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Sample records for glucose study phase

  1. Relationship of Glucose Variability With Glycated Hemoglobin and Daily Mean Glucose: A Post Hoc Analysis of Data From 5 Phase 3 Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junxiang; Qu, Yongming; Zhang, Qianyi; Chang, Annette M; Jacober, Scott J

    2018-03-01

    The association of glucose variability (GV) with other glycemic measures is emerging as a topic of interest. The aim of this analysis is to study the correlation between GV and measures of glycemic control, such as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and daily mean glucose (DMG). Data from 5 phase 3 trials were pooled into 3 analysis groups: type 2 diabetes (T2D) treated with basal insulin only, T2D treated with basal-bolus therapy, and type 1 diabetes (T1D). A generalized boosted model was used post hoc to assess the relationship of the following variables with glycemic control parameters (HbA1c and DMG): within-day GV, between-day GV (calculated using self-monitored blood glucose and fasting blood glucose [FBG]), hypoglycemia rate, and certain baseline characteristics. Within-day GV (calculated using standard deviation [SD]) was found to have a significant influence on endpoints HbA1c and DMG in all 3 patient groups. Between-day GV from FBG (calculated using SD), within-day GV (calculated using coefficient of variation), and hypoglycemia rate were found to significantly influence the endpoint HbA1c in the T2D basal-only group. Lower within-day GV was significantly associated with improvement in DMG and HbA1c. This finding suggests that GV could be a marker in the early phases of new antihyperglycemic therapy development for predicting clinical outcomes in terms of HbA1c and DMG.

  2. Prevention of non-communicable disease in a population in nutrition transition: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayati Mehdi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS is a long term integrated community-based program for prevention of non-communicable disorders (NCD by development of a healthy lifestyle and reduction of NCD risk factors. The study begun in 1999, is ongoing, to be continued for at least 20 years. A primary survey was done to collect baseline data in 15005 individuals, over 3 years of age, selected from cohorts of three medical heath centers. A questionnaire for past medical history and data was completed during interviews; blood pressure, pulse rate, and anthropometrical measurements and a limited physical examination were performed and lipid profiles, fasting blood sugar and 2-hours-postload-glucose challenge were measured. A DNA bank was also collected. For those subjects aged over 30 years, Rose questionnaire was completed and an electrocardiogram was taken. Data collected were directly stored in computers as database software- computer assisted system. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of lifestyle modification in preventing or postponing the development of NCD risk factors and outcomes in the TLGS population. Design and methods In phase II of the TLGS, lifestyle interventions were implemented in 5630 people and 9375 individuals served as controls. Primary, secondary and tertiary interventions were designed based on specific target groups including schoolchildren, housewives, and high-risk persons. Officials of various sectors such as health, education, municipality, police, media, traders and community leaders were actively engaged as decision makers and collaborators. Interventional strategies were based on lifestyle modifications in diet, smoking and physical activity through face-to-face education, leaflets & brochures, school program alterations, training volunteers as health team and treating patients with NCD risk factors. Collection of demographic, clinical and laboratory data will be

  3. The 10-year trend of adult diabetes, prediabetes and associated risk factors in Tehran: Phases 1 and 4 of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtab, Niroomand; Farzad, Hadaegh; Mohsen, Bahaeddini; Nakisa, Darvishi

    Type 2 diabetes is a global problem with significant morbidity and healthcare costs. In this study, we aimed to determine the 10-year trend of diabetes, prediabetes and their risk factors in the adult urban population of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). In this cross-sectional study, we included all patients above 20 years of age who were registered in phases 1 and 4 of TLGS. Each phase had a 3-year duration. 4580 patients were recruited in each phase (916 patients in each age-group, including 3772 males and 5145 females). Random cluster sampling was used in phase 1 and convenience sampling was used in phase 4. Diabetes and glucose tolerance status were determined according to the 1991 criteria of the American Diabetes Association. In our five age groups, risk factors were compared, which included physical activity, waist circumference, body mass index, education, smoking, lipid profile and family history. Exclusion criteria were placement of an individual in the same age-group in the two phases and pregnancy. We calculated the prevalence of diabetes and dysglycemia in each age-group. Age-specific prevalence rates were determined. Prevalence of risk factors in the two phases were compared using chi-square test and Student t-test. Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the variables with non-normal distribution. In this study, 3976 individuals were recruited in phase 1 (2308 women and 1668 men; female to male ratio 1.38) and 4941 individuals were recruited in phase 4 (2837 women and 2104 men; female to male ratio 1.35). Prevalence of prediabetes in all age groups (except for the 30-39 years age-group) were increased in phase 4 compared to phase 1. Prevalence of known diabetes in all age groups were increased in phase 4 compared to phase 1, yet, the increase was significant only in the 30-39 and 60-69 years age groups (1.8% vs. 0.7% and 19.0% vs. 10.2%, respectively). Newly diagnosed diabetes was decreased in all age groups in phase 4, except for the 60

  4. Thermodynamically controlled crystallization of glucose pentaacetates from amorphous phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlodarczyk, P., E-mail: patrykw@imn.gliwice.pl; Hawelek, L.; Hudecki, A.; Kolano-Burian, A. [Institute of Non-Ferrous Metals, ul. Sowinskiego 5, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Wlodarczyk, A. [Department of Animal Histology and Embryology, University of Silesia, ul. Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2016-08-15

    The α and β glucose pentaacetates are known sugar derivatives, which can be potentially used as stabilizers of amorphous phase of active ingredients of drugs (API). In the present work, crystallization behavior of equimolar mixture of α and β form in comparison to both pure anomers is revealed. It was shown that despite the same molecular interactions and similar molecular dynamics, crystallization from amorphous phase is significantly suppressed in equimolar mixture. Time dependent X-ray diffraction studies confirmed higher stability of the quenched amorphous equimolar mixture. Its tendency to crystallization is about 10 times lower than for pure anomers. Calorimetric studies revealed that the α and β anomers don’t form solid solutions and have eutectic point for x{sub α} = 0.625. Suppressed crystallization tendency in the mixture is probably caused by the altered thermodynamics of the system. The factors such as difference of free energy between crystalline and amorphous state or altered configurational entropy are probably responsible for the inhibitory effect.

  5. Impaired first-phase insulin response predicts postprandial blood glucose increment in patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, C; Rosenfalck, A M; Dejgaard, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between postprandial blood glucose and first-phase insulin response and, furthermore, to assess whether the intravenous glucagon stimulation test can be used as a predictor for increased postprandial glucose in patients with recently diagnosed...... type 2 diabetes....

  6. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on glucose kinetics in healthy women & women with premenstrual symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena K. Nandimath

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the blood glucose levels during the two phases of the menstrual cycle between healthy women and patients with premenstrual syndrome (PMS.Methods: From January of 2012 to the August of 2013, a descriptive cross-sectional study was performed among staff of tertiary care hospital.Inclusion Criteria: 1100 women aged 18 to 45 years, 2 Regular Menstrual cycle.Exclusion Criteria: 1 Menopause 2 Patient on Oral Contraceptive pills.After approval from IEC and informed consent from the 100 enrolled subjects with either the most severe symptoms of PMS or healthy controls. 2ml of venous blood was collected on fasting condition during the follicular phase (5-11 days of  menstrual cycleand the luteal phase of the cycle (19-28 days menstrual cycle and analyzed the serum concentrations of glucose by using the glucose oxidase method.Results: The statistical analysis was done using student's paired T test. P value less than 0.0001was taken as significant.No significant differences between the demographic data of the control and PMS groups were observed. The mean concentrations of glucose were significantly different during the follicular and luteal phases.

  7. Myo-inositol inhibits intestinal glucose absorption and promotes muscle glucose uptake: a dual approach study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of myo-inositol on muscle glucose uptake and intestinal glucose absorption ex vivo as well as in normal and type 2 diabetes model of rats. In ex vivo study, both intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake were studied in isolated rat jejunum and psoas muscle respectively in the presence of increasing concentrations (2.5 % to 20 %) of myo-inositol. In the in vivo study, the effect of a single bolus dose (1 g/kg bw) of oral myo-inositol on intestinal glucose absorption, blood glucose, gastric emptying and digesta transit was investigated in normal and type 2 diabetic rats after 1 h of co-administration with 2 g/kg bw glucose, when phenol red was used as a recovery marker. Myo-inositol inhibited intestinal glucose absorption (IC 50  = 28.23 ± 6.01 %) and increased muscle glucose uptake, with (GU 50  = 2.68 ± 0.75 %) or without (GU 50  = 8.61 ± 0.55 %) insulin. Additionally, oral myo-inositol not only inhibited duodenal glucose absorption and reduced blood glucose increase, but also delayed gastric emptying and accelerated digesta transit in both normal and diabetic animals. Results of this study suggest that dietary myo-inositol inhibits intestinal glucose absorption both in ex vivo and in normal or diabetic rats and also promotes muscle glucose uptake in ex vivo condition. Hence, myo-inositol may be further investigated as a possible anti-hyperglycaemic dietary supplement for diabetic foods and food products.

  8. Glucose balance and muscle glycogen during TPN in the early post-operative phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Stjernström, H; Essén-Gustavsson, B

    1985-01-01

    In order to study how muscle glycogen is influenced by different nutritional regimens in the early post-operative period we took muscle biopsies from 20 patients preoperatively and on the fourth post-operative day after abdominal aortic surgery. Ten patients received 93% of non-protein energy......-production) were performed and from these data glucose balance was calculated as the difference between glucose intake and glucose expenditure. Muscle biopsies were analysed for glycogen, adenosine triphosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, lactate and citrate. We found that it was possible to maintain muscle...... glycogen stores at pre-operative levels with a glucose-insulin regimen. With the fat regimen there was a 31% decrease in muscle glycogen and two patients had a negative glucose balance despite the fact that 150 g of glucose were given. Average glucose balance throughout the study correlated positively...

  9. Liquid-Phase Packaging of a Glucose Oxidase Solution with Parylene Direct Encapsulation and an Ultraviolet Curing Adhesive Cover for Glucose Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Seiichi Takamatsu; Hisanori Takano; Nguyen Binh-Khiem; Tomoyuki Takahata; Eiji Iwase; Kiyoshi Matsumoto; Isao Shimoyama

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a package for disposable glucose sensor chips using Parylene encapsulation of a glucose oxidase solution in the liquid phase and a cover structure made of an ultraviolet (UV) curable adhesive. Parylene was directly deposited onto a small volume (1 μL) of glucose oxidase solution through chemical vapor deposition. The cover and reaction chamber were constructed on Parylene film using a UV-curable adhesive and photolithography. The package was processed at room temperature to ...

  10. Immediate enhancement of first-phase insulin secretion and unchanged glucose effectiveness in patients with type 2 diabetes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Christoffer; Bojsen-Moller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    effectiveness with Bergman's minimal model. In the fasting state, insulin sensitivity was estimated by HOMA-S and β-cell function by HOMA-β. Moreover, mixed meal tests and OGTTs were performed. In patients with type 2 diabetes, glucose levels normalized after RYGB, first-phase insulin secretion in response...... to iv glucose increased two-fold and HOMA-β improved already 1 week postoperatively, with further enhancements at 3 months. Insulin sensitivity increased in the liver (HOMA-S) at 1 week and at 3 months in peripheral tissues (Si), whereas glucose effectiveness did not improve significantly. During oral...... first-phase insulin secretion to iv glucose and increased HOMA-β. A major role for improved glucose effectiveness after RYGB was not supported by this study....

  11. Liquid-Phase Packaging of a Glucose Oxidase Solution with Parylene Direct Encapsulation and an Ultraviolet Curing Adhesive Cover for Glucose Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichi Takamatsu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a package for disposable glucose sensor chips using Parylene encapsulation of a glucose oxidase solution in the liquid phase and a cover structure made of an ultraviolet (UV curable adhesive. Parylene was directly deposited onto a small volume (1 μL of glucose oxidase solution through chemical vapor deposition. The cover and reaction chamber were constructed on Parylene film using a UV-curable adhesive and photolithography. The package was processed at room temperature to avoid denaturation of the glucose oxidase. The glucose oxidase solution was encapsulated and unsealed. Glucose sensing was demonstrated using standard amperometric detection at glucose concentrations between 0.1 and 100 mM, which covers the glucose concentration range of diabetic patients. Our proposed Parylene encapsulation and UV-adhesive cover form a liquid phase glucose-oxidase package that has the advantages of room temperature processing and direct liquid encapsulation of a small volume solution without use of conventional solidifying chemicals.

  12. Phase-locking regions in a forced model of slow insulin and glucose oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturis, Jeppe; Knudsen, Carsten; O'Meara, Niall M.

    1995-01-01

    We present a detailed numerical investigation of the phase-locking regions in a forced model of slow oscillations in human insulin secretion and blood glucose concentration. The bifurcation structures of period 2pi and 4pi tongues are mapped out and found to be qualitatively identical to those...

  13. Phase-locking regions in a forced model of slow insulin and glucose oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturis, J.; Knudsen, C.; O'Meara, N.M.

    1996-01-01

    We present a detailed numerical investigation of the phase-locking regions in a forced model of slow oscillations in human insulin secretion and blood glucose concentration. The bifurcation structures of period 2pi and 4pi tongues are mapped out and found to be qualitatively identical to those...

  14. A study of glucose handling by Buddhist monks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, T; Myint, H; Thein, M

    1988-04-01

    Fourteen Buddhist monks and comparable male subjects were studied in relation to their handling of glucose after a meal (consisting of 1190 kcal, 29 g protein, 21 g fat and 221 g carbohydrate) and afterwards subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT). The time course of blood glucose levels after the meal indicated that the monks had enhanced absorption and utilization of glucose. The monks were also found to have increased tolerance to glucose on oGTT. In addition the mean total serum cholesterol level in the monks (157.2 +/- 5.53 mg/dl) was found to be significantly higher than that of the control subjects (117.4 +/- 2.85 mg/dl).

  15. Prospective Study of Fasting Blood Glucose and Intracerebral Hemorrhagic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Li, Guohong; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Gurol, Mahmut E; Yuan, Xiaodong; Hui, Ying; Ruan, Chunyu; Vaidya, Anand; Wang, Yanxiu; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Although diabetes mellitus is an established independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, the association between fasting blood glucose and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is limited and inconsistent. The objective of the current study was to examine the potential impact of long-term fasting blood glucose concentration on subsequent risk of ICH. This prospective study included 96 110 participants of the Kailuan study, living in Kailuan community, Tangshan city, China, who were free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer at baseline (2006). Fasting blood glucose concentration was measured in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012. Updated cumulative average fasting blood glucose concentration was used as primary exposure of the current study. Incident ICH from 2006 to 2015 was confirmed by review of medical records. During 817 531 person-years of follow-up, we identified 755 incident ICH cases. The nadir risk of ICH was observed at fasting blood glucose concentration of 5.3 mmol/L. The adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ICH were 1.59 (95% CI, 1.26-2.02) for diabetes mellitus or fasting blood glucose ≥7.00 mmol/L, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.02-1.69) for impaired fasting blood glucose (fasting blood glucose, 6.10-6.99 mmol/L), 0.98 (95% CI, 0.78-1.22) for fasting blood glucose 5.60 to 6.09 mmol/L, and 2.04 (95% CI, 1.23-3.38) for hypoglycemia (fasting blood glucose, fasting blood glucose 4.00 to 5.59 mmol/L. The results persisted after excluding individuals who used hypoglycemic, aspirin, antihypertensive agents, or anticoagulants, and those with intracerebral hemorrhagic cases occurred in the first 2 years of follow-up. In this large community-based cohort, low (fasting blood glucose concentrations were associated with higher risk of incident ICH, relative to fasting blood glucose concentrations of 4.00 to 6.09 mmol/L. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Exenatide augments first- and second-phase insulin secretion in response to intravenous glucose in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehse, Frauke; Trautmann, Michael; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: First-phase insulin secretion (within 10 min after a sudden rise in plasma glucose) is reduced in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The incretin mimetic exenatide has glucoregulatory activities in DM2, including glucose-dependent enhancement of insulin secretion. OBJECTIVE: The objective...... of the study was to determine whether exenatide can restore a more normal pattern of insulin secretion in subjects with DM2. DESIGN: Fasted subjects received iv insulin infusion to reach plasma glucose 4.4-5.6 mmol/liter. Subjects received iv exenatide (DM2) or saline (DM2 and healthy volunteers), followed...... by iv glucose challenge. PATIENTS: Thirteen evaluable DM2 subjects were included in the study: 11 males, two females; age, 56 +/- 7 yr; body mass index, 31.7 +/- 2.4 kg/m2; hemoglobin A1c, 6.6 +/- 0.7% (mean +/- sd) treated with diet/exercise (n = 1), metformin (n = 10), or acarbose (n = 2). Controls...

  17. Effect of prandial treatment timing adjustment, based on continuous glucose monitoring, in patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled with once-daily basal insulin: A randomized, phase IV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilany, Jacob; Bhandari, Hamad; Nabriski, Dan; Toledano, Yoel; Konvalina, Noa; Cohen, Ohad

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the glycaemic control achieved by prandial once-daily insulin glulisine injection timing adjustment, based on a continuous glucose monitoring sensor, in comparison to once-daily insulin glulisine injection before breakfast in patients with type 2 diabetes who are uncontrolled with once-daily basal insulin glargine. This was a 24-week open-label, randomized, controlled, multicentre trial. At the end of an 8-week period of basal insulin optimization, patients with HbA1c ≥ 7.5% and FPG sensor) or arm B (sensor) to receive 16-week intensified prandial glulisine treatment. Patients in arm A received pre-breakfast glulisine, and patients in arm B received glulisine before the meal with the highest glucose elevation based on sensor data. The primary outcome was mean HbA1c at week 24 and secondary outcomes included rates of hypoglycaemic events and insulin dosage. A total of 121 patients were randomized to arm A (n = 61) or arm B (n = 60). There was no difference in mean HbA1c at week 24 between arms A and B (8.5% ± 1.2% vs 8.4% ± 1.0%; P = .66). The prandial insulin glulisine dosage for arm A and arm B was 9.3 and 10.1 units, respectively (P = .39). The frequency of hypoglycaemic events did not differ between study arms (36.1% vs 51.7%; P = .08). Using a CGM sensor to identify the meal with the highest glucose excursion and adjusting the timing of prandial insulin treatment did not show any advantage in terms of glycaemic control or safety in our patients. © 2018 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Chronic phase shifts of the photoperiod throughout pregnancy programs glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara J Varcoe

    Full Text Available Shift work during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for preterm birth and low birth weight. However, the impact upon the long term health of the children is currently unknown. In this study, we used an animal model to determine the consequences of maternal shift work exposure on the health of the adult offspring. Pregnant rats were exposed to chronic phase shifts (CPS in their photoperiod every 3-4 days throughout gestation and the first week after birth. Adult offspring were assessed for a range of metabolic, endocrine, circadian and neurobehavioural parameters. At 3 months of age, male pups exposed to the CPS schedule in utero had increased adiposity (+29% and hyperleptinaemia (+99% at 0700h. By 12 months of age, both male and female rats displayed hyperleptinaemia (+26% and +41% respectively and hyperinsulinaemia (+110% and +83% respectively. 12 month old female CPS rats displayed poor glucose tolerance (+18% and increased insulin secretion (+29% in response to an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. In CPS males the glucose response was unaltered, but the insulin response was reduced by 35%. The glucose response to an insulin tolerance test was decreased by 21% in CPS females but unaltered in males. Disruption of circadian rhythmicity during gestation resulted in gender dependent metabolic consequences for the adult offspring. These results highlight the need for a thorough analysis of shift work exposure in utero on the health of the adult offspring in humans.

  19. Phase controlled rectifier study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronner, G.; Murray, J.G.

    1976-03-01

    This report introduces the results of an engineering study incorporating a computer program to determine the transient and steady-state voltage and current wave shapes for a 12-pulse rectifier system. Generally, rectifier engineering studies are completed by making simplified assumptions and neglecting many circuit parameters. The studies incorporate the 3-phase AC parameters including nonlinear source or generator, 3-winding transformer impedances, and shunt and series capacitors. It includes firing angle control, and DC filter circuits with inductive loads

  20. Influence of phase separation on the anaerobic digestion of glucose-II stability, and kinetic responses to shock loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A; Breure, A M; Van Andel, J G; Van Deursen, A

    1982-01-01

    A mineral medium, containing 1% (w/v) glucose as the main carbon source, was subjected to one-phase and to two-phase anaerobic digestion processes under comparable conditions. The one-phase system consisted of an anaerobic up-flow reactor containing both acidogenic as well as methanogenic populations. The two-phase system consisted of an acid reactor and a methane reactor connected in series allowing sequential acidogenesis and methanogenesis of the glucose. After maximum turnover rates of glucose had been attained in both systems, by gradually increasing feed supply rate, both systems were switched to the batch mode and subjected to shock loadings with glucose or fatty acids. Maximum specific turnover rates of fatty acids in the one-phase process averaged 0.39 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)-g biomass/sup -1/ d/sup -1/ and 2.23 g g/sup -1/ d/sup -1/ for the methane reactor of the two-phase system. Charging the one-phase system with doses of glucose resulted mainly in an accumulation of propionate which was degraded relatively slowly. It was concluded that interspecies hydrogen transfer may become rate limiting at high loading rates, stimulating formation of propionate. Therefore a two-phase system, as compared with a one-phase digestion process for easily hydrolyzable carbohyrates, was characterized as being essentially the more stable.

  1. Kinetic study of hydrolysis of coconut fiber into glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhaimin, Sudiono, Sri

    2017-03-01

    Kinetic study of hydrolysis of coconut fiber into glucose has been done. The aim of this research was to study of the effect of time and temperature to the glucose as the result of the conversion of coconut fiber. The various temperature of the hydrolysis process were 30 °C, 48 °C, 72 °C and 95 °C and the various time of the hydrolysis process were 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 minutes. A quantitative analysis was done by measured the concentration of the glucose as the result of the conversion of coconut fiber. The result showed that the rate constant from the various temperature were 3.10-4 minute-1; 8.10-4 minutees-1; 84.10-4 minute-1, and 205.10-4 minute-1, and the energy activation was 7,69. 103 kJ/mol.

  2. Options Study - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  3. Effects of xylitol on carbohydrate digesting enzymes activity, intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake: a multi-mode study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the possible mechanism(s) behind the effects of xylitol on carbohydrate digesting enzymes activity, muscle glucose uptake and intestinal glucose absorption using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experimental models. The effects of increasing concentrations of xylitol (2.5%-40% or 164.31 mM-2628.99 mM) on alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase activity in vitro and intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake were investigated under ex vivo conditions. Additionally, the effects of an oral bolus dose of xylitol (1 g per kg BW) on gastric emptying and intestinal glucose absorption and digesta transit in the different segments of the intestinal tract were investigated in normal and type 2 diabetic rats at 1 hour after dose administration, when phenol red was used as a recovery marker. Xylitol exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of alpha amylase (IC₅₀ = 1364.04 mM) and alpha glucosidase (IC₅₀ = 1127.52 mM) activity in vitro and small intestinal glucose absorption under ex vivo condition. Xylitol also increased dose dependent muscle glucose uptake with and without insulin, although the uptake was not significantly affected by the addition of insulin. Oral single bolus dose of xylitol significantly delayed gastric emptying, inhibited intestinal glucose absorption but increased the intestinal digesta transit rate in both normal and diabetic rats compared to their respective controls. The data of this study suggest that xylitol reduces intestinal glucose absorption via inhibiting major carbohydrate digesting enzymes, slowing gastric emptying and fastening the intestinal transit rate, but increases muscle glucose uptake in normal and type 2 diabetic rats.

  4. Estimation of glucose carbon recycling in children with glycogen storage disease: A 13C NMR study using [U-13C]glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalderon, B.; Korman, S.H.; Gutman, A.; Lapidot, A.

    1989-01-01

    A stable isotope procedure to estimate hepatic glucose carbon recycling and thereby elucidate the mechanism by which glucose is produced in patients lacking glucose 6-phosphatase is described. A total of 10 studies was performed in children with glycogen storage disease type I (GSD-I) and type III (GSD-III) and control subjects. A primed dose-constant nasogastric infusion of D-[U- 13 C]glucose or an infusion diluted with nonlabeled glucose solution was administered following different periods of fasting. Hepatic glucose carbon recycling was estimated from 13 C NMR spectra. The values obtained for GSD-I patients coincided with the standard [U- 13 C]glucose dilution curve. These results indicate that the plasma glucose of GSD-I subjects comprises only a mixture of 99% 13 C-enriched D-[U- 13 C]glucose and unlabeled glucose but lacks any recycled glucose. Significantly different glucose carbon recycling values were obtained for two GSD-III patients in comparison to GSD-I patients. The results eliminate a mechanism for glucose production in GSD-I children involving gluconeogenesis. However, glucose release by amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity would result in endogenous glucose production of non- 13 C-labeled and nonrecycled glucose carbon, as was found in this study. In GSD-III patients gluconeogenesis is suggested as the major route for endogenous glucose synthesis. The contribution of the triose-phosphate pathway in these patients has been determined

  5. Phorbol-ester-induced down-regulation of protein kinase C in mouse pancreatic islets. Potentiation of phase 1 and inhibition of phase 2 of glucose-induced insulin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thams, P; Capito, K; Hedeskov, C J

    1990-01-01

    and potentiated phase 1 of glucose-induced secretion. Furthermore, perifusion of islets in the presence of staurosporine (1 microM), an inhibitor of protein kinase C, potentiated phase 1 and inhibited phase 2 of glucose-induced secretion. In addition, down-regulation of protein kinase C potentiated phase 1...

  6. Influence of phase separation on the anaerobic digestion of glucose: maximum COD turnover rate during continuous operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A; Van Andel, J G; Breure, A M; Van Deursen, A

    1980-01-01

    A mineral medium containing 1% of glucose as the main carbon source was subjected to one-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion processes under comparable conditions. The one-phase system combined acidogenic and methanogenic populations allowing a complete conversion of the carbon source into gaseous end products and biomass. The two-phase system consists of an acid reactor and a methane reactor connected in series allowing sequential acidogenesis and methanogenesis. Performance of the one-phase system is compared with that of the two-phase system. Maximum turnover of COD was determined for each system. Maximum specific sludge loading of the two-phase system was more than three times higher than that of the one-phase system. Effects of overloading each system were determined. The eco-physiological significance of phase separation is discussed briefly. (2 diagrams, 5 graphs, 41 references, 5 tables)

  7. DEFECTS IN INSULIN-SECRETION IN NIDDM - B-CELL GLUCOSE INSENSITIVITY OR GLUCOSE TOXICITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANHAEFTEN, TW

    In NIDDM, first-phase insulin release to glucose is (almost) absent. However, in contrast to older studies which suggested that in NIDDM the B-cell is ''blind'' for glucose, recent evidence indicates that the B-cell is not insensitive for glucose as far as second phase release is concerned. This

  8. RETINOPATHY, GLUCOSE, AND INSULIN IN AN ELDERLY POPULATION - THE ROTTERDAM STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STOLK, RP; VINGERLING, [No Value; DEJONG, PTVM; DIELEMANS, Hubertus J.A.; HOFMAN, A; LAMBERTS, SWJ; POLS, HAP; GROBBEE, DE

    We studied the association between retinopathy and glucose metabolism in a population-based study of elderly men and women, Glucose metabolism was assessed by serum fructosamine and a nonfasting oral glucose tolerance test, and retinopathy was evaluated by fundus photography, Retinopathy was present

  9. Molecular Dynamic Studies of the Complex Polyethylenimine and Glucose Oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefler, Beata; Diudea, Mircea V; Putz, Mihai V; Grudzinski, Ireneusz P

    2016-10-27

    Glucose oxidase (GOx) is an enzyme produced by Aspergillus, Penicillium and other fungi species. It catalyzes the oxidation of β-d-glucose (by the molecular oxygen or other molecules, like quinones, in a higher oxidation state) to form d-glucono-1,5-lactone, which hydrolyses spontaneously to produce gluconic acid. A coproduct of this enzymatic reaction is hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). GOx has found several commercial applications in chemical and pharmaceutical industries including novel biosensors that use the immobilized enzyme on different nanomaterials and/or polymers such as polyethylenimine (PEI). The problem of GOx immobilization on PEI is retaining the enzyme native activity despite its immobilization onto the polymer surface. Therefore, the molecular dynamic (MD) study of the PEI ligand (C14N8_07_B22) and the GOx enzyme (3QVR) was performed to examine the final complex PEI-GOx stabilization and the affinity of the PEI ligand to the docking sites of the GOx enzyme. The docking procedure showed two places/regions of major interaction of the protein with the polymer PEI: (LIG1) of -5.8 kcal/mol and (LIG2) of -4.5 kcal/mol located inside the enzyme and on its surface, respectively. The values of enthalpy for the PEI-enzyme complex, located inside of the protein (LIG1) and on its surface (LIG2) were computed. Docking also discovered domains of the GOx protein that exhibit no interactions with the ligand or have even repulsive characteristics. The structural data clearly indicate some differences in the ligand PEI behavior bound at the two places/regions of glucose oxidase.

  10. Molecular Dynamic Studies of the Complex Polyethylenimine and Glucose Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Szefler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glucose oxidase (GOx is an enzyme produced by Aspergillus, Penicillium and other fungi species. It catalyzes the oxidation of β-d-glucose (by the molecular oxygen or other molecules, like quinones, in a higher oxidation state to form d-glucono-1,5-lactone, which hydrolyses spontaneously to produce gluconic acid. A coproduct of this enzymatic reaction is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. GOx has found several commercial applications in chemical and pharmaceutical industries including novel biosensors that use the immobilized enzyme on different nanomaterials and/or polymers such as polyethylenimine (PEI. The problem of GOx immobilization on PEI is retaining the enzyme native activity despite its immobilization onto the polymer surface. Therefore, the molecular dynamic (MD study of the PEI ligand (C14N8_07_B22 and the GOx enzyme (3QVR was performed to examine the final complex PEI-GOx stabilization and the affinity of the PEI ligand to the docking sites of the GOx enzyme. The docking procedure showed two places/regions of major interaction of the protein with the polymer PEI: (LIG1 of −5.8 kcal/mol and (LIG2 of −4.5 kcal/mol located inside the enzyme and on its surface, respectively. The values of enthalpy for the PEI-enzyme complex, located inside of the protein (LIG1 and on its surface (LIG2 were computed. Docking also discovered domains of the GOx protein that exhibit no interactions with the ligand or have even repulsive characteristics. The structural data clearly indicate some differences in the ligand PEI behavior bound at the two places/regions of glucose oxidase.

  11. Glucose uptake and pulsatile insulin infusion: euglycaemic clamp and [3-3H]glucose studies in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, O.; Arnfred, J.; Hother Nielsen, O.; Beck-Nielsen, H.; Oerskov, H.

    1986-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that insulin has a greater effect on glucose metabolism when given as pulsatile than as continuous infusion, a 354-min euglycaemic clamp study was carried out in 8 healthy subjects. At random order soluble insulin was given intravenously either at a constant rate of 0.45mU/kg · min or in identical amounts in pulses of 1 1 / 2 to 2 1 / 4 min followed by intervals of 10 1 / 2 to 9 3 / 4 min. Average serum insulin levels were similar during the two infusion protocols, but pulsatile administration induced oscillations ranging between 15 and 62 μU/ml. Glucose uptake expressed as metabolic clearance rate (MCR) for glucose was significantly increased during pulsatile insulin delivery as compared with continuous administration (270-294 min: 8.7±0.7 vs 6.8±0.9 ml/kg · min, P 3 H]glucose infusion technique was suppressed to insignificant values. Finally, the effect of insulin on endogenous insulin secretion and lipolysis as assessed by changes in serum C-peptide and serum FFA was uninfluenced by the infusion mode. In conclusion, insulin infusion resulting in physiological serum insulin levels enhances glucose uptake in peripheral tissues in healthy subjects to a higher degree when given in a pulsed pattern mimicking that of the normal endocrine pancreas than when given as a continuous infusion. (author)

  12. Whole body glucose kinetics in type I diabetes studied with [6,6-2H] and [U-13C]-glucose and the artificial B-cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmaun, D.; Cirillo, D.; Koziet, J.; Chauvet, D.; Young, V.R.; Robert, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Dynamic aspects of whole body glucose metabolism were assessed in ten young adult insulin-dependent (type I) diabetic men. Using a primed, continuous intravenous infusion of [6,6- 2 H]glucose and [U- 13 C]glucose, endogenous production, tissue uptake, carbon recycling, and oxidation of glucose were measured in the postabsorptive state. These studies were undertaken after blood glucose had been maintained overnight at 5.9 +/- 0.4 mmol/L (n = 10), and on another night at 10.5 +/- 0.4 mmol/L (n = 4) or 15.2 +/- 0.6 mmol/L (n = 6). In the normoglycemic state, endogenous glucose production averaged 2.15 +/- 0.13 mg x kg-1 x min-1. This value, as well as the rate of glucose carbon recycling (0.16 +/- 0.04 mg x kg-1 x min-1) and glucose oxidation (1.52 +/- 0.16 mg x kg-1 x min-1) are comparable to those found in nondiabetic controls. In the hyperglycemic states at 10 or 15 mmol/L, endogenous glucose production was increased by 11% (P less than .01) and 60% (P less than .01) compared to the normoglycemic states, respectively. Glucose carbon recycling contributed only a small percentage to this variation in glucose production (15% at the 15 mmol/L glucose level). This suggests that if gluconeogenesis participates in the increased glucose output, it is not dependent on a greater systemic supply of three-carbon precursors. The increased rate of glucose production in the hyperglycemic state was quantitatively offset by a rise in urinary glucose excretion. Glucose tissue uptake, as well as glucose oxidation, did not vary between normoglycemic and hyperglycemic states

  13. Myocardial glucose metabolism in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Assessment by F-18-FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Toshiisa; Ishida, Yoshio; Hayashida, Kohei

    1998-01-01

    In an investigation of myocardial metabolic abnormalities in hypertrophic myocardium, the myocardial glucose metabolism was evaluated with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 32 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and the results were compared with those in 9 patients with hypertensive heart disease. F-18-FDG PET study was performed in the fasting and glucose-loading states. The myocardial regional %dose uptake was calculated quantitatively. The average regional %dose uptake in the fasting state in the patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was significantly higher than that in the patients with hypertensive heart disease (0.75±0.34%, 0.65±0.25%, and 0.43±0.22%/100 g myocardium, respectively). In contrast, the average %dose uptake in the glucose-loading state in the patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was not significantly different from that in patients with hypertensive heart disease (1.17±0.49%, 0.80±0.44% and 0.99±0.45%, respectively). The patients with apical hypertrophy had also low %dose uptake in the fasting state (0.38±0.21%) as in the hypertensive heart disease patients, so that the characteristics of asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are considered to be high FDG uptake throughout the myocardium in the fasting state. Patients with apical hypertrophy are considered to belong to other disease categories metabolically. F-18-FDG PET study is useful in the evaluation of the pathophysiologic diagnosis of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (author)

  14. Interference studies with two hospital-grade and two home-grade glucose meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Martha E; Baskin, Leland B; Braakman, Sandy; Presti, Steven; Dubois, Jeffrey; Shirey, Terry

    2009-10-01

    Interference studies of four glucose meters (Nova Biomedical [Waltham, MA] StatStrip [hospital grade], Roche Diagnostics [Indianapolis, IN] Accu-Chek Aviva [home grade], Abbott Diabetes Care [Alameda, CA] Precision FreeStyle Freedom [home grade], and LifeScan [Milpitas, CA] SureStep Flexx [hospital grade]) were evaluated and compared to the clinical laboratory plasma hexokinase reference method (Roche Hitachi 912 chemistry analyzer). These meters were chosen to reflect the continuum of care from hospital to home grade meters commonly seen in North America. Within-run precision was determined using a freshly prepared whole blood sample spiked with concentrated glucose to give three glucose concentrations. Day-to-day precision was evaluated using aqueous control materials supplied by each vendor. Common interferences, including hematocrit, maltose, and ascorbate, were tested alone and in combination with one another on each of the four glucose testing devices at three blood glucose concentrations. Within-run precision for all glucose meters was glucose meters. Ascorbate caused differences (percentage change from a sample without added interfering substances) of >5% with pyrroloquinolinequinone (PQQ)-glucose dehydrogenase-based technologies (Aviva and Freestyle) and the glucose oxidase-based Flexx meter. Maltose strongly affected the PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase-based meter systems. When combinations of interferences (ascorbate, maltose, and hematocrit mixtures) were tested, the extent of the interference was up to 193% (Aviva), 179% (FreeStyle), 25.1% (Flexx), and 5.9% (StatStrip). The interference was most pronounced at low glucose (3.9-4.4 mmol/L). All evaluated glucose meter systems demonstrated varying degrees of interference by hematocrit, ascorbate, and maltose mixtures. PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase-based technologies showed greater susceptibility than glucose oxidase-based systems. However, the modified glucose oxidase-based amperometric method (Nova StatStrip) was

  15. Study of dynamics of glucose-glucose oxidase-ferricyanide reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, A.; Schreiberová, L.; Schreiber, I.

