    2018-01-11

    The implications of low values on the 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) in pregnancy are not clearly defined. Few studies have evaluated the influence of maternal low GCT values on obstetrical outcomes. This study aimed to compare pregnancy outcomes between women with low 50 g GCT values and those with normal values. Women undergoing gestational diabetes mellitus screening at 24-28 weeks of gestational age between January 2010 and December 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. Women with multifetal pregnancies, prepregnancy type I or II diabetes, GCT performed before 24 or after 28 weeks of gestational age, and women undergoing multiple GCTs in the same pregnancy were excluded. Low GCT values and normal GCT values were defined as ≤85 mg/dL and 86-130 mg/dL, respectively. Of 3875 screened subjects, 519 (13.4%) women were included in the low GCT group and 3356 (86.6%) in the normal GCT group. Low GCT women had a significantly higher rate of small for gestational age (SGA) infants than normal GCT women (10.8% vs. 7.9%, p = 0.02). Cesarean section and postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) were less frequent in low GCT women than in normal women (32.6% vs. 42.8%, p values. Low GCT values were independently associated with an increased risk of SGA.

  12. Mobile diabetes intervention study: testing a personalized treatment/behavioral communication intervention for blood glucose control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Charlene C; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Shardell, Michelle; Weed, Kelly; Clough, Suzanne S; Peeples, Malinda; Terrin, Michael; Bronich-Hall, Lauren; Barr, Erik; Lender, Dan

    2009-07-01

    National data find glycemic control is within target (A1ccommunication system, using mobile phones and patient/physician portals to allow patient-specific treatment and communication. All physicians receive American Diabetes Association (ADA) Guidelines for diabetes care. Patients with poor diabetes control (A1c> or =7.5%) at baseline (n=260) are enrolled in study groups based on PCP randomization. All study patients receive blood glucose (BG) meters and a year's supply of testing materials. Patients in three treatment groups select one of two mobile phone models, receive one-year unlimited mobile phone data and service plan, register on the web-based individual patient portal and receive study treatment phone software based on study assignment. Control group patients receive usual care from their PCP. The primary outcome is mean change in A1c over a 12-month intervention period. Traditional methods of disease management have not achieved adequate control for BG and other conditions important to persons with diabetes. Tools to improve communication between patients and PCPs may improve patient outcomes and be satisfactory to patients and physicians. This RCT is ongoing.

  13. Glucose patterns during an oral glucose tolerance test and associations with future diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Vistisen, Dorte; Glümer, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    classes. Results: Four distinct glucose patterns during the OGTT were identified. One pattern was characterised by high 30 min but low 2 h glucose values. Participants with this pattern had an increased risk of developing diabetes compared with participants with lower 30 min and 2 h glucose levels (HR 4...

  14. Methodology for breakdown of the CBS statistics for domestic natural gas and electricity consumption and historical trends; Methodiek voor opsplitsing CBS-statistiek huishoudelijk gas- en elektriciteitsverbruik en historisch trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tigchelaar, C. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    From 2014 on Statistics Netherlands (CBS) is obliged to provide more detailed data on domestic energy consumption to the European statistical office Eurostat. It concerns a breakdown of the use of specific energy sources for space heating, water heating, cooking, cooling, lighting and other appliances [Dutch] Het CBS moet vanaf 2014 meer detailgegevens over het huishoudelijk energiegebruik aanleveren aan het Europees statistisch bureau Eurostat. Het gaat om een opsplitsing van het gebruik van specifieke energiedragers voor ruimteverwarming, warm tapwater, koken, koelen, verlichting en overige apparaten. ECN heeft het CBS ondersteund bij het ontwikkelen van een methode om deze opsplitsing te maken.

  15. A minimally invasive system for glucose area under the curve measurement using interstitial fluid extraction technology: evaluation of the accuracy and usefulness with oral glucose tolerance tests in subjects with and without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Kazuhiko; Hirota, Yushi; Hashimoto, Naoko; Ogawa, Wataru; Sato, Toshiyuki; Okada, Seiki; Hagino, Kei; Asakura, Yoshihiro; Kikkawa, Yasuo; Kojima, Junko; Maekawa, Yasunori; Nakajima, Hiromu

    2012-06-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of managing postprandial hyperglycemia, but adequate monitoring of postprandial glucose remains difficult because of wide variations in levels. We have therefore developed a minimally invasive system to monitor postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC). This system involves no blood sampling and uses interstitial fluid glucose (IG) AUC (IG-AUC) as a surrogate marker of postprandial glucose. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of this system by comparing data with the findings of oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in subjects with and without diabetes. The glucose AUC monitoring system was validated by OGTTs in 37 subjects with and 10 subjects without diabetes. A plastic microneedle array was stamped on the forearm to extract IG. A hydrogel patch was then placed on the pretreated area to accumulate IG. Glucose and sodium ion concentrations in the hydrogel were measured to calculate IG-AUC at 2-h postload glucose. Plasma glucose (PG) levels were measured every 30 min to calculate reference PG-AUC. IG-AUC correlated strongly with reference PG-AUC (r=0.93) over a wide range. The level of correlation between IG-AUC and maximum PG level was also high (r=0.86). The painless nature of the technique was confirmed by the response of patients to questionnaires. The glucose AUC monitoring system using IG provided good estimates of reference PG-AUC and maximum PG level during OGTTs in subjects with and without diabetes. This system provides easy-to-use monitoring of glucose AUC, which is a good indicator of postprandial glucose.

  16. Effect of test meals of varying dietary fiber content on plasma insulin and glucose response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J G; Coffman, K P; Reid, R L; Krall, J M; Albrink, M J

    1981-03-01

    To assess the effect of dietary fiber on glucose tolerance four different meals of varying fiber content but identical protein fat and carbohydrate content were fed to eight healthy men aged 22 to 45. Each meal provided 75 g of carbohydrate as liquid glucose formula, as brown rice, pinto beans, or All Bran. The mean plasma glucose and insulin responses were highest following the formula, and least for All Bran and pinto beans. Rice produced nearly as great a rise in insulin and glucose as did the formula. The rank of each meal by content of neutral detergent fiber was nearly the inverse of the rank by magnitude of the insulin response evoked, fiber content being greatest in All Bran (18 g) and pinto beans (16.2 g), low in rice (2.8 g) and absent from the formula. It was concluded that dietary fiber dampened the insulin response to a high carbohydrate meal.

  17. UTC Power/Delphi SECA CBS Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorman, Michael; Kerr, Rich

    2013-04-04

    The subject report summarizes the results of solid oxide fuel cell development conducted by UTC Power in conjunction with Delphi Automotive Systems under a cost-share program with from October 2008 through March of 2013. Over that period Delphi Automotive Systems developed a nearly four times larger area solid oxide fuel cell stack capable of operating on pre-reformed natural gas and simulated coal gas with durability demonstrated to 5,000 hours and projected to exceed 10,000 hours. The new stack design was scaled to 40-cell stacks with power output in excess of 6.25kW. Delphi also made significant strides in improving the manufacturability, yield and production cost of these solid oxide fuel cells over the course of the program. Concurrently, UTC Power developed a conceptual design for a 120 MW Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) operating on coal syngas with as high as 57% Higher Heating Value (HHV) efficiency as a measure of the feasibility of the technology. Subsequently a 400 kW on-site system preliminary design with 55% Lower Heating Value (LHV) efficiency operating on natural gas was down-selected from eighteen candidate designs. That design was used as the basis for a 25kW breadboard power plant incorporating four Delphi cell stacks that was tested on natural gas before the program was discontinued due to the sale of UTC Power in early 2013. Though the program was cut short of the endurance target of 3,000 hours, many aspects of the technology were proven including: large-area, repeatable cell manufacture, cell stack operation on simulated coal gas and natural gas and integrated power plant operation on natural gas. The potential of the technology for high efficiency stationary electric power generation is clear. Acceptable production costs, durability, and reliability in real world environments are the remaining challenges to commercialization.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of the Sordariomycete Lecythophora (Coniochaeta) hoffmannii CBS 245.38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sabrina; Büttner, Enrico; Gebauer, Anna Maria; Hofrichter, Martin; Kellner, Harald

    2018-02-15

    Lecythophora ( Coniochaeta ) hoffmannii , a soil- and lignocellulose-inhabiting sordariomycete (Ascomycota) that can also live as a facultative tree pathogen causing soft rot, belongs to the family Coniochaetaceae. The strain CBS 245.38 sequenced here was assembled into 869 contigs, has a size of 30.8 Mb, and comprises 10,596 predicted protein-coding genes. Copyright © 2018 Leonhardt et al.

  19. Fructose intervention for 12 weeks does not impair glycemic control or incretin hormone responses during oral glucose or mixed meal tests in obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matikainen, N; Söderlund, S; Björnson, E

    2017-01-01

    were measured during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and triglycerides (TG), GLP-1, GIP and PYY during a mixed meal test before and after fructose intervention. Fructose intervention did not worsen glucose and insulin responses during OGTT, and GLP-1 and GIP responses during OGTT and fat-rich meal...... responses during OGTT or GLP-1, GIP or PYY responses during a mixed meal. Therefore, fructose intake, even accompanied with mild weight gain, increases in liver fat and worsening of postprandial TG profile, does not impair glucose tolerance or gut incretin response to oral glucose or mixed meal challenge....

  20. The bacterial contamination rate of glucose meter test strips in the hospital setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid A.; Saeb, Amr T. M.; AlNaqeb, Dhekra M.; AlQumaidi, Hamed M.; AlMogbel, Turki A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the rate of bacterial contamination of the multi-use vial and single-use packed glucose meter strips, and to identify the type and frequency of various bacterial contamination in different hospital wards. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted by a team from the Strategic Center for Diabetes Research in 7 general hospitals in the Central region of Saudi Arabia during the period from August to September 2014 to assess the bacterial contamination rate of the unused strips. A total of 10,447 strips were cultured using proper agar media and incubated both aerobically and anaerobically. Results: The total bacterial contamination rate for the multi-use vials glucose strips was 31.7%, while single-use packed strips were not contaminated at all. Ministry of Health hospitals had the highest contamination rates compared with other hospitals. Critical, obstetric, and surgical wards had the highest bacterial isolates number, where most were in the risk group 3 according to the National Institute of Health guidelines. Staphylococcus species were the most common bacteria found. Conclusion: Glucose meter strips should be recognized as a source of bacterial contamination that could be behind serious hospital acquired infections. The hospital infection control team should adopt proper measures to implement protocols for glucose meter cleaning and glucose strips handling. PMID:27570855

  1. Improving cyanobacterail O2-tolerance using CBS hydrogenase for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maness, Pin-Ching [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eckert, Carrie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wawrousek, Karen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Noble, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennington, Grant [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Jianping [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-11

    Cyanobacterial H2 production is a viable path to renewable H2 with water serving as the electron donor and sunlight the energy source. A grand challenge is the sensitivity of the underlying hydrogenase to O2, the latter an inherent byproduct of oxygenic photosynthesis. This challenge has been identified as a technical barrier in the Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) Multi-year Research, Development and Deployment Plan. One solution is to express in cyanobacterium an O2-tolerant hydrogenase to circumvent this barrier. We have uncovered an O2-tolerant hydrogenase from a photosynthetic bacterium Rubrivivax gelatinosus CBS (Casa Bonita Strain; hereafter “CBS”) with a half-life near 21 h when exposed to ambient O2. We sequenced the CBS genome and identified two sets of maturation machineries hyp1 and hyp2. Transcripts expression analysis and mutagenesis revealed that hyp1 is responsible for the assembly of the O2-tolerant CO-oxidation (Coo) hydrogenase and hyp2 is involved in the maturation of a H2-uptake hydrogenase. The structural genes encoding the O2-tolerant hydrogenase (cooLXUH) and maturation genes hyp1FABCDE were therefore cloned and expressed in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. We obtained several recombinants displaying hydrogenase activity in a Synechocystis host lacking background activity, suggesting that the CBS hydrogenase is active in Synechocystis. Yet the activity is extremely low. To ensure balanced protein expression, we systematically optimized heterologous expression of 10 CBS genes by using stronger promoters and better ribosome binding site. Moreover we attempted the expression of cooM and cooK genes, verified to be important in CBS to afford activity. CooM is a very large protein and both CooM and CooK are membrane-associated. These properties limited our success in expressing both genes in Synechocystis, although they

  2. Performance testing of Zymomonas mobilis metabolically engineered for cofermentation of glucose, xylose, and arabinose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, Hugh G; Rousseau, Joyce D

    2002-01-01

    IOGEN Corporation of Ottawa, Canada, has recently built a 40t/d biomass-to-ethanol demonstration plant adjacent to its enzyme production facility. It has partnered with the University of Toronto to test the C6/C5 cofermenta-tion performance characteristics of the National Renewable Energy Labora-tory's metabolically engineered Zymomonas mobilis using various biomass hydrolysates. IOGEN's feedstocks are primarily agricultural wastes such as corn stover and wheat straw. Integrated recombinant Z. mobilis strain AX101 grows on D-xylose and/or L-arabinose as the sole carbon/energy sources and ferments these pentose sugars to ethanol in high yield. Strain AX101 lacks the tetracycline resistance gene that was a common feature of other recombinant Zm constructs. Genomic integration provides reliable cofermentation performance in the absence of antibiotics, another characteristic making strain AX101 attractive for industrial cellulosic ethanol production. In this work, IOGEN's biomass hydrolysate was simulated by a pure sugar medium containing 6% (w/v) glucose, 3% xylose, and 0.35% arabinose. At a level of 3 g/L (dry solids), corn steep liquor with inorganic nitrogen (0.8 g/L of ammonium chloride or 1.2 g/L of diammonium phosphate) was a cost-effective nutritional supplement. In the absence of acetic acid, the maximum volumetric ethanol productivity of a continuous fermentation at pH 5.0 was 3.54 g/L x h. During prolonged continuous fermentation, the efficiency of sugar-to-ethanol conversion (based on total sugar load) was maintained at >85%. At a level of 0.25% (w/v) acetic acid, the productivity decreased to 1.17 g/L x h at pH 5.5. Unlike integrated, xylose-utilizing rec Zm strain C25, strain AX101 produces less lactic acid as byproduct, owing to the fact that the Escherichia coli arabinose genes are inserted into a region of the host chromosome tentatively assigned to the gene for D-lactic acid dehydrogenase. In pH-controlled batch fermentations with sugar mixtures, the

  3. The association between brain-derived neurotrophic factor and central pulse pressure after an oral glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Te; Chen, Chen-Huan; Wang, Jun-Sing; Fu, Chia-Po; Lee, Wen-Jane; Liang, Kae-Woei; Lin, Shih-Yi; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng

    2018-01-01

    Arterial stiffening blunts postprandial vasodilatation. We hypothesized that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may modulate postprandial central pulse pressure, a surrogate marker for arterial stiffening. A total of 82 non-diabetic subjects received a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after overnight fasting. Serum BDNF concentrations were determined at 0, 30, and 120min to calculate the area under the curve (AUC). Brachial and central blood pressures were measured using a noninvasive central blood pressure monitor before blood withdrawals at 0 and 120min. With the median AUC of BDNF of 45(ng/ml)∗h as the cutoff value, the central pulse pressure after glucose intake was significantly higher in the subjects with a low BDNF than in those with a high BDNF (63±16 vs. 53±11mmHg, P=0.003), while the brachial pulse pressure was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P=0.099). In a multivariate linear regression model, a lower AUC of BDNF was an independent predictor of a higher central pulse pressure after oral glucose intake (linear regression coefficient-0.202, 95% confidence interval-0.340 to -0.065, P=0.004). After oral glucose challenge, a lower serum BDNF response is significantly associated with a higher central pulse pressure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Predictive performance for population models using stochastic differential equations applied on data from an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas Bech; Overgaard, R.V.; Madsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Several articles have investigated stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in PK/PD models, but few have quantitatively investigated the benefits to predictive performance of models based on real data. Estimation of first phase insulin secretion which reflects beta-cell function using models of ...... obtained from the glucose tolerance tests. Since, the estimation time of extended models was not heavily increased compared to basic models, the applied method is concluded to have high relevance not only in theory but also in practice....

  5. Evaluation of a 1-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Campos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the performance of a 1-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, a cohort of 4998 women, 20 years or older, without previous diabetes being treated in prenatal care clinics in Brazil answered a questionnaire and performed a 75-g OGTT including fasting, 1-h and 2-h glucose measurements between their 24th and 28th gestational weeks. Pregnancy outcomes were transcribed from medical registries. GDM was defined according to WHO criteria (fasting: ≥126 mg/dL; 2-h value: ≥140 mg/dL and macrosomia as a birth weight equal to or higher than 4000 g. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC were compared and diagnostic properties of various cut-off points were evaluated. The AUCs for the prediction of macrosomia were 0.606 (0.572-0.637 for the 1-h and 0.589 (0.557-0.622 for the 2-h plasma glucose test. Similar predictability was demonstrable regarding combined adverse outcomes: 0.582 (0.559-0.604 for the 1-h test and 0.572 (0.549-0.595 for the 2-h test. When the 1-h glucose test was evaluated against a diagnosis of GDM defined by the 2-h glucose test, the AUC was 0.903 (0.886-0.919. The cut-off point that maximized sensitivity (83% and specificity (83% was 141 mg/dL, identifying 21% of the women as positive. A cut-off point of 160 mg/dL, with lower sensitivity (62%, had higher specificity (94%, labeling 8.6% as positive. Detection of GDM can be done with a 1-h 75-g OGTT: the value of 160 mg/dL has the same diagnostic performance as the conventional 2-h value (140 mg/dL. The simplification of the test may improve coverage and timing of the diagnosis of GDM.

  6. Short-term glucagon stimulation test of C-peptide effect on glucose utilization in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojto, Viliam; Rausova, Zuzana; Chrenova, Jana; Dedik, Ladislav

    2015-12-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the use of a four-point glucagon stimulation test of C-peptide effect on glucose utilization in type 1 diabetic patients using a new mathematical model. A group of 32 type 1 diabetic patients and a group of 10 healthy control subjects underwent a four-point glucagon stimulation test with blood sampling at 0, 6, 15 and 30 min after 1 mg glucagon bolus intravenous administration. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models of C-peptide effect on glucose utilization versus area under curve (AUC) were used. A two-sample t test and ANOVA with Bonferroni correction were used to test the significance of differences between parameters. A significant difference between control and patient groups regarding the coefficient of whole-body glucose utilization and AUC C-peptide/AUC glucose ratio (p ≪ 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively) was observed. The high correlation (r = 0.97) between modeled coefficient of whole-body glucose utilization and numerically calculated AUC C-peptide/AUC glucose ratio related to entire cohort indicated the stability of used method. The short-term four-point glucagon stimulation test allows the numerically calculated AUC C-peptide/AUC glucose ratio and/or the coefficient of whole-body glucose utilization calculated from model to be used to diagnostically identify type 1 diabetic patients.

  7. Gingival crevicular blood for screening of blood glucose level in patients with & without diabetes: a chair-side test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, M V; Brahmbhatt, N A; Sahayata, V; Bhavsar, N V

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes is a pandemic disease with increasing prevalence and serious complications. Periodontitis being one of its presentation and is its sixth recognized complication. This study compares blood glucose levels in gingival crevicular blood of patients with and without diabetes elicited during routine periodontal probing and venous blood sample. Seventy patients with moderate gingivitis and periodontitis positive for bleeding on probing were chosen. All the subjects were divided in two groups, group I consisted of 35 diabetic and group II of 35 non-diabetic subjects. Blood from the gingiva of the most inflamed site was collected with the test strip of a glucose self-monitoring device, and the blood glucose levels were measured. At the same time, intravenous blood was collected for measurement in a laboratory glucose analyzer. Gingival index and probing pocket depth were evaluated for each subject at same time. The mean GCB levels and VB derived from all samples were 156.07 ± 49.23 mg dl(-1) and 156 ± 49.89 mg dl(-1) , respectively, for diabetic group and 90.80 ± 11.07 and 93.41 ± 9.30 for non-diabetic group. In both the groups, the difference between GCB and VB glucose levels was non-significant (P > 0.005). Highly significant correlation between GCB and VB (r = 0.972 for diabetic and r = 0.721 for non-diabetic) in both the groups was found. The data from this study show that GCB collected during diagnostic periodontal examination can be an excellent source for estimation of blood sugar or glucometric analysis. This technique is also suitable for routine screening of diabetic and early diagnosis of unknown diabetic cases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Glucose pump test can be used to measure blood flow rate of native arteriovenous fistula in chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Y C; Selcuk, N Y; Altıntepe, L; Güney, I; Yavuz, S

    2018-01-01

    In chronic hemodialysis patients, the low flow of vascular access may leads to inadequate dialysis, increased rate of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality. It was found that surveillance should be performed for native arteriovenous (AV) should not be performed for AV graft in various studies. However, surveillance was done in graft AV fistulas in most studies. Doppler ultrasonography (US) was suggested for surveillance of AV fistulas by the last vascular access guideline of National Kidney Foundation Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF KDOQI). The aim of study is to determine whether glucose pump test (GPT) is used for surveillance of native AV fistulas by using Doppler US as reference. In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US and GPT. For GPT, glucose was infused to 16 mL/min by pump and was measured at basal before the infusion and 11 s after the start of the infusion by glucometer. Doppler US was done by an expert radiologist. Used statistical tests were Mann-Whitney U test, Friedman test, regression analysis, and multiple regression analysis. Median values of blood flow rates measured by GPT (707 mL/min) and by Doppler US (700 mL/min) were not different (Z = 0.414, P = 0.678). Results of GPT and Doppler US measurements were positive correlate by regression analysis. The mean GPT value of diabetic patients (n = 39; 908 mL/min) was similar to that of nondiabetic patients (n = 54; 751 mL/min; Z = 1.31, P = 0.188). GPT values measured at three different dialysis session did not differ from each other that by Friedman test (F = 0.92, P = 0.39). This showed that GPT was stable and reliable. Glucose pump test can be used to measure blood flow rate of native AV fistula. GPT is an accurate and reliable test.

  9. IDegLira Improves Both Fasting and Postprandial Glucose Control as Demonstrated Using Continuous Glucose Monitoring and a Standardized Meal Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Jens J; Buse, John B; Rodbard, Helena W; Linjawi, Sultan; Woo, Vincent C; Boesgaard, Trine Welløv; Kvist, Kajsa; Gough, Stephen C

    2015-10-06

    IDegLira is a novel, fixed-ratio combination of the long-acting basal insulin, insulin degludec, and the long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide. We studied the effect of IDegLira versus its components on postprandial glucose (PPG) in type 2 diabetes. In this substudy, 260 (15.6%) of the original 1663 patients with inadequate glycemic control participating in a 26-week, open-label trial (DUAL I) were randomized 2:1:1 to once-daily IDegLira, insulin degludec or liraglutide. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) for 72 hours and a meal test were performed. At week 26, IDegLira produced a significantly greater decrease from baseline in mean PPG increment (normalized iAUC0-4h) than insulin degludec (estimated treatment difference [ETD] -12.79 mg/dl [95% CI: -21.08; -4.68], P = .0023) and a similar magnitude of decrease as liraglutide (ETD -1.62 mg/dl [95% CI: -10.09; 6.67], P = .70). CGM indicated a greater reduction in change from baseline in PPG increment (iAUC0-4h) for IDegLira versus insulin degludec over all 3 main meals (ETD -6.13 mg/dl [95% CI: -10.27, -1.98], P = .0047) and similar reductions versus liraglutide (ETD -1.80 mg/dl [95% CI: -2.52, 5.95], P = .4122). Insulin secretion ratio and static index were greater for IDegLira versus insulin degludec (P = .048 and P = .006, respectively) and similar to liraglutide (P = .45 and P = .895, respectively). Once-daily IDegLira provides significantly better PPG control following a mixed meal test than insulin degludec. The improvement is at least partially explained by higher endogenous insulin secretion and improved beta cell function with IDegLira. The benefits of liraglutide on PPG control are maintained across all main meals in the combination. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  10. Clinical chemistry measurements with commercially available test slides on a smartphone platform: Colorimetric determination of glucose and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Boonloed, Anukul; Sleszynski, Neal; Koesdjojo, Myra; Armstrong, Chadd; Bracha, Shay; Remcho, Vincent T

    2015-08-25

    Rapidly increasing healthcare costs in economically advantaged countries are currently unsustainable, while in many developing nations, even 50-year-old technologies are too expensive to implement. New and unconventional technologies are being explored as solutions to this problem. In this study, we examined the use of a smartphone as the detection platform for 2 well-developed, relatively inexpensive, commercially available clinical chemistry assays as a model for rapid and inexpensive clinical diagnostic testing. An Apple iPhone 4 camera phone equipped with a color analysis application (ColorAssist) was combined with Vitros® glucose and urea colorimetric assays. Color images of assay slides at various concentrations of glucose or urea were collected with the iPhone 4 and quantitated in three different spectral ranges (red/green/blue or RGB) using the ColorAssist app. When the diffuse reflectance data was converted into absorbance, it was possible to quantitate glucose or blood urea nitrogen (BUN) over their clinically important concentration ranges (30-515mg/dl for glucose or 2-190mg/dl for BUN), with good linearity (R(2)=0.9994 or 0.9996, respectively [n=5]). Data collected using the iPhone 4 and canine serum samples were in agreement with results from the instrumental "gold standard" (Beckman Coulter AU480 Chemistry System) (R(2)=0.9966 and slope=1.0001 for glucose; R(2)=0.9958 and slope=0.9454 for BUN). Glucose determinations of serum samples made using this smartphone method were as accurate as or more accurate than a commercial colorimetric dry slide analyzer (Heska® Element DC Chemistry Analyzer, Loveland, CO) and 2 glucometers: ReliOn® Ultima (Abbott Diabetes Care Inc) and Presto® (AgaMatrix Inc.H). BUN determinations made using the smartphone approach were comparable in accuracy to the Heska instrument. This demonstration shows that smartphones have the potential to be used as simple, effective colorimetric detectors for quantitative diagnostic tests

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  12. Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS deficiency in Russia: Molecular and clinical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Voskoboeva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the 45-year clinical observation of 27 Russian homocystinuria patients. We made a mutation analysis of the CBS gene for thirteen patients from eleven unrelated genealogies. All patients except for the two were compound heterozygotes for the mutations detected. The most frequent mutation in the cohort investigated was splice mutation IVS11-2a->c. We detected one new nonsense mutation, one new missense-mutation and three novel small deletions. We also report the clinical case of the B6-responsive patient genotyped as Ile278Thr/Cys109Arg.

  13. Testing isotopic labeling with [¹³C₆]glucose as a method of advanced glycation sites identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielmas, Martyna; Kijewska, Monika; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2012-12-01

    The Maillard reaction occurring between reducing sugars and reactive amino groups of biomolecules leads to the formation of a heterogeneous mixture of compounds: early, intermediate, and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). These compounds could be markers of certain diseases and of the premature aging process. Detection of Amadori products can be performed by various methods, including MS/MS techniques and affinity chromatography on immobilized boronic acid. However, the diversity of the structures of AGEs makes detection of these compounds more difficult. The aim of this study was to test a new method of AGE identification based on isotope (13)C labeling. The model protein (hen egg lysozyme) was modified with an equimolar mixture of [(12)C(6)]glucose and [(13)C(6)]glucose and then subjected to reduction of the disulfide bridges followed by tryptic hydrolysis. The digest obtained was analyzed by LC-MS. The glycation products were identified on the basis of characteristic isotopic patterns resulting from the use of isotopically labeled glucose. This method allowed identification of 38 early Maillard reaction products and five different structures of the end glycation products. This isotopic labeling technique combined with LC-MS is a sensitive method for identification of advanced glycation end products even if their chemical structure is unknown. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical significance of low result of 1-h 50-g glucose-challenge test in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oawada, Nozomi; Aoki, Shigeru; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Obata, Soichiro; Seki, Kazuo; Hirahara, Fumiki

    2018-01-31

    The objective of this study is to examine the effect of low-glucose value on the 1-h 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT) on neonatal body weight in low-risk Asian singleton pregnant women. We retrospectively analyzed women who delivered a singleton neonate at term at a tertiary center and underwent GCT at 24-28 weeks of gestation between June 2001 and June 2015. The low GCT group was defined as low-birth weight, and macrosomia. The χ 2 test, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t test were used. There were 313 low GCT groups and 4611 control. The low GCT group were younger, had lower prepregnancy body weight, higher stature, and lower prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). After adjusting these variables, the low GCT group had a lower rate of LGA and a higher rate of SGA. Neonatal body weight is more influenced by maternal physique than by low GCT result (standardized coefficient (β); GCT 0.071, height 0.188, prepregnancy BMI 0.143). Neonatal body weight was only slightly influenced by low GCT result, but markedly influenced by maternal physique, such as height and prepregnancy BMI.

  15. Comparison of surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity with parameters of the intravenous glucose tolerance test in early lactation dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Nores, V; Castillo, C; Hernandez, J; Abuelo, A

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between different surrogate indices and parameters of the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in dairy cows at the start of their lactation. Ten dairy cows underwent IVGTT on Days 3 to 7 after calving. Areas under the curve during the 90 min after infusion, peak and nadir concentrations, elimination rates, and times to reach half-maximal and basal concentrations for glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate were calculated. Surrogate indices were computed using the average of the IVGTT basal samples, and their correlation with the IVGTT parameters studied through the Spearman's rank test. No statistically significant or strong correlation coefficients (P > 0.05; |ρ| insulin sensitivity measures derived from the IVGTT and any of the surrogate indices. Therefore, these results support that the assessment of insulin sensitivity in early lactation cattle cannot rely on the calculation of surrogate indices in just a blood sample, and the more laborious tests (ie, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test or IVGTT) should be employed to predict the sensitivity of the peripheral tissues to insulin accurately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of different measures of insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism in dairy cows using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test as the gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koster, J; Hostens, M; Hermans, K; Van den Broeck, W; Opsomer, G

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present research was to compare different measures of insulin sensitivity in dairy cows at the end of the dry period. To do so, 10 clinically healthy dairy cows with a varying body condition score were selected. By performing hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) tests, we previously demonstrated a negative association between the insulin sensitivity and insulin responsiveness of glucose metabolism and the body condition score of these animals. In the same animals, other measures of insulin sensitivity were determined and the correlation with the HEC test, which is considered as the gold standard, was calculated. Measures derived from the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) are based on the disappearance of glucose after an intravenous glucose bolus. Glucose concentrations during the IVGTT were used to calculate the area under the curve of glucose and the clearance rate of glucose. In addition, glucose and insulin data from the IVGTT were fitted in the minimal model to derive the insulin sensitivity parameter, Si. Based on blood samples taken before the start of the IVGTT, basal concentrations of glucose, insulin, NEFA, and β-hydroxybutyrate were determined and used to calculate surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity, such as the homeostasis model of insulin resistance, the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index including β-hydroxybutyrate. Correlation analysis revealed no association between the results obtained by the HEC test and any of the surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity. For the measures derived from the IVGTT, the area under the curve for the first 60 min of the test and the Si derived from the minimal model demonstrated good correlation with the gold standard. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral glucose tolerance test significantly impacts the prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance among Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome: lessons from a large database of two tertiary care centers on the Indian subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Dhingra, Atul; Nisar, Sobia; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Shah, Zaffar Amin; Rashid, Aafia; Masoodi, Shariq; Gupta, Nandita

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) among Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and analyze the role of oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) test on its estimation. Cross-sectional clinical study. Tertiary care center. A total of 2,014 women with PCOS diagnosed on the basis of the Rotterdam 2003 criteria were enrolled, and the data of 1,746 subjects were analyzed. In addition to recording clinical, biochemical, and hormone parameters, a 75 g OGTT was administered. Prevalence of AGT and impact of age, body mass index (BMI), family history, and OGTT on its prevalence. The mean age of subjects was 23.8 ± 5.3 years, with a mean BMI of 24.9 ± 4.4 kg/m(2). The overall prevalence of AGT was 36.3% (6.3% diabetes and 30% impaired fasting plasma glucose/impaired glucose tolerance) using American Diabetes Association criteria. The glucose intolerance showed a rising trend with advancing age (30.3%, 35.4%, 51%, and 58.8% in the second, third, fourth, and fifth decades, respectively) and increasing BMI. Family history of diabetes mellitus was present in 54.6% (953/1,746) subjects, and it did not correlate with any of the studied parameters except waist circumference and BMI. Sensitivity was better with 2-hour post-OGTT glucose values as compared with fasting plasma glucose, since using fasting plasma glucose alone would have missed the diagnosis in 107 (6.1%) subjects. We conclude that AGT is high among young Indian women with PCOS and that it is not predicted by family history of type 2 DM. OGTT significantly improves the detection rate of AGT among Indian women with PCOS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Gastric emptying, glucose responses, and insulin secretion after a liquid test meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willms, B; Werner, J; Holst, J J

    1996-01-01

    yr; body mass index, 30.0 +/- 5.2 kg/m2; hemoglobin A1c, 10.5 +/- 1.2%) were studied in the fasting state (plasma glucose, 11.1 +/- 1.1 mmol/L). A liquid meal of 400 mL containing 8% amino acids and 50 g sucrose (327 Kcal) was administered at time zero by a nasogastric tube. Gastric volume......The aim of the study was to investigate whether inhibition of gastric emptying of meals plays a role in the mechanism of the blood glucose-lowering action of glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36) amide [GLP-1-(7-36) amide] in type 2 diabetes. Eight poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients (age, 58 +/- 6...... to normal fasting values (5.4 +/- 0.7 mmol/L) within 3-4 h, whereas insulin was stimulated in most, but not all, patients, and glucagon remained at the basal level or was slightly suppressed. In conclusion, GLP-1-(7-36) amide inhibits gastric emptying in type 2 diabetic patients. Together...

  19. Determination of cystathionine beta-synthase activity in human plasma by LC-MS/MS: potential use in diagnosis of CBS deficiency.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Krijt, Jakub

    2011-02-01

    Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency is usually confirmed by assaying the enzyme activity in cultured skin fibroblasts. We investigated whether CBS is present in human plasma and whether determination of its activity in plasma could be used for diagnostic purposes. We developed an assay to measure CBS activity in 20 μL of plasma using a stable isotope substrate - 2,3,3-(2)H serine. The activity was determined by measurement of the product of enzyme reaction, 3,3-(2)H-cystathionine, using LC-MS\\/MS. The median enzyme activity in control plasma samples was 404 nmol\\/h\\/L (range 66-1,066; n = 57). In pyridoxine nonresponsive CBS deficient patients, the median plasma activity was 0 nmol\\/ho\\/L (range 0-9; n = 26), while in pyridoxine responsive patients the median activity was 16 nmol\\/hour\\/L (range 0-358; n = 28); this overlapped with the enzyme activity from control subject. The presence of CBS in human plasma was confirmed by an in silico search of the proteome database, and was further evidenced by the activation of CBS by S-adenosyl-L-methionine and pyridoxal 5\\'-phosphate, and by configuration of the detected reaction product, 3,3-(2)H-cystathionine, which was in agreement with the previously observed CBS reaction mechanism. We hypothesize that the CBS enzyme in plasma originates from liver cells, as the plasma CBS activities in patients with elevated liver aminotransferase activities were more than 30-fold increased. In this study, we have demonstrated that CBS is present in human plasma and that its catalytic activity is detectable by LC-MS\\/MS. CBS assay in human plasma brings new possibilities in the diagnosis of pyridoxine nonresponsive CBS deficiency.

  20. Evaluation of the effects of insufficient blood volume samples on the performance of blood glucose self-test meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Schipper, Christina; Ramljak, Sanja; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Forst, Thomas; Musholt, Petra B

    2013-11-01

    Accuracy of blood glucose readings is (among other things) dependent on the test strip being completely filled with sufficient sample volume. The devices are supposed to display an error message in case of incomplete filling. This laboratory study was performed to test the performance of 31 commercially available devices in case of incomplete strip filling. Samples with two different glucose levels (60-90 and 300-350 mg/dl) were used to generate three different sample volumes: 0.20 µl (too low volume for any device), 0.32 µl (borderline volume), and 1.20 µl (low but supposedly sufficient volume for all devices). After a point-of-care capillary reference measurement (StatStrip, NovaBiomedical), the meter strip was filled (6x) with the respective volume, and the response of the meters (two devices) was documented (72 determinations/meter type). Correct response was defined as either an error message indicating incomplete filling or a correct reading (±20% compared with reference reading). Only five meters showed 100% correct responses [BGStar and iBGStar (both Sanofi), ACCU-CHEK Compact+ and ACCU-CHEK Mobile (both Roche Diagnostics), OneTouch Verio (LifeScan)]. The majority of the meters (17) had up to 10% incorrect reactions [predominantly incorrect readings with sufficient volume; Precision Xceed and Xtra, FreeStyle Lite, and Freedom Lite (all Abbott); GlucoCard+ and GlucoMen GM (both Menarini); Contour, Contour USB, and Breeze2 (all Bayer); OneTouch Ultra Easy, Ultra 2, and Ultra Smart (all LifeScan); Wellion Dialog and Premium (both MedTrust); FineTouch (Terumo); ACCU-CHEK Aviva (Roche); and GlucoTalk (Axis-Shield)]. Ten percent to 20% incorrect reactions were seen with OneTouch Vita (LifeScan), ACCU-CHEK Aviva Nano (Roche), OmniTest+ (BBraun), and AlphaChek+ (Berger Med). More than 20% incorrect reactions were obtained with Pura (Ypsomed), GlucoCard Meter and GlucoMen LX (both Menarini), Elite (Bayer), and MediTouch (Medisana). In summary, partial and

  1. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of merohedrally twinned crystals of MJ0729, a CBS-domain protein from Methanococcus jannaschii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Millán, Pablo; Kortazar, Danel; Lucas, María; Martínez-Chantar, María Luz; Astigarraga, Egoitz; Fernández, José Andrés; Sabas, Olatz; Albert, Armando; Mato, Jose M.; Martínez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Trigonal crystals of MJ0729 showing different degrees of merohedral twinning that may vary from perfect hemihedral twinning to perfect tetartohedral twinning were obtained upon slight variation of the pH. CBS domains are small protein motifs, usually associated in tandem, that are implicated in binding to adenosyl groups. Several genetic diseases in humans have been associated with mutations in CBS sequences, which has made them very promising targets for rational drug design. Trigonal crystals of the CBS-domain protein MJ0729 from Methanococcus jannaschii were grown by the vapour-diffusion method at acidic pH. Preliminary analysis of nine X-ray diffraction data sets using Yeates statistics and Britton plots showed that slight variation in the pH as well as in the buffer used in the crystallization experiments led to crystals with different degrees of merohedral twinning that may vary from perfect hemihedral twinning to perfect tetartohedral twinning

  2. Incretin responses to oral glucose and mixed meal tests and changes in fasting glucose levels during 7 years of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopman, A D M; Rutters, F; Rauh, S P

    2018-01-01

    . We used data from the Hoorn Meal Study; a population-based cohort study among 121 subjects, aged 61.0±6.7y. GIP and GLP-1 responses were determined at baseline and expressed as total and incremental area under the curve (tAUC and iAUC). The association between incretin response at baseline...... and changes in fasting glucose levels was assessed using linear regression. The average change in glucose over 7 years was 0.43 ± 0.5 mmol/l. For GIP, no significant associations were observed with changes in fasting glucose levels. In contrast, participants within the middle and highest tertile of GLP-1 iAUC...... responses to OGTT had significantly smaller increases (actually decreases) in fasting glucose levels; -0.28 (95% confidence interval: -0.54;-0.01) mmol/l and -0.39 (-0.67;-0.10) mmol/l, respectively, compared to those in the lowest tertile. The same trend was observed for tAUC GLP-1 following OGTT (highest...

  3. IDegLira Improves Both Fasting and Postprandial Glucose Control as Demonstrated Using Continuous Glucose Monitoring and a Standardized Meal Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J; Buse, John B; Rodbard, Helena W

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: IDegLira is a novel, fixed-ratio combination of the long-acting basal insulin, insulin degludec, and the long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide. We studied the effect of IDegLira versus its components on postprandial glucose (PPG) in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this su...

  4. SECURITYTHREATS OF COMPUTERIZED BANKING SYSTEMS(CBS: THE MANAGERS’ PERCEPTION IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Malami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal control system is an important pillar in an organisation.Considering theevidence from major accounting fraud cases that occurred consequence to weakinternal control, such as Enron, it could also occur ina financial institution.Hence, the objective of this study is to investigate the bank managers’ opinion onthe likelihood of security threats in the computerised banking systems (CBS inMalaysia. Since most major financial institutions operate in the capital city ofKuala Lumpur, questionnaires were sent toselectedbank branches in KualaLumpur. The findings are expected to provide a platform for bank managers toshare their threats’ experience. Secondly, to assist them in designing andformulating a sound and effective internal control system that will providereasonable assurance for achieving the bank’s mission. Findings are also expectedto provide general insights of internal control system, as most information is veryremote and confidential, thus generate a platform for promoting an efficient andeffective internal control practice in financial institutions.

  5. CBS Genome Atlas Database: a dynamic storage for bioinformatic results and sequence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Peter Fischer; Ussery, David

    2004-01-01

    , these results counts to more than 220 pieces of information. The backbone of this solution consists of a program package written in Perl, which enables administrators to synchronize and update the database content. The MySQL database has been connected to the CBS web-server via PHP4, to present a dynamic web...... and frequent addition of new models are factors that require a dynamic database layout. Using basic tools like the GNU Make system, csh, Perl and MySQL, we have created a flexible database environment for storing and maintaining such results for a collection of complete microbial genomes. Currently...... content for users outside the center. This solution is tightly fitted to existing server infrastructure and the solutions proposed here can perhaps serve as a template for other research groups to solve database issues....

  6. Point-of-care testing on admission to the intensive care unit: lactate and glucose independently predict mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jan; Blobner, Manfred; Busch, Raymonde; Moser, Norman; Kochs, Eberhard; Luppa, Peter B

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to retrospectively investigate whether parameters of routine point-of-care testing (POCT) predict hospital mortality in critically ill surgical patients on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Arterial blood analyses of 1551 patients on admission to the adult surgical ICU of the Technical University Munich were reviewed. POCT was performed on a blood gas analyser. The association between acid-base status and mortality was evaluated. Metabolic acidosis was defined by base excess (BE) lactate >50% of BE, anion gap (AG)-acidosis by AG >16 mmol/L, hyperchloraemic acidosis by chloride >115 mmol/L. Metabolic alkalosis was defined by BE ≥3 mmol/L. Logistic regression analysis identified variables independently associated with mortality. Overall mortality was 8.8%. Mortality was greater in male patients (p=0.012). Mean age was greater in non-survivors (p55 mm Hg (mortality 23.1%). Three hundred and seventy-seven patients presented with acidosis (mortality 11.4%), thereof 163 patients with lactic acidosis (mortality 19%). Mortality for alkalosis (174 patients) was 12.1%. Mean blood glucose level for non-survivors was higher compared to survivors (plactate, glucose, age, male gender as independent predictors of mortality. Lactate and glucose on ICU admission independently predict mortality. BE and AG failed as prognostic markers. Lactic acidosis showed a high mortality rate implying that lactate levels should be obtained on ICU admission. Prevalence of hyperchloraemic acidosis was low. Metabolic alkalosis was associated with an increased mortality. Further studies on this disturbance and its attendant high mortality are warranted.