    2011-12-01

    This work is focused on dynamics of the glucose-glucose oxidase-ferricyanide enzymatic reaction with or without sodium hydroxide in a continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and in a batch reactor. This reaction exhibits pH-variations having autocatalytic character and is reported to provide nonlinear dynamic behavior (bistability, excitability). The dynamical behavior of the reaction was examined within a wide range of inlet parameters. The main inlet parameters were the ratio of concentrations of sodium hydroxide and ferricyanide and the flow rate. In a batch reactor we observed an autocatalytic drop of pH from slightly basic to medium acidic values. In a CSTR our aim was to find bistability in the presence of sodium hydroxide. However, only a basic steady state was found. In order to reach an acidic steady state, we investigated the system in the absence of sodium hydroxide. Under these conditions the transition from the basic to the acidic steady state was observed when inlet glucose concentration was increased.

  16. Is type 2 diabetes really resolved after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy? Glucose variability studied by continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoccia, D; Coccia, F; Guida, A; Rizzello, M; De Angelis, F; Silecchia, G; Leonetti, F

    2015-01-01

    The study was carried out on type 2 diabetic obese patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Patients underwent regular glycemic controls throughout 3 years and all patients were defined cured from diabetes according to conventional criteria defined as normalization of fasting glucose levels and glycated hemoglobin in absence of antidiabetic therapy. After 3 years of follow-up, Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) was performed in each patient to better clarify the remission of diabetes. In this study, we found that the diabetes resolution after LSG occurred in 40% of patients; in the other 60%, even if they showed a normal fasting glycemia and A1c, patients spent a lot of time in hyperglycemia. During the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), we found that 2 h postload glucose determinations revealed overt diabetes only in a small group of patients and might be insufficient to exclude the diagnosis of diabetes in the other patients who spent a lot of time in hyperglycemia, even if they showed a normal glycemia (<140 mg/dL) at 120 minutes OGTT. These interesting data could help clinicians to better individualize patients in which diabetes is not resolved and who could need more attention in order to prevent chronic complications of diabetes.

  17. Clinical studies for improving radiotherapy with 2-deoxy-D-glucose: Present status and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwarakanath B

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Higher rates of glucose usage generally correlate with poor prognosis in several types of malignant tumours. Experimental studies (both in vitro and in vivo have shown that 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG, a glucose analog and glycolytic inhibitor, enhances radiation-induced damage selectively in tumor cells while protecting normal cells, thereby suggesting that 2-DG can be used as a differential radiomodifier to improve the efficacy of radiotherapy. Clinical trials undertaken to study the feasibility, safety, and validity of this suggested approach will be described. Based on 2-DG-induced radiosensitization observed in primary organ cultures of cerebral glioma tissues, clinical trials were designed taking into consideration the radiobiology of gliomas and pharmacokinetics of 2-DG. Phase I/II clinical trials have unequivocally demonstrated that a combination of 2-DG (200-300 mg 2-DG per kg body weight orally administered after overnight fasting, 20min before irradiation with large weekly fractions (5 Gy/fraction of low-LET radiotherapy is well tolerated without any acute toxicity or late radiation damage to the normal brain tissue. Nonserious transient side effects similar to hypoglycemia induced disturbances like restlessness, nausea, and vomiting were observed at the 2-DG doses used. Data from these trials involving more than 100 patients have clearly indicated a moderate increase in the survival, with a significant improvement in the quality of life with clinicopathological evidence of protection of normal brain tissue. A phase III multicentric trial to evaluate the efficacy of the combined treatment is in progress. Directions for future studies are discussed.

  18. A Study on the Correlation between Cord Blood Glucose Level and the Apgar Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kalyan; Saha, Ashis Ranjan

    2013-02-01

    The study of the biochemical parameters of cord blood acts as a mirror, which usually reflects the neonatal status. The widely used system for the evaluation of a neonate is the Apgar score. There is no comprehensive published data which has established the association between the cord blood glucose level and the Apgar score. Similarly, there is also no well accepted reference range of the cord blood glucose level. The main objectives of the present study was to ascertain any adverse effects of an abnormal cord blood glucose level on the neonatal status and to find out a standard reference level of glucose in cord blood. The cord blood glucose estimation was done by using the glucose oxidase peroxidase method and the statistical analysis was performed by using the SPSS, version 16 software. In the present study, the cord blood glucose level was found to have no correlation with the Apgar scores which were calculated at both one minute and five minutes after birth. It was also found that for the foetus to be free from any obvious complication, the cord blood glucose level had to be around 87 mg/dl. The fluctuations in the maternal glucose levels are weakly associated with the glucose level in the cord blood.

  19. Hyperuricemia Is a Risk Factor for the Onset of Impaired Fasting Glucose in Men with a High Plasma Glucose Level: A Community-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Teruki; Kumagi, Teru; Furukawa, Shinya; Hirooka, Masashi; Kawasaki, Keitarou; Koizumi, Mitsuhito; Todo, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Shin; Abe, Masanori; Kitai, Kohichiro; Matsuura, Bunzo; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not clear whether elevated uric acid is a risk factor for the onset of impaired fasting glucose after stratifying by baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. We conducted a community-based retrospective longitudinal cohort study to clarify the relationship between uric acid levels and the onset of impaired fasting glucose, according to baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. Methods We enrolled 6,403 persons (3,194 men and 3,209 women), each of whom was 18–80 years old and had >2 annual check-ups during 2003–2010. After excluding persons who had fasting plasma glucose levels ≥6.11 mM and/or were currently taking anti-diabetic agents, the remaining 5,924 subjects were classified into quartiles according to baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. The onset of impaired fasting glucose was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥6.11 mM during the observation period. Results In the quartile groups, 0.9%, 2.1%, 3.4%, and 20.2% of the men developed impaired fasting glucose, respectively, and 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, and 5.6% of the women developed impaired fasting glucose, respectively (P trend fasting glucose in men with highest-quartile fasting plasma glucose levels (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.003; 95% confidence interval, 1.0001–1.005, P = 0.041). Conclusions Among men with high fasting plasma glucose, hyperuricemia may be independently associated with an elevated risk of developing impaired fasting glucose. PMID:25237894

  20. Are glucose levels, glucose variability and autonomic control influenced by inspiratory muscle exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Aso; Correa, Aps; Casali, Karina Rabello; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-01-20

    Physical exercise reduces glucose levels and glucose variability in patients with type 2 diabetes. Acute inspiratory muscle exercise has been shown to reduce these parameters in a small group of patients with type 2 diabetes, but these results have yet to be confirmed in a well-designed study. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of acute inspiratory muscle exercise on glucose levels, glucose variability, and cardiovascular autonomic function in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study will use a randomized clinical trial crossover design. A total of 14 subjects will be recruited and randomly allocated to two groups to perform acute inspiratory muscle loading at 2 % of maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax, placebo load) or 60 % of PImax (experimental load). Inspiratory muscle training could be a novel exercise modality to be used to decrease glucose levels and glucose variability. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02292810 .

  1. Pulsed addition of HMF and furfural to batch-grown xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in different physiological responses in glucose and xylose consumption phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass generates a number of undesired degradation products that can inhibit microbial metabolism. Two of these compounds, the furan aldehydes 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2-furaldehyde (furfural), have been shown to be an impediment for viable ethanol production. In the present study, HMF and furfural were pulse-added during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase in order to dissect the effects of these inhibitors on energy state, redox metabolism, and gene expression of xylose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Pulsed addition of 3.9 g L-1 HMF and 1.2 g L-1 furfural during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase resulted in distinct physiological responses. Addition of furan aldehydes in the glucose consumption phase was followed by a decrease in the specific growth rate and the glycerol yield, whereas the acetate yield increased 7.3-fold, suggesting that NAD(P)H for furan aldehyde conversion was generated by acetate synthesis. No change in the intracellular levels of NAD(P)H was observed 1 hour after pulsing, whereas the intracellular concentration of ATP increased by 58%. An investigation of the response at transcriptional level revealed changes known to be correlated with perturbations in the specific growth rate, such as protein and nucleotide biosynthesis. Addition of furan aldehydes during the xylose consumption phase brought about an increase in the glycerol and acetate yields, whereas the xylitol yield was severely reduced. The intracellular concentrations of NADH and NADPH decreased by 58 and 85%, respectively, hence suggesting that HMF and furfural drained the cells of reducing power. The intracellular concentration of ATP was reduced by 42% 1 hour after pulsing of inhibitors, suggesting that energy-requiring repair or maintenance processes were activated. Transcriptome profiling showed that NADPH-requiring processes such as amino acid biosynthesis and sulfate and

  2. 77 FR 30016 - Clinical Study Design and Performance of Hospital Glucose Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ...] Clinical Study Design and Performance of Hospital Glucose Sensors AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Sensors.'' The purpose of this public meeting is to discuss clinical study design considerations and performance metrics for innovative glucose sensors intended to be used in hospital point of care settings...

  3. Two prospective studies found that elevated 2-hr glucose predicted male mortality independent of fasting glucose and HbA1c.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiao, Q.; Dekker, J.M.; Vegt, F. de; Nijpels, G.; Nissinen, A.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Bouter, L.M.; Heine, R.J.; Tuomilehto, J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the relative contribution of elevated 2-hr glucose, fasting glucose (FPG), and HbA1c to all-cause mortality. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A joint analysis of two prospective studies with baseline glycemia measurements. RESULTS: The multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs)

  4. Two prospective studies found that elevated 2-hr glucose predicted male mortality independent of fasting glucose and HbA1c

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiao, Qing; Dekker, Jacqueline M; de Vegt, Femmie; Nijpels, Giel; Nissinen, Aulikki; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Bouter, Lex M; Heine, Robert J; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the relative contribution of elevated 2-hr glucose, fasting glucose (FPG), and HbA1c to all-cause mortality. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A joint analysis of two prospective studies with baseline glycemia measurements. RESULTS: The multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs)

  5. Studies on the production of glucose isomerase by Bacillus licheniformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwokoro Ogbonnaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the effects of some culture conditions on the production of glucose isomerase by Bacillus licheniformis. The bacterium was selected based on the release of 3.62 mg/mL fructose from the fermentation of glucose. Enzyme was produced using a variety of carbon substrates but the highest enzyme activity was detected in a medium containing 0.5% xylose and 1% glycerol (specific activity = 6.88 U/mg protein. Media containing only xylose or glucose gave lower enzyme productivies (specific activities= 4.60 and 2.35 U/mg protein respectively. The effects of nitrogen substrates on glucose isomerase production showed that yeast extract supported maximum enzyme activity (specific activity = 5.24 U/mg protein. Lowest enzyme activity was observed with sodium trioxonitrate (specific activity = 2.44 U/mg protein. In general, organic nitrogen substrates supported higher enzyme productivity than inorganic nitrogen substrates. Best enzyme activity was observed in the presence of Mg2+ (specific activity = 6.85 U/mg protein while Hg2+ was inhibitory (specific activity = 1.02 U/mg protein. The optimum pH for best enzyme activity was 6.0 while optimum temperature for enzyme production was 50ºC.

  6. Sex differences in glucose levels: a consequence of physiology or methodological convenience? The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Vaag, A

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether sex differences in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h post-OGTT plasma glucose (2hPG) and HbA(1c) could be explained by differences in body size and/or body composition between men and women in a general non-diabetic Danish population. Moreover, we aimed to study to what...

  7. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies of glucose oxidase on gold surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losic, D.; Shapter, J.G.; Gooding, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Three immobilization methods have been used for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies of glucose oxidase (GOD) on gold. They are based on a) physical adsorption from solution, b) microcontact printing and c) covalent bonding onto self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). The STM images are used to provide information about the organization of individual GOD molecules and more densely packed monolayers of GOD on electrode surfaces, thus providing information of the role of interfacial structure on biosensor performance. The use of atomically flat gold substrates enables easy distinction of deposited enzyme features from the flat gold substrate. Microcontact printing is found to be a more reliable method than adsorption from solution for preparing individual GOD molecules on the gold surface STM images of printed samples reveal two different shapes of native GOD molecules. One is a butterfly shape with dimensions of 10 ± 1 nm x 6 ± 1 nm, assigned to the lying position of molecule while the second is an approximately spherical shape with dimensions of 6.5 ± 1 nm x 5 ± 1nm assigned to a standing position. Isolated clusters of 5 to 6 GOD molecules are also observed. With monolayer coverage, GOD molecules exhibit a tendency to organize themselves into a two dimensional array with adequate sample stability to obtain high-resolution STM images. Within these two-dimensional arrays are clearly seen repeating clusters of five to six enzyme molecules in a unit STM imaging of GOD monolayers covalently immobilized onto SAM (MPA) are considerably more difficult than when the enzyme is adsorbed directly onto the metal. Cluster structures are observed both high and low coverage despite the fact that native GOD is a negatively charged molecule. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  8. A mechanistic study to increase understanding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-increased plasma glucose in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hailong; Li, Li; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) is an authorized food additive. Previous studies determined oral administration of TiO2 NPs increases plasma glucose in mice via inducing insulin resistance. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered the possible mechanism of increasing plasma glucose. However, persistently high plasma glucose is also a mechanism of increasing ROS. This study aims to explore whether TiO2 NPs increase plasma glucose via ROS. We found after oral administration of TiO2 NPs, an increase in ROS preceded an increase in plasma glucose. Subsequently, mice were treated with two antioxidants (resveratrol and vitamin E) at the same time as oral administration of TiO2 NPs. Results showed resveratrol and vitamin E reduced TiO2 NPs-increased ROS. An increase in plasma glucose was also inhibited. Further research showed resveratrol and vitamin E inhibited the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, resulting in improved insulin resistance. These results suggest TiO2 NPs increased ROS levels, and then ROS activated inflammatory cytokines and phosphokinases, and thus induced insulin resistance, resulting in an increase in plasma glucose. Resveratrol and vitamin E can reduce TiO2 NPs-increased ROS and thereby inhibit an increase in plasma glucose in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A combined microdialysis and FDG-PET study of glucose metabolism in head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Peter J; O'Connell, Mark T; Seal, Alex; Nortje, Jurgens; Timofeev, Ivan; Al-Rawi, Pippa G; Coles, Jonathan P; Fryer, Timothy D; Menon, David K; Pickard, John D; Carpenter, Keri L H

    2009-01-01

    Microdialysis continuously monitors the chemistry of a small focal volume of the cerebral extracellular space. Positron emission tomography (PET) establishes metabolism of the whole brain but only for the scan's duration. This study's objective was to apply these techniques together, in patients with traumatic brain injury, to assess the relationship between microdialysis (extracellular glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and the lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio as a marker of anaerobic metabolism) and PET parameters of glucose metabolism using the glucose analogue [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). In particular, we aimed to determine the fate of glucose in terms of differential metabolism to pyruvate and lactate. Microdialysis catheters (CMA70 or CMA71) were inserted into the cerebral cortex of 17 patients with major head injury. Microdialysis was performed during FDG-PET scans with regions of interest for PET analysis defined by the location of the gold-tipped microdialysis catheter. Microdialysate analysis was performed on a CMA600 analyser. There was significant linear relationship between the PET-derived parameter of glucose metabolism (regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose; CMRglc) and levels of lactate (r = 0.778, p glucose was metabolised to both lactate and pyruvate, but was not associated with an increase in the L/P ratio. This suggests an increase in glucose metabolism to both lactate and pyruvate, as opposed to a shift towards anaerobic metabolism.

  10. The Development of Diet-Induced Obesity and Glucose Intolerance in C57Bl/6 Mice on a High-Fat Diet Consists of Distinct Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lynda M.; Campbell, Fiona M.; Drew, Janice E.; Koch, Christiane; Hoggard, Nigel; Rees, William D.; Kamolrat, Torkamol; Thi Ngo, Ha; Steffensen, Inger-Lise; Gray, Stuart R.; Tups, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    High–fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and insulin insensitivity are associated with inflammation, particularly in white adipose tissue (WAT). However, insulin insensitivity is apparent within days of HF feeding when gains in adiposity and changes in markers of inflammation are relatively minor. To investigate further the effects of HF diet, C57Bl/6J mice were fed either a low (LF) or HF diet for 3 days to 16 weeks, or fed the HF-diet matched to the caloric intake of the LF diet (PF) for 3 days or 1 week, with the time course of glucose tolerance and inflammatory gene expression measured in liver, muscle and WAT. HF fed mice gained adiposity and liver lipid steadily over 16 weeks, but developed glucose intolerance, assessed by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT), in two phases. The first phase, after 3 days, resulted in a 50% increase in area under the curve (AUC) for HF and PF mice, which improved to 30% after 1 week and remained stable until 12 weeks. Between 12 and 16 weeks the difference in AUC increased to 60%, when gene markers of inflammation appeared in WAT and muscle but not in liver. Plasma proteomics were used to reveal an acute phase response at day 3. Data from PF mice reveals that glucose intolerance and the acute phase response are the result of the HF composition of the diet and increased caloric intake respectively. Thus, the initial increase in glucose intolerance due to a HF diet occurs concurrently with an acute phase response but these effects are caused by different properties of the diet. The second increase in glucose intolerance occurs between 12 - 16 weeks of HF diet and is correlated with WAT and muscle inflammation. Between these times glucose tolerance remains stable and markers of inflammation are undetectable. PMID:25170916

  11. Design of a prospective clinical study on the agreement between the Continuous GlucoseMonitor, a novel device for CONTinuous ASSessment of blood GLUcose levels, and the RAPIDLab® 1265 blood gas analyser: The CONTASSGLU study

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann Johannes B; Lehmann Monika; Hofer Stefan; Hüsing Johannes; Alles Catharina; Werner Jens; Stiller Jürgen; Künnecke Wolfgang; Luntz Steffen; Motsch Johann; Weigand Markus A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although a device is needed to continuously measure blood glucose levels within an intensive care setting, and several large-scale prospective studies have shown that patients might benefit from intensive insulin, potassium, or glucose therapy during intensive care, no devices are currently available to continuously assess blood glucose levels in critically ill patients. We conceived the study described here to evaluate the clinical use of the Continuous Glucose Monitor (C...

  12. [A cohort study on association between the first trimester phthalates exposure and fasting blood glucose level in the third trimester].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y W; Gao, H; Huang, K; Xu, Y Y; Sheng, J; Tao, F B

    2017-03-10

    Objective: To examine the association between the phthalate exposure in the first trimester and fasting blood glucose level or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the third trimester in pregnant women. Methods: A total of 3 474 pregnant women, receiving their prenatal examination in Ma' anshan Maternal and Child Health-Care Hospital of Anhui province, were selected from May 2013 to September 2014. Questionnaires were used to collect the information about their socio-demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics and GDM diagnostic results in the first, second and third trimesters. Urine samples and fasting venous blood samples were collected. Concentrations of 7 kinds of phthalate metabolites in urine samples were detected by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS/MS), and multiple linear regression model was used for statistical analyses. Logistic regression analysis on the risk of the first trimester phthalate exposure for GDM in the third trimester was conducted. Results: The prevalence of GDM in this study was 12.8%, monomethyl phthalate (MMP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) exposure levels were positively correlated with the fasting blood glucose level in the third trimester ( P levels were negatively correlated with the fasting blood glucose level in the third trimester ( P blood glucose level in both normal group and GDM group. However, MMP, MEP, MBP, MBzP, MEHP and MEOHP exposure levels had influences on the third trimester fasting blood glucose level in normal group but not in GDM group. MMP and MBP exposure might increase the risk of GDM, but MEOHP exposure might reduce the risk of GDM. Conclusion: The phthalate exposure in the first trimester might be associated with the fasting blood glucose level in the third trimester, MMP, MEP, MBP, MBzP and MEHHP concentrations were positively

  13. Glucose and caffeine effects on sustained attention: an exploratory fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Grabulosa, Josep M; Adan, Ana; Falcón, Carles; Bargalló, Núria

    2010-11-01

    Caffeine and glucose can have beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, neural basis of these effects remain unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of caffeine and glucose on sustained attention, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Forty young right-handed, healthy, low caffeine-consuming subjects participated in the study. In a double-blind, randomised design, subjects received one of the following beverages: vehicle (water, 150 ml); vehicle plus 75 g of glucose; vehicle plus 75 mg of caffeine; vehicle plus 75 g of glucose and 75 mg of caffeine. Participants underwent two scanning fMRI sessions (before and 30 min after of the administration of the beverage). A continuous performance test was used to assess sustained attention. Participants who received combined caffeine and glucose had similar performance to the others but had a decrease in activation in the bilateral parietal and left prefrontal cortex. Since these areas have been related to the sustained attention and working memory processes, results would suggest that combined caffeine and glucose could increase the efficiency of the attentional system. However, more studies using larger samples and different levels of caffeine and glucose are necessary to better understand the combined effects of both substances. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A Computer-Based Glucose Management System Reduces the Incidence of Forgotten Glucose Measurements: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Tsuyoshi; Teramoto, Kei; Koshitani, Rie; Fujioka, Yohei; Endo, Yusuke; Ueki, Masaru; Kato, Masahiko; Taniguchi, Shin-Ichi; Kondo, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2018-04-17

    Frequent glucose measurements are needed for good blood glucose control in hospitals; however, this requirement means that measurements can be forgotten. We developed a novel glucose management system using an iPod ® and electronic health records. A time schedule system for glucose measurement was developed using point-of-care testing, an iPod ® , and electronic health records. The system contains the glucose measurement schedule and an alarm sounds if a measurement is forgotten. The number of times measurements were forgotten was analyzed. Approximately 7000 glucose measurements were recorded per month. Before implementation of the system, the average number of times measurements were forgotten was 4.8 times per month. This significantly decreased to 2.6 times per month after the system started. We also analyzed the incidence of forgotten glucose measurements as a proportion of the total number of measurements for each period and found a significant difference between the two 9-month periods (43/64,049-24/65,870, P = 0.014, chi-squared test). This computer-based blood glucose monitoring system is useful for the management of glucose monitoring in hospitals. Johnson & Johnson Japan.

  15. Glucose diffusion in colorectal mucosa—a comparative study between normal and cancer tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sónia; Gueiral, Nuno; Nogueira, Elisabete; Henrique, Rui; Oliveira, Luís; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2017-09-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is a major health concern worldwide and its high incidence and mortality require accurate screening methods. Following endoscopic examination, polyps must be removed for histopathological characterization. Aiming to contribute to the improvement of current endoscopy methods of colorectal carcinoma screening or even for future development of laser treatment procedures, we studied the diffusion properties of glucose and water in colorectal healthy and pathological mucosa. These parameters characterize the tissue dehydration and the refractive index matching mechanisms of optical clearing (OC). We used ex vivo tissues to measure the collimated transmittance spectra and thickness during treatments with OC solutions containing glucose in different concentrations. These time dependencies allowed for estimating the diffusion time and diffusion coefficient values of glucose and water in both types of tissues. The measured diffusion times for glucose in healthy and pathological mucosa samples were 299.2±4.7 s and 320.6±10.6 s for 40% and 35% glucose concentrations, respectively. Such a difference indicates a slower glucose diffusion in cancer tissues, which originate from their ability to trap far more glucose than healthy tissues. We have also found a higher free water content in cancerous tissue that is estimated as 64.4% instead of 59.4% for healthy mucosa.

  16. Continuous glucose monitoring in subcutaneous tissue using factory-calibrated sensors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoss, Udo; Jeddi, Iman; Schulz, Mark; Budiman, Erwin; Bhogal, Claire; McGarraugh, Geoffrey

    2010-08-01

    Commercial continuous subcutaneous glucose monitors require in vivo calibration using capillary blood glucose tests. Feasibility of factory calibration, i.e., sensor batch characterization in vitro with no further need for in vivo calibration, requires a predictable and stable in vivo sensor sensitivity and limited inter- and intra-subject variation of the ratio of interstitial to blood glucose concentration. Twelve volunteers wore two FreeStyle Navigator (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) continuous glucose monitoring systems for 5 days in parallel for two consecutive sensor wears (four sensors per subject, 48 sensors total). Sensors from a prototype sensor lot with a low variability in glucose sensitivity were used for the study. Median sensor sensitivity values based on capillary blood glucose were calculated per sensor and compared for inter- and intra-subject variation. Mean absolute relative difference (MARD) calculation and error grid analysis were performed using a single calibration factor for all sensors to simulate factory calibration and compared to standard fingerstick calibration. Sensor sensitivity variation in vitro was 4.6%, which increased to 8.3% in vivo (P glucose monitoring is feasible with similar accuracy to standard fingerstick calibration. Additional data are required to confirm this result in subjects with diabetes.

  17. Metabolic fate of glucose in rats with traumatic brain injury and pyruvate or glucose treatments: A NMR spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shijo, Katsunori; Sutton, Richard L; Ghavim, Sima S; Harris, Neil G; Bartnik-Olson, Brenda L

    2017-01-01

    Administration of sodium pyruvate (SP; 9.08 μmol/kg, i.p.), ethyl pyruvate (EP; 0.34 μmol/kg, i.p.) or glucose (GLC; 11.1 μmol/kg, i.p.) to rats after unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury has been reported to reduce neuronal loss and improve cerebral metabolism. In the present study these doses of each fuel or 8% saline (SAL; 5.47 nmoles/kg) were administered immediately and at 1, 3, 6 and 23 h post-CCI. At 24 h all CCI groups and non-treated Sham injury controls were infused with [1,2 13 C] glucose for 68 min 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were obtained from cortex + hippocampus tissues from left (injured) and right (contralateral) hemispheres. All three fuels increased lactate labeling to a similar degree in the injured hemisphere. The amount of lactate labeled via the pentose phosphate and pyruvate recycling (PPP + PR) pathway increased in CCI-SAL and was not improved by SP, EP, and GLC treatments. Oxidative metabolism, as assessed by glutamate labeling, was reduced in CCI-SAL animals. The greatest improvement in oxidative metabolism was observed in animals treated with SP and fewer improvements after EP or GLC treatments. Compared to SAL, all three fuels restored glutamate and glutamine labeling via pyruvate carboxylase (PC), suggesting improved astrocyte metabolism following fuel treatment. Only SP treatments restored the amount of [4 13 C] glutamate labeled by the PPP + PR pathway to sham levels. Milder injury effects in the contralateral hemisphere appear normalized by either SP or EP treatments, as increases in the total pool of 13 C lactate and labeling of lactate in glycolysis, or decreases in the ratio of PC/PDH labeling of glutamine, were found only for CCI-SAL and CCI-GLC groups compared to Sham. The doses of SP, EP and GLC examined in this study all enhanced lactate labeling and restored astrocyte-specific PC activity but differentially affected neuronal metabolism after CCI injury. The restoration of

  18. A potential role for muscle in glucose homeostasis: in vivo kinetic studies in glycogen storage disease type 1a and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huidekoper, Hidde H.; Visser, Gepke; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; Sauerwein, Hans P.; Wijburg, Frits A.

    2010-01-01

    A potential role for muscle in glucose homeostasis was recently suggested based on characterization of extrahepatic and extrarenal glucose-6-phosphatase (glucose-6-phosphatase-beta). To study the role of extrahepatic tissue in glucose homeostasis during fasting glucose kinetics were studied in two

  19. Effects of blood glucose level on FDG uptake by liver: a FDG-PET/CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kazuo, E-mail: kkubota@cpost.plala.or.j [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshige; Murata, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Yukihiro, Masashi; Ito, Kimiteru; Morooka, Miyako; Minamimoto, Ryogo [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Hori, Ai [Department of Epidemiology and International Health, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    In FDG-PET for abdominal malignancy, the liver may be assumed as an internal standard for grading abnormal FDG uptake both in early images and in delayed images. However, physiological variables of FDG uptake by the liver, especially the effects of blood glucose level, have not yet been elucidated. Methods: FDG-PET studies of 70 patients examined at 50 to 70 min after injection (60{+-}10 min: early images) and of 68 patients examined at 80 to 100 min after injection (90{+-}10 min: delayed images) were analyzed for liver FDG uptake. Patients having lesions in the liver, spleen and pancreas; patients having bulk tumor in other areas; and patients early after chemotherapy or radiotherapy were excluded; also, patients with blood glucose level over 125 mg/dl were excluded. Results: Mean standardized uptake value (SUV) of the liver, blood glucose level and sex showed no significant differences between early images and delayed images. However, liver SUV in the delayed image showed a larger variation than that in the early image and showed significant correlation to blood glucose level. The partial correlation coefficient between liver SUV and blood glucose level in the delayed image with adjustment for sex and age was 0.73 (P<.0001). Multivariate regression coefficient (95% confidence interval) of blood glucose was 0.017 (0.013-0.021). Conclusion: Blood glucose level is an important factor affecting the normal liver FDG uptake in nondiabetic patients. In the case of higher glucose level, liver FDG uptake is elevated especially in the delayed image. This may be due to the fact that the liver is the key organ responsible for glucose metabolism through gluconeogenesis and glycogen storage.

  20. A Study on the Glucose and Immunoreactive Insulin Response during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kang Won; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mu Ho

    1973-01-01

    The blood glucose and plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels were measured during aral glucose tolerance test in 7 healthy subjects and 6 patients with chronic liver diseases. The glucose tolerance was impaired in 5 of the 6 patients and normal in I. Plasma IRI responses were markedly increased and delayed in all patients, suggesting endogenous insulin resistance. Patients with more glucose intolerance showed less increase in plasma IRI than the group with less intolerance. lt is suggested that some insulin antagonists may decrease the peripheral insulin sensitivity and stimulate compensatory hyperactivity of pancreatic islets. If the compensatory hyperactivity is inadequate due to gemetic predisposition to diabetes mellitus or exhaustion of β-cells of pancreatic islets, the glucose intolerance and overt diabetes mellitus may ensue.

  1. A Study on the Glucose and Immunoreactive Insulin Response during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Kang Won; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mu Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-03-15

    The blood glucose and plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels were measured during aral glucose tolerance test in 7 healthy subjects and 6 patients with chronic liver diseases. The glucose tolerance was impaired in 5 of the 6 patients and normal in I. Plasma IRI responses were markedly increased and delayed in all patients, suggesting endogenous insulin resistance. Patients with more glucose intolerance showed less increase in plasma IRI than the group with less intolerance. lt is suggested that some insulin antagonists may decrease the peripheral insulin sensitivity and stimulate compensatory hyperactivity of pancreatic islets. If the compensatory hyperactivity is inadequate due to gemetic predisposition to diabetes mellitus or exhaustion of beta-cells of pancreatic islets, the glucose intolerance and overt diabetes mellitus may ensue.

  2. NMR study of the 1-13C glucose colon bacterial metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briet, F.; Flourie, B.; Pochart, P.; Rambaud, J.C.; Desjeux, J.F.; Dallery, L.; Grivet, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine in-vitro and by nuclear magnetic resonance the biological pathways for the fermentation of the 1- 13 C labelled glucose (99 atoms percent) by human colon bacteria. The preparation of the bacterial suspension and the glucose degradation kinetics are presented; the NMR analysis sensitivity and quantification features are discussed and results are presented. 2 figs., 1 ref

  3. Autoradiographic studies on glucose metabolism in the salivary gland of Lygaeus SP. (Heteroptera, Lygalidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, D.

    1985-01-01

    Autoradiographic studies using 3H-glucose in the salivary glands of Lygaeus sp.were carried out. It has been observed that the radioactivity appears in the cell cytoplasm and lumen within a short period of incubation and attains its peak after 30 min of incubation. Afterwards, the radioactivity is exhausted from the cell and lumen suggesting a very high rate of glucose metabolism in this species. (author) [pt

  4. Fasting Glucose GWAS Candidate Region Analysis across Ethnic Groups in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen-Torvik, L. J.; Guo, X.; Bowden, D. W.; Bertoni, A. G.; Sale, M. M.; Yao, J.; Bluemke, D. A.; Goodarzi, M. O.; Chen, Y. I.; Vaidya, D.; Raffel, L. J.; Papanicolaou, G.J.; Meigs, J. B.; Pankow, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variants associated with fasting glucose in European ancestry populations are increasingly well understood. However, the nature of the associations between these SNPs and fasting glucose in other racial and ethnic groups is unclear. We sought to examine regions previously identified to be associated with fasting glucose in Caucasian GWAS across multiple ethnicities in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Non-diabetic MESA participants with fasting glucose measured at the ...

  5. The effect of extremely high glucose concentrations on 21 routine chemistry and thyroid Abbott assays: interference study

    OpenAIRE

    ?uhadar, Serap; K?seo?lu, Mehmet; ?inpolat, Yasemin; Bu?dayc?, G?ler; Usta, Murat; Semerci, Tuna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Extremely high glucose concentrations have been shown to interfere with creatinine assays especially with Jaffe method in peritoneal dialysate. Because diabetes is the fastest growing chronic disease in the world, laboratories study with varying glucose concentrations. We investigated whether different levels of glucose spiked in serum interfere with 21 routine chemistry and thyroid assays at glucose concentrations between 17-51 mmol/L. Materials and methods: Base...

  6. Studies Regarding the Membranous Support of a Glucose Biosensor Based on Gox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Bizerea-Spiridon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available To obtain glucose biosensors based on glucose oxidase (GOx, the enzyme can be immobilized on the sensitive surface of a glass electrode by different techniques: deposition on membranous support (cellophane or other macromolecular material or entrapment in a matrix. Deposition on membranous support also involves cross-linking with glutaraldehyde or entrapment in silica gel, following the sol-gel procedure. The aim of this preliminary work was to study the influence of cellophane replacement with a PVA based membranous support on the glucose biosensor performance. The data obtained at pH measurements of buffer solutions with cellophane and PVA membranous supports respectively, show that the PVA based membrane assures superior performances of the biosensor for low glucose concentrations determination (about 10-4 M. These results allow the transition to an improved immobilization technique, namely the enzyme entrapment in membranous material.

  7. Circulating Betatrophin Correlates with Triglycerides and Postprandial Glucose among Different Glucose Tolerance Statuses--A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ting; Jin, Kairui; Chen, Peihong; Jin, Hua; Yang, Lili; Xie, Xinmiao; Yang, Meili; Hu, Cheng; Yu, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    Previous researches of betatrophin on glucose and lipids metabolism under insulin-resistant condition have reached controversial conclusions. To further identify the possible impact of betatrophin, we measured the circulating betatrophin levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients, and in subjects with both impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and investigated the relationship between serum betatrophin and other clinical parameters in these patients with different glucose tolerance statuses. A total of 460 permanent residents of the Fengxian District, aged 40-60 years, were enrolled. Based on the results of a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, we selected newly diagnosed T2DM (n = 50) patients and subjects with IGT (n = 51) and NGT (n = 50) according to their age, gender and body mass index (18-28 kg/m2). Anthropometric parameters, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood lipids and fasting insulin were measured. Serum betatrophin concentrations were determined via ELISA. Serum betatrophin levels in T2DM patients were increased significantly compared with IGT and NGT groups, and decreased in subjects with better islet beta cell function. Serum betatrophin was positively correlated with triglyceride, 2-hour postprandial glucose, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index in all subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed that 2-hour postprandial glucose was independently associated with serum betatrophin significantly. Circulating betatrophin is increased in newly-diagnosed T2DM patients and positively correlated with the triglycerides and postprandial glucose levels. The results suggest that betatrophin may participate in glucose and triglycerides metabolism.