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ...

  8. Ethnic differences in cross-sectional associations between impaired glucose regulation, identified by oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c values, and cardiovascular disease in a cohort of European and South Asian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, S V; Tillin, T; Mayet, J; Shibata, D K; Wright, A; Heasman, J; Beauchamp, N; Forouhi, N G; Hughes, A D; Chaturvedi, N

    2016-03-01

    We contrasted impaired glucose regulation (prediabetes) prevalence, defined according to oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c values, and studied cross-sectional associations between prediabetes and subclinical/clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of European and South Asian origin. For 682 European and 520 South Asian men and women, aged 58-85 years, glycaemic status was determined by oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c thresholds. Questionnaires, record review, coronary artery calcification scores and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging established clinical plus subclinical coronary heart and cerebrovascular disease. Prediabetes was more prevalent in South Asian participants when defined by HbA1c rather than by oral glucose tolerance test criteria. Accounting for age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and waist-hip ratio, prediabetes was associated with coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in European participants, most obviously when defined by HbA1c rather than by oral glucose tolerance test [odds ratios for HbA1c -defined prediabetes 1.60 (95% CI 1.07, 2.39) for coronary heart disease and 1.57 (95% CI 1.00, 2.51) for cerebrovascular disease]. By contrast, non-significant associations were present between oral glucose tolerance test-defined prediabetes only and coronary heart disease [odds ratio 1.41 (95% CI 0.84, 2.36)] and HbA1c -defined prediabetes only and cerebrovascular disease [odds ratio 1.39 (95% CI 0.69, 2.78)] in South Asian participants. Prediabetes defined by HbA1c or oral glucose tolerance test criteria was associated with cardiovascular disease (defined as coronary heart and/or cerebrovascular disease) in Europeans [odds ratio 1.95 (95% CI 1.31, 2.91) for HbA1c prediabetes criteria] but not in South Asian participants [odds ratio 1.00 (95% CI 0.62, 2.66); ethnicity interaction P = 0.04]. Prediabetes appeared to be less associated with cardiovascular disease in the South Asian than in the European

  9. Evaluation of the Sealing Ability of Three Obturation Techniques Using a Glucose Leakage Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Olczak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of three different canal filling techniques. Sixty-four roots of extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were prepared using ProTaper® rotary instruments. The specimens were then randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (n=16 and 2 control groups (n=8. The root canals were filled using cold lateral compaction (CLC group, continuous wave condensation technique using the Elements Obturation Unit® (EOU group, and ProTaper obturators (PT group. For the negative control group, 8 roots were filled using lateral compaction as in the CLC group, and the teeth were covered twice with a layer of nail varnish (NCG group. Another 8 roots were filled using lateral compaction, but without sealer, and these were used as the positive control (PCG group. A glucose leakage model was used for quantitative evaluation of microleakage for 24 hours and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 weeks. No significant difference in the cumulative amount of leakage was found between the three experimental groups at all observation times. The lateral condensation of cold gutta-percha can guarantee a similar seal of canal fillings as can be achieved by using thermal methods, in the round canals.

  10. The real world of blood glucose point-of-care testing (POCT) system running in China teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Fei; Xie, Yun; Shi, Bing-Yin; Niu, Min; Guo, Hui; Cao, Yan; Liu, Bing-Li; Yan, Reng-Na; Su, Xiao-Fei; Wu, Jin-Dan; Zhang, Dan-Feng; Chen, Li-Ming; Ma, Jian-Hua

    2018-06-01

     The blood glucose point-of-care testing (POCT) system is important in the decision-making process involving patients suspected of having hypoglycemia. To investigate the real world of the POCT system being used in teaching hospitals in China. The survey was conducted by Hisend Research Group from May 2015 to July 2015 in four teaching hospitals in China. The survey questions were referred to the ISO 15197:2013 standard requirements for the use of the POCT system in a hospital setting. A total of 170 subjects were included from 4 hospitals, which included nursing staff, nurse unit managers, employees from the department of medical instruments, and staff members employed by the clinical laboratories in the Tianjin Metabolism Hospital, Nanjing First Hospital, First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, and the First hospital affiliated with the Xi'an Transportation University. The average score for the four hospitals surveyed in this study was 66.6, which varied from 46.1 to 79.7. The main factors influencing the scores were the multiple choices of blood-glucose meters, and the quality control assessment. Our data indicates that the real world use of the POCT system in hospital settings in China needs more closer adherence to a quality management framework.

  11. Food intake, postprandial glucose, insulin and subjective satiety responses to three different bread-based test meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Jennifer; Atkinson, Fiona; Eisenhauer, Bronwyn; Inamdar, Amar; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2011-12-01

    The effect of bread consumption on overall food intake is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to measure postprandial food intake after a set breakfast containing three different breads. Ten males and 10 females aged 20.1-44.8 years, BMI 18.4-24.8 kg/m(2), consumed two slices of White Bread, Bürgen Wholemeal and Seeds Bread or Lupin Bread (all 1300 kJ) with 10 g margarine and 30 g strawberry jam. Fullness and hunger responses and were measured before and during the test breakfasts. Glucose and insulin responses (incremental area under each two-hour curve (iAUC)) were calculated. Food intake was measured and energy and nutrient intake determined at a buffet meal two hours later. Subjects consumed significantly less energy after the Bürgen Bread meal compared to the White Bread meal (2548 ± 218 vs. 3040±328kJ, Bürgen Bread vs. White Bread, PBread (PBread (PBread. Lupin Bread and Bürgen Bread produced smaller postprandial glucose responses (79 ± 7, 74 ± 4, 120 ± 10 mmol/L min iAUC, Lupin, Bürgen and White Bread respectively, PBread respectively, Pbreads differed in their short-term satiation capacity. Further studies are needed to demonstrate any potential benefit for weight management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimation of Insulin Resistance in Mexican Adults by the [13C]Glucose Breath Test Corrected for Endogenous Total CO2 Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ibarra-Pastrana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of the [13C]glucose breath test for measuring insulin resistance in Mexican adults with different glycemic states. Research Design and Methods. Fifty-eight adults underwent a [13C]glucose breath test with simultaneous measurement of total CO2 production by indirect calorimetry, at baseline and 90 minutes after the ingestion of 15 g of dextrose and 25 mg of [13C]glucose. HOMA was used as a marker of insulin resistance. Results. We found an inverse correlation between HOMA and the breath test δ13CO2 (‰, r=-0.41 (P=0.001. After adjusting for total CO2 production, correlations between HOMA and fasting glucose were less strong but remained significant. An ROC curve was constructed using δ13CO2 (‰ and HOMA values; the cut-off point was 9.99‰ δ13CO2, corresponding to a sensitivity of 80.0 (95% CI: 51.9, 95.7 and a specificity of 67.4 (95% CI: 51.5, 80.9. Conclusions. The [13C]glucose breath test is a simple noninvasive procedure but was not sufficiently robust for an accurate diagnosis of insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that the test might be helpful in identifying individuals who are not IR, which in turn may contribute to improved diabetes prevention.

  13. Study The Effect of 4 weeks of Special Aerobic Training on CBS and SAM Levels in Hippocampus of Rats with Alzheimer-induced Disease with Aβ1-42 Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Azimi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: H2S plays a key role in the pathogenesis of the Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 4 weeks of the special aerobic training after induction of Alzheimer’s disease by Aβ1-42 injection on CBS and SAM levels in hippocampus of Wistar male rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats (8 weeks old and weight 195 ± 20 g were divided into four groups including: healthy control, Alzheimer’s control, Alzheimer’s + training and sham. To induce Alzheimer’s disease, Aβ1-42 was infused into the hippocampus of rats. Training group trained for 4-week. For data analysis, one-way ANOVA was used and Eta and Omega squared tests were used to determine the effect size (p<0.05. Results: Findings revealed that 4 weeks of special aerobic training increased significantly the CBS and SAM levels in hippocampus of Alzheimer’s rats compared to the control Alzheimer’s rats ( ES=53; p= 0.007, ES= 92.22; p= 0.001. Also, we showed 4 weeks of special aerobic training increased CBS level in hippocampus of Alzheimer’s rats compared to the healthy cotrol group (ES= 44.07; p= 0.014. Conclusion: It seems that the special aerobic training can be used as a useful non-pharmacologically effective therapeutic treatment for Alzheimer's patients through positive regulation of hydrogen sulfide via CBS and SAM enzymes.

  14. Dietary patterns predict changes in two-hour post-oral glucose tolerance test plasma glucose concentrations in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cathrine; Toft, Ulla; Tetens, Inge; Carstensen, Bendix; Jørgensen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2009-03-01

    We examined whether the adherence to major dietary patterns at baseline of 5824 nondiabetic Danes (30-60 y) enrolled in the nonpharmacological Inter99 intervention predicted changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postchallenge 2-h plasma glucose (2h-PG) concentrations during a 5 y period and whether a potential association was dependent on baseline glucose tolerance status. Through principal component analysis, a score for a traditional dietary pattern (characterized by higher intakes of high-fat sandwich spreads, red meat, potatoes, butter and lard, low-fat fish, sandwich meat, and sauces) and a score for a modern dietary pattern (characterized by higher intakes of vegetables, fruit, vegetable oil/vinegar dressing, poultry, pasta, rice, and cereals) were estimated for each person at baseline. Random effect models adjusting for relevant confounders were used to estimate changes in repetitive measures of FPG and 2h-PG. A higher modern score (of 1 SD) predicted an annual decrease in 2h-PG of 0.015 mmol/L (P dressing, poultry, pasta, rice, and cereals.

  15. Long-term performance of thermoplastic composite material with cotton burr and stem (CBS) as a partial filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Cotton burr and stem (CBS) fraction of cotton gin byproducts has shown promise as a fiber filler in thermoplastic composites, with physical and mechanical properties comparable to that made with wood fiber fillers. However, the long-term performance of this composite material is not known...

  16. Association of a 31 bp VNTR in the CBS gene with postload homocysteine concentrations in the Framingham Offspring Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lievers, K.J.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Blom, H.J.; Wilson, P.W.; Selhub, J.; Ordovas, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Elevated total plasma homocysteine concentrations (tHcy), both fasting and post-methionine load, have been established as risk factors for vascular disease. Recently, we described the association of a 31 bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene with

  17. Serotonin and dopamine protect from hypothermia/rewarming damage through the CBS/H2S pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talaei, Fatemeh; Bouma, Hjalmar; Van der Graaf, Adrianus; Strijkstra, Arjen; Schmidt, Martina; Henning, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines have been demonstrated to protect cells from apoptotic cell death. Herein we show for the first time that serotonin and dopamine increase H2S production by the endogenous enzyme cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) and protect cells against hypothermia/rewarming induced reactive oxygen

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the CBS pair of the human metal transporter CNNM4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez García, Inmaculada; Oyenarte, Iker; Martínez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the CBS-pair regulatory domain of the human ancient domain protein 4 (ACDP4), also known as CNNM4. This work describes the purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the CBS-pair regulatory domain of the human ancient domain protein 4 (ACDP4), also known as CNNM4. ACDP proteins represent the least-studied members of the eight different types of magnesium transporters that have been identified in mammals to date. In humans the ACDP family includes four members: CNNM1–4. CNNM1 acts as a cytosolic copper chaperone and has been associated with urofacial syndrome, whereas CNNM2 and CNNM4 have been identified as magnesium transporters. Interestingly, mutations in the CNNM4 gene have clinical consequences that are limited to retinal function and biomineralization and are considered to be the cause of Jalili syndrome, which consists of autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy and amelogenesis imperfecta. The truncated protein was overexpressed, purified and crystallized in the orthorhombic space group C222. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 3.6 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. Matthews volume calculations suggested the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit, which were likely to correspond to a CBS module of the CBS pair of CNNM4

  19. Expression of cbsA encoding the collagen-binding S-protein of Lactobacillus crispatus JCM5810 in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez, B.; Sillanpää, J.; Smit, E.; Korhonen, T.K.; Pouwels, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    The cbsA gene encoding the collagen-binding S-layer protein of Lactobacillus crispatus JCM5810 was expressed in L. casei ATCC 393T. The S-protein was not retained on the surface of the recombinant bacteria but was secreted into the medium. By translational fusion of CbsA to the cell wall sorting

  20. TNFα dynamics during the oral glucose tolerance test vary according to the level of insulin resistance in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette, Laetitia; Lacroix, Marilyn; Battista, Marie-Claude; Doyon, Myriam; Moreau, Julie; Ménard, Julie; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Perron, Patrice; Hivert, Marie-France

    2014-05-01

    TNFα is suspected to play a role in inflammation and insulin resistance leading to higher risk of metabolic impairment. Controversies exist concerning the role of TNFα in gestational insulin resistance. We investigated the interrelations between TNFα and insulin resistance in a large population-based cohort of pregnant women. Women (n = 756) were followed prospectively at 5-16 weeks and 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. Anthropometric measures and blood samples were collected at both visits. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted at the second trimester to assess insulin sensitivity status (homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance and Matsuda index). TNFα was measured at the first trimester (nonfasting) and at each time point of the OGTT. Participants were 28.4 ± 4.4 years old and had a mean body mass index of 25.5 ± 5.5 kg/m(2) at first trimester. Median TNFα levels were 1.56 (interquartile range, 1.18-2.06) pg/mL at first trimester and 1.61 (interquartile range, 1.12-2.13) pg/mL at second trimester (1 h after glucose load). At second trimester, higher TNFα levels were associated with higher insulin resistance index levels (r = 0.37 and -0.30 for homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance and Matsuda index, respectively; P insulin resistance showed a continuing decrease in TNFα levels during the OGTT, whereas women who were more insulin sensitive showed an increase in TNFα at hour 1 and a decrease at hour 2 of the test. Higher insulin resistance is associated with higher levels of circulating TNFα at first and second trimesters of pregnancy. TNFα level dynamics during an OGTT at second trimester vary according to insulin-resistance state.

  1. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahadi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study The goal was to evaluate and compare the effects of aqueous extract of the seeds of chicory, Cichorium intybus L., on glucose tolerance test (GTT and blood biochemical indices of experimentally-induced hyperglycemic rats.MethodsLate stage and early stage of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ, respectively. Within each group, one subgroup received daily i. p. injections of chicory extract (125 mg/kg body weight, for 28 days. Body weight and fasting blood sugar (FBS were measured weekly. Blood was analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and sera for alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, nitric oxide (NO, triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC, total protein, and insulin on days 10 and 28 after treatment. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT along with insulin determination was performed on a different set of rats in which the chicory-treated groups received the extract for 10 days.ResultsDuring 4 weeks of treatment, chicory prevented body-weight loss and decreased FBS. ALT activities and levels of TG, TC and HbA1c decreased, and concentration of NO increased in the chicory treated groups (p < 0.05. Unlike late-stage diabetes, fasting serum insulin concentrations were higher and GTT pattern approximated to normal in chicory-treated earlystage diabetic rats.ConclusionsChicory appeared to have short-term (about 2 hours, as far as GTT is concerned and longterm (28 days, in this study effects on diabetes. Chicory may be useful as a natural dietary supplement for slowing down the pace of diabetes progress, and delaying the development of its complications.

  2. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghamarian Abdolreza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose of the study The goal was to evaluate and compare the effects of aqueous extract of the seeds of chicory, Cichorium intybus L., on glucose tolerance test (GTT and blood biochemical indices of experimentally-induced hyperglycemic rats. Methods Late stage and early stage of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ, respectively. Within each group, one subgroup received daily i. p. injections of chicory extract (125 mg/kg body weight, for 28 days. Body weight and fasting blood sugar (FBS were measured weekly. Blood was analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and sera for alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, nitric oxide (NO, triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC, total protein, and insulin on days 10 and 28 after treatment. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT along with insulin determination was performed on a different set of rats in which the chicory-treated groups received the extract for 10 days. Results During 4 weeks of treatment, chicory prevented body-weight loss and decreased FBS. ALT activities and levels of TG, TC and HbA1c decreased, and concentration of NO increased in the chicory treated groups (p Conclusions Chicory appeared to have short-term (about 2 hours, as far as GTT is concerned and long-term (28 days, in this study effects on diabetes. Chicory may be useful as a natural dietary supplement for slowing down the pace of diabetes progress, and delaying the development of its complications.

  3. Opinion and knowledge among hospital medical staff regarding diagnosis of diabetes and proper usage of a specific test tube for glucose analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Dayan, Y; Bogaiov, A; Boaz, M; Landau, Z; Wainstein, J

    2014-02-01

    Accuracy of blood sugar values, as examined by glucose analysis, has significant importance on the diagnosis of diabetes and follow up of diabetes treatment. Usage of a designated test tube significantly improves the accuracy of measurement. Knowledge of the medical staff is a major determinant in the current usage of such a technology. The aim of the study was to assess the level of knowledge exhibited by medical staff in the diabetes field and specifically for the usage of a designated tube to test blood glucose level. A prospective study. The staff of the internal and surgical departments and outpatient clinics at the Wolfson Medical Center completed a questionnaire that assessed the level of knowledge about the designated glucose test tube, other randomly used test tubes, the parameters that influence the blood glucose values in a non-designated tube and the diagnosis of diabetes. A number of 160 questionnaires (50% from internal departments, 36% from surgical departments and 14% from outpatient clinics) were analysed. The majority of the staff members (65%) knew that diabetes is diagnosed by glucose levels in blood. Of the 35% that did not know, 91% were nurses. The majority (75%) knew that diabetes is diagnosed during fasting conditions; however, most of the staff indicated that 12 h is needed. Only 25% knew of the designated test tube, and most of the staff indicated that a regular chemistry tube was the tube of choice for them. The staff exhibited poor level of knowledge regarding the parameters that influence the quality of the test. Staff members are not aware of the various aspects of diabetes diagnosis and the designated test tube for glucose measurements, and most of them use a tube that gives inaccurate measurements, therefore there is an urgent need to improve diabetes knowledge among staff members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. PROPERTIES OF NEW SALTS OF 2-(5-(ADAMANTANE-1-YL-4-R-1,2,4-TRIAZOLE-3-YLTIOACETIC ACIDS IN THE GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Odyntsova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of glucose in the blood is one of the integral indicators of the internal environment that reflects the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats in the body. Glucose is a key component of human metabolism. The level of blood sugar is one of the most important controlled constants of body that defines homeostasis and displays the status of carbohydrate metabolism. Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia is a dangerous condition when blood glucose is critically low. The aim of research. The aim of our study was pharmacological screening of the effects of the newly synthesized salts of 2-(5-adamantane-1-yl-4-R-1,2,4-tirazol-3-yltioacetic acids on glucose blood level in experimental animals. Materials and methods. The compounds have been synthesized at the Department of Inorganic Chemistry and Toxicology of Zaporozhye State Medical University (the Head of the chair, Professor Panasenko O.I.. Blood glucose levels of saults of2-(5-adamantane-1-yl-4-R-1,2,4-tirazol-3-yltioacetic acids in rats have been evaluated by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IGTT. IGTT was reproduced by glucose load on animals in a dose of 2 g / kg of rat’s body weight. White nonlinear rats weighing 160-230 g were involved in experiments. Animals were divided into 13 groups of 7 animals in each group: the 1st is intact one; the 2nd is control one with glycemia (untreated, the 3rd group of the animals received glibenclamide in the dose of 1 mg / kg; the groups 3-13 received 1,2,4-triazole derivatives. The compounds were dissolved in purified water at the rate of 1 ml per 100 g of animals’ weight and were injected intraperitoneally. Glucose content in blood has been measured by glucosidase method using glucometer «Accu Chek Active» in 30 minutes from the load moment. The research results have been processed by modern statistical methods of analysis on a personal computer using a standard software package Microsoft Office 2010 (Microsoft Excel and

  5. Insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and differences in curves of plasma glucose and insulin in the intermediate points of the standard glucose tolerance test in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; González Albarrán, Olga; Guisado Vasco, Pablo; Lamas Ferreiro, Adelaida; Máiz Carro, Luis

    2015-02-01

    diabetes has become a co-morbidity with a negative impact on nutritional status, lung function and survival in cystic fibrosis. To identify any changes in intermediate points after a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, and insulin resistance in cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. It was carried out a retrospective analysis in a cohort of 64 patients affected of cystic fibrosis, older than 14 years, using the first pathological OGTT. Peripheral insulin resistance was measured using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA- IR), and pancreatic β-cell function was calculated according to Wareham. Time to maximum plasma insulin and glucose levels and area under the curve (AUC0-120) were also measured. Twenty-eight women and 36 men with a mean age of 26.8 years were enrolled, of whom 26.7% had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 18.3% cystic fibrosis-related diabetes without fasting hyperglycemia (CFRD w/o FPG), 10% indeterminate (INDET), and 45% impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). HOMA-IR values were not significantly different between the diagnostic categories. Patients with any pathological change had worse β cell function, with a significant delay in insulin secretion, although there were no differences in total insulin production (AUC0-120). Time to maximum glucose levels was significantly shorter in NGT patients as compared to other categories, with glucose AUC0-120 being higher in the different diagnostic categories as compared to NGT. In over half the cases, peak blood glucose levels during a standard OGTT are reached in the intermediate time points, rather than at the usual time of 120minutes. Patients with cystic fibrosis and impaired glucose metabolism have a delayed insulin secretion during the standard OGTT due to loss of first-phase insulin secretion, with no differences in total insulin production. Absence of significant changes in HOMA-IR suggests that β-cell dysfunction is the main pathogenetic

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page ... and-how-tos, . In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood ...

  7. Stigma and Glucose Levels: Testing Ego Depletion and Arousal Explanations of Stereotype Threat Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Andrew M.; Willer, Robb

    2011-01-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that when stigmatized group membership is made salient, group members' cognitive performance is lowered; however, the mechanism through which this effect operates is not well understood. This study tests between arousal and ego depletion accounts of stereotype threat by examining whether stereotype threat effects…

  8. Appraisal of timing for oral glucose tolerance testing in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-17

    Feb 17, 2015 ... test (OGTT) in our center and to determine their relationship with ... Materials and Methods: The records of women referred to the metabolic clinic for OGTT over a .... Health workers alike. ... as possible long‑term adverse effects on the offspring. ... may initiate future metabolic disorders including type 2 DM.

  9. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US .... Arterial blood pressure from nonvascular access arm was measured by aneroid sphygmomanometer. The patients did not .... to detect differences in treatments across multiple test attempts. P < 0.05 ...

  10. Effect of single oral doses of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, on incretin and plasma glucose levels after an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herman, Gary A; Bergman, Arthur; Stevens, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: In response to a meal, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are released and modulate glycemic control. Normally these incretins are rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). DPP-4 inhibitors are a novel class of oral antihyperglyce......CONTEXT: In response to a meal, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are released and modulate glycemic control. Normally these incretins are rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). DPP-4 inhibitors are a novel class of oral...... antihyperglycemic agents in development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The degree of DPP-4 inhibition and the level of active incretin augmentation required for glucose lowering efficacy after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine...... concentrations; and sitagliptin pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: Sitagliptin dose-dependently inhibited plasma DPP-4 activity over 24 h, enhanced active GLP-1 and GIP levels, increased insulin/C-peptide, decreased glucagon, and reduced glycemic excursion after OGTTs administered at 2 and 24 h after single oral 25...

  11. Performance of a new meter designed for assisted monitoring of blood glucose and point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrury, Sandra; Srinivasan, Aparna; Mahoney, John J

    2013-03-01

    Blood glucose (BG) meters used for assisted monitoring of blood glucose (AMBG) require different attributes compared with meters designed for home use. These include safety considerations (i.e., minimized risk of blood-borne pathogen transmission), capability for testing multiple blood sample types, and enhanced performance specifications. The OneTouch® Verio™Pro+ BG meter is designed to incorporate all of these attributes. Meter accuracy was assessed in clinical studies with arterial, venous, and capillary blood samples with a hematocrit range of 22.9-59.8%. The effect of interferents, including anticoagulants, on accuracy was evaluated. The meter disinfection protocol was validated, and instructions for use and user acceptance of the system were assessed. A total of 97% (549/566) of BG measures from all blood sample types and 95.5% (191/200) of arterial blood samples were within ±12 mg/dl or 12.5% of reference measurements. The system was unaffected by 4 anticoagulants and 57 of 59 endogenous and exogenous compounds; it was affected by 2 compounds: pralidoxime iodide and xylose. Bleach wipes were sufficient to disinfect the meter. Users felt that the meter's quality control (QC) prompts would help them to comply with regulatory requirements. The meter provided accurate measurements of different blood samples over a wide hematocrit range and was not affected by 57 physiologic and therapeutic compounds. The QC prompts and specific infection-mitigating design further aid to make this meter system practical for AMBG in care facilities. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. Patterns, Policy and Appropriateness: A 12-Year Utilization Review of Blood Glucose Test Strip Use in Insulin Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Jamie; Friesen, Kevin J; Okunnu, Anuoluwapo; Bugden, Shawn

    2017-08-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to the rising costs of the use of blood glucose test strips (BGTS). Insulin users have generally been treated as a single homogeneous group, resulting in policies that cap usage (8.2 strips/day) in provincial drug insurance programs. The objective of this study was to conduct a utilization review of BGTS by insulin users and to evaluate use patterns against current insulin use patterns and BGTS policy. BGTS usage was examined in a cohort of insulin users with type 1 and type 2 diabetes over a 12-year period (2001 to 2013) using the population-based administrative data in Manitoba, Canada. Total BGTS strip use increased by 121%, from $4.3 to $9.5 million. However, the number of insulin users also increased by 115%. Use has been stable at 1.5 strips per day per person since 2004 by insulin users with type 2 diabetes but has risen from 1.9 to 3.0 strips per day per person in those with type 1 diabetes. Mean daily test strip use was below the number of daily tests recommended for patients using insulin as per the current Canadian guidelines, with 11% and 15% of insulin users with type 1 and type 2 diabetes not claiming any BGTS use and a further 15% (type 1) and 28% (type 2) using fewer than 1 strip per day. BGTS use per insulin user has been stable for most of the past decade, and the vast majority of use falls well below provincial insurance caps. The amount of low-level testing (0 to <1 strip/day) suggests that greater attention should be directed to ensuring a safe level of testing by all insulin users. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. PSP-CBS with Dopamine Deficiency in a Female with a FMR1 Premutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paucar, Martin; Beniaminov, Stanislav; Paslawski, Wojciech; Svenningsson, Per

    2016-10-01

    Premutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene cause fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and FMR1-related primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). Female FMR1 premutation carriers rarely develop motor features. Dual pathology is an emerging phenomenon among FMR1 premutation carriers. Here, we describe a family affected by FMR1-related disorders in which the female index case has developed a rapidly progressive and disabling syndrome of atypical parkinsonism. This syndrome consists of early onset postural instability, echolalia, dystonia, and varying types of apraxia like early onset orobuccal apraxia and oculomotor apraxia. She has also developed supranuclear gaze palsy, increased latency of saccade initiation, and slow saccades. These features are compatible with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) of a corticobasal syndrome (CBS) variant. Imaging displays a marked reduction of presynaptic dopaminergic uptake and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed reduced dopamine metabolism; however, the patient is unresponsive to levodopa. Midbrain atrophy ("hummingbird sign") and mild cerebellar atrophy were found on brain MRI. Her father was affected by a typical FXTAS presentation but also displayed dopamine deficiency along with the hummingbird sign. The mechanisms by which FMR1 premutations predispose to atypical parkinsonism and dopamine deficiency await further elucidation.

  14. Validity of the reduced-sample insulin modified frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test using the nonlinear regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Anne E; Luercio, Marcella F; Frempong, Barbara A; Ricks, Madia; Sen, Sabyasachi; Kushner, Harvey; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K

    2009-02-01

    The disposition index, the product of the insulin sensitivity index (S(I)) and the acute insulin response to glucose, is linked in African Americans to chromosome 11q. This link was determined with S(I) calculated with the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model and data from the reduced-sample insulin-modified frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT). However, the application of the nonlinear regression approach to calculate S(I) using data from the Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT has been challenged as being not only inaccurate but also having a high failure rate in insulin-resistant subjects. Our goal was to determine the accuracy and failure rate of the Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT using the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model. With S(I) from the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT considered the standard and using the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model, we compared the agreement between S(I) from the Full- and Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT protocols. One hundred African Americans (body mass index, 31.3 +/- 7.6 kg/m(2) [mean +/- SD]; range, 19.0-56.9 kg/m(2)) had FSIGTs. Glucose (0.3 g/kg) was given at baseline. Insulin was infused from 20 to 25 minutes (total insulin dose, 0.02 U/kg). For the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT, S(I) was calculated based on the glucose and insulin samples taken at -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,10, 12, 14, 16, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 150, and 180 minutes. For the Reduced-Sample-FSIGT, S(I) was calculated based on the time points that appear in bold. Agreement was determined by Spearman correlation, concordance, and the Bland-Altman method. In addition, for both protocols, the population was divided into tertiles of S(I). Insulin resistance was defined by the lowest tertile of S(I) from the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT. The distribution of subjects across tertiles was compared by rank order and kappa statistic. We found that the rate of failure of resolution of S(I) by

  15. Test-retest studies of cerebral glucose metabolism using fluorine-18 deoxyglucose: validation of method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.A.; Di Chiro, G.; Zukerberg, B.W.; Bairamian, D.; Larson, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    In studies using [ 18 F]deoxyglucose (FDG), one often wants to compare metabolic rates following stimulation (drug or motor-sensory) with the baseline values. However, because of reproducibility problems with baseline variations of 25% in the same individual not uncommon, the global effect of the stimulation may be difficult to see. One approach to this problem is to perform the two studies sequentially. This means that, with the 110-min half-life of 18 F, one must take into account the residual activity from the first study when calculating metabolic rates for the second. We performed TEST-RETEST baseline studies on four subjects, with a 1-hr interval between injections. These studies were done without stimulation, in order to validate the repeatability of the method. To reduce the amount of residual activity from the first study, the first injection was only 2 mCi in three cases, and only 1 mCi in one case, out of a total injected dose of 5 mCi. A correction for residual activity was included in the RETEST calculation of metabolic rate. The results showed a global metabolic shift between the two studies of 2% to 9%. An error analysis shows that the shift could be further reduced if anatomically comparable scans are done at comparable postinjection times

  16. Glucose Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  17. Genetic Association Analysis of Fasting and 1- and 2-Hour Glucose Tolerance Test Data Using a Generalized Index of Dissimilarity Measure for the Korean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyong Yee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucose tolerance tests have been devised to determine the speed of blood glucose clearance. Diabetes is often tested with the standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, along with fasting glucose level. However, no single test may be sufficient for the diagnosis, and the World Health Organization (WHO/International Diabetes Federation (IDF has suggested composite criteria. Accordingly, a single multi-class trait was constructed with three of the fasting phenotypes and 1- and 2-hour OGTT phenotypes from the Korean Association Resource (KARE project, and the genetic association was investigated. All of the 18 possible combinations made out of the 3 sets of classification for the individual phenotypes were taken into our analysis. These were possible due to a method that was recently developed by us for estimating genomic associations using a generalized index of dissimilarity. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that were found to have the strongest main effect are reported with the corresponding genes. Four of them conform to previous reports, located in the CDKAL1 gene, while the other 4 SNPs are new findings. Two-order interacting SNP pairs of are also presented. One pair (rs2328549 and rs6486740 has a prominent association, where the two single-nucleotide polymorphism locations are CDKAL1 and GLT1D1. The latter has not been found to have a strong main effect. New findings may result from the proper construction and analysis of a composite trait.

  18. Evaluation of fasting state-/oral glucose tolerance test-derived measures of insulin release for the detection of genetically impaired β-cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke A Herzberg-Schäfer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To date, fasting state- and different oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-derived measures are used to estimate insulin release with reasonable effort in large human cohorts required, e.g., for genetic studies. Here, we evaluated twelve common (or recently introduced fasting state-/OGTT-derived indices for their suitability to detect genetically determined β-cell dysfunction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cohort of 1364 White European individuals at increased risk for type 2 diabetes was characterized by OGTT with glucose, insulin, and C-peptide measurements and genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs known to affect glucose- and incretin-stimulated insulin secretion. One fasting state- and eleven OGTT-derived indices were calculated and statistically evaluated. After adjustment for confounding variables, all tested SNPs were significantly associated with at least two insulin secretion measures (p≤0.05. The indices were ranked according to their associations' statistical power, and the ranks an index obtained for its associations with all the tested SNPs (or a subset were summed up resulting in a final ranking. This approach revealed area under the curve (AUC(Insulin(0-30/AUC(Glucose(0-30 as the best-ranked index to detect SNP-dependent differences in insulin release. Moreover, AUC(Insulin(0-30/AUC(Glucose(0-30, corrected insulin response (CIR, AUC(C-Peptide(0-30/AUC(Glucose(0-30, AUC(C-Peptide(0-120/AUC(Glucose(0-120, two different formulas for the incremental insulin response from 0-30 min, i.e., the insulinogenic indices (IGI(2 and IGI(1, and insulin 30 min were significantly higher-ranked than homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-B; p<0.05. AUC(C-Peptide(0-120/AUC(Glucose(0-120 was best-ranked for the detection of SNPs involved in incretin-stimulated insulin secretion. In all analyses, HOMA-β displayed the highest rank sums and, thus, scored last. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With AUC(Insulin(0

  19. Uniform estimate of the constant in the strengthened CBS inequality for anisotropic non-conforming FEM systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blaheta, Radim; Margenov, S.; Neytcheva, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2004), s. 309-326 ISSN 1070-5325 Grant - others:Bulgarian NSF(BG) I-1001/2000; Center of Excellence BIS-21(XE) ICA1-2000-70016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : multilevel preconditioners * hierarchical basis * CBS constant Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.727, year: 2004

  20. Structural basis for substrate activation and regulation by cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) domains in cystathionine [beta]-synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutmos, Markos; Kabil, Omer; Smith, Janet L.; Banerjee, Ruma (Michigan-Med)

    2011-08-17

    The catalytic potential for H{sub 2}S biogenesis and homocysteine clearance converge at the active site of cystathionine {beta}-synthase (CBS), a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme. CBS catalyzes {beta}-replacement reactions of either serine or cysteine by homocysteine to give cystathionine and water or H{sub 2}S, respectively. In this study, high-resolution structures of the full-length enzyme from Drosophila in which a carbanion (1.70 {angstrom}) and an aminoacrylate intermediate (1.55 {angstrom}) have been captured are reported. Electrostatic stabilization of the zwitterionic carbanion intermediate is afforded by the close positioning of an active site lysine residue that is initially used for Schiff base formation in the internal aldimine and later as a general base. Additional stabilizing interactions between active site residues and the catalytic intermediates are observed. Furthermore, the structure of the regulatory 'energy-sensing' CBS domains, named after this protein, suggests a mechanism for allosteric activation by S-adenosylmethionine.

  1. Mechanism-based population modelling for assessment of L-cell function based on total GLP-1 response following an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas B.; Jusko, William J.; Gao, Wei

    2011-01-01

    was to build a mechanism-based population model that describes the time course of total GLP-1 and provides indices for capability of secretion in each subject. The goal was thus to model the secretion of GLP-1, and not its effect on insulin production. Single 75 g doses of glucose were administered orally......GLP-1 is an insulinotropic hormone that synergistically with glucose gives rise to an increased insulin response. Its secretion is increased following a meal and it is thus of interest to describe the secretion of this hormone following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The aim of this study....... The individual estimates of absorption rate constants were used in the model for GLP-1 secretion. Estimation of parameters was performed using the FOCE method with interaction implemented in NONMEM VI. The final transit/indirect-response model obtained for GLP-1 production following an OGTT included two...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  3. [Impact of area under the curve of oral glucose tolerance test on pregnant woman with gestational diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congyue; Su, Shiping; Liu, Chunhong; Zhang, Li; Yang, Huixia

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether area under the curve (AUC) of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) could work as a predictor of outcomes of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on condition that blood glucose is controlled. A total of 1 796 women who had a standard antenatal care in Peking University First Hospital and gave single live births from July 1, 2011 to December 31, 2 013 were included. They should be diagnosed of GDM by the diagnosis criteria of gestational diabetes published by the Ministry of Health of PRC and diabetes pre-pregnancy excluded. Data were analyzed with SPSS 17.0, grouping by AUC. (1) Women with higher AUC had a rising trend of age and a downward trend of gestational weight gain, however, not statistically significant [specifically, in the four group of less than 15.00 mmol · L⁻¹ · h⁻¹, 15.00 to 16.79 mmol · L⁻¹ · h⁻¹, 16.80 to 17.99 mmol · L⁻¹ · h⁻¹ and 18.00 mmol · L⁻¹ · h⁻¹ or more, gestational weight gain was (15.3 ± 5.2), (14.1 ± 4.8), (13.5 ± 4.7) and (13.1 ± 4.8) kg]. The prevalence of macrosomia raised while AUC increased. Those with an AUC of lower than 15.00 (mmol · L⁻¹ · h⁻¹) had a lower risk of macrosomia (P = 0.04). But those with an AUC of 18.00 (mmol · L⁻¹ · h⁻¹) or more had a higher risk of macrosomia (P = 0.02). There was a rising trend in premature birth and preeclampsia with AUC increasing but not significant (the prevalence of premature birth was 4.38%, 5.36%, 7.71% and 7.94% while that of preeclampsia was 2.85%, 4.69%, 4.67% and 5.08% in these four groups). (2) The prevalence of macrosomia was 12.76% (54/423) when overweight pre-pregnancy, significantly higher compared with 5.87% (65/1 107) in normal group. The prevalence of preeclampsia was 5.91% (25/423) and 3.34% (37/1 107) in those two groups, which was also significantly different. The obese group had a statistically highest prevalence of preeclampsia of 9.23% (12/130). (3) AUC (P AUC, as well as pre-pregnancy BMI and

  4. Blood Test: Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Definition: Hyperglycemia Definition: Hypoglycemia What Is Gestational Diabetes? Hypoglycemia ...

  5. Fructose intervention for 12 weeks does not impair glycemic control or incretin hormone responses during oral glucose or mixed meal tests in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matikainen, N; Söderlund, S; Björnson, E; Bogl, L H; Pietiläinen, K H; Hakkarainen, A; Lundbom, N; Eliasson, B; Räsänen, S M; Rivellese, A; Patti, L; Prinster, A; Riccardi, G; Després, J-P; Alméras, N; Holst, J J; Deacon, C F; Borén, J; Taskinen, M-R

    2017-06-01

    Incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are affected early on in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiologic studies consistently link high fructose consumption to insulin resistance but whether fructose consumption impairs the incretin response remains unknown. As many as 66 obese (BMI 26-40 kg/m 2 ) male subjects consumed fructose-sweetened beverages containing 75 g fructose/day for 12 weeks while continuing their usual lifestyle. Glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and GIP were measured during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and triglycerides (TG), GLP-1, GIP and PYY during a mixed meal test before and after fructose intervention. Fructose intervention did not worsen glucose and insulin responses during OGTT, and GLP-1 and GIP responses during OGTT and fat-rich meal were unchanged. Postprandial TG response increased significantly, p = 0.004, and we observed small but significant increases in weight and liver fat content, but not in visceral or subcutaneous fat depots. However, even the subgroups who gained weight or liver fat during fructose intervention did not worsen their glucose, insulin, GLP-1 or PYY responses. A minor increase in GIP response during OGTT occurred in subjects who gained liver fat (p = 0.049). In obese males with features of metabolic syndrome, 12 weeks fructose intervention 75 g/day did not change glucose, insulin, GLP-1 or GIP responses during OGTT or GLP-1, GIP or PYY responses during a mixed meal. Therefore, fructose intake, even accompanied with mild weight gain, increases in liver fat and worsening of postprandial TG profile, does not impair glucose tolerance or gut incretin response to oral glucose or mixed meal challenge. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University

  6. Slow recovery of blood glucose in the insulin tolerance test during the prepartum transition period negatively impacts the nutritional status and reproductive performance postpartum of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsu-Hsun; Kida, Katsuya; Miura, Ryotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Miyamoto, Akio; Kawashima, Chiho; Haneda, Shingo; Miyake, Yoh-Ichi; Matsui, Motozumi

    2012-04-01

    In peripartum dairy cows, insulin resistance (IR) increases to adjust the direction of energy to lactation after calving. To investigate the effect of prepartum IR on postpartum reproductive performance, the insulin tolerance test (ITT) was applied to 15 cows at 3 weeks (Pre21) and 10 days (Pre10) before the predicted calving date. Blood glucose area under the curve (AUC(glu)) within 120 min after administration of 0.05 IU/kg-BW insulin was calculated. The occurrence of first ovulation, days to first artificial insemination (AI) and first AI conception rate were recorded. Nutritional status postpartum was evaluated by blood chemical analysis. Based on AUC(glu) changes from Pre21 to Pre10, cows were classified into either the AUC-up group (AUC(glu) increase, n=5) or the AUC-down group (AUC(glu) decrease, n=10). There was no difference in the decrease in blood glucose at 30 min after insulin injection between groups, although glucose recovery from 30 to 60 min during the ITT was slow at Pre10 in the AUC-up group. The AUC-up group had a higher number of days to first AI and high glucose, total protein, globulin, γ-glutamyltransferase, triacylglycerol levels and a low albumin-globulin ratio at the 14th day postpartum. The present study infers that prepartum slow glucose recovery rather than insulin sensitivity might increase the potential for subclinical health problems postpartum and thus suppress reproductive performance. During the prepartum transition period, glucose dynamics in the ITT can be considered as a new indicator for the postpartum metabolic status and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

  7. Rational use of blood glucose test strips for self-monitoring in patients with diabetes mellitus: Economic impact in the Portuguese healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso, Teresa; Furtado, Cláudia

    2017-12-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose is important for diabetes management in insulin-treated patients, but its effectiveness in patients treated with oral glucose lowering drugs only is not fully supported by current evidence. This paper aims to characterise the prescription patterns of blood glucose test strips (BGTS) in Portugal and estimate the potential cost-savings from the rational use of BGTS. A retrospective analysis of the Portuguese database of electronic medical prescriptions to assess the patterns of BGTS prescription. The database was searched for prescription, from 01 January 2016 to 31 December 2016, of insulin and other antidiabetics, as well as the associated prescriptions of BGTS. 894,637 patients were prescribed antidiabetic medicines during 2016, 82.7% of which were prescribed oral glucose lowering drugs only. BGTS were prescribed to 456,179 patients, being more frequently prescribed in insulin-treated patients. Still, 42.8% of patients treated with oral glucose lowering drugs only were also prescribed BGTS, with large proportion of those being prescribed antidiabetic drugs with lower risk of causing hypoglycaemia and, even so, >200 BGTS/year. Several scenarios for a more rational use of BGTS were estimated to result in cost-savings of up to €9.5 million per year. BGTS were prescribed to more than a third of patients treated with oral glucose lowering drugs only, despite accumulating evidence of their limited effectiveness in this population, resulting in substantial economic burden to the healthcare system. Given the estimated potential cost-savings, rational use of BGTS should be encouraged in Portugal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of various indices derived from an oral glucose tolerance test in the prediction of conversion from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye An; Ku, Eu Jeong; Khang, Ah Reum; Hong, Eun Shil; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Choi, Sung Hee; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2014-11-01

    The clinical implications of prediabetes for development of type 2 diabetes may differ for Asian ethnicity. We investigated various indices derived from a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in people with prediabetes to predict their future risk of diabetes. We recruited 406 consecutive subjects with prediabetes from 2005 to 2006 and followed them up every 3-6 months for up to 9 years. Prediabetes was defined as isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), combined glucose intolerance (CGI), or isolated elevated HbA1c (5.7-6.4%, 39-46 mmol/mol) without IFG or IGT. The rate of diabetes conversion was compared between prediabetes categories. The association of glycemic indices with development of diabetes was also investigated. Eighty-one patients were diagnosed with diabetes during the 9-year follow-up (median 46.0 months). The rate of diabetes conversion was higher in subjects with CGI (31.9%), or isolated IGT (18.5%) than in those with isolated IFG (15.2%) or isolated elevated HbA1c (10.9%). Surrogate markers reflecting β-cell dysfunction were more closely associated with diabetes conversion than insulin resistance indices. Subjects with a 30-min postload glucose ≥ 165 mg/dL and a 30-min C-peptide prediabetic subjects. In Asians, at least Koreans, β-cell dysfunction seems to be the major determinant for diabetes conversion. A combination of high glucose and low C-peptide levels at 30 min after OGTT may be a good predictor for diabetes conversion in this population. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. The long-term follow up study of acute pancreatitis by means of pancreatic scintigraphy, secretin test and oral glucose tolerance test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Harukuni

    1975-01-01

    Morphologic and functional alternations of the pancreas following acute pancreatitis were studied in 29 patients. At the time of attack a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis had been confirmed by laparotomy in 27 cases, and by clinical picture and by serum amylase levels in 2 cases. The average duration of follow up was 56.3 months. Normal images were obtained in 17 of 29 cases. According to secretin tests, 4 of these had slight to moderately decreased exocrine function; the test were within normal limits. 12 cases with normal image had abnormal oral glucose tolerance curves similar to those fund in mild to moderate diabetes. 10 of the 12 cases with abnormal scintigrams showed decreased isotope uptake in all or part of the pancreas, while 2 showed no uptake at all. These changes were mast apparent in the tail of the pancreas. Ten of the 12 cases with abnormal images had some degree of decreased exocrine function. All 12 had the abnormal GTT curve of diabetes, 4 who had severe diabetes with markedly decreased exocrine function and poor image of the pancreas. In 4 cases the histopathological findings obtained at the time of laparotomy, were shown to be very consistent with the scintigraphic features. It was demonstrated by both scintigraphs and function tests that the alcoholic factor plays a very important role in the prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis resulted in chronic pancreatitis in 4 cases, (14 %) of the remaining 8 cases with abnormal scintigram, it is postulated that the inflamatory process subsided allowing time for cicatrical fibrosis to occur. Follow-up to trace and study of these alternations of the pancreas necessary in future. (Evans, J.)

  10. The long-term follow up study of acute pancreatitis by means of pancreatic scintigraphy, secretin test and oral glucose tolerance test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, H [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-03-01

    Morphologic and functional alternations of the pancreas following acute pancreatitis were studied in 29 patients. At the time of attack a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis had been confirmed by laparotomy in 27 cases, and by clinical picture and by serum amylase levels in 2 cases. The average duration of follow up was 56.3 months. Normal images were obtained in 17 of 29 cases. According to secretin tests, 4 of these had slight to moderately decreased exocrine function; the test were within normal limits. 12 cases with normal image had abnormal oral glucose tolerance curves similar to those fund in mild to moderate diabetes. 10 of the 12 cases with abnormal scintigrams showed decreased isotope uptake in all or part of the pancreas, while 2 showed no uptake at all. These changes were mast apparent in the tail of the pancreas. Ten of the 12 cases with abnormal images had some degree of decreased exocrine function. All 12 had the abnormal GTT curve of diabetes, 4 who had severe diabetes with markedly decreased exocrine function and poor image of the pancreas. In 4 cases the histopathological findings obtained at the time of laparotomy, were shown to be very consistent with the scintigraphic features. It was demonstrated by both scintigraphs and function tests that the alcoholic factor plays a very important role in the prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis resulted in chronic pancreatitis in 4 cases, (14 %) of the remaining 8 cases with abnormal scintigram, it is postulated that the inflamatory process subsided allowing time for cicatrical fibrosis to occur. Follow-up to trace and study of these alternations of the pancreas necessary in future.

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  9. Recovery of fermented inulin fiber by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from inulin hydrolysate using fungi inulinase enzymes of Scopulariopsis sp.-CBS1 and class of Deuteromycetes-CBS4 as cholesterol binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, Agustine; Melanie, Hakiki; Maryati, Yati; Aspiyanto

    2017-01-01

    Fermentation of Lactobacillus Acid Bacteria (LAB) which are mixtures of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteriumbifidum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus on hydrolysate as a result of inulin hydrolysis using inulinase enzymes obtained from endophytic fungi ofScopulariopsis sp.-CBS1 (inulin hydrolysate of S) and Class of Deuteromycetes-CBS4 (inulin hydrolysate of D) generate potential fermented inulin fiber as cholesterol binder. Fermentation process was conducted under concentrations of inulin hydrolysate 50% (w/v), LAB 15% (v/v) and skim milk 12.5% (w/v) at room temperature and 40°C for 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours, respectively. Result of experimental work showed that longer time of LAB fermentation increased total acids, TPC and CBC at pH 2, but decreased total sugar, reducing, IDF, SDF, CBC pH 2 and CBC pH 7. Based on Cholesterol Binding Capacity (CBC), optimization of fermentation process on inulin hydrolysate of S was achieved by combining treatment at 40°C for 24 hours resulted in CBC pH 2 of 19.11 mg/g TDF and inulin hydrolysate of D was achieved by fermentation at 40 °C for 48 hours resulted in CBC pH 2 of 24.28 mg/g TDF. Inulin hydrolysate of class of Deutrymecetes CBS4 fermented by LAB had better functional property as cholesterol binder than that inulin hydrolysate of S fermented by LAB. This is due to cholesterol binder and cholesterol derivatives as a result of degradation of LAB on digestive system (stomach) when compared to higher colon under optimal process condition.

  10. Nutritional status and random blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride test among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel in Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiy, I.; Razalee, S.; Zalifah, M. K.; Zulkeffeli, M. J.

    2013-11-01

    With the rising trend of obesity among the general population, it is also important to assess the obesity and health status among military population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel as well as the relationship between selected socio-demographics factors, antropometric profiles, body composition and random blood test value. A cross sectional study involving 378 male military personnel aged between 20 to 48 years old was conducted at two MA bases in Kuala Lumpur between November and December 2012. Antropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Tanita TBF-300A). Mean height, weight, BMI, WC, body fat percentage, age, monthly income and duration of service were 1.71 ± 0.6 m, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg, 24.6 ± 4.1 kg/m2, 87.0 ± 10.0 cm, 23.4 ± 6.6%, 29.1 ± 5.5 years, RM 2115.12 ± 860.70 and 9.9 ± 5.6 years respectively. According to WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 3.2% of the subjects were underweight, 54.8% normal, 32.8% overweight and 9.3% obese. It was obeserved that 40.2% of the subjects had waist circumference value of 90 cm or more and were considered high risk for diebetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study found that BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.925, pselected for random blood test found that 4.6%, 3.5% and 26.0% had diabetes, high cholesterol and high triglyceride respectively. There was a weak correlation between random blood glucose level with weight (r=0.221, pattention to the existence of overweight and obesity as well as the risk of non-communicable diseases among military population. Therefore, future intervention from the aspect of nutritional education and health awareness can benefit thus optimizing the health status of MA military personnel.

  11. Oral glucose tolerance test performance in olanzapine-treated schizophrenia-spectrum patients is predicted by BMI and triglycerides but not olanzapine dose or duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, Jeffrey; Roy, Sayon; Gupta, Ankur; Langleben, Daniel D; Elman, Igor

    2017-07-01

    Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is associated with glucoregulatory abnormalities, but the nature of this link is not fully elucidated. This is the first olanzapine oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) study to consider treatment dose and duration, and to compare complementary indices respectively assessing insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) and resistance (homeostasis model assessment). Body mass index (BMI), body composition, plasma lipids, and oGTT were measured in olanzapine-treated nondiabetic patients with DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 35). While only one previously undiagnosed participant met diabetes criteria based on fasting plasma glucose alone (≥126 mg/dL), seven were diagnosed with oGTT (2-hr plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL). Multiple regression analyses revealed that the Matsuda index correlated with BMI (p triglycerides (p = 0.01), but not with age, olanzapine dose, olanzapine treatment duration, or plasma cholesterol. Homeostasis model assessment and fasting plasma glucose correlated with triglycerides only (p triglycerides may be implicated in olanzapine-related glucoregulatory abnormalities. The lack of correlation between glucoregulatory abnormalities and olanzapine dose or treatment duration suggests preexisting metabolic disturbances and/or disturbances arising early in the course of treatment. Clinicians prescribing antipsychotics should consider oGTT, especially in patients with obesity and/or hypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita; Schaap, Peter; van de Vondervoort, Peter; Culley, David E.; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy; Braus, Gerhard; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis; Dai, Ziyu; van Dijck, Piet; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Menke, Hildegard; Meijer, Martin; Meijer, Susan; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; van Ooyen, Albert; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob; Stam, Hein; Tsang, Adrian; van den Brink, Johannes M.; ATkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; van Peij, Noel; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens B.; Baker, Scott E.

    2011-06-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up regulation of genes associated with biosynthesis of amino acids that are abundant in glucoamylase A, tRNA-synthases and protein transporters.

  13. Comparative genomics of citric-acid-producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita P.; Schaap, Peter J.; van de Vondervoort, Peter J.I.; Culley, David; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy M.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Dai, Ziyu; van Dijck, Piet W.M.; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Menke, Hildegard; Meijer, Martin; Meijer, Susan L.; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; van Ooyen, Albert J.J.; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob A.; Stam, Hein; Tsang, Adrian; van den Brink, Johannes M.; Atkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; van Peij, Noël N.M.E.; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens; Baker, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compel additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole-genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild-type strain (ATCC 1015) and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence, and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was used to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 Mb of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis supported up-regulation of genes associated with biosynthesis of amino acids that are abundant in glucoamylase A, tRNA-synthases, and protein transporters in the protein producing CBS 513.88 strain. Our results and data sets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi. PMID:21543515

  14. Comparative genomics of citric-acid-producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Salazar, Margarita Pena; Schaap, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme......-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compel additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole-genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild-type strain (ATCC 1015) and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15...

  15. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Vondervoot, Peter J.I. van de; Culley, David; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristen F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy M.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Dai, Ziyu; Dijck, Piet W.M. van; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnusson, Jon K.; Meijer, Susan L.; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; Ooyen, Albert J.J. van; Panther, Kathyrn S.; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob A.; Stam, Hen; Tsang, Adrian; Brink, Johannes M. van den; Atkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; Peij, Noel N.M.E. van; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-04-28

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up-regulation of genes relevant to glucoamylase A production, such as tRNA-synthases and protein transporters. Our results and datasets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi.[Supplemental materials (10 figures, three text documents and 16 tables) have been made available

  16. Predictive performance for population models using stochastic differential equations applied on data from an oral glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Jonas B; Overgaard, Rune V; Madsen, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Ingwersen, Steen H

    2010-02-01

    Several articles have investigated stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in PK/PD models, but few have quantitatively investigated the benefits to predictive performance of models based on real data. Estimation of first phase insulin secretion which reflects beta-cell function using models of the OGTT is a difficult problem in need of further investigation. The present work aimed at investigating the power of SDEs to predict the first phase insulin secretion (AIR (0-8)) in the IVGTT based on parameters obtained from the minimal model of the OGTT, published by Breda et al. (Diabetes 50(1):150-158, 2001). In total 174 subjects underwent both an OGTT and a tolbutamide modified IVGTT. Estimation of parameters in the oral minimal model (OMM) was performed using the FOCE-method in NONMEM VI on insulin and C-peptide measurements. The suggested SDE models were based on a continuous AR(1) process, i.e. the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, and the extended Kalman filter was implemented in order to estimate the parameters of the models. Inclusion of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) process caused improved description of the variation in the data as measured by the autocorrelation function (ACF) of one-step prediction errors. A main result was that application of SDE models improved the correlation between the individual first phase indexes obtained from OGTT and AIR (0-8) (r = 0.36 to r = 0.49 and r = 0.32 to r = 0.47 with C-peptide and insulin measurements, respectively). In addition to the increased correlation also the properties of the indexes obtained using the SDE models more correctly assessed the properties of the first phase indexes obtained from the IVGTT. In general it is concluded that the presented SDE approach not only caused autocorrelation of errors to decrease but also improved estimation of clinical measures obtained from the glucose tolerance tests. Since, the estimation time of extended models was not heavily increased compared to basic models, the applied method

  17. Determination of Tinopal CBS-X in rice papers and rice noodles using HPLC with fluorescence detection and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyung Yuk; Lee, Chae A; Choi, Jae Chon; Kim, Meehye

    2014-01-01

    To date there have been no reports of methods to determine Tinopal CBS-X. We developed a rapid and simple method to determine the Tinopal CBS-X content in rice noodles and rice papers using HPLC equipped with fluorescence detection. Heating the rice noodles and rice papers to 80°C after adding 75% methanol solution induced the release of Tinopal CBS-X from processed rice products. Tinopal CBS-X was separated using an isocratic mobile phase comprising 50% acetonitrile/water containing 0.4% tetrabutyl ammonium hydrogen sulphate at pH 8.0. The samples suspected to be positive by HPLC analysis were then confirmed by LC-MS/MS analysis. This study also investigated the Tinopal CBS-X content of three rice noodle products and two rice papers. The limits of quantification for rice papers and rice noodles were 1.58 and 1.51 µg kg(-1), respectively, and their correlation curves showed good linearity with r(2) ≥ 0.9997 and ≥ 0.9998, respectively. Moreover, rice papers had recoveries of 70.3-83.3% with precision ranging from 5.0% to 7.9%, whereas rice noodles had slightly lower recoveries of 63.4-78.7% and precisions of 8.5-11.5%. Only one rice noodle product contained Tinopal CBS-X, at around 2.1 mg kg(-1), whereas it was not detected in four other samples. Consequently, Tinopal CBS-X from rice noodles and rice papers can be successfully detected using the developed pre-treatment and ion-pairing HPLC system coupled with fluorescence detection.

  18. Insulin hypersecretion together with high luteinizing hormone concentration augments androgen secretion in oral glucose tolerance test in women with polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, L; Koskinen, P; Jaatinen, T A; Erkkola, R; Irjala, K; Ruutiainen, K

    1993-08-01

    Female hyperandrogenism is often associated with hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. We evaluated the hormone responses in an oral glucose tolerance test to investigate the interactions of gonadotrophins, insulin, C-peptide and androgens in women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). In 28 patients with ultrasonographically diagnosed PCOD, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance were mainly associated with obesity. Both basal and cumulative sum of insulin to C-peptide ratios were high in obese subjects, suggesting decreasing hepatic removal of insulin caused by obesity. Nevertheless, in some lean PCOD women, despite normal fasting insulin concentrations, insulin hypersecretion existed. The mean concentration of testosterone decreased significantly during the oral glucose tolerance test both in PCOD and control women, and of androstenedione in the PCOD patients only. However, an increase in androgen responses was found in a subgroup of PCOD patients, who had both elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations and hyperinsulinaemic response to oral glucose. In the remaining PCOD patients an inverse correlation between LH and insulin was found. The patients with hyperinsulinaemia together with LH hypersecretion may represent a subgroup of PCOD with deranged regulation of androgen secretion.

  19. Release Profile and Inhibition Test of The Nanoparticles A. Paniculata Extract as Inhibitor of α-Glucosidase in The Process of Carbohydrates Breakdown Into Glucose Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imansari, Farisa; Sahlan, Muhammad; Arbianti, Rita

    2017-07-01

    Andrographis paniculata (A.paniculata) contain the main active substances Andrographolide which helps lower glucose levels in diabetics by inhibiting the enzyme α-glucosidase. The ability of the extract A.paniculata in lowering glucose levels will increase with the technique encapsulation with a coating of composition Chitosan-STPP as a drug delivery to the target organ. This study aimed to get an overview of A.paniculata release profile of nanoparticles in a synthetic fluid media with various concentrations of coating and inhibition testing nasty shard extract in inhibiting the enzyme α-glucosidase. This research resulted in nanoparticles by coating efficiency and loading capacity of chitosan greatest variation of 2% and 1% STPP 60% and 46.29%. chitosan greatest variation of 2% and 1% STPP 60% and 46.29%. The ability of A.paniculata extracts as α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitors has been demonstrated in this study, the percent inhibition of 33.17%.

  20. Associations between postprandial insulin and blood glucose responses, appetite sensations and energy intake in normal weight and overweight individuals: a meta-analysis of test meal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flint, Anne; Gregersen, Nikolaj T.; Gluud, Lise L.

    2007-01-01

    is unclear whether postprandial blood glucose or insulin exerts a regulatory function in short-term appetite regulation in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate, by use of meta-analysis, the role of blood glucose and insulin in short-term appetite sensation and energy intake (EI......) in normal weight and overweight participants. Data from seven test meal studies were used, including 136 healthy participants (ALL) (92 normal weight (NW) and 44 overweight or obese (OW)). All meals were served as breakfasts after an overnight fast, and appetite sensations and blood samples were obtained...... frequently in the postprandial period. Finally, an ad libitum lunch was served. Data were analysed by fixed effects study level (SL) meta-regression analysis and individual participant data (IPD) regression analysis, using STATA software. In SL analysis, postprandial insulin response was associated...

  1. Glucose allostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stumvoll, Michael; Tataranni, P Antonio; Stefan, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    individuals with normal glucose tolerance, normoglycemia can always be maintained by compensatorily increasing AIR in response to decreasing M (and vice versa). This has been mathematically described by the hyperbolic relationship between AIR and M and referred to as glucose homeostasis, with glucose......In many organisms, normoglycemia is achieved by a tight coupling of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta-cell (acute insulin response [AIR]) and the metabolic action of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal (insulin action [M]). It is widely accepted that in healthy...... concentration assumed to remain constant along the hyperbola. Conceivably, glucose is one of the signals stimulating AIR in response to decreasing M. Hypothetically, as with any normally functioning feed-forward system, AIR should not fully compensate for worsening M, since this would remove the stimulus...

  2. Evaluation of 75 g glucose load in non-fasting state [Diabetes in Pregnancy Study group of India (DIPSI criteria] as a diagnostic test for gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reva Tripathi

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed that when 75 g glucose load in non-fasting state was used as a diagnostic test for GDM, almost one quarter of patients with GDM escaped diagnosis as sensitivity values were low. On the other hand, some GDM cases were falsely labelled as normal as this test did not account for cases of fasting hyperglycaemia. In addition, comparison with other OGTTs showed low PPVs. Hence, use of DIPSI criteria for diagnosing GDM must be reconsidered till further validation.

  3. Nutritional status and random blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride test among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel in Kuala Lumpur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadiy, I.; Razalee, S.; Zalifah, M. K. [Nutrition Programme, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Zulkeffeli, M. J. [Department of Health Service, Ministry of Defense, Level 11, Menara Park, 50450 (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    With the rising trend of obesity among the general population, it is also important to assess the obesity and health status among military population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel as well as the relationship between selected socio-demographics factors, antropometric profiles, body composition and random blood test value. A cross sectional study involving 378 male military personnel aged between 20 to 48 years old was conducted at two MA bases in Kuala Lumpur between November and December 2012. Antropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Tanita TBF-300A). Mean height, weight, BMI, WC, body fat percentage, age, monthly income and duration of service were 1.71 ± 0.6 m, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg, 24.6 ± 4.1 kg/m{sup 2}, 87.0 ± 10.0 cm, 23.4 ± 6.6%, 29.1 ± 5.5 years, RM 2115.12 ± 860.70 and 9.9 ± 5.6 years respectively. According to WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 3.2% of the subjects were underweight, 54.8% normal, 32.8% overweight and 9.3% obese. It was obeserved that 40.2% of the subjects had waist circumference value of 90 cm or more and were considered high risk for diebetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study found that BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.925, p<0.05), WC (r=0.852, p<0.05) and body fat percentage. Body fat percentage also show high correlation with weight (r=0.759, p<0.05) and WC (r=0.768, p<0.05. The result from 173 of 378 subjects that were selected for random blood test found that 4.6%, 3.5% and 26.0% had diabetes, high cholesterol and high triglyceride respectively. There was a weak correlation between random blood glucose level with weight (r=0.221, p<0.05), BMI (r=0.243, p<0.05), WC (r=0.298, p<0.05), body fat percentage (r=0.163, p<0.05) and age (r=0.223, p<0.05). Random blood cholesterol level had significant correlation with

  4. Nutritional status and random blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride test among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel in Kuala Lumpur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadiy, I.; Razalee, S.; Zalifah, M. K.; Zulkeffeli, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    With the rising trend of obesity among the general population, it is also important to assess the obesity and health status among military population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel as well as the relationship between selected socio-demographics factors, antropometric profiles, body composition and random blood test value. A cross sectional study involving 378 male military personnel aged between 20 to 48 years old was conducted at two MA bases in Kuala Lumpur between November and December 2012. Antropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Tanita TBF-300A). Mean height, weight, BMI, WC, body fat percentage, age, monthly income and duration of service were 1.71 ± 0.6 m, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg, 24.6 ± 4.1 kg/m 2 , 87.0 ± 10.0 cm, 23.4 ± 6.6%, 29.1 ± 5.5 years, RM 2115.12 ± 860.70 and 9.9 ± 5.6 years respectively. According to WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 3.2% of the subjects were underweight, 54.8% normal, 32.8% overweight and 9.3% obese. It was obeserved that 40.2% of the subjects had waist circumference value of 90 cm or more and were considered high risk for diebetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study found that BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.925, p<0.05), WC (r=0.852, p<0.05) and body fat percentage. Body fat percentage also show high correlation with weight (r=0.759, p<0.05) and WC (r=0.768, p<0.05. The result from 173 of 378 subjects that were selected for random blood test found that 4.6%, 3.5% and 26.0% had diabetes, high cholesterol and high triglyceride respectively. There was a weak correlation between random blood glucose level with weight (r=0.221, p<0.05), BMI (r=0.243, p<0.05), WC (r=0.298, p<0.05), body fat percentage (r=0.163, p<0.05) and age (r=0.223, p<0.05). Random blood cholesterol level had significant correlation with weight

  5. Use of HbA(1C) testing to diagnose pre-diabetes in high risk African American children: a comparison with fasting glucose and HOMA-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sushma; Fleming, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the discriminating power of HbA(1C) with other pre-diabetes diagnostic tests specifically in high-risk African American children. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on a sample of 172 children (70 boys and 102 girls) aged 9-11 years with BMI's above the 85th percentile. Fasting glucose, insulin and HbA(1C) were analyzed from the plasma samples. Of the 172 participants included in this analysis, 21 (12.2%) had HbA(1C) concentrations above the cutoff of 5.7 used to identify pre-diabetes. None (0%) of these 21 participants, however, were observed to have a glucose concentration above the pre-diabetes cutoff of 110 mg/dl, and only 13 of 21 participants had HOMA-IR above the pre-diabetes cutoff of 2.5. When compared to the previously identified glucose cutoff of 110 mg/dl and HOMA-IR cutoff of 2.5 for pre-diabetes, HbA(1C) showed high specificity (88 and 93%, respectively) but very low sensitivity (0 and 21%, respectively). Glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly interrelated, but HbA(1C) was not significantly correlated with these biochemical prediabetes assessment variables, nor with anthropometric (BMIz, WC) risk factors. Our results suggest that HbA(1C) had poor discrimination power to identify prediabetes in overweight and obese 9- to 11-year-old African American children. Future studies are recommended to compare the feasibility, sensitivity and predictive power of different screening tests currently recommended to avoid inadequacy when screening for prediabetes and diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Measuring brain glucose phosphorylation with labeled glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brondsted, H.E.; Gjedde, A.

    1988-01-01

    This study tested whether glucose labeled at the C-6 position generates metabolites that leave brain so rapidly that C-6-labeled glucose cannot be used to measure brain glucose phosphorylation (CMRGlc). In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, the parietal cortex uptake of [ 14 C]glucose labeled in the C-6 position was followed for times ranging from 10 s to 60 min. We subtracted the observed radioactivity from the radioactivity expected with no loss of labeled metabolites from brain by extrapolation of glucose uptake in an initial period when loss was negligible. The observed radioactivity was a monoexponentially declining function of the total radioactivity expected in the absence of metabolite loss. The constant of decline was 0.0077.min-1 for parietal cortex. Metabolites were lost from the beginning of the experiment. However, with correction for the loss of labeled metabolites, it was possible to determine an average CMRGlc between 4 and 60 min of circulation of 64 +/- 4 (SE; n = 49) mumol.hg-1.min-1

  7. Postchallenge responses of nitrotyrosine and TNF-alpha during 75-g oral glucose tolerance test are associated with the presence of coronary artery diseases in patients with prediabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Chih-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-analysis has demonstrated an exponential relationship between 2-hr postchallenge hyperglycemia and coronary artery disease (CAD. Pulsatile hyperglycemia can acutely increase proinflammatory cytokines by oxidative stress. We hypothesized that postchallenge proinflammatory and nitrosative responses after 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests (75 g-OGTT might be associated with CAD in patients without previously recognized type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods Serial changes of plasma glucose (PG, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and nitrotyrosine levels were analyzed during 75 g-OGTT in 120 patients (81 male; age 62 ± 11 years before coronary angiography. Patients were classified as normal (NGT; 42%, impaired (IGT; 34% and diabetic (T2DM; 24% glucose tolerance by 75 g-OGTT. Results Postchallenge hyperglycemia elicited TNF-α, IL-6 and nitrotyrosine levels time-dependently, and 2-hr median levels of TNF-α (7.1 versus 6.4 pg/ml; P μmol/l; P P Conclusions These results highlight postchallenge proinflammatory and nitrosative responses by 75 g-OGTT, rather than hyperglycemia per se, are associated with CAD in patients without previous recognized diabetes.

  8. [The monophasic pattern in oral glucose tolerance test as a predictive risk factor of type 2 diabetes in obese paediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Martínez, Aura D; Enes, Patricia; Martín-Frías, María; Roldán, Belén; Yelmo, Rosa; Barrio, Raquel

    2017-10-01

    The onset of obesity at young ages is strongly associated with the early development of type 2diabetes (T2D). The shape of the curves of glucose and insulin curves during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) could predict the risk of developing T2D. To analyse the morphology of the OGTT and determine T2D risk factors in a mainly Caucasian population of children and adolescents. Observational retrospective study including 588 patients (309 males, 279 females) with a mean age of 11.1±2years, and of whom 90.3% were Caucasian. Risk factors for T2D were compared in patients with a monophasic or biphasic pattern during the performance of an OGTT, as well as anthropometric and biochemical variables, insulin resistance, and beta-cell function. The shape of the glucose curve was monophasic in 50.2% of patients (50.8% male), biphasic in 48.5% (47.6% males), and indeterminate in 1.3%. The monophasic pattern showed lower insulin-sensitivity and worse beta-cell function. Patients with a biphasic pattern had a higher BMI, waist circumference, and blood pressure, although the results were not significant. Latin-American patients had significantly lower serum glucose levels with higher insulin levels during the OGTT. The pattern of response to an OGTT reflects different metabolic phenotypes. Paediatric patients with a biphasic pattern have lower risk-profiling for T2D. The performing of an OGTT could be useful to implement early intervention strategies in children and adolescents with obesity, in order to prevent the development of pre-diabetes or T2D. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Retrospective analysis of insulin responses to standard dosed oral glucose tests (OGTs) via naso-gastric tubing towards definition of an objective cut-off value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnken, Tobias; Delarocque, Julien; Schumacher, Svenja; Huber, Korinna; Feige, Karsten

    2018-01-19

    Insulin dysregulation (ID) with basal or postprandial hyperinsulinemia is one of the key findings in horses and ponies suffering from the equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Assessment of ID can easily be performed in clinical settings by the use of oral glucose challenge tests. Oral glucose test (OGT) performed with 1 g/kg bodyweight (BW) glucose administered via naso-gastric tube allows the exact administration of a defined glucose dosage in a short time. However, reliable cut-off values have not been available so far. Therefore, the aim of the study was to describe variations in insulin response to OGT via naso-gastric tubing and to provide a clinical useful cut-off value for ID when using the insulin quantification performed with an equine-optimized insulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data visualization revealed no clear separation in the serum insulin concentration of insulin sensitive and insulin dysregulated horses during OGT. Therefore, a model based clustering method was used to circumvent the use of an arbitrary limit for categorization. This method considered all data-points for the classification, taking into account the individual insulin trajectory during the OGT. With this method two clusters were differentiated, one with low and one with high insulin responses during OGT. The cluster of individuals with low insulin response was consistently detected, independently of the initialization parameters of the algorithm. In this cluster the 97.5% quantile of insulin is 110 µLU/mL at 120 min. We suggest using this insulin concentration of 110 µLU/mL as a cut-off value for samples obtained at 120 min in OGT. OGT performed with 1 g/kg BW glucose and administration via naso-gastric tubing can easily be performed under clinical settings. Application of the cut-off value of 110 µLU/mL at 120 min allows assessment of ID in horses.

  10. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary...... participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger...

  11. Slow recovery of blood glucose in the insulin tolerance test during the prepartum transition period negatively impacts the nutritional status and reproductive performance postpartum of dairy cows.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hsu-Hsun; Kida, Katsuya; Miura, Ryotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Miyamoto, Akio; Kawashima, Chiho; Haneda, Shingo; Miyake, Yoh-ichi; Matsui, Motozumi

    2012-01-01

    In peripartum dairy cows, insulin resistance (IR) increases to adjust the direction of energy to lactation after calving. To investigate the effect of prepartum IR on postpartum reproductive performance, the insulin tolerance test (ITT) was applied to 15 cows at 3 weeks (Pre21) and 10 days (Pre10) before the predicted calving date. Blood glucose area under the curve (AUCglu) within 120 min after administration of 0.05 IU/kg-BW insulin was calculated. The occurrence of first ovulation, days to...

  12. Heterogeneity of high-density lipoprotein particles and insulin output during oral glucose tolerance test in men with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, J; Kwaśniak, M; Wybrańska, I; Hartwich, J; Guevara, I; Zdzienicka, A; Kruszelnicka-Kwiatkowska, O; Piwowarska, W; Miszczuk-Jamska, B; Dembińska-Kieć, A

    1996-03-01

    We compared the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and particle heterogeneity in 60 nonobese (normal body mass index, BMI) men suffering from coronary artery disease (CAD) with normolipemia and normoinsulinemia with lower and higher insulin output during the oral glucose tolerance test (silent hyperinsulinemia). The apolipoprotein apoAI, apoAII, and apoE levels were higher in the high insulin response (HI) group than in low insulin response (LI) group. The ratio of apoAI versus total protein and the ratio of apoAI versus total cholesterol were increased in HI compared with LI. The lipid components in HDL were higher in LI than in HI, while for HDL2 they were higher in HI. The fractioning of HDL by gradient gel electrophoresis revealed a different pattern of HDL particles in both groups. The larger particles, HDL2b and HDL2a (mean particle diameters 10.6 and 9.2 nm, respectively), occur more frequently in HI patients (up to 60%) than in LI patients, whereas the smaller particles, HDL3a and HDL3b (mean particle diameters 8.6 and 7.8 nm, respectively), predominate in LI patients. Our results demonstrate that even in the normoglycemic, normocholesterolemic CAD patients, a high insulin output observed during the oral glucose tolerance test may be connected with a different HDL particle pattern, which suggests changes in the reverse cholesterol transport.

  13. Deciphering the hybridisation history leading to the Lager lineage based on the mosaic genomes of Saccharomyces bayanus strains NBRC1948 and CBS380.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huu-Vang Nguyen

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces bayanus is a yeast species described as one of the two parents of the hybrid brewing yeast S. pastorianus. Strains CBS380(T and NBRC1948 have been retained successively as pure-line representatives of S. bayanus. In the present study, sequence analyses confirmed and upgraded our previous finding: S. bayanus type strain CBS380(T harbours a mosaic genome. The genome of strain NBRC1948 was also revealed to be mosaic. Both genomes were characterized by amplification and sequencing of different markers, including genes involved in maltotriose utilization or genes detected by array-CGH mapping. Sequence comparisons with public Saccharomyces spp. nucleotide sequences revealed that the CBS380(T and NBRC1948 genomes are composed of: a predominant non-cerevisiae genetic background belonging to S. uvarum, a second unidentified species provisionally named S. lagerae, and several introgressed S. cerevisiae fragments. The largest cerevisiae-introgressed DNA common to both genomes totals 70kb in length and is distributed in three contigs, cA, cB and cC. These vary in terms of length and presence of MAL31 or MTY1 (maltotriose-transporter gene. In NBRC1948, two additional cerevisiae-contigs, cD and cE, totaling 12kb in length, as well as several smaller cerevisiae fragments were identified. All of these contigs were partially detected in the genomes of S. pastorianus lager strains CBS1503 (S. monacensis and CBS1513 (S. carlsbergensis explaining the noticeable common ability of S. bayanus and S. pastorianus to metabolize maltotriose. NBRC1948 was shown to be inter-fertile with S. uvarum CBS7001. The cross involving these two strains produced F1 segregants resembling the strains CBS380(T or NRRLY-1551. This demonstrates that these S. bayanus strains were the offspring of a cross between S. uvarum and a strain similar to NBRC1948. Phylogenies established with selected cerevisiae and non-cerevisiae genes allowed us to decipher the complex hybridisation

  14. Assessment of Motivational Cognitions in Diabetes Self-Care: the Motivation Thought Frequency Scales for Glucose Testing, Physical Activity and Healthy Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Sophie C; Kavanagh, David J; Gericke, Christian A; King, Neil; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie

    2017-06-01

    There is a need for improved measurement of motivation for diabetes self-care. The Elaborated Intrusion Theory of Desire offers a coherent framework for understanding and identifying the cognitive-affective events that constitute the subjective experience of motivation and may therefore inform the development of such an instrument. Recent research has shown the resultant Motivation Thought Frequency scale (MTF) to have a stable factor structure (Intensity, Incentives Imagery, Self-Efficacy Imagery, Availability) when applied to physical activity, excessive snacking or alcohol use in the general population. The current study aimed to confirm the four-factor structure of the MTF for glucose testing, physical activity and healthy eating in people with type 2 diabetes. Associations with self-reports of concurrent diabetic self-care behaviours were also examined. Confirmatory factor analyses tested the internal structure, and multiple regressions assessed the scale's relationship with concurrent self-care behaviours. The MTF was completed by 340 adults with type 2 diabetes, and 237 from that sample also reported self-care behaviours. Separate MTFs assessed motivation for glucose testing, physical activity and healthy eating. Self-care was assessed using questions from the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities. The MTF for each goal achieved an acceptable fit on all indices after selected errors within factors were allowed to intercorrelate. Intensity and Self-Efficacy Imagery provided the strongest and most consistent correlations with relevant self-care behaviours. Results provide preliminary support for the MTF in a diabetes sample. Testing of its sensitivity to change and its predictive utility over time is needed.

  15. Responses of plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids to intravenous insulin tolerance tests in dairy cows during a 670-day lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marett, L C; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J; Macmillan, K L; Dunshea, F R; Leury, B J

    2017-04-01

    The metabolic response of dairy cows undergoing an extended lactation to an insulin tolerance test (ITT) was investigated. Twelve multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows that calved in late winter in a pasture-based system were managed for a 670-d lactation by delaying rebreeding. Four 5-wk experimental periods commenced at approximately 73, 217, 422, and 520 d in milk (DIM). Cows were offered a diet of perennial ryegrass (73 and 422 DIM) or pasture hay and silage (217 and 520 DIM) supplemented with 1 kg dry matter (DM) of grain (control; CON) or 6 kg DM of grain (GRN). Daily energy intake was approximately 160 and 215 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow for CON and GRN, respectively. At all other times, cows were managed as a single herd and grazed pasture supplemented with grain to an estimated daily intake of 180 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow. Cows were fitted with a jugular catheter during the final week of each experimental period. An ITT using 0.12 IU of insulin/kg of body weight (BW) was conducted on each cow at approximately 100, 250, 460, and 560 DIM. Cows in the GRN treatment had greater milk yield, milk solids yield, and BW than cows in the CON treatment. Within treatment, individual cow responses to the ITT were highly variable. Plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations declined at all stages of lactation. The clearance rate of plasma glucose was slower before 300 DIM than after 300 DIM, which indicates greater inhibition of hepatic glucose synthesis and uptake of glucose by insulin-dependent tissues later in the lactation. The clearance rate, area under the curve, and recovery of plasma NEFA were greatest at 100 DIM, indicating greater responsiveness to the antilipolytic effect of insulin in early lactation, but also greater lipolytic responsiveness. The variation in response to the ITT was mostly a result of DIM rather than diet. However, the plasma NEFA response showed interactions between diet and DIM, indicating that energy intake

  16. Hydrothermal Synthesized and Alkaline Activated Carbons Prepared from Glucose and Fructose—Detailed Characterization and Testing in Heavy Metals and Methylene Blue Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Krstić

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the presented paper, activated carbons were prepared from fructose and glucose, and activating agents (KOH, NaOH, LiOH by hydrothermal treatment (HTC treatment. After preparation, samples were characterized in details. Different techniques were used: x-ray powder diffraction analysis, Raman spectral analysis, elemental analysis, and determination of textural and morphological properties. Obtained results showed dependence of investigated properties and the nature of precursors (glucose or fructose as well as the type of hydroxides used as activating agents. After characterization, samples were tested as materials for heavy metals (Pb2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ and methylene blue removal. Also, adsorption experiments were performed on wastewaters taken from tailings of the lead and zinc mine and kinetic of the methylene blue removal was studied. The factors which distinguished the KOH activated samples were high yield (~14%, content of organic carbon (63–74%, porosity and specific surface area (SBET ~700–1360 m2/g, a low degree of the crystal phase, indications that potassium ions may be included in heavy metals removal, good removal of the heavy metal ions (~47–59 mg/g for Pb2+, ~21–27 mg/g for Cd2+ and ~6–10 mg/g for Zn2+ and fast (~10–30 min and good methylene blue (~60–200 mg/g removal.

  17. Burning mouth syndrome: results of screening tests for vitamin and mineral deficiencies, thyroid hormone, and glucose levels-experience at Mayo Clinic over a decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morr Verenzuela, Claudia S; Davis, Mark D P; Bruce, Alison J; Torgerson, Rochelle R

    2017-09-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a disorder characterized by chronic mouth pain in the absence of objective clinical abnormalities. Vitamin or mineral deficiencies may have a role in BMS, but data regarding the prevalence and relevance of hematinic deficiencies are conflicting. We aimed to determine the frequency of specific laboratory abnormalities in patients with BMS. We retrospectively reviewed the results of screening blood tests in patients with BMS at our institution between January 2003 and December 2013. Among 659 patients with BMS, the most common decreased values or deficiencies were vitamin D 3 (15%), vitamin B 2 (15%), vitamin B 6 (5.7%), zinc (5.7%), vitamin B 1 (5.3%), thyrotropin (TSH) (3.2%), vitamin B 12 (0.8%), and folic acid (0.7%). Laboratory values for fasting blood glucose and TSH were increased in 23.7% and 5.2%, respectively. In patients with symptoms of BMS, our results suggest it is reasonable to screen for fasting blood glucose, vitamin D (D 2 and D 3 ), vitamin B 6 , zinc, vitamin B 1 , and TSH. Deficiencies of vitamin B 12 and folic acid were rare (<1% abnormal). © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  18. Indexes of carbohydrate exchange (CE) and results of toleration test to glucose after effect of low dose of ionizing radiation in late periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    The indexes of tolerance test to glucose and values of generalized criterion (GC) being information index of CE system status were determined for 100 liquidators of Chernobyl accident with purpose of study of carbohydrate exchange (CE) status. Analysis of these mean values was carried out according to participation data in liquidation works, exposition duration, rate of radioactive contamination of zone, absorbed dose of external irradiation and age of examined persons. Contribution of each studied components of radiation factor on CE status is estimated. It is determined that both the absorbed dose and the exposition duration are main factors influencing on CE. In examined group there were 32 men with disorders of CE , 20 of them (GC=18.33±0.48) were placed to group of higher risk, 9 men have high tolerance of organism to glucose (GC=32.84±1.37) and 3 men have diabetes of II type (GC=68.6±2.16). Frequency of cases of liquidators' of Chernobyl accident CE disorders allows to made conclusion that ills have dis-function of endocrine section of pancreas

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Chat Closed engagement en -- Have Type 2 Diabetes? - 2017-03-lwt2d-en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ... Pinterest Youtube Instagram Diabetes Stops Here Blog Online Community Site ... Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ... de Cure Women's Series Do-It-Yourself Fundraising Become a Volunteer American Diabetes Month® American Diabetes Association ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics ...