  8. Circulating Betatrophin Correlates with Triglycerides and Postprandial Glucose among Different Glucose Tolerance Statuses—A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peihong; Jin, Hua; Yang, Lili; Xie, Xinmiao; Yang, Meili; Hu, Cheng; Yu, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous researches of betatrophin on glucose and lipids metabolism under insulin-resistant condition have reached controversial conclusions. To further identify the possible impact of betatrophin, we measured the circulating betatrophin levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients, and in subjects with both impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and investigated the relationship between serum betatrophin and other clinical parameters in these patients with different glucose tolerance statuses. Methods A total of 460 permanent residents of the Fengxian District, aged 40–60 years, were enrolled. Based on the results of a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, we selected newly diagnosed T2DM (n = 50) patients and subjects with IGT (n = 51) and NGT (n = 50) according to their age, gender and body mass index (18–28 kg/m2). Anthropometric parameters, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood lipids and fasting insulin were measured. Serum betatrophin concentrations were determined via ELISA. Results Serum betatrophin levels in T2DM patients were increased significantly compared with IGT and NGT groups, and decreased in subjects with better islet beta cell function. Serum betatrophin was positively correlated with triglyceride, 2-hour postprandial glucose, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index in all subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed that 2-hour postprandial glucose was independently associated with serum betatrophin significantly. Conclusions Circulating betatrophin is increased in newly-diagnosed T2DM patients and positively correlated with the triglycerides and postprandial glucose levels. The results suggest that betatrophin may participate in glucose and triglycerides metabolism. PMID:26247824

  9. Incretin responses to oral glucose and mixed meal tests and changes in fasting glucose levels during 7 years of follow-up: The Hoorn Meal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutters, F.; Rauh, S. P.; Nijpels, G.; Holst, J. J.; Beulens, J. W.; Alssema, M.; Dekker, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    We conducted the first prospective observational study in which we examined the association between incretin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and mixed meal test (MMT) at baseline and changes in fasting glucose levels 7 years later, in individuals who were non-diabetic at baseline. We used data from the Hoorn Meal Study; a population-based cohort study among 121 subjects, aged 61.0±6.7y. GIP and GLP-1 responses were determined at baseline and expressed as total and incremental area under the curve (tAUC and iAUC). The association between incretin response at baseline and changes in fasting glucose levels was assessed using linear regression. The average change in glucose over 7 years was 0.43 ± 0.5 mmol/l. For GIP, no significant associations were observed with changes in fasting glucose levels. In contrast, participants within the middle and highest tertile of GLP-1 iAUC responses to OGTT had significantly smaller increases (actually decreases) in fasting glucose levels; -0.28 (95% confidence interval: -0.54;-0.01) mmol/l and -0.39 (-0.67;-0.10) mmol/l, respectively, compared to those in the lowest tertile. The same trend was observed for tAUC GLP-1 following OGTT (highest tertile: -0.32 (0.61;-0.04) mmol/l as compared to the lowest tertile). No significant associations were observed for GLP-1 responses following MMT. In conclusion, within our non-diabetic population-based cohort, a low GLP-1 response to OGTT was associated with a steeper increase in fasting glucose levels during 7 years of follow-up. This suggests that a reduced GLP-1 response precedes glucose deterioration and may play a role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:29324870

  10. Generalized decrease in brain glucose metabolism during fasting in humans studied by PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redies, C.; Hoffer, L.J.; Beil, C.

    1989-01-01

    In prolonged fasting, the brain derives a large portion of its oxidative energy from the ketone bodies, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, thereby reducing whole body glucose consumption. Energy substrate utilization differs regionally in the brain of fasting rat, but comparable information has hitherto been unavailable in humans. We used positron emission tomography (PET) to study regional brain glucose and oxygen metabolism, blood flow, and blood volume in four obese subjects before and after a 3-wk total fast. Whole brain glucose utilization fell to 54% of control (postabsorptive) values (P less than 0.002). The whole brain rate constant for glucose tracer phosphorylation fell to 51% of control values (P less than 0.002). Both parameters decreased uniformly throughout the brain. The 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose lumped constant decreased from a control value of 0.57 to 0.43 (P less than 0.01). Regional blood-brain barrier transfer coefficients for glucose tracer, regional oxygen utilization, blood flow, and blood volume were unchanged

  11. [Life style interventions study on the effects of impaired glucose regulations in Shanghai urban communities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianjun

    2011-05-01

    To access the effects of life style interventions on impaired glucose regulation (IGR) in Shanghai urban communities, China. Two communities were randomly cluster-sampled to be carried out epidemiological intervention trial. Totally, 232 subjects with IGR were randomly allocated into 4 groups: control group,sports intervention group, diet intervention group, and sports and diet intervention group with the physical examinations in the baseline and end of this study respectively. Tests for fasting blood glucose, OGTT, HbA1c, total cholesterol,etc. were done. Data statistical analysis was occupied in SPSS 16.0. Compared to subjects of control group,fasting blood glucose, OGTT, HbAlc,total cholesterol,BMI,waist hip ratio and blood pressures were significantly decreased among subjects with three interventions (P intervention and sports and diet intervention (P intervention (P interventions groups (8.6% vs. 0, Fisher' s exact P = 0.002), and the rate of transferring into normal blood glucose levels (fasting blood glucose interventions group (3.4% vs. 8.6%, 14.0% and 16.9%, respectively) but only significant difference was observed between control group and sports and diet intervention group (OR = 5.74, 95% CI 1. 19-27. 64, P = 0.029). The life style interventions could decrease the risk of diabetes mellitus, help their transferring into normal blood glucose, and improve diabetic measures for the IGR population in Shanghai urban communities.

  12. Sensitive determination of glucose in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium by high-performance liquid chromatography with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone derivatization: application to gluconeogenesis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zhaoli; Xu, Ping; Zhong, Zeyu; Wang, Fan; Shu, Nan; Zhang, Ji; Tang, Xiange; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2016-04-01

    A new pre-column derivative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determination of d-glucose with 3-O-methyl-d-glucose (3-OMG) as the internal standard was developed and validated in order to study the gluconeogenesis in HepG2 cells. Samples were derivatized with 1-phenyl-3-methy-5-pyrazolone at 70°C for 50 min. Glucose and 3-OMG were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and separated on a YMC-Triart C18 column, with a gradient mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and 20 mm ammonium acetate solution containing 0.09% tri-ethylamine at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The eluate were detected using a UV detector at 250 nm. The assay was linear over the range 0.39-25 μm (R(2) = 0.9997, n = 5) and the lower limit of quantitation was 0.39 μm (0.070 mg/mL). Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were gluconeogenesis in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) cultured HepG2 cells. Glucose concentration was determined to be about 1-2.5 μm in this gluconeogenesis assay. In conclusion, this method has been shown to determine small amounts of glucose in DMEM successfully, with lower limit of quantitation and better sensitivity when compared with common commercial glucose assay kits. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Progression to impaired glucose regulation and diabetes in the population-based Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Susanne; Vistisen, Dorte; Lau, Cathrine

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the progression rates to impaired glucose regulation (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance) and diabetes in the Danish population-based Inter99 study and in a high-risk subpopulation, separately. Research Design and Methods: From a population-based primary...... glucose regulation using the current World Health Organization classification criteria were calculated for the first time in a large European population-based study. The progression rates to diabetes show the same pattern as seen in the few similar European studies....... prevention study, the Inter99 study, 4,615 individuals without diabetes at baseline and with relevant follow-up data were divided into a low- and a high-risk group based on a risk estimate of ischemic heart disease or the presence of risk factors (smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity...... estimated directly from baseline to 5-year follow-up for all the participants, and from baseline through 1- and 3-, to 5-year follow-up for the high-risk individuals, separately. Results: In the combined low- and high-risk group, 2.1 per 100 person-years progressed from normal glucose tolerance to impaired...

  14. Postprandial glucose and not triglyceride concentrations are associated with carotid intima media thickness in women with normal glucose metabolism: the Hoorn prandial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alssema, M; Schindhelm, R K; Dekker, J M; Diamant, M; Kostense, P J; Teerlink, T; Scheffer, P G; Nijpels, G; Heine, R J

    2008-02-01

    The present study aimed to compare the associations of postprandial glucose (ppGL) and postprandial triglycerides (ppTG) with carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) in women with normal glucose metabolism (NGM) and type 2 diabetes (DM2). Post-menopausal women (76 with NGM, 78 with DM2), received two consecutive fat-rich and two consecutive carbohydrate-rich meals on separate occasions. Blood samples were taken before and 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8h following breakfast; lunch was given at t=4. Ultrasound imaging of the carotid artery was performed to measure cIMT. In women with NGM, an increase of 1.0 mmol/l glucose following the fat-rich meals was associated with a 50 microm cIMT increase (p=0.04), and following the carbohydrate meals, an increase of 1.8 mmol/l glucose was associated with a 50 microm larger cIMT (p=0.08). These associations were not explained by classical cardiovascular risk factors. However, no association between ppGL and cIMT was found in women with DM2 and ppTG were not associated with cIMT. The association between ppGL and cIMT in normoglycaemic women suggests that ppGL in the normal range is a marker or a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Postprandial glucose levels might be a better indicator of risk than post-OGTT glucose levels or triglyceride levels.

  15. Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooten, H.D.

    1994-09-01

    Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom.

  16. Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooten, H.D.

    1994-09-01

    Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom

  17. [Designing and implementation of a web-based quality monitoring system for plasma glucose measurement in multicenter population study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Wang, Limin; Pang, Richard; Mo, Nanxun; Hu, Yan; Deng, Qian; Hu, Zhaohui

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the designing and implementation of a web-based plasma glucose measurement quality monitoring system to assess the analytical quality of plasma glucose measurements in multicenter population study and provide evidence for the future studies. In the chronic non-communicable disease and related factor surveillance in China, a web based quality monitoring system for plasma glucose measurement was established to conduct evaluation on plasma glucose monitoring quality and effectiveness in 302 surveillance centers, including quality control data entry, transmission and feedback. The majority of the surveillance centers met the quality requirements and passed the evaluation of reproducibility and precision of plasma glucose measurement, only a few centers required intensive training and re-assessment. In order to ensure the completeness and reliability of plasma glucose measurement in the surveillance centers, the establishment of web-based plasma glucose measurement quality control system can facilitate the identification of the qualified surveillance centers and evaluation of plasma glucose measurement quality in different regions. Communication and training are important in ensuring plasma glucose measurement quality. It is necessary to further improve this web-based plasma glucose measurement quality monitoring system in the future to reduce the method specific plasma glucose measurement bias.

  18. Study of potential utility of new radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V.; Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il'ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. The radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25 MBq of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 min. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3 ± 0.15 MBq and 1.07 ± 0.6 MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  19. Experimental study of radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose for tumor diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Bragina, O.; Chernov, V.; Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il'ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V.; Dergilev, A.

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 minutes at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. Radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B 1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25MBq of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 minutes. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with 99mTc-1-thio-D- glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3±0.15MBq and 1.07±0.6MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio- D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  20. Study of potential utility of new radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeltchan, R., E-mail: r.zelchan@yandex.ru; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V. [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il’ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with {sup 99m}Tc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with {sup 99m}Tc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. The radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 min. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3 ± 0.15 MBq and 1.07 ± 0.6 MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  1. Tattoo-based noninvasive glucose monitoring: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandodkar, Amay J; Jia, Wenzhao; Yardımcı, Ceren; Wang, Xuan; Ramirez, Julian; Wang, Joseph

    2015-01-06

    We present a proof-of-concept demonstration of an all-printed temporary tattoo-based glucose sensor for noninvasive glycemic monitoring. The sensor represents the first example of an easy-to-wear flexible tattoo-based epidermal diagnostic device combining reverse iontophoretic extraction of interstitial glucose and an enzyme-based amperometric biosensor. In-vitro studies reveal the tattoo sensor's linear response toward physiologically relevant glucose levels with negligible interferences from common coexisting electroactive species. The iontophoretic-biosensing tattoo platform is reduced to practice by applying the device on human subjects and monitoring variations in glycemic levels due to food consumption. Correlation of the sensor response with that of a commercial glucose meter underscores the promise of the tattoo sensor to detect glucose levels in a noninvasive fashion. Control on-body experiments demonstrate the importance of the reverse iontophoresis operation and validate the sensor specificity. This preliminary investigation indicates that the tattoo-based iontophoresis-sensor platform holds considerable promise for efficient diabetes management and can be extended toward noninvasive monitoring of other physiologically relevant analytes present in the interstitial fluid.

  2. Cerebral glucose metabolism change in patients with complex regional pain syndrome. A PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Satoe; Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Nihashi, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine abnormalities of the central nervous system in patients with chronic pain who were diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Brain activity was assessed using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. The data collected from 18 patients were compared with data obtained from 13 normal age-matched controls. Our results showed that glucose metabolism was bilaterally increased in the secondary somatosensory cortex, mid-anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) or posterior cingulated cortex (PCC) (or both), parietal cortex, posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and cerebellum as well as in the right posterior insula and right thalamus in our patients. In contrast, glucose metabolism was reduced contralaterally in the dorsal prefrontal cortex and primary motor cortex. Glucose metabolism was bilaterally elevated in the mid-ACC/PCC and the PPC, which correlated with pain duration. These data suggested that glucose metabolism in the brains of patients with CRPS changes dramatically at each location. In particular, glucose metabolism was increased in the areas concerned with somatosensory perception, possibly due to continuous painful stimulation. (author)

  3. Membrane potential dye imaging of ventromedial hypothalamus neurons from adult mice to study glucose sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirani, Reema P; Fioramonti, Xavier; Routh, Vanessa H

    2013-11-27

    Studies of neuronal activity are often performed using neurons from rodents less than 2 months of age due to the technical difficulties associated with increasing connective tissue and decreased neuronal viability that occur with age. Here, we describe a methodology for the dissociation of healthy hypothalamic neurons from adult-aged mice. The ability to study neurons from adult-aged mice allows the use of disease models that manifest at a later age and might be more developmentally accurate for certain studies. Fluorescence imaging of dissociated neurons can be used to study the activity of a population of neurons, as opposed to using electrophysiology to study a single neuron. This is particularly useful when studying a heterogeneous neuronal population in which the desired neuronal type is rare such as for hypothalamic glucose sensing neurons. We utilized membrane potential dye imaging of adult ventromedial hypothalamic neurons to study their responses to changes in extracellular glucose. Glucose sensing neurons are believed to play a role in central regulation of energy balance. The ability to study glucose sensing in adult rodents is particularly useful since the predominance of diseases related to dysfunctional energy balance (e.g. obesity) increase with age.

  4. A comparison between the minimal model and the glucose clamp in the assessment of insulin sensitivity across the spectrum of glucose tolerance. Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, M F; Anderson, R L; Laws, A; Watanabe, R M; Kades, W W; Chen, Y D; Sands, R E; Pei, D; Savage, P J; Bergman, R N

    1994-09-01

    An insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT) with minimal model analysis was compared with the glucose clamp in 11 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 20 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 24 with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The insulin sensitivity index (SI) was calculated from FSIGTT using 22- and 12-sample protocols (SI(22) and SI(12), respectively). Insulin sensitivity from the clamp was expressed as SI(clamp) and SIP(clamp). Minimal model parameters were similar when calculated with SI(22) and SI(12). SI could not be distinguished from 0 in approximately 50% of diabetic patients with either protocol. SI(22) correlated significantly with SI(clamp) in the whole group (r = 0.62), and in the NGT (r = 0.53), IGT (r = 0.48), and NIDDM (r = 0.41) groups (P SIP(clamp) were expressed in the same units, SI(22) was 66 +/- 5% (mean +/- SE) and 50 +/- 8% lower than SI(clamp) and SIP(clamp), respectively. Thus, minimal model analysis of the insulin-modified FSIGTT provides estimates of insulin sensitivity that correlate significantly with those from the glucose clamp. The correlation was weaker, however, in NIDDM. The insulin-modified FSIGTT can be used as a simple test for assessment of insulin sensitivity in population studies involving nondiabetic subjects. Additional studies are needed before using this test routinely in patients with NIDDM.

  5. Association between Advanced Glycation End Products and Impaired Fasting Glucose: Results from the SALIA Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Teichert

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end products (AGEs may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes and related complications, whereas their role in the early deterioration of glycaemia is unknown. While previous studies used antibody-based methods to quantify AGEs, data from tandem mass spectrometry coupled liquid chromatography (LC-MS/MS-based measurements are limited to patients with known diabetes. Here, we used the LC-MS/MS method to test the hypothesis that plasma AGE levels are higher in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG than in those with normal fasting glucose (NFG. Secondary aims were to assess correlations of plasma AGEs with quantitative markers of glucose metabolism and biomarkers of subclinical inflammation. This study included on 60 women with NFG or IFG (n = 30 each, mean age 74 years from the German SALIA cohort. Plasma levels of free metabolites (3-deoxyfructose, 3-deoxypentosone, 3-deoxypentulose, two hydroimidazolones, oxidised adducts (carboxymethyllysine, carboxyethyllysine, methionine sulfoxide and Nε-fructosyllysine were measured using LC-MS/MS. Plasma concentrations of all tested AGEs did not differ between the NFG and IFG groups (all p>0.05. Associations between plasma levels of AGEs and fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR as a measure of insulin resistance were weak (r between -0.2 and 0.2, all p>0.05. The association between 3-deoxyglucosone-derived hydroimidazolone with several proinflammatory biomarkers disappeared upon adjustment for multiple testing. In conclusion, plasma AGEs assessed by LC-MS/MS were neither increased in IFG nor associated with parameters of glucose metabolism and subclinical inflammation in our study. Thus, these data argue against strong effects of AGEs in the early stages of deterioration of glucose metabolism.

  6. Effect of Guava in Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakavi, R; Mangaraj, Manaswini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The fruit of Psidium guajava (P.guajava) is known to contain free sugars yet the fruit juice showed hypoglycaemic effect. Hypoglycaemic activity of guava leaves has been well documented but not for guava fruit. Aim So we aimed to evaluate the effect of ripe guava (with peel and without peel) fruit supplementation on blood glucose and lipid profile in healthy human subjects. Materials and Methods Randomized Controlled study undertaken in: 1) Baseline; 2) 6 weeks supplementation phase. Forty five healthy MBBS students were included and randomly enrolled into Group A, Group B and Group C. In Baseline phase: Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and serum lipid profile was done in all 3 groups. Group A were supplemented with 400g of ripe guava with peel and group B without peel, for 6 weeks. Rest 15 treated as control i.e., Group C. Result Supplementation of ripe guava fruit with peel reduced BMI as well as blood pressure (pguava pulp supplementation was not significant. Serum Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDLc) levels decreased significantly (pguava pulp without peel may have a favourable effect on lipid levels and blood sugar as well. Conclusion Guava fruit without peel is more effective in lowering blood sugar as well as serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDLc. It increases HDLc levels also. PMID:27790420

  7. Brain glucose metabolism during hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes: insights from functional and metabolic neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooijackers, Hanne M M; Wiegers, Evita C; Tack, Cees J; van der Graaf, Marinette; de Galan, Bastiaan E

    2016-02-01

    Hypoglycemia is the most frequent complication of insulin therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes. Since the brain is reliant on circulating glucose as its main source of energy, hypoglycemia poses a threat for normal brain function. Paradoxically, although hypoglycemia commonly induces immediate decline in cognitive function, long-lasting changes in brain structure and cognitive function are uncommon in patients with type 1 diabetes. In fact, recurrent hypoglycemia initiates a process of habituation that suppresses hormonal responses to and impairs awareness of subsequent hypoglycemia, which has been attributed to adaptations in the brain. These observations sparked great scientific interest into the brain's handling of glucose during (recurrent) hypoglycemia. Various neuroimaging techniques have been employed to study brain (glucose) metabolism, including PET, fMRI, MRS and ASL. This review discusses what is currently known about cerebral metabolism during hypoglycemia, and how findings obtained by functional and metabolic neuroimaging techniques contributed to this knowledge.

  8. Cumulative glycemia and microangiopathy in subjects with impaired glucose regulation in the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Larsen, Michael; Kessel, Line

    2011-01-01

    .8% (CI(95) 6.8-17.1%) in subjects with screen-detected diabetes compared to normoglycemic subjects, adjusted for age, sex, and smoking. The prevalences of microalbuminuria and retinopathy were significantly increased in subjects with screen-detected diabetes after adjusting for age, sex and systolic...... in subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism, most prominently in subjects with IFG+IGT and in subjects with screen-detected diabetes. These results provide the first objective evidence that cumulative glycemic load is increased at the earliest stage of impaired glucose regulation.......AIMS: To assess cumulative glycemia, microvascular characteristics, and associated risk factors for diabetes in subjects with impaired glucose regulation. METHODS: Cross-sectional, population-based study comprising systemic characteristics in 6487 participants and ocular characteristics in 970...

  9. Tuning the pure monoclinic phase of WO3 and WO3-Ag nanostructures for non-enzymatic glucose sensing application with theoretical insight from electronic structure simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Rajeswari; Gangan, Abhijeet; Chakraborty, Brahmananda; Sekhar Rout, Chandra

    2018-01-01

    Here, we report the controlled hydrothermal synthesis and tuning of the pure monoclinic phase of WO3 and WO3-Ag nanostructures. Comparative electrochemical nonenzymatic glucose sensing properties of WO3 and WO3-Ag were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric tests. We observed enhanced glucose sensing performance of WO3-Ag porous spheres as compared to bare WO3 nanoslabs. The sensitivity of the pure WO3 nanoslabs is 11.1 μA μM-1 cm-2 whereas WO3-Ag porous spheres exhibit sensitivity of 23.3 μA μM-1 cm-2. The WO3-Ag porous spheres exhibited a good linear range (5-375 μM) with excellent anti-interference property. Our experimental observations are qualitatively supported by density functional theory simulations through investigation of bonding and charge transfer mechanism of glucose on WO3 and Ag doped WO3. As the binding energy of glucose is more on the Ag doped WO3 (100) surface compared to the bare WO3 (100) surface and the Ag doped WO3 (100) surface becomes more conducting due to enhancement of density of states near the Fermi level, we can infer that Ag doped WO3 exhibits a better charge transfer media compared to bare WO3 resulting in enhanced glucose sensitivity in consistency with our experimental data.

  10. Glucose control in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Studies using a continuous glucose monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssen, Anneloes

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with neonatal morbidity. It is commonly agreed that the morbidity decreases when diabetic control is tightened. The most common methods for the determination of diabetic control are the self-monitoring of blood glucose levels (SMBG) and

  11. Lifestyle may modify the glucose-raising effect of genetic loci. A study in the Greek population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouli, E; Kanoni, S; Dimitriou, M; Kolovou, G; Deloukas, P; Dedoussis, G

    2016-03-01

    Lifestyle habits including dietary intake and physical activity are closely associated with multiple body processes including glucose metabolism and are known to affect human health. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with glucose levels. The hypothesis tested here is whether a healthy lifestyle assessed via a score is associated with glycaemic traits and whether there is an interaction between the lifestyle and known glucose-raising genetic variants in association with glycaemic traits. Participants of Greek descent from the THISEAS study were included in this analysis. We developed a glucose preventive score (GPS) including dietary and physical activity characteristics. We also modelled a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS), based on 20 known glucose-raising loci, in order to investigate the impact of lifestyle-gene interaction on glucose levels. The GPS was observed to be significantly associated with lower glucose concentrations (β ± SE: -0.083 ± 0.021 mmol/L, P = 1.6 × 10(-04)) and the wGRS, as expected, with increased glucose levels (β ± SE: 0.020 ± 0.007 mmol/L, P = 8.4 × 10(-3)). The association of the wGRS with glucose levels was attenuated after interaction with the GPS. A higher GPS indicated decreasing glucose levels in the presence of an increasing wGRS (β interaction ± SE: -0.019 ± 0.007 mmol/L, P = 0.014). Our results indicate that lower glucose levels underlie a healthier lifestyle and also support an interaction between the wGRS for known glycaemic loci and GPS associated with lower glucose levels. These scores could be useful tools for monitoring glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. 18-F flourodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography imaging: A viable alternative to three phase bone scan in evaluating diabetic foot complications?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shagos, G. S.; Shanmugasundaram, Palaniswamy; Varma, Ajith Kumar; Padma, Subramanyam; Sarma, Manjit

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on the initial findings from a prospective ongoing study to evaluate the efficacy of flourodeoxy glucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET CT) in diabetic foot evaluation. The aim was to compare the diagnostic accuracies of three phase bone scan (TPBS) and FDG PET-CT (FDG-PET) in diabetic foot evaluation. Seventy-nine patients with complicated diabetic foot (osteomyelitis/cellulitis, Charcot's neuropathy) were prospectively investigated. TPBS (15 mci methylene di phosphonate [MDP] intravenous [IV]), followed by FDG-PET (5 mci IV) within 5 days were performed in all patients. Based on referral indication, patients grouped into Group I, n = 36, (?osteomyelitis/cellulitis) and Group II, n = 43 (?Charcot's neuropathy). Interpretation was based on intensity, extent, pattern of MDP and FDG uptake (standardized uptake value) along with CT correlation. Findings were compared with final diagnostic outcome based on bone/soft tissue culture in Group I and clinical, radiological or scintigraphic followup in Group II. Results: Group I: For diagnosing osteomyelitis, TP: TN: FP: FN were 14:5:2:2 by FDG PET and 13:02:05:03 by TPBS respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value (NPV) of FDG-PET were 87.5%, 71%, 87.5% and 71% and 81.25%, 28.5%, 72% and 40% for TPBS, respectively. Group II: charcot's: cellulitis: Normal were 22:14:7 by FDG PET and 32:5:6 by TPBS, respectively. Flourodeoxy glucose PET-CT has a higher specificity and NPV than TPBS in diagnosing pedal osteomyelitis. TPBS, being highly sensitive is more useful than FDG-PET in detecting Charcot's neuropathy

  13. Mild traumatic brain injury results in depressed cerebral glucose uptake: An (18)FDG PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwyn, Reed; Hockenbury, Nicole; Jaiswal, Shalini; Mathur, Sanjeev; Armstrong, Regina C; Byrnes, Kimberly R

    2013-12-01

    Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in humans and rats induces measurable metabolic changes, including a sustained depression in cerebral glucose uptake. However, the effect of a mild TBI on brain glucose uptake is unclear, particularly in rodent models. This study aimed to determine the glucose uptake pattern in the brain after a mild lateral fluid percussion (LFP) TBI. Briefly, adult male rats were subjected to a mild LFP and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)FDG), which was performed prior to injury and at 3 and 24 h and 5, 9, and 16 days post-injury. Locomotor function was assessed prior to injury and at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after injury using modified beam walk tasks to confirm injury severity. Histology was performed at either 10 or 21 days post-injury. Analysis of function revealed a transient impairment in locomotor ability, which corresponds to a mild TBI. Using reference region normalization, PET imaging revealed that mild LFP-induced TBI depresses glucose uptake in both the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres in comparison with sham-injured and naïve controls from 3 h to 5 days post-injury. Further, areas of depressed glucose uptake were associated with regions of glial activation and axonal damage, but no measurable change in neuronal loss or gross tissue damage was observed. In conclusion, we show that mild TBI, which is characterized by transient impairments in function, axonal damage, and glial activation, results in an observable depression in overall brain glucose uptake using (18)FDG-PET.

  14. A kinetic study on the conversion of glucose to levulinic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girisuta, B; Janssen, LPBM; Heeres, HJ

    Levulinic acid has been identified as a promising green. biomass derived platform chemical. A kinetic study oil one of the key steps in the conversion of biomass to levulinic acid, i.e., the acid catalysed decomposition of glucose to levulinic acid has been performed. The experiments were Performed

  15. Green chemicals : A Kinetic Study on the Conversion of Glucose to Levulinic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girisuta, B.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.; Heeres, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Levulinic acid has been identified as a promising green, biomass derived platform chemical. A kinetic study on one of the key steps in the conversion of biomass to levulinic acid, i.e., the acid catalysed decomposition of glucose to levulinic acid has been performed. The experiments were performed

  16. Glucose- and Cellulose-Derived Ni/C-SO3H Catalysts for Liquid Phase Phenol Hydrodeoxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasakov, Stanislav; Zhao, Chen; Barath, Eszter; Chase, Zizwe A.; Fulton, John L.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Vjunov, Aleksei; Shi, Hui; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2015-01-19

    Sulfonated carbons were explored as functionalized supports for Ni nanoparticles to hydrodeoxygenate (HDO) phenol. Both hexadecane and water were used as solvents. The dual-functional Ni catalysts supported on sulfonated carbon (Ni/C-SO3H) showed high rates for phenol hydrodeoxygenation in liquid hexadecane, but not in water. Glucose and cellulose were precursors to the carbon supports. Changes in the carbons resulting from sulfonation of the carbons resulted in variations of carbon sheet structures, morphologies and the surface concentrations of acid sites. While the C-SO3H supports were active for cyclohexanol dehydration in hexadecane and water, Ni/C-SO3H only catalyzed the reduction of phenol to cyclohexanol in water. The state of 3 – 5 nm grafted Ni particles was analyzed by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results show that the metallic Ni was rapidly formed in situ without detectable leaching to the aqueous phase, suggesting that just the acid functions on Ni/C-SO3H are inhibited in presence of water. Using in situ IR spectroscopy, it was shown that even in hexadecane, phenol HDO is limited by the dehydration step. Thus, phenol HDO catalysis was further improved by physically admixing C-SO3H with the Ni/C-SO3H catalyst to balance the two catalytic functions. The minimum addition of 7 wt.% C-SO3H to the most active of the Ni/C-SO3H catalysts enabled nearly quantitative conversion of phenol and the highest selectivity (90%) towards cyclohexane in 6 h, at temperatures as low as 473 K, suggesting that the proximity to Ni limits the acid properties of the support.

  17. Glucose- and cellulose-derived Ni/C-SO3H catalysts for liquid phase phenol hydrodeoxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasakov, Stanislav; Zhao, Chen; Baráth, Eszter; Chase, Zizwe A; Fulton, John L; Camaioni, Donald M; Vjunov, Aleksei; Shi, Hui; Lercher, Johannes A

    2015-01-19

    Sulfonated carbons were explored as functionalized supports for Ni nanoparticles to hydrodeoxygenate (HDO) phenol. Both hexadecane and water were used as solvents. The dual-functional Ni catalysts supported on sulfonated carbon (Ni/C-SO3H) showed high rates for phenol hydrodeoxygenation in liquid hexadecane, but not in water. Glucose and cellulose were precursors to the carbon supports. Changes in the carbons resulting from sulfonation of the carbons resulted in variations of carbon sheet structures, morphologies and the surface concentrations of acid sites. While the C-SO3H supports were active for cyclohexanol dehydration in hexadecane and water, Ni/C-SO3H only catalysed the reduction of phenol to cyclohexanol in water. The state of 3-5 nm grafted Ni particles was analysed by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results show that the metallic Ni was rapidly formed in situ without detectable leaching to the aqueous phase, suggesting that just the acid functions on Ni/C-SO3H are inhibited in the presence of water. Using in situ IR spectroscopy, it was shown that even in hexadecane, phenol HDO is limited by the dehydration step. Thus, phenol HDO catalysis was further improved by physically admixing C-SO3H with the Ni/C-SO3H catalyst to balance the two catalytic functions. The minimum addition of 7 wt % C-SO3H to the most active of the Ni/C-SO3H catalysts enabled nearly quantitative conversion of phenol and the highest selectivity (90%) towards cyclohexane in 6 h, at temperatures as low as 473 K, suggesting that the proximity to Ni limits the acid properties of the support. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Accuracy of a real-time continuous glucose monitoring system in children with septic shock: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhudesai, Sumant; Kanjani, Amruta; Bhagat, Isha; Ravikumar, Karnam G.; Ramachandran, Bala

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this prospective, observational study was to determine the accuracy of a real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in children with septic shock. Subjects and Methods: Children aged 30 days to 18 years admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit with septic shock were included. A real-time CGMS sensor was used to obtain interstitial glucose readings. CGMS readings were compared statistically with simultaneous laboratory blood glucose (BG). Results: Nineteen chil...

  19. Prospective Study of Nut Consumption and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Hosseini, Shabnam; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-09-23

    This study aimed to assess the association of various types of nut per se, and total nut consumption with the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A 6.2 ± 0.7-year population-based prospective study was conducted among 1265 adults, aged 19-74 years, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. A 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to collect information on nut consumption. MetS was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement guidelines and 276 new cases of MetS were identified. Median ± interquartile range of nut consumption was 2.08 (0.88-5.68) servings/week. After adjusting for family history of diabetes, age, gender, smoking, physical activity, fasting serum glucose at baseline, serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) at baseline, energy intake, fiber, macronutrients, cholesterol intake, fruit, vegetables, dairy products and body mass index (BMI), a statistically significant decrease was observed in MetS in the third (≥5 servings/week) tertile of nuts (odds ratio: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.44-0.91, p trend: 0.03) compared with the lowest (≤1 serving/week). Walnut consumption showed a significant, inverse association with MetS risk; associations for other nut varieties were not significant. For each additional serving/week of walnuts consumed, incidence of MetS decreased by 3% (ORs: 0.97 CI: 0.93-0.99), after adjusting for confounding factors. Total nut consumption, especially walnuts, reduces the risk of MetS.

  20. Galanin regulates blood glucose level in the zebrafish: a morphological and functional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlasz, P; Jakimiuk, A; Chmielewska-Krzesinska, M; Kasica, N; Nowik, N; Kaleczyc, J

    2016-01-01

    The present study has demonstrated the galaninergic innervation of the endocrine pancreas including sources of the galaninergic nerve fibers, and the influence of galanin receptor agonists on blood glucose level in the zebrafish. For the first time, a very abundant galaninergic innervation of the endocrine pancreas during development is shown, from the second day post-fertilization to adulthood. The fibers originated from ganglia consisting of galanin-IR, non-adrenergic (non-sensory) neurons located rostrally to the pancreatic tissue. The ganglia were found on the dorsal side of the initial part of the anterior intestinal segment, close to the intestinal branch of the vagus nerve. The galanin-IR neurons did not show immunoreactivity for applied antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase, choline acetyltransferase, and vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Intraperitoneal injections of galanin analog NAX 5055 resulted in a statistically significant increase in the blood glucose level. Injections of another galanin receptor agonist, galnon, also caused a rise in blood glucose level; however, it was not statistically significant. The present findings suggest that, like in mammals, in the zebrafish galanin is involved in the regulation of blood glucose level. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of the galanin action.

  1. Depression, anxiety and glucose metabolism in the general dutch population: the new Hoorn study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Bouwman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a well recognized association between depression and diabetes. However, there is little empirical data about the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety among different groups of glucose metabolism in population based samples. The aim of this study was to determine whether the prevalence of increased levels of depression and anxiety is different between patients with type 2 diabetes and subjects with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM and normal glucose metabolism (NGM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross-sectional data from a population-based cohort study of 2667 residents, 1261 men and 1406 women aged 40-65 years from the Hoorn region, the Netherlands. Depressive symptoms and anxiety were measured using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, score >or=16 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale--Anxiety Subscale (HADS-A, score >or=8, respectively. Glucose metabolism status was determined by oral glucose tolerance test. In the total study population the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety for the NGM, IGM and type 2 diabetes were 12.5, 12.2 and 21.0% (P = 0.004 and 15.0, 15.3 and 19.9% (p = 0.216, respectively. In men, the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 7.7, 9.5 and 19.6% (p<0.001, and in women 16.4, 15.8 and 22.6 (p = 0.318, for participants with NGM, IGM and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Anxiety was not associated with glucose metabolism when stratified for sex. Intergroup differences (NGM vs. IGM and IGM vs. type 2 diabetes revealed that higher prevalences of depressive symptoms are mainly manifested in participants with type 2 diabetes, and not in participants with IGM. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms, but not anxiety are associated with glucose metabolism. This association is mainly determined by a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms in participants with type 2 diabetes and not in participants with IGM.