  4. Oxygen restriction as challenge test reveals early high-fat-diet-induced changes in glucose and lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorde, L.P.M.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Derous, D.; Stelt, van der I.; Masania, J.; Rabbani, N.; Thornalley, P.J.; Keijer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Challenge tests stress homeostasis and may reveal deviations in health that remain masked under unchallenged conditions. Ideally, challenge tests are non-invasive and applicable in an early phase of an animal experiment. Oxygen restriction (OxR; based on ambient, mild normobaric hypoxia) is a

  5. The changes in levels of C-P and insulin in glucose tolerance test in rats with experimental non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinqiu; Lei Ming

    2001-01-01

    The changes in levels of C-P and insulin were investigated in the GT test in rats with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In order to establish a model of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), the authors injected rats with small dose streptozocoi (i.v.). Two weeks after the injection, the rats developed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Then, they were fed with high energy diet for eight weeks to form NIDDM. The results showed that the highest peak time of C-P and insulin in NIDDM was remarkably later than that in normal subjects, the highest peak time was in two hours (P < 0.05). The data suggest that level of C-P could accurately respond to level of insulin, and this experimental non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus model is ideal

  6. Cold exposure affects carbohydrates and lipid metabolism, and induces Hog1p phosphorylation in Dekkera bruxellensis strain CBS 2499.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galafassi, Silvia; Toscano, Marco; Vigentini, Ileana; Zambelli, Paolo; Simonetti, Paolo; Foschino, Roberto; Compagno, Concetta

    2015-05-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is a yeast known to affect the quality of wine and beer. This species, due to its high ethanol and acid tolerance, has been reported also to compete with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in distilleries producing fuel ethanol. In order to understand how this species responds when exposed to low temperatures, some mechanisms like synthesis and accumulation of intracellular metabolites, changes in lipid composition and activation of the HOG-MAPK pathway were investigated in the genome sequenced strain CBS 2499. We show that cold stress caused intracellular accumulation of glycogen, but did not induce accumulation of trehalose and glycerol. The cellular fatty acid composition changed after the temperature downshift, and a significant increase of palmitoleic acid was observed. RT-PCR analysis revealed that OLE1 encoding for Δ9-fatty acid desaturase was up-regulated, whereas TPS1 and INO1 didn't show changes in their expression. In D. bruxellensis Hog1p was activated by phosphorylation, as described in S. cerevisiae, highlighting a conserved role of the HOG-MAP kinase signaling pathway in cold stress response.

  7. The CBS-The Most Cost Effective and High Performance Carbon Beam Source Dedicated for a New Generation Cancer Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Kumada, Masayuki; Leivichev, E B; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Podgorny, Fedor; Rastigeev, Sergey; Reva, Vladimir B; Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich; Vostrikov, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    A Carbon ion beam is a superior tool to x-rays or a proton beam in both physical and biological doses in treating a cancer. A Carbon beam has an advantage in treating radiation resistant and deep-seated tumors. Its radiological effect is of a mitotic independent nature. These features improve hypofractionation, typically reducing the number of irradiations per patient from 35 to a few. It has been shown that a superior QOL(Quality Of Life) therapy is possible by a carbon beam.The only drawback is its high cost. Nevertheless, tens of Prefectures and organizations are eagerly considering the possibility of having a carbon ion therapy facility in Japan. Germany, Austria, Italy, China, Taiwan and Korea also desire to have one.A carbon beam accelerator of moderate cost is about 100 Million USD. With the "CBS" design philosophy, which will be described in this paper, the cost could be factor of 2 or 3 less, while improving its performance more than standard designs. Novel extraction techniques, a new approach to a ...

  8. A importância do teste de tolerância à glicose oral no diagnóstico da intolerância à glicose e diabetes mellitus do tipo 2 em mulheres com síndrome dos ovários policísticos The importance of oral glucose tolerance test in diagnosis of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Pontes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a importância do teste de tolerância à glicose oral (TTGO no diagnóstico da intolerância à glicose (IG e diabetes mellitus do tipo 2 (DM-2 em mulheres com SOP. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo em que foram incluídas 247 pacientes portadoras de SOP, selecionadas de forma aleatória. O diagnóstico de IG foi obtido por meio do TTGO de duas horas com 75 gramas de glicose de acordo com os critérios do World Health Organization (WHO (IG: glicemia plasmática aos 120 minutos >140 mg/dL e 200 mg/dL quanto pela glicemia de jejum segundo os critérios da American Diabetes Association (glicemia de jejum alterada: glicemia plasmática >100 e 126 mg/dL. Para comparar o TTGO com a glicemia de jejum foi aplicado o modelo de regressão logística para medidas repetidas. Para a análise das características clínicas e bioquímicas das pacientes com e sem IG e/ou DM-2 foi utilizada a ANOVA seguida do teste de Tukey. O valor pPURPOSE: To evaluate the importance of the oral glucose tolerance test for the diagnosis of glucose intolerance (GI and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2 in women with PCOS. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 247 patients with PCOS selected at random. The diagnosis of GI was obtained from the two-hour oral glucose tolerance test with 75 g of glucose according to the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO (GI: 120 minutes for plasma glucose >140 mg/dL and 200 mg/dL and fasting glucose using the criteria of the American Diabetes Association (impaired fasting glucose: fasting plasma glucose >100 and 126 mg/dL. A logistic regression model for repeated measures was applied to compare the oral glucose tolerance test with fasting plasma glucose. ANOVA followed by the Tukey test was used for the analysis of the clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with and without GI and/or DM-2. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: PCOS patients had a mean age of 24.8±6.3, and body

  9. Neuroscience of glucose homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Fleur, S E; Fliers, E; Kalsbeek, A

    2014-01-01

    Plasma glucose concentrations are homeostatically regulated and maintained within strict boundaries. Several mechanisms are in place to increase glucose output when glucose levels in the circulation drop as a result of glucose utilization, or to decrease glucose output and increase tissue glucose

  10. Effects of gender, body weight, and blood glucose dynamics on the growth hormone response to the glucagon stimulation test in patients with pituitary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jessica R; Utz, Andrea L; Devin, Jessica K

    2016-02-01

    Body weight blunts the growth hormone (GH) response to provocative stimuli. The appropriate GH cut-off to confirm GH deficiency in obese and overweight patients undergoing the glucagon stimulation test (GST) has recently been questioned. We hypothesized that the peak GH would be inversely related to the nadir blood glucose (BG) after glucagon and that this may be a mechanism influencing peak GH in overweight patients. This retrospective study examined effects of gender, body weight, and BG dynamics on GH response to GST in patients evaluated in our Pituitary Center. Adult patients who underwent GST from September 2009-2014 were included. Continuous variable comparisons were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and categorical data by Fisher's Exact Test. Spearman correlation was used to determine associations between continuous variables. 42 patients (N=28, 66.7% female) had sufficient data for analysis. Obese patients (N=26) had a reduced GH response, summarized as GH area under the curve (AUC) (p=0.03 vs. non-obese patients) and higher BG during GST, summarized as AUC (pAUC (rs=-0.45; p=0.01), peak GH response (rs=-0.42; p=0.02) and nadir BG (rs=0.48; pAUC (rs=-0.38; p=0.03) and peak GH (rs=-0.37; p=0.04) such that patients (N=32) with higher nadir BG had lower peak GH in response to glucagon. Obese patients, particularly women, do not respond as robustly to glucagon stimulation. These data suggest that there exists an altered BG profile during GST in obese individuals, and that a less robust hypoglycemic stimulus may contribute to an impaired GH response. We suggest measuring BG levels during glucagon stimulation testing to assist with clinical interpretation of GH dynamics. The diagnostic accuracy of the GST in patients with known disorders in glucose metabolism and those taking anti-diabetic medications deserves further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hyperglycemic clamp and oral glucose tolerance test for 3-year prediction of clinical onset in persistently autoantibody-positive offspring and siblings of type 1 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balti, Eric V; Vandemeulebroucke, Evy; Weets, Ilse; Van De Velde, Ursule; Van Dalem, Annelien; Demeester, Simke; Verhaeghen, Katrijn; Gillard, Pieter; De Block, Christophe; Ruige, Johannes; Keymeulen, Bart; Pipeleers, Daniel G; Decochez, Katelijn; Gorus, Frans K

    2015-02-01

    In preparation of future prevention trials, we aimed to identify predictors of 3-year diabetes onset among oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)- and hyperglycemic clamp-derived metabolic markers in persistently islet autoantibody positive (autoAb(+)) offspring and siblings of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The design is a registry-based study. Functional tests were performed in a hospital setting. Persistently autoAb(+) first-degree relatives of patients with T1D (n = 81; age 5-39 years). We assessed 3-year predictive ability of OGTT- and clamp-derived markers using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and Cox regression analysis. Area under the curve of clamp-derived first-phase C-peptide release (AUC(5-10 min); min 5-10) was determined in all relatives and second-phase release (AUC(120-150 min); min 120-150) in those aged 12-39 years (n = 62). Overall, the predictive ability of AUC(5-10 min) was better than that of peak C-peptide, the best predictor among OGTT-derived parameters (ROC-AUC [95%CI]: 0.89 [0.80-0.98] vs 0.81 [0.70-0.93]). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and AUC(5-10 min) provided the best combination of markers for prediction of diabetes within 3 years; (ROC-AUC [95%CI]: 0.92 [0.84-1.00]). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, AUC(5-10 min)) (P = .001) was the strongest independent predictor and interacted significantly with all tested OGTT-derived parameters. AUC(5-10 min) below percentile 10 of controls was associated with 50-70% progression to T1D regardless of age. Similar results were obtained for AUC(120-150 min). Clamp-derived first-phase C-peptide release can be used as an efficient and simple screening strategy in persistently autoAb(+) offspring and siblings of T1D patients to predict impending diabetes.

  12. Comparative Proteome Analysis between High Lipid-Producing Strain Mucor circinelloides WJ11 and Low Lipid-Producing Strain CBS 277.49.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Chen, Haiqin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Song, Yuanda; Chen, Wei

    2017-06-21

    Mucor circinelloides is one of few oleaginous fungi that produces a useful oil rich in γ-linolenic acid, but it usually only produces <25% total lipid. Nevertheless, we isolated a new strain WJ11 that can produce up to 36% lipid of cell dry weight. In this study, we have systematically analyzed the global changes in protein levels between the high lipid-producing strain WJ11 and the low lipid-producing strain CBS 277.49 (15%, lipid/cell dry weight) at lipid accumulation phase through comparative proteome analysis. Proteome analysis demonstrated that the branched-chain amino acid and lysine metabolism, glycolytic pathway, and pentose phosphate pathway in WJ11 were up-regulated, while the activities of tricarboxylic acid cycle and branch point enzyme for synthesis of isoprenoids were retarded compared with CBS 277.49. The coordinated regulation at proteome level indicate that more acetyl-CoA and NADPH are provided for fatty acid biosynthesis in WJ11 compared with CBS 277.49.

  13. Head Space Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS - SPME of volatile organic compounds produced by Sporidiobolus salmonicolor (CBS 2636

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Valduga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the assessment of volatile organic compounds produced by Sporidiobolus salmonicolor (CBS 2636 using methyl and ethyl ricinoleate, ricinoleic acid and castor oil as precursors. The analysis of the volatile organic compounds was carried out using Head Space Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS - SPME. Factorial experimental design was used for investigating extraction conditions, verifying stirring rate (0-400 rpm, temperature (25-60 ºC, extraction time (10-30 minutes, and sample volume (2-3 mL. The identification of volatile organic compounds was carried out by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrum Detector (GC/MSD. The conditions that resulted in maximum extraction were: 60 ºC, 10 minutes extraction, no stirring, sample volume of 2.0 mL, and addition of saturated KCl (1:10 v/v. In the bio-production of volatile organic compounds the effect of stirring rate (120-200 rpm, temperature (23-33 ºC, pH (4.0-8.0, precursor concentration (0.02-0.1%, mannitol (0-6%, and asparagine concentration (0-0.2% was investigated. The bio-production at 28 ºC, 160 rpm, pH 6,0 and with the addition of 0.02% ricinoleic acid to the medium yielded the highest production of VOCs, identified as 1,4-butanediol, 1,2,2-trimethylciclopropilamine, beta-ionone; 2,3-butanodione, pentanal, tetradecane, 2-isononenal, 4-octen-3-one, propanoic acid, and octadecane.

  14. MATLAB-implemented estimation procedure for model-based assessment of hepatic insulin degradation from standard intravenous glucose tolerance test data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nardo, Francesco; Mengoni, Michele; Morettini, Micaela

    2013-05-01

    Present study provides a novel MATLAB-based parameter estimation procedure for individual assessment of hepatic insulin degradation (HID) process from standard frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT) data. Direct access to the source code, offered by MATLAB, enabled us to design an optimization procedure based on the alternating use of Gauss-Newton's and Levenberg-Marquardt's algorithms, which assures the full convergence of the process and the containment of computational time. Reliability was tested by direct comparison with the application, in eighteen non-diabetic subjects, of well-known kinetic analysis software package SAAM II, and by application on different data. Agreement between MATLAB and SAAM II was warranted by intraclass correlation coefficients ≥0.73; no significant differences between corresponding mean parameter estimates and prediction of HID rate; and consistent residual analysis. Moreover, MATLAB optimization procedure resulted in a significant 51% reduction of CV% for the worst-estimated parameter by SAAM II and in maintaining all model-parameter CV% MATLAB-based procedure was suggested as a suitable tool for the individual assessment of HID process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Both the frequency of HbA1c testing and the frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose predict metabolic control: A multicentre analysis of 15 199 adult type 1 diabetes patients from Germany and Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, A; Best, F; Biester, T; Grünerbel, A; Kopp, F; Krakow, D; Laimer, M; Wagner, C; Holl, R W

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between metabolic control and frequency of haemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) measurements and of self-monitoring of blood glucose, as well as the interaction of both. Data of 15 199 adult type 1 diabetes patients registered in a standardized electronic health record (DPV) were included. To model the association between metabolic control and frequency of HbA 1c testing or of self-monitoring of blood glucose, multiple hierarchic regression models with adjustment for confounders were fitted. Tukey-Kramer test was used to adjust P values for multiple comparisons. Vuong test was used to compare non-nested models. The baseline variables of the study population were median age 19.9 [Q1; Q3: 18.4; 32.2] years and diabetes duration 10.4 [6.8; 15.7] years. Haemoglobin A 1c was 60.4 [51.5; 72.5] mmol/mol. Frequency of HbA 1c testing was 8.0 [5.0; 9.0] within 2 years, and daily self-monitoring of blood glucose frequency was 5.0 [4.0; 6.0]. After adjustment, a U-shaped association between metabolic control and frequency of HbA 1c testing was observed with lowest HbA 1c levels in the 3-monthly HbA 1c testing group. There was an inverse relationship between self-monitoring of blood glucose and HbA 1c with lower HbA 1c associated with highest frequency of testing (>6 daily measurements). Quarterly HbA 1c testing and frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose were associated with best metabolic control. The adjusted Vuong Z statistic suggests that metabolic control might be better explained by HbA 1c testing compared to self-monitoring of blood glucose (P < .0001). This research reveals the importance of quarterly clinical HbA 1c monitoring together with frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes management to reach and maintain target HbA 1c . Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The impact of communication barriers on diagnostic confidence and ancillary testing in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garra, Gregory; Albino, Hiram; Chapman, Heather; Singer, Adam J; Thode, Henry C

    2010-06-01

    Communication barriers (CBs) compromise the diagnostic power of the medical interview and may result in increased reliance on diagnostic tests or incorrect test ordering. The prevalence and degree to which these barriers affect diagnosis, testing, and treatment are unknown. To quantify and characterize CBs encountered in the Emergency Department (ED), and assess the effect of CBs on initial diagnosis and perceived reliance on ancillary testing. This was a prospective survey completed by emergency physicians after initial adult patient encounters. CB severity, diagnostic confidence, and reliance on ancillary testing were quantified on a 100-mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS) from least (0) to most (100). Data were collected on 417 ED patient encounters. CBs were reported in 46%; with a mean severity of 50 mm on a 100-mm VAS with endpoints of "perfect communication and "no communication." Language was the most commonly reported form of CB (28%). More than one CB was identified in 6%. The 100-mm VAS rating of diagnostic confidence was lower in patients with perceived CBs (64 mm) vs. those without CBs (80 mm), p Communication barriers in our ED setting were common, and resulted in lower diagnostic confidence and increased perception that ancillary tests are needed to narrow the diagnosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to an oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leder, Lena; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Narverud, Ingunn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diet has a great impact on the risk of developing features of metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We evaluated whether a long-term healthy Nordic diet (ND) can modify the expression of inflammation and lipid metabolism......-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in individuals with MetS. METHODS: A Nordic multicenter randomized dietary study included subjects (n = 213) with MetS, randomized to a ND group or a control diet (CD) group applying an isocaloric study......, and the mRNA gene expression analysis was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We analyzed the mRNA expression changes of 44 genes before and after a 2hOGTT at the beginning and the end of the intervention. RESULTS: The healthy ND significantly down-regulated the expression...

  18. Glucose and cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, M.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Mudde, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association and the World Health Organisation have recently redefined the spectrum of abnormal glucose tolerance. The criteria for diabetes mellitus were sharpened and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were classified as intermediate stages

  19. Impact of Glucose Tolerance Status, Sex, and Body Size on Glucose Absorption Patterns During OGTTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K.; Pacini, G.; Nolan, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVEWe studied whether patterns of glucose absorption during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were abnormal in individuals with impaired glucose regulation and whether they were related to sex and body size (height and fat-free mass). We also examined how well differences in insulin......, reflected the differences for these parameters between those with normal and impaired glucose regulation as measured by gold-standard tests.CONCLUSIONSGlucose absorption patterns during an OGTT are significantly related to plasma glucose levels and body size, which should be taken into account when.......RESULTSMore rapid glucose absorption (P 0.036) and reduced late glucose absorption (P 0.039) were observed in the i-IFG group relative to NGT and i-IGT groups. Women with i-IGT had a lower early glucose absorption than did men with i-IGT (P = 0.041); however, this difference did not persist when differences in body...

  20. Metabolomic analysis reveals amino-acid responses to an oral glucose tolerance test in women with prior history of gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bentley-Lewis, MD, MBA, MMSc

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Greater change in metabolite levels after a glucose challenge was significantly associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding and higher BMI. Further exploration of these preliminary observations and closer examination of the specific pathways implicated are warranted.

  1. Glucose metabolism of lactobacillus divergens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruyn, I.N.

    1987-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compile an optimal growth and selective medium for Lactobacillus divergens and to determine the pathway by which it metabolised glucose. The optimum growth temperature is 25 o C which is lower than that of most other lactobacilli. Citrate stimulates growth up to a concentration of 1% while acetate inhibits the organism at neutral pH, but it stimulates growth at pH 8.5 up to a concentration of 0.8%. MRS medium was therefore modified in order to obtain maximum growth of the organism. The acetate was omitted, sucrose was substituted for glucose and the pH was adjusted to 8.5. Sucrose was used, since a neutral pH is obtained after sterilisation of glucose in alkaline (pH ≥ 7.5) solution due to the degradation of glucose by the Maillard reaction. Various inhibitors and dyes were tested in order to formulate a selective medium. In the present study differently labelled glucose precursors were fermented by L. divergens and the fermentation products isolated by HPLC. The concentrations of acetate and formate were determined by comparison to a standard while the concentration of lactate and glucose was determined by enzymic assay. The radioactivity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and the positional labelling in lactate and acetate by chemical degradation. Fermentation of D-[U- 14 C]-glucose was included to correct for endogenous product dilution

  2. Glucose Binding Protein as a Novel Optical Glucose Nanobiosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed DWEIK

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of an in vivo optical sensor requires the utilization of Near Infra Red (NIR fluorophores due to their ability to operate within the biological tissue window. Alexa Fluor 750 (AF750 and Alexa Fluor 680 (AF680 were examined as potential NIR fluorophores for an in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET glucose biosensor. AF680 and AF750 found to be a FRET pair and percent energy transfer was calculated. Next, the tested dye pair was utilized in a competitive binding assay in order to detect glucose. Concanavalin A (Con A and dextran have binding affinity, but in the presence of glucose, glucose displaces dextran due to its higher affinity to Con A than dextran. Finally, the percent signal transfer through porcine skin was examined. The results showed with approximately 4.0 mm porcine skin thickness, 1.98 % of the fluorescence was transmitted and captured by the detector.

  3. Omics Analyses of Trichoderma reesei CBS999.97 and QM6a Indicate the Relevance of Female Fertility to Carbohydrate-Active Enzyme and Transporter Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisch, Doris; Pomraning, Kyle R; Collett, James R; Freitag, Michael; Baker, Scott E; Chen, Chia-Ling; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Chuang, Yu Chien; Schuster, Andre; Dattenböck, Christoph; Stappler, Eva; Sulyok, Michael; Böhmdorfer, Stefan; Oberlerchner, Josua; Wang, Ting-Fang; Schmoll, Monika

    2017-11-15

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is found predominantly in the tropics but also in more temperate regions, such as Europe, and is widely known as a producer of large amounts of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. We sequenced the genome of the sexually competent isolate CBS999.97, which is phenotypically different from the female sterile strain QM6a but can cross sexually with QM6a. Transcriptome data for growth on cellulose showed that entire carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) families are consistently differentially regulated between these strains. We evaluated backcrossed strains of both mating types, which acquired female fertility from CBS999.97 but maintained a mostly QM6a genetic background, and we could thereby distinguish between the effects of strain background and female fertility or mating type. We found clear regulatory differences associated with female fertility and female sterility, including regulation of CAZyme and transporter genes. Analysis of carbon source utilization, transcriptomes, and secondary metabolites in these strains revealed that only a few changes in gene regulation are consistently correlated with different mating types. Different strain backgrounds (QM6a versus CBS999.97) resulted in the most significant alterations in the transcriptomes and in carbon source utilization, with decreased growth of CBS999.97 on several amino acids (for example proline or alanine), which further correlated with the downregulation of genes involved in the respective pathways. In combination, our findings support a role of fertility-associated processes in physiology and gene regulation and are of high relevance for the use of sexual crossing in combining the characteristics of two compatible strains or quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. IMPORTANCE Trichoderma reesei is a filamentous fungus with a high potential for secretion of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. We sequenced the genome of the fully fertile field isolate CBS999.97 and

  4. The p.T191M mutation of the CBS gene is highly prevalent among homocystinuric patients from Spain, Portugal and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urreizti, Roser; Asteggiano, Carla; Bermudez, Marta; Córdoba, Alfonso; Szlago, Marina; Szlago, Mariana; Grosso, Carola; de Kremer, Raquel Dodelson; Vilarinho, Laura; D'Almeida, Vania; Martínez-Pardo, Mercedes; Peña-Quintana, Luís; Dalmau, Jaime; Bernal, Jaime; Briceño, Ignacio; Couce, María Luz; Rodés, Marga; Vilaseca, Maria Antonia; Balcells, Susana; Grinberg, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Classical homocystinuria is due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency. More than 130 mutations, which differ in prevalence and severity, have been described at the CBS gene. Mutation p.I278T is very prevalent, has been found in all European countries where it has been looked for with the exception of the Iberian peninsula, and is known to respond to vitamin B6. On the other hand, mutation p.T191M is prevalent in Spain and Portugal and does not respond to B6. We analysed 30 pedigrees from Spain, Portugal, Colombia and Argentina, segregating for homocystinuria. The p.T191M mutation was detected in patients from all four countries and was particularly prevalent in Colombia. The number of p.T191M alleles described in this study, together with those previously published, is 71. The prevalence of p.T191M among CBS mutant alleles in the different countries was: 0.75 in Colombia, 0.52 in Spain, 0.33 in Portugal, 0.25 in Venezuela, 0.20 in Argentina and 0.14 in Brazil. Haplotype analyses suggested a double origin for this mutation. No genotype-phenotype correlation other than the B6-nonresponsiveness could be established for the p.T191M mutation. Additionally, three new mutations, p.M173V, p.I429del and c.69_70+8del10, were found. The p.M173V was associated with a mild, B6-responsive, phenotype.

  5. Effects of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and sintering temperature on crystallization and microstructure of CBS glass–ceramic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Pengyang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, Shubin, E-mail: shubinwang@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials and Engneering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Jianggao; Feng, Mengjie; Yang, Xinwang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: (a) TEM photogram of CG3 sintered at 800 °C, crystals are obvious; (b) the XRD patterns of CG3 glass samples sintered at various temperatures; (c) SEM photogram of CG3 sintered at 800 °C; (d) Kissinger, Augis–Bennett and Ozawa kinetics plots of CG3 glass samples. - Highlights: • Combining sol–gel method with direct sintering method to reduce the temperature of coatings formation. • Characterizing CaO–SiO{sub 2}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass–ceramic coatings on porous substrates. • Surface crystallization of CBS glass–ceramic coatings: nucleation and kinetics. • Activation energies for crystal growth in CBS glass–ceramics with different contents of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. - Abstract: Borosilicate glass–ceramics precursors with varying compositional ratios in the CaO–SiO{sub 2}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (CBS) system were synthesized by sol–gel method. The precursors were calcined at 1200 °C for 2 h to form glass powders. The glass–ceramics were prepared by overlaying glass slurries on the substrates before sintering at different temperatures. The as-prepared glasses and glass–ceramics were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The crystallization activation energies (E{sub c}) were calculated using the Kissinger method from DSC results. The morphology and crystallization behavior of the glass–ceramics were monitored by scanning electron microscopy. Both glass transition and crystallization temperatures decreased, however, the metastable zone increased. The E{sub c} values of CBS glasses and glass–ceramics were 254.1, 173.2 and 164.4 kJ/mol with increasing B{sub 2}O{sub 3} content, whereas that of the calcined G3 glass was 104.9 kJ/mol. Finally, the coatings were prepared at a low temperature (700 °C). The crystals that grew on the surface of multilayer coatings demonstrated heterogeneous surface nucleation and crystallization after heat-treatment from 700 °C to 850 °C for 4 h.

  6. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia (HLP is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05 during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05 in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP.

  7. Comparison of the 1-gram [14C]xylose, 10-gram lactulose-H2, and 80-gram glucose-H2 breath tests in patients with small intestine bacterial overgrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.E.; Toskes, P.P.

    1986-01-01

    The sensitivity of three breath tests (1-g [ 14 C]xylose, 10-g lactulose-H 2 , and 80-g glucose-H 2 ) was studied in 20 subjects with culture-documented small intestine bacterial overgrowth. Elevated breath 14 CO2 levels were seen within 30 min of [ 14 C]xylose administration in 19 of 20 subjects with bacterial overgrowth and 0 of 10 controls. In contrast, H 2 breath tests demonstrated uninterpretable tests (absence of H 2 -generating bacteria) in 2 of 20 subjects with bacterial overgrowth and 1 of 10 controls and nondiagnostic increases in H 2 production in 3 of 18 glucose-H 2 and 7 of 18 lactulose-H 2 breath tests in subjects with bacterial overgrowth. These findings demonstrate continued excellent reliability of the 1-g [ 14 C]xylose breath test as a diagnostic test for bacterial overgrowth, indicate inadequate sensitivity of H 2 breath tests in detecting bacterial overgrowth, and suggest the need for evaluation of a 13 CO 2 breath test having the same characteristics as the [ 14 C]xylose test (avidly absorbed substrate having minimal contact with the colonic flora) for nonradioactive breath detection of bacterial overgrowth in children and reproductive-age women

  8. Noninferiority of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency diagnosis by a point-of-care rapid test vs the laboratory fluorescent spot test demonstrated by copper inhibition in normal human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J Kevin; Dewi, Mewahyu; Subekti, Decy; Elyazar, Iqbal; Satyagraha, Ari W

    2015-06-01

    Tens of millions of patients diagnosed with vivax malaria cannot safely receive primaquine therapy against repeated attacks caused by activation of dormant liver stages called hypnozoites. Most of these patients lack access to screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, a highly prevalent disorder causing serious acute hemolytic anemia with primaquine therapy. We optimized CuCl inhibition of G6PD in normal red blood cells (RBCs) to assess G6PD diagnostic technologies suited to point of care in the impoverished rural tropics. The most widely applied technology for G6PD screening-the fluorescent spot test (FST)-is impractical in that setting. We evaluated a new point-of-care G6PD screening kit (CareStart G6PD, CSG) against FST using graded CuCl treatments to simulate variable hemizygous states, and varying proportions of CuCl-treated RBC suspensions to simulate variable heterozygous states of G6PD deficiency. In experiments double-blinded to CuCl treatment, technicians reading FST and CSG test (n = 269) classified results as positive or negative for deficiency. At G6PD activity ≤40% of normal (n = 112), CSG test was not inferior to FST in detecting G6PD deficiency (P = 0.003), with 96% vs 90% (P = 0.19) sensitivity and 75% and 87% (P = 0.01) specificity, respectively. The CSG test costs less, requires no specialized equipment, laboratory skills, or cold chain for successful application, and performs as well as the FST standard of care for G6PD screening. Such a device may vastly expand access to primaquine therapy and aid in mitigating the very substantial burden of morbidity and mortality imposed by the hypnozoite reservoir of vivax malaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Theoretical Calculation of Jet Fuel Thermochemistry. 1; Tetrahydrodicylopentadiene (JP10) Thermochemistry Using the CBS-QB3 and G3(MP2)//B3LYP Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehe, Michael J.; Jaffe, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    High-level ab initio calculations have been performed on the exo and endo isomers of gas-phase tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene (THDCPD), a principal component of the jet fuel JP10, using the Gaussian Gx and Gx(MPx) composite methods, as well as the CBS-QB3 method, and using a variety of isodesmic and homodesmotic reaction schemes. The impetus for this work is to help resolve large discrepancies existing between literature measurements of the formation enthalpy Delta (sub f)H deg (298) for exo-THDCPD. We find that use of the isodesmic bond separation reaction C10H16 + 14CH4 yields 12C2H6 yields results for the exo isomer (JP10) in between the two experimentally accepted values, for the composite methods G3(MP2), G3(MP2)//B3LYP, and CBS-QB3. Application of this same isodesmic bond separation scheme to gas-phase adamantane yields a value for Delta (sub f)H deg (298) within 5 kJ/mol of experiment. Isodesmic bond separation calculations for the endo isomer give a heat of formation in excellent agreement with the experimental measurement. Combining our calculated values for the gas-phase heat of formation with recent measurements of the heat of vaporization yields recommended values for Delta (sub f)H deg (298)liq of -126.4 and -114.7 kJ/mol for the exo and endo isomers, respectively.

  10. Effects of intramuscular administration of tiletamine-zolazepam with and without sedative pretreatment on plasma and serum biochemical values and glucose tolerance test results in Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamine, Akari; Shimozuru, Michito; Shibata, Haruki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2012-08-01

    To establish a safe anesthetic protocol with little effect on blood biochemical values and IV glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) results in Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus). 16 captive female Japanese black bears (5 to 17 years of age). Bears were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups (4 bears/group) in which various treatment combinations were administered via blow dart: tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl (9 mg/kg) alone (TZ), TZ (6 mg/kg) and acepromazine maleate (0.1 mg/kg), TZ (6 mg/kg) and butorphanol tartrate (0.3 mg/kg), or TZ (3 mg/kg) and medetomidine HCl (40 μg/kg). Glucose injection for the IVGTT was started 130 minutes after TZ administration. Blood samples were obtained before, at, and intermittently after glucose injection for measurement of biochemical variables as well as plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations during the IVGTT. Rectal temperature, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were assessed every 15 minutes during the experiment. Induction and maintenance of anesthesia were safely achieved with little adverse effect on cardiopulmonary function when each of the 4 anesthetic regimens was used, although mild hypothermia was induced. No difference was evident between treatment groups in blood biochemical values. Blood glucose and insulin concentration profiles during the IVGTT were similar among the bears given TZ, with or without acepromazine or butorphanol, but hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia developed in bears given TZ with medetomidine. All 4 anesthetic regimens yielded chemical restraint without affecting clinical and biochemical values in bears, but medetomidine appeared to affect IVGTT results. For this reason, medetomidine should not be used when anesthetizing bears for IVGTTs.

  11. Risk factor screening to identify women requiring oral glucose tolerance testing to diagnose gestational diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis and analysis of two pregnancy cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Farrar

    Full Text Available Easily identifiable risk factors including: obesity and ethnicity at high risk of diabetes are commonly used to indicate which women should be offered the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT to diagnose gestational diabetes (GDM. Evidence regarding these risk factors is limited however. We conducted a systematic review (SR and meta-analysis and individual participant data (IPD analysis to evaluate the performance of risk factors in identifying women with GDM.We searched MEDLINE, Medline in Process, Embase, Maternity and Infant Care and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL up to August 2016 and conducted additional reference checking. We included observational, cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies reporting the performance characteristics of risk factors used to identify women at high risk of GDM. We had access to IPD from the Born in Bradford and Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy cohorts, all pregnant women in the two cohorts with data on risk factors and OGTT results were included.Twenty nine published studies with 211,698 women for the SR and a further 14,103 women from two birth cohorts (Born in Bradford and the Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy study for the IPD analysis were included. Six studies assessed the screening performance of guidelines; six examined combinations of risk factors; eight evaluated the number of risk factors and nine examined prediction models or scores. Meta-analysis using data from published studies suggests that irrespective of the method used, risk factors do not identify women with GDM well. Using IPD and combining risk factors to produce the highest sensitivities, results in low specificities (and so higher false positives. Strategies that use the risk factors of age (>25 or >30 and BMI (>25 or 30 perform as well as other strategies with additional risk factors included.Risk factor screening methods are poor predictors of which pregnant women will be diagnosed with GDM. A simple

  12. Correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fildzah Rahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a syndrome in metabolism of carbohydrates which indicated by the increased level of blood glucose and also may increase salivary glucose levels. Oral ulcer has been frequently recognized in diabetic patients, which can be due to increased glucose in oral fluids and immune dysfunction. This study aimed to determine the correlation of blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients. Analytic observational study was carried out through the determination of blood glucose levels just by way of strip using a glucometer and salivary glucose levels with the method "GOD-PAP test enzymatic colorimetric". Oral ulcer was determined in presenting ulcer on 30 patients with DM. The results showed r = 0.228, which is higher salivary glucose levels followed by high levels of blood glucose, and intraoral examination of oral ulcer found in the whole sample and the most location commonly found in buccal mucosa and lingual. It was concluded that there is a correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels, and glucose levels affect the occurrence of oral ulcer in patients with DM

  13. Association testing of novel type 2 diabetes risk alleles in the JAZF1, CDC123/CAMK1D, TSPAN8, THADA, ADAMTS9, and NOTCH2 loci with insulin release, insulin sensitivity, and obesity in a population-based sample of 4,516 glucose-tolerant middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Andersen, Gitte; Krarup, Nikolaj Thure

    2008-01-01

    identified by meta-analysis of genome-wide association data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We genotyped the six variants in 4,516 middle-aged glucose-tolerant individuals of the population-based Inter99 cohort who were all characterized by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). RESULTS: Homozygous carriers...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deficiency Encyclopedia: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test Encyclopedia: Hemolytic anemia Encyclopedia: Newborn jaundice Health Topic: Anemia Health Topic: G6PD Deficiency Health Topic: Newborn Screening Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ...

  15. Efficacy and gastrointestinal tolerability of ML3403, a selective inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase and CBS-3595, a dual inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase and phosphodiesterase 4 in CFA-induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Diana A; Silva, Rodrigo B M; de Souza, Alessandra H; Leite, Carlos E; Nicoletti, Natália F; Campos, Maria M; Laufer, Stefan; Morrone, Fernanda B

    2014-03-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 inhibitors have entered the clinical phase, although many of them have failed due to high toxicity and lack of efficacy. In the present study we compared the effects of the selective p38 inhibitor ML3403 and the dual p38-PDE4 inhibitor CBS-3595, on inflammatory and nociceptive parameters in a model of polyarthritis in rats. Male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were used for the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis model and they were evaluated at 14-21 days. We also analysed the effects of these pharmacological tools on liver and gastrointestinal toxicity and on cytokine levels. Repeated CBS-3595 (3 mg/kg) or ML3403 (10 mg/kg) administration produced significant anti-inflammatory actions in the chronic arthritis model induced by CFA. CBS-3595 and ML3403 treatment also markedly reduced the production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 in the paw tissue, whereas it widely increased the levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Moreover, CBS-3595 produced partial anti-allodynic effects in the CFA model at 4 and 8 days after treatment. Notably, ML3403 and CBS-3595 did not show marked signs of hepatoxicity, as supported by unaltered histological observations in the liver sections. Finally, both compounds were safe in the gastrointestinal tract, according to evaluation of intestinal biopsies. CBS-3595 displayed a superior profile regarding its anti-inflammatory effects. Thus p38 MAPK/PDE4 blocking might well constitute a relevant strategy for the treatment of RA.

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ... you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your ... glucose is above 240 mg/dl, check your urine for ketones. If you have ketones, do not ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is above 240 ... ketones. If you have ketones, do not exercise. Exercising when ketones are present may make your blood ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose ... glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future- ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High ... We Are Research Leaders We Support Your Doctor Student Resources Patient Access to Research Research Resources Practice ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get ... the technical term for high blood glucose (blood sugar). High blood glucose happens when the body has ...

  2. [Blood glucose self monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascher, Thomas C; Stechemesser, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Self monitoring of blood glucose contributes to the integrated management of diabetes mellitus. It, thus, should be available for all patients with diabetes mellitus type-1 and type-2. Self monitoring of blood glucose improves patients safety, quality of life and glucose control. The current article represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association for the use of blood glucose self monitoring according to current scientific evidence.

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type ... Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C and eAG Hypoglycemia (Low blood glucose) Hyperglycemia (High blood glucose) Dawn Phenomenon ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how often you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ... I Treat Hyperglycemia? You can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is ...

  5. Electrocatalytic glucose sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhardt, U; Luft, G; Mund, K; Preidel, W; Richter, G J

    1983-01-01

    An artificial pancreas consists of an insulin depot, a dosage unit and a glucose sensor. The measurement of the actual glucose concentration in blood is still an unsolved problem. Two methods are described for an electrocatalytic glucose sensor. Under the interfering action of amino acids and urea in-vitro measurements show an error of between 10% and 20%.

  6. Draft genome sequences of the oomycete Pythium insidiosum strain CBS 573.85 from a horse with pythiosis and strain CR02 from the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preecha Patumcharoenpol

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete microorganism that causes the fatal infectious disease, pythiosis, in humans and animals. The organism has been successfully isolated from the environment worldwide. Diagnosis and treatment of pythiosis is difficult and challenging. Genome sequences of P. insidiosum, isolated from humans, are available and accessible in public databases. To further facilitate biology-, pathogenicity-, and evolution-related genomic and genetic studies of P. insidiosum, we report two additional draft genome sequences of the P. insidiosum strain CBS 573.85 (35.6 Mb in size; accession number, BCFO00000000.1 isolated from a horse with pythiosis, and strain CR02 (37.7 Mb in size; accession number, BCFR00000000.1 isolated from the environment. Keywords: Pythium insidiosum, Pythiosis, Draft genome sequence

  7. Glucose metabolism disorder in obese children assessed by continuous glucose monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chao-Chun; Liang, Li; Hong, Fang; Zhao, Zheng-Yan

    2008-02-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) can measure glucose levels at 5-minute intervals over a few days, and may be used to detect hypoglycemia, guide insulin therapy, and control glucose levels. This study was undertaken to assess the glucose metabolism disorder by CGMS in obese children. Eighty-four obese children were studied. Interstitial fluid (ISF) glucose levels were measured by CGMS for 24 hours covering the time for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) and hypoglycemia were assessed by CGMS. Five children failed to complete CGMS test. The glucose levels in ISF measured by CGMS were highly correlated with those in capillary samples (r=0.775, Pobese children who finished the CGMS, 2 children had IFG, 2 had IGT, 3 had IFG + IGT, and 2 had T2DM. Nocturnal hypoglycemia was noted during the overnight fasting in 11 children (13.92%). Our data suggest that glucose metabolism disorder including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia is very common in obese children. Further studies are required to improve the precision of the CGMS in children.

  8. Trichomonas Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy ... With some NAATs, samples collected for testing of gonorrhea and chlamydial infections can also be used to ...

  9. Oral glucose tolerance testing in an outpatient heart failure clinic reveals a high proportion of undiagnosed diabetic patients with an adverse prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, Michael; Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Ida

    2011-01-01

    = 413) were included in this study. An OGTT was conducted in patients without a history of diabetes. Information on NYHA class, aetiology of SHF, LVEF, treatment, and biochemical parameters were collected at baseline. The survival status was obtained after a median follow-up time of 591 days. Of the 413...... prevalence of unrecognized diabetes among the patients who refused OGTT, the prevalence of diabetes in the total population was 34%. If only fasting blood glucose had been used, 16 of the 40 newly diagnosed diabetic patients would have been undiagnosed. During follow-up, 24 (29%) patients with known diabetes...

  10. The immediate effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise on oral glucose tolerance across the glucose tolerance continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente K

    2014-01-01

    We investigated glucose tolerance and postprandial glucose fluxes immediately after a single bout of aerobic exercise in subjects representing the entire glucose tolerance continuum. Twenty-four men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or type 2 diabetes (T2D; age......: 56 ± 1 years; body mass index: 27.8 ± 0.7 kg/m(2), P > 0.05) underwent a 180-min oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) combined with constant intravenous infusion of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and ingestion of [U-(13)C]glucose, following 1 h of exercise (50% of peak aerobic power) or rest. In both trials......OGTT, and Rd (all P value in NGT subjects when compared to IGT and T2D subjects. Accordingly, following exercise, the plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT was increased in NGT subjects (P

  11. Sluggish glucose tolerance in tuberculosis patients | Bell | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were performed in both groups in the morning after an overnight fast. Anticoagulant-treated blood was analysed for glucose and insulin using Peridochrome Glucose (Boehringer Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) (Diagnostic Products Corporation, ...