  2. Analysis of the Nova Stat Strip® Glucose Meter for Real-Time Blood Glucose Determinations During Glucose Clamp Studies: “Don't Swap Horses in Midstream”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Lutz

    2010-01-01

    Proper performance of glucose clamps is critically dependent on reliable blood glucose (BG) measurements. A number of requirements have to be fulfilled by a system that aims to replace the laboratory devices that are currently in use. Many more aspects need to be taken into account besides the accuracy of BG measurement. It might very well be that the BG meter studied by Rabiee and colleagues in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology fulfills most or all of such requirements; however, these aspects have to be tested more thoroughly before one switches from an established measurement method to the Nova Stat Strip® glucometer. PMID:20920441

  3. Strategies for glucose control in a study population with diabetes, renal disease and anemia (Treat study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrauch, Larry A; D'Elia, John A; Finn, Peter; Lewis, Eldrin F; Desai, Akshay S; Claggett, Brian L; Cooper, Mark E; McGill, Janet B

    2016-03-01

    Glucose lowering medication use among patients with type 2 diabetes and advanced renal disease (eGFRrenal disease advances, most of the oral anti-diabetic agents requiring renal clearance must be reduced or discontinued. The potential for prolonged hypoglycemia, fluid/volume overload and congestive heart failure may complicate medication choices. In order to evaluate patterns of glycemia management we describe glucose lowering medication use among patients with advanced renal disease and type 2 diabetes in a large multinational outcome trial designed to focus on patients with eGFRrenal function when compared with standard populations with normal kidney function. The use of multiple oral agents, or oral agents plus insulin was quite common. While gender did not appear to play a role in medication choices, there were significant regional variations. For example, oral agents were used more in North America compared with other regions (Latin America, Australia/Western Europe, Russia/Eastern Europe). Patients enrolled at more advanced ages were less likely to be on a regimen of rapid-acting insulin alone consistent with recommendations that suggest a preference for longer-acting preparations in the geriatric population (1). Higher degrees of obesity were associated more complex treatment regimens. Despite this population being at high risk for cardiovascular events, the use of beta blockers (50%), statins (64%) and aspirin (48%) were relatively low, especially in the group that did not require medications to achieve adequate glycemic control. Current attempts to compare strategies for diabetes therapy must control for baseline demographic group differences influencing treatment choice. Future recommendations for glycemic control in patients with Grade 3 or higher chronic kidney disease require additional studies, with matched populations. We suggest that evaluation of studies similar to TREAT will assist in determining the optimal therapeutic regimens for populations

  4. Association of blood glucose level and hypertension in Elderly Chinese Subjects: a community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qun; Sun, Dongmei; Li, Xu; Chen, Guoliang; Zheng, Qinghu; Li, Lun; Gu, Chenhong; Feng, Bo

    2016-07-13

    There is a scarcity of epidemiological researches examining the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and glucose level among older adults. The objective of the current study was to investigate the association of high BP and glucose level in elderly Chinese. A cross-sectional study of a population of 2092 Chinese individuals aged over 65 years was conducted. Multiple logistic analysis was used to explore the association between hypertension and hyperglycemia. Independent risk factors for systolic and diastolic BP were analyzed using stepwise linear regression. Subjects in impaired fasting glucose group (IFG) (n = 144) and diabetes (n = 346), as compared with normal fasting glucose (NFG) (n = 1277), had a significant higher risk for hypertension, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.81 (95 % CI, 1.39-2.35) (P = 0.000) and 1.40 (95 % CI, 1.09-1.80) (P = 0.009), respectively. Higher fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels in the normal range were still significantly associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension in both genders, with ORs of 1.24 (95 % CI, 0.85-1.80), R (2) = 0.114, P = 0.023 in men and 1.61 (95 % CI, 1.12-2.30), R (2) = 0.082, P = 0.010 in women, respectively, when compared with lower FPG. Linear regression analysis revealed FPG was an independent factor of systolic and diastolic BP. Our findings suggest that hyperglycemia as well as higher FPG within the normal range is associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension independent of other cardiovascular risk factors in elderly Chinese. Further studies are needed to explore the relationship between hyperglycemia and hypertension in a longitudinal setting.

  5. Differential relationship between physical activity and progression to diabetes by glucose tolerance status: the Inter99 Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, S; Glümer, C; Witte, D R

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse how strongly commuting and leisure-time physical activity affect progression to diabetes and to study whether this relationship is different in individuals with isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG) and isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT)....

  6. Efficacy of herbal toothpastes on salivary pH and salivary glucose - A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairnar, Mahesh R; Dodamani, Arun S; Karibasappa, G N; Naik, Rahul G; Deshmukh, Manjiri A

    Due to dearth of literature on the effect of herbal toothpaste on saliva and salivary constituents, the present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effect of three different herbal toothpastes with the focus on on salivary pH and salivary glucose. Forty five subjects in the age group of 19-21 years were randomly divided into 3 groups (15 in each group) and were randomly intervened with three different herbal toothpastes (Dant Kanti, Himalaya Complete Care and Vicco Vajradanti). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after brushing and salivary glucose and pH levels were assessed at an interval of one week each for a period of 4 weeks starting from day 1. All the three toothpastes were effective in reducing the overall (p salivary glucose from pre-brushing to post-brushing at each interval (p salivary pH (p salivary levels of glucose and improving pH of the saliva. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of herbal toothpastes on salivary pH and salivary glucose – A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh R. Khairnar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to dearth of literature on the effect of herbal toothpaste on saliva and salivary constituents, the present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effect of three different herbal toothpastes with the focus on on salivary pH and salivary glucose. Forty five subjects in the age group of 19–21 years were randomly divided into 3 groups (15 in each group and were randomly intervened with three different herbal toothpastes (Dant Kanti, Himalaya Complete Care and Vicco Vajradanti. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after brushing and salivary glucose and pH levels were assessed at an interval of one week each for a period of 4 weeks starting from day 1. All the three toothpastes were effective in reducing the overall (p < 0.05 levels as well as levels of salivary glucose from pre-brushing to post-brushing at each interval (p < 0.05 and in increasing the overall levels as well as levels of salivary pH (p < 0.05 from pre-brushing to post-brushing at each interval. Herbal toothpastes were effective in reducing salivary levels of glucose and improving pH of the saliva.

  8. Continuous glucose monitoring--a study of the Enlite sensor during hypo- and hyperbaric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfsson, Peter; Örnhagen, Hans; Eriksson, Bengt M; Cooper, Ken; Jendle, Johan

    2012-06-01

    The performance and accuracy of the Enlite(™) (Medtronic, Inc., Northridge, CA) sensor may be affected by microbubble formation at the electrode surface during hypo- and hyperbaric conditions. The effects of acute pressure changes and of prewetting of sensors were investigated. On Day 1, 24 sensors were inserted on the right side of the abdomen and back in one healthy individual; 12 were prewetted with saline solution, and 12 were inserted dry. On Day 2, this procedure was repeated on the left side. All sensors were attached to an iPro continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) recorder. Hypobaric and hyperbaric tests were conducted in a pressure chamber, with each test lasting 105 min. Plasma glucose values were obtained at 5-min intervals with a HemoCue(®) (Ängelholm, Sweden) model 201 glucose analyzer for comparison with sensor glucose values. Ninety percent of the CGM systems operated during the tests. The mean absolute relative difference was lower during hyperbaric than hypobaric conditions (6.7% vs. 14.9%, Phypobaric but not during hyperbaric conditions. Clarke Error Grid Analysis showed that 100% of the values were found in the A+B region. No differences were found between prewetted and dry sensors. The Enlite sensor performed adequately during acute pressure changes and was more accurate during hyperbaric than hypobaric conditions. Prewetting the sensors did not improve accuracy. Further studies on type 1 diabetes subjects are needed under various pressure conditions.

  9. Tritiated 2-deoxy-D-glucose as a probe for cell membrane permeability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walum, E.; Peterson, A.

    1982-01-01

    Tritiated 2-deoxy-D-glucose was taken up and phosphorylated by cultured cells of neuronal (NIE 115), glial (138 MG), muscle (L 6) and liver (BRL 123) origin. Upon perfusion the cells slowly released 2-deoxy-D-glucose 6-phosphate. The following values for rate constants, half-lives, and activation energies for the efflux were obtained: NIE 115: 0.0048 min -1 , 143 min, and 72 kJ mol -1 ; 138 MG: 0.0013 min -1 , 547 min, and 85 kJ mol -1 ; L 6: 0.0022 min -1 , 311 min, and 60 kJ mol -1 ; and BRL 123: 0.0013 min -1 , 528 min and 63 kJ mol -1 . When the cultures were perfused with buffer containing Triton X-100 a time- and concentration-dependent increase in the rate of efflux of 2-deoxy-D-glucose 6-phosphate was obtained. It is suggested that 2-deoxy-D-[ 3 H]glucose can be used as a probe in studies of general cell membrane permeability changes

  10. The rate of intestinal glucose absorption is correlated with plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachters-Hagedoorn, Renate E; Priebe, Marion G; Heimweg, Janneke A J

    2006-01-01

    and slowly available glucose. In a crossover study, glucose, insulin, GLP-1, and GIP concentrations were monitored for 6 h after consumption of glucose, uncooked cornstarch (UCCS) or corn pasta in 7 healthy men. All test meals were naturally labeled with 13C. Using a primed, continuous D-[6,6-2H2]glucose...... in the early postprandial phase (15-90 min) occurred after consumption of glucose. There was a strong positive within-subject correlation between RaEx and GIP concentrations (r = 0.73, P meals. Rapidly and slowly digestible carbohydrates differ considerably in their ability to stimulate...

  11. Smoking during pregnancy and risk of abnormal glucose tolerance: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haskins Amy E

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disturbances in glucose metabolism during pregnancy are associated with negative sequalae for both mother and infant. The association between smoking and abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT remains controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between smoking prior to and during pregnancy and risk of AGT. Methods We utilized data from a prospective cohort of 1,006 Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican prenatal care patients in Western Massachusetts. Women reported pre- and early pregnancy smoking at recruitment (mean = 15 weeks and mid pregnancy smoking at a second interview (mean = 28 weeks. AGT was defined as > 135 mg/dL on the routine 1-hour glucose tolerance test (1-hr OGTT. We used multivariable regression to assess the effect of pre, early, and mid-pregnancy smoking on risk of AGT and screening plasma glucose value from the 1-hr OGTT. Results In age-adjusted models, women who smoked > 0-9 cigarettes/day in pre-pregnancy had an increased risk of AGT (OR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.02-3.55 compared to non-smokers; this was attenuated in multivariable models. Smoking in early (OR = 0.48; 95% CI 0.21-1.10 and mid pregnancy (OR = 0.38; 95% CI 0.13-1.11 were not associated with AGT in multivariable models. Smoking during early and mid pregnancy were independently associated with lower glucose screening values, while smoking in pre-pregnancy was not. Conclusions In this prospective cohort of Hispanic women, we did not observe an association between smoking prior to or during pregnancy and risk of AGT. Findings from this study, although based on small numbers of cases, extend prior research to the Hispanic population.

  12. Fasting Glucose and the Risk of Depressive Symptoms: Instrumental-Variable Regression in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesołowska, Karolina; Elovainio, Marko; Hintsa, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Pitkänen, Niina; Lipsanen, Jari; Tukiainen, Janne; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2017-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been associated with depressive symptoms, but the causal direction of this association and the underlying mechanisms, such as increased glucose levels, remain unclear. We used instrumental-variable regression with a genetic instrument (Mendelian randomization) to examine a causal role of increased glucose concentrations in the development of depressive symptoms. Data were from the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (n = 1217). Depressive symptoms were assessed in 2012 using a modified Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-I). Fasting glucose was measured concurrently with depressive symptoms. A genetic risk score for fasting glucose (with 35 single nucleotide polymorphisms) was used as an instrumental variable for glucose. Glucose was not associated with depressive symptoms in the standard linear regression (B = -0.04, 95% CI [-0.12, 0.04], p = .34), but the instrumental-variable regression showed an inverse association between glucose and depressive symptoms (B = -0.43, 95% CI [-0.79, -0.07], p = .020). The difference between the estimates of standard linear regression and instrumental-variable regression was significant (p = .026) CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the association between T2D and depressive symptoms is unlikely to be caused by increased glucose concentrations. It seems possible that T2D might be linked to depressive symptoms due to low glucose levels.

  13. Plasma Asprosin Concentrations Are Increased in Individuals with Glucose Dysregulation and Correlated with Insulin Resistance and First-Phase Insulin Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuren Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adipokines are reported to participate in many common pathologic processes of glucose dysregulation, such as insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and chronic inflammation. Objective. To detect the concentrations of plasma asprosin in subjects with impaired glucose regulation (IGR and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (nT2DM and its relationship to parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, and pancreatic β-cell function. Methods. 143 eligible participants were included and were divided into three groups including normal glucose regulation (NGR, n=52, IGR (n=40, and nT2DM group (n=51. The intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT and clinical and biochemical parameters were measured in all participants. Results. Plasma asprosin levels were higher in IGR (82.40 ± 91.06 ng/mL, P<0.001 and nT2DM (73.25 ± 91.69 ng/mL, P<0.001 groups compared with those in the NGR (16.22 ± 9.27 ng/mL group, especially in IGR subjects. Correlation analysis showed that plasma asprosin levels were positively correlated with waist circumference (Wc, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, postchallenge plasma glucose (2hPG, HbA1c, triglyceride (TG, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and negatively correlated with homeostasis model assessment for β-cell function (HOMA-β, area under the curve of the first-phase (0–10 min insulin secretion (AUC, acute insulin response (AIR, and glucose disposition index (GDI (all P<0.05. Multiple logistical regression analyses revealed that plasma asprosin concentrations were significantly correlated with IGR and nT2DM after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and WHR. Conclusions. Circulating asprosin might be a predictor of early diagnosis in DM and might be a potential therapeutic target for prediabetes and T2DM.

  14. Experimental studies of the quantum chromodynamics phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-06

    BES) ... Experimental studies of the QCD phase diagram at the STAR experiment .... However, the observed difference between v2 of particles and antiparticles could .... The grey band at the right corresponds to systematic.

  15. Comparative study of the concentration of salivary and blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Ana Carolina U; Soares, Maria Sueli M; Almeida, Paulo C; Soares, Teresa C

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to comparatively evaluate the concentrations of blood and salivary glucose as well as salivary flow and xerostomia in type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic patients. The mean salivary glucose level in diabetic patients was 14.03 +/-16.76 mg/dl and 6.35 +/- 6.02 mg/dl (P = 0.036) in the control group. The mean capillary blood glucose level in diabetic patients was 213 +/- 88 mg/dl, while that in non-diabetic patients was 99 +/- 14 mg/dl (P = 0.000). The mean value for resting salivary flow was 0.21 +/- 0.16 ml/min in diabetic patients and 0.33 +/- 0.20 ml/min in the control group (P = 0.002). The stimulated salivary flow was lower in the group of diabetic patients, with a mean of 0.63 +/- 0.43 ml/min, whereas the control group showed a mean of 1.20 +/- 0.70 ml/min (P = 0.000). Of the diabetic patients, 45% exhibited hyposalivation, in contrast to 2.5% of the non-diabetic patients (P = 0.000). Xerostomia was reported in 12.5% of diabetic patients and 5% of non-diabetic patients (P = 0.23). We can conclude that salivary glucose concentration was significantly higher in the experimental group and that there was no correlation between salivary and blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients. The total salivary flow was significantly reduced in diabetic patients and there was no significant difference as to the presence of xerostomia in both groups.

  16. Glucose and triglyceride excursions following a standardized meal in individuals with diabetes: ELSA-Brasil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboldi, Bárbara P; Luft, Vivian C; de Castilhos, Cristina D; de Cardoso, Letícia O; Schmidt, Maria I; Barreto, Sandhi M; de Sander, Maria F; Alvim, Sheila M; Duncan, Bruce B

    2015-02-13

    To assess glucose and triglyceride excursions 2 hours after the ingestion of a standardized meal and their associations with clinical characteristics and cardiovascular complications in individuals with diabetes. Blood samples of 898 subjects with diabetes were collected at fasting and 2 hours after a meal containing 455 kcal, 14 g of saturated fat and 47 g of carbohydrates. Self-reported morbidity, socio-demographic characteristics and clinical measures were obtained by interview and exams performed at the baseline visit of the ELSA-Brasil cohort study. Median (interquartile range, IQR) for fasting glucose was 150.5 (123-198) mg/dL and for fasting triglycerides 140 (103-199) mg/dL. The median excursion for glucose was 45 (15-76) mg/dL and for triglycerides 26 (11-45) mg/dL. In multiple linear regression, a greater glucose excursion was associated with higher glycated hemoglobin (10.7, 95% CI 9.1-12.3 mg/dL), duration of diabetes (4.5; 2.6-6.4 mg/dL, per 5 year increase), insulin use (44.4; 31.7-57.1 mg/dL), and age (6.1; 2.5-9.6 mg/dL, per 10 year increase); and with lower body mass index (-5.6; -8.4- -2.8 mg/dL, per 5 kg/m2 increase). In adjusted logistic regression models, a greater glucose excursion was marginally associated with the presence of cardiovascular comorbidities (coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction and angina) in those with obesity. A greater postprandial glycemic response to a small meal was positively associated with indicators of a decreased capacity for insulin secretion and negatively associated with obesity. No pattern of response was observed with a greater postprandial triglyceride excursion.

  17. The pathophysiology of diabetes involves a defective amplification of the late-phase insulin response to glucose by glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-regardless of etiology and phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, F K; Krarup, T

    2003-01-01

    [maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY)3]; and 5) newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients. All participants underwent three hyperglycemic clamps (2 h, 15 mM) with continuous infusion of saline, 1 pmol GLP-1 (7-36)amide/kg body weight.min or 4 pmol GIP pmol/kg body weight.min. The early-phase (0-20 min......The effect of the insulinotropic incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), is preserved in typical middle-aged, obese, insulin-resistant type 2 diabetic patients, whereas a defective amplification of the so-called late-phase plasma insulin response (20-120 min) to glucose by the other...... incretin hormone, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), is seen in these patients. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate plasma insulin and C-peptide responses to GLP-1 and GIP in five groups of diabetic patients with etiology and phenotype distinct from the obese type 2...

  18. Brain glucose overexposure and lack of acute metabolic flexibility in obesity and type 2 diabetes: a PET-[18F]FDG study in Zucker and ZDF rats

    OpenAIRE

    Liistro, Tiziana; Guiducci, Letizia; Burchielli, Silvia; Panetta, Daniele; Belcari, Nicola; Pardini, Silvia; Guerra, Alberto Del; Salvadori, Piero A; Iozzo, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Brain glucose exposure may complicate diabetes and obesity. We used positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in Zucker obese, diabetic, and control rats to determine the contributions of blood glucose mass action versus local mechanisms in regulating central glucose disposal in fasted and acutely glucose-stimulated states, and their adaptations in obesity and diabetes. Our study data indicate that brain glucose uptake is dependent on both local and mass action components, and ...

  19. Study on the effect of valproate (VPA) on glucose metabolism in pediatric patients with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuexin; Chen Xuguang; He Ying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect on glucose metabolism in pediatric patients with epilepsy under valproate treatment. Methods: Fasting serum glucose (with oxidase method) and insulin (with RIA) levels, insulin resistance index, body weight, BMI were examined in (1) 65 pediatric patients with epilepsy before valproate treatment (2) 65 patients after 3 months' valproate treatment (3) 65 patients after 6 months' treatment and (4) 65 controls. Results: In the patients after 3 months' treatment, the body weight, BMI, fasting insulin levels were significantly higher than those in patients before treatment (P 0.05). The calculated HOMA did not change much throughout the whole study. The proportion of patients with increased appetite after 6 months' treatment was 47 /65 (vs 20 /65 before treatment, P < 0.05). Conclusion: The increase of body weight and BMI asually observed during valproate treatment is mainly due to increased appetite with limited increase of fasting insulin level. Insulin resistance was not found in present study. (authors)

  20. Accuracy evaluation of five blood glucose monitoring systems obtained from the pharmacy: a European multicenter study with 453 subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tack, C.J.; Pohlmeier, H.; Behnke, T.; Schmid, V.; Grenningloh, M.; Forst, T.; Pfutzner, A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the performance of five recently introduced blood glucose (BG) monitoring (BGM) devices under daily routine conditions in comparison with the YSI (Yellow Springs, OH) 2300 Stat Plus glucose analyzer. METHODS: Five hundred one diabetes

  1. Autonomic Neuropathy—a Prospective Cohort Study of Symptoms and E/I Ratio in Normal Glucose Tolerance, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Zimmerman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAutonomic neuropathy in diabetes, in addition to causing a range of symptoms originating from the autonomic nervous system, may increase cardiovascular morbidity. Our aim was to study the progression of autonomic neuropathy, based on symptom score and evaluation of an autonomic test, in persons with normal and impaired glucose tolerance and in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D.MethodsParticipants were recruited in 2003/2004 with a follow-up in 2014. The participants’ glucose tolerance was categorized using oral glucose tolerance tests. Symptoms were evaluated using an autonomic symptom score (ASS, ECG was used to test cardiac autonomic function based on the expiration/inspiration ratio (E/I ratio, and blood samples were taken on both occasions.ResultsASSs were higher at follow-up in the T2D patients than in the normal glucose tolerance group (mean 1.21 ± 1.30 vs. 0.79 ± 0.7; p < 0.05. E/I ratio did not deteriorate more than could be expected as an aging effect in well-controlled T2D. No relationship was found between E/I ratio and HbA1c or ASS.ConclusionThe presence of autonomic symptoms increased over time in T2D patients, but the symptoms did not correlate with the E/I ratio in this metabolically well-controlled cohort. ASSs can be a useful clinical tool when assessing the progression of autonomic dysfunction in patients with abnormal glucose metabolism.

  2. Effects of glucose and sucrose on mood: a systematic review of interventional studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, van de O.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2018-01-01

    Context: Glucose is the main energy source for the brain, and as such, manipulation of glucose supply may affect brain function. It has been suggested that a change in blood glucose may influence mood. Objective: The aim of this review was to investigate the potential effects of glucose and sucrose,

  3. Effect of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Accuracy on Clinicians' Retrospective Decision Making in Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmoudi, Zeinab; Johansen, Mette Dencker; Nørgaard, Hanne Holdflod

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in clinical decision making in diabetes could be limited by the inaccuracy of CGM data when compared to plasma glucose measurements. The aim of the present study is to investigate the impact of CGM numerical accuracy on the precision...... of diabetes treatment adjustments. METHOD: CGM profiles with maximum 5-day duration from 12 patients with type 1 diabetes treated with a basal-bolus insulin regimen were processed by 2 CGM algorithms, with the accuracy of algorithm 2 being higher than the accuracy of algorithm 1, using the median absolute...... of the interclinician agreement and the intraclinician reproducibility of the decisions. The Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to assess the precision of the decisions. The study was based on retrospective and blind CGM data. RESULTS: For the interclinician agreement, in the first occasion, the kappa of algorithm 1...

  4. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism during sevoflurane anaesthesia in healthy subjects studied with positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlünzen, L; Juul, N; Hansen, K V

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The precise mechanism by which sevoflurane exerts its effects in the human brain remains unknown. In the present study, we quantified the effects of sevoflurane on regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rGMR) in the human brain measured with positron emission tomography. METHODS: Eight...... areas by 48-71% of the baseline (Pbrain metabolic reduction of GMR in all regions...... of the human brain, with the most marked metabolic suppression in the lingual gyrus, thalamus and occipital lobe....

  5. In vitro glucose uptake by isolated rat hemi-diaphragm study of Aegle marmelos Correa root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subban Ravi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of the root of Aegle marmelos, a medicinal plant, was fractionated into eight fractions using column chromatography. The anti-diabetic activity of all the fractions was studied using the glucose uptake by isolated rat hemi-diaphragm in vitro model. Using the bioassay-guided fractionation, two compounds 1 and 2 were isolated by column chromatography and identified as 6-methyl-4-chromanone and skimmianine respectively by NMR and mass spectral methods.

  6. Relations of Postload and Fasting Glucose With Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality Late in Life: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutsaert, Erika F; Shitole, Sanyog; Biggs, Mary Lou; Mukamal, Kenneth J; deBoer, Ian H; Thacker, Evan L; Barzilay, Joshua I; Djoussé, Luc; Ix, Joachim H; Smith, Nicholas L; Kaplan, Robert C; Siscovick, David S; Psaty, Bruce M; Kizer, Jorge R

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Older adults have a high prevalence of postload hyperglycemia. Postload glucose has shown more robust associations with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death than fasting glucose, but data in the oldest old are sparse. Methods Fasting and 2-hour postload glucose were measured in community-dwelling older adults, mean age 78, at the 1996–1997 follow-up visit of the Cardiovascular Health Study. We evaluated their associations with atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) and mortality using standard Cox regression and competing-risks analyses and assessed improvement in prediction-model discrimination with the c-statistic. Results Among 2,394 participants without treated diabetes and available data on glycemic measures, there were 579 ASCVD events and 1,698 deaths during median follow-up of 11.2 years. In fully adjusted models, both fasting and 2-hour glucose were associated with ASCVD (HR per SD, 1.13 [1.03–1.25] and 1.17 [1.07–1.28], respectively) and all-cause mortality (HR 1.12 [1.07–1.18] and 1.14 [1.08–1.20]). After mutual adjustment, however, the associations for fasting glucose with both outcomes were abolished, but those for postload glucose were largely unchanged. Consistent findings were observed for ASCVD in competing-risks models. Conclusion In adults surviving to advanced old age, postload glucose was associated with ASCVD and mortality independently of fasting glucose, but fasting glucose was not associated with these outcomes independently of postload glucose. These findings affirm the robust association of postload glucose with ASCVD and death late in life. PMID:26314953

  7. Relations of Postload and Fasting Glucose With Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality Late in Life: The Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutsaert, Erika F; Shitole, Sanyog; Biggs, Mary Lou; Mukamal, Kenneth J; deBoer, Ian H; Thacker, Evan L; Barzilay, Joshua I; Djoussé, Luc; Ix, Joachim H; Smith, Nicholas L; Kaplan, Robert C; Siscovick, David S; Psaty, Bruce M; Kizer, Jorge R

    2016-03-01

    Older adults have a high prevalence of postload hyperglycemia. Postload glucose has shown more robust associations with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death than fasting glucose, but data in the oldest old are sparse. Fasting and 2-hour postload glucose were measured in community-dwelling older adults, mean age 78, at the 1996-1997 follow-up visit of the Cardiovascular Health Study. We evaluated their associations with atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) and mortality using standard Cox regression and competing-risks analyses and assessed improvement in prediction-model discrimination with the c-statistic. Among 2,394 participants without treated diabetes and available data on glycemic measures, there were 579 ASCVD events and 1,698 deaths during median follow-up of 11.2 years. In fully adjusted models, both fasting and 2-hour glucose were associated with ASCVD (HR per SD, 1.13 [1.03-1.25] and 1.17 [1.07-1.28], respectively) and all-cause mortality (HR 1.12 [1.07-1.18] and 1.14 [1.08-1.20]). After mutual adjustment, however, the associations for fasting glucose with both outcomes were abolished, but those for postload glucose were largely unchanged. Consistent findings were observed for ASCVD in competing-risks models. In adults surviving to advanced old age, postload glucose was associated with ASCVD and mortality independently of fasting glucose, but fasting glucose was not associated with these outcomes independently of postload glucose. These findings affirm the robust association of postload glucose with ASCVD and death late in life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Glucose-reducing effect of the ORMD-0801 oral insulin preparation in patients with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Eldor

    Full Text Available The unpredictable behavior of uncontrolled type 1 diabetes often involves frequent swings in blood glucose levels that impact maintenance of a daily routine. An intensified insulin regimen is often unsuccessful, while other therapeutic options, such as amylin analog injections, use of continuous glucose sensors, and islet or pancreas transplantation are of limited clinical use. In efforts to provide patients with a more compliable treatment method, Oramed Pharmaceuticals tested the capacity of its oral insulin capsule (ORMD-0801, 8 mg insulin in addressing this resistant clinical state. Eight Type I diabetes patients with uncontrolled diabetes (HbA1c: 7.5-10% were monitored throughout the 15-day study period by means of a blind continuous glucose monitoring device. Baseline patient blood glucose behavior was monitored and recorded over a five-day pretreatment screening period. During the ensuing ten-day treatment phase, patients were asked to conduct themselves as usual and to self-administer an oral insulin capsule three times daily, just prior to meal intake. CGM data sufficient for pharmacodynamics analyses were obtained from 6 of the 8 subjects. Treatment with ORMD-0801 was associated with a significant 24.4% reduction in the frequencies of glucose readings >200 mg/dL (60.1 ± 7.9% pretreatment vs. 45.4 ± 4.9% during ORMD-0801 treatment; p = 0.023 and a significant mean 16.6% decrease in glucose area under the curve (AUC (66055 ± 5547 mg/dL/24 hours vs. 55060 ± 3068 mg/dL/24 hours, p = 0.023, with a greater decrease during the early evening hours. In conclusion, ORMD-0801 oral insulin capsules in conjunction with subcutaneous insulin injections, well tolerated and effectively reduced glycemia throughout the day.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00867594.

  9. Progression from impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes in a high-risk screening programme in general practice: the ADDITION Study, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Signe Sætre; Glümer, Charlotte; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2007-01-01

    -examination after 1 year. Glucose tolerance classification was based on the 1999 WHO definition. At follow-up, diabetes was based on one diabetic glucose value of fasting blood glucose or 2-h blood glucose. RESULTS: At baseline, 308 persons had IFG and 503 had IGT. The incidence of diabetes was 17.6 and 18.8 per...

  10. The pathophysiology of diabetes involves a defective amplification of the late-phase insulin response to glucose by glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-regardless of etiology and phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, F K; Krarup, T

    2003-01-01

    diabetic patients. We studied (six in each group): 1) patients with diabetes mellitus secondary to chronic pancreatitis; 2) lean type 2 diabetic patients (body mass index ... incretin hormone, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), is seen in these patients. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate plasma insulin and C-peptide responses to GLP-1 and GIP in five groups of diabetic patients with etiology and phenotype distinct from the obese type 2...

  11. The effect of extremely high glucose concentrations on 21 routine chemistry and thyroid Abbott assays: interference study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çuhadar, Serap; Köseoğlu, Mehmet; Çinpolat, Yasemin; Buğdaycı, Güler; Usta, Murat; Semerci, Tuna

    2016-01-01

    Extremely high glucose concentrations have been shown to interfere with creatinine assays especially with Jaffe method in peritoneal dialysate. Because diabetes is the fastest growing chronic disease in the world, laboratories study with varying glucose concentrations. We investigated whether different levels of glucose spiked in serum interfere with 21 routine chemistry and thyroid assays at glucose concentrations between 17-51 mmol/L. Baseline (group I) serum pool with glucose concentration of 5.55 (5.44-5.61) mmol/L was prepared from patient sera. Spiking with 20% dextrose solution, sample groups were obtained with glucose concentrations: 17.09, 34.52, and 50.95 mmol/L (group II, III, IV, respectively). Total of 21 biochemistry analytes and thyroid tests were studied on Abbott c8000 and i2000sr with commercial reagents. Bias from baseline value was checked statistically and clinically. Creatinine increased significantly by 8.74%, 31.66%, 55.31% at groups II, III, IV, respectively with P values of < 0.001. At the median glucose concentration of 50.95 mmol/L, calcium, albumin, chloride and FT4 biased significantly clinically (-0.85%, 1.63%, 0.65%, 7.4% with P values 0.138, 0.214, 0.004, < 0.001, respectively). Remaining assays were free of interference. Among the numerous biochemical parameters studied, only a few parameters are affected by dramatically increased glucose concentration. The creatinine measurements obtained in human sera with the Jaffe alkaline method at high glucose concentrations should be interpreted with caution. Other tests that were affected with extremely high glucose concentrations were calcium, albumin, chloride and FT4, hence results should be taken into consideration in patients with poor diabetic control.

  12. Chaos based blood glucose noninvasive measurement: new concept and custom study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Non invasive monitoring of Blood Glucose (BG has been a challenge calling for new accurate and fast measurement methods. Objective. To propose new concept of chaos based BG non invasive test aiming at personal customization requirements. Methods. First to build the compact RC model of tissue BG through impedance precision measuring Kit, then to simulate and soft-test BG by Boolean chaotic Codec circuits in soft tool Multisim 13.0, The third to capture the chaotic decoding outputs with the Kit plus PC in calculated signatures of resistor and phase of the tested impedance at the subjects’ left wrist in synchronous test by Bayer BG meter. Results. All in controlled trials of Bayer BG meter, the chaotic BG modelling had gained three new compared formulae in merits of errors less than 1mmol/L and latency less than 1minute. Conclusion. During further verification of this chaotic test paradigm, the opened logic route of above methods will boost measurement experts’ confidence in overcoming future problems of blood glucose monitoring in vivo.

  13. Timing of food intake during simulated night shift impacts glucose metabolism: A controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Crystal L; Coates, Alison M; Dorrian, Jillian; Kennaway, David J; Wittert, Gary A; Heilbronn, Leonie K; Pajcin, Maja; Della Vedova, Chris; Gupta, Charlotte C; Banks, Siobhan

    2017-01-01

    Eating during the night may increase the risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes in shift workers. This study examined the impact of either eating or not eating a meal at night on glucose metabolism. Participants underwent four nights of simulated night work (SW1-4, 16:00-10:00 h, night (NE; n = 4, meals; 07:00, 19:00 and 01:30 h) or not eating at night (NEN; n = 7, meals; 07:00 h, 09:30, 16:10 and 19:00 h) condition. Meal tolerance tests were conducted post breakfast on pre-night shift (PRE), SW4 and following return to day shift (RTDS), and glucose and insulin area under the curve (AUC) were calculated. Mixed-effects ANOVAs were used with fixed effects of condition and day, and their interactions, and a random effect of subject identifier on the intercept. Fasting glucose and insulin were not altered by day or condition. There were significant effects of day and condition × day (both p night (p = 0.040) and not eating at night (p = 0.006) conditions. Results in this small, healthy sample suggest that not eating at night may limit the metabolic consequences of simulated night work. Further study is needed to explore whether matching food intake to the biological clock could reduce the burden of type 2 diabetes in shift workers.

  14. A prospective study of low fasting glucose with cardiovascular disease events and all-cause mortality: The Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongraw-Chaffin, Morgana; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Sears, Dorothy D; Garcia, Lorena; Phillips, Lawrence S; Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Anderson, Cheryl A M

    2017-05-01

    While there is increasing recognition of the risks associated with hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes, few studies have investigated incident cause-specific cardiovascular outcomes with regard to low fasting glucose in the general population. We hypothesized that low fasting glucose would be associated with cardiovascular disease risk and all-cause mortality in postmenopausal women. To test our hypothesis, we used both continuous incidence rates and Cox proportional hazards models in 17,287 participants from the Women's Health Initiative with fasting glucose measured at baseline. Participants were separated into groups based on fasting glucose level: low (fasting glucose distribution exhibited evidence of a weak J-shaped association with heart failure and mortality that was predominantly due to participants with treated diabetes. Impaired and diabetic fasting glucose were positively associated with all outcomes. Associations for low fasting glucose differed, with coronary heart disease (HR=0.64 (0.42, 0.98)) significantly inverse; stroke (0.73 (0.48, 1.13)), combined cardiovascular disease (0.91 (0.73, 1.14)), and all-cause mortality (0.97 (0.79, 1.20)) null or inverse and not significant; and heart failure (1.27 (0.80, 2.02)) positive and not significant. Fasting glucose at the upper range, but not the lower range, was significantly associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Preliminary study of brain glucose metabolism changes in patients with lung cancer of different histological types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Ling; Fu, Chang; Xuan, Ang; Shi, Da-Peng; Gao, Yong-Ju; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Jun-Ling

    2015-02-05

    Cerebral glucose metabolism changes are always observed in patients suffering from malignant tumors. This preliminary study aimed to investigate the brain glucose metabolism changes in patients with lung cancer of different histological types. One hundred and twenty patients with primary untreated lung cancer, who visited People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University from February 2012 to July 2013, were divided into three groups based on histological types confirmed by biopsy or surgical pathology, which included adenocarcinoma (52 cases), squamous cell carcinoma (43 cases), and small-cell carcinoma (25 cases). The whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) of these cases was retrospectively studied. The brain PET data of three groups were analyzed individually using statistical parametric maps (SPM) software, with 50 age-matched and gender-matched healthy controls for comparison. The brain resting glucose metabolism in all three lung cancer groups showed regional cerebral metabolic reduction. The hypo-metabolic cerebral regions were mainly distributed at the left superior and middle frontal, bilateral superior and middle temporal and inferior and middle temporal gyrus. Besides, the hypo-metabolic regions were also found in the right inferior parietal lobule and hippocampus in the small-cell carcinoma group. The area of the total hypo-metabolic cerebral regions in the small-cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 3255) was larger than those in the adenocarcinoma group (total voxel value 1217) and squamous cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 1292). The brain resting glucose metabolism in patients with lung cancer shows regional cerebral metabolic reduction and the brain hypo-metabolic changes are related to the histological types of lung cancer.

  16. Preliminary Study of Brain Glucose Metabolism Changes in Patients with Lung Cancer of Different Histological Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ling Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral glucose metabolism changes are always observed in patients suffering from malignant tumors. This preliminary study aimed to investigate the brain glucose metabolism changes in patients with lung cancer of different histological types. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with primary untreated lung cancer, who visited People′s Hospital of Zhengzhou University from February 2012 to July 2013, were divided into three groups based on histological types confirmed by biopsy or surgical pathology, which included adenocarcinoma (52 cases, squamous cell carcinoma (43 cases, and small-cell carcinoma (25 cases. The whole body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET/computed tomography (CT of these cases was retrospectively studied. The brain PET data of three groups were analyzed individually using statistical parametric maps (SPM software, with 50 age-matched and gender-matched healthy controls for comparison. Results: The brain resting glucose metabolism in all three lung cancer groups showed regional cerebral metabolic reduction. The hypo-metabolic cerebral regions were mainly distributed at the left superior and middle frontal, bilateral superior and middle temporal and inferior and middle temporal gyrus. Besides, the hypo-metabolic regions were also found in the right inferior parietal lobule and hippocampus in the small-cell carcinoma group. The area of the total hypo-metabolic cerebral regions in the small-cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 3255 was larger than those in the adenocarcinoma group (total voxel value 1217 and squamous cell carcinoma group (total voxel value 1292. Conclusions: The brain resting glucose metabolism in patients with lung cancer shows regional cerebral metabolic reduction and the brain hypo-metabolic changes are related to the histological types of lung cancer.

  17. Biochemical studies on gestational diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in Sudanese pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalayel, Mohammed Helmy Faris

    1998-01-01

    To detect the effect of some maternal risk factors such as age, parity, previous heavy babies and family history of diabetes, in glucose tolerance impairment and to stand on the state of insulin resistance which occurs in pregnancy and the possible role of cortisol, human placental lactogen and prolactin in augmentation of this state of insulin resistance as well as to show the effect of glucose tolerance deterioration on lipid metabolism, a study was carried out on Sudanese pregnant women. The study included thirty gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) pregnant women, thirty impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and thirty women with normal glucose tolerance as a control group. The GDM, IGT and the control group were screened from about 2000 Sudanese pregnant women in the different gestational weeks. The GDM and IGT women were all discovered in the third trimester of pregnancy, they found to be significantly older than the control group. The IGT group was found to have a first degree family history of diabetes incidence significantly more than that of the control group while the GDM group has significantly much higher results when compared with the normal control group. The incidence of previous heavy babies was significantly higher in the IGT group when compared with the control while that of GDM was significantly much higher. The GDM group was found to have significantly higher mean levels of fasting blood plasma glucose sugar than that of the IGT and the control groups. It was found that the serum cholestrol mean level and the serum triglycerides mean level of the IGT and that of the GDM were significantly higher than that of the control group. Also, there were no significant differences among serum fasting insulin mean levels of the three studied groups. Results of serum anti-insulin antibodies of the three studied groups were significantly different. Results of serum cortisol of the control group in the first, second and third trimesters revealed that cortisol

  18. Bitter gourd reduces elevated fasting plasma glucose levels in an intervention study among prediabetics in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawinkel, Michael B; Ludwig, Christine; Swai, Mark E; Yang, Ray-Yu; Chun, Kwok Pan; Habicht, Sandra D

    2018-04-24

    Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus have become major health issues even in non-industrialized countries. As access to clinical management is often poor, dietary interventions and alternative medicines are required. For bitter gourd, Momordica charantia L., antidiabetic properties have been claimed. The main objective of the intervention study was to assess antidiabetic effects of daily bitter gourd consumption of 2.5g powder over the course of eight weeks among prediabetic individuals. In a randomized placebo-controlled single blinded clinical trial, 52 individuals with prediabetes were studied after consuming a bitter gourd or a cucumber juice. For reducing the impact of between subject differences in the study population, a crossover design was chosen with eight weeks for each study period and four weeks washout in between. Fasting plasma glucose was chosen as the primary outcome variable. Comparing the different exposures, the CROS analysis (t=-2.23, p=0.031, r=0.326) revealed a significant difference in the change of FPG of 0.31mmol/L (5.6mg/dL) with a trend (R 2 =0,42387). The number of 44 finally complete data sets achieved a power of 0.82, with a medium-to-large effect size (Cohen's d 0.62). The effect was also proven by a general linear mixed model (estimate 0.31; SE: 0.12; p: 0.01; 95%CI: 0.08; 0.54). Not all participants responded, but the higher the initial blood glucose levels were, the more pronounced the effect was. No serious adverse effects were observed. Bitter gourd supplementation appeared to have benefits in lowering elevated fasting plasma glucose in prediabetes. The findings should be replicated in other intervention studies to further investigate glucose lowering effects and the opportunity to use bitter gourd for dietary self-management, especially in places where access to professional medical care is not easily assured. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbon balance studies of glucose metabolism in rat cerebral cortical synaptosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, U; Brand, K

    1982-07-01

    Synaptosomes were isolated from rat cerebral cortex and incubated with (U-/sup 14/C)-, (1-/sup 14/C)- or (6-/sup 14/C)glucose. Glucose utilization and the metabolic partitioning of glucose carbon in products were determined by isotopic methods. From the data obtained a carbon balance was constructed, showing lactate to be the main product of glucose metabolism, followed by CO/sup 2/, amino acids and pyruvate. Measuring the release of /sup 14/CO/sup 2/ from glucose labelled in three different positions allowed the construction of a flow diagram of glucose carbon atoms in synaptosomes, which provides information about the contribution of the various pathways of glucose metabolism. Some 2% of glucose utilized was calculated to be degraded via the pentose phosphate pathway. Addition of chlorpromazine, imipramine or haloperidol at concentrations of 10(-5) M reduced glucose utilisation by 30% without changing the distribution pattern of radioactivity in the various products.

  20. Glucose transformation to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in acidic ionic liquid: A quantum mechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin; Puripat, Maneeporn; Yokogawa, Daisuke; Parasuk, Vudhichai; Irle, Stephan

    2016-01-30

    Isomerization and transformation of glucose and fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in both ionic liquids (ILs) and water has been studied by the reference interaction site model self-consistent field spatial electron density distribution (RISM-SCF-SEDD) method coupled with ab initio electronic structure theory, namely coupled cluster single, double, and perturbative triple excitation (CCSD(T)). Glucose isomerization to fructose has been investigated via cyclic and open chain mechanisms. In water, the calculations support the cyclic mechanism of glucose isomerization; with the predicted activation free energy is 23.8 kcal mol(-1) at experimental condition. Conversely, open ring mechanism is more favorable in ILs with the energy barrier is 32.4 kcal mol(-1) . Moreover, the transformation of fructose into HMF via cyclic mechanism is reasonable; the calculated activation barriers are 16.0 and 21.5 kcal mol(-1) in aqueous and ILs solutions, respectively. The solvent effects of ILs could be explained by the decomposition of free energies and radial distribution functions of solute-solvent that are produced by RISM-SCF-SEDD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Novelty Seeking and Antisocial Personality: A Positron Emission Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Hyeon; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2016-08-01

    Novelty seeking (NS) and antisocial personality (ASP) are commonly exhibited by those who suffer from addictions, such as substance abuse. NS has been suggested to be a fundamental aspect of ASP. To investigate the neurobiological substrate of NS and ASP, we tested the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the level of NS, determining the differences between individuals with and without ASP. Seventy-two healthy adults (43 males, mean age±SD=38.8±16.6 years, range=20~70 years; 29 females, 44.2±20.1 years, range=19~72 years) underwent resting-state brain positron emission tomography (PET) 40 minutes after (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) injection. Within 10 days of the FDG PET study, participants completed Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to determine NS scores. Participants with and without ASP were grouped according to their TCI profiles. Statistical parametric mapping analysis was performed using the FDG PET and TCI profile data. NS scores positively correlated with metabolism in the left anterior cingulate gyrus and the insula on both sides of the brain and negatively correlated with metabolism in the right pallidum and putamen. Participants with ASP showed differences in cerebral glucose metabolism across various cortical and subcortical regions, mainly in the frontal and prefrontal areas. These data demonstrate altered regional cerebral glucose metabolism in individuals with NS and ASP and inform our understanding of the neurobiological substrates of problematic behaviors and personality disorders.

  2. Optimizing cancer radiotheraphy with 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Dose escalation studies in patients with glioblastoma multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D.; Gupta, J.P. [Dharmshila Cancer Hospital, New Delhi (India); Banerji, A.K. [Vidyasagar Inst. of Mental Health and Neurosciences, New Delhi (India); Dwarakanath, B.S.; Tripathi, R.P.; Mathew, T.L.; Ravindranath, T. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi (India); Jain, V. [Wright State University, Dayton, OH (United States). Kettering Medical Center

    2005-08-01

    Background and purpose: Higher rates of glucose utilization and glycolysis generally correlate with poor prognosis in several types of malignant tumors. Own earlier studies on model systems demonstrated that the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) could enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy in a dose-dependent manner by selectively sensitizing cancer cells while protecting normal cells. Phase I/II clinical trials indicated that the combination of 2-DG, at an oral dose of 200 mg/kg body weight (BW), with large fractions of {gamma}-radiation was well tolerated in cerebral glioma patients. Since higher 2-DG doses are expected to improve the therapeutic gain, present studies were undertaken to examine the tolerance and safety of escalating 2-DG dose during combined treatment (2-DG + radiotherapy) in glioblastoma multiforme patients. Patients and methods: Untreated patients with histologically proven glioblastoma multiforme (WHO criteria) were included in the study. Seven weekly fractions of {sup 60}C {gamma}-rays (5 Gy/fraction) were delivered to the tumor volume (presurgical CT/MRI evaluation) plus 3 cm margin. Escalating 2-DG doses (200-250-300 mg/kg BW) were administered orally 30 min before irradiation after overnight fasting. Acute toxicity and tolerance were studied by monitoring the vital parameters and side effects. Late radiation damage and treatment responses were studied radiologically and clinically in surviving patients. Results: Transient side effects similar to hypoglycemia were observed in most of the patients. Tolerance and patient compliance to the combined treatment were very good up to a 2-DG dose of 250 mg/kg BW. However, at the higher dose of 300 mg/kg BW, two out of six patients were very restless and could not complete treatment, though significant changes in the vital parameters were not observed even at this dose. No significant damage to the normal brain tissue was observed during follow-up in seven out of ten patients who

  3. Coupled enzyme reactions performed in heterogeneous reaction media: experiments and modeling for glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase in a PEG/citrate aqueous two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumiller, William M; Davis, Bradley W; Hashemian, Negar; Maranas, Costas; Armaou, Antonios; Keating, Christine D

    2014-03-06

    The intracellular environment in which biological reactions occur is crowded with macromolecules and subdivided into microenvironments that differ in both physical properties and chemical composition. The work described here combines experimental and computational model systems to help understand the consequences of this heterogeneous reaction media on the outcome of coupled enzyme reactions. Our experimental model system for solution heterogeneity is a biphasic polyethylene glycol (PEG)/sodium citrate aqueous mixture that provides coexisting PEG-rich and citrate-rich phases. Reaction kinetics for the coupled enzyme reaction between glucose oxidase (GOX) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were measured in the PEG/citrate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). Enzyme kinetics differed between the two phases, particularly for the HRP. Both enzymes, as well as the substrates glucose and H2O2, partitioned to the citrate-rich phase; however, the Amplex Red substrate necessary to complete the sequential reaction partitioned strongly to the PEG-rich phase. Reactions in ATPS were quantitatively described by a mathematical model that incorporated measured partitioning and kinetic parameters. The model was then extended to new reaction conditions, i.e., higher enzyme concentration. Both experimental and computational results suggest mass transfer across the interface is vital to maintain the observed rate of product formation, which may be a means of metabolic regulation in vivo. Although outcomes for a specific system will depend on the particulars of the enzyme reactions and the microenvironments, this work demonstrates how coupled enzymatic reactions in complex, heterogeneous media can be understood in terms of a mathematical model.

  4. Random glucose is useful for individual prediction of type 2 diabetes: results of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowall, Bernd; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Giani, Guido; Schipf, Sabine; Baumeister, Sebastian; Wallaschofski, Henri; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry

    2013-04-01

    Random glucose is widely used in routine clinical practice. We investigated whether this non-standardized glycemic measure is useful for individual diabetes prediction. The Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), a population-based cohort study in north-east Germany, included 3107 diabetes-free persons aged 31-81 years at baseline in 1997-2001. 2475 persons participated at 5-year follow-up and gave self-reports of incident diabetes. For the total sample and for subjects aged ≥50 years, statistical properties of prediction models with and without random glucose were compared. A basic model (including age, sex, diabetes of parents, hypertension and waist circumference) and a comprehensive model (additionally including various lifestyle variables and blood parameters, but not HbA1c) performed statistically significantly better after adding random glucose (e.g., the area under the receiver-operating curve (AROC) increased from 0.824 to 0.856 after adding random glucose to the comprehensive model in the total sample). Likewise, adding random glucose to prediction models which included HbA1c led to significant improvements of predictive ability (e.g., for subjects ≥50 years, AROC increased from 0.824 to 0.849 after adding random glucose to the comprehensive model+HbA1c). Random glucose is useful for individual diabetes prediction, and improves prediction models including HbA1c. Copyright © 2012 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute Effects of Glucose and Fructose Administration on the Neural Correlates of Cognitive Functioning in Healthy Subjects: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Zanchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present randomized double-blinded cross-over study aims to extensively study the neural correlates underpinning cognitive functions in healthy subjects after acute glucose and fructose administration, using an integrative multimodal neuroimaging approach. Five minutes after glucose, fructose, or placebo administration through a nasogastric tube, 12 participants underwent 3 complementary neuroimaging techniques: 2 task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI sequences to assess working memory (N-back and response inhibition (Go/No-Go and one resting state fMRI sequence to address the cognition-related fronto-parietal network (FPN and salience network (SN. During working memory processing, glucose intake decreased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC relative to placebo, while fructose decreased activation in the ACC and sensory cortex relative to placebo and glucose. During response inhibition, glucose and fructose decreased activation in the ACC, insula and visual cortex relative to placebo. Resting state fMRI indicated increased global connectivity strength of the FPN and the SN during glucose and fructose intake. The results demonstrate that glucose and fructose lead to partially different partially overlapping changes in regional brain activities that underpin cognitive performance in different tasks.

  6. Enhanced self-monitoring blood glucose in non-insulin requiring Type 2 diabetes: A qualitative study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Dana Elisabeth

    2018-03-31

    To contribute to both theoretical and practical understanding of the role of self-monitoring blood glucose for self-management by describing the experience of people with non-insulin requiring Type 2 diabetes in an enhanced structured self-monitoring blood glucose intervention. The complex context of self-monitoring blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes requires a deeper understanding of the clients' illness experience with structured self-monitoring of blood glucose. Clients' numeracy skills contribute to their response to blood glucose readings. Nurses' use of motivational interviewing to increase clients' regulatory self-efficacy is important to the theoretical perspective of the study. A qualitative descriptive study. A purposive sample of eleven adults recently (diabetes who had experienced a structured self-monitoring blood glucose intervention participated in this study. Audio recordings of semi-structured interviews and photos of logbooks were analyzed for themes using constant comparison and member checking. The illness experience states of Type 2 diabetes include 'Diagnosis', 'Behavior change', and 'Routine checking'. People check blood glucose to confirm their Type 2 diabetes diagnosis, to console their diabetes related fears, to create personal explanations of health behavior's impact on blood glucose, to activate behavior change and to congratulate their diabetes self-management efforts. These findings support the Transtheoretical model's stages of change and change processes. Blood glucose checking strengthens the relationships between theoretical concepts found in Diabetes Self-management Education-Support including: engagement, information sharing, and behavioral support. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Natural history and physiological determinants of changes in glucose tolerance in a non-diabetic population: the RISC Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrannini, E; Natali, A; Muscelli, E

    2011-01-01

    The natural history and physiological determinants of glucose intolerance in subjects living in Europe have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of this area....

  8. Phase Transitions, Diffraction Studies and Marginal Dimensionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1985-01-01

    Continuous phase transitions and the associated critical phenomena have been one of the most active areas of research in condensed matter physics for several decades. This short review is only one cut through this huge subject and the author has chosen to emphasize diffraction studies as a basic ...

  9. Enhanced muscle glucose metabolism after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Garetto, L P; Goodman, M N

    1984-01-01

    Studies in the rat suggest that after voluntary exercise there are two phases of glycogen repletion in skeletal muscle (preceding study). In phase I glucose utilization and glycogen synthesis are enhanced both in the presence and absence of insulin, whereas in phase II only the increase in the pr......Studies in the rat suggest that after voluntary exercise there are two phases of glycogen repletion in skeletal muscle (preceding study). In phase I glucose utilization and glycogen synthesis are enhanced both in the presence and absence of insulin, whereas in phase II only the increase...... in the stimulated leg closely mimicked that observed previously after voluntary exercise on a treadmill. With no insulin added to the perfusate, glucose incorporation into glycogen was markedly enhanced in muscles that were glycogen depleted as were the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose and 3-O-methylglucose. Likewise......, the stimulation of these processes by insulin was enhanced and continued to be so 2 h later when the muscles of the stimulated leg had substantially repleted their glycogen stores. The results suggest that the increases in insulin-mediated glucose utilization and glycogen synthesis in muscle after exercise...

  10. Study on the preparation of immobilized glucose oxidase membrane and its application in clinic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Ye; Cao Jin; Su Zongxian; Chen Zixiong

    1990-01-01

    The paper deals with the preparation of immobilized glucose oxidase membrane by using two steps irradiation (irradiation gratfting, irradiation entrapping). Some properties of membrane were discussed. The immobilized glucose oxidase membrane with oxygen electrode and oxygen analyser can be satisfied with the clinic analysis for the determination of serum glucose

  11. Basic hydrolysis of 1, 3, 4, 6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose on solid phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinming; Tian Jiahe; He Yijie; Huan Dingcai; Liu Boli

    2003-01-01

    A new base hydrolysis method are used for 1, 3, 4, 6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-[ 18 F] fluoro-D-glucose on solid phase extraction. The labeled intermediate is trapped on an active C-18 solid phase extraction cartridge, and hydrolyzed in cartridge with 1 mL 2 mol/L NaOH at room temperature. The results show that there are over 99% of the labeled intermediate being turned into 18 F-FDG within 2 min. It is easy to get 18 F-FDG after neutralized with phosphate buffer, purified by C-18 and Alumina cartridge. The basic hydrolysis on solid extraction is a simple method for preparation of 18 F-FDG

  12. Adsorption and possible dissociation of glucose by the [BN fullerene-B6]- magnetic nanocomposite. In silico studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anota, E. Chigo; Villanueva, M. Salazar; Shakerzadeh, E.; Castro, M.

    2018-02-01

    The adsorption, activation and possible dissociation of the glucose molecule on the magnetic [BN fullerene-B6]- system is performed by means of density functional theory calculations. Three models of magnetic nanocomposites were inspected: i) pristine BN fullerene, BN fullerene functionalized with a magnetic B6 cluster which generates two structures: ii) pyramidal (P) and iii) triangular (T). Chemical interactions of glucose appear for all these cases; however, for the BNF:B6(T)—glucose system, the interaction generates an effect of dissociation on glucose, due to the magnetic effects, since it has high spin multiplicity. The latter nanocomposite shows electronic behavior like-conductor and like-semi-conductor for the P and T geometries, respectively. Intrinsic magnetism associated to values of 1.0 magneton bohr (µB) for the pyramidal and 5.0 µB for the triangular structure, high polarity, and low-chemical reactivity are found for these systems. These interesting properties make these functionalized fullerenes a good option for being used as nano-vehicles for drug delivery. These quantum descriptors remain invariant when the [BN]-fullerene and [BNF:B6 (P) or (T)]- nanocomposites are interacting with the glucose molecule. According to the determined adsorption energy, chemisorption regimes occur in both the phases: gas and aqueous medium.

  13. Efficacy of herbal toothpastes on salivary pH and salivary glucose – A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh R. Khairnar; Arun S. Dodamani; G.N. Karibasappa; Rahul G. Naik; Manjiri A. Deshmukh

    2017-01-01

    Due to dearth of literature on the effect of herbal toothpaste on saliva and salivary constituents, the present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effect of three different herbal toothpastes with the focus on on salivary pH and salivary glucose. Forty five subjects in the age group of 19?21 years were randomly divided into 3 groups (15 in each group) and were randomly intervened with three different herbal toothpastes (Dant Kanti, Himalaya Complete Care and Vicco Vajradanti). U...

  14. [Study on correlation of glucagons, type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Shi, Me; Qiu, Yun-Xia; Wang, Yan-Gang

    2014-06-01

    To analyze the changes of patients with type 2 diabetes in different stages in glucagon (GC) and free fatty acid (FFA) in fasting, OGT and L-Arg experiments, and discusses the role of pancreatic alphabeta cells in diabetes pathogenesis by studying the relations among indexes such as glucagon (GC), free fatty acid (FFA) and blood glucose (BG), insulin, insulin homeostasis model (HOMA) and glucose metabolism hormone secretion curve, in order to provide theoretical basis for the treatment of diabetes. Study objects were divided into the T2DM group (45 cases), the IGT group (28 cases) and the NGT group (30 cases) for an OGTT experiment and then an L-Arg experiment on the next day. Under the fasting state, their blood glucose (FBG), insulin (F), glucagon (FGC), free fatty acid (FFA) were detected to calculate HOMA-beta, insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and HOMA-IR of different groups. Meanwhile, efforts were made to calculate different time quantum detected in OGTT and L-Arg experiments and area under the curve AUC(BG), AUC(INS) and AUC(GC). Obvious overall differences were observed in FFA and FGC of the three groups. FGC of each group was negatively correlated with HOMA-beta and ISI. Among all of the 103 study objects, FGC was positively correlated with FBG and HOMA-IR and negatively correlated with HOMA-beta and ISI, with no correlation with FINS; FFA was positively correlated with FBG, HOMA-IR and negatively correlated with FINS, HOMA-beta, ISI. FGC and FFA were positively correlated in the T2DM group and the IGT group, but with no statistical correlation in the NGT group. The sequence of the three study objects was T2DM > IGR > NGT in AUC(GC) in the OGTT experiment and T2DM > IGR > NGT in in AUC(GC) in the L-Arg experiment, with the significant positive correlation between AUC(GC) and AUC(BG) and significant negative correlation with AUC(INS). Glucagon and free fatty acid of T2DM and IGT patients increased, which was positively correlated with blood glucose and HOMA

  15. A longitudinal study of cerebral glucose metabolism, MRI, and disability in patients with MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blinkenberg, M; Jensen, C.V.; Holm, S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the time-related changes in cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) in MS patients and to correlate these with changes in MRI lesion load and disability. BACKGROUND: Measurements of MRI lesion load and neurologic disability are used widely to monitor disease progression...... and parietal cortical areas. There was a statistically significant increase of disability (pmetabolism in MS is decreased significantly during a 2......-year observation period, suggesting a deterioration of cortical activity with disease progression. The time-related changes of cortical CMRglc are statistically stronger than changes in TLA measurements and neurologic disability, and might be a useful secondary measure of treatment efficacy...

  16. Factors associated with screening for glucose abnormalities after gestational diabetes mellitus: baseline cohort of the interventional IMPACT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihan, H; Cosson, E; Khiter, C; Vittaz, L; Faghfouri, F; Leboeuf, D; Carbillon, L; Dauphin, H; Reach, G; Valensi, P

    2014-04-01

    Although it is important to screen women who have had gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) for abnormal post-partum glucose levels, such testing is rarely performed. The aim of this study was to use data from the first observational phase of the IMPACT study to determine rates of screening within 6 months of delivery in a multiethnic cohort, focusing in particular on the effects of social deprivation and the risk of future diabetes. To investigate the frequency of post-partum screening, charts were analyzed, and all women attending four centres located in a deprived area who had had GDM between January 2009 and December 2010 were contacted by phone. The Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centres (EPICES) deprivation index and Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISK) questionnaire were also evaluated. Data were evaluable for 589 of the 719 women contacted (mean age: 33.4 ± 5.2 years; mean body mass index: 27.6 ± 5.4 kg/m(2)), and 196 (33.3%) reported having been screened. On multivariate analysis, factors associated with a lack of screening were smoking [odds ratio (OR): 0.42 (0.20-0.90), P<0.05], low consumption of fruit and vegetables [OR: 0.58 (0.39-0.82), P<0.01] and heavier offspring birth weight (P<0.05), although there were no differences in FINDRISK and EPICES scores between screened and unscreened women. One-third of women who had had GDM reported having been screened for dysglycaemia at 6 months post-partum. However, it is expected that the interventional phase of the IMPACT study will increase screening rates, especially in women with the risk factors associated with lower screening rates during this observational phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Mobile Diabetes Intervention Study of Patient Engagement and Impact on Blood Glucose: Mixed Methods Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Charlene Connolly; Butler, Erin C; Swasey, Krystal K; Shardell, Michelle D; Terrin, Michael D; Barr, Erik A; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L

    2018-02-02

    Successful treatment of diabetes includes patient self-management behaviors to prevent or delay complications and comorbid diseases. On the basis of findings from large clinical trials and professional guidelines, diabetes education programs and health providers prescribe daily regimens of glucose monitoring, healthy eating, stress management, medication adherence, and physical activity. Consistent, long-term commitment to regimens is challenging. Mobile health is increasingly being used to assist patients with lifestyle changes and self-management behaviors between provider visits. The effectiveness of mobile health to improve diabetes outcomes depends on patient engagement with a technology, content, or interactions with providers. In the current analysis, we aimed to identify patient engagement themes in diabetes messaging with diabetes providers and determine if differences in engagement in the Mobile Diabetes Intervention Study (MDIS) influenced changes in glycated hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) over a 1-year treatment period (1.9% absolute decrease in the parent study). In the primary MDIS study, 163 patients were enrolled into 1 of 3 mobile intervention groups or a usual care control group based on their physician cluster randomization assignment. The control group received care from their physicians as usual. Participants in each intervention group had access to a patient portal where they could record monitoring values for blood glucose, blood pressure, medication changes, or other self-management information while also assigned to varying levels of physician access to patient data. Intervention participants could choose to send and receive messages to assigned certified diabetes educators with questions or updates through the secure Web portal. For this secondary analysis, patient engagement was measured using qualitative methods to identify self-care themes in 4109 patient messages. Mixed methods were used to determine the impact of patient engagement on

  18. German risk study, phase (DRS-B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, W.

    1992-01-01

    The first risk investigations were primarily intended to estimate the risk of accidents in nuclear power plants and to compare it with other natural risk and civilization risks. The American reactor safety study WASH 1400 and the German risk study phase A (DRS-A) gave a detailed analyses of the offsite consequences of accidents, especially the magnitude and frequency of health damage for the population. Risk investigations today are primarily used to examine the design of safety systems and to further develop the entire safety concept. Safety investigations have shown that nuclear power plants still possess safety reserves if safety systems do not operate as planned. These safety reserves can be exploited in the sense of a further development of safety by plant internal emergency measures. One purpose of risk analyses is to identify such measures and to evaluate their feasibility and effectiveness. The most important goals of the investigations in DRS-B were: Identification of vulnerabilities and possible safety improvements; determination of safety reserves during accident sequences exceeding the design limits; evaluation of plant internal emergency measures. Thus, goals in phase B compared with phase A have changed from investigations of the magnitude of damage to detailed analysis of the plant systems response under accident conditions. The magnitude of possible fission product releases is also determined in phase B. However, no new accident consequence calculations are performed. Figs and tabs

  19. The human hepatocyte cell lines IHH and HepaRG: models to study glucose, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanez, Carolina Huaman; Caron, Sandrine; Briand, Olivier; Dehondt, Hélène; Duplan, Isabelle; Kuipers, Folkert; Hennuyer, Nathalie; Clavey, Véronique; Staels, Bart

    2012-07-01

    Metabolic diseases reach epidemic proportions. A better knowledge of the associated alterations in the metabolic pathways in the liver is necessary. These studies need in vitro human cell models. Several human hepatoma models are used, but the response of many metabolic pathways to physiological stimuli is often lost. Here, we characterize two human hepatocyte cell lines, IHH and HepaRG, by analysing the expression and regulation of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. Our results show that the glycolysis pathway is activated by glucose and insulin in both lines. Gluconeogenesis gene expression is induced by forskolin in IHH cells and inhibited by insulin in both cell lines. The lipogenic pathway is regulated by insulin in IHH cells. Finally, both cell lines secrete apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, an effect promoted by increasing glucose concentrations. These two human cell lines are thus interesting models to study the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism.

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of impaired glucose metabolism in patients referred to comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation: the DANSUK study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas Soja, Anne Merete; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe Olsen; Melchior, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    and mortality. We studied the prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (T2DM, IGT and impaired fasting glucose; IFG) in patients referred to cardiac rehabilitation, and further studied whether we could identify groups in which an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) need not be performed. METHODS: As part...... of a cardiac rehabilitation trial, 201 patients participated. Patients without a diagnosis of T2DM (N=159) underwent an OGTT 3 months after inclusion. RESULTS: Forty-two patients (21%) had known T2DM at enrolment. Based on the OGTT, 26 patients (13%) had unrecognized T2DM, 36 (18%) had IGT and 19 (9%) were...... predictive value of 39%. CONCLUSION: More than 60% of the patients (123/201) referred to cardiac rehabilitation had impaired glucose metabolism and 18% of the screened patients (29/159) would be misclassified if an OGTT was omitted. IFG and IGT did not identify the same patients or the same cardiovascular...

  1. Study on kinetics of glucose uptake by some species of plankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenquan; Wang, Xian; Zhang, Yaohua

    1993-03-01

    The rates of glucose uptake by some species of plankton were determined by3H-glucose tracer method. Experimental results indicated that the observed glucose uptake at natural seawater concentrations by Platymonas subcordiformis and Brachionus plicatilis was principally a metabolic process fitted with the Michaelis-Menten equation in the range of adaptive temperatures. Heterotrophic uptake by Platymonas subcordiformis was mainly dependent on diffusion at high glucose levels. The uptake by Brachionus plicatilis showed active transport even at high glucose levels, indicating its high heterotrophic activity. The uptake rate by Artemia salina was lower, and its V m/K ratio was lower than those of the other two species of plankton.

  2. Glucose Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  3. Gluconeogenesis during starvation and refeeding phase is affected by previous dietary carbohydrates levels and a glucose stimuli during early life in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Liang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gluconeogenesis responses was assessed during a short starvation period and subsequent refeeding in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii previously fed different dietary carbohydrates levels and experienced to a glucose stimuli during early life. The sturgeon larvae were previously fed either a high glucose diet (G or a low glucose diet (F from the first feeding to yolk absorption (8 to 12 d post-hatching [dph]. Each group of fish was sub-divided into 2 treatments at 13 dph and was fed either a high-carbohydrate diet (H or a low carbohydrate diet (L until 20 wk. In the current study, the fish in 4 groups (GL, FL, GH and FH were experienced to starvation for 21 d following by re-feeding of their corresponding diets for 21 d. Fish were sampled at postprandial 6 and 24 h before starvation (P6h and P24h, starvation 7, 14 and 21 d (S7, S14 and S21 and 1, 7, 14 and 21 d during refeeding (R1, R7, R14 and R21. Plasma samples during refeeding were taken at P6h at each time point. Glycaemia levels, liver and muscle glycogen contents, activities and mRNA levels of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes were examined. We found that both dietary carbohydrate levels and early glucose stimuli significantly affected the metabolic responses to starvation and refeeding in Siberian sturgeon (P < 0.05. During prolonged starvation, Siberian sturgeon firstly mobilized the liver glycogen and then improved gluconeogenesis when the dietary carbohydrates were abundant, whereas preserved the liver glycogen stores at a stable level and more effectively promoted gluconeogenesis when the dietary carbohydrates are absent to maintain glucose homoeostasis. During refeeding, as most teleostean, Siberian sturgeon failed controlling the activities and mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase cytosolic forms (PEPCK-C, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase, but particularly controlled phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mitochondrial forms (PEPCK-M activities and mRNA expression

  4. Characterization of the intravenous glucose tolerance test and the combined glucose-insulin test in donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, F J; Aguilera-Aguilera, R; Gonzalez-De Cara, C A; Toribio, R E; Estepa, J C; Perez-Ecija, A

    2015-12-01

    Glucose-insulin dynamic challenges such as the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and combined glucose-insulin test (CGIT) have not been described in donkeys. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the IVGTT and CGIT in healthy adult donkeys, and (2) to establish normal glucose-insulin proxies. Sixteen donkeys were used and body morphometric variables obtained each. For the IVGTT, glucose (300 mg/kg) was given IV. For the CGIT, glucose (150 mg/kg) followed by recombinant insulin (0.1 IU/kg) were administered IV. Blood samples for glucose and insulin determinations were collected over 300 min. In the IVGTT the positive phase lasted 160.9 ± 13.3 min, glucose concentration peaked at 323.1 ± 9.2 mg/dL and declined at a rate of 1.28 ± 0.15 mg/dL/min. The glucose area under the curve (AUC) was 21.4 ± 1.9 × 10(3) mg/dL/min and the insulin AUC was 7.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) µIU/mL/min. The positive phase of the CGIT curve lasted 44 ± 3 min, with a glucose clearance rate of 2.01 ± 0.18 mg/dL/min. The negative phase lasted 255.9 ± 3 min, decreasing glucose concentration at rate of -0.63 ± 0.06 mg/dL/min, and reaching a nadir (33.1 ± 3.6 mg/dL) at 118.3 ± 6.3 min. The glucose and insulin AUC values were 15.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) mg/dL/min and 13.2 ± 0.9 × 10(3) µIU/mL/min. This is the first study characterizing CGIT and IVGTT, and glucose-insulin proxies in healthy adult donkeys. Distinct glucose dynamics, when compared with horses, support the use of species-specific protocols to assess endocrine function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of nonequilibrium dispersed two phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, J.N. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of liquid droplets in a superheated steam environment is essential to the accurate prediction of nuclear fuel rod surface temperatures during the blowdown and reflood phase of a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). In response to this need, this treatise presents several original and significant contributions to the field of thermofluid physics. The research contained herein presents a statistical derivation of the two-phase mass, momentum, and energy-conservation equations using a droplet continuity equation analogous to that used in the Kinetic Theory of Gases. Unlike the Eulerian volume and time-averaged conservation equations generally used to describe dispersed two-phase flow behavior, this statistical averaging approach results in an additional mass momentum or energy term in each of the respective conservation equations. Further, this study demonstrates that current definitions of the volumetric vapor generation rate used in the mass conservation equation are inappropriate results under certain circumstances. The mass conservation equation derived herein is used to obtain a new definition for the volumetric vapor-generation rate. Last, a simple two phase phenomenological model, based on the statistically averaged conservation equations, is presented and solved analytically. It is shown that the actual quality and vapor temperature, under these circumstances, depend on a single dimensionless group

  6. Simulation studies of GST phase change alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyna, Glenn

    2008-03-01

    In order to help drive post-Moore's Law technology development, switching processes involving novel materials, in particular, GeSbTe (GST) alloys are being investigated for use in memory and eFuse applications. An anneal/quench thermal process crystallizes/amorphosizes a GST alloy which then has a low/high resistance and thereby forms a readable/writeable bit; for example, a ``one'' might be the low resistance, conducting crystalline state and a ``zero'' might be the high resistance, glassy state. There are many open questions about the precise nature of the structural transitions and the coupling to electronic structure changes. Computational and experimental studies of the effect of pressure on the GST materials were initiated in order to probe the physics behind the thermal switching process. A new pathway to reversible phase change involving pressure-induced structural metal insulator transitions was discovered. In a binary GS system, a room-temperature, direct, pressure-induced transformation from the high resistance amorphous phase to the low resistance crystalline phase was observed experimentally while the reverse process under tensile load was demonstrated via ab initio MD simulations performed on IBM's Blue Gene/L enabled by massively parallel software. Pressure induced transformations of the ternary material GST-225 (Ge2Sb2Te5) were, also, examined In the talk, the behavior of the two systems will be compared and insight into the nature of the phase change given.