  12. Ventromedial hypothalamic glucose sensing and glucose homeostasis vary throughout the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Ammy M; Clegg, Deborah J; Routh, Vanessa H

    2016-12-01

    17β-Estradiol (17βE) regulates glucose homeostasis in part by centrally mediated mechanisms. In female rodents, the influence of the ovarian cycle on hypoglycemia counterregulation and glucose tolerance is unclear. We found previously that in prepubertal females, 17βE modulates glucose sensing in nonadapting glucose-inhibited (GI) and adapting GI (AdGI) neurons within the ventrolateral portion of the ventromedial nucleus (VL-VMN). Nonadapting GI neurons persistently decrease their activity as glucose increases while AdGI neurons transiently respond to a glucose increase. To begin to understand if endogenous fluctuations in estrogen levels across the estrous cycle impact hypothalamic glucose sensing and glucose homeostasis, we assessed whether hypoglycemia counterregulation and glucose tolerance differed across the phases of the estrous cycle. We hypothesized that the response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) and/or glucose tolerance would vary throughout the estrous cycle according to changes in 17βE availability. Moreover, that these changes would correlate with estrous-dependent changes in the glucose sensitivity of VL-VMN glucose-sensing neurons (GSNs). These hypotheses were tested in female mice by measuring the response to IIH, glucose tolerance and the glucose sensitivity of VL-VMN GSNs during each phase of the estrous cycle. Furthermore, a physiological brain concentration of 17βE seen during proestrus was acutely applied to brain slices isolated on the day of diestrous and the response to low glucose in VL-VMN GSNs was assayed. The response to IIH was strongest during diestrous. The response of nonadapting GI and AdGI neurons to a glucose decrease from 2.5 to 0.5mM also peaked during diestrous; an effect which was blunted by the addition of 17βE. In contrast, the glucose sensitivity of the subpopulation of GSNs which are excited by glucose (GE) was not affected by estrous phase or exogenous 17βE application. These data suggest that physiological

  13. Ventromedial hypothalamic glucose sensing and glucose homeostasis vary throughout the estrous cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Ammy M.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Routh, Vanessa H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective 17β-Estradiol (17βE) regulates glucose homeostasis in part by centrally mediated mechanisms. In female rodents, the influence of the ovarian cycle on hypoglycemia counterregulation and glucose tolerance is unclear. We found previously that in prepubertal females, 17βE modulates glucose sensing in nonadapting glucose-inhibited (GI) and adapting GI (AdGI) neurons within the ventrolateral portion of the ventromedial nucleus (VL-VMN). Nonadapting GI neurons persistently decrease their activity as glucose increases while AdGI neurons transiently respond to a glucose increase. To begin to understand if endogenous fluctuations in estrogen levels across the estrous cycle impact hypothalamic glucose sensing and glucose homeostasis, we assessed whether hypoglycemia counterregulation and glucose tolerance differed across the phases of the estrous cycle. We hypothesized that the response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) and/or glucose tolerance would vary throughout the estrous cycle according to changes in 17βE availability. Moreover, that these changes would correlate with estrous-dependent changes in the glucose sensitivity of VL-VMN glucose-sensing neurons (GSNs). Methods These hypotheses were tested in female mice by measuring the response to IIH, glucose tolerance and the glucose sensitivity of VL-VMN GSNs during each phase of the estrous cycle. Furthermore, a physiological brain concentration of 17βE seen during proestrus was acutely applied to brain slices isolated on the day of diestrous and the response to low glucose in VL-VMN GSNs was assayed. Results The response to IIH was strongest during diestrous. The response of nonadapting GI and AdGI neurons to a glucose decrease from 2.5 to 0.5mM also peaked during diestrous; an effect which was blunted by the addition of 17βE. In contrast, the glucose sensitivity of the subpopulation of GSNs which are excited by glucose (GE) was not affected by estrous phase or exogenous 17βE application. Conclusion

  14. In Vitro Evaluation of Fluorescence Glucose Biosensor Response

    OpenAIRE

    Aloraefy, Mamdouh; Pfefer, T. Joshua; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Sapsford, Kim E.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid, accurate, and minimally-invasive glucose biosensors based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) for glucose measurement have the potential to enhance diabetes control. However, a standard set of in vitro approaches for evaluating optical glucose biosensor response under controlled conditions would facilitate technological innovation and clinical translation. Towards this end, we have identified key characteristics and response test methods, fabricated FRET-based glucose biosensor...

  15. Modulation of memory with septal injections of morphine and glucose: effects on extracellular glucose levels in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNay, Ewan C; Canal, Clinton E; Sherwin, Robert S; Gold, Paul E

    2006-02-28

    The concentration of glucose in the extracellular fluid (ECF) of the hippocampus decreases substantially during memory testing on a hippocampus-dependent memory task. Administration of exogenous glucose, which enhances task performance, prevents this decrease, suggesting a relationship between hippocampal glucose availability and memory performance. In the present experiment, spontaneous alternation performance and task-related changes in hippocampal ECF glucose were assessed in rats after intraseptal administration of morphine, which impairs memory on a spontaneous alternation task, and after co-administration of intraseptal glucose, which attenuates that impairment. Consistent with previous findings, spontaneous alternation testing resulted in a decrease in hippocampal ECF glucose levels in control rats. However, rats that received intraseptal morphine prior to testing showed memory impairments and an absence of the task-related decrease in hippocampal ECF glucose levels. Intraseptal co-administration of glucose with morphine attenuated the memory impairment, and ECF glucose levels in the hippocampus decreased in a manner comparable to that seen in control rats. These data suggest that fluctuations in hippocampal ECF glucose levels may be a marker of mnemonic processing and support the view that decreases in extracellular glucose during memory testing reflect increased glucose demand during memory processing.

  16. Effects of taurine on plasma glucose concentration and active glucose transport in the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Yo; Kawamata, Koichi

    2017-11-01

    Taurine lowers blood glucose levels and improves hyperglycemia. However, its effects on glucose transport in the small intestine have not been investigated. Here, we elucidated the effect of taurine on glucose absorption in the small intestine. In the oral glucose tolerance test, addition of 10 mmol/L taurine suppressed the increase in hepatic portal glucose concentrations. To investigate whether the suppressive effect of taurine occurs via down-regulation of active glucose transport in the small intestine, we performed an assay using the everted sac of the rat jejunum. Addition of taurine to the mucosal side of the jejunum suppressed active glucose transport via sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1). After elimination of chloride ions from the mucosal solution, taurine did not show suppressive effects on active glucose transport. These results suggest that taurine suppressed the increase in hepatic portal glucose concentrations via suppression of SGLT1 activity in the rat jejunum, depending on chloride ions. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Correlation of Salivary Glucose Level with Blood Glucose Level in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arati S. Panchbhai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is alarming rise in number of people with diabetes mellitus over these years. If glucose in saliva is linked to glucose in blood it can be used to detect diabetes mellitus at an early stage. The present study is undertaken with the aim to assess the correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in people with diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods: For investigations, 2 sets of samples of people with diabetes and the age and sex matched non-diabetic subjects were recruited. The salivary glucose was analyzed in unstimulated whole saliva samples using glucose oxidase method. Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was applied to assess the correlation between salivary glucose level and blood glucose level. Results: The significant (P < 0.05 positive correlation of salivary glucose level and fasting blood glucose level was observed in people with uncontrolled diabetes in both the sets of samples.Conclusions: Although study suggests some potential for saliva as a marker in monitoring of diabetes mellitus, there are many aspects that need clarification before we reach to a conclusion.

  18. Intraperitoneal Glucose Sensing is Sometimes Surprisingly Rapid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Lyngvi Fougner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, accurate and robust glucose measurements are needed to make a safe artificial pancreas for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2. The present gold standard of continuous glucose sensing, subcutaneous (SC glucose sensing, has been claimed to have slow response and poor robustness towards local tissue changes such as mechanical pressure, temperature changes, etc. The present study aimed at quantifying glucose dynamics from central circulation to intraperitoneal (IP sensor sites, as an alternative to the SC location. Intraarterial (IA and IP sensors were tested in three anaesthetized non-diabetic pigs during experiments with intravenous infusion of glucose boluses, enforcing rapid glucose level excursions in the range 70--360 mg/dL (approximately 3.8--20 mmol/L. Optical interferometric sensors were used for IA and IP measurements. A first-order dynamic model with time delay was fitted to the data after compensating for sensor dynamics. Additionally, off-the-shelf Medtronic Enlite sensors were used for illustration of SC glucose sensing. The time delay in glucose excursions from central circulation (IA to IP sensor location was found to be in the range 0--26 s (median: 8.5 s, mean: 9.7 s, SD 9.5 s, and the time constant was found to be 0.5--10.2 min (median: 4.8 min, mean: 4.7 min, SD 2.9 min. IP glucose sensing sites have a substantially faster and more distinctive response than SC sites when sensor dynamics is ignored, and the peritoneal fluid reacts even faster to changes in intravascular glucose levels than reported in previous animal studies. This study may provide a benchmark for future, rapid IP glucose sensors.

  19. Glucokinase, the pancreatic glucose sensor, is not the gut glucose sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, R; Tura, A; Clark, P M

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotrophic peptide (GIP) are released from intestinal endocrine cells in response to luminal glucose. Glucokinase is present in these cells and has been proposed as a glucose sensor. The physiological...... role of glucokinase can be tested using individuals with heterozygous glucokinase gene (GCK) mutations. If glucokinase is the gut glucose sensor, GLP-1 and GIP secretion during a 75 g OGTT would be lower in GCK mutation carriers compared with controls. METHODS: We compared GLP-1 and GIP concentrations...... measured at five time-points during a 75 g OGTT in 49 participants having GCK mutations with those of 28 familial controls. Mathematical modelling of glucose, insulin and C-peptide was used to estimate basal insulin secretion rate (BSR), total insulin secretion (TIS), beta cell glucose sensitivity...

  20. Lifestyle, glucose regulation and the cognitive effects of glucose load in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Leigh M; McLaughlin, Jennifer; Riby, Deborah M; Graham, Cheryl

    2008-11-01

    Interventions aimed at improving glucose regulatory mechanisms have been suggested as a possible source of cognitive enhancement in the elderly. In particular, previous research has identified episodic memory as a target for facilitation after either moderate increases in glycaemia (after a glucose drink) or after improvements in glucose regulation. The present study aimed to extend this research by examining the joint effects of glucose ingestion and glucose regulation on cognition. In addition, risk factors associated with the development of poor glucose regulation in middle-aged adults were considered. In a repeated measures design, thirty-three middle-aged adults (aged 35-55 years) performed a battery of memory and non-memory tasks after either 25 g or 50 g glucose or a sweetness matched placebo drink. To assess the impact of individual differences in glucose regulation, blood glucose measurements were taken on four occasions during testing. A lifestyle and diet questionnaire was also administered. Consistent with previous research, episodic memory ability benefited from glucose ingestion when task demands were high. Blood glucose concentration was also found to predict performance across a number of cognitive domains. Interestingly, the risk factors associated with poor glucose regulation were linked to dietary impacts traditionally associated with poor health, e.g. the consumption of high-sugar sweets and drinks. The research replicates earlier work suggesting that task demands are critical to the glucose facilitation effect. Importantly, the data demonstrate clear associations between elevated glycaemia and relatively poor cognitive performance, which may be partly due to the effect of dietary and lifestyle factors.

  1. Biostable glucose permeable polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A new biostable glucose permeable polymer has been developed which is useful, for example, in implantable glucose sensors. This biostable glucose permeable polymer has a number of advantageous characteristics and, for example, does not undergo hydrolytic cleavage and degradation, thereby providing...... a composition that facilitates long term sensor stability in vivo. The versatile characteristics of this polymer allow it to be used in a variety of contexts, for example to form the body of an implantable glucose sensor. The invention includes the polymer composition, sensor systems formed from this polymer...

  2. The glucose oxidase-peroxidase assay for glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glucose oxidase-peroxidase assay for glucose has served as a very specific, sensitive, and repeatable assay for detection of glucose in biological samples. It has been used successfully for analysis of glucose in samples from blood and urine, to analysis of glucose released from starch or glycog...

  3. Syphilis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy ... treated for another sexually transmitted disease , such as gonorrhea Is pregnant, during the first prenatal visit and ...

  4. Reengineered glucose oxidase for amperometric glucose determination in diabetes analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango Gutierrez, Erik; Mundhada, Hemanshu; Meier, Thomas; Duefel, Hartmut; Bocola, Marco; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2013-12-15

    Glucose oxidase is an oxidoreductase exhibiting a high β-D-glucose specificity and high stability which renders glucose oxidase well-suited for applications in diabetes care. Nevertheless, GOx activity is highly oxygen dependent which can lead to inaccuracies in amperometric β-D-glucose determinations. Therefore a directed evolution campaign with two rounds of random mutagenesis (SeSaM followed by epPCR), site saturation mutagenesis studies on individual positions, and one simultaneous site saturation library (OmniChange; 4 positions) was performed. A diabetes care well suited mediator (quinone diimine) was selected and the GOx variant (T30V I94V) served as starting point. For directed GOx evolution a microtiter plate detection system based on the quinone diimine mediator was developed and the well-known ABTS-assay was applied in microtiter plate format to validate oxygen independency of improved GOx variants. Two iterative rounds of random diversity generation and screening yielded to two subsets of amino acid positions which mainly improved activity (A173, A332) and oxygen independency (F414, V560). Simultaneous site saturation of all four positions with a reduced subset of amino acids using the OmniChange method yielded finally variant V7 with a 37-fold decreased oxygen dependency (mediator activity: 7.4 U/mg WT, 47.5 U/mg V7; oxygen activity: 172.3 U/mg WT, 30.1 U/mg V7). V7 is still highly β-D-glucose specific, highly active with the quinone diimine mediator and thermal resistance is retained (prerequisite for GOx coating of diabetes test stripes). The latter properties and V7's oxygen insensitivity make V7 a very promising candidate to replace standard GOx in diabetes care applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Response variability to glucose facilitation of cognitive enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Lauren; Scholey, Andrew; Finnegan, Yvonne; Sünram-Lea, Sandra I

    2013-11-01

    Glucose facilitation of cognitive function has been widely reported in previous studies (including our own). However, several studies have also failed to detect glucose facilitation. There is sparsity of research examining the factors that modify the effect of glucose on cognition. The aims of the present study were to (1) demonstrate the previously observed enhancement of cognition through glucose administration and (2) investigate some of the factors that may exert moderating roles on the behavioural response to glucose, including glucose regulation, body composition (BC) and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis response. A total of twenty-four participants took part in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, repeated-measures study, which examined the effect of 25 and 60 g glucose compared with placebo on cognitive function. At 1 week before the study commencement, all participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Glucose facilitated performance on tasks of numeric and spatial working memory, verbal declarative memory and speed of recognition. Moderating variables were examined using several indices of glucoregulation and BC. Poorer glucoregulation predicted improved immediate word recall accuracy following the administration of 25 g glucose compared with placebo. Those with better glucoregulation showed performance decrements on word recall accuracy following the administration of 25 g glucose compared with placebo. These findings are in line with accumulating evidence that glucose load may preferentially enhance cognition in those with poorer glucoregulation. Furthermore, the finding that individuals with better glucoregulation may suffer impaired performance following a glucose load is novel and requires further substantiation.

  6. Noninvasive glucose monitoring using saliva nano-biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people worldwide live with diabetes and several millions die from it each year. A noninvasive, painless method of glucose testing would highly improve compliance and glucose control while reducing complications and overall disease management costs. To provide accurate, low cost, and continuous glucose monitoring, we have developed a unique, disposable saliva nano-biosensor. More than eight clinical trials on real-time noninvasive salivary glucose monitoring were carried out on two healthy individuals (a 2–3 h-period for each trial, including both regular food and standard glucose beverage intake with more than 35 saliva samples obtained. Excellent clinical accuracy was revealed as compared to the UV Spectrophotometer. By measuring subjects’ salivary glucose and blood glucose in parallel, we found the two generated profiles share the same fluctuation trend but the correlation between them is individual dependent. There is a time lag between the peak glucose values from blood and from saliva. However, the correlation between the two glucose values at fasting is constant for each person enabling noninvasive diagnosis of diabetes through saliva instead of blood. Furthermore, a good correlation of glucose levels in saliva and in blood before and 2 h after glucose intake was observed. Glucose monitoring before and 2 h after meals is usually prescribed by doctors for diabetic patients. Thus, this disposable biosensor will be an alternative for real-time salivary glucose tracking at any time.

  7. Preliminary evidence that glucose ingestion facilitates prospective memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Leigh M; Law, Anna S; McLaughlin, Jennifer; Murray, Jennifer

    2011-05-01

    Previous research has found that the ingestion of glucose boosts task performance in the memory domain (including tasks tapping episodic, semantic, and working memory). The present pilot study tested the hypothesis that glucose ingestion would enhance performance on a test of prospective memory. In a between-subjects design, 56 adults ranging from 17 to 80 years of age performed a computerized prospective memory task and an attention (filler) task after 25 g of glucose or a sweetness-matched placebo. Blood glucose measurements were also taken to assess the impact of individual differences on glucose regulation. After the drink containing glucose, cognitive facilitation was observed on the prospective memory task after excluding subjects with impaired fasting glucose level. Specifically, subjects receiving glucose were 19% more accurate than subjects receiving a placebo, a trend that was marginally nonsignificant, F₁,₄₁ = 3.4, P = .07, but that had a medium effect size, d = 0.58. Subjects receiving glucose were also significantly faster on the prospective memory task, F₁,₃₅ = 4.8, P glucose (indicative of poor glucose regulation) was associated with slower prospective memory responding, F₁,₃₅ = 4.4, P memory and executive functioning can benefit from the increased provision of glucose to the brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical Observations of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance in Hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ja; Lee, Hong Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1969-09-15

    Plasma glucose levels before and after oral glucose administration have been compared in g group of 76 thyrotoxic subjects and a group of 8 normal control subjects in order to study the effect of glucose loading in thyrotoxicosis. Following were the results: 1) The mean fasting plasma glucose level was elevated in thyrotoxic group (95.5 mg%) compared to normal control group (88 mg%). 2) The peak of glucose tolerance curve is at 30 minutes after glucose administration in both groups, but its mean value was 44 mg% higher in thyrotoxic group than in control group. 3) The plasma glucose levels returned towards the fasting level in the later stage of the test more rapidly in thyrotoxic group than in control group. 4) 69.6% of oral glucose tolerance tests were impaired in the thyrotoxic group, and the occurrence of abnormal glucose tolerance could be related to the degree of thyrotoxicity, sex and age. 5) The mechanisms of the impaired glucose tolerance in thyrotoxicosis are thought to be related to an increased rate of glucose absorption from gastrointestinal tract, abnormal liver function with decreased hepatic glycogenesis, increased glucose oxidation, decreased pancreatic release of insulin, and genetic relationship between diabetes and thyrotoxicosis.

  9. Experience-dependent escalation of glucose drinking and the development of glucose preference over fructose - association with glucose entry into the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ken T; Spekterman, Laurence; Kiyatkin, Eugene A

    2016-06-01

    Glucose, a primary metabolic substrate for cellular activity, must be delivered to the brain for normal neural functions. Glucose is also a unique reinforcer; in addition to its rewarding sensory properties and metabolic effects, which all natural sugars have, glucose crosses the blood-brain barrier and acts on glucoreceptors expressed on multiple brain cells. To clarify the role of this direct glucose action in the brain, we compared the neural and behavioural effects of glucose with those induced by fructose, a sweeter yet metabolically equivalent sugar. First, by using enzyme-based biosensors in freely moving rats, we confirmed that glucose rapidly increased in the nucleus accumbens in a dose-dependent manner after its intravenous delivery. In contrast, fructose induced a minimal response only after a large-dose injection. Second, we showed that naive rats during unrestricted access consumed larger volumes of glucose than fructose solution; the difference appeared with a definite latency during the initial exposure and strongly increased during subsequent tests. When rats with equal sugar experience were presented with either glucose or fructose in alternating order, the consumption of both substances was initially equal, but only the consumption of glucose increased during subsequent sessions. Finally, rats with equal glucose-fructose experience developed a strong preference for glucose over fructose during a two-bottle choice procedure; the effect appeared with a definite latency during the initial test and greatly amplified during subsequent tests. Our results suggest that direct entry of glucose in the brain and its subsequent effects on brain cells could be critical for the experience-dependent escalation of glucose consumption and the development of glucose preference over fructose. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Cutpoints for screening blood glucose concentrations in healthy senior cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve-Johnson, Mia K; Rand, Jacquie S; Vankan, Dianne; Anderson, Stephen T; Marshall, Rhett; Morton, John M

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the reference interval for screening blood glucose in senior cats, to apply this to a population of obese senior cats, to compare screening and fasting blood glucose, to assess whether screening blood glucose is predicted by breed, body weight, body condition score (BCS), behaviour score, fasting blood glucose and/or recent carbohydrate intake and to assess its robustness to changes in methodology. Methods The study included a total of 120 clinically healthy client-owned cats aged 8 years and older of varying breeds and BCSs. Blood glucose was measured at the beginning of the consultation from an ear/paw sample using a portable glucose meter calibrated for cats, and again after physical examination from a jugular sample. Fasting blood glucose was measured after overnight hospitalisation and fasting for 18-24 h. Results The reference interval upper limit for screening blood glucose was 189 mg/dl (10.5 mmol/l). Mean screening blood glucose was greater than mean fasting glucose. Breed, body weight, BCS, behaviour score, fasting blood glucose concentration and amount of carbohydrate consumed 2-24 h before sampling collectively explained only a small proportion of the variability in screening blood glucose. Conclusions and relevance Screening blood glucose measurement represents a simple test, and cats with values from 117-189 mg/dl (6.5-10.5 mmol/l) should be retested several hours later. Cats with initial screening blood glucose >189 mg/dl (10.5 mmol/l), or a second screening blood glucose >116 mg/dl (6.4 mmol/l) several hours after the first, should have fasting glucose and glucose tolerance measured after overnight hospitalisation.

  11. Blood Glucose Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Cadamuro, Janne

    2018-01-01

    The measurement of fasting plasma glucose may be biased by a time-dependent decrease of glucose in blood tubes, mainly attributable to blood cell metabolism when glycolysis is not rapidly inhibited or blood cells cannot be rapidly separated from plasma. Although glycolysis inhibitors such as sodium...

  12. Brain Glucose Metabolism Controls Hepatic Glucose and Lipid Production

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Tony K.T.

    2007-01-01

    Brain glucose-sensing mechanisms are implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and hypoglycemic-induced hormonal counter-regulation. This commentary discusses recent findings indicating that the brain senses glucose to regulate both hepatic glucose and lipid production.

  13. PROFESSIONAL FLASH CONTINUOUS GLUCOSE MONITORING WITH AMBULATORY GLUCOSE PROFILE REPORTING TO SUPPLEMENT A1C: RATIONALE AND PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Irl B; Verderese, Carol A

    2017-11-01

    Recent consensus statements strongly advocate downloading and interpreting continuous glucose data for diabetes management in patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes. Supplementing periodic glycated hemoglobin (A1C) testing with intermittent continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) using a standardized report form known as the ambulatory glucose profile (AGP) is an evolving standard of care. The rationale for this approach and its implementation with a recently approved novel monitoring technology are explored. Search of the medical literature, professional guidelines, and real-world evidence guided this introduction of an integrative practice framework that uses AGP in conjunction with intermittent flash continuous glucose monitoring (FCGM) as a supplement to A1C testing. The combination of intermittent continuous glucose pattern analysis, standardized glucose metrics, and a readily interpretable data report has the potential to practically extend the recognized benefits of CGM to more patients and clarify the relationship between A1C and average glucose levels in individual cases. Novel FCGM technologies portend greater use of continuous forms of glucose monitoring and wider adoption of AGP report analysis. Additional formal and empirical evidence is needed to more fully characterize best practice. A1C = glycated hemoglobin; AGP = ambulatory glucose profile; CGM = continuous glucose monitoring; FCGM = flash continuous glucose monitoring; IQR = interquartile range; SMBG = self-monitoring of blood glucose.

  14. Radiometric assays for glycerol, glucose, and glycogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.C.; Kaslow, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed radiometric assays for small quantities of glycerol, glucose and glycogen, based on a technique described by Thorner and Paulus for the measurement of glycerokinase activity. In the glycerol assay, glycerol is phosphorylated with [32P]ATP and glycerokinase, residual [32P]ATP is hydrolyzed by heating in acid, and free [32P]phosphate is removed by precipitation with ammonium molybdate and triethylamine. Standard dose-response curves were linear from 50 to 3000 pmol glycerol with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Of the substances tested for interference, only dihydroxyacetone gave a slight false positive signal at high concentration. When used to measure glycerol concentrations in serum and in media from incubated adipose tissue, the radiometric glycerol assay correlated well with a commonly used spectrophotometric assay. The radiometric glucose assay is similar to the glycerol assay, except that glucokinase is used instead of glycerokinase. Dose response was linear from 5 to 3000 pmol glucose with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine gave false positive signals when equimolar to glucose. When glucose concentrations in serum were measured, the radiometric glucose assay agreed well with hexokinase/glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H/GDH)-based and glucose oxidase/H2O2-based glucose assays. The radiometric method for glycogen measurement incorporates previously described isolation and digestion techniques, followed by the radiometric assay of free glucose. When used to measure glycogen in mouse epididymal fat pads, the radiometric glycogen assay correlated well with the H/GDH-based glycogen assay. All three radiometric assays offer several practical advantages over spectral assays

  15. Nanomaterials in glucose sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Burugapalli, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    The smartness of nano-materials is attributed to their nanoscale and subsequently unique physicochemical properties and their use in glucose sensing has been aimed at improving performance, reducing cost and miniaturizing the sensor and its associated instrumentation. So far, portable (handheld) glucose analysers were introduced for hospital wards, emergency rooms and physicians' offices; single-use strip systems achieved nanolitre sampling for painless and accurate home glucose monitoring; advanced continuous monitoring devices having 2 to 7 days operating life are in clinical and home use; and continued research efforts are being made to develop and introduce increasingly advanced glucose monitoring systems for health as well as food, biotechnology, cell and tissue culture industries. Nanomaterials have touched every aspect of biosensor design and this chapter reviews their role in the development of advanced technologies for glucose sensing, and especially for diabetes. Research shows that overall, nanomat...

  16. The association between estimated average glucose levels and fasting plasma glucose levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giray Bozkaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The level of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, also known as glycated hemoglobin, determines how well a patient's blood glucose level has been controlled over the previous 8-12 weeks. HbA1c levels help patients and doctors understand whether a particular diabetes treatment is working and whether adjustments need to be made to the treatment. Because the HbA1c level is a marker of blood glucose for the previous 120 days, average blood glucose levels can be estimated using HbA1c levels. Our aim in the present study was to investigate the relationship between estimated average glucose levels, as calculated by HbA1c levels, and fasting plasma glucose levels. METHODS: The fasting plasma glucose levels of 3891 diabetic patient samples (1497 male, 2394 female were obtained from the laboratory information system used for HbA1c testing by the Department of Internal Medicine at the Izmir Bozyaka Training and Research Hospital in Turkey. These samples were selected from patient samples that had hemoglobin levels between 12 and 16 g/dL. The estimated glucose levels were calculated using the following formula: 28.7 x HbA1c - 46.7. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined using hexokinase and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC methods, respectively. RESULTS: A strong positive correlation between fasting plasma glucose levels and estimated average blood glucose levels (r=0.757, p<0.05 was observed. The difference was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Reporting the estimated average glucose level together with the HbA1c level is believed to assist patients and doctors determine the effectiveness of blood glucose control measures.

  17. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in the long-lived naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziegelewska, Maja; Holtze, Susanne; Vole, Christiane; Wachter, Ulrich; Menzel, Uwe; Morhart, Michaela; Groth, Marco; Szafranski, Karol; Sahm, Arne; Sponholz, Christoph; Dammann, Philip; Huse, Klaus; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Platzer, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM in the long-lived naked mole-rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Dziegelewska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS, an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration.

  19. Insulin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hours before blood is collected, but occasionally a health practitioner may do testing when fasting is not possible, such as when a glucose tolerance test (see Glucose ) is done. In some cases, the health practitioner may request that a person fast longer ...

  20. Rice (Oryza sativa japonica) Albumin Suppresses the Elevation of Blood Glucose and Plasma Insulin Levels after Oral Glucose Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Shigenobu; Ninomiya, Kazumi; Mogi, Takashi; Hase, Ayumu; Ando, Toshiki; Matsukaze, Narumi; Ogihara, Jun; Akao, Makoto; Kumagai, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Hitomi

    2016-06-22

    The suppressive effect of rice albumin (RA) of 16 kDa on elevation of blood glucose level after oral loading of starch or glucose and its possible mechanism were examined. RA suppressed the increase in blood glucose levels in both the oral starch tolerance test and the oral glucose tolerance test. The blood glucose concentrations 15 min after the oral administration of starch were 144 ± 6 mg/dL for control group and 127 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group, while those after the oral administration of glucose were 157 ± 7 mg/dL for control group and 137 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group. However, in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, no significant differences in blood glucose level were observed between RA and the control groups, indicating that RA suppresses the glucose absorption from the small intestine. However, RA did not inhibit the activity of mammalian α-amylase. RA was hydrolyzed to an indigestible high-molecular-weight peptide (HMP) of 14 kDa and low-molecular-weight peptides by pepsin and pancreatin. Furthermore, RA suppressed the glucose diffusion rate through a semipermeable membrane like dietary fibers in vitro. Therefore, the indigestible HMP may adsorb glucose and suppress its absorption from the small intestine.

  1. Hepatic glucose output in humans measured with labeled glucose to reduce negative errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, J.C.; Brown, G.; Matthews, D.R.; Turner, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Steele and others have suggested that minimizing changes in glucose specific activity when estimating hepatic glucose output (HGO) during glucose infusions could reduce non-steady-state errors. This approach was assessed in nondiabetic and type II diabetic subjects during constant low dose [27 mumol.kg ideal body wt (IBW)-1.min-1] glucose infusion followed by a 12 mmol/l hyperglycemic clamp. Eight subjects had paired tests with and without labeled infusions. Labeled infusion was used to compare HGO in 11 nondiabetic and 15 diabetic subjects. Whereas unlabeled infusions produced negative values for endogenous glucose output, labeled infusions largely eliminated this error and reduced the dependence of the Steele model on the pool fraction in the paired tests. By use of labeled infusions, 11 nondiabetic subjects suppressed HGO from 10.2 +/- 0.6 (SE) fasting to 0.8 +/- 0.9 mumol.kg IBW-1.min-1 after 90 min of glucose infusion and to -1.9 +/- 0.5 mumol.kg IBW-1.min-1 after 90 min of a 12 mmol/l glucose clamp, but 15 diabetic subjects suppressed only partially from 13.0 +/- 0.9 fasting to 5.7 +/- 1.2 at the end of the glucose infusion and 5.6 +/- 1.0 mumol.kg IBW-1.min-1 in the clamp (P = 0.02, 0.002, and less than 0.001, respectively)

  2. Estrogens modulate ventrolateral ventromedial hypothalamic glucose-inhibited neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammy M. Santiago

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brain regulation of glucose homeostasis is sexually dimorphic; however, the impact sex hormones have on specific neuronal populations within the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN, a metabolically sensitive brain region, has yet to be fully characterized. Glucose-excited (GE and -inhibited (GI neurons are located throughout the VMN and may play a critical role in glucose and energy homeostasis. Within the ventrolateral portion of the VMN (VL-VMN, glucose sensing neurons and estrogen receptor (ER distributions overlap. We therefore tested the hypothesis that VL-VMN glucose sensing neurons were sexually dimorphic and regulated by 17β-estradiol (17βE. Methods: Electrophysiological recordings of VL-VMN glucose sensing neurons in brain slices isolated from age- and weight-matched female and male mice were performed in the presence and absence of 17βE. Results: We found a new class of VL-VMN GI neurons whose response to low glucose was transient despite continued exposure to low glucose. Heretofore, we refer to these newly identified VL-VMN GI neurons as ‘adapting’ or AdGI neurons. We found a sexual dimorphic response to low glucose, with male nonadapting GI neurons, but not AdGI neurons, responding more robustly to low glucose than those from females. 17βE blunted the response of both nonadapting GI and AdGI neurons to low glucose in both males and females, which was mediated by activation of estrogen receptor β and inhibition of AMP-activated kinase. In contrast, 17βE had no impact on GE or non-glucose sensing neurons in either sex. Conclusion: These data suggest sex differences and estrogenic regulation of VMN hypothalamic glucose sensing may contribute to the sexual dimorphism in glucose homeostasis. Author Video: Author Video Watch what authors say about their articles Keywords: 17β-estradiol, AMP-activated kinase, Glucose excited neurons, Glucose inhibited neurons, Ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, Sexual dimorphism

  3. The rate of intestinal glucose absorption is correlated with plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachters-Hagedoorn, Renate E; Priebe, Marion G; Heimweg, Janneke A J

    2006-01-01

    and slowly available glucose. In a crossover study, glucose, insulin, GLP-1, and GIP concentrations were monitored for 6 h after consumption of glucose, uncooked cornstarch (UCCS) or corn pasta in 7 healthy men. All test meals were naturally labeled with 13C. Using a primed, continuous D-[6,6-2H2]glucose...... in the early postprandial phase (15-90 min) occurred after consumption of glucose. There was a strong positive within-subject correlation between RaEx and GIP concentrations (r = 0.73, P meals. Rapidly and slowly digestible carbohydrates differ considerably in their ability to stimulate...

  4. Carriers of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 TT genotype have elevated levels of plasma glucose, serum proinsulin and plasma gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) during a meal test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, A P; Kjems, L L; Vestmar, M A

    2011-01-01

    , proinsulin, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) among individuals carrying the high-risk rs7903146 TT genotype and low-risk CC genotype following a meal test. Methods A meal challenge was performed in 31......, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 180, 210, and 240 min after ingestion of a standardised breakfast meal. Results An elevated incremental AUC for plasma glucose was observed among TT genotype carriers (CC carriers 21.8¿±¿101.9 mmol/l¿×¿min vs TT carriers 97.9¿±¿89.2 mmol/l¿×¿min, p¿=¿0.001). TT...

  5. Effects of dietary glucose and sodium chloride on intestinal glucose absorption of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chaobin; Yang, Liping; Zheng, Wenjia; Yan, Xiao; Lu, Ronghua; Xie, Dizhi; Nie, Guoxing

    2018-01-08

    The co-transport of sodium and glucose is the first step for intestinal glucose absorption. Dietary glucose and sodium chloride (NaCl) may facilitate this physiological process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). To test this hypothesis, we first investigated the feeding rhythm of intestinal glucose absorption. Carps were fed to satiety once a day (09:00 a.m.) for 1 month. Intestinal samples were collected at 01:00, 05:00, 09:00, 13:00, 17:00 and 21:00. Result showed that food intake greatly enhanced sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) expressions, and improved glucose absorption, with highest levels at 09:00 a.m.. Then we designed iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diets with graded levels of glucose (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%) and NaCl (0%, 1%, 3% and 5%), and submitted to feeding trial for 10 weeks. The expressions of SGLT1 and GLUT2, brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) glucose transport and intestinal villus height were determined after the feeding trial. Increasing levels of dietary glucose and NaCl up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2, enhanced BBMVs glucose transport in the proximal, mid and distal intestine. As for histological adaptive response, however, high-glucose diet prolonged while high-NaCl diet shrank intestinal villus height. Furthermore, we also found that higher mRNA levels of SGLT1 and GLUT2, higher glucose transport capacity of BBMVs, and higher intestinal villus were detected in the proximal and mid intestine, compared to the distal part. Taken together, our study indicated that intestinal glucose absorption in carp was primarily occurred in the proximal and mid intestine, and increasing levels of dietary glucose and NaCl enhanced intestinal glucose absorption in carp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Higher Endogenous Glucose Production during OGTT vs Isoglycemic Intravenous Glucose Infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asger; Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel Bring

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Oral glucose ingestion elicits a larger insulin response and delayed suppression of glucagon compared to isoglycemic intravenous (iv) glucose infusion (IIGI). OBJECTIVE: We studied whether these differences translate into effects on endogenous glucose production (EGP) and glucose disposal......); HbA1c 53.8 ± 11.0 mmol/mol; duration of diabetes 9.2 ± 5.0 years) and 10 matched non-diabetic control subjects (age 56.0±10.7 years; BMI 29.8 ± 2.9 kg/m(2); HbA1c 33.8 ± 5.5 mmol/mol) Interventions: Three experimental days: 75 g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), IIGI and IIGI+glucagon (IIGI...

  7. Coexistence of insulin resistance and increased glucose tolerance in pregnant rats: a physiological mechanism for glucose maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Marcia Aparecida; Batista, Márcia Regina; Saruhashi, Tiago Ribeiro; Felisberto, Antonio Machado; Guilhermetti, Marcio; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa

    2012-06-06

    The contribution of insulin resistance (IR) and glucose tolerance to the maintenance of blood glucose levels in non diabetic pregnant Wistar rats (PWR) was investigated. PWR were submitted to conventional insulin tolerance test (ITT) and glucose tolerance test (GTT) using blood sample collected 0, 10 and 60 min after intraperitoneal insulin (1 U/kg) or oral (gavage) glucose (1g/kg) administration. Moreover, ITT, GTT and the kinetics of glucose concentration changes in the fed and fasted states were evaluated with a real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (RT-CGMS) technique. Furthermore, the contribution of the liver glucose production was investigated. Conventional ITT and GTT at 0, 7, 14 and 20 days of pregnancy revealed increased IR and glucose tolerance after 20 days of pregnancy. Thus, this period of pregnancy was used to investigate the kinetics of glucose changes with the RT-CGMS technique. PWR (day 20) exhibited a lower (pinsulin sensitivity and/or glucose tolerance during late pregnancy. In contrast to the general view that IR is a pathological process associated with gestational diabetes, a certain degree of IR may represent an important physiological mechanism for blood glucose maintenance during fasting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... EXPO Volunteer Opportunities Sponsorship and Exhibit Opportunities Camp ... when ketones are present may make your blood glucose level go even higher. You'll need to work with your doctor ...

  10. Nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Christiane; Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: A reliable method to detect biochemical nocturnal hypoglycemia is highly needed, especially in patients with recurrent severe hypoglycemia. We evaluated reliability of nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes at high risk of severe...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for energy. When your body breaks down fats, waste products called ketones are produced. Your body cannot ... glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future- ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and ... blood and then treating high blood glucose early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. How ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food ... glucose for fuel, so your body breaks down fats to use for energy. When your body breaks ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood glucose level go even higher. You'll need to work with your doctor to find the ... lead to ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is life-threatening and needs immediate treatment. Symptoms include: Shortness of breath Breath ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your blood and then treating high blood glucose early will help you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. ... to detect hyperglycemia so you can treat it early — before it gets worse. If you're new ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Email: Sign Up Thank you for signing up ' + ' '); $('.survey-form').show(); }, success: function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('. ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Your best bet is to practice good diabetes management and learn to detect hyperglycemia so you can ... glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future- ...

  19. Pathophysiological Characteristics Underlying Different Glucose Response Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Witte, Daniel R; Vistisen, Dorte

    2018-01-01

    different glucose curve patterns and studied their stability and reproducibility over 3 years of follow-up. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed data from participants without diabetes from the observational cohort from the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance: Relationship between Insulin...... and secretion. The glucose patterns identified at follow-up were similar to those at baseline, suggesting that the latent class method is robust. We integrated our classification model into an easy-to-use online application that facilitates the assessment of glucose curve patterns for other studies. CONCLUSIONS...... Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease study; participants had a five-time point OGTT at baseline (n = 1,443) and after 3 years (n = 1,045). Measures of insulin sensitivity and secretion were assessed at baseline with a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and intravenous glucose tolerance test. Heterogeneous...

  20. Olfactory stimulation modulates the blood glucose level in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Tadataka; Tanaka, Susumu; Bakhshishayan, Sanam; Kogo, Mikihiko; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    In both humans and animals, chemosensory stimuli, including odors and tastes, induce a variety of physiologic and mental responses related to energy homeostasis, such as glucose kinetics. The present study examined the importance of olfactory function in glucose kinetics following ingestion behavior in a simplified experimental scenario. We applied a conventional glucose tolerance test to rats with and without olfactory function and analyzed subsequent blood glucose (BG) curves in detail. The loss of olfactory input due to experimental damage to the olfactory mucosa induced a marked decrease in the area under the BG curve. Exposure to grapefruit odor and its main component, limonene, both of which activate the sympathetic nerves, before glucose loading also greatly depressed the BG curve. Pre-loading exposure to lavender odor, a parasympathetic activator, stabilized the BG level. These results suggest that olfactory function is important for proper glucose kinetics after glucose intake and that certain fragrances could be utilized as tools for controlling BG levels.

  1. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Glucose Syrup Derived from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to characterize the prepared glucose syrups, Fehling test, Biuret test, glucose concentration (GC), dextrose equivalent (DE), relative density (RD), pH, viscosity and surface tension (ST) were determined. Granular size range of 7 – 15 μm and moisture content of 12 % were determined for the untreated starch sample.

  2. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion in normal and diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurysta, Cedric; Bulur, Nurdan; Oguzhan, Berrin; Satman, Ilhan; Yilmaz, Temel M; Malaisse, Willy J; Sener, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    The present report aims mainly at a reevaluation of salivary glucose concentration and excretion in unstimulated and mechanically stimulated saliva in both normal and diabetic subjects. In normal subjects, a decrease in saliva glucose concentration, an increase in salivary flow, but an unchanged glucose excretion rate were recorded when comparing stimulated saliva to unstimulated saliva. In diabetic patients, an increase in salivary flow with unchanged salivary glucose concentration and glucose excretion rate were observed under the same experimental conditions. Salivary glucose concentration and excretion were much higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. No significant correlation between glycemia and either glucose concentration or glucose excretion rate was found in the diabetic patients, whether in unstimulated or stimulated saliva. In the latter patients, as compared to control subjects, the relative magnitude of the increase in saliva glucose concentration was comparable, however, to that of blood glucose concentration. The relationship between these two variables was also documented in normal subjects and diabetic patients undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test.

  3. Impaired glucose regulation in adults in Jamaica: who should have the oral glucose tolerance test? Alteraciones del control de la glucemia: ¿a quiénes se les debe hacer la prueba de tolerancia a una dosis oral de glucosa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln A. Sargeant

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO fasting plasma glucose (FPG criteria and the WHO 2-hour post-challenge glucose (2hPG criteria during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in identifying adults in Jamaica with hyperglycemia. As the OGTT is not commonly used in clinical practice, factors associated with the failure of the FPG criteria to detect persons with impaired 2hPG were investigated. METHODS: A random sample of 2 096 adults, 25-74 years old, living in the town of Spanish Town, Jamaica, was evaluated for diabetes. After excluding 215 individuals for reasons such as missing data, the remaining 1 881 persons were composed of 187 who were previously known to have diabetes and 1 694 who were screened for diabetes with both FPG and 2hPG. RESULTS: The FPG criteria detected 83 cases of diabetes, compared to 72 by the 2hPG criteria. The kappa statistic comparing the two criteria was 0.31 (95% confidence interval: 0.28- 0.34, indicating fair agreement. There were 261 cases of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and 92 cases of impaired fasting glucose (IFG. In those 92 with IFG, an OGTT would identify 34 cases of IGT and 14 cases of diabetes. Of those classified as normoglycemic by FPG criteria, 14% of them had IGT or diabetes by 2hPG criteria. The factors predicting the likelihood of nondetection of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes by FPG were age, body mass index, central obesity, systolic blood pressure, and female sex. By receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, an FPG of 5.1 mmol/L would predict a 2hPG > 7.8 mmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: A few individuals classified as normal on FPG will have IGT or diabetes, and an OGTT will be needed to identify them. The yield of IGT detected by screening in Jamaica can be improved by lowering the threshold for IFG or by using clinical information to identify high-risk individuals.OBJETIVO: Comparar los criterios publicados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS en 1999

  4. The effects of glucose ingestion and glucose regulation on memory performance in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, L M; Marriott, A; Bullock, R; Hancock, J; Smallwood, J; McLaughlin, J

    2009-04-01

    Previous research investigating the impact of glucose ingestion and/or improvements in glucose regulation has found selective cognitive facilitation on episodic memory tasks in successful ageing and dementia. The present study aimed to extend this research to mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In a repeated-measures design, 24 older adults with and 24 older adults without MCI performed a battery of memory and attention tasks after 25 g of glucose or a sweetness matched placebo. In addition, to assess the impact of individual differences in glucose regulation, blood glucose measurements were taken throughout the testing session. Consistent with previous research, cognitive facilitation was observed for episodic memory tasks only in both successful ageing and MCI. Older adults with MCI had a similar glucose regulatory response as controls but their fasting levels were elevated. Notably, higher levels of blood glucose were associated with impaired memory performance in both the glucose and placebo conditions. Importantly, both blood glucose and memory performance indices were significant predictors of MCI status. The utility of glucose supplementation and the use of glucose regulation as a biological marker are discussed in relation to these data.