  7. Biological and Clinical Study of 6-Deoxy-6-Iodo-D-Glucose: a iodinated tracer of glucose transport and of insulin-resistance in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone-Rochette, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR), characterized by a depressed cellular sensitivity to insulin in insulin-sensitive organs, is a central feature to obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus and leads to increase cardiovascular diseases, particularly heart failure. All these events are today serious public health problems. But actually, there is no simple tool to measure insulin resistance. The gold standard technique remains the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. However, the complexity and length of this technique render it unsuitable for routine clinical use. Many methods or index have been proposed to assess insulin resistance in human, but none have shown enough relevance to be used in clinical use. The U1039 INSERM unit previously has validated a new tracer of glucose transport, radiolabelled with 123 iodine and has developed a fast and simple imaging protocol with a small animal gamma camera, which allows the obtaining of an IR index for each organ, showing more discriminating for the heart. The project of my thesis was the human transfer of this measurement technique, perfectly validated in animal. The first part of this thesis evaluated to tolerance, in vivo kinetics, distribution and dosimetry of novel tracer of glucose transport, the [ 123 I]-6DIG. The safeties of new tracer and measurement technique were adequate. There were no adverse effects with excellent tolerance of the whole protocol. 6DIG eliminating was fast, primarily in the urine and complete within 72 h. The effective whole-body absorbed dose for a complete scan with injection of 92.5 * 2 MBq was between 3 to 4 mSv. The second part of this thesis evaluated in human feasibility and reproducibility of the measurement technique validated in animal. The third part showed techniques used to allow human transfer of this method. The study protocol was applied on 12 subjects (healthy volunteers (n=6) and type 2 diabetic patients (n=6)). With a method adapted to measure in humans, we determined an

  8. Sup(13)C NMR studies of glucose disposal in normal and non-insulin-dependent diabetic humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulman, G.I.; Rothman, D.L.; Shulman, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    To examine the extent to which the defect in insulin action in subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) can be accounted for by impairment of muscle glycogen synthesis, we performed combined hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies with [ 13 C]glucose in five subjects with NIDDM and in six age- and weight-matched healthy subjects. The rate of incorporation of intravenously infused [1- 13 C]glucose into muscle glycogen was measured directly in the gastrocnemius muscle by means of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer with a 15.5 min time resolution and a 13 C surface coil. The steady-state plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose were similar in both study groups. The mean (±SE) rate of glycogen synthesis, as determined by 13 C NMR, was 78±28 and 183±39 μmol-glucosyl units (kg muscle tissue (wet mass)) -1 min -1 in the diabetic and normal subjects, respectively. The mean glucose uptake was markedly reduced in the diabetic as compared with the normal subjects. The mean rate of non-oxidative glucose metabolism was 22±4 μmol kg -1 min -1 in the diabetic subjects and 42±4 μmol kg -1 min -1 in the normal subjects. When these rates are extrapolated to apply to the whole body, the synthesis of muscle glycogen would account for most of the total-body glucose uptake and all of the non-oxidative glucose metabolism in both normal and diabetic subjects. We conclude that muscle glycogen synthesis is the principal pathway of glucose disposal in both normal and diabetic subjects and that defects in muscle glycogen synthesis have a dominant role in the insulin resistance that occurs in persons with NIDDM. (author)

  9. A randomised study on the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose tolerance, lipids and body composition in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikøren, Linn A; Nygård, Ottar K; Lied, Einar; Rostrup, Espen; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2013-02-28

    The popularity of high-protein diets for weight reduction is immense. However, the potential benefits from altering the source of dietary protein rather than the amount is scarcely investigated. In the present study, we examined the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose and lipid metabolism in overweight adults. A total of thirty-four overweight adults were randomised to 8 weeks' supplementation with fish protein or placebo tablets (controls). The intake of fish protein supplement was 3 g/d for the first 4 weeks and 6 g/d for the last 4 weeks. In this study, 8 weeks of fish protein supplementation resulted in lower values of fasting glucose (Pfish protein supplementation compared to controls. Glucose-AUC was decreased after 8 weeks with fish protein supplement compared to baseline (Pfish protein may have beneficial effects on blood levels of glucose and LDL-cholesterol as well as glucose tolerance and body composition in overweight adults. The long-term effects of fish protein supplementation is of interest in the context of using more fish as a protein source in the diet, and the effects of inclusion of fish in the diet of individuals with low glucose tolerance should be evaluated.

  10. Glucose recovery from aqueous solutions by adsorption in metal–organic framework MIL-101: a molecular simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Krishna M.; Zhang, Kang; Jiang, Jianwen

    2015-01-01

    A molecular simulation study is reported on glucose recovery from aqueous solutions by adsorption in metal-organic framework MIL-101. The F atom of MIL-101 is identified to be the most favorable adsorption site. Among three MIL-101-X (X = H, NH2 or CH3), the parent MIL-101 exhibits the highest adsorption capacity and recovery efficacy. Upon functionalization by -NH2 or -CH3 group, the steric hindrance in MIL-101 increases; consequently, the interactions between glucose and framework become less attractive, thus reducing the capacity and mobility of glucose. The presence of ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate, as an impurity reduces the strength of hydrogen-bonding between glucose and MIL-101, and leads to lower capacity and mobility. Upon adding anti-solvent (ethanol or acetone), a similar adverse effect is observed. The simulation study provides useful structural and dynamic properties of glucose in MIL-101, and it suggests that MIL-101 might be a potential candidate for glucose recovery. PMID:26242874

  11. Glucose recovery from aqueous solutions by adsorption in metal-organic framework MIL-101: a molecular simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Krishna M; Zhang, Kang; Jiang, Jianwen

    2015-08-05

    A molecular simulation study is reported on glucose recovery from aqueous solutions by adsorption in metal-organic framework MIL-101. The F atom of MIL-101 is identified to be the most favorable adsorption site. Among three MIL-101-X (X = H, NH2 or CH3), the parent MIL-101 exhibits the highest adsorption capacity and recovery efficacy. Upon functionalization by -NH2 or -CH3 group, the steric hindrance in MIL-101 increases; consequently, the interactions between glucose and framework become less attractive, thus reducing the capacity and mobility of glucose. The presence of ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate, as an impurity reduces the strength of hydrogen-bonding between glucose and MIL-101, and leads to lower capacity and mobility. Upon adding anti-solvent (ethanol or acetone), a similar adverse effect is observed. The simulation study provides useful structural and dynamic properties of glucose in MIL-101, and it suggests that MIL-101 might be a potential candidate for glucose recovery.

  12. Cerebral Glucose Metabolism and Sedation in Brain-injured Patients: A Microdialysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertle, Daniel N; Santos, Edgar; Hagenston, Anna M; Jungk, Christine; Haux, Daniel; Unterberg, Andreas W; Sakowitz, Oliver W

    2015-07-01

    Disturbed brain metabolism is a signature of primary damage and/or precipitates secondary injury processes after severe brain injury. Sedatives and analgesics target electrophysiological functioning and are as such well-known modulators of brain energy metabolism. Still unclear, however, is how sedatives impact glucose metabolism and whether they differentially influence brain metabolism in normally active, healthy brain and critically impaired, injured brain. We therefore examined and compared the effects of anesthetic drugs under both critical (1 mmol/L) extracellular brain glucose levels. We performed an explorative, retrospective analysis of anesthetic drug administration and brain glucose concentrations, obtained by bedside microdialysis, in 19 brain-injured patients. Our investigations revealed an inverse linear correlation between brain glucose and both the concentration of extracellular glutamate (Pearson r=-0.58, P=0.01) and the lactate/glucose ratio (Pearson r=-0.55, P=0.01). For noncritical brain glucose levels, we observed a positive linear correlation between midazolam dose and brain glucose (Pbrain glucose levels, extracellular brain glucose was unaffected by any type of sedative. These findings suggest that the use of anesthetic drugs may be of limited value in attempts to influence brain glucose metabolism in injured brain tissue.

  13. Process Integration for the Disruption of Candida guilliermondii Cultivated in Rice Straw Hydrolysate and Recovery of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase by Aqueous Two-Phase Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurpilhares, Daniela B; Pessoa, Adalberto; Roberto, Inês C

    2015-07-01

    Remaining cells of Candida guilliermondii cultivated in hemicellulose-based fermentation medium were used as intracellular protein source. Recovery of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) was attained in conventional aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) was compared with integrated process involving mechanical disruption of cells followed by ATPS. Influences of polyethylene glycol molar mass (M PEG) and tie line lengths (TLL) on purification factor (PF), yields in top (Y T ) and bottom (Y B ) phases and partition coefficient (K) were evaluated. First scheme resulted in 65.9 % enzyme yield and PF of 2.16 in salt-enriched phase with clarified homogenate (M PEG 1500 g mol(-1), TLL 40 %); Y B of 75.2 % and PF B of 2.9 with unclarified homogenate (M PEG 1000 g mol(-1), TLL 35 %). The highest PF value of integrated process was 2.26 in bottom phase (M PEG 1500 g mol(-1), TLL 40 %). In order to optimize this response, a quadratic model was predicted for the response PFB for process integration. Maximum response achieved was PFB = 3.3 (M PEG 1500 g mol(-1), TLL 40 %). Enzyme characterization showed G6P Michaelis-Menten constant (K M ) equal 0.07-0.05, NADP(+) K M 0.02-1.98 and optimum temperature 70 °C, before and after recovery. Overall, our data confirmed feasibility of disruption/extraction integration for single-step purification of intracellular proteins from remaining yeast cells.

  14. Comparative study of expression and activity of glucose transporters between stem cell-derived brain microvascular endothelial cells and hCMEC/D3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahmad, Abraham J

    2017-10-01

    Glucose constitutes a major source of energy of mammalian brains. Glucose uptake at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) occurs through a facilitated glucose transport, through glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), although other isoforms have been described at the BBB. Mutations in GLUT1 are associated with the GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, yet none of the current in vitro models of the human BBB maybe suited for modeling such a disorder. In this study, we investigated the expression of glucose transporters and glucose diffusion across brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) derived from healthy patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We investigated the expression of different glucose transporters at the BBB using immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry and measured glucose uptake and diffusion across BMEC monolayers obtained from two iPSC lines and from hCMEC/D3 cells. BMEC monolayers showed expression of several glucose transporters, in particular GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4. Diffusion of glucose across the monolayers was mediated via a saturable transcellular mechanism and partially inhibited by pharmacological inhibitors. Taken together, our study suggests the presence of several glucose transporters isoforms at the human BBB and demonstrates the feasibility of modeling glucose across the BBB using patient-derived stem cells. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. A comparative study of enzyme immobilization strategies for multi-walled carbon nanotube glucose biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jin; Jaroch, David; Rickus, Jenna L; Marshall Porterfield, D [Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University (United States); Claussen, Jonathan C; Ul Haque, Aeraj; Diggs, Alfred R [Physiological Sensing Facility, Bindley Bioscience Center and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University (United States); McLamore, Eric S [Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida (United States); Calvo-Marzal, Percy, E-mail: porterf@purdue.edu [Department of Chemistry, Purdue University (United States)

    2011-09-02

    This work addresses the comparison of different strategies for improving biosensor performance using nanomaterials. Glucose biosensors based on commonly applied enzyme immobilization approaches, including sol-gel encapsulation approaches and glutaraldehyde cross-linking strategies, were studied in the presence and absence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Although direct comparison of design parameters such as linear range and sensitivity is intuitive, this comparison alone is not an accurate indicator of biosensor efficacy, due to the wide range of electrodes and nanomaterials available for use in current biosensor designs. We proposed a comparative protocol which considers both the active area available for transduction following nanomaterial deposition and the sensitivity. Based on the protocol, when no nanomaterials were involved, TEOS/GOx biosensors exhibited the highest efficacy, followed by BSA/GA/GOx and TMOS/GOx biosensors. A novel biosensor containing carboxylated MWNTs modified with glucose oxidase and an overlying TMOS layer demonstrated optimum efficacy in terms of enhanced current density (18.3 {+-} 0.5 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}), linear range (0.0037-12 mM), detection limit (3.7 {mu}M), coefficient of variation (2%), response time (less than 8 s), and stability/selectivity/reproducibility. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} response tests demonstrated that the most possible reason for the performance enhancement was an increased enzyme loading. This design is an excellent platform for versatile biosensing applications.

  16. A comparative study of enzyme immobilization strategies for multi-walled carbon nanotube glucose biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jin; Jaroch, David; Rickus, Jenna L; Marshall Porterfield, D; Claussen, Jonathan C; Ul Haque, Aeraj; Diggs, Alfred R; McLamore, Eric S; Calvo-Marzal, Percy

    2011-01-01

    This work addresses the comparison of different strategies for improving biosensor performance using nanomaterials. Glucose biosensors based on commonly applied enzyme immobilization approaches, including sol-gel encapsulation approaches and glutaraldehyde cross-linking strategies, were studied in the presence and absence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Although direct comparison of design parameters such as linear range and sensitivity is intuitive, this comparison alone is not an accurate indicator of biosensor efficacy, due to the wide range of electrodes and nanomaterials available for use in current biosensor designs. We proposed a comparative protocol which considers both the active area available for transduction following nanomaterial deposition and the sensitivity. Based on the protocol, when no nanomaterials were involved, TEOS/GOx biosensors exhibited the highest efficacy, followed by BSA/GA/GOx and TMOS/GOx biosensors. A novel biosensor containing carboxylated MWNTs modified with glucose oxidase and an overlying TMOS layer demonstrated optimum efficacy in terms of enhanced current density (18.3 ± 0.5 μA mM -1 cm -2 ), linear range (0.0037-12 mM), detection limit (3.7 μM), coefficient of variation (2%), response time (less than 8 s), and stability/selectivity/reproducibility. H 2 O 2 response tests demonstrated that the most possible reason for the performance enhancement was an increased enzyme loading. This design is an excellent platform for versatile biosensing applications.

  17. Investigations on the effects of ''Ecstasy'' on cerebral glucose metabolism: an 18-FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckenberger, M.; Sabri, O.; Arning, C.; Tuttass, T.; Schulz, G.; Kaiser, H.J.; Wagenknecht, G.; Buell, U.; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E.; Sass, H.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine the acute effects of the 'Ecstasy' analogue MDE (3,4-methylendioxyethamphetamine) on the cerebral glucose metabolism (rMRGlu) of healthy volunteers. Method: In a randomised double-blind trial, 16 healthy volunteers without a history of drug abuse were examined with 18-FDG PET 110-120 minutes after oral administration of 2 mg/kg MDE (n=8) or placebo (n=8). Beginning two minutes prior to radiotracer injection, a constant cognitive stimulation was maintained for 32 minutes using a word repetition paradigm in order to ensure constant and comparable mental conditions during cerebral 18-FDG uptake. Individual brain anatomy was represented using T1-weighted 3D flash MRI, followed by manual regionalisation into 108 regions-of-interest and PET/MRI overlay. Absolute quantification of rMRGlu and comparison of glucose metabolism under MDE versus placebo were performed using Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Absolute global MRGlu was not significantly changed under MDE versus placebo (MDE: 41,8±11,1 μmol/min/100 g, placebo: 50,1±18,1 μmol/min/100 g, p=0,298). The normalised regional metabolic data showed a significantly decreased rMRGlu in the bilateral frontal cortex: Left frontal posterior (-7.1%, p [de

  18. Positron emission tomographic studies using C-11-glucose in normal aging and cerebrovascular dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujike, Takashi; Terashi, Akiro; Soeda, Toshiyuki; Kitamura, Shin; Kato, Toshiaki; Iio, Masaaki.

    1984-01-01

    Seven normal volunteers and 11 patients with cerebrovascular dementia were studied about the relations between effect of aging, severity of dementia, cerebral glucose metabolism and metabolic response to verbal stimuli by positron emission tomography (PET) using C-11-glucose. Regional distribution of glycogenic metabolites (RDGM: mg/100 g brain), which was a semi-quantitation of the pool of glycogenic metabolites mainly amino acids, were calculated. The RDGM values in elder normal subjects were significantly low compared with young normal subjects in frontal cortex (p < 0.05). The decline in frontal cortex metabolism could have been caused by the morphological changes in the course of aging. In temporal cortex, there was no significance between two groups. RDGM increased significantly respond to the verbal stimuli in frontal and temporal cortex both young and elder normal subjects. The RDGM values in vascular dementias were significantly low (p < 0.001) compared with elder normal subjects' in frontal and temporal cortex. Significant difference existed between mild and severe dementia in frontal cortex (p < 0.05). However, there was no significance between mild and severe dementias in temporal cortex. In mild dementias, RDGM increased significantly respond to the verbal stimuli in frontal and temporal cortex. In severe dementias, metabolic response to the verbal stimuli was less or lacking. Our results suggest that the cerebral metabolic functional reserve and the ability of the cerebral cortex to function respond to psychophysiologic stimulation are preserved in young and elder normal subjects and mild cerebrovascular dementias. (J.P.N.)

  19. A comparative study of enzyme immobilization strategies for multi-walled carbon nanotube glucose biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jin; Claussen, Jonathan C.; McLamore, Eric S.; Haque, Aeraj ul; Jaroch, David; Diggs, Alfred R.; Calvo-Marzal, Percy; Rickus, Jenna L.; Porterfield, D. Marshall

    2011-09-01

    This work addresses the comparison of different strategies for improving biosensor performance using nanomaterials. Glucose biosensors based on commonly applied enzyme immobilization approaches, including sol-gel encapsulation approaches and glutaraldehyde cross-linking strategies, were studied in the presence and absence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Although direct comparison of design parameters such as linear range and sensitivity is intuitive, this comparison alone is not an accurate indicator of biosensor efficacy, due to the wide range of electrodes and nanomaterials available for use in current biosensor designs. We proposed a comparative protocol which considers both the active area available for transduction following nanomaterial deposition and the sensitivity. Based on the protocol, when no nanomaterials were involved, TEOS/GOx biosensors exhibited the highest efficacy, followed by BSA/GA/GOx and TMOS/GOx biosensors. A novel biosensor containing carboxylated MWNTs modified with glucose oxidase and an overlying TMOS layer demonstrated optimum efficacy in terms of enhanced current density (18.3 ± 0.5 µA mM - 1 cm - 2), linear range (0.0037-12 mM), detection limit (3.7 µM), coefficient of variation (2%), response time (less than 8 s), and stability/selectivity/reproducibility. H2O2 response tests demonstrated that the most possible reason for the performance enhancement was an increased enzyme loading. This design is an excellent platform for versatile biosensing applications.

  20. Effect of Low Frequency Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Glucose Profile of Persons with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Jabbour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of low-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES on glucose profile in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Eight persons with T2DM (41 to 65 years completed a glucose tolerance test with and without NMES delivered to the knee extensors for a 1-hour period at 8 Hz. Three blood samples were collected: at rest, and then 60 and 120 minutes after consumption of a glucose load on the NMES and control days. In NMES groups glucose concentrations were significantly lower (P<0.01 than in the control conditions. Moreover, a significant positive correlation (r=0.9, P<0.01 was obtained between the intensity of stimulation and changes in blood glucose. Our results suggest that low-frequency stimulation seem suitable to induce enhance glucose uptake in persons with T2DM. Moreover, the intensity of stimulation reflecting the motor contraction should be considered during NMES procedure.

  1. Elevated 1-hour postload plasma glucose levels identify subjects with normal glucose tolerance but impaired β-cell function, insulin resistance, and worse cardiovascular risk profile: the GENFIEV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Cristina; Miccoli, Roberto; Trombetta, Maddalena; Giorgino, Francesco; Frontoni, Simona; Faloia, Emanuela; Marchesini, Giulio; Dolci, Maria A; Cavalot, Franco; Cavallo, Gisella; Leonetti, Frida; Bonadonna, Riccardo C; Del Prato, Stefano

    2013-05-01

    In subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) 1-hour postload plasma glucose (1-h oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT]) of >155 mg/dL predicts type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate β-cell function, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk profile in subjects with NGT with a 1-h OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL. The GENFIEV (Genetics, PHYsiopathology, and Evolution of Type 2 diabetes) study is a multicenter study recruiting individuals at high risk of T2DM. A total of 926 subjects underwent a 75-g OGTT for assessment of plasma glucose and C-peptide for mathematical modeling of β-cell function (derivative and proportional control). Fasting insulin, lipid profile, and clinical parameters were determined as well. A 1-hour OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL was found in 39% of subjects with NGT, 76% with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 90% with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 99% and 98% with IFG + IGT or newly diagnosed T2DM, respectively. Among subjects with NGT (n = 474), those with 1-hour OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL were more insulin-resistant and had worse β-cell function than those with 1-hour OGTT glucose of ≤155 mg/dL. Moreover, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were higher in subjects with NGT with 1-hour OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was lower compared with that in subjects with NGT with 1-hour OGTT glucose of ≤155 mg/dL. Compared with subjects with IGT, those with NGT with 1-hour OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL had comparable cardiovascular risk profile and insulin resistance but slightly better β-cell function. Among subjects with NGT, those with 1-hour OGTT glucose of >155 mg/dL showed lower insulin sensitivity, impaired β-cell function, and worse cardiovascular risk profile and therefore are at greater risk of developing T2DM and cardiovascular disease.

  2. Apolipoprotein E Genotype and Sex Influence Glucose Tolerance in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela J. Hanson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucose intolerance and apolipoprotein ε4 allele (E4+ are risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD. Insulin sensitizers show promise for treating AD, but are less effective in E4+ individuals. Little is known about how the APOE genotype influences glucose metabolism. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 319 older adults who underwent oral glucose tolerance tests; a subset had insulin, amyloid beta (Aβ42, and Mini Mental Status Examination. Glucose and insulin patterns with respect to cognitive diagnosis, E4 status, and sex were examined with analysis of covariance and Pearson correlation. Results: People with cognitive impairment had higher fasting insulin levels. E4 status did not affect fasting glucose values, whereas men had higher fasting glucose levels than women. E4+ men had the lowest and E4+ women had the highest glucose levels, compared to E4- groups; insulin did not differ by sex or E4 group. E4 status and sex moderated correlations between metabolic measures and AD risk factors including age and Aβ. Conclusions: Insulin resistance was associated with cognitive impairment, and sex, E4 status, and glucose values are interrelated in older adults at risk of AD. Understanding glucose metabolism for different APOE and sex groups may help elucidate differences in therapeutic responses.

  3. Control of Blood Glucose for People with Type 1 Diabetes: an in Vivo Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Schmidt, Signe; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine

    2012-01-01

    Since continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology and insulin pumps have improved recent years, a strong interest in a closed-loop articial pancreas for people with type 1 diabetes has arisen. Presently, a fully automated controller of blood glucose must face many challenges, such as daily...... variations of patient's physiology and lack of accuracy of glucose sensors. In this paper we design and discuss an algorithm for overnight closed-loop control of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes. The algorithm is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC). We use an oset-free autoregressive model...

  4. Design of a prospective clinical study on the agreement between the Continuous GlucoseMonitor, a novel device for CONTinuous ASSessment of blood GLUcose levels, and the RAPIDLab® 1265 blood gas analyser: The CONTASSGLU study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Johannes B; Lehmann, Monika; Hofer, Stefan; Hüsing, Johannes; Alles, Catharina; Werner, Jens; Stiller, Jürgen; Künnecke, Wolfgang; Luntz, Steffen; Motsch, Johann; Weigand, Markus A

    2012-09-22

    Although a device is needed to continuously measure blood glucose levels within an intensive care setting, and several large-scale prospective studies have shown that patients might benefit from intensive insulin, potassium, or glucose therapy during intensive care, no devices are currently available to continuously assess blood glucose levels in critically ill patients. We conceived the study described here to evaluate the clinical use of the Continuous Glucose Monitor (CGM) performed via a central vein, and to determine the impact of phenomena, such as drift and shift, on the agreement between the CGM and a RAPIDLab® 1265 blood gas analyser (BGA). In the CONTinuous ASSessment of blood GLUcose (CONTASSGLU) study, up to 130 patients under intensive care will be fitted with the CGM, an ex vivo device that continuously measures blood glucose and lactate levels. Readings from the device taken 8 h after initial placement and calibration will be compared with values measured by a BGA. For this study, we chose the BGA as it is an established standard point-of-care device, instead of the devices used in certified central laboratories. Nevertheless, we will also independently compare the results from the point-of-care BGA with those determined by a central laboratory-based device. Blood samples will be collected from each patient from the same site in which the CGM will measure blood glucose. Consequently, each participant will serve as their own control, and no randomisation is necessary. The 95% limits of agreement and the corresponding confidence intervals will be calculated and compared with a prespecified clinically acceptable relative difference of 20%. Several attempts have been made to develop a device to continuously measure blood glucose levels within an intensive care setting or to use the devices that were originally designed for diabetes management, as several of these devices are already available. However, none of these devices were successful in

  5. Design of a prospective clinical study on the agreement between the Continuous GlucoseMonitor, a novel device for CONTinuous ASSessment of blood GLUcose levels, and the RAPIDLab® 1265 blood gas analyser: The CONTASSGLU study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Johannes B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a device is needed to continuously measure blood glucose levels within an intensive care setting, and several large-scale prospective studies have shown that patients might benefit from intensive insulin, potassium, or glucose therapy during intensive care, no devices are currently available to continuously assess blood glucose levels in critically ill patients. We conceived the study described here to evaluate the clinical use of the Continuous Glucose Monitor (CGM performed via a central vein, and to determine the impact of phenomena, such as drift and shift, on the agreement between the CGM and a RAPIDLab® 1265 blood gas analyser (BGA. Methods/design In the CONTinuous ASSessment of blood GLUcose (CONTASSGLU study, up to 130 patients under intensive care will be fitted with the CGM, an ex vivo device that continuously measures blood glucose and lactate levels. Readings from the device taken 8 h after initial placement and calibration will be compared with values measured by a BGA. For this study, we chose the BGA as it is an established standard point-of-care device, instead of the devices used in certified central laboratories. Nevertheless, we will also independently compare the results from the point-of-care BGA with those determined by a central laboratory-based device. Blood samples will be collected from each patient from the same site in which the CGM will measure blood glucose. Consequently, each participant will serve as their own control, and no randomisation is necessary. The 95% limits of agreement and the corresponding confidence intervals will be calculated and compared with a prespecified clinically acceptable relative difference of 20%. Discussion Several attempts have been made to develop a device to continuously measure blood glucose levels within an intensive care setting or to use the devices that were originally designed for diabetes management, as several of these devices are already

  6. "Symptom-based insulin adjustment for glucose normalization" (SIGN) algorithm: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joyce Yu-Chia; Tsou, Keith; Lim, Jiahui; Koh, Feaizen; Ong, Sooim; Wong, Sabrina

    2012-12-01

    Lack of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) records in actual practice settings continues to create therapeutic challenges for clinicians, especially in adjusting insulin therapy. In order to overcome this clinical obstacle, a "Symptom-based Insulin adjustment for Glucose Normalization" (SIGN) algorithm was developed to guide clinicians in caring for patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes who have few to no SMBG records. This study examined the clinical outcome and safety of the SIGN algorithm. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin usage, and insulin-related adverse effects of a total of 114 patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes who refused to use SMBG or performed SMBG once a day for less than three times per week were studied 3 months prior to the implementation of the algorithm and prospectively at every 3-month interval for a total of 6 months after the algorithm implementation. Patients with type 1 diabetes, nonadherence to diabetes medications, or who were not on insulin therapy at any time during the study period were excluded from this study. Mean HbA1c improved by 0.29% at 3 months (P = 0.015) and 0.41% at 6 months (P = 0.006) after algorithm implementation. A slight increase in HbA1c was observed when the algorithm was not implemented. There were no major hypoglycemic episodes. The number of minor hypoglycemic episodes was minimal with the majority of the cases due to irregular meal habits. The SIGN algorithm appeared to offer a viable and safe approach when managing uncontrolled patients with type 2 diabetes who have few to no SMBG records.

  7. Study of cerebral metabolism of glucose in normal human brain correlated with age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, M.

    2007-01-01

    sensory-motor cortex(BA5, 7).In spite of the cerebral atrophy of aging, these relative hypometabolic brain areas are considered to be correlated with structural and functional cerebral changes and cognitive dysfunction such as verbal and spatial working memory deficit in the process of normal brain aging. The study of cerebral metabolism of glucose in normal human brains can be used for reference and instruction in future clinical studies and in normal brain aging. (author)

  8. High fat diet-induced glucose intolerance impairs myocardial function, but not myocardial perfusion during hyperaemia: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Brom Charissa E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucose intolerance is a major health problem and is associated with increased risk of progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. However, whether glucose intolerance is related to impaired myocardial perfusion is not known. The purpose of the present study was to study the effect of diet-induced glucose intolerance on myocardial function and perfusion during baseline and pharmacological induced hyperaemia. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly exposed to a high fat diet (HFD or control diet (CD (n = 8 per group. After 4 weeks, rats underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Subsequently, rats underwent (contrast echocardiography to determine myocardial function and perfusion during baseline and dipyridamole-induced hyperaemia (20 mg/kg for 10 min. Results Four weeks of HFD feeding resulted in glucose intolerance compared to CD-feeding. Contractile function as represented by fractional shortening was not altered in HFD-fed rats compared to CD-fed rats under baseline conditions. However, dipyridamole increased fractional shortening in CD-fed rats, but not in HFD-fed rats. Basal myocardial perfusion, as measured by estimate of perfusion, was similar in CD- and HFD-fed rats, whereas dipyridamole increased estimate of perfusion in CD-fed rats, but not in HFD-fed rats. However, flow reserve was not different between CD- and HFD-fed rats. Conclusions Diet-induced glucose intolerance is associated with impaired myocardial function during conditions of hyperaemia, but myocardial perfusion is maintained. These findings may result in new insights into the effect of glucose intolerance on myocardial function and perfusion during hyperaemia.

  9. Methodologic Considerations for Quantitative 18F-FDG PET/CT Studies of Hepatic Glucose Metabolism in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trägårdh, Malene; Møller, Niels; Sørensen, Michael

    2015-09-01

    PET with the glucose analog (18)F-FDG is used to measure regional tissue metabolism of glucose. However, (18)F-FDG may have affinities different from those of glucose for plasma membrane transporters and intracellular enzymes; the lumped constant (LC) can be used to correct these differences kinetically. The aims of this study were to investigate the feasibility of measuring human hepatic glucose metabolism with dynamic (18)F-FDG PET/CT and to determine an operational LC for (18)F-FDG by comparison with (3)H-glucose measurements. Eight healthy human subjects were included. In all studies, (18)F-FDG and (3)H-glucose were mixed in saline and coadministered. A 60-min dynamic PET recording of the liver was performed for 180 min with blood sampling from catheters in a hepatic vein and a radial artery (concentrations of (18)F-FDG and (3)H-glucose in blood). Hepatic blood flow was determined by indocyanine green infusion. First, 3 subjects underwent studies comparing bolus administration and constant-infusion administration of tracers during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamping. Next, 5 subjects underwent studies comparing fasting and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamping with tracer infusions. Splanchnic extraction fractions of (18)F-FDG (E*) and (3)H-glucose (E) were calculated from concentrations in blood, and the LC was calculated as ln(1 - E*)/ln(1 - E). Volumes of interest were drawn in the liver tissue, and hepatic metabolic clearance of (18)F-FDG (mL of blood/100 mL of liver tissue/min) was estimated. For bolus versus infusion, E* values were always negative when (18)F-FDG was administered as a bolus and were always positive when it was administered as an infusion. For fasting versus clamping, E* values were positive in 4 of 5 studies during fasting and were always positive during clamping. Negative extraction fractions were ascribed to the tracer distribution in the large volume of distribution in the prehepatic splanchnic bed. The LC ranged from 0.43 to 2

  10. A kinetic study of soluble glucose oxidase using a rotating-disc electrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroe-Biezen, van S.A.M.; Janssen, A.P.M.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    1994-01-01

    In order to determine the kinetic parameters of glucose oxidation catalysed by the enzyme glucose oxidase (GO) the initial velocity of hydrogen peroxide formation was measured using a rotating disc electrode (RDE). The major advantage of this method is the possibility of continuous measurement of

  11. Is fasting glucose sufficient to define diabetes? Epidemiological data from 20 European studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DECODE-study group, [Unknown

    1999-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis. The World Health Organization Consultation recommended new diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus including: lowering of the diagnostic fasting plasma glucose to 7.0 mmol/l and introduction of a new category: impaired fasting glycaemia. The diagnostic 2-h glucose concentrations

  12. Model studies on acrylamide generation from glucose/asparagine in aqueous glycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Granby, Kit

    2007-01-01

    Acrylamide formation from asparagine and glucose in different ratios in neutral glycerol/water mixtures was found to increase with decreasing water activity (0.33......Acrylamide formation from asparagine and glucose in different ratios in neutral glycerol/water mixtures was found to increase with decreasing water activity (0.33...

  13. Dietary linolenic acid and fasting glucose and insulin: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoussé, Luc; Hunt, Steven C; Tang, Weihong; Eckfeldt, John H; Province, Michael A; Ellison, R Curtis

    2006-02-01

    To assess whether dietary linolenic acid is associated with fasting insulin and glucose. In a cross-sectional design, we studied 3993 non-diabetic participants of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study 25 to 93 years of age. Linolenic acid was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire, and laboratory data were obtained after at least a 12-hour fast. We used generalized linear models to calculate adjusted means of insulin and glucose across quartiles of dietary linolenic acid. From the lowest to the highest sex-specific quartile of dietary linolenic acid, means +/- standard error for logarithmic transformed fasting insulin were 4.06 +/- 0.02 (reference), 4.09 +/- 0.02, 4.13 +/- 0.02, and 4.17 +/- 0.02 pM, respectively (trend, p continuous variable, the multivariable adjusted regression coefficient was 0.42 +/- 0.08. There was no association between dietary linolenic acid and fasting glucose (trend p = 0.82). Our data suggest that higher consumption of dietary linolenic acid is associated with higher plasma insulin, but not glucose levels, in non-diabetic subjects. Additional studies are needed to assess whether higher intake of linolenic acid results in an increased insulin secretion and improved glucose use in vivo.

  14. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moloko Matshipi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i the level of physical activity; (ii the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05 relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777. The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels.

  15. Metformin and sitAgliptin in patients with impAired glucose tolerance and a recent TIA or minor ischemic Stroke (MAAS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Elizabeth; Fonville, Susanne; Zandbergen, Adrienne A M; Brouwers, Paul J A M; Mulder, Laus J M M; Lingsma, Hester F; Dippel, Diederik W J; Koudstaal, Peter J; den Hertog, Heleen M

    2015-08-05

    Impaired glucose tolerance is present in one third of patients with a TIA or ischemic stroke and is associated with a two-fold risk of recurrent stroke. Metformin improves glucose tolerance, but often leads to side effects. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility, safety, and effects on glucose metabolism of metformin and sitagliptin in patients with TIA or minor ischemic stroke and impaired glucose tolerance. We will also assess whether a slow increase in metformin dose and better support and information on this treatment will reduce the incidence of side effects in these patients. The Metformin and sitAgliptin in patients with impAired glucose tolerance and a recent TIA or minor ischemic Stroke trial (MAAS trial) is a phase II, multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label trial with blinded outcome assessment. Non-diabetic patients (n = 100) with a recent (TIA, amaurosis fugax or minor ischemic stroke (modified Rankin scale ≤ 3) and impaired glucose tolerance, defined as 2-hour post-load glucose levels between 7.8 and 11.0 mmol/L after repeated standard oral glucose tolerance test, will be included. Patients with renal or liver impairment, heart failure, chronic hypoxic lung disease stage III-IV, history of lactate acidosis or diabetic ketoacidosis, pregnancy or breastfeeding, pancreatitis and use of digoxin will be excluded. The patients will be randomly assigned in a 1:1:2 ratio to metformin, sitagliptin or "no treatment." Patients allocated to metformin will start with 500 mg twice daily, which will be slowly increased during a 6-week period to a twice daily dose of 1000 mg. Patients allocated to sitagliptin will be treated with a daily fixed dose of 100 mg. The study has been registered as NTR 3196 in The Netherlands Trial Register. Primary outcomes include percentage still on treatment, percentage of (serious) adverse events, and the baseline adjusted difference in 2-hour post-load glucose levels at 6 months. This study will give more

  16. A study of the tyramine/glucose Maillard reaction: Variables, characterization, cytotoxicity and preliminary application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Chen, Yaxin; He, Xiaoxia; Hu, Shiwei; Li, Shijie; Liu, Yu

    2018-01-15

    The tyramine/glucose Maillard reaction was proposed as an emerging tool for tyramine reduction in a model system and two commercial soy sauce samples. The model system was composed of tyramine and glucose in buffer solutions with or without NaCl. The results showed that tyramine was reduced in the model system, and the reduction rate was affected by temperature, heating time, initial pH value, NaCl concentration, initial glucose concentration and initial tyramine concentration. Changes in fluorescence intensity and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra showed three stages of the Maillard reaction between tyramine and glucose. Cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that tyramine/glucose Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were significantly less toxic than that of tyramine (pMaillard reaction is a promising method for tyramine reduction in foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel insulin resistance index to monitor changes in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance: the ACT NOW study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Devjit; Cobb, Jeff E; Gall, Walter; Adam, Klaus-Peter; George, Tabitha; Schwenke, Dawn C; Banerji, MaryAnn; Bray, George A; Buchanan, Thomas A; Clement, Stephen C; Henry, Robert R; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ratner, Robert E; Stentz, Frankie B; Reaven, Peter D; Musi, Nicolas; Ferrannini, Ele; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to test the clinical utility of Quantose M(Q) to monitor changes in insulin sensitivity after pioglitazone therapy in prediabetic subjects. Quantose M(Q) is derived from fasting measurements of insulin, α-hydroxybutyrate, linoleoyl-glycerophosphocholine, and oleate, three nonglucose metabolites shown to correlate with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Participants were 428 of the total of 602 ACT NOW impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects randomized to pioglitazone (45 mg/d) or placebo and followed for 2.4 years. At baseline and study end, fasting plasma metabolites required for determination of Quantose, glycated hemoglobin, and oral glucose tolerance test with frequent plasma insulin and glucose measurements to calculate the Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity were obtained. Pioglitazone treatment lowered IGT conversion to diabetes (hazard ratio = 0.25; 95% confidence interval = 0.13-0.50; P < .0001). Although glycated hemoglobin did not track with insulin sensitivity, Quantose M(Q) increased in pioglitazone-treated subjects (by 1.45 [3.45] mg·min(-1)·kgwbm(-1)) (median [interquartile range]) (P < .001 vs placebo), as did the Matsuda index (by 3.05 [4.77] units; P < .0001). Quantose M(Q) correlated with the Matsuda index at baseline and change in the Matsuda index from baseline (rho, 0.85 and 0.79, respectively; P < .0001) and was progressively higher across closeout glucose tolerance status (diabetes, IGT, normal glucose tolerance). In logistic models including only anthropometric and fasting measurements, Quantose M(Q) outperformed both Matsuda and fasting insulin in predicting incident diabetes. In IGT subjects, Quantose M(Q) parallels changes in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance with pioglitazone therapy. Due to its strong correlation with improved insulin sensitivity and its ease of use, Quantose M(Q) may serve as a useful clinical test to identify and monitor therapy in insulin-resistant patients.

  18. Fasting Plasma Glucose, Self-Appraised Diet Quality and Depressive Symptoms: A US-Representative Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Hoare

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Depression and type 2 diabetes (T2D contribute significantly to global burden of disease and often co-occur. Underpinning type 2 diabetes is poor glycaemic control and glucose is also an obligatory substrate for brain metabolism, with potential implications for cognition, motivation and mood. This research aimed to examine the relationships between fasting plasma glucose and depressive symptoms in a large, population representative sample of US adults, controlling for other demographic and lifestyle behavioural risk factors. Using the 2013–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data, this study first investigated the relationship between fasting plasma glucose and mental disorders at a population-level, accounting for demographic, health behavioural and weight-related factors known to co-occur with both type 2 diabetes and mental disorders. Depressive symptoms were derived from the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Fasting plasma glucose was obtained through medical examination and demographic (age, household income, sex and health characteristics (perceived diet quality, daily time sedentary were self-reported. Body mass index was calculated from objectively measured height and weight. In the univariate model, higher fasting plasma glucose was associated with greater depressive symptoms among females (b = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.43, p < 0.05, but not males. In the final fully adjusted model, the relationship between fasting plasma glucose and depressive symptoms was non-significant for both males and females. Of all independent variables, self-appraised diet quality was strongly and significantly associated with depressive symptoms and this remained significant when individuals with diabetes were excluded. Although diet quality was self-reported based on individuals’ perceptions, these findings are consistent with a role for poor diet in the relationship between fasting plasma glucose and depressive symptoms.

  19. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W R; Mazurek, M; Waber, H N [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J; Erlandson, A C; Hallbeck, L; Pedersen, K [Goeteborg University (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W; Fritz, P; Geyer, S; Geyer, W; Hanschman, G; Kopinke, F D; Poerschmann, J [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A V; Haworth, A; Ilett, D; Linklater, C M; Tweed, C J [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S R.N.; Kemp, S J; Milodowski, A E; Pearce, J M; Reeder, S; Rochelle, C A; Smith, B; Wetton, P D; Wragg, J [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I D [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E; Hughes, C R [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E K [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H N; Salameh, E [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B [Cement Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A F [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J A.T. [ed.; Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  20. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W.R.; Mazurek, M.; Waber, H.N.; Arlinger, J.; Erlandson, A.C.; Hallbeck, L.; Pedersen, K.; Chambers, A.V.; Haworth, A.; Ilett, D.; Linklater, C.M.; Tweed, C.J.; Chenery, S.R.N.; Kemp, S.J.; Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.; Reeder, S.; Rochelle, C.A.; Smith, B.; Wetton, P.D.; Wragg, J.; Clark, I.D.; Karlsson, F.; Khoury, H.N.; Salameh, E.; Lagerblad, B.; Longworth, G.; Savage, D.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH) 2 type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the 'alkali disturbed zone' of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  1. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W R; Mazurek, M; Waber, H N [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J; Erlandson, A C; Hallbeck, L; Pedersen, K [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W; Fritz, P; Geyer, S; Geyer, W; Hanschman, G; Kopinke, F D; Poerschmann, J [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A V; Haworth, A; Ilett, D; Linklater, C M; Tweed, C J [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S R.N.; Kemp, S J; Milodowski, A E; Pearce, J M; Reeder, S; Rochelle, C A; Smith, B; Wetton, P D; Wragg, J [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I D [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E; Hughes, C R [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E K [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H N; Salameh, E [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B [Cement Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A F [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J A.T. [ed.; Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  2. The association between diabetes mellitus, glucose, and chronic musculoskeletal complaints. Results from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwart John-Anker

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM and chronic musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between DM, non-fasting glucose and chronic MSCs defined as pain and/or stiffness ≥ 3 months during the past year in the general adult population. Methods The results were based on cross-sectional data from 64,785 men and women (aged ≥ 20 years who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey, which included 1,940 individuals with known DM. Associations were assessed using multiple logistic regression, estimating prevalence odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results High non-fasting glucose was associated with a lower prevalence of chronic MSCs compared to a low glucose level. DM was associated with higher prevalence of chronic MSCs, in particular chronic widespread MSCs. In the multivariate analysis, adjusting for glucose level, BMI, age, gender and physical activity, chronic widespread MSCs was 1.6 times more likely (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2–2.2 among individuals Conclusion In this cross-sectional study a high non-fasting glucose was associated with lower prevalence of chronic MSCs. Among individuals with known DM chronic widespread MSCs were more likely.

  3. Associations between Dietary Acid-Base Load and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adults: The Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahadoran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn this study we investigated the associations of dietary acid-base load, identified by potential renal acid load (PRAL and protein to potassium (Pro:K ratio, with cardiometabolic risk factors in Tehranian adults.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the fourth phase of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2009 to 2011 on 5,620 men and women aged 19 to 70 years. Dietary data were collected by a trained dietitian using a validated, 147-food item, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and dietary PRAL and Pro:K ratio were calculated. Multiple linear regression models with adjustment for potential confounding variables were used to evaluate the associations of dietary acid-base load with anthropometric measures, blood pressure, serum triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, serum creatinine, and fasting blood glucose.ResultsThe mean±SD age of the participants was 39.8±12.8 years and 54% of participants were women. Mean±SD PRAL was -22.0±29.1; mean PRAL was -15.6 in men and -26.8 in women. Dietary PRAL was associated with weight (β=0.098, P<0.001, waist circumference (β=0.062, P<0.01, serum triglycerides (β=0.143, P<0.01, HDL-C (β=-0.11, P<0.01, diastolic blood pressure (β=0.062, P<0.01, and serum creatinine (β=0.142, P<0.001. Pro:K ratio was associated with weight (β=0.055, P<0.001, waist circumference (β=0.04, P<0.01, serum HDL-C (β=-0.06, P<0.01, serum triglycerides (β=0.03, P<0.05, diastolic blood pressure (β=0.026, P<0.05, and serum creatinine (β=0.07, P<0.01.ConclusionA more acidic dietary acid-base load may be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders.

  4. Insulin sensitivity, insulin release and glucagon-like peptide-1 levels in persons with impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance in the EUGENE2 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laakso, M; Zilinskaite, J; Hansen, T

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We examined the phenotype of individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) with regard to insulin release and insulin resistance. METHODS: Non-diabetic offspring (n=874; mean age 40+/-10.4 years; BMI 26.6+/-4.9 kg/m(2)) of type 2 diabetic...

  5. STUDY OF TCP PHASE PRECIPITATING IN GH4199 SUPERALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Cui; Y.S.Zhang; S.W.Guo; L.Wang; H.C.Yang

    2004-01-01

    The precipitating regulation and mechanism of TCP phasephase and σ phase) are studied, using electron hole number (EHN) theory, phase analysis technology and TEM observation. The results indicate that the EHN in studied alloy is 2.311-2.348 which is higher than that of critical EHN of μ phase precipitate (2.30), so μ phase could precipitate if there is enough thermo-exposition. In contrast, the calculated EHN is less than that of critical EHN of σ phase precipitate (2.52). However the σ phase is also observed by TEM.Enrich of Cr and Mo around γ phase after γ' phase precipitated leads to σ phase precipitated.

  6. A Comparative Study of Blood Glucose Measurements Using Glucometer Readings and the Standard Method in the Diagnosis of Neonatal Hypoglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Torkaman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoglycemia is one of the most common neonatal disorders, associated with severe complications. There has been a great deal of controversy regarding the definition and screening of hypoglycemia. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine a cut-off value for blood glucose level in glucometer readings. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 238 newborns at risk of hypoglycemia, admitted to Baqiyatallah Hospital of Tehran, Iran in 2012; the subjects were selected via simple sampling. After obtaining informed consents from the newborns’ parents, 1 cc blood samples were sent to the laboratory for measuring the blood glucose level. Moreover, venous blood samples, as well as heel-stick blood samples, were obtained for glucometer measurements. Blood glucose measurements were used to determine the cut-off value by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and make comparisons with the diagnostic criteria for hypoglycemia in the literature. Results: A total of 238 infants with the mean weight of 2869±821.9 g were enrolled in this study. The mean (±SD blood glucose levels were 65.1±22.9, 82.9±24.7, and 84.4±24.8 mg/dl, based on the standard laboratory method, glucometer reading of venous blood samples, and glucometer reading of heel-stick capillary blood samples, respectively. The optimal cut-off point for hypoglycemia was determined as 65 mg/dl, using glucometer-based assessment of heel-stick blood samples. Conclusion: The significant difference in blood glucose levels measured by the laboratory method and outpatient glucometer readings highlights the importance of a cut-off value for rapid assessment and control of blood glucose and timely detection of hypoglycemia. In fact, the cut-off value introduced in the present study could facilitate such measurements.

  7. Electron-transfer studies with a new flavin adenine dinucleotide dependent glucose dehydrogenase and osmium polymers of different redox potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Muhammad Nadeem; Wang, Xiaoju; Sygmund, Christoph; Ludwig, Roland; Leech, Dónal; Gorton, Lo

    2012-01-03

    A new extracellular flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase from Glomerella cingulata (GcGDH) was electrochemically studied as a recognition element in glucose biosensors. The redox enzyme was recombinantly produced in Pichia pastoris and homogeneously purified, and its glucose-oxidizing properties on spectrographic graphite electrodes were investigated. Six different Os polymers, the redox potentials of which ranged in a broad potential window between +15 and +489 mV versus the normal hydrogen electrode (NHE), were used to immobilize and "wire" GcGDH to the spectrographic graphite electrode's surface. The GcGDH/Os polymer modified electrodes were evaluated by chronoamperometry using flow injection analysis. The current response was investigated using a stepwisely increased applied potential. It was observed that the ratio of GcGDH/Os polymer and the overall loading of the enzyme electrode significantly affect the performance of the enzyme electrode for glucose oxidation. The best-suited Os polymer [Os(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)(2)(PVI)Cl](+) had a potential of +309 mV versus NHE, and the optimum GcGDH/Os polymer ratio was 1:2 yielding a maximum current density of 493 μA·cm(-2) at a 30 mM glucose concentration. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. Elevated Hemoglobin A1C Levels Correlate with Blood Glucose Elevation in Diabetic Patients following Local Corticosteroid Injection in the Hand: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nayoung; Schroeder, Jake; Hoffler, C Edward; Matzon, Jonas L; Lutsky, Kevin F; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2015-10-01

    Diabetic patients develop hand conditions that are managed with local corticosteroid injections. Injections can result in a transient elevation in serum glucose in diabetic patients. Hemoglobin A1c is the accepted measure of long-term plasma glucose control in diabetics (levels ≥7 percent reflect poor blood glucose control). The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between hemoglobin A1c levels and increased blood glucose levels after corticosteroid injections. Twenty-five diabetic patients were evaluated prospectively. One milliliter containing 10 mg of triamcinolone acetonide was used. The most recent hemoglobin A1c level and normal average blood glucose levels were obtained. Glucose levels were obtained from patient recall of their daily blood glucose self- monitoring on the day of the injection. Postinjection blood glucose levels were recorded until levels returned to preinjection baseline. Twenty patients (80 percent) had elevation of their blood glucose level from baseline. No patient had elevated blood glucose levels after 5 days. Patients with hemoglobin A1c levels greater than or equal to 7 percent had a higher blood glucose elevation and maintained this for longer than those who had a lower hemoglobin A1c level. Patients in the higher hemoglobin A1c group also had a higher number of hyperglycemic events. There was a strong or moderate correlation between hemoglobin A1c and elevated blood glucose levels during days 1 to 4. Patients with hemoglobin A1c levels greater than or equal to 7 percent have elevations in blood glucose that are higher and last longer than patients with lower levels. Hemoglobin A1c levels can be used to roughly predict the degree of blood glucose elevation after corticosteroid injections into the hands of diabetic patients.

  9. Phase distribution studies in metallic alloy SIMFUEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolay, S.; Basu, M.; Kaity, S.; Das, D.

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of U-Pu based alloy fuel in the three stage nuclear power generation program in India is one of the important mandate due to shorter doubling time for breeding of the fissile isotopes ( 239 Pu and 233 U) to be used in Th based driver fuel in the 3rd stage. Reported information shows successful performance of fuel with porous alloy matrix in achieving 10-15 atom % burn-up. The porosity and microstructure of this alloy are strongly dependent on the composition and phases of the fission products incorporated in the matrix. The porosity influences the extent of fuel swelling and fission gas release, which affects the performance and integrity of the fuel. This study addresses to these issues taking the base alloy U-10wt% Zr

  10. Self-Monitoring Using Continuous Glucose Monitors with Real-Time Feedback Improves Exercise Adherence in Individuals with Impaired Blood Glucose: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kaitlyn J; Little, Jonathan P; Jung, Mary E

    2016-03-01

    Exercise helps individuals with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes (T2D) manage their blood glucose (BG); however, exercise adherence in this population is dismal. In this pilot study we tested the efficacy of a self-monitoring group-based intervention using continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) at increasing exercise adherence in individuals with impaired BG. Thirteen participants with prediabetes or T2D were randomized to an 8-week standard care exercise program (CON condition) (n = 7) or self-monitoring exercise intervention (SM condition) (n = 6). Participants in the SM condition were taught how to self-monitor their exercise and BG, to goal set, and to use CGM to observe how exercise influences BG. We hypothesized that compared with the CON condition, using a real-time CGM would facilitate self-monitoring behavior, resulting in increased exercise adherence. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed significant Condition × Time interactions for self-monitoring (P goal setting (P = 0.01), and self-efficacy to self-monitor (P = 0.01), such that the SM condition showed greater increases in these outcomes immediately after the program and at the 1-month follow-up compared with the CON condition. The SM condition had higher program attendance rates (P = 0.03), and a greater proportion of participants reregistered for additional exercise programs (P = 0.048) compared with the CON condition. Participants in both conditions experienced improvements in health-related quality of life, waist circumference, and fitness (P values exercise behavior in individuals living with prediabetes or T2D.

  11. Evaluation of salivary glucose, IgA and flow rate in diabetic patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakianian Vaziri, P; Vahedi, M; Mortazavi, H; Abdollahzadeh, Sh; Hajilooi, M

    2010-01-01

    An association between diabetes mellitus and alterations in the oral cavity has been noted. In this study, we evaluated differences between salivary IgA, glucose and flow rate in diabetic patients compared with healthy controls. Forty patients with type 1 diabetes, 40 patients with type 2 diabetes and 40 healthy controls were selected. Whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected by the standard method and the salivary flow rate was determined. Nephelometric and Pars method were used to measure salivary IgA and salivary glucose concentrations, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed by Chi-square and t test. There were no significant differences in salivary IgA and glucose concentrations between type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and their matched control subjects (P>0.05). Salivary flow rate was significantly lower in diabetic patients (Pdiabetic patients than the controls. Determination of salivary constituents may be useful in the description and management of oral findings in diabetic patients.

  12. Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel B; Calanna, Salvatore; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have clinically relevant disturbances in the effects of the hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the importance of the prevailing plasma glucose levels for the effect of GIP on responses......: During fasting glycemia (plasma glucose ∼8 mmol/L), GIP elicited significant increments in both insulin and glucagon levels, resulting in neutral effects on plasma glucose. During insulin-induced hypoglycemia (plasma glucose ∼3 mmol/L), GIP elicited a minor early-phase insulin response and increased...... glucagon levels during the initial 30 minutes, resulting in less glucose needed to be infused to maintain the clamp (29 ± 8 vs 49 ± 12 mg × kg(-1), P glucose ∼12 mmol/L), GIP augmented insulin secretion throughout the clamp, with slightly less glucagon...

  13. Dietary fructose and risk of metabolic syndrome in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinpanah Farhad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that the excessive fructose intake may induce adverse metabolic effects. There is no direct evidence from epidemiological studies to clarify the association between usual amounts of fructose intake and the metabolic syndrome. Objective The aim this study was to determine the association of fructose intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components in Tehranian adults. Methods This cross-sectional population based study was conducted on 2537 subjects (45% men aged 19-70 y, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008. Dietary data were collected using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fructose intake was calculated by sum of natural fructose (NF in fruits and vegetables and added fructose (AF in commercial foods. MetS was defined according to the modified NCEP ATP III for Iranian adults. Results The mean ages of men and women were 40.5 ± 13.6 and 38.6 ± 12.8 years, respectively. Mean total dietary fructose intakes were 46.5 ± 24.5 (NF: 19.6 ± 10.7 and AF: 26.9 ± 13.9 and 37.3 ± 24.2 g/d (NF: 18.6 ± 10.5 and AF: 18.7 ± 13.6 in men and women, respectively. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of fructose intakes, men and women in the highest quartile, respectively, had 33% (95% CI, 1.15-1.47 and 20% (95% CI, 1.09-1.27 higher risk of the metabolic syndrome; 39% (CI, 1.16-1.63 and 20% (CI, 1.07-1.27 higher risk of abdominal obesity; 11% (CI, 1.02-1.17 and 9% (CI, 1.02-1.14 higher risk of hypertension; and 9% (CI, 1-1.15 and 9% (1.04-1.12 higher risk of impaired fasting glucose. Conclusion Higher consumption of dietary fructose may have adverse metabolic effects.

  14. Dietary fructose and risk of metabolic syndrome in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2011-07-12

    Studies have shown that the excessive fructose intake may induce adverse metabolic effects. There is no direct evidence from epidemiological studies to clarify the association between usual amounts of fructose intake and the metabolic syndrome. The aim this study was to determine the association of fructose intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in Tehranian adults. This cross-sectional population based study was conducted on 2537 subjects (45% men) aged 19-70 y, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008). Dietary data were collected using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fructose intake was calculated by sum of natural fructose (NF) in fruits and vegetables and added fructose (AF) in commercial foods. MetS was defined according to the modified NCEP ATP III for Iranian adults. The mean ages of men and women were 40.5 ± 13.6 and 38.6 ± 12.8 years, respectively. Mean total dietary fructose intakes were 46.5 ± 24.5 (NF: 19.6 ± 10.7 and AF: 26.9 ± 13.9) and 37.3 ± 24.2 g/d (NF: 18.6 ± 10.5 and AF: 18.7 ± 13.6) in men and women, respectively. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of fructose intakes, men and women in the highest quartile, respectively, had 33% (95% CI, 1.15-1.47) and 20% (95% CI, 1.09-1.27) higher risk of the metabolic syndrome; 39% (CI, 1.16-1.63) and 20% (CI, 1.07-1.27) higher risk of abdominal obesity; 11% (CI, 1.02-1.17) and 9% (CI, 1.02-1.14) higher risk of hypertension; and 9% (CI, 1-1.15) and 9% (1.04-1.12) higher risk of impaired fasting glucose. Higher consumption of dietary fructose may have adverse metabolic effects.

  15. Study of incommensurable phases in quantum chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollmer, J.

    1990-12-01

    The phases of quantum chains with spin-1/2 and spin-1-respresentations of the SU(2) algebra and the phases of a mixed spin-1/2 / spin-1 chain are reported and investigated. These chains are models with an XX-interaction in a magnetic field. In a certain range of the magnetic field the groundstate magnetisation depends continuously on the magnetic field and the energy gaps vanish, this is a so called 'floating phase'. Within this phase the energy spectrum is a conformal spectrum, comparable to the spectrum of the Gauss-model, but the momenta have a macroscopic part. These macroscopic momenta are connected to oscillating correlation functions, whose periods are determined by the magnetic field. The transition from the floating phase to an existing phase with constant groundstate magnetisation is a Pokrovsky-Talapov-transition, it is a universal transition in all three models. (orig.) [de

  16. Study on N-Amino, Protein and Total Glucose of Etawah Crossbreed Goat and Boer Crossbreed Goat Meat Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    Khothibul Umam Al Awwaly; Aris Sri Widati; Vina Rahmadani

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to know the difference between Etawah crossbreed goat meat sauce and Boer crossbreed goat meat sauce evaluated on N-amino, protein, and total glucose.The material used in the research were meat sauce from Etawah crossbreed goat and Boer crossbreed goat. The result showed that the different species of goat statistically gave  no significant  effect (P>0.05) on N-amino, protein and total glucose of goat meat sauce. Boer crossbreed meat sauce tend higher than Etawah cro...

  17. SAXS-WAXS studies of the low-resolution structure in solution of xylose/glucose isomerase from Streptomyces rubiginosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Maciej; Taube, Michał

    2009-10-01

    The structure and conformation of molecule of xylose/glucose isomerase from Streptomyces rubiginosus in solution (at pH 6 and 7.6; with and without the substrate) has been studied by small- and wide-angle scattering of synchrotron radiation (SAXS-WAXS). On the basis of the SAXS-WAXS data, the low-resolution structure in solution has been reconstructed using ab inito methods. A comparison of the models of glucose isomerase shows only small differences between the model in solution and the crystal structure.

  18. Intake of kale suppresses postprandial increases in plasma glucose: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Sumio; Suzuki, Asahi; Kurokawa, Mihoko; Hasumi, Keiji

    2016-11-01

    Kale ( Brassica oleracea var. acephala ), a vegetable in the family Brassicaceae, has beneficial effects on health, including hypoglycemic effects. In our previous study with a limited number of subjects, intake of kale-containing food at a dose of 14 g decreased postprandial plasma glucose levels. In the present study, the effective dose of kale-containing food was investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. The trial was conducted on 42 Japanese subjects aged 21-64 years with fasting plasma glucose levels of ≤125 mg/dl and 30-min postprandial plasma glucose levels of 140-187 mg/dl. The subjects consumed placebo or kale-containing food [7 or 14 g; low-dose (active-L) or high-dose (active-H) kale, respectively] together with a high-carbohydrate meal. At 30-120 min after the test meal intake, the plasma levels of glucose and insulin were determined. The postprandial plasma glucose levels in subjects with intake of active-L or active-H were significantly lower than those in subjects with intake of placebo, with the maximum plasma concentration (C max ; 163±24 mg/dl for active-L and 162±23 mg/dl for active-H compared with 176±26 mg/dl for placebo [values presented as means ± standard deviation (SD); Pkale were observed. Our findings suggest that intake of kale suppresses postprandial increases in plasma glucose levels at a single dose of 7 g, and that a dose as high as 14 g is safe.

  19. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-09-21

    Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87-5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships.

  20. Mobile diabetes intervention study: testing a personalized treatment/behavioral communication intervention for blood glucose control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Charlene C; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Shardell, Michelle; Weed, Kelly; Clough, Suzanne S; Peeples, Malinda; Terrin, Michael; Bronich-Hall, Lauren; Barr, Erik; Lender, Dan

    2009-07-01

    National data find glycemic control is within target (A1ccommunication system, using mobile phones and patient/physician portals to allow patient-specific treatment and communication. All physicians receive American Diabetes Association (ADA) Guidelines for diabetes care. Patients with poor diabetes control (A1c> or =7.5%) at baseline (n=260) are enrolled in study groups based on PCP randomization. All study patients receive blood glucose (BG) meters and a year's supply of testing materials. Patients in three treatment groups select one of two mobile phone models, receive one-year unlimited mobile phone data and service plan, register on the web-based individual patient portal and receive study treatment phone software based on study assignment. Control group patients receive usual care from their PCP. The primary outcome is mean change in A1c over a 12-month intervention period. Traditional methods of disease management have not achieved adequate control for BG and other conditions important to persons with diabetes. Tools to improve communication between patients and PCPs may improve patient outcomes and be satisfactory to patients and physicians. This RCT is ongoing.

  1. A study of the electron transfer and photothermal effect of gold nanorods on a glucose biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huiyu; Yang Liuqing; Ren Xiangling; Tang Fangqiong; Ren Jun; Chen Dong

    2010-01-01

    A new glucose biosensor based on the electron transfer and photothermal effect of gold nanorods (GNRs) is reported here. The biosensor was prepared by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) on a platinum (Pt) electrode by a composite film consisting of GNRs, polyvinyl butyral (PVB) and glutaraldehyde. GNRs were synthesized by a gold seed-mediated cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant-assisted approach. The fabrication, characterization and analytical performance of the glucose biosensor based on GNRs are described in this paper. Moreover, the modulation of the biosensor by the photothermal effect based on the unique surface plasma resonance (SPR) property of GNRs was investigated for the first time. The results show that the current response of a glucose biosensor can significantly increase, induced by the electrical conductivity and photothermal effect of GNRs.

  2. Clinical implication of blood glucose monitoring in general dental offices: the Ehime Dental Diabetes Study

    OpenAIRE

    Harase, Tadahiro; Nishida, Wataru; Hamakawa, Tomohiro; Hino, Satoshi; Shigematsu, Kenji; Kobayashi, Satoru; Sako, Hirofumi; Ito, Shirou; Murakami, Hajime; Nishida, Kei; Inoue, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Masahito; Yoshizu, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Takata, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined whether general dentists can contribute to the detection of patients with undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes by monitoring blood glucose in dental clinics. Research design and methods A total of 716 patients who visited clinics for dental treatment were enrolled and classified into 3 groups (mild, moderate, and severe) according to Kornman's criteria for periodontitis. The correlations between the casual blood glucose level, presence or absence of the history of diabet...

  3. Mulberry-extract improves glucose tolerance and decreases insulin concentrations in normoglycaemic adults: Results of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lown

    Full Text Available High sugar and refined carbohydrate intake is associated with weight gain, increased incidence of diabetes and is linked with increased cardiovascular mortality. Reducing the health impact of poor quality carbohydrate intake is a public health priority. Reducose, a proprietary mulberry leaf extract (ME, may reduce blood glucose responses following dietary carbohydrate intake by reducing absorption of glucose from the gut.A double-blind, randomised, repeat measure, phase 2 crossover design was used to study the glycaemic and insulinaemic response to one reference product and three test products at the Functional Food Centre, Oxford Brooks University, UK. Participants; 37 adults aged 19-59 years with a BMI ≥ 20kg/m2 and ≤ 30kg/m2. The objective was to determine the effect of three doses of mulberry-extract (Reducose versus placebo on blood glucose and insulin responses when co-administered with 50g maltodextrin in normoglycaemic healthy adults. We also report the gastrointestinal tolerability of the mulberry extract.Thirty-seven participants completed the study: The difference in the positive Incremental Area Under the Curve (pIAUC (glucose (mmol / L x h for half, normal and double dose ME compared with placebo was -6.1% (-18.2%, 5.9%; p = 0.316, -14.0% (-26.0%, -2.0%; p = 0.022 and -22.0% (-33.9%, -10.0%; p<0.001 respectively. The difference in the pIAUC (insulin (mIU / L x h for half, normal and double dose ME compared with placebo was -9.7% (-25.8%, 6.3%; p = 0.234, -23.8% (-39.9%, -7.8%; p = 0.004 and -24.7% (-40.8%, -8.6%; p = 0.003 respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between any of the 4 groups in the odds of experiencing one or more gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, abdominal cramping, distension or flatulence.Mulberry leaf extract significantly reduces total blood glucose rise after ingestion of maltodextrin over 120 minutes. The pattern of effect demonstrates a classical dose response curve with

  4. Comparison of menarche age between two generations (tehran lipid and glucose study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainy, E.; Aziz, F.

    2007-01-01

    Menarcheal age is considered to be an indicator of puberty. There is a lack of information on menarcheal age in Tehranian girls, in comparison to that of their mothers. This cross-sectional study was aimed at comparing the age of menarches between two generations. The subjects were 812 (406 daughters and 406 mothers) chosen from among 15005 participants of the longitudinal Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Demographic information and the age of menarche were recorded in a questionnaire. We have considered a minimal of 25 years duration to be one generation. Distribution of the menarcheal age and linear regression were performed. The mean age of menarche in daughters and their mothers were 13.2+-1.4 and 13.6+-1.5 years, respectively. There was significant correlation between the mother and daughter menarcheal age (r=0.25, P<0.002). 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles for menarcheal ages in daughters and their mothers were 12.2, 13.1, 14.1 and 12.7, 13.5, 14.5 years respectively. Minimum and maximum ages of menarche were the same (10 and 18 years) in the two groups. We found a decrease in the average menarcheal age during 25 years (one generation) similar to the results of other studies. (author)

  5. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Iranian Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMetabolic syndrome (MetS, a cluster of multiple metabolic abnormalities, is one of the major public health challenges worldwide. The current study was conducted to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption and MetS and its components in Iranian adults.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted among 5,852 men and women, aged 19 to 70 years, who participated in the fourth phase (2009 to 2011 of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Demographics, anthropometrics, biochemical measurements, and blood pressure (BP were assessed and MetS was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition. Frequency and quantity of SSB intakes including carbonated drinks and synthetic fruit juices were collected using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire.ResultsMean age of participants (43%, men was 40.6±12.9 years. Significant positive associations between SSBs and waist circumference, triglyceride level, systolic and diastolic BP in the third and fourth quartile of SSBs were observed, after adjustment for all potential confounding variables. The odds of MetS in the third and fourth quartiles compared to the first quartile category of SSBs was 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.45 and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.58, respectively (P for trend=0.03. The odds of MetS, abdominal obesity, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated BP had increasing trends across increasing of SSB consumption (P for trend <0.05.ConclusionHigher intake of SSBs was associated with the higher odds of MetS in adults. It is suggested that reducing consumption of SSBs could be a practical approach to prevent metabolic abnormalities.

  6. RAISED GLUCOSE-LEVELS ENHANCE SCOPOLAMINE-INDUCED ACETYLCHOLINE OVERFLOW FROM THE HIPPOCAMPUS - AN INVIVO MICRODIALYSIS STUDY IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DURKIN, TP; MESSIER, C; DEBOER, P; WESTERINK, BHC

    1992-01-01

    Behavioural studies in both humans and animals have shown that an acute rise in circulating glucose levels at or around the time of training enhances subsequent retention performance and can also afford protection from the amnesia produced by posttraining injections of scopolamine. In an attempt to

  7. Polysaccharides on microsporocytes and tapetum in Rhoeo discolor. Cytochemical and autoradiographic study (/sup 3/H-glucose)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertini, L; Souvre, A [Ecole Nationale Superieure Agronomique, 31 - Toulouse (France); Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France))

    1978-01-01

    In Rhoeo discolor, we have been studying the evolution of cytoplasmic and wall polysaccharides on microsporocytes and tapetum by cytochemical and autoradiographic (6-/sup 3/H glucose) methods with particular attention to the meiocyte special wall, microspore intine, pollen generative cell wall, microsporocyte plastids and tapetum cytoplasm.

  8. Socioeconomic inequalities in lipid and glucose metabolism in early childhood in a population-based cohort: the ABCD-Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G.; van Eijsden, M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease are pervasive, yet much remains to be understood about how they originate. The objective of this study was to explore the relations of socioeconomic status to lipid and glucose metabolism as indicators of cardiovascular health in

  9. Periodontal Bacteria and Prediabetes Prevalence in ORIGINS: The Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance, and Insulin Resistance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, R T; Jacobs, D R; Singh, R; Zuk, A; Rosenbaum, M; Papapanou, P N; Desvarieux, M

    2015-09-01

    Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to be associated. The relationship between periodontal microbiota and early diabetes risk has not been studied. We investigated the association between periodontal bacteria and prediabetes prevalence among diabetes-free adults. ORIGINS (the Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance Study) cross sectionally enrolled 300 diabetes-free adults aged 20 to 55 y (mean ± SD, 34 ± 10 y; 77% female). Prediabetes was defined as follows: 1) hemoglobin A1c values ranging from 5.7% to 6.4% or 2) fasting plasma glucose ranging from 100 to 125 mg/dL. In 1,188 subgingival plaque samples, 11 bacterial species were assessed at baseline, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Actinomyces naeslundii. Full-mouth clinical periodontal examinations were performed, and participants were defined as having no/mild periodontitis vs. moderate/severe periodontitis per the definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / American Academy of Periodontology. Modified Poisson regression evaluated prediabetes prevalence across bacterial tertiles. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for third vs. first tertiles are presented. All analyses were adjusted for cardiometabolic risk factors. All results presented currently arise from the baseline cross section. Prediabetes prevalence was 18%, and 58% of participants had moderate/severe periodontitis. Prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) summarizing associations between bacterial levels and prediabetes were as follows: A. actinomycetemcomitans, 2.48 (1.34, 4.58), P = 0.004; P. gingivalis, 3.41 (1.78, 6.58), P = 0.0003; T. denticola, 1.99 (0.992, 4.00), P = 0.052; T. forsythia, 1.95 (1.0, 3.84), P = 0.05; A. naeslundii, 0.46 (0.25, 0.85), P = 0.01. The prevalence ratio for prediabetes among participants with moderate/severe vs. no/mild periodontitis was 1.47 (0.78, 2.74), P

  10. Glucose allostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stumvoll, Michael; Tataranni, P Antonio; Stefan, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    individuals with normal glucose tolerance, normoglycemia can always be maintained by compensatorily increasing AIR in response to decreasing M (and vice versa). This has been mathematically described by the hyperbolic relationship between AIR and M and referred to as glucose homeostasis, with glucose......In many organisms, normoglycemia is achieved by a tight coupling of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta-cell (acute insulin response [AIR]) and the metabolic action of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal (insulin action [M]). It is widely accepted that in healthy...... concentration assumed to remain constant along the hyperbola. Conceivably, glucose is one of the signals stimulating AIR in response to decreasing M. Hypothetically, as with any normally functioning feed-forward system, AIR should not fully compensate for worsening M, since this would remove the stimulus...

  11. Glucose oxidase incorporated collagen matrices for dermal wound repair in diabetic rat models: a biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arul, V; Masilamoni, J G; Jesudason, E P; Jaji, P J; Inayathullah, M; Dicky John, D G; Vignesh, S; Jayakumar, R

    2012-05-01

    Impaired wound healing in diabetes is a well-documented phenomenon. Emerging data favor the involvement of free radicals in the pathogenesis of diabetic wound healing. We investigated the beneficial role of the sustained release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetic dermal wound healing. In order to achieve the sustained delivery of ROS in the wound bed, we have incorporated glucose oxidase in the collagen matrix (GOIC), which is applied to the healing diabetic wound. Our in vitro proteolysis studies on incorporated GOIC show increased stability against the proteases in the collagen matrix. In this study, GOIC film and collagen film (CF) are used as dressing material on the wound of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A significant increase in ROS (p < 0.05) was observed in the fibroblast of GOIC group during the inflammation period compared to the CF and control groups. This elevated level up regulated the antioxidant status in the granulation tissue and improved cellular proliferation in the GOIC group. Interestingly, our biochemical parameters nitric oxide, hydroxyproline, uronic acid, protein, and DNA content in the healing wound showed that there is an increase in proliferation of cells in GOIC when compared to the control and CF groups. In addition, evidence from wound contraction and histology reveals faster healing in the GOIC group. Our observations document that GOIC matrices could be effectively used for diabetic wound healing therapy.

  12. Comparison of vildagliptin twice daily vs. sitagliptin once daily using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM: Crossover pilot study (J-VICTORIA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakamoto Masaya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No previous studies have compared the DPP-4 inhibitors vildagliptin and sitagliptin in terms of blood glucose levels using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM and cardiovascular parameters. Methods Twenty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly allocated to groups who received vildagliptin then sitagliptin, or vice versa. Patients were hospitalized at 1 month after starting each drug, and CGM was used to determine: 1 mean (± standard deviation 24-hour blood glucose level, 2 mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE, 3 fasting blood glucose level, 4 highest postprandial blood glucose level and time, 5 increase in blood glucose level after each meal, 6 area under the curve (AUC for blood glucose level ≥180 mg/dL within 3 hours after each meal, and 7 area over the curve (AOC for daily blood glucose level Results The mean 24-hour blood glucose level was significantly lower in patients taking vildagliptin than sitagliptin (142.1 ± 35.5 vs. 153.2 ± 37.0 mg/dL; p = 0.012. In patients taking vildagliptin, MAGE was significantly lower (110.5 ± 33.5 vs. 129.4 ± 45.1 mg/dL; p = 0.040, the highest blood glucose level after supper was significantly lower (206.1 ± 40.2 vs. 223.2 ± 43.5 mg/dL; p = 0.015, the AUC (≥180 mg/dL within 3 h was significantly lower after breakfast (484.3 vs. 897.9 mg/min/dL; p = 0.025, and urinary CPR level was significantly higher (97.0 ± 41.6 vs. 85.2 ± 39.9 μg/day; p = 0.008 than in patients taking sitagliptin. There were no significant differences in plasma HbA1c, GA, 1,5AG, IRI, CPR, BNP, or PAI-1 levels between patients taking vildagliptin and sitagliptin. Conclusions CGM showed that mean 24-h blood glucose, MAGE, highest blood glucose level after supper, and hyperglycemia after breakfast were significantly lower in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking vildagliptin than those taking sitagliptin. There

  13. Study of the Effect of Garlic on Serum Lipids and Blood Glucose Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Afkhami - Ardekani

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperlipidemia and diabetes are common risk factors for ischemic heart disease, which is the main cause of mortality in diabetic patients. Strict control of blood glucose and other risk factors in diabetics has led to prevention of complications. Garlic has received particular attention for control of blood glucose and decrease in blood lipid levels. At present, several studies have been carried out in order to prove advantages of garlic. Methods: In this study, effects of garsin (a derivative of garlic present in our country on serum lipids and blood glucose levels in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients was observed. Forty-five type 2 diabetics who had hyperlipidemia were selected. These patients were kept on treatment with 3 tablets of Garsin / day for 4 weeks. Serum lipids and blood glucose levels were measured prior to and at the end of treatment. Results: Relationship between sex and response to treatment in this study was meaningful, such that Gsarsin led to decrease in LDL-C and increase in HDL in females. Conclusion: Therefore, Garsin can be used as an adjunct to treatment in diabetes type 2 patients with hyperlipidemia.

  14. The impact of glucose disorders on cognition and brain volumes in the elderly: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Katherine; Lutgers, Helen L; Kochan, Nicole A; Crawford, John D; Campbell, Lesley V; Wen, Wei; Slavin, Melissa J; Baune, Bernard T; Lipnicki, Darren M; Brodaty, Henry; Trollor, Julian N; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2014-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes predicts accelerated cognitive decline and brain atrophy. We hypothesized that impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and incident glucose disorders have detrimental effects on global cognition and brain volume. We further hypothesized that metabolic and inflammatory derangements accompanying hyperglycaemia contribute to change in brain structure and function. This was a longitudinal study of a community-dwelling elderly cohort with neuropsychological testing (n = 880) and brain volumes by magnetic resonance imaging (n = 312) measured at baseline and 2 years. Primary outcomes were global cognition and total brain volume. Secondary outcomes were cognitive domains (processing speed, memory, language, visuospatial and executive function) and brain volumes (hippocampal, parahippocampal, precuneus and frontal lobe). Participants were categorised as normal, impaired fasting glucose at both assessments (stable IFG), baseline diabetes or incident glucose disorders (incident diabetes or IFG at 2 years). Measures included inflammatory cytokines and oxidative metabolites. Covariates were age, sex, education, non-English speaking background, smoking, blood pressure, lipid-lowering or antihypertensive medications, mood score, apolipoprotein E genotype and baseline cognition or brain volume. Participants with incident glucose disorders had greater decline in global cognition and visuospatial function compared to normal, similar to that observed in baseline diabetes. Homocysteine was independently associated with the observed effect of diabetes on executive function. Apolipoprotein E genotype did not influence the observed effects of diabetes on cognition. Incident glucose disorders and diabetes were also associated with greater 2-year decline in total brain volume, compared to normal (40.0 ± 4.2 vs. 46.7 ± 5.7 mm(3) vs. 18.1 ± 6.2, respectively, p cognition or brain volumes compared to normal. Incident glucose disorders, like diabetes, are

  15. Platelet indices and glucose control in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccardi, F; Rocca, B; Rizzi, A; Ciminello, A; Teofili, L; Ghirlanda, G; De Stefano, V; Pitocco, D

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between platelet indices and glucose control may differ in type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM) diabetes. We aimed to investigate differences in mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet count, and platelet mass between patients with T1DM, T2DM, and healthy controls and to explore associations between these platelet indices and glucose control. A total of 691 T1DM and 459 T2DM patients and 943 control subjects (blood donors) were included. HbA1c was measured in all subjects with diabetes and 36 T1DM patients further underwent 24 h-continuous glucose monitoring to estimate short-term glucose control (glucose mean and standard deviation). Adjusting for age and sex, platelet count was higher and MPV lower in both T1DM and T2DM patients vs control subjects, while platelet mass (MPV × platelet count) resulted higher only in T2DM. Upon further adjustment for HbA1c, differences in platelet count and mass were respectively 19.5 × 10 9 /L (95%CI: 9.8-29.3; p 1) and 101 fL/nL (12-191; p = 0.027) comparing T2DM vs T1DM patients. MPV and platelet count were significantly and differently related in T2DM patients vs both T1DM and control subjects; this difference was maintained also accounting for HbA1c, age, and sex. Platelet mass and the volume-count relationship were significantly related to HbA1c only in T1DM patients. No associations were found between platelet indices and short-term glucose control. By accounting for confounders and glucose control, our data evidenced higher platelet mass and different volume-count kinetics in subjects with T2DM vs T1DM. Long-term glucose control seemed to influence platelet mass and the volume-count relationship only in T1DM subjects. These findings suggest different mechanisms behind platelet formation in T1DM and T2DM patients with long-term glycaemic control being more relevant in T1DM than T2DM. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian

  16. Comparative study of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose vs the oral glucose tolerance test for diagnosis of diabetes in people with tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aftab, H.; Ambreen, A.; Jamil, M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To compare HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose assessment, with the 2-h oral glucose tolerance test as reference, in screening for diabetes in people with turberculosis. Methods: Individuals (N=268) with newly diagnosed smear-positive tuberculosis were screened for diabetes at a tertiary hospital...... in Lahore, Pakistan. Diabetes diagnosis was based on WHO criteria: thresholds were ≥48 mmol/mol (≥6.5%) for HbA1c and ≥7.0mmol/l for fasting plasma glucose. Results: The proportion of participants diagnosed with diabetes was 4.9% (n =13) by oral glucose tolerance test, while 11.9% (n =32) and 14.6% (n =39...... the two tests (P=0.07). Conclusions: HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose performed equally in terms of diagnosing new diabetes cases in individuals with tuberculosis, but the proportion of participants falsely classified as positive was higher for fasting plasma glucose. This may be explained by acute blood...

  17. Comparison of sugar molecule decomposition through glucose and fructose: a high-level quantum chemical study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assary, R. S.; Curtiss, L. A. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( MSD); (Northwestern Univ.)

    2012-02-01

    Efficient chemical conversion of biomass is essential to produce sustainable energy and industrial chemicals. Industrial level conversion of glucose to useful chemicals, such as furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, and levulinic acid, is a major step in the biomass conversion but is difficult because of the formation of undesired products and side reactions. To understand the molecular level reaction mechanisms involved in the decomposition of glucose and fructose, we have carried out high-level quantum chemical calculations [Gaussian-4 (G4) theory]. Selective 1,2-dehydration, keto-enol tautomerization, isomerization, retro-aldol condensation, and hydride shifts of glucose and fructose molecules were investigated. Detailed kinetic and thermodynamic analyses indicate that, for acyclic glucose and fructose molecules, the dehydration and isomerization require larger activation barriers compared to the retro-aldol reaction at 298 K in neutral medium. The retro-aldol reaction results in the formation of C2 and C4 species from glucose and C3 species from fructose. The formation of the most stable C3 species, dihydroxyacetone from fructose, is thermodynamically downhill. The 1,3-hydride shift leads to the cleavage of the C-C bond in the acyclic species; however, the enthalpy of activation is significantly higher (50-55 kcal/mol) than that of the retro-aldol reaction (38 kcal/mol) mainly because of the sterically hindered distorted four-membered transition state compared to the hexa-membered transition state in the retro-aldol reaction. Both tautomerization and dehydration are catalyzed by a water molecule in aqueous medium; however, water has little effect on the retro-aldol reaction. Isomerization of glucose to fructose and glyceraldehyde to dihydroxyacetone proceeds through hydride shifts that require an activation enthalpy of about 40 kcal/mol at 298 K in water medium. This investigation maps out accurate energetics of the decomposition of glucose and fructose molecules

  18. Influence of the state of phase of lipid bilayer on the exposure of glucose residues on the surface of liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalva, Denise Gradella; Giansanti, Luisa; Mauceri, Alessandro; Ceccacci, Francesca; Mancini, Giovanna

    2017-11-01

    The presence of carbohydrate-binding proteins (i.e. lectins) on the surface of various bacterial strains and their overexpression in some tumor tissues makes the use of glycosylated liposomes a promising approach for the specific drug delivery in antibacterial and anti-cancer therapies. However, the functionalization of liposome surface with sugar moieties by glycosylated amphiphiles does not ensure the binding of sugar-coated vesicles with lectins. In fact, the composition and properties of lipid bilayer play a pivotal role in the exposure of sugar residues and in the interaction with lectins. The influence of the length of the hydrophilic spacer that links the sugar to liposome surface and of the presence of saturated or unsaturated phospholipids in the lipid bilayer on the ability of glucosylated liposomes to interact with a model lectin, Concanavalin A, was investigated. Our results demonstrate that both the chain length and the prensece of unsaturation, parameters that strongly affect the fluidity of the lipid bilayer, affect agglutination. In particular, agglutination is favored when liposomes are in the gel phase within a defined range of temperature. Moreover, the obtained results confirm that the length of the PEG spacer, that influences both lipid organization and the exposure of sugar moieties to the bulk, plays a crucial role in liposome/lectin interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of Insulin Resistance in Patients With β Thalassemia Major and Validity of Triglyceride Glucose (TYG) Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Arif M; Bhat, Kamalakshi G; Dsa, Smitha S; Mahalingam, Soundarya; Joseph, Nitin

    2018-03-01

    Complications like impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus due to iron overload need early identification in thalassemia. We studied the proportion of insulin resistance in thalassemia major patients on chronic transfusion, identified insulin resistance using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and triglyceride glucose (TYG) index, compared them and validated TYG index. In total, 73 thalassemia patients on regular transfusion for 3 years with serum ferritin >1500 ng/mL were studied. Serum ferritin, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, and insulin levels were measured, HOMA-IR, and TYG index calculated and analyzed. Mean fasting glucose, triglyceride, and serum insulin values were 104 mg/dL, 164.18 mg/dL, and 19.6 m IU/mL, respectively. Mean serum ferritin was 5156 ng/mL. Insulin resistance was prevalent in one third of thalassemia patients and showed increase with age and serum ferritin. Insulin resistance by HOMA-IR was 32% as against 16% by TYG index with a cut-off value of 4.3. Using receiver operating charecteristic curve analysis, it was found that, by lowering the value of TYG index to 4.0215, sensitivity improved to 78.3% (from 39.13%) with specificity of 70%. Hence, we recommend a newer lower cut-off value of 4.0215 for TYG index for better sensitivity and specificity in identifying insulin resistance.

  20. Maternal high-fat feeding leads to alterations of brain glucose metabolism in the offspring: positron emission tomography study in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguinetti, Elena; Liistro, Tiziana; Mainardi, Marco; Pardini, Silvia; Salvadori, Piero A; Vannucci, Alessandro; Burchielli, Silvia; Iozzo, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Maternal obesity negatively affects fetal development. Abnormalities in brain glucose metabolism are predictive of metabolic-cognitive disorders. We studied the offspring (aged 0, 1, 6, 12 months) of minipigs fed a normal vs high-fat diet (HFD), by positron emission tomography (PET) to measure brain glucose metabolism, and ex vivo assessments of brain insulin receptors (IRβ) and GLUT4. At birth, brain glucose metabolism and IRβ were twice as high in the offspring of HFD-fed than control mothers. During infancy and youth, brain glucose uptake, GLUT4 and IRβ increased in the offspring of control mothers and decreased in those of HFD-fed mothers, leading to a 40-85% difference (p brain glucose overexposure during fetal development, followed by long-lasting depression in brain glucose metabolism in minipigs. These features may predispose the offspring to develop metabolic-neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in rat lung alveolar epithelial cells. An ultrastructural enzyme-cytochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Matsubara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD is the key enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway in carbohydrate metabolism, and it plays an important role in cell proliferation and antioxidant regulation within cells in various organs. Although marked cell proliferation and oxidant/antioxidant metabolism occur in lung alveolar epithelial cells, definite data has been lacking as to whether cytochemically detectable G6PD is present in alveolar epithelial cells. The distribution pattern of G6PD within these cells, if it is present, is also unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the subcellular localization of G6PD in alveolar cells in the rat lung using a newly- developed enzyme-cytochemistry (copper-ferrocyanide method. Type I cells and stromal endothelia and fibroblasts showed no activities. Electron-dense precipitates indicating G6PD activity were clearly visible in the cytoplasm and on the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum of type II alveolar epithelial cells. The cytochemical controls ensured specific detection of enzyme activity. This enzyme may play a role in airway defense by delivering substances for cell proliferation and antioxidant forces, thus maintaining the airway architecture.

  2. Glucose Transporter 1 Expression in Odontogenic Keratocyst, Dentigerous Cyst, and Ameloblastoma: An Immunohistochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Alokenath; Panda, Abikshyeet; Behura, Shyam S; Ramachandra, Sujatha; Dash, Kailash C; Mishra, Pallavi

    2017-05-01

    An array of odontogenic lesions manifest in the maxillofacial region with variable presentations. The biological behavior of lesions, such as odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cyst (DC), and ameloblastoma (AM) always invite debate. Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) is proven to be an indicator of metabolic behavior of several benign and malignant neoplasms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of GLUT-1 in OKC, DC, and AM to understand their metabolic behavior. Immunohistochemical expression of GLUT-1 was evaluated in each of the 15 cases of OKC, DC, and AM. The number of labeled cells, staining intensity, and membrane or cytoplasmic expressions were the parameters assessed and analyzed using chi-square test. All cases showed positive GLUT-1 expression: 86.6% OKC showed more than 50% labeled cells followed by DC (40%) and AM (26.5%); 53.3% OKC showed strong intensity in comparison to AM, which showed weak intensity in 53.3% cases; 86.6% of OKCs showed both membrane and cytoplasmic expression followed by DC (40%) and AM (26.6%), whereas 73.3% of AM showed only membrane expression followed by DC (60%) and OKC (13.3%). Odontogenic keratocyst was found out to be more metabolically active followed by DC and AM.

  3. Glucose Oxidase Adsorption on Sequential Adsorbed Polyelectrolyte Films Studied by Spectroscopic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristán, Ferdinando; Solís, Araceli; Palestino, Gabriela; Gergely, Csilla; Cuisinier, Frédéric; Pérez, Elías

    2005-04-01

    The adsorption of Glucose Oxidase (GOX) on layers of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) deposited on Sequentially Adsorbed Polyelectrolyte Films (SAPFs) were studied by three different spectroscopic techniques. These techniques are: Optical Wave Light Spectroscopy (OWLS) to measure surface density; Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) to verify the adsorption of GOX on the surface; and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy in Attenuated Total Reflection mode (FTIR-HATR) to inspect local structure of polyelectrolytes and GOX. Two positive and two negative polyelectrolytes are used: Cationic poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and anionic poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). These spectroscopic techniques do not require any labeling for GOX or SAPFs, specifically GOX and PSS are naturally fluorescent and are used as a couple donor-acceptor for the FRET technique. The SAPFs are formed by a (PEI)-(PSS/PAH)2 film followed by (PAA/PAH)n bilayers. GOX is finally deposited on top of SAPFs at different values of n (n=1..5). Our results show that GOX is adsorbed on positive ended SAPFs forming a monolayer. Contrary, GOX adsorption is not observed on negative ended film polyelectrolyte. GOX stability was tested adding a positive and a negative polyelectrolyte after GOX adsorption. Protein is partially removed by PAH and PAA, with lesser force by PAA.

  4. [A prospective study of risk factors in pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-xia; Zhang, Mei-hua; Sun, Wei-jie; Zhao, Yi

    2005-11-01

    To evaluate the risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT). A prospective case-control study was performed in 85 women with GDM, 63 cases with GIGT and 125 cases as control recruited from Feb 2004 to Aug 2004 in Peking University First Hospital. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify risk factors of GDM and GIGT. (1) The mean age, and body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy and larger maternal weight gains during pregnancy were significantly different between GDM/GIGT and control group (P Irregular menses (16.5%, 23.8%), and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (5.9%, 3.2%) were more prevalent in the GDM, GIGT groups versus control subjects (6.4%, 0). The incidence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) was significantly higher in pregnant women with GDM and GIGT (15.3% and 17.4%) than in control group (7.2%). (4) Multivariate logistic regression showed that age, irregular menses, BMI before pregnancy, history of spontaneous abortion, educational level and VVC all were independent factors for GDM or GIGT. Maternal age, irregular menses, obesity before gestation, rapid weight gains during pregnancy, history of spontaneous abortion as well as VVC are independent risk factors for GDM or GIGT. PCOS and family history of diabetes increase the incidence of GDM and GIGT but these are not independent risk factors for GDM and GIGT.

  5. Glucose utilisation during status epilepticus in an epilepsy model induced by pilocarpine: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scorza Fulvio Alexandre

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus (SE is a medical emergency and it is associated to brain damage. 2-deoxy-[14C] glucose (2-DG procedure has been used to measure the alterations in the functional activity of the brain induced by various pharmacological and toxicological agents. The aim of this study was to determine which changes occur in the seizure anatomic substrates during the SE induced by pilocarpine (PILO using [14C]-2 deoxyglucose functional mapping technique. Wistar male adult rats were submitted to SE PILO-induced for 6h and received [14C] 2-deoxyglucose injection via jugular vein 45 min before the 6th hour of SE. The control animals were submitted to all procedures but received saline and not pilocarpine. Brain sections were prepared and exposed X-ray film about seven days. The optical density of each region was obtained using a solid state digital analyser. The analysis revealed that 14C-2DG utilisation was pronounced in the SE rats on the areas corresponding to the hippocampal formation (+50.6%, caudate-putamen (+30.6%, frontoparietal cortex (+32.2%, amygdala (+31.7%, entorrinal cortex (+28.2%, thalamic nucleus (+93.5%, pre-tectal area (+50.1% and substantia nigra (+50.3% when compared to control. Our results suggest that the different activation levels of the distinct structures may be particularly important for understanding triggering and spreading mechanisms underlying epileptic activity during status epilepticus.

  6. Contribution to the study of carbohydrate radiolysis: study of the formation of malonic aldehyde during gamma irradiation of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enrico, Gerard.

    1974-01-01

    It was shown that malonic aldehyde can be formed directly by radiation of dry glucose or through the radicals of water when the latter is present. The direct effect leads to a malonic aldehyde production proportional to the dose and independent of dose rate, temperature over a wide range, presence of oxygen and crystalline state of the glucose, but strongly dependent on the water content and anomeric form of the glucose. Isotopic labelling showed that both ends of the glucose molecule participate in the malonic aldehyde formation. Extrapolation to linear polymers (maltose, maltotriose) reveals the independence of the radiolysis yield with regard to the α 1-4 bond and suggests that it tends towards that of glucose in amylose. The indirect effect is linked with the action of the OH radicals of water and appears when glucose is irradiated in a sufficiently hydrated state or in solution. In the latter case the malonic aldehyde concentration is largely independent of the glucose concentration and is not proportional to the dose. Oxygen has little effect but a strong activation is observed at high pH. The use of 14 C showed that the aldehyde end of glucose is responsible for most of the malonic aldehyde. Polymerisation of the glucose by α 1-4 binding reduces the radiolytic yield. The indirect effect would thus be negligible in amylose [fr

  7. Altered glucose metabolism in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: a PET study with statistical parametric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, G. C.; Kim, J. H.; Kang, J. G.; Kim, J. S.; Yeo, J. S.; Lee, S. A.; Moon, D. H

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a hereditary, age-dependent epilepsy syndrome, characterized by myoclonic jerks on awakening and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Although there have been considerable studies on the mechanism to elucidate pathogenesis of JME, the accurate pathogenesis of JME remains obscure. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations of cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with JME. We studied 16 JME patients (Mean age: 22 yrs, M/F: 9/7) with brain FDG-PET and simultaneous EEG recording. On the basis of the number of generalized spike-and-wave (GSW) discharges on the 30 min EEG recording after the injection of FDG (370MBq), we classified patients into two groups (patients in group A had 10 or more GSW and group B. 9 or less). We applied the automated and objective technique of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) to the analysis of FDG-PET to determine the significant hyper- and hypometabolic regions compared with those of 19 age matched normal control subjects. We found significant hypermetabolic regions in bilateral thalamus and central portion of upper brainstem in 16 patients with JME at a statistical threshold of uncorrected P < 0.05. These changes were also shown in group A (n=8), but not in group B (n=8). Additionally, we found significant hypometabolism in bilateral, widespread cortical regions in 16 patients with JME at a threshold of uncorrected P < 0.01. Similar hypometabolic patterns were also observed in both group A and group B, being more prominent in group A. This study provides evidence for the key role of the thalamus and brainstem reticular activating system in generating spontaneous GSW discharge, which is considered as a fundamental pathogenesis underlying JME. This study also suggests that patients with JME might suffer from subtle abnormalities of cognitive and executive cortical functions

  8. Altered glucose metabolism in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: a PET study with statistical parametric mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, G. C.; Kim, J. H.; Kang, J. G.; Kim, J. S.; Yeo, J. S.; Lee, S. A.; Moon, D. H [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a hereditary, age-dependent epilepsy syndrome, characterized by myoclonic jerks on awakening and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Although there have been considerable studies on the mechanism to elucidate pathogenesis of JME, the accurate pathogenesis of JME remains obscure. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations of cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with JME. We studied 16 JME patients (Mean age: 22 yrs, M/F: 9/7) with brain FDG-PET and simultaneous EEG recording. On the basis of the number of generalized spike-and-wave (GSW) discharges on the 30 min EEG recording after the injection of FDG (370MBq), we classified patients into two groups (patients in group A had 10 or more GSW and group B. 9 or less). We applied the automated and objective technique of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) to the analysis of FDG-PET to determine the significant hyper- and hypometabolic regions compared with those of 19 age matched normal control subjects. We found significant hypermetabolic regions in bilateral thalamus and central portion of upper brainstem in 16 patients with JME at a statistical threshold of uncorrected P < 0.05. These changes were also shown in group A (n=8), but not in group B (n=8). Additionally, we found significant hypometabolism in bilateral, widespread cortical regions in 16 patients with JME at a threshold of uncorrected P < 0.01. Similar hypometabolic patterns were also observed in both group A and group B, being more prominent in group A. This study provides evidence for the key role of the thalamus and brainstem reticular activating system in generating spontaneous GSW discharge, which is considered as a fundamental pathogenesis underlying JME. This study also suggests that patients with JME might suffer from subtle abnormalities of cognitive and executive cortical functions.

  9. Studies on phase kinetics of new superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbrodt, A.; Penkalla, H.J.; Schubert, F.; Nickel, H.

    1990-08-01

    At the development of new ODS (Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened) alloys for components being exposed to hot-gas temperatures nickel-base alloys and ODS alloys have been investigated. The experimental work mainly referred to phase investigations of thermally loaded samples. The addition of alloying elements will have a decisive influence on the γ'-phase fraction, γ'-lattice parameter, the morphology as well as the coarsening behaviour of the γ'-phase under temperature load. The main characteristics of ODS alloys are Y,Al-mixed oxides and microstructural inhomogenities. As for MA6000 a Time-Temperature-Precipitation diagram has been elaborated. By means of the improved computer programme PHASCALC for phase and N v (= average electron vacancy concentration) - value calculation many microstructural parameters such as the γ/γ'-misfit, the solution of the γ'-phase and melting temperatures can be determined. Tensile tests made at temperatures above 900deg C have shown that the strengthening parameters are dependent on alloy composition, temperature conditions, γ'-phase fraction and oxide dispersion content. (orig.) [de

  10. Study of SmS properties in the low pressure phase (black phase)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordier, G.

    1986-01-01

    SmS was studied for the transition from low pressure phase (black phase) to high pressure phase with an intermediate valence. But the study of the black phase is very rich. The variations of electron transport properties with pressure at low temperature show a semi-metal phase located, in the pressure-temperature diagram in the black phase for pressure over 4 kbars, corresponding to the phase B'of the doping-temperature diagram. Electron spin resonance shows a lack of sulfur and nearby this defect a samarium ion, magnetically coupled with the matrix, presents a divalent trivalent transition. Resonance lines are broadened with temperature. Conductivity relaxations occur at low pressure and low temperature by trapping a conduction electron, by magnetic exchange giving a bounded magnetic polaron. The relaxation time at null magnetic field is activated. An approximation of trapping barrier and critical field corresponding the maximum magnetoresistance is given by a model [fr

  11. Lifetime risk of developing impaired glucose metabolism and eventual progression from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligthart, Symen; van Herpt, Thijs T W; Leening, Maarten J G; Kavousi, Maryam; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H C; van Hoek, Mandy; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Franco, Oscar H; Dehghan, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Data are scarce for the lifetime risk of developing impaired glucose metabolism, including prediabetes, as are data for the risk of eventual progression from prediabetes to diabetes and for initiation of insulin treatment in previously untreated patients with diabetes. We aimed to calculate the lifetime risk of the full range of glucose impairments, from normoglycaemia to prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and eventual insulin use. In this prospective population-based cohort analysis, we used data from the population-based Rotterdam Study. We identified diagnostic events by use of general practitioners' records, hospital discharge letters, pharmacy dispensing data, and serum fasting glucose measurements taken at the study centre (Rotterdam, Netherlands) visits. Normoglycaemia, prediabetes, and diabetes were defined on the basis of WHO criteria for fasting glucose (normoglycaemia: ≤6·0 mmol/L; prediabetes: >6·0 mmol/L and prediabetes to overt diabetes and from diabetes free of insulin treatment to insulin use. Additionally, we calculated years lived with healthy glucose metabolism. We used data from 10 050 participants from the Rotterdam Study. During a follow-up of up to 14·7 years (between April 1, 1997, and Jan 1, 2012), 1148 participants developed prediabetes, 828 developed diabetes, and 237 started insulin treatment. At age 45 years, the remaining lifetime risk was 48·7% (95% CI 46·2-51·3) for prediabetes, 31·3% (29·3-33·3) for diabetes, and 9·1% (7·8-10·3) for insulin use. In individuals aged 45 years, the lifetime risk to progress from prediabetes to diabetes was 74·0% (95% CI 67·6-80·5), and 49·1% (38·2-60·0) of the individuals with overt diabetes at this age started insulin treatment. The lifetime risks attenuated with advancing age, but increased with increasing BMI and waist circumference. On average, individuals with severe obesity lived 10 fewer years without glucose impairment compared with normal-weight individuals. Impaired glucose

  12. ACUTE EFFECT OF FLUCONAZOLE, ITRACONAZOLE AND VORICONAZOLE ON BLOOD GLUCOSE IN NORMOGLYCEAMIC & DIABETIC RATS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav Amol, Nayak BB, Vakade Kiran P, Sanghishetti Vijay Prasad, Vijay Kumar AN, Vrushali Nibrad, Raul AR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-fungal and antimicrobials are frequently co-prescribed either to manage or treat either the secondary complications or other diseases. Among antifungal drugs Fluconazole, Itraconazole & Voriconazole are most commonly used. The present study was undertaken to further confirm the effect of Voriconazole as well as other antifungal drugs on blood Glucose level. Aim & Objectives: 1. To Study the effect of Fluconazole, Itraconazole & Voriaconazole in Normoglycemic & Diabetic Rats on Blood Glucose. 2. To compare the effects between all drugs. Material & Methodology: Grouping: Animals divided into 8 groups in each group 6 animals. Group 1- 4: Normoglycemic rats, Group 5-8 Diabetic rats (alloxan induced Group 1,5: received vehicle (Normal saline Group 2,6: received Fluconazole (18mg/kg BW, Group 3,7 received Itraconazole (18mg/kg BW Group 4,8 received Voriconazole (18mg/kg BW. The glucose levels were estimated by Glucometer method (Accu-check active at the interval of 0, ½ hr, 1hrs, 2hrs & 4hrs after drug administration. Results: Effect on blood glucose in Normoglycemic Rats: Voriconazole had a significant hypoglycaemic effect which appeared after 1 hr (‘p’ value= 0.0102 of administration & persisted up to 2 hrs (‘p’ value=0.0001. However effect of Voriconzole was found to be declined after 2 hrs. There was no significant change in blood glucose in normoglycemic rats with Fluconazole & Itraconazole. Effect on blood glucose in Diabetic Rats: (Table 2: Voriconazole had a significant hypoglycaemic effect which appeared after 1 hr (‘p’ value=0.013 of administration & persisted up to 2 hrs (‘p’ value=0.001 in acute studies. However effect of Voriconzole was found to be declined after 2 hrs. There was no significant change in blood glucose in diabetic rats with Fluconazole & Itraconazole treated. Conclusion: Itraconazole, Fluconazole can be safely used in diabetic with fungal infections. Voriconazole should be avoided in diabetics to

  13. Air Pollution and Glucose Metabolism: An Analysis in Non-Diabetic Participants of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucht, Sarah A; Hennig, Frauke; Matthiessen, Clara; Ohlwein, Simone; Icks, Andrea; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Jakobs, Hermann; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2018-04-03

    Despite the importance of understanding the connection between air pollution exposure and diabetes, studies investigating links between air pollution and glucose metabolism in nondiabetic adults are limited. We aimed to estimate the association of medium-term air pollution exposures with blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) among nondiabetics. This study included observations from nondiabetic participants (n obs =7,108) of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study at baseline (2000–2003) and follow-up examination (2006–2008). Daily fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter≤2.5 μm, PM 2.5 ; aerodynamic diameter≤10 μm, PM 10 ), accumulation mode particle number (PN AM ), and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) exposures were estimated at participants’ residences using the spatiotemporal European Air Pollution Dispersion (EURAD) chemistry transport model. We evaluated the associations between medium-term air pollution exposures (28- and 91-d means) and glucose metabolism measures using mixed linear regression and adjusting for season, meteorology, and personal characteristics. A range of other exposure windows (1-, 2-, 3-, 7-, 14-, 45-, 60-, 75-, 105-, 120-, and 182-d means) were also evaluated to identify potentially relevant biological windows. We observed positive associations between PM 2.5 and PN AM exposures and blood glucose levels [e.g., 28-d PM 2.5 : 0.91 mg/dL (95% CI: 0.38, 1.44) per 5.7 μg/m 3 ]. PM 2.5 , PM 10 , and PN AM exposures were positively associated with HbA1c [e.g., 91-d PM 2.5 : 0.07 p.p. (95% CI: 0.04, 0.10) per 4.0 μg/m 3 ]. Mean exposures during longer exposure windows (75- to 105-d) were most strongly associated with HbA1c, whereas 7- to 45-d exposures were most strongly associated with blood glucose. NO 2 exposure was not associated with blood glucose or with HbA1c. Medium-term PM and PN AM exposures were positively associated with glucose measures in nondiabetic adults. These findings indicate

  14. Further studies of the influence of apolipoprotein B alleles on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J.; Poulsen, P.; Vaag, A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of five genetic polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein B gene on parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism was assessed in 564 Danish mono- and dizygotic twins. Genotypes in apolipoprotein B T71I (ApaLI RFLP), A591V (AluI RFLP), L2712P (MvaI RFLP), R3611Q (MspI RFLP), and E4154K (Eco...... on the insulin-to-glucose ratio (p = 0.04), and E4154K (EcoRI RFLP) influenced HOMAbeta (p = 0.04). Significant interactions were observed between genotype in T71I (ApaLI RFLP), A591V (AluI RFLP), R3611Q (MspI RFLP), and E4154K (EcoRI RFLP) and glucose tolerance on lipid-related parameters (0.03

  15. A comparative study of serum uric acid, glucose, calcium and magnesium in pre-eclampsia and normal pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Dhungana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is associated with liver function abnormalities and renal function impairment. The objective of this study is to compare serum uric acid, glucose, calcium and magnesium in pre-eclampsia with normal pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Normal pregnant women and pre eclamptic women of age group 20-40 years were included. Serum magnesium, calcium, glucose, uric acid were analyzed.Results: Mean serum magnesium level in preeclampsia (1.83 ± 0.21mg/dl was lesser in comparison to normal pregnant women (2.03 ± 0.16 mg/dl. Serum calcium level was lower (8.10 ±0.56mg/dl than control (9.59 ±0.62 mg/dl with p<0.001. Uric acid, glucose and lactate dehydrogenase in preeclamptic women was significantly higher than that in normal pregnant women (6.14 ± 0.85 vs.4.01 ± 0.62, p=<0.001, (94.17± 18.65 vs.86.34 ± 10.19, p=0.033 and ( 466.80 ± 97.29 vs. 194.22 ± 39.76, p=<0.001 respectively.Conclusion: There were significant changes in serum magnesium, uric acid, calcium, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase and total protein in pregnant women.

  16. Study on the insulin resistance and β-cell function in individuals with normal and those with abnormal glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zikun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the insulin resistance and β-cell function in individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and those with glucose metabolism dysfunction. Methods: Insulin resistance and β-cell function were studied with oral glucose tolerance test and the following parameters: 2h insulin/2h plasma glucose (2hIns/2hPG), insulin resistance index (IRI), insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and 30 min net increment of insulin/30min net increment of glucose (AI 30 /AG 30 ) were examined in 44 individuals with NGT, 45 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 66 recently diagnosed diabetics and 175 well-established diabetics. Results: The insulin resistance index (IRI) increased progressively from that in NGT individuals to that in recently diabetics (20 ± 1. 5→3.1 ± 1.6→4.1 ± 1.8), while the 2hIns/2hPG, ΔI 30 /ΔG 30 and ISI decreased progressively with significant differences between those in successive groups (P 30 /ΔG 30 and ISI kept decreasing (values in patients with disease history less than 3 yrs vs those in patients with disease over 3yrs: 2.9 ± 3.2 vs 2.4 + 2.3, 30.2 + 1.1 vs 23.4 ± 2.3, P 30 /ΔG 30 were significantly correlated with ISI (F =96.3, 58.4 and 47.5 respectively). For principal component analysis display, the cumulative contribution rate of four parameters (2hIns/2hPG, ISI, ΔI 30 /ΔG 30 and 2h C-peptide) exceeded 85% (86.5%). Conclusion: As the dysfunction of glucose metabolism proceeded from IGT to well established diabetes, the IR increased first with decrease of β-cell secretion followed. The parameters 2hIns/2hPG, ISI, 2h C-peptide ΔI 30 /ΔG 30 were especially useful for the investigation . (authors)

  17. Sepsis does not alter red blood cell glucose metabolism or Na+ concentration: A 2H-, 23Na-NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotchkiss, R.S.; Song, S.K.; Ling, C.S.; Ackerman, J.J.; Karl, I.E.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of sepsis on intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) and glucose metabolism were examined in rat red blood cells (RBCs) by using 23Na- and 2H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Sepsis was induced in 15 halothane-anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats by using the cecal ligation and perforation technique; 14 control rats underwent cecal manipulation without ligation. The animals were fasted for 36 h, but allowed free access to water. At 36 h postsurgery, RBCs were examined by 23Na-NMR by using dysprosium tripolyphosphate as a chemical shift reagent. Human RBCs from 17 critically ill nonseptic patients and from 7 patients who were diagnosed as septic were also examined for [Na+]i. Five rat RBC specimens had [Na+]i determined by both 23Na-NMR and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). For glucose metabolism studies, RBCs from septic and control rats were suspended in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing [6,6-2H2]glucose and examined by 2H-NMR. No significant differences in [Na+]i or glucose utilization were found in RBCs from control or septic rats. There were no differences in [Na+]i in the two groups of patients. The [Na+]i determined by NMR spectroscopy agreed closely with measurements using ICP-AES