  5. Zinc dosing and glucose tolerance in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenley, S.; Taylor, M.

    1986-01-01

    Animal data suggest the existence of a physiologic relationship between glucoregulatory hormones and zinc metabolism. In order to investigate this proposed relationship in humans, they examined the effect of moderately elevated plasma zinc levels on blood glucose clearance. Eight women (24-37 yrs) served as subjects for the study. Fasted volunteers were tested under two experimental conditions (a) ingestion of 50 g D-glucose (b) ingestion of 25 mg zinc followed 60 min later by ingestion of 50 g D-glucose. Five ml venous blood was drawn into trace-metal-free, fluoride-containing vacutainer tubes prior to and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after glucose ingestion. Plasma was analyzed for glucose and zinc; glycemic responses were quantified by computing areas under the curves and times to peak concentration. Their human data indicate varied glycemic responses to the acute elevation of plasma zinc: 4 subjects showed little apparent effect; 3 subjects marginally increased either the area under the curve or time to peak and 1 subject (classified as suspect diabetic in the non-zinc condition) showed marked improvement in glycemic response following zinc ingestion. Their preliminary results suggest that blood glucose clearance may be affected in some individuals by the acute elevation of plasma zinc

  6. Glucagon-like peptide-1 inhibits blood-brain glucose transfer in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Susanne; Brock, Birgitte; Rungby, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has many effects on glucose homeostasis, and GLP-1 receptors are broadly represented in many tissues including the brain. Recent research in rodents suggests a protective effect of GLP-1 on brain tissue. The mechanism is unknown. We therefore tested......-independent effect of GLP-1 on unidirectional glucose transport into the brain during a pituitary-pancreatic normoglycemic (plasma glucose approximately 4.5 mmol/l) clamp with 18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose as tracer. RESULTS: On average, GLP-1 reduced cerebral glucose transport by 27% in total cerebral gray matter (P = 0...... that a hormone involved in postprandial glucose regulation also limits glucose delivery to brain tissue and hence provides a possible regulatory mechanism for the link between plasma glucose and brain glucose. Because GLP-1 reduces glucose uptake across the intact blood-brain barrier at normal glycemia, GLP-1...

  7. Probing the crucial role of Leu31 and Thr33 of the Bacillus pumilus CBS alkaline protease in substrate recognition and enzymatic depilation of animal hide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Zaraî Jaouadi

    Full Text Available The sapB gene, encoding Bacillus pumilus CBS protease, and seven mutated genes (sapB-L31I, sapB-T33S, sapB-N99Y, sapB-L31I/T33S, sapB-L31I/N99Y, sapB-T33S/N99Y, and sapB-L31I/T33S/N99Y were overexpressed in protease-deficient Bacillus subtilis DB430 and purified to homogeneity. SAPB-N99Y and rSAPB displayed the highest levels of keratinolytic activity, hydrolysis efficiency, and enzymatic depilation. Interestingly, and at the semi-industrial scale, rSAPB efficiently removed the hair of goat hides within a short time interval of 8 h, thus offering a promising opportunity for the attainment of a lime and sulphide-free depilation process. The efficacy of the process was supported by submitting depilated pelts and dyed crusts to scanning electron microscopic analysis, and the results showed well opened fibre bundles and no apparent damage to the collagen layer. The findings also revealed better physico-chemical properties and less effluent loads, which further confirmed the potential candidacy of the rSAPB enzyme for application in the leather industry to attain an ecofriendly process of animal hide depilation. More interestingly, the findings on the substrate specificity and kinetic properties of the enzyme using the synthetic peptide para-nitroanilide revealed strong preferences for an aliphatic amino-acid (valine at position P1 for keratinases and an aromatic amino-acid (phenylalanine at positions P1/P4 for subtilisins. Molecular modeling suggested the potential involvement of a Leu31 residue in a network of hydrophobic interactions, which could have shaped the S4 substrate binding site. The latter could be enlarged by mutating L31I, fitting more easily in position P4 than a phenylalanine residue. The molecular modeling of SAPB-T33S showed a potential S2 subside widening by a T33S mutation, thus suggesting its importance in substrate specificity.

  8. Glucose effectiveness is a critical pathogenic factor leading to glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes: An ignored hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, F P; Henriksen, J E; Rantzau, C; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2018-02-16

    Although the ability of glucose to mediate its own in vivo metabolism is long documented, the quantitative measurement of whole body glucose-mediated glucose disposal at basal insulin levels (glucose effectiveness [GE]), followed the introduction of the Minimal Model intravenous glucose tolerance test technique. A literature review, combined with our own studies, of the role of GE in glucose metabolism in normal and "at risk" individuals, was undertaken to determine GE's contribution to glucose homeostasis. GE accounts for ~45% to 65% of glucose disposal in man. A negative association between GE and insulin meditated glucose disposal (Si), is present in normal subjects without a family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus but is absent in normoglycaemic "at risk" relatives with a positive family history of diabetes mellitus. Intracellular GE disposal is mediated by mass action of glucose through the skeletal muscle membrane via facilitated Glut 4 transporters. However, GE is frequently forgotten as a significant contributor to the development of glucose intolerance in "at risk" individuals. Only limited studies have examined the role of a lower GE in such normoglycemic subjects with preexisting mild insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. These studies demonstrate that in "at risk" individuals, an initial low GE is a key contributor and predictor of future glucose intolerance, whereas an initial raised GE is protective against future glucose intolerance. In "at risk" individuals, a low GE and genetically determined vulnerable β-cell function are more critical determinants of future glucose intolerance than their preexisting insulin-resistant state. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A 75 g glucose In pregnancy load for diabetic an evaluation screening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-08-19

    Aug 19, 1989 ... Screening for impairment of glucose tolerance in pregnancy is mandatory if a ... Organisation our mean glucose value was 8,4 mmol/I. The sensitivity of ... ultrasonographic scan, urine testing and education (including lectures ...

  10. Maintenance of Glucose Homeostasis through Acetylation of the Metabolic Transcriptional Coactivator PGC-1alpha

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Puigserver, Pere

    2007-01-01

    ... hepatic glucose production. This investigation has a define scope to specifically test how these proteins control the acetylation status of PGC-1alpha and what is the functional effect in blood glucose levels...

  11. Exenatide Regulates Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Brain Areas Associated With Glucose Homeostasis and Reward System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Giuseppe; Iozzo, Patricia; Molina-Carrion, Marjorie; Lancaster, Jack; Ciociaro, Demetrio; Cersosimo, Eugenio; Tripathy, Devjit; Triplitt, Curtis; Fox, Peter; Musi, Nicolas; DeFronzo, Ralph; Gastaldelli, Amalia

    2015-10-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) have been found in the brain, but whether GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RAs) influence brain glucose metabolism is currently unknown. The study aim was to evaluate the effects of a single injection of the GLP-1RA exenatide on cerebral and peripheral glucose metabolism in response to a glucose load. In 15 male subjects with HbA1c of 5.7 ± 0.1%, fasting glucose of 114 ± 3 mg/dL, and 2-h glucose of 177 ± 11 mg/dL, exenatide (5 μg) or placebo was injected in double-blind, randomized fashion subcutaneously 30 min before an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The cerebral glucose metabolic rate (CMRglu) was measured by positron emission tomography after an injection of [(18)F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose before the OGTT, and the rate of glucose absorption (RaO) and disposal was assessed using stable isotope tracers. Exenatide reduced RaO0-60 min (4.6 ± 1.4 vs. 13.1 ± 1.7 μmol/min ⋅ kg) and decreased the rise in mean glucose0-60 min (107 ± 6 vs. 138 ± 8 mg/dL) and insulin0-60 min (17.3 ± 3.1 vs. 24.7 ± 3.8 mU/L). Exenatide increased CMRglu in areas of the brain related to glucose homeostasis, appetite, and food reward, despite lower plasma insulin concentrations, but reduced glucose uptake in the hypothalamus. Decreased RaO0-60 min after exenatide was inversely correlated to CMRglu. In conclusion, these results demonstrate, for the first time in man, a major effect of a GLP-1RA on regulation of brain glucose metabolism in the absorptive state. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  12. Significance of Glucose Addition on Chitosan-Glycerophosphate Hydrogel Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Susanthy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan-glycerophosphate hydrogel can be used as dental scaffold due to its thermosensitivity, gelation performance at body temperature, suitable acidity for body condition, biocompatibility, and ability to provide good environment for cell proliferation and differentiation. Previous study showed that glucose addition to the chitosan solution before steam sterilization improved its hydrogel mechanical strength. However, the effectiveness of glucose addition was still doubted because glucose might undergo Maillard reaction in that particular condition. The aims of this study are to confirm whether the glucose addition can increase the hydrogel mechanical strength and gelation rate effectively and also to compare their performance to be dental scaffold. This research was performed through several steps, namely preparation of chitosan-glycerophosphate solution, addition of glucose, gelation time test, gel mechanical strength measurement, functional group analysis, and physical properties measurements (pH, viscosity, and pore size. The result showed that glucose addition did not improve the hydrogel mechanical strength and gelation rate, neither when it was added before nor after steam sterilization. Glucose addition before steam sterilization seemed to trigger Maillard reaction or browning effect, while glucose addition after steam sterilization increased the amount of free water molecules in the hydrogel. Chitosan and glycerophosphate interact physically, but interaction between chitosan and glucose seems to occur chemically and followed by the formation of free water molecules. Glucose addition decreases the solution viscosity and hydrogel pore size so the hydrogel performance as dental scaffold is lowered.

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... around 4:00 a.m. to 5:00 a.m.). What are the Symptoms of Hyperglycemia? The signs and symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical ...

  15. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 24 hours after the activity. Drinking too much alcohol without enough food Alcohol makes it harder for your body to keep ... t eaten in a while. The effects of alcohol can also keep you from feeling the ... able to eat as much or keep food down, which can cause low blood glucose. Learn ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high ... function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == ' ...

  17. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are below 100 mg/dL before meals and fasting and are less than 140 mg/dL two hours after meals. People with diabetes should consult their doctor or health care provider to set appropriate blood glucose goals. ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term ... body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia? A number of things can cause hyperglycemia: If ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home ... work with your doctor to find the safest way for you to lower your blood glucose ... down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease ... than planned or exercised less than planned. You have stress from an illness, such as a cold or flu. You have ...

  1. Influences of saccharides types and initial glucose concentration on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tests on agar slants and in agitated shake flasks using glucose, sucrose and lactose media exhibited that the cellulose producer, Gluconacetobacterxylinus DSM 46604 resembled good growth on glucose and produced cellulose. However, there was negligible growth on sucrose and lactose media. Further experiments ...

  2. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Offspring of obese women have both short- and long-term increased morbidities. We investigated the relationship between maternal 2-h plasma glucose level determined by oral glucose tolerance test, degree of obesity, gestational weight gain and total fat, abdominal fat, and fat-free ...

  3. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was determined in 479 urbanised South African blacks (141 men and 338 women) of Zulu descent selected by cluster sampling in a suburb of Durban. All subjects underwent a modified glucose tolerance test whereby fasting and 2-hour postglucose ...

  4. Molecular testing guidelines for lung adenocarcinoma: Utility of cell blocks and concordance between fine-needle aspiration cytology and histology samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Jonas J.; Bulman, William A.; Maxfield, Roger A.; Powell, Charles A.; Halmos, Balazs; Sonett, Joshua; Beaubier, Nike T.; Crapanzano, John P.; Mansukhani, Mahesh M.; Saqi, Anjali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is a leading cause of mortality, and patients often present at a late stage. More recently, advances in screening, diagnosing, and treating lung cancer have been made. For instance, greater numbers of minimally invasive procedures are being performed, and identification of lung adenocarcinoma driver mutations has led to the implementation of targeted therapies. Advances in molecular techniques enable use of scant tissue, including cytology specimens. In addition, per recently published consensus guidelines, cytology-derived cell blocks (CBs) are preferred over direct smears. Yet, limited comparison of molecular testing of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) CBs and corresponding histology specimens has been performed. This study aimed to establish concordance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS) virus homolog testing between FNA CBs and histology samples from the same patients. Materials and Methods: Patients for whom molecular testing for EGFR or KRAS was performed on both FNA CBs and histology samples containing lung adenocarcinoma were identified retrospectively. Following microdissection, when necessary, concordance of EGFR and KRAS molecular testing results between FNA CBs and histology samples was evaluated. Results: EGFR and/or KRAS testing was performed on samples obtained from 26 patients. Concordant results were obtained for all EGFR (22/22) and KRAS (17/17) mutation analyses performed. Conclusions: Identification of mutations in lung adenocarcinomas affects clinical decision-making, and it is important that results from small samples be accurate. This study demonstrates that molecular testing on cytology CBs is as sensitive and specific as that on histology. PMID:24987443

  5. Molecular testing guidelines for lung adenocarcinoma: Utility of cell blocks and concordance between fine-needle aspiration cytology and histology samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas J. Heymann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung cancer is a leading cause of mortality, and patients often present at a late stage. More recently, advances in screening, diagnosing, and treating lung cancer have been made. For instance, greater numbers of minimally invasive procedures are being performed, and identification of lung adenocarcinoma driver mutations has led to the implementation of targeted therapies. Advances in molecular techniques enable use of scant tissue, including cytology specimens. In addition, per recently published consensus guidelines, cytology-derived cell blocks (CBs are preferred over direct smears. Yet, limited comparison of molecular testing of fine-needle aspiration (FNA CBs and corresponding histology specimens has been performed. This study aimed to establish concordance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS virus homolog testing between FNA CBs and histology samples from the same patients. Materials and Methods: Patients for whom molecular testing for EGFR or KRAS was performed on both FNA CBs and histology samples containing lung adenocarcinoma were identified retrospectively. Following microdissection, when necessary, concordance of EGFR and KRAS molecular testing results between FNA CBs and histology samples was evaluated. Results: EGFR and/or KRAS testing was performed on samples obtained from 26 patients. Concordant results were obtained for all EGFR (22/22 and KRAS (17/17 mutation analyses performed. Conclusions: Identification of mutations in lung adenocarcinomas affects clinical decision-making, and it is important that results from small samples be accurate. This study demonstrates that molecular testing on cytology CBs is as sensitive and specific as that on histology.

  6. Effects of indigestible dextrin on glucose tolerance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, S; Kishimoto, Y; Matsuoka, A

    1995-03-01

    A recently developed indigestible dextrin (IDex) was studied for its effects on glucose tolerance in male Sprague-Dawley rats. IDex is a low viscosity, water-soluble dietary fibre obtained by heating and enzyme treatment of potato starch. It has an average molecular weight of 1600. An oral glucose tolerance test was conducted with 8-week-old rats to evaluate the effects of IDex on the increase in plasma glucose and insulin levels after a single administration of various sugars (1.5 g/kg body weight). The increase in both plasma glucose and insulin levels following sucrose, maltose and maltodextrin loading was significantly reduced by IDex (0.15 g/kg body weight). This effect was not noted following glucose, high fructose syrup and lactose loading. To evaluate the effects of continual IDex ingestion on glucose tolerance, 5-week-old rats were kept for 8 weeks on a stock diet, a high sucrose diet or an IDex-supplemented high sucrose diet. An oral glucose (1.5 g/kg body weight) tolerance test was conducted in week 8. Increases in both plasma glucose and insulin levels following glucose loading were higher in the rats given a high sucrose diet than in the rats fed a stock diet. However, when IDex was included in the high sucrose diet, the impairment of glucose tolerance was alleviated. Moreover, IDex feeding also significantly reduced accumulation of body fat, regardless of changes in body weight. These findings suggest that IDex not only improves glucose tolerance following sucrose, maltose and maltodextrin loading but also stops progressive decrease in glucose tolerance by preventing a high sucrose diet from causing obesity.

  7. Relationship of the MTHFD1 (rs2236225, eNOS (rs1799983, CBS (rs2850144 and ACE (rs4343 gene polymorphisms in a population of Iranian pediatric patients with congenital heart defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Khatami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart defects are structural cardiovascular malformations that arise from abnormal formation of the heart or major blood vessels during the fetal period. To investigate the association of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the MTHFD1, eNOS, CBS and ACE genes, we evaluated their relationship with CHD in Iranian patients. In this case–control study, a total of 102 children with CHD and 98 control children were enrolled. Four SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T, CBS C-4673G and ACE A2350G were genotyped by PCR-SSCP, Multiplex ARMS PCR and PCR-RFLP methods and confirmed by direct sequencing. We genotyped 102 patients and 98 controls for four polymorphisms by statistically analysis. There were three SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G which might increase the risk of CHD, but CBS C-4673G was not significantly different between patients and controls. (P = 0.017, P = 0.048, P = 0.025 and P = 0.081 respectively. The allele frequencies of three SNPs for MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G in CHD are higher than that in control. Our results show that there is a significant relationship between MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G polymorphisms with CHD. Therefore, The AA and GA genotypes of MTHFD1 G1958A, TT and GT genotypes of eNOS G894T and the AA and GA genotypes of ACE A2350G are susceptible factors for CHD and may increase the risk of CHD.

  8. Relationship of the MTHFD1 (rs2236225), eNOS (rs1799983), CBS (rs2850144) and ACE (rs4343) gene polymorphisms in a population of Iranian pediatric patients with congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Mehri; Ratki, Farzaneh Morteza; Tajfar, Saba; Akrami, Fatemeh

    2017-09-01

    Congenital heart defects are structural cardiovascular malformations that arise from abnormal formation of the heart or major blood vessels during the fetal period. To investigate the association of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MTHFD1, eNOS, CBS and ACE genes, we evaluated their relationship with CHD in Iranian patients. In this case-control study, a total of 102 children with CHD and 98 control children were enrolled. Four SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T, CBS C-4673G and ACE A2350G were genotyped by PCR-SSCP, Multiplex ARMS PCR and PCR-RFLP methods and confirmed by direct sequencing. We genotyped 102 patients and 98 controls for four polymorphisms by statistically analysis. There were three SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G which might increase the risk of CHD, but CBS C-4673G was not significantly different between patients and controls. (P = 0.017, P = 0.048, P = 0.025 and P = 0.081 respectively). The allele frequencies of three SNPs for MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G in CHD are higher than that in control. Our results show that there is a significant relationship between MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G polymorphisms with CHD. Therefore, The AA and GA genotypes of MTHFD1 G1958A, TT and GT genotypes of eNOS G894T and the AA and GA genotypes of ACE A2350G are susceptible factors for CHD and may increase the risk of CHD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  9. Therapeutic effects of L-Cysteine in newborn mice subjected to hypoxia-ischemia brain injury via the CBS/H2S system: Role of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Song; Xin, Danqing; Wang, Lingxiao; Zhang, Tiantian; Bai, Xuemei; Li, Tong; Xie, Yunkai; Xue, Hao; Bo, Shishi; Liu, Dexiang; Wang, Zhen

    2017-10-01

    Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury is a major cause of neonatal death and neurological dysfunction. H 2 S has been shown to protect against hypoxia-induced injury and apoptosis of neurons. L-Cysteine is catalyzed by cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) in the brain and sequentially produces endogenous H 2 S. The present study was designed to investigate whether L-Cysteine could attenuate the acute brain injury and improve neurobehavioral outcomes following HI brain injury in neonatal mice by releasing endogenous H 2 S. L-Cysteine treatment significantly attenuated brain edema and decreased infarct volume and neuronal cell death, as shown by a decrease in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, suppression of caspase-3 activation, and reduced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK at 72h after HI. Additionally, L-Cysteine substantially up-regulated NF-E2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase-1 expression. L-Cysteine also decreased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated pro-apoptotic protein expression. Furthermore, L-Cysteine had long-term effects by protecting against the loss of ipsilateral brain tissue and improving neurobehavioral outcomes. Importantly, pre-treatment with a CBS inhibitor significantly attenuated the neuroprotection of L-Cysteine on HI insult. Thus, L-Cysteine exerts neuroprotection against HI-induced injury in neonates via the CBS/H 2 S pathway, mediated in part by anti-apoptotic effects and reduced oxidative stress and ER stress. Thus, L-Cysteine may be a promising treatment for HI. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermogenic Effect of Glucose in Hypothyroid Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozacz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of thyroid hormone, catecholamines, and insulin in modification of the thermogenic effect of glucose (TEG was examined in 34 healthy and 32 hypothyroid subjects. We calculated the energy expenditure at rest and during oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples for determinations of glucose, plasma insulin, adrenaline (A, and noradrenaline (NA were collected. It was found that TEG was lower in hypothyroid than in control group (19.68±3.90 versus 55.40±7.32 kJ, resp., P<0.0004. Mean values of glucose and insulin areas under the curve were higher in women with hypothyroidism than in control group (286.79±23.65 versus 188.41±15.84 mmol/L·min, P<0.003 and 7563.27±863.65 versus 4987.72±583.88 mU/L·min, P<0.03 resp.. Maximal levels of catecholamines after glucose ingestion were higher in hypothyroid patients than in control subjects (Amax—0.69±0.08 versus 0.30±0.07 nmol/L, P<0.0001, and NAmax—6.42±0.86 versus 2.54±0.30 nmol/L, P<0.0002. It can be concluded that in hypothyroidism TEG and glucose tolerance are decreased while the adrenergic response to glucose administration is enhanced. Presumably, these changes are related to decreased insulin sensitivity and responsiveness to catecholamine action.

  11. A Computer-Based Glucose Management System Reduces the Incidence of Forgotten Glucose Measurements: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Tsuyoshi; Teramoto, Kei; Koshitani, Rie; Fujioka, Yohei; Endo, Yusuke; Ueki, Masaru; Kato, Masahiko; Taniguchi, Shin-Ichi; Kondo, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2018-04-17

    Frequent glucose measurements are needed for good blood glucose control in hospitals; however, this requirement means that measurements can be forgotten. We developed a novel glucose management system using an iPod ® and electronic health records. A time schedule system for glucose measurement was developed using point-of-care testing, an iPod ® , and electronic health records. The system contains the glucose measurement schedule and an alarm sounds if a measurement is forgotten. The number of times measurements were forgotten was analyzed. Approximately 7000 glucose measurements were recorded per month. Before implementation of the system, the average number of times measurements were forgotten was 4.8 times per month. This significantly decreased to 2.6 times per month after the system started. We also analyzed the incidence of forgotten glucose measurements as a proportion of the total number of measurements for each period and found a significant difference between the two 9-month periods (43/64,049-24/65,870, P = 0.014, chi-squared test). This computer-based blood glucose monitoring system is useful for the management of glucose monitoring in hospitals. Johnson & Johnson Japan.

  12. Shikonin increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells and improves plasma glucose levels in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette I Öberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest in identifying compounds that can improve glucose homeostasis. Skeletal muscle, due to its large mass, is the principal organ for glucose disposal in the body and we have investigated here if shikonin, a naphthoquinone derived from the Chinese plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon, increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Shikonin increases glucose uptake in L6 skeletal muscle myotubes, but does not phosphorylate Akt, indicating that in skeletal muscle cells its effect is medaited via a pathway distinct from that used for insulin-stimulated uptake. Furthermore we find no evidence for the involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase in shikonin induced glucose uptake. Shikonin increases the intracellular levels of calcium in these cells and this increase is necessary for shikonin-mediated glucose uptake. Furthermore, we found that shikonin stimulated the translocation of GLUT4 from intracellular vesicles to the cell surface in L6 myoblasts. The beneficial effect of shikonin on glucose uptake was investigated in vivo by measuring plasma glucose levels and insulin sensitivity in spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Treatment with shikonin (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally once daily for 4 days significantly decreased plasma glucose levels. In an insulin sensitivity test (s.c. injection of 0.5 U/kg insulin, plasma glucose levels were significantly lower in the shikonin-treated rats. In conclusion, shikonin increases glucose uptake in muscle cells via an insulin-independent pathway dependent on calcium. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Shikonin increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells via an insulin-independent pathway dependent on calcium. The beneficial effects of shikonin on glucose metabolism, both in vitro and in vivo, show that the compound possesses properties that make it of considerable interest for developing novel treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  13. Effects of an oral insulin nanoparticle administration on hepatic glucose metabolism assessed by 13C and 2H isotopomer analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis, C.P.; Neufeld, R.; Veiga, F.; Figueiredo, I.V.; Jones, J.; Soares, A.F.; Nunes, P.M.; Damg\\'e, C.; Carvalho, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate hepatic glucose metabolism of diabetic induced rats after a daily oral load of insulin nanoparticles over 2 weeks. After the 2-week treatment, an oral glucose tolerance test was performed with [U-��C] glucose and �H2O. Plasma glucose �H and ��C enrichments

  14. Glucose effectiveness in nondiabetic relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egede, M B; Henriksen, J-E; Durck, T T

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Reduced glucose effectiveness is a predictor of future glucose tolerance in individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes. We examined retrospectively at 10 years in normoglycemic relatives of diabetic subjects (RELs) the pathophysiological role of glucose effectiveness in the develo...

  15. Dietary fructose and glucose differentially affect lipid and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Ernst J; Gleason, Joi A; Dansinger, Michael L

    2009-06-01

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first-pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these 2 monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial triglyceride (TG) levels and has little effect on serum glucose concentrations, whereas dietary glucose has the opposite effects. When dietary glucose and fructose have been directly compared at approximately 20-25% of energy over a 4- to 6-wk period, dietary fructose caused significant increases in fasting TG and LDL cholesterol concentrations, whereas dietary glucose did not, but dietary glucose did increase serum glucose and insulin concentrations in the postprandial state whereas dietary fructose did not. When fructose at 30-60 g ( approximately 4-12% of energy) was added to the diet in the free-living state, there were no significant effects on lipid or glucose biomarkers. Sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain approximately equal amounts of fructose and glucose and no metabolic differences between them have been noted. Controlled feeding studies at more physiologic dietary intakes of fructose and glucose need to be conducted. In our view, to decrease the current high prevalence of obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and diabetes, the focus should be on restricting the intake of excess energy, sucrose, HFCS, and animal and trans fats and increasing exercise and the intake of vegetables, vegetable oils, fish, fruit, whole grains, and fiber.

  16. Impaired glucose tolerance in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradat, Pierre-Francois; Bruneteau, Gaelle; Gordon, Paul H; Dupuis, Luc; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Simon, Dominique; Salachas, Francois; Corcia, Philippe; Frochot, Vincent; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Jardel, Claude; Coussieu, Christiane; Le Forestier, Nadine; Lacomblez, Lucette; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Meininger, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Our objectives were to analyse carbohydrate metabolism in a series of ALS patients and to examine potential association with parameters of lipid metabolism and clinical features. Glucose tolerance was assessed by the oral glucose tolerance test in 21 non-diabetic ALS patients and compared with 21 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. Lipids and lactate/pyruvate ratio, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6) and adipocytokines (leptin and adiponectin) were also measured in ALS patients. Mann-Whitney U-tests analysed continuous data and Fisher's exact tests assessed categorical data. Blood glucose determined 120 min after the glucose bolus was significantly higher in patients with ALS (7.41 mmol/l+/-1.68) compared to controls (6.05+/-1.44, p=0.006). ALS patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) according to WHO criteria (n=7, 33%) were more likely to have elevated free fatty acids (FFA) levels compared to patients with normal glucose tolerance (0.77 nmol/l+/-0.30 vs. 0.57+/-0.19, p=0.04). IGT was not associated with disease duration or severity. In conclusion, patients with ALS show abnormal glucose tolerance that could be associated with increased FFA levels, a key determinant of insulin resistance. The origin of glucose homeostasis abnormalities in ALS may be multifactorial and deserves further investigation.

  17. Continued glucose output after re-feeding contributes to glucose intolerance in hyperthyroidism.

    OpenAIRE

    Holness, M J; Sugden, M C

    1987-01-01

    The effects of hyperthyroidism to elicit glucose intolerance after glucose administration were decreased under conditions where hepatic glucose output was suppressed. It is concluded that continued hepatic glucose output contributes to abnormal glucose tolerance in hyperthyroidism.

  18. Glucose production for cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S; Karube, I

    1977-04-16

    Glucose was produced from cellulose by passing a cellulose solution through a column of an immobilized cellulase which was prepared by coating an inorganic carrier such as macadam or stainless steel beads with collagen containing the cellulase. Thus, 4 mL of 5% cellulase T-AP (60,000 units/g) solution was dissolved in 100 g of 0.9% collagen solution and the solution mixed with 60 g of macadam (diam. = 0.5 to 1.5 mm) and stirred for 10 min. The treated beads were dried in air at 10/sup 0/ to yield an immobilized enzyme retaining 64% of its activity. Through a column (0.8 x 20 cm) packed with 3 g of the immobilized enzyme, 100 mL of 0.33% Avicel SF solution was circulated at 26.4 mL/min at 30/sup 0/ for 60 h. The Avicel SF conversion to glucose was 23%.

  19. Chapter 10: Glucose control: insulin therapy*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insulin and its analogues lower blood glucose by stimulating peripheral glucose uptake, especially by skeletal muscle and fat, and by inhibiting hepatic glucose production. Insulin inhibits ... control on 2 or 3 oral glucose lowering drugs.

  20. Is Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) Dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pills. In general, hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose level below 70 mg/dl. Low blood glucose is ... glucose. Always carry carbohydrate foods for treatment. Check blood glucose levels again in 15 minutes, and repeat treatment if ...

  1. In vitro evaluation of fluorescence glucose biosensor response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloraefy, Mamdouh; Pfefer, T Joshua; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Sapsford, Kim E

    2014-07-08

    Rapid, accurate, and minimally-invasive glucose biosensors based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) for glucose measurement have the potential to enhance diabetes control. However, a standard set of in vitro approaches for evaluating optical glucose biosensor response under controlled conditions would facilitate technological innovation and clinical translation. Towards this end, we have identified key characteristics and response test methods, fabricated FRET-based glucose biosensors, and characterized biosensor performance using these test methods. The biosensors were based on competitive binding between dextran and glucose to concanavalin A and incorporated long-wavelength fluorescence dye pairs. Testing characteristics included spectral response, linearity, sensitivity, limit of detection, kinetic response, reversibility, stability, precision, and accuracy. The biosensor demonstrated a fluorescence change of 45% in the presence of 400 mg/dL glucose, a mean absolute relative difference of less than 11%, a limit of detection of 25 mg/dL, a response time of 15 min, and a decay in fluorescence intensity of 72% over 30 days. The battery of tests presented here for objective, quantitative in vitro evaluation of FRET glucose biosensors performance have the potential to form the basis of future consensus standards. By implementing these test methods for a long-visible-wavelength biosensor, we were able to demonstrate strengths and weaknesses with a new level of thoroughness and rigor.

  2. In Vitro Evaluation of Fluorescence Glucose Biosensor Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh Aloraefy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, accurate, and minimally-invasive glucose biosensors based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET for glucose measurement have the potential to enhance diabetes control. However, a standard set of in vitro approaches for evaluating optical glucose biosensor response under controlled conditions would facilitate technological innovation and clinical translation. Towards this end, we have identified key characteristics and response test methods, fabricated FRET-based glucose biosensors, and characterized biosensor performance using these test methods. The biosensors were based on competitive binding between dextran and glucose to concanavalin A and incorporated long-wavelength fluorescence dye pairs. Testing characteristics included spectral response, linearity, sensitivity, limit of detection, kinetic response, reversibility, stability, precision, and accuracy. The biosensor demonstrated a fluorescence change of 45% in the presence of 400 mg/dL glucose, a mean absolute relative difference of less than 11%, a limit of detection of 25 mg/dL, a response time of 15 min, and a decay in fluorescence intensity of 72% over 30 days. The battery of tests presented here for objective, quantitative in vitro evaluation of FRET glucose biosensors performance have the potential to form the basis of future consensus standards. By implementing these test methods for a long-visible-wavelength biosensor, we were able to demonstrate strengths and weaknesses with a new level of thoroughness and rigor.

  3. Glucose and age-related changes in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Paul E

    2005-12-01

    Epinephrine, released from the adrenal medulla, enhances memory in young rats and mice and apparently does so, at least in part, by increasing blood glucose levels. Like epinephrine, administration of glucose enhances cognitive functions in humans and rodents, including reversing age-related impairments in learning and memory. Epinephrine responses to training are increased in aged rats but the subsequent increase in blood glucose levels is severely blunted. The absence of increases in blood glucose levels during training might contribute to age-related deficits in learning and memory. Also, extracellular glucose levels in the hippocampus are depleted during spontaneous alternation testing to a far greater extent in aged than in young rats. Importantly, systemic injections of glucose block the depletion in the hippocampus and also enhance performance on the alternation task. Thus, the extensive depletion of extracellular glucose during training in aged rats may be associated with age-related memory impairments, an effect that might be related to - or may exacerbate - the effects on learning and memory of an absence of the increases in blood glucose levels to training as seen in young rats. Together, these findings suggest that age-related changes in both peripheral and central glucose physiology contribute to age-related impairments in memory.

  4. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel Bring

    2016-01-01

    was to investigate how the blood glucose level affects the glucagon and insulin responses to GIP in healthy subjects (Study 1) and patients with Type 2 diabetes (Study 2), and more specifically to investigate the effects of GIP and GLP-1 at low blood glucose in patients with Type 1 diabetes without endogenous...... as his own control. Interventions were intravenous administration of hormones GIP, GLP-1 and placebo (saline) during different blood glucose levels maintained (clamped) at a certain level. The end-points were plasma concentrations of glucagon and insulin as well as the amount of glucose used to clamp...... the blood glucose levels. In Study 3, we also used stable glucose isotopes to estimate the endogenous glucose production and assessed symptoms and cognitive function during hypoglycaemia. The results from the three studies indicate that GIP has effects on insulin and glucagon responses highly dependent upon...

  5. Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel B; Calanna, Salvatore; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have clinically relevant disturbances in the effects of the hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the importance of the prevailing plasma glucose levels for the effect of GIP on responses......: During fasting glycemia (plasma glucose ∼8 mmol/L), GIP elicited significant increments in both insulin and glucagon levels, resulting in neutral effects on plasma glucose. During insulin-induced hypoglycemia (plasma glucose ∼3 mmol/L), GIP elicited a minor early-phase insulin response and increased...... glucagon levels during the initial 30 minutes, resulting in less glucose needed to be infused to maintain the clamp (29 ± 8 vs 49 ± 12 mg × kg(-1), P glucose ∼12 mmol/L), GIP augmented insulin secretion throughout the clamp, with slightly less glucagon...

  6. Blood sugar test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...

  7. Gibbs Free-Energy Gradient along the Path of Glucose Transport through Human Glucose Transporter 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huiyun; Bourdon, Allen K; Chen, Liao Y; Phelix, Clyde F; Perry, George

    2018-06-11

    Fourteen glucose transporters (GLUTs) play essential roles in human physiology by facilitating glucose diffusion across the cell membrane. Due to its central role in the energy metabolism of the central nervous system, GLUT3 has been thoroughly investigated. However, the Gibbs free-energy gradient (what drives the facilitated diffusion of glucose) has not been mapped out along the transport path. Some fundamental questions remain. Here we present a molecular dynamics study of GLUT3 embedded in a lipid bilayer to quantify the free-energy profile along the entire transport path of attracting a β-d-glucose from the interstitium to the inside of GLUT3 and, from there, releasing it to the cytoplasm by Arrhenius thermal activation. From the free-energy profile, we elucidate the unique Michaelis-Menten characteristics of GLUT3, low K M and high V MAX , specifically suitable for neurons' high and constant demand of energy from their low-glucose environments. We compute GLUT3's binding free energy for β-d-glucose to be -4.6 kcal/mol in agreement with the experimental value of -4.4 kcal/mol ( K M = 1.4 mM). We also compute the hydration energy of β-d-glucose, -18.0 kcal/mol vs the experimental data, -17.8 kcal/mol. In this, we establish a dynamics-based connection from GLUT3's crystal structure to its cellular thermodynamics with quantitative accuracy. We predict equal Arrhenius barriers for glucose uptake and efflux through GLUT3 to be tested in future experiments.

  8. Semimechanistic model describing gastric emptying and glucose absorption in healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alskär, Oskar; Bagger, Jonatan I; Røge, Rikke M.

    2016-01-01

    The integrated glucose-insulin (IGI) model is a previously published semimechanistic model that describes plasma glucose and insulin concentrations after glucose challenges. The aim of this work was to use knowledge of physiology to improve the IGI model's description of glucose absorption and ga...... model provides a better description and improves the understanding of dynamic glucose tests involving oral glucose....... and gastric emptying after tests with varying glucose doses. The developed model's performance was compared to empirical models. To develop our model, data from oral and intravenous glucose challenges in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy control subjects were used together with present knowledge...... glucose absorption was superior to linear absorption regardless of the gastric emptying model applied. The semiphysiological model developed performed better than previously published empirical models and allows better understanding of the mechanisms underlying glucose absorption. In conclusion, our new...

  9. Accuracy of bedside glucose measurement from three glucometers in critically ill patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; Klein Gunnewiek, J.M.T.; Prinsen, M.A.; Willems, J.L.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Implementation of strict glucose control in most intensive care units has resulted in increased use of point-of-care glucose devices in the intensive care unit. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of point-of-care testing glucose meters among critically ill patients

  10. Characterisation of oral and i.v. glucose handling in truncally vagotomised subjects with pyloroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plamboeck, Astrid; Veedfald, Simon; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2013-01-01

    =16) and matched controls (n=10) underwent 50 g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)±vildagliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor (DPP4i) and isoglycaemic i.v. glucose infusion (IIGI), copying the OGTT without DPP4i. RESULTS: Isoglycaemia was obtained with 25±2 g glucose in vagotomised subjects and 18±2 g in controls...

  11. RETINOPATHY, GLUCOSE, AND INSULIN IN AN ELDERLY POPULATION - THE ROTTERDAM STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STOLK, RP; VINGERLING, [No Value; DEJONG, PTVM; DIELEMANS, Hubertus J.A.; HOFMAN, A; LAMBERTS, SWJ; POLS, HAP; GROBBEE, DE

    We studied the association between retinopathy and glucose metabolism in a population-based study of elderly men and women, Glucose metabolism was assessed by serum fructosamine and a nonfasting oral glucose tolerance test, and retinopathy was evaluated by fundus photography, Retinopathy was present

  12. Unsuspected glucose abnormalities in patients with coronary artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-05-25

    May 25, 2006 ... American Diabetic Association (ADA) fasting glucose criteria compared with .... Continuous data were compared using the Kruskal-. Wallis test and .... hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and obesity (if present). Diagnosing DM as ...

  13. Screening for HbA1c-defined prediabetes and diabetes in an at-risk greek population: performance comparison of random capillary glucose, the ADA diabetes risk test and skin fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentolouris, Nicholas; Lathouris, Panagiotis; Lontou, Stavroula; Tzemos, Kostas; Maynard, John

    2013-04-01

    We examined the accuracy of random capillary glucose (RCG) and two noninvasive screening methods, the ADA diabetes risk test (DRT) and skin fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) as measured by Scout DS for detecting HbA1c-defined dysglycemia or type 2 diabetes in an at-risk cohort. Subjects were recruited at two clinical sites for a single non-fasting visit. Each subject had measurements of height, weight and waist circumference. A diabetes score was calculated from skin fluorescence measured on the left forearm. A finger prick was done to measure RCG and HbA1c (A1C). Health questionnaires were completed for the DRT. Increasing dysglycemia was defined as A1C ≥ 5.7% (39 mmol/mol) or ≥ 6.0% (42 mmol/mol). Type 2 diabetes was defined as A1C ≥ 6.5% (47.5 mmol/mol). 398 of 409 subjects had complete data for analysis with means for age, body mass index, and waist of 52 years, 27 kg/m(2) and 90 cm. 51% were male. Prevalence of A1C ≥ 5.7%, ≥ 6.0% and ≥ 6.5% were 54%, 34% and 12%, respectively. Areas under the curve (AUC) for detection of increasing levels dysglycemia or diabetes for RCG were 63%, 66% and 72%, for the ADA DRT the AUCs were 75%, 76% and 81% and for SFS the AUCs were 82%, 84% and 90%, respectively. For each level of dysglycemia or diabetes, the SFS AUC was significantly higher than RCG or the ADA DRT. The noninvasive skin fluorescence spectroscopy measurement outperformed both RCG and the ADA DRT for detection of A1C-defined dysglycemia or diabetes in an at-risk cohort. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The association between estimated average glucose levels and fasting plasma glucose levels in a rural tertiary care centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Reddy P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, also known as glycated hemoglobin, determines how well a patient’s blood glucose level has been controlled over the previous 8-12 weeks. HbA1c levels help patients and doctors understand whether a particular diabetes treatment is working and whether adjustments need to be made to the treatment. Because the HbA1c level is a marker of blood glucose for the previous 60- 90 days, average blood glucose levels can be estimated using HbA1c levels. Aim in the present study was to investigate the relationship between estimated average glucose levels, as calculated by HbA1c levels, and fasting plasma glucose levels. Methods: Type 2 diabetes patients attending medicine outpatient department of RL Jalappa hospital, Kolar between March 2010 and July 2012 were taken. The estimated glucose levels (mg/dl were calculated using the following formula: 28.7 x HbA1c-46.7. Glucose levels were determined using the hexokinase method. HbA1c levels were determined using an HPLC method. Correlation and independent t- test was the test of significance for quantitative data. Results: A strong positive correlation between fasting plasma glucose level and estimated average blood glucose levels (r=0.54, p=0.0001 was observed. The difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: Reporting the estimated average glucose level together with the HbA1c level is believed to assist patients and doctors determine the effectiveness of blood glucose control measures.

  15. Precision and costs of techniques for self-monitoring of serum glucose levels.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiasson, J. L.; Morrisset, R.; Hamet, P.

    1984-01-01

    The poor correlation between serum and urine glucose measurements has led to the development of new techniques for monitoring the blood glucose level in diabetic patients. Either a nurse or the patient can perform these tests, which involve spreading a single drop of blood onto a reagent strip. A colour change that is proportional to the serum glucose level can be read visually or with a reflectance meter. Evaluated against simultaneous serum glucose levels determined by the hospital biochemi...

  16. Factors predicting early postpartum glucose intolerance in Japanese women with gestational diabetes mellitus: decision-curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, M; Nagao, Y; Mahbub, M H; Tanabe, Tsuyoshi; Tanizawa, Y

    2018-04-29

    To identify factors predicting early postpartum glucose intolerance in Japanese women with gestational diabetes mellitus, using decision-curve analysis. A retrospective cohort study was performed. The participants were 123 Japanese women with gestational diabetes who underwent 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests at 8-12 weeks after delivery. They were divided into a glucose intolerance and a normal glucose tolerance group based on postpartum oral glucose tolerance test results. Analysis of the pregnancy oral glucose tolerance test results showed predictive factors for postpartum glucose intolerance. We also evaluated the clinical usefulness of the prediction model based on decision-curve analysis. Of 123 women, 78 (63.4%) had normoglycaemia and 45 (36.6%) had glucose intolerance. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed insulinogenic index/fasting immunoreactive insulin and summation of glucose levels, assessed during pregnancy oral glucose tolerance tests (total glucose), to be independent risk factors for postpartum glucose intolerance. Evaluating the regression models, the best discrimination (area under the curve 0.725) was obtained using the basic model (i.e. age, family history of diabetes, BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 and use of insulin during pregnancy) plus insulinogenic index/fasting immunoreactive insulin intolerance. Insulinogenic index/fasting immunoreactive insulin calculated using oral glucose tolerance test results during pregnancy is potentially useful for predicting early postpartum glucose intolerance in Japanese women with gestational diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  18. Parameters of glucose metabolism and the aging brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akintola, Abimbola A; van den Berg, Annette; Altmann-Schneider, Irmhild

    2015-01-01

    Given the concurrent, escalating epidemic of diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases, two age-related disorders, we aimed to understand the relation between parameters of glucose metabolism and indices of pathology in the aging brain. From the Leiden Longevity Study, 132 participants (mean...... age 66 years) underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test to assess glucose tolerance (fasted and area under the curve (AUC) glucose), insulin sensitivity (fasted and AUC insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS)) and insulin secretion (insulinogenic index). 3-T brain...... significant associations were found for white matter. Thus, while higher glucose was associated with macro-structural damage, impaired insulin action was associated more strongly with reduced micro-structural brain parenchymal homogeneity. These findings offer some insight into the association between...

  19. A study of glucose handling by Buddhist monks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, T; Myint, H; Thein, M

    1988-04-01

    Fourteen Buddhist monks and comparable male subjects were studied in relation to their handling of glucose after a meal (consisting of 1190 kcal, 29 g protein, 21 g fat and 221 g carbohydrate) and afterwards subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT). The time course of blood glucose levels after the meal indicated that the monks had enhanced absorption and utilization of glucose. The monks were also found to have increased tolerance to glucose on oGTT. In addition the mean total serum cholesterol level in the monks (157.2 +/- 5.53 mg/dl) was found to be significantly higher than that of the control subjects (117.4 +/- 2.85 mg/dl).

  20. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayikci, Ömur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-09-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression. © FEMS 2015.

  1. Glucose metabolism in lactating reindeer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R G; Luick, J R

    1976-01-01

    Changes in glucose synthesis during the lactation cycle were estimated in pen-fed and grazing reindeer. The pool size, space, transfer rate, and irreversible loss of glucose were determined using simultaneous injections of (2-/sup 3/H)glucose and primed infusions of (U-/sup 14/C)glucose in reindeer lactating for 1-2, 4-5, 8-9, and 12-16 weeks. Glucose transfer rate and irreversible loss were higher during early to midlactation than at other times of the year; maximum estimates were at 8-9 week postpartum (July), and a decline was noted at 12-16 weeks (August). During the first 1-2 weeks in pen-fed and 4-5 weeks in grazing reindeer, glucose transfer rate and irreversible loss were almost twice the values reported for reindeer at maintenance. No difference in the irreversible loss of glucose was noted between lactating and non-lactating reindeer at 18-20 weeks postpartum (September), and there is evidence that this may occur as early as 12-16 weeks postpartum. No significant trend was noted in the glucose space throughout lactation; however, a significant increase in plasma glucose concentration and pool size was noted when glucose synthesis was highest (8-9 weeks postpartum). Glucose turnover time was consistently faster (78-88 min) in lactating than in non-lactating reindeer (107-140 min). Reindeer used a smaller proportion of plasma glucose-C for lactose synthesis than did other domestic species. This probably results from the low lactose content of reindeer milk and the relatively low rate of milk secretion. (auth)

  2. Interference studies with two hospital-grade and two home-grade glucose meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Martha E; Baskin, Leland B; Braakman, Sandy; Presti, Steven; Dubois, Jeffrey; Shirey, Terry

    2009-10-01

    Interference studies of four glucose meters (Nova Biomedical [Waltham, MA] StatStrip [hospital grade], Roche Diagnostics [Indianapolis, IN] Accu-Chek Aviva [home grade], Abbott Diabetes Care [Alameda, CA] Precision FreeStyle Freedom [home grade], and LifeScan [Milpitas, CA] SureStep Flexx [hospital grade]) were evaluated and compared to the clinical laboratory plasma hexokinase reference method (Roche Hitachi 912 chemistry analyzer). These meters were chosen to reflect the continuum of care from hospital to home grade meters commonly seen in North America. Within-run precision was determined using a freshly prepared whole blood sample spiked with concentrated glucose to give three glucose concentrations. Day-to-day precision was evaluated using aqueous control materials supplied by each vendor. Common interferences, including hematocrit, maltose, and ascorbate, were tested alone and in combination with one another on each of the four glucose testing devices at three blood glucose concentrations. Within-run precision for all glucose meters was glucose meters. Ascorbate caused differences (percentage change from a sample without added interfering substances) of >5% with pyrroloquinolinequinone (PQQ)-glucose dehydrogenase-based technologies (Aviva and Freestyle) and the glucose oxidase-based Flexx meter. Maltose strongly affected the PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase-based meter systems. When combinations of interferences (ascorbate, maltose, and hematocrit mixtures) were tested, the extent of the interference was up to 193% (Aviva), 179% (FreeStyle), 25.1% (Flexx), and 5.9% (StatStrip). The interference was most pronounced at low glucose (3.9-4.4 mmol/L). All evaluated glucose meter systems demonstrated varying degrees of interference by hematocrit, ascorbate, and maltose mixtures. PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase-based technologies showed greater susceptibility than glucose oxidase-based systems. However, the modified glucose oxidase-based amperometric method (Nova StatStrip) was

  3. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kayikci, Omur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluc......Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration...

  4. Green Chemistry Glucose Biosensor Development using Etlingera elatior Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoni, A.; Anggraeni, M. D.; Zusfahair; Iqlima, H.

    2018-01-01

    Glucose biosensor development is one of the important strategies for early detection of diabetes mellitus disease. This study was aimed to explore the flower extract of Etlingera elatior for a green-analysis method of glucose biosensor. Flowers were extracted using ethanol: HCl and tested its performances as an indicator of glucose biosensor using glucose oxidase enzyme. The glucose oxidase react with glucose resulted hydrogen peroxide that would change the color of the flower extract. Furthermore, the extract was also studied including their stability to pH, oxidizing and reducing, temperature, and storage. The results showed that the Etlingera elatior extract had high correlation between color change and glucose concentration with regression equation of y = -0.0005x + 0.4724 and R2 of 0.9965. The studied biosensor showed a wide linear range to detect glucose sample of 0 to 500 mM. The extract characterization showed a more stable in low pH (acid), reducing agent addition, heating treatment and storage.

  5. Impaired brain energy gain upon a glucose load in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardzinski, Ewelina K; Kistenmacher, Alina; Melchert, Uwe H; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Oltmanns, Kerstin M

    2018-03-06

    There is evidence that the brain's energy status is lowered in obesity despite of chronic hypercaloric nutrition. The underlying mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesized that the brain of obese people does not appropriately generate energy in response to a hypercaloric supply. Glucose was intravenously infused in 17 normal weights and 13 obese participants until blood glucose concentrations reached the postprandial levels of 7 mmol/L and 10 mmol/L. Changes in cerebral adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine (PCr) content were measured by 31 phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy and stress hormonal measures regulating glucose homeostasis were monitored. Because vitamin C is crucial for a proper neuronal energy synthesis we determined circulating concentrations during the experimental testing. Cerebral high-energy phosphates were increased at blood glucose levels of 7 mmol/L in normal weights, which was completely missing in the obese. Brain energy content moderately raised only at blood glucose levels of 10 mmol/L in obese participants. Vitamin C concentrations generally correlated with the brain energy content at blood glucose concentrations of 7 mmol/L. Our data demonstrate an inefficient cerebral energy gain upon a glucose load in obese men, which may result from a dysfunctional glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier or a downregulated energy synthesis in mitochondrial oxidation processes. Our finding offers an explanation for the chronic neuroenergetic deficiency and respectively missing satiety perception in obesity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Regulation of intracellular glucose and polyol pathway by thiamine and benfotiamine in vascular cells cultured in high glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrone, Elena; Beltramo, Elena; Solimine, Carmela; Ape, Alessandro Ubertalli; Porta, Massimo

    2006-04-07

    Hyperglycemia is a causal factor in the development of the vascular complications of diabetes. One of the biochemical mechanisms activated by excess glucose is the polyol pathway, the key enzyme of which, aldose reductase, transforms d-glucose into d-sorbitol, leading to imbalances of intracellular homeostasis. We aimed at verifying the effects of thiamine and benfotiamine on the polyol pathway, transketolase activity, and intracellular glucose in endothelial cells and pericytes under high ambient glucose. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells and bovine retinal pericytes were cultured in normal (5.6 mmol/liter) or high (28 mmol/liter) glucose, with or without thiamine or benfotiamine 50 or 100 mumol/liter. Transketolase and aldose reductase mRNA expression was determined by reverse transcription-PCR, and their activity was measured spectrophotometrically; sorbitol concentrations were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and intracellular glucose concentrations by fluorescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Thiamine and benfotiamine reduce aldose reductase mRNA expression, activity, sorbitol concentrations, and intracellular glucose while increasing the expression and activity of transketolase, for which it is a coenzyme, in human endothelial cells and bovine retinal pericytes cultured in high glucose. Thiamine and benfotiamine correct polyol pathway activation induced by high glucose in vascular cells. Activation of transketolase may shift excess glycolytic metabolites into the pentose phosphate cycle, accelerate the glycolytic flux, and reduce intracellular free glucose, thereby preventing its conversion to sorbitol. This effect on the polyol pathway, together with other beneficial effects reported for thiamine in high glucose, could justify testing thiamine as a potential approach to the prevention and/or treatment of diabetic complications.

  7. Amperometric Bioelectronic Tongue for glucose determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazan Al-Issa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric Bioelectronic Tongue is reported for glucose determination that contains eight sensor electrodes constructed using different metal electrodes (Pt, Au, oxidoreductase enzymes (glucose oxidase, ascorbate oxidase, uricase, and membrane coatings (Nafion, chitosan. The response to varying concentrations of glucose, ascorbic acid, uric acid, and acetaminophen was tested for two models, concentration determination by current density measurements at individual electrodes and concentration determination by a linear regression model for the entire electrode array. The reduced chi-squared for the full array model was found to be about one order of magnitude lower than that for the individual-electrode model. Discrimination of glucose from chemical interference by the other three species is accomplished through a combination of enzyme catalysis, metal electrocatalysis, and membrane surface charge. The benefit of incorporating enzyme electrodes into the sensor array is illustrated by the lower correlation coefficients between different enzyme electrodes relative to non-enzyme coated electrodes. This approach can be more generally applied to detection of other substrates of oxidoreductase enzymes.

  8. Design of nanostructured-based glucose biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komirisetty, Archana; Williams, Frances; Pradhan, Aswini; Konda, Rajini B.; Dondapati, Hareesh; Samantaray, Diptirani

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the design of glucose sensors that will be integrated with advanced nano-materials, bio-coatings and electronics to create novel devices that are highly sensitive, inexpensive, accurate, and reliable. In the work presented, a glucose biosensor and its fabrication process flow have been designed. The device is based on electrochemical sensing using a working electrode with bio-functionalized zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-rods. Among all metal oxide nanostructures, ZnO nano-materials play a significant role as a sensing element in biosensors due to their properties such as high isoelectric point (IEP), fast electron transfer, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and chemical stability which are very crucial parameters to achieve high sensitivity. Amperometric enzyme electrodes based on glucose oxidase (GOx) are used due to their stability and high selectivity to glucose. The device also consists of silicon dioxide and titanium layers as well as platinum working and counter electrodes and a silver/silver chloride reference electrode. Currently, the biosensors are being fabricated using the process flow developed. Once completed, the sensors will be bio-functionalized and tested to characterize their performance, including their sensitivity and stability.

  9. The capsaicin analog nonivamide decreases total energy intake from a standardized breakfast and enhances plasma serotonin levels in moderately overweight men after administered in an oral glucose tolerance test: a randomized, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochkogler, Christina M; Rohm, Barbara; Hojdar, Karin; Pignitter, Marc; Widder, Sabine; Ley, Jakob P; Krammer, Gerhard E; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-06-01

    Since bolus administration of capsaicin has been shown to reduce appetite and ad libitum energy intake, this study elucidated the satiating effect of the less pungent capsaicin analog, nonivamide, on subjective feelings of hunger, ad libitum food intake, and satiating hormones in moderately overweight male subjects. Following a randomized, crossover design, 24 male subjects (BMI 27.5 ± 1.53 kg/m(2) ) received either 75 g glucose in 300 mL water (control treatment, CT) or the same glucose solution supplemented with 0.15 mg nonivamide (nonivamide treatment, NT). Ratings of hunger were assessed before and 2 h after each intervention by means of visual analog scales. Ad libitum energy and macronutrient intakes from a standardized breakfast 2 h postintervention were calculated. Plasma glucose, insulin, peptide YY (3-36), glucagon-like peptide 1, and serotonin were quantified in blood samples drawn before and 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after each intervention. NT reduced subjective feelings of hunger and ad libitum energy and carbohydrate intakes from a standardized breakfast compared to CT. Plasma analysis revealed higher mean plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 and serotonin concentrations after NT versus CT. Addition of 0.15 mg nonivamide to a glucose solution reduced ad libitum energy intake from a standardized breakfast in moderately overweight men. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Sleep duration and sleep quality are associated differently with alterations of glucose homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Christensen, Dirk Lund

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aims  Studies suggest that inadequate sleep duration and poor sleep quality increase the risk of impaired glucose regulation and diabetes. However, associations with specific markers of glucose homeostasis are less well explained. The objective of this study was to explore possible...... associations of sleep duration and sleep quality with markers of glucose homeostasis and glucose tolerance status in a healthy population-based study sample. Methods  The study comprised 771 participants from the Danish, population-based cross-sectional ‘Health2008’ study. Sleep duration and sleep quality were...... measured by self-report. Markers of glucose homeostasis were derived from a 3-point oral glucose tolerance test and included fasting plasma glucose, 2-h plasma glucose, HbA1c, two measures of insulin sensitivity (the insulin sensitivity index0,120 and homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity...

  11. Glucose effects on long-term memory performance: duration and domain specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Lauren; Finnegan, Yvonne; Hu, Henglong; Scholey, Andrew B; Sünram-Lea, Sandra I

    2010-08-01

    Previous research has suggested that long-term verbal declarative memory is particularly sensitive to enhancement by glucose loading; however, investigation of glucose effects on certain memory domains has hitherto been neglected. Therefore, domain specificity of glucose effects merits further elucidation. The aim of the present research was to provide a more comprehensive investigation of the possible effects of glucose administration on different aspects of memory by 1) contrasting the effect of glucose administration on different memory domains (implicit/explicit memory; verbal/non-verbal memory, and recognition/familiarity processes), 2) investigating whether potential effects on memory domains differ depending on the dose of glucose administered (25 g versus 60 g), 3) exploring the duration of the glucose facilitation effect (assessment of memory performance 35 min and 1 week after encoding). A double-blind between-subjects design was used to test the effects of administration of 25 and 60 g glucose on memory performance. Implicit memory was improved following administration of 60 g of glucose. Glucose supplementation failed to improve face recognition performance but significantly improved performance of word recall and recognition following administration of 60 g of glucose. However, effects were not maintained 1 week following encoding. Improved implicit memory performance following glucose administration has not been reported before. Furthermore, the current data tentatively suggest that level of processing may determine the required glucose dosage to demonstrate memory improvement and that higher dosages may be able to exert effects on memory pertaining to both hippocampal and non-hippocampal brain regions.

  12. Abnormal transient rise in hepatic glucose production after oral glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, A; Litchfield, A; Fabris, S; Proietto, J

    1995-05-01

    A transient rise in hepatic glucose production (HGP) after an oral glucosa load has been reported in some insulin-resistant states such as in obese fa/fa Zucker rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether this rise in HGP also occurs in subjects with established non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Glucose kinetics were measured basally and during a double-label oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 12 NIDDM subjects and 12 non-diabetic 'control' subjects. Twenty minutes after the glucose load, HGP had increased 73% above basal in the NIDDM subjects (7.29 +/- 0.52 to 12.58 +/- 1.86 mumol/kg/min, P < 0.02). A transient rise in glucagon (12 pg/ml above basal, P < 0.004) occurred at a similar time. In contrast, the control subjects showed no rise in HGP or plasma glucagon. HGP began to suppress 40-50 min after the OGTT in both the NIDDM and control subjects. A 27% increase in the rate of gut-derived glucose absorption was also observed in the NIDDM group, which could be the result of increased gut glucose absorption or decreased first pass extraction of glucose by the liver. Therefore, in agreement with data in animal models of NIDDM, a transient rise in HGP partly contributes to the hyperglycemia observed after an oral glucose load in NIDDM subjects.

  13. The value of episodic, intensive blood glucose monitoring in non-insulin treated persons with Type 2 Diabetes: design of the Structured Testing Program (STeP) study, a cluster-randomised, clinical trial [NCT00674986].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, William; Fisher, Lawrence; Schikman, Charles; Hinnen, Deborah; Parkin, Christopher; Jelsovsky, Zhihong; Amstutz, Linda; Schweitzer, Matthias; Wagner, Robin

    2010-05-18

    The value and utility of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in non-insulin treated T2DM has yet to be clearly determined. Findings from studies in this population have been inconsistent, due mainly to design differences and limitations, including the prescribed frequency and timing of SMBG, role of the patient and physician in responding to SMBG results, inclusion criteria that may contribute to untoward floor effects, subject compliance, and cross-arm contamination. We have designed an SMBG intervention study that attempts to address these issues. The Structured Testing Program (STeP) study is a 12-month, cluster-randomised, multi-centre clinical trial to evaluate whether poorly controlled (HbA1c >or= 7.5%), non-insulin treated T2DM patients will benefit from a comprehensive, integrated physician/patient intervention using structured SMBG in US primary care practices. Thirty-four practices will be recruited and randomly assigned to an active control group (ACG) that receives enhanced usual care or to an enhanced usual care group plus structured SMBG (STG). A total of 504 patients will be enrolled; eligible patients at each site will be randomly selected using a defined protocol. Anticipated attrition of 20% will yield a sample size of at least 204 per arm, which will provide a 90% power to detect a difference of at least 0.5% in change from baseline in HbA1c values, assuming a common standard deviation of 1.5%. Differences in timing and degree of treatment intensification, cost effectiveness, and changes in patient self-management behaviours, mood, and quality of life (QOL) over time will also be assessed. Analysis of change in HbA1c and other dependent variables over time will be performed using both intent-to-treat and per protocol analyses. Trial results will be available in 2010. The intervention and trial design builds upon previous research by emphasizing appropriate and collaborative use of SMBG by both patients and physicians. Utilization of per

  14. The value of episodic, intensive blood glucose monitoring in non-insulin treated persons with type 2 diabetes: Design of the Structured Testing Program (STeP Study, a cluster-randomised, clinical trial [NCT00674986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelsovsky Zhihong

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The value and utility of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG in non-insulin treated T2DM has yet to be clearly determined. Findings from studies in this population have been inconsistent, due mainly to design differences and limitations, including the prescribed frequency and timing of SMBG, role of the patient and physician in responding to SMBG results, inclusion criteria that may contribute to untoward floor effects, subject compliance, and cross-arm contamination. We have designed an SMBG intervention study that attempts to address these issues. Methods/design The Structured Testing Program (STeP study is a 12-month, cluster-randomised, multi-centre clinical trial to evaluate whether poorly controlled (HbA1c ≥ 7.5%, non-insulin treated T2DM patients will benefit from a comprehensive, integrated physician/patient intervention using structured SMBG in US primary care practices. Thirty-four practices will be recruited and randomly assigned to an active control group (ACG that receives enhanced usual care or to an enhanced usual care group plus structured SMBG (STG. A total of 504 patients will be enrolled; eligible patients at each site will be randomly selected using a defined protocol. Anticipated attrition of 20% will yield a sample size of at least 204 per arm, which will provide a 90% power to detect a difference of at least 0.5% in change from baseline in HbA1c values, assuming a common standard deviation of 1.5%. Differences in timing and degree of treatment intensification, cost effectiveness, and changes in patient self-management behaviours, mood, and quality of life (QOL over time will also be assessed. Analysis of change in HbA1c and other dependent variables over time will be performed using both intent-to-treat and per protocol analyses. Trial results will be available in 2010. Discussion The intervention and trial design builds upon previous research by emphasizing appropriate and collaborative use of

  15. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a meal or ...

  16. Effect of ezetimibe on lipid and glucose metabolism after a fat and glucose load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramitsu, Shinya; Miyagishima, Kenji; Ishii, Junichi; Matsui, Shigeru; Naruse, Hiroyuki; Shiino, Kenji; Kitagawa, Fumihiko; Ozaki, Yukio

    2012-11-01

    The clinical benefit of ezetimibe, an intestinal cholesterol transporter inhibitor, for treatment of postprandial hyperlipidemia was assessed in subjects who ingested a high-fat and high-glucose test meal to mimic westernized diet. We enrolled 20 male volunteers who had at least one of the following: waist circumference ≥ 85 cm, body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2), or triglycerides (TG) from 150 to 400mg/dL. After 4 weeks of treatment with ezetimibe (10mg/day), the subjects ingested a high-fat and high-glucose meal. Then changes in serum lipid and glucose levels were monitored after 0, 2, 4, and 6h, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for the change in each parameter. At 4 and 6h postprandially, TG levels were decreased (pAUC for TG was also decreased (pAUC for apo-B48 was also significantly decreased (pBlood glucose and insulin levels at 2h postprandially were significantly decreased by ezetimibe (pAUCs for blood glucose and insulin were also significantly decreased (pglucose metabolism, this drug is likely to be beneficial for dyslipidemia in patients with postprandial metabolic abnormalities. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Prevalence of postpartum impaired glucose tolerance after gestational diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Gutiérrez, Gustavo; Macias Rocha, Ana Laura; Puente Alvarez, Erika Isela

    2012-10-01

    gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects 2 to 10% of pregnancies and it has been postulated as a variant of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) because they share a similar pathophysioiogy. Approximately in 90% the carbohydrate intolerance resolves after pregnancy, however after 5 to 16 years after delivery women will have a risk of 17 to 63% to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. to determine the frequency of postpartum impaired glucose tolerance in women with previous GDM. 125 patients with diagnosis of GMD were included, general data were captured, type of control during pregnancy and complications occurred. The women were instructed to undergo a postpartum oral glucose tolerance test of 75 g and 2 h, 6 weeks after their delivery date and they were classified into five groups: normal patients, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose and combined both. after follow up 13 women (10.4%) were diagnosed as DM2; 14 patients (11.2%) were classified as glucose intolerance; 16 (12.8%) were catalogued with impaired fasting glucose; 6 (4.8%) had both disorders; and 76 (60.8%) were diagnosed as healthy women. the detection with a postpartum oral glucose tolerance test is necessary for the identification of the various types of disorders of the carbohydrate metabolism including DM2.

  18. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) raises blood-brain glucose transfer capacity and hexokinase activity in human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Gejl, Michael; Lerche, Susanne; Egefjord, L?rke; Brock, Birgitte; M?ller, Niels; Vang, Kim; Rodell, Anders B.; Bibby, Bo M.; Holst, Jens J.; Rungby, J?rgen; Gjedde, Albert

    2013-01-01

    In hyperglycemia, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) lowers brain glucose concentration together with increased net blood-brain clearance and brain metabolism, but it is not known whether this effect depends on the prevailing plasma glucose (PG) concentration. In hypoglycemia, glucose depletion potentially impairs brain function. Here, we test the hypothesis that GLP-1 exacerbates the effect of hypoglycemia. To test the hypothesis, we determined glucose transport and consumption rates in seven h...

  19. Screening for hypoglycemia at the bedside in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with the Abbott PCx glucose meter

    OpenAIRE

    Balion, Cynthia; Grey, Vijaylaxmi; Ismaila, Afisi; Blatz, Susan; Seidlitz, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Point of care (POC) glucose meters are routinely used as a screening tool for hypoglycemia in a neonatal setting. Glucose meters however, lack the same accuracy as laboratory instruments for glucose measurement. In this study we investigated potential reasons for this inaccuracy and established a cut off value for confirmatory testing. Methods In this prospective study, all patients in the neonatal intensive care unit who had a plasma glucose test ordered were eligible to ...

  20. Predicting Plasma Glucose From Interstitial Glucose Observations Using Bayesian Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alexander Hildenbrand; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Juhl, Rune

    2014-01-01

    One way of constructing a control algorithm for an artificial pancreas is to identify a model capable of predicting plasma glucose (PG) from interstitial glucose (IG) observations. Stochastic differential equations (SDEs) make it possible to account both for the unknown influence of the continuous...... glucose monitor (CGM) and for unknown physiological influences. Combined with prior knowledge about the measurement devices, this approach can be used to obtain a robust predictive model. A stochastic-differential-equation-based gray box (SDE-GB) model is formulated on the basis of an identifiable...

  1. The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucose-stimulated insulin response to exercise training and diet in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Karen R; Brooks, Latina M; Solomon, Thomas P J; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; O'Leary, Valerie B; Kirwan, John P

    2009-06-01

    Aging and obesity are characterized by decreased beta-cell sensitivity and defects in the potentiation of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion by GIP. Exercise and diet are known to improve glucose metabolism and the pancreatic insulin response to glucose, and this effect may be mediated through the incretin effect of GIP. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 12-wk exercise training intervention (5 days/wk, 60 min/day, 75% Vo(2 max)) combined with a eucaloric (EX, n = 10) or hypocaloric (EX-HYPO, pre: 1,945 +/- 190, post: 1,269 +/- 70, kcal/day; n = 9) diet on the GIP response to glucose in older (66.8 +/- 1.5 yr), obese (34.4 +/- 1.7 kg/m(2)) adults with impaired glucose tolerance. In addition to GIP, plasma PYY(3-36), insulin, and glucose responses were measured during a 3-h, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Both interventions led to a significant improvement in Vo(2 max) (P HYPO (-8.3 +/- 1.1 vs. -2.8 +/- 0.5, P = 0.002). The glucose-stimulated insulin response was reduced after EX-HYPO (P = 0.02), as was the glucose-stimulated GIP response (P caloric restriction and exercise reduces the GIP response to ingested glucose, 2) GIP may mediate the attenuated glucose-stimulated insulin response after exercise/diet interventions, and 3) the increased PYY(3-36) response represents an improved capacity to regulate satiety and potentially body weight in older, obese, insulin-resistant adults.

  2. Continuous glucose monitoring, oral glucose tolerance, and insulin - glucose parameters in adolescents with simple obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Awwa, A; Soliman, A; Al-Ali, M; Yassin, M; De Sanctis, V

    2012-09-01

    In obese adolescents pancreatic beta-cells may not be able to cope with insulin resistance leading to hyperglycemia and type2 diabetes (T2DM To assess oral glucose tolerance, 72-h continuous blood glucose concentrations (CGM) and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) in 13 adolescents with simple obesity (BMI SDS=4 ± 1.06). OGTT performed in 13 obese adolescents (13.47 ± 3 years) revealed 3 cases (23%) with impaired fasting glucose (IFG: fasting glucose >5.6 mmol/L), 4 cases (30%) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT: 2h blood glucose >7.8 continuous glucose monitoring system ( CGMS), IFG was detected in 4 cases, the maximum serum blood glucose (BG : 2h or more after meal) was >7.8 and 11.1 mmol/L (diabetes) in one case (7.6%). Five cases had a minimum BG recorded of 2.6 and QUICKI values obese adolescents, CGMS is superior to OGTT and HbA1C in detecting glycemic abnormalities, which appears to be secondary to insulin resistance.

  3. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise results from a coordinated increase in rates of glucose delivery (higher capillary perfusion), surface membrane glucose transport, and intracellular substrate flux through glycolysis. The mechanism behind the movement of GLUT4...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... excused. 86 million Americans have prediabetes. Take the test. Know where you stand. sticky en -- Chef Ronaldo's ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk ... Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  7. Continuous glucose monitoring in acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Quintanilla, Karina Alejandra; Lavalle-González, Fernando Javier; Mancillas-Adame, Leonardo Guadalupe; Zapata-Garrido, Alfonso Javier; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Zacarías; Tamez-Pérez, Héctor Eloy

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To compare the efficacy of devices for continuous glucose monitoring and capillary glucose monitoring in hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndrome using the following parameters: time to achieve normoglycemia, period of time in normoglycemia, and episodes of hypoglycemia. We performed a pilot, non-randomized, unblinded clinical trial that included 16 patients with acute coronary artery syndrome, a capillary or venous blood glucose ≥ 140 mg/dl, and treatment with a continuous infusion of fast acting human insulin. These patients were randomized into 2 groups: a conventional group, in which capillary measurement and recording as well as insulin adjustment were made every 4h, and an intervention group, in which measurement and recording as well as insulin adjustment were made every hour with a subcutaneous continuous monitoring system. Student's t-test was applied for mean differences and the X(2) test for qualitative variables. We observed a statistically significant difference in the mean time for achieving normoglycemia, favoring the conventional group with a P = 0.02. Continuous monitoring systems are as useful as capillary monitoring for achieving normoglycemia. Copyright © 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Khadilkar, Kranti Shreesh; Bandgar, Tushar; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). It also focuses on t...

  9. Prediction Methods for Blood Glucose Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    “Recent Results on Glucose–Insulin Predictions by Means of a State Observer for Time-Delay Systems” by Pasquale Palumbo et al. introduces a prediction model which in real time predicts the insulin concentration in blood which in turn is used in a control system. The method is tested in simulation...... EEG signals to predict upcoming hypoglycemic situations in real-time by employing artificial neural networks. The results of a 30-day long clinical study with the implanted device and the developed algorithm are presented. The chapter “Meta-Learning Based Blood Glucose Predictor for Diabetic......, but the insulin amount is chosen using factors that account for this expectation. The increasing availability of more accurate continuous blood glucose measurement (CGM) systems is attracting much interest to the possibilities of explicit prediction of future BG values. Against this background, in 2014 a two...

  10. Osmotic load from glucose polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, W W; Poh, D; Leong, M; Tam, Y K; Succop, P; Checkland, E G

    1991-01-01

    Glucose polymer is a carbohydrate source with variable chain lengths of glucose units which may result in variable osmolality. The osmolality of two commercial glucose polymers was measured in reconstituted powder infant formulas, and the change in osmolality of infant milk formulas at the same increases in energy density (67 kcal/dL to 81 and 97 kcal/dL) from the use of additional milk powder or glucose polymers was compared. All samples were prepared from powders (to nearest 0.1 mg), and osmolality was measured by freezing point depression. For both glucose polymers the within-batch variability of the measured osmolality was less than 3.5%, and between-batch variability of the measured osmolality was less than 9.6%. The measured osmolality varies linearly with energy density (p less than 0.001) and was highest in infant formula reconstituted from milk powder alone. However, there exist significant differences in the measured osmolality between different glucose polymer preparations. At high energy densities (greater than or equal to 97 kcal/dL), infant milk formulas prepared with milk powder alone or with the addition of certain glucose polymer preparation may have high osmolality (greater than or equal to 450 mosm/kg) and theoretically predispose the infant to complications of hyperosmotic feeds.

  11. Insulin dynamics and biochemical markers for predicting impaired glucose tolerance in obese Thai youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabanchasak, Sirapassorn; Siripunthana, Sukumarn; Supornsilchai, Vichit; Wacharasindhu, Suttipong; Sahakitrungruang, Taninee

    2015-09-01

    Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. The predictors of IGT in obese youth are not well described. We studied 115 obese Thai children who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose and insulin levels were calculated for assessment of β-cell function. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), lipid profile, and clinical parameters were also used to determine predictors of IGT. We found that three patients had T2DM and 30 subjects had IGT. IGT patients had significantly higher fasting glucose (FG), 1-h postload glucose, 2-h postload insulin, and lower whole-body insulin sensitivity indices than in normal glucose tolerance subjects whereas other indices were comparable. By ROC curve analyses, 1-h postload glucose was the best predictor of IGT, but FG or HbA1c represented a poor diagnostic tool for prediabetes screening. Subjects with 1-h OGTT glucose > 155 mg/dL had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein levels, lower insulin sensitivity, and more insulin resistance than those with 1-h postload glucose of ≤ 155 mg/dL. Abnormal glucose tolerance is highly prevalent in obese Thai youth. Several fasting indices and HbA1c fail to predict IGT. An 1-h OGTT glucose of > 155 mg/dL appears to be more associated with adverse insulin dynamics and metabolic profile than 2-h postload glucose.

  12. Computer Simulation Model to Train Medical Personnel on Glucose Clamp Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghoul, Pooya; Boulet, Benoit; Tardif, Annie; Haidar, Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    A glucose clamp procedure is the most reliable way to quantify insulin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, but skilled and trained research personnel are required to frequently adjust the glucose infusion rate. A computer environment that simulates glucose clamp experiments can be used for efficient personnel training and development and testing of algorithms for automated glucose clamps. We built 17 virtual healthy subjects (mean age, 25±6 years; mean body mass index, 22.2±3 kg/m 2 ), each comprising a mathematical model of glucose regulation and a unique set of parameters. Each virtual subject simulates plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in response to intravenous insulin and glucose infusions. Each virtual subject provides a unique response, and its parameters were estimated from combined intravenous glucose tolerance test-hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp data using the Bayesian approach. The virtual subjects were validated by comparing their simulated predictions against data from 12 healthy individuals who underwent a hyperglycemic glucose clamp procedure. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were predicted by the virtual subjects in response to glucose infusions determined by a trained research staff performing a simulated hyperglycemic clamp experiment. The total amount of glucose infusion was indifferent between the simulated and the real subjects (85±18 g vs. 83±23 g; p=NS) as well as plasma insulin levels (63±20 mU/L vs. 58±16 mU/L; p=NS). The virtual subjects can reliably predict glucose needs and plasma insulin profiles during hyperglycemic glucose clamp conditions. These virtual subjects can be used to train personnel to make glucose infusion adjustments during clamp experiments. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Glucose enhancement of memory is modulated by trait anxiety in healthy adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael A; Hii, Hilary L; Foster, Jonathan K; van Eekelen, J A M

    2011-01-01

    Glucose administration is associated with memory enhancement in healthy young individuals under conditions of divided attention at encoding. While the specific neurocognitive mechanisms underlying this 'glucose memory facilitation effect' are currently uncertain, it is thought that individual differences in glucoregulatory efficiency may alter an individual's sensitivity to the glucose memory facilitation effect. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function (itself a modulator of glucoregulatory efficiency), baseline self-reported stress and trait anxiety influence the glucose memory facilitation effect. Adolescent males (age range = 14-17 years) were administered glucose and placebo prior to completing a verbal episodic memory task on two separate testing days in a counter-balanced, within-subjects design. Glucose ingestion improved verbal episodic memory performance when memory recall was tested (i) within an hour of glucose ingestion and encoding, and (ii) one week subsequent to glucose ingestion and encoding. Basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function did not appear to influence the glucose memory facilitation effect; however, glucose ingestion only improved memory in participants reporting relatively higher trait anxiety. These findings suggest that the glucose memory facilitation effect may be mediated by biological mechanisms associated with trait anxiety.

  14. Elevated 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired glucose tolerance are associated with whole blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maria Adelaide; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that glucose levels ≥155 mg/dl at 1-h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may predict development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). Studies showed a link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether blood viscosity is associated with dysglycemic conditions such as NGT 1 h-high, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unsettled. 1723 non-diabetic adults underwent biochemical evaluation and OGTT. A validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins was employed to estimate whole blood viscosity. Subjects were categorized into NGT with 1 h glucose h-low), NGT-1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT. Hematocrit and blood viscosity values appeared significantly higher in individuals with NGT 1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT as compared to NGT 1 h-low subjects. Blood viscosity was significantly correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting, 1- and 2-h post-challenge insulin levels, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein and insulin sensitivity. Of the four glycemic parameters, 1-h post-challenge glucose showed the strongest correlation with blood viscosity (β = 0.158, P h post-challenge plasma glucose. They also suggest that a subgroup of NGT individuals with 1-h post-challenge plasma >155 mg/dl have increased blood viscosity comparable to that observed in subjects with IFG and/or IGT.

  15. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrune Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency, or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI, is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea. Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty, generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency. GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib. Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21 and SLC37A4 (11q23 respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most

  16. Increased glucose dependence in resting, iron-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, G.A.; Henderson, S.A.; Dallman, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Rates of blood glucose and lactate turnover were assessed in resting iron-deficient and iron-sufficient (control) rats to test the hypothesis that dependence on glucose metabolism is increased in iron deficiency. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 21 days old, were fed a diet containing either 6 mg iron/kg feed (iron-deficient group) or 50 mg iron/kg feed (iron-sufficient group) for 3-4 wk. The iron-deficient group became anemic, with hemoglobin levels of 6.4 ± 0.2 compared with 13.8 ± 0.3 g/dl for controls. Rats received a 90-min primed continuous infusion of D-[6- 3 H]glucose and sodium L-[U- 14 C]lactate via a jugular catheter. Serial samples were taken from a carotid catheter for concentration and specific activity determinations. Iron-deficient rats had significantly higher blood glucose and lactate concentrations than controls. The iron-deficient group had a significantly higher glucose turnover rate than the control group. Significantly more metabolite recycling in iron-deficient rats was indicated by greater incorporation of 14 C into blood glucose. Assuming a carbon crossover correction factor of 2, half of blood glucose arose from lactate in deficient animals. By comparison, only 25% of glucose arose from lactate in controls. Lack of a difference in lactate turnover rates between deficient rats and controls was attributed to 14 C recycling. The results indicate a greater dependence on glucose metabolism in iron-deficient rats

  17. Association Between Exercise and Blood Glucose Levels In Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryna Laili Putri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a chronic disease with high prevalence, associated with various debilitating complications and can decreases the quality of life in people with it. It is important for people with DM to doing exercise to control the stability of their blood glucose levels. The purpose of this study was to finding out the association between frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise with average blood glucose levels in people with DM. This was an observational study that used case control design. Data obtained from interview with 20 samples from case group and 20 samples from control group, that had been chosen with systematic random sampling technique. Dependent variable of this study was the average blood glucose levels and independents variables were frequency, duration, intensity, and the kind of exercise. This study used Chi Square test 3 × 2 contingency tables to finding out the association and risk of dependent variable with independent variables,. The results showed that exercise factors that associated to average blood glucose levels were duration of exercise (p = 0.022 and intensity of exercise (p = 0.021. The frequency of exercise does not associated to average blood glucose levels (p = 0.340. Diabetic patients who did not do any exercise have the risk of having uncontrolled blood glucose levels. The conclusion was duration and intensity of exercise related significantly to blood glucose levels. By doing exercise three times a week for 30 minutes or more can decreases the risk of uncontrolled blood glucose levels in people with DM. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, exercise, average blood glucose levels

  18. Impact of buccal glucose spray, liquid sugars and dextrose tablets on the evolution of plasma glucose concentration in healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlup, Rudolf; Zapletalova, Jana; Peterson, Karolina; Poljakova, Iveta; Lenhartova, Eva; Tancred, Adam; Perera, Russel; Smital, Jan

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this prospective controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of three commercially available glucose products, (1) buccal glucose spray, (2) liquid sugars, and (3) dextrose tablet, on the evolution of plasma glucose concentration (PG). Sixteen healthy volunteers aged 21.8 +/- 0.78 y (mean +/- SE), BMI 23.5 +/- 0.84 kg/m(2), tested their PG over the course of 3 sets of 4 sessions (S) each: S(0)-control fasting, S(1)-buccal administration of 10 glucose spray-doses (0.84 g of glucose) without swallowing; S(2-) consumption of 1 sachet (13 ml) of liquid sugar (ca. 5.2 g glucose, 5.2 g fructose, 5.2 g sucrose); S(3-) consumption of one dextrose tablet (6 g). PG was tested in finger-prick capillary blood using a personal glucometer Linus at the start, and at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min. The means of 3 respective sessions for each of the 16 subjects were analyzed. The Wilcoxon signed rank test revealed no significant differences between changes in the mean PG at the start vs. 5-minute interval either in control, or any intervention sessions. Analysis of regression coefficients after 30 min compared to the control session, demonstrated an increase in PG with the sachet of liquid sugars (0.068 mmol/l/min, p = 0.001) which was greater than a single dextrose tablet (0.052 mmol/l/min, p = 0.002), but no significant PG increase was found after buccal glucose spray. Liquid sugars or dextrose tablets, but not the buccal glucose spray, are effective means to increase PG within 10 minutes after ingestion.

  19. Adipokine pattern in subjects with impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in comparison to normal glucose tolerance and diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Tönjes

    Full Text Available AIM: Altered adipokine serum concentrations early reflect impaired adipose tissue function in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D. It is not entirely clear whether these adipokine alterations are already present in prediabetic states and so far there is no comprehensive adipokine panel available. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess distinct adipokine profiles in patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, impaired fasting glucose (IFG, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT or T2D. METHODS: Based on 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests, 124 individuals were divided into groups of IFG (n = 35, IGT (n = 45, or NGT (n = 43. Furthermore, 56 subjects with T2D were included. Serum concentrations of adiponectin, chemerin, fetuin-A, leptin, interleukin (IL-6, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, vaspin, progranulin, and soluble leptin receptor (sOBR were measured by ELISAs. RESULTS: Chemerin, progranulin, fetuin-A, and RBP4, IL-6, adiponectin and leptin serum concentrations were differentially regulated among the four investigated groups but only circulating chemerin was significantly different in patients with IGT compared to those with IFG. Compared to T2D the IFG subjects had higher serum chemerin, progranulin, fetuin-A and RBP4 levels which was not detectable in the comparison of the T2D and IGT group. CONCLUSION: Alterations in adipokine serum concentrations are already detectable in prediabetic states, mainly for chemerin, and may reflect adipose tissue dysfunction as an early pathogenetic event in T2D development. In addition, distinct adipokine serum patterns in individuals with IFG and IGT suggest a specific role of adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of these prediabetic states.

  20. NIR FRET Fluorophores for Use as an Implantable Glucose Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed DWEIK

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of an in vivo optical sensor requires the utilization of Near Infra Red (NIR fluorophores due to their ability to operate within the biological tissue window. Alexa Fluor 750 (AF750 and Alexa Fluor 680 (AF680 were examined as potential NIR fluorophores for an in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET glucose biosensor. AF680 and AF750 found to be a FRET pair and percent energy transfer was calculated. Next, the tested dye pair was utilized in a competitive binding assay in order to detect glucose. Concanavalin A (Con A and dextran have binding affinity, but in the presence of glucose, glucose displaces dextran due to its higher affinity to Con A than dextran. Finally, the percent signal transfer through porcine skin was examined. The results showed with approximately 4.0 mm porcine skin thickness, 1.98 % of the fluorescence was transmitted and captured by the detector.

  1. Glucose sensing based on Pt-MWCNT and MWCNT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryasomayajula, Lavanya; Xie, Jining; Wang, Shouyan; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2007-04-01

    It is known that multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is an excellent materials for biosensing applications and with the introduction of Pt nanoparticles (Pt-MWCNTs) of about 3nm in diameter in MWCNTs greatly increases the current sensitivity and also the signal to noise ratio. We fabricated the CNT- based glucose sensor by immobilization the bio enzyme, glucose oxidase (GoX), on the Pt-MWCNT and electrode were prepared. The sensor has been tested effectively for both the abnormal blood glucose levels- greater than 6.9 mM and less than 3.5 mM which are the prediabetic and diabetic glucose levels, respectively. The current signal obtained from the Pt-MWCNT was much higher compared to the MWCNT based sensors.

  2. Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  3. Predicting glucose intolerance with normal fasting plasma glucose by the components of the metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, D.; Lin, J.; Kuo, S.; Wu, D.; Li, J.; Hsieh, C.; Wu, C.; Hung, Y.; Kuo, K.

    2007-01-01

    Surprisingly it is estimated that about half of type 2 diabetics remain undetected. The possible causes may be partly attributable to people with normal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) but abnormal postprandial hyperglycemia. We attempted to develop an effective predictive model by using the metabolic syndrome (MeS) components as parameters to identify such persons. All participants received a standard 75 gm oral glucose tolerance test which showed that 106 had normal glucose tolerance, 61 had impaired glucose tolerance and 6 had diabetes on isolated postchallenge hyperglycemia. We tested five models which included various MeS components. Model 0: FPG; Model 1 (Clinical history model): family history (FH), FPG, age and sex; Model 2 (MeS model): Model 1 plus triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure; Model 3: Model 2 plus fasting plasma insulin (FPI); Model 4: Model 3 plus homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the predictive discrimination of these models. The area under the ROC curve of the Model 0 was significantly larger than the area under the diagonal reference line. All the other 4 models had a larger area under the ROC curve than Model 0. Considering the simplicity and lower cost of Model 2, it would be the best model to use. Nevertheless, Model 3 had the largest area under the ROC curve. We demonstrated that Model 2 and 3 have a significantly better predictive discrimination to identify persons with normal FPG at high risk for glucose intolerance. (author)

  4. Glucose monitoring as a guide to diabetes management. Critical subject review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, B

    1996-06-01

    To encourage a balanced approach to blood glucose monitoring in diabetes by a critical review of the history, power and cost of glucose testing. The Cambridge Data Base was searched and was supplemented by a random review of other relevant sources, including textbooks, company pamphlets, and laboratory manuals. Keywords used were "glucosuria diagnosis," "blood glucose self-monitoring," "glycosylated hemoglobin," and "fructosamine" for the 10-year period ending 1992, restricted to English language and human. About 200 titles were retrieved and reviewed according to the author's judgment of relevance. "Snapshot tests" (venous and capillary blood glucose) and "memory tests" (urine glucose, glycated hemoglobin fractions and fructosamine) must be employed according to individual patients treatment goals. Day-to-day metabolic guidance is facilitated by capillary blood glucose testing for patients receiving insulin and by urine glucose testing for others. Capillary blood glucose testing is mandatory in cases of hypoglycemia unawareness (inability to sense hypoglycemia because of neuropathy) but is not a substitute for a knowledge of clinical hypoglycemia self-care. Criteria by reason (clinical judgement and cost effectiveness) must be separated from criteria by emotion (preoccupation with technology and marketing). No randomized studies show that any of these tests consistently improve clinical outcome. Optimal metabolic control and cost savings can be expected from a rational selection of tests.

  5. Circulating Betatrophin Correlates with Triglycerides and Postprandial Glucose among Different Glucose Tolerance Statuses--A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ting; Jin, Kairui; Chen, Peihong; Jin, Hua; Yang, Lili; Xie, Xinmiao; Yang, Meili; Hu, Cheng; Yu, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    Previous researches of betatrophin on glucose and lipids metabolism under insulin-resistant condition have reached controversial conclusions. To further identify the possible impact of betatrophin, we measured the circulating betatrophin levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients, and in subjects with both impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and investigated the relationship between serum betatrophin and other clinical parameters in these patients with different glucose tolerance statuses. A total of 460 permanent residents of the Fengxian District, aged 40-60 years, were enrolled. Based on the results of a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, we selected newly diagnosed T2DM (n = 50) patients and subjects with IGT (n = 51) and NGT (n = 50) according to their age, gender and body mass index (18-28 kg/m2). Anthropometric parameters, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood lipids and fasting insulin were measured. Serum betatrophin concentrations were determined via ELISA. Serum betatrophin levels in T2DM patients were increased significantly compared with IGT and NGT groups, and decreased in subjects with better islet beta cell function. Serum betatrophin was positively correlated with triglyceride, 2-hour postprandial glucose, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index in all subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed that 2-hour postprandial glucose was independently associated with serum betatrophin significantly. Circulating betatrophin is increased in newly-diagnosed T2DM patients and positively correlated with the triglycerides and postprandial glucose levels. The results suggest that betatrophin may participate in glucose and triglycerides metabolism.

  6. Circulating Betatrophin Correlates with Triglycerides and Postprandial Glucose among Different Glucose Tolerance Statuses—A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peihong; Jin, Hua; Yang, Lili; Xie, Xinmiao; Yang, Meili; Hu, Cheng; Yu, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous researches of betatrophin on glucose and lipids metabolism under insulin-resistant condition have reached controversial conclusions. To further identify the possible impact of betatrophin, we measured the circulating betatrophin levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients, and in subjects with both impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and investigated the relationship between serum betatrophin and other clinical parameters in these patients with different glucose tolerance statuses. Methods A total of 460 permanent residents of the Fengxian District, aged 40–60 years, were enrolled. Based on the results of a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, we selected newly diagnosed T2DM (n = 50) patients and subjects with IGT (n = 51) and NGT (n = 50) according to their age, gender and body mass index (18–28 kg/m2). Anthropometric parameters, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood lipids and fasting insulin were measured. Serum betatrophin concentrations were determined via ELISA. Results Serum betatrophin levels in T2DM patients were increased significantly compared with IGT and NGT groups, and decreased in subjects with better islet beta cell function. Serum betatrophin was positively correlated with triglyceride, 2-hour postprandial glucose, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index in all subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed that 2-hour postprandial glucose was independently associated with serum betatrophin significantly. Conclusions Circulating betatrophin is increased in newly-diagnosed T2DM patients and positively correlated with the triglycerides and postprandial glucose levels. The results suggest that betatrophin may participate in glucose and triglycerides metabolism. PMID:26247824

  7. Glucose homeostasis in mice is transglutaminase 2 independent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siiri E Iismaa

    Full Text Available Transglutaminase type 2 (TG2 has been reported to be a candidate gene for maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY because three different mutations that impair TG2 transamidase activity have been found in 3 families with MODY. TG2 null (TG2(-/- mice have been reported to be glucose intolerant and have impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS. Here we rigorously evaluated the role of TG2 in glucose metabolism using independently generated murine models of genetic TG2 disruption, which show no compensatory enhanced expression of other TGs in pancreatic islets or other tissues. First, we subjected chow- or fat-fed congenic SV129 or C57BL/6 wild type (WT and TG2(-/- littermates, to oral glucose gavage. Blood glucose and serum insulin levels were similar for both genotypes. Pancreatic islets isolated from these animals and analysed in vitro for GSIS and cholinergic potentiation of GSIS, showed no significant difference between genotypes. Results from intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (GTTs and insulin tolerance tests (ITTs were similar for both genotypes. Second, we directly investigated the role of TG2 transamidase activity in insulin secretion using a coisogenic model that expresses a mutant form of TG2 (TG2(R579A, which is constitutively active for transamidase activity. Intraperitoneal GTTs and ITTs revealed no significant differences between WT and TG2(R579A/R579A mice. Given that neither deletion nor constitutive activation of TG2 transamidase activity altered basal responses, or responses to a glucose or insulin challenge, our data indicate that glucose homeostasis in mice is TG2 independent, and question a link between TG2 and diabetes.

  8. Nonsuppressed Glucagon After Glucose Challenge as a Potential Predictor for Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Róbert; Hakaste, Liisa H; Ahlqvist, Emma; Heni, Martin; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Van Obberghen, Emmanuel; Stefan, Norbert; Gallwitz, Baptist; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Groop, Leif; Fritsche, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Glucagon levels are classically suppressed after glucose challenge. It is still not clear as to whether a lack of suppression contributes to hyperglycemia and thus to the development of diabetes. We investigated the association of postchallenge change in glucagon during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), hypothesizing that higher postchallenge glucagon levels are observed in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Glucagon levels were measured during OGTT in a total of 4,194 individuals without diabetes in three large European cohorts. Longitudinal changes in glucagon suppression were investigated in 50 participants undergoing a lifestyle intervention. Only 66-79% of participants showed suppression of glucagon at 120 min (fold change glucagon 120/0 change glucagon 120/0 ≥1). Participants with nonsuppressed glucagon 120 had a lower risk of IGT in all cohorts (odds ratio 0.44-0.53, P change glucagon 120/0 was associated with an improvement in insulin sensitivity ( P = 0.003). We characterize nonsuppressed glucagon 120 during the OGTT. Lower glucagon suppression after oral glucose administration is associated with a metabolically healthier phenotype, suggesting that it is not an adverse phenomenon. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  9. MKR mice have increased dynamic glucose disposal despite metabolic inflexibility, and hepatic and peripheral insulin insensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitheesvaran, B; LeRoith, D; Kurland, I J

    2010-10-01

    Recent work has shown that there can be significant differences when glucose disposal is assessed for high-fat induced insulin resistance by static clamp methods vs dynamic assessment during a stable isotope i.p. glucose tolerance test. MKR mice, though lean, have severe insulin resistance and decreased muscle fatty acid oxidation. Our goal was to assess dynamic vs static glucose disposal in MKR mice, and to correlate glucose disposal and muscle-adipose-liver flux interactions with metabolic flexibility (indirect calorimetry) and muscle characteristics. Stable isotope flux phenotyping was performed using [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose, [U-(13)C(6)]glucose and [2-(13)C]glycerol. Muscle triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) content was assessed by thin layer chromatography, and histological determination of fibre type and cytochrome c activity performed. Metabolic flexibility was assessed by indirect calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry showed that MKR mice used more glucose than FVB/N mice during fasting (respiratory exchange ratio [RER] 0.88 vs 0.77, respectively). Compared with FVB/N mice, MKR mice had faster dynamic glucose disposal, despite increased whole-muscle DAG and TAG, and similar hepatic glucose production with higher fasting insulin and unchanged basal glucose. Fed MKR muscle had more glycogen, and increased levels of GLUT1 and GLUT4 than FVB/N muscle. Histology indicated that MKR soleus had mildly decreased cytochrome c activity overall and more type II (glycolytic) fibres compared with that in FVB/N mice. MKR muscle adapts to using glucose, with more type II fibres present in red muscle. Fasting RER is elevated and glucose disposal during an i.p. glucose tolerance test is accelerated despite increased muscle DAG and TAG. Metabolic inflexibility may result from the compensatory use of fuel that can be best utilised for energy requirements; static vs dynamic glucose disposal assessments may measure complementary aspects of metabolic flexibility and insulin

  10. Enhanced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response to oral glucose in glucose-intolerant HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Haugaard, S B; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP were determined frequently during a 3-h, 75-g glucose tolerance test. Insulin secretion rates (ISRs) were calculated by deconvolution of C-peptide concentrations. RESULTS: The incremental area under the curve (incrAUC) for GLP-1 was increased by 250% in IGT patients compared...... without adjustment (r=0.38, Pglucose incrAUC (r=0.49, Pglucose-intolerant, HIV-infected male patients may display enhanced GLP-1 responses to oral glucose compared with normal glucose-tolerant HIV-infected male patients......OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), which are major regulators of glucose tolerance through the stimulation of insulin secretion, contribute to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) among HIV...

  11. An imidazopyridine anxiolytic alters glucose tolerance in patients: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottaï, T; Cartault, F; Pouget, R; Blayac, J P; Petit, P

    1995-02-01

    We have recently shown that compounds with high affinity for peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion in vitro. We therefore performed an oral glucose tolerance test in anxious inpatients treated with the imidazopyridine derivative alpidem, which has been shown to display high affinity for these binding sites. The test was performed before and after 1 week of daily administration of the drug. As compared with pretreatment values, a significant alteration of the insulin response to glucose was observed. It is suggested that daily administration of alpidem, at therapeutically effective doses for the treatment of anxiety, may alter glucose tolerance.

  12. Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism associated with mental deterioration in multi-infarct dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, K.; Doi, C.; Yamaguchi, T.; Sasaki, H.; Matsui, H.; Yamada, K.; Kinomura, S.; Tohoku Univ.; Itoh, M.

    1991-01-01

    Cerebral glucose metabolism of 18 patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID) and 10 age-matched normal subjects were examined with positron emission tomography and the 18 -F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose technique. MID patients had significantly lower glucose metabolsim in all the grey matter regions measured and were also characterized by more individuality in metabolic pattern. MID patients were also evaluated as to intelligence quotient (IQ). A positive correlation between IQ as shown by the Tanaka-Binet test and glucose metabolism for the entire grey matter was found. The clinical applicability of this test for predicting cerebral metabolism is discussed. (orig.)

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  1. Monitor blood glucose - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... directions that come with your meter. Get the supplies ready, including a new test strip and disposable ... Endocrinology and Health Care Ethics, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH. Review provided by VeriMed ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  6. Your Glucose Meter

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  9. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Kranti Shreesh; Bandgar, Tushar; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

    2013-12-01

    Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). It also focuses on the newer concepts of blood glucose monitoring and their incorporation in routine clinical management of diabetes mellitus.

  10. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Kranti Shreesh; Bandgar, Tushar; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). It also focuses on the newer concepts of blood glucose monitoring and their incorporation in routine clinical management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:24910827

  11. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranti Shreesh Khadilkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS. It also focuses on the newer concepts of blood glucose monitoring and their incorporation in routine clinical management of diabetes mellitus.

  12. Effects of turtle oil on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in insulin resistant cell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Jing; Tian Yaping; Guo Duo

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of turtle oil on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in an insulin-resistant (IR) cell model which was established by the way of high concentration of insulin induction with HepG 2 cell in vitro culture. The IR cells were treated by turtle oil, the glucose consumption and 3 H-D-glucose incorporation rate in IR cells were detected by the way of glucose oxidase and 3 H-D-glucose incorporation assay respectively. The state of cell proliferation was tested by MTT method. The results showed that the incorporation rate of 3 H-D-glucose in IR cells was significantly lower than that in the control cells(P 3 H-D-glucose incorporation rate in either IR cells or control cells was increased with the increase of insulin concentration. Moreover, the 3 H-D-glucose incorporation rate of IR cells increased slower than that of control cells. The MTT assay showed that turtle oil can promote the proliferation of IR cell and control cell. The glucose uptake and glucose consumption in IR cell which treated with turtle oil was significantly increase than that in the control cells (P<0.05). Turtle oil can improve the insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in the IR cell model. (authors)

  13. Preoperative octreotide therapy and surgery in acromegaly: associations between glucose homeostasis and treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helseth, R; Carlsen, S M; Bollerslev, J; Svartberg, J; Øksnes, M; Skeie, S; Fougner, S L

    2016-02-01

    In acromegaly, high GH/IGF-1 levels associate with abnormal glucose metabolism. Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) reduce GH and IGF-1 but inhibit insulin secretion. We studied glucose homeostasis in de novo patients with acromegaly and changes in glucose metabolism after treatment with SSA and surgery. In this post hoc analysis from a randomized controlled trial, 55 de novo patients with acromegaly, not using antidiabetic medication, were included. Before surgery, 26 patients received SSAs for 6 months. HbA1c, fasting glucose, and oral glucose tolerance test were performed at baseline, after SSA pretreatment and at 3 months postoperative. Area under curve of glucose (AUC-G) was calculated. Glucose homeostasis was compared to baseline levels of GH and IGF-1, change after SSA pretreatment, and remission both after SSA pretreatment and 3 months postoperative. In de novo patients, IGF-1/GH levels did not associate with baseline glucose parameters. After SSA pretreatment, changes in GH/IGF-1 correlated positively to change in HbA1c levels (both p acromegaly, disease activity did not correlate with glucose homeostasis. Surgical treatment of acromegaly improved glucose metabolism in both cured and not cured patients, while SSA pretreatment led to deterioration in glucose homeostasis in patients not achieving biochemical control.

  14. Accuracy evaluation of contour next compared with five blood glucose monitoring systems across a wide range of blood glucose concentrations occurring in a clinical research setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaff, Leslie J; Brazg, Ronald; Hughes, Kristen; Tideman, Ann M; Schachner, Holly C; Stenger, Patricia; Pardo, Scott; Dunne, Nancy; Parkes, Joan Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of Contour(®) Next (CN; Bayer HealthCare LLC, Diabetes Care, Whippany, NJ) compared with five blood glucose monitoring systems (BGMSs) across a wide range of clinically occurring blood glucose levels. Subjects (n=146) were ≥ 18 years and had type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Subjects' glucose levels were safely lowered or raised to provide a wide range of glucose values. Capillary blood samples were tested on six BGMSs and a YSI glucose analyzer (YSI Life Sciences, Inc., Yellow Springs, OH) as the reference. Extreme glucose values were achieved by glucose modification of the blood sample. System accuracy was assessed by mean absolute difference (MAD) and mean absolute relative difference (MARD) across several glucose ranges, with glucose range (Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc., Alameda, CA), 2.77 mg/dL; OneTouch(®) Ultra(®) 2 (LifeScan, Inc., Milpitas, CA), 10.20 mg/dL; OneTouch(®) Verio(®) Pro (LifeScan, Inc.), 4.53 mg/dL; and Truetrack(®) (Nipro Diagnostics, Inc., Fort Lauderdale, FL), 11.08 mg/dL. The lowest MAD in the low glucose range, from CN, was statistically significantly lower than those of the other BGMSs with the exception of the FSL. CN also had a statistically significantly lower MARD than all other BGMSs in the low glucose range. In the overall glucose range (21-496 mg/dL), CN yielded the lowest MAD and MARD values, which were statistically significantly lower in comparison with the other BGMSs. When compared with other BGMSs, CN demonstrated the lowest mean deviation from the reference value (by MAD and MARD) across multiple glucose ranges.

  15. A review of metabolism of labeled glucoses for use in measuring glucose recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, R.W.; Young, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The fate of tritium from each carbon of D-glucose and the metabolism of L-glucose and 2-deoxy-D-glucose are known. Differences in metabolism of labeled glucoses can be used to quantify physical and chemical recycling of glucose. Only physical recycling is measured by [1- 3 H]-L-glucose, whereas [U- 14 C]-D-glucose measures total recycling. The difference between [1- 3 H]-L-glucose and [U- 14 C]-D-glucose, therefore, is chemical recycling. Recycling from extracellular binding sites and hepatic glucose 6-phosphate can be measured by difference between [1,2- 3 H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose and [1- 3 H]-L-glucose, and the difference in irreversible loss of the two will measure extrahepatic uptake of D-glucose. Recycling via Cori-alanine cycle plus CO 2 is the difference in irreversible loss measured by using [6- 3 H]-glucose and [U- 14 C]-D-glucose. Recycling via the hexose monophosphate pathway can be determined by difference in irreversible loss between [1- 3 H]-D-glucose and [6- 3 H]-D-glucose. Recycling via CO 2 and glycerol must be measured directly with [U- 14 C]glucose, bicarbonate, and glycerol. Recycling via hepatic glycogen can be estimated by subtracting all other measured chemical recycling from total chemical recycling. This review describes means to quantify glucose recycling in vivo, enabling studies of mechanisms for conservation and utilization of glucose. 54 references

  16. A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahidi, O; Kwok, K E; Gopaluni, R B

    2016-01-01

    We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main...... variations of blood glucose concentrations following an oral glucose intake. Another model representing the incretins production in the gastrointestinal tract along with their hormonal effects on boosting pancreatic insulin production is also added to the former model. We have used two sets of clinical data...... obtained during oral glucose tolerance test and isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion test from both type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects to estimate the model parameters and to validate the model results. The estimation of model parameters is accomplished through solving a nonlinear optimization...

  17. Glucose oxidase variants with improved properities

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Rainer; Ostafe, Raluca; Prodanovic, Radivoje

    2014-01-01

    Source: WO14173822A3 [EN] The technology provided herein relates to novel variants of microbial glucose oxidase with improved properties, more specifically to polypeptides having glucose oxidase activity as their major enzymatic activity; to nucleic acid molecules encoding said glucose oxidases; vectors and host cells containing the nucleic acids and methods for producing the glucose oxidase; compositions comprising said glucose oxidase; methods for the preparation and production of such enzy...

  18. Distribution of glucose transporters in renal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Szablewski, Leszek

    2017-01-01

    Kidneys play an important role in glucose homeostasis. Renal gluconeogenesis prevents hypoglycemia by releasing glucose into the blood stream. Glucose homeostasis is also due, in part, to reabsorption and excretion of hexose in the kidney. Lipid bilayer of plasma membrane is impermeable for glucose, which is hydrophilic and soluble in water. Therefore, transport of glucose across the plasma membrane depends on carrier proteins expressed in the plasma membrane. In humans, there are three famil...

  19. Effect of glucocorticoid therapy upon glucose metabolism in COPD patients with acute exacerbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Sihai; Wei Zhenggan; Huang Ming'an; Yao Jianguo; Li Hongsheng

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of glucocorticoids therapy upon glucose metabolism in COPD patients with acute exacerbation. Methods: Plasma glucose and insulin levels in COPD patients after intravenous administration of 10 mg dexamethasone daily for 5 days were determined oral with glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin release test (IRT). Results: 1) The levels of basal plasma glucose and insulin were significantly higher in severe hypoxemic group than those in moderate hypoxemic group (p 2 (r = -0.5242, p < 0.05). 2) The levels of plasma glucose in intermediate and severe hypoxemic groups were remarkable higher (p < 0.05) than those in mild group. The two peak times of glucose curve were observed at one and two hour after oral glucose load. 3) After the administration of glucocorticoids, at half an hour and one hour plasma glucose levels were significantly higher than those before, the peak time of glucose levels appeared earlier and the insulin release levels were higher than they were before therapy (p < 0.05). Conclusion: COPD patients with acute exacerbation complicated with hypoxemia had problems of impaired glucose tolerance. The administration of glucocorticoids made the impairment worse

  20. A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidi, O; Kwok, K E; Gopaluni, R B; Knop, F K

    2016-09-01

    We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main drawback of the former model was its restriction on the route of glucose entrance to the body which was limited to the intravenous glucose injection. To handle the oral glucose intake, we have added a model of glucose absorption in the gastrointestinal tract to the former model to address the resultant variations of blood glucose concentrations following an oral glucose intake. Another model representing the incretins production in the gastrointestinal tract along with their hormonal effects on boosting pancreatic insulin production is also added to the former model. We have used two sets of clinical data obtained during oral glucose tolerance test and isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion test from both type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects to estimate the model parameters and to validate the model results. The estimation of model parameters is accomplished through solving a nonlinear optimization problem. The results show acceptable precision of the estimated model parameters and demonstrate the capability of the model in accurate prediction of the body response during the clinical studies.

  1. Neonatal jaundice and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Amauri Antiquera [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    A deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase em neonatos pode ser a responsável pela icterícia neonatal. Este comentário científico é decorrente do relato sobre o tema publicado neste fascículo e que preocupa diversos autores de outros países em relação às complicações em neonatos de hiperbilirrubinemia, existindo inclusive proposições de alguns autores em incluir o teste para identificar a deficiência de glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase nos recém-nascidos.Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase...

  2. Detection of hypoglycemia with continuous interstitial and traditional blood glucose monitoring using the FreeStyle Navigator Continuous Glucose Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarraugh, Geoffrey; Bergenstal, Richard

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the analysis was to compare detection of hypoglycemic episodes (glucose 15 min) with the FreeStyle Navigator Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (FSN-CGM) (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) alarms to detection with traditional finger stick testing at an average frequency of eight tests per day. The performance of FSN-CGM alarms was evaluated in a clinic setting using 58 subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) monitoring interstitial glucose concentration over a 5-day period compared to reference YSI measurements (instrument manufactured by YSI, Yellow Springs, OH) at 15-min intervals. Finger stick glucose testing was evaluated in the home environment with 91 subjects with TIDM monitoring with the blood glucose meter integrated into the FreeStyle Navigator (FSN-BG) over a 20-day period. The reference was FSN-CGM with results masked from the subjects. Blood glucose values glucose was <= 85 mg/dL 77.2% of the time. In the home environment, the average FSN-BG testing frequency was 7.9 tests per day. Hypoglycemia was verified within +/- 30 min by FSN-BG measurements <= 85 mg/dL at a rate of 27.5%. Even with a high rate of FSN-BG testing, hypoglycemia detected by FSN-CGM was verified by patients with T1DM very infrequently. A high rate of hypoglycemia detection with a moderate rate of unnecessary alarms can be attained using FSN-CGM.

  3. A portable measuring system for a competitive binding glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Lydia E.; Means, A. Kristen; Grunlan, Melissa A.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2018-02-01

    Central to minimizing the long- and short-term complications associated with diabetes is careful monitoring and maintenance of blood glucose at normal levels. Towards replacing conventionally used finger-prick glucose testing, indwelling continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) based on amperometric electrodes have been introduced to the market. Envisioned to lead to a CGM with an increased lifetime, we report herein a fluorescently-labeled competitive binding assay contained within a hydrogel membrane whose glucose response is measured via a novel portable system. The optical system design included a laser source, bifurcated fiber, laser filter and simple fiber coupled spectrometer to obtain the change in FRET pair ratio of the assay. Glucose response of the assay in free solution was measured using this system across the physiologic range (0-200 mg/dL). The FRET pair ratio signal was seen to increase with glucose and the standard error of calibration was 22.42 mg/dL with a MARD value of 14.85%. When the assay was contained within the hydrogel membrane's central cavity and similarly analyzed, the standard error increased but the assay maintained its reversibility.

  4. Emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, T M; Varnhagen, C K; Parent, M B

    2001-05-01

    Arousal enhances memory in human participants and this enhancing effect is likely due to the release of peripheral epinephrine. As epinephrine does not readily enter the brain, one way that peripheral epinephrine may enhance memory is by increasing circulating blood glucose levels. The present study investigated the possibility that emotionally arousing color pictures would improve memory and elevate blood glucose levels in human participants. Blood glucose levels were measured before, 15 min, and 30 min after male university students viewed 60 emotionally arousing or relatively neutral pictures. Participants viewed each picture for 6 s and then had 10 s to rate the arousal (emotional intensity) and valence (pleasantness) of each picture. A free-recall memory test was given 30 min after the last picture was viewed. Although the emotionally arousing and neutral picture sets were given comparable valence ratings, participants who viewed the emotionally arousing pictures rated the pictures as being more arousing, recalled more pictures, and had higher blood glucose levels after viewing the pictures than did participants who viewed the neutral pictures. These findings indicate that emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance memory, and that this effect is not due to differences in the degree of pleasantness of the stimuli. These findings support the possibility that increases in circulating blood glucose levels in response to emotional arousal may be part of the biological mechanism that allows emotional arousal to enhance memory. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  5. Glucose-lowering effect of BTS 67 582.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, T; Bailey, C J

    1997-12-01

    1. The hypoglycaemic effect of BTS 67 582 (1,1-dimethyl-2(2-morpholinophenyl) guanidine fumarate) was studied in normal rats. 2. BTS 67 582 (100 mg kg(-1), p.o.) acutely lowered basal plasma glucose concentrations: onset within 1 h, maximum decrease of >40% at 2-3 h, and partial return to euglycaemia by 5 h. Plasma insulin concentrations were increased: onset within 30 min, maximum increase 3 fold at 1-2 h; returning to normal by 5 h. 3. BTS 67 582 (100 mg kg(-1)) increased (by 56%) the rate of disappearance of plasma glucose during an intravenous glucose tolerance test, accompanied by a 51% increase in insulin concentrations. 4. During hyperglycaemic clamp studies BTS 67 582 (100 mg kg(-1)) increased glucose utilization 3 fold. This was associated with a 3 fold increase in insulin concentrations, even in the presence of adrenaline at a dosage which inhibits glucose-induced insulin release. 5. When the insulin-releasing effect of BTS 67 582 (100 mg kg(-1)) was inhibited by infusion of somatostatin, there was no effect on glycaemia. 6. Insulin-dependent diabetic BB/S rats, which do not produce endogenous insulin, showed no effect of BTS 67 582 (100 mg kg(-1)) on plasma glucose concentrations in the presence or absence of exogenous insulin. 7. The results demonstrate an acute hypoglycaemic effect of BTS 67 582 which appears to result mainly from its potent insulin-releasing action.

  6. Glucose-monitoring neurons in the mediodorsal prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Bernadett; Szabó, István; Papp, Szilárd; Takács, Gábor; Szalay, Csaba; Karádi, Zoltán

    2012-03-20

    The mediodorsal prefrontal cortex (mdPFC), a key structure of the limbic neural circuitry, plays important roles in the central regulation of feeding. As an integrant part of the forebrain dopamine (DA) system, it performs complex roles via interconnections with various brain areas where glucose-monitoring (GM) neurons have been identified. The main goal of the present experiments was to examine whether similar GM neurons exist in the mediodorsal prefrontal cortex. To search for such chemosensory cells here, and to estimate their involvement in the DA circuitry, extracellular single neuron activity of the mediodorsal prefrontal cortex of anesthetized Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats was recorded by means of tungsten wire multibarreled glass microelectrodes during microelectrophoretic administration of d-glucose and DA. One fourth of the neurons tested changed in firing rate in response to glucose, thus, proved to be elements of the forebrain GM neural network. DA responsive neurons in the mdPFC were found to represent similar proportion of all cells; the glucose-excited units were shown to display excitatory whereas the glucose-inhibited neurons were demonstrated to exert mainly inhibitory responses to dopamine. The glucose-monitoring neurons of the mdPFC and their distinct DA sensitivity are suggested to be of particular significance in adaptive processes of the central feeding control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the test. Know where you stand. sticky en -- Chef Ronaldo's Sabores de Cuba - 2016-08-book-sabores- ... Recipe Kits Delivered We've teamed up with Chef'd to bring you healthy recipe kits. Ways ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes ... Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight ... About Type 2 Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to ...

  11. Genistein improves spatial learning and memory in male rats with elevated glucose level during memory consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Kohara, Yumi; Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Kuwahara, Rika; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction due to higher blood glucose level has been reported previously. Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen that we hypothesized might lead to improved memory, despite elevated blood glucose levels at the time of memory consolidation. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared the effects of orally administered GEN on the central nervous system in normal versus glucose-loaded adult male rats. A battery of behavioral assessments was carried out. In the MAZE test, which measured s...

  12. Glucose monitoring as a guide to diabetes management. Critical subject review.

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, B.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To encourage a balanced approach to blood glucose monitoring in diabetes by a critical review of the history, power and cost of glucose testing. DATA SOURCES: The Cambridge Data Base was searched and was supplemented by a random review of other relevant sources, including textbooks, company pamphlets, and laboratory manuals. STUDY SELECTION: Keywords used were "glucosuria diagnosis," "blood glucose self-monitoring," "glycosylated hemoglobin," and "fructosamine" for the 10-year period...

  13. Sensing of Salivary Glucose Using Nano-Structured Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yunqing; Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Ming L

    2016-03-17

    The anxiety and pain associated with frequent finger pricking has always been troublesome for diabetics measuring blood glucose (BG) in their daily lives. For this reason, a reliable glucose monitoring system that allows noninvasive measurements is highly desirable. Our main objective is to develop a biosensor that can detect low-level glucose in saliva (physiological range 0.5-20 mg/dL). Salivary glucose (SG) sensors were built using a layer-by-layer self-assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes, chitosan, gold nanoparticles, and glucose oxidase onto a screen-printed platinum electrode. An electrochemical method was utilized for the quantitative detection of glucose in both buffer solution and saliva samples. A standard spectrophotometric technique was used as a reference method to validate the glucose content of each sample. The disposable glucose sensors have a detection limit of 0.41 mg/dL, a sensitivity of 0.24 μA·s·dL·mg(-1), a linear range of 0.5-20 mg/dL in buffer solution, and a response time of 30 s. A study of 10 healthy subjects was conducted, and SG levels between 1.1 to 10.1 mg/dL were successfully detected. The results revealed that the noninvasive SG monitoring could be an alternative for diabetes self-management at home. This paper is not intended to replace regular BG tests, but to study SG itself as an indicator for the quality of diabetes care. It can potentially help patients control and monitor their health conditions, enabling them to comply with prescribed treatments for diabetes.

  14. Effect of glucose on the biomechanical function of arterial elastin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunjie; Zeinali-Davarani, Shahrokh; Davis, Elaine C; Zhang, Yanhang

    2015-09-01

    Elastin is essential to provide elastic support for blood vessels. As a remarkably long-lived protein, elastin can suffer from cumulative effects of exposure to biochemical damages, which can greatly compromise its biomechanical properties. Non-enzymatic glycation is one of the main mechanisms of aging and its effect is magnified in diabetic patients. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of glucose on mechanical properties of isolated porcine aortic elastin. Elastin samples were incubated in 2 M glucose solution and were allowed to equilibrate for 4, 7, 14, 21 or 28 days at 37 °C. Equibiaxial tensile tests were performed to study the changes of elastic properties of elastin due to glycation. Significant decreases in tissue dimension were observed after 7 days glucose incubation. Elastin samples treated for 14, 21 or 28 days demonstrate a significant increase in hysteresis in the stress-stretch curves, indicating a greater energy loss due to glucose treatment. Both the longitudinal and the circumferential directions show significant increases in tangent modulus with glucose treatment, however only significant increases are observed after 7 days for the circumferential direction. An eight-chain statistical mechanics based microstructural model was used to study the hyperelastic and orthotropic behavior of the glucose-treated elastin and the material parameters were estimated using a nonlinear least squares method. Material parameters in the model were related to elastin density and fiber orientation, and, hence, the possible microstructural changes in glucose-treated elastin. Estimated material parameters show a general increasing trend in elastin density per unit volume with glucose incubation. The simulation results also indicate that more elastic fibers are aligned in the longitudinal and circumferential directions, rather than in the radial direction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exogenous thyroxine improves glucose intolerance in insulin-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Anaya, Guillermo; Martinez, Bridget; Soñanez-Organis, José G; Nakano, Daisuke; Nishiyama, Akira; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2017-03-01

    Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are associated with glucose intolerance, calling into question the contribution of thyroid hormones (TH) on glucose regulation. TH analogues and derivatives may be effective treatment options for glucose intolerance and insulin resistance (IR), but their potential glucoregulatory effects during conditions of impaired metabolism are not well described. To assess the effects of thyroxine (T 4 ) on glucose intolerance in a model of insulin resistance, an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) was performed on three groups of rats (n = 8): (1) lean, Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO), (2) obese, Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) and (3) OLETF + T 4 (8.0 µg/100 g BM/day × 5 weeks). T 4 attenuated glucose intolerance by 15% and decreased IR index (IRI) by 34% in T 4 -treated OLETF compared to untreated OLETF despite a 31% decrease in muscle Glut4 mRNA expression. T 4 increased the mRNA expressions of muscle monocarboxylate transporter 10 (Mct10), deiodinase type 2 (Di2), sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and uncoupling protein 2 (Ucp2) by 1.8-, 2.2-, 2.7- and 1.4-fold, respectively, compared to OLETF. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and insulin receptor were not significantly altered suggesting that the improvements in glucose intolerance and IR were independent of enhanced insulin-mediated signaling. The results suggest that T 4 treatment increased the influx of T 4 in skeletal muscle and, with an increase of DI2, increased the availability of the biologically active T 3 to upregulate key factors such SIRT1 and UCP2 involved in cellular metabolism and glucose homeostasis. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Application of a statistical design to the optimization of parameters and culture medium for alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae CBS 819.72 grown on gruel (wheat grinding by-product).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammoun, Radhouane; Naili, Belgacem; Bejar, Samir

    2008-09-01

    The production optimization of alpha-amylase (E.C.3.2.1.1) from Aspergillus oryzae CBS 819.72 fungus, using a by-product of wheat grinding (gruel) as sole carbon source, was performed with statistical methodology based on three experimental designs. The optimisation of temperature, agitation and inoculum size was attempted using a Box-Behnken design under the response surface methodology. The screening of nineteen nutrients for their influence on alpha-amylase production was achieved using a Plackett-Burman design. KH(2)PO(4), urea, glycerol, (NH(4))(2)SO(4), CoCl(2), casein hydrolysate, soybean meal hydrolysate, MgSO(4) were selected based on their positive influence on enzyme formation. The optimized nutrients concentration was obtained using a Taguchi experimental design and the analysis of the data predicts a theoretical increase in the alpha-amylase expression of 73.2% (from 40.1 to 151.1 U/ml). These conditions were validated experimentally and revealed an enhanced alpha-amylase yield of 72.7%.

  17. Sleep duration and sleep quality are associated differently with alterations of glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byberg, S; Hansen, A-L S; Christensen, D L; Vistisen, D; Aadahl, M; Linneberg, A; Witte, D R

    2012-09-01

    Studies suggest that inadequate sleep duration and poor sleep quality increase the risk of impaired glucose regulation and diabetes. However, associations with specific markers of glucose homeostasis are less well explained. The objective of this study was to explore possible associations of sleep duration and sleep quality with markers of glucose homeostasis and glucose tolerance status in a healthy population-based study sample. The study comprised 771 participants from the Danish, population-based cross-sectional 'Health2008' study. Sleep duration and sleep quality were measured by self-report. Markers of glucose homeostasis were derived from a 3-point oral glucose tolerance test and included fasting plasma glucose, 2-h plasma glucose, HbA(1c), two measures of insulin sensitivity (the insulin sensitivity index(0,120) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity), the homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function and glucose tolerance status. Associations of sleep duration and sleep quality with markers of glucose homeostasis and tolerance were analysed by multiple linear and logistic regression. A 1-h increment in sleep duration was associated with a 0.3 mmol/mol (0.3%) decrement in HbA(1c) and a 25% reduction in the risk of having impaired glucose regulation. Further, a 1-point increment in sleep quality was associated with a 2% increase in both the insulin sensitivity index(0,120) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity, as well as a 1% decrease in homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function. In the present study, shorter sleep duration was mainly associated with later alterations in glucose homeostasis, whereas poorer sleep quality was mainly associated with earlier alterations in glucose homeostasis. Thus, adopting healthy sleep habits may benefit glucose metabolism in healthy populations. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  18. Fabrication of Mediatorless/Membraneless Glucose/Oxygen Based Biofuel Cell using Biocatalysts Including Glucose Oxidase and Laccase Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christwardana, Marcelinus; Kim, Ki Jae; Kwon, Yongchai

    2016-07-01

    Mediatorless and membraneless enzymatic biofuel cells (EBCs) employing new catalytic structure are fabricated. Regarding anodic catalyst, structure consisting of glucose oxidase (GOx), poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) and carbon nanotube (CNT) is considered, while three cathodic catalysts consist of glutaraldehyde (GA), laccase (Lac), PEI and CNT that are stacked together in different ways. Catalytic activities of the catalysts for glucose oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions (GOR and ORR) are evaluated. As a result, it is confirmed that the catalysts work well for promotion of GOR and ORR. In EBC tests, performances of EBCs including 150 μm-thick membrane are measured as references, while those of membraneless EBCs are measured depending on parameters like glucose flow rate, glucose concentration, distance between two electrodes and electrolyte pH. With the measurements, how the parameters affect EBC performance and their optimal conditions are determined. Based on that, best maximum power density (MPD) of membraneless EBC is 102 ± 5.1 μW · cm-2 with values of 0.5 cc · min-1 (glucose flow rate), 40 mM (glucose concentration), 1 mm (distance between electrodes) and pH 3. When membrane and membraneless EBCs are compared, MPD of the membraneless EBC that is run at the similar operating condition to EBC including membrane is speculated as about 134 μW · cm-2.

  19. A reagentless enzymatic fluorescent biosensor for glucose based on upconverting glasses, as excitation source, and chemically modified glucose oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Barrio, Melisa; Cases, Rafael; Cebolla, Vicente; Hirsch, Thomas; de Marcos, Susana; Wilhelm, Stefan; Galbán, Javier

    2016-11-01

    Upon near-infrared excitation Tm(3+)+Yb(3+) doped fluorohafnate glasses present upconversion properties and emit visible light. This property permits to use these glasses (UCG) as excitation sources for fluorescent optical biosensors. Taking this into account, in this work a fluorescent biosensor for glucose determination is designed and evaluated. The biosensor combines the UCG and the fluorescence of the enzyme glucose oxidase chemically modified with a fluorescein derivative (GOx-FS), whose intensity is modified during the enzymatic reaction with glucose. Optical parameters have been optimized and a mathematical model describing the behavior of the analytical signal is suggested. Working in FIA mode, the biosensor responds to glucose concentrations up to, at least, 15mM with a limit of detection of 1.9mM. The biosensor has a minimum lifetime of 9 days and has been applied to glucose determination in drinks. The applicability of the sensor was tested by glucose determination in two fruit juices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimation of the Relative Contribution of Postprandial Glucose Exposure to Average Total Glucose Exposure in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ahrén

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that the relative contribution of fasting plasma glucose (FPG versus postprandial plasma glucose (PPG to glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c could be calculated using an algorithm developed by the A1c-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG study group to make HbA1c values more clinically relevant to patients. The algorithm estimates average glucose (eAG exposure, which can be used to calculate apparent PPG (aPPG by subtracting FPG. The hypothesis was tested in a large dataset (comprising 17 studies from the vildagliptin clinical trial programme. We found that 24 weeks of treatment with vildagliptin monotherapy (n=2523 reduced the relative contribution of aPPG to eAG from 8.12% to 2.95% (by 64%, p<0.001. In contrast, when vildagliptin was added to metformin (n=2752, the relative contribution of aPPG to eAG insignificantly increased from 1.59% to 2.56%. In conclusion, glucose peaks, which are often prominent in patients with type 2 diabetes, provide a small contribution to the total glucose exposure assessed by HbA1c, and the ADAG algorithm is not robust enough to assess this small relative contribution in patients receiving combination therapy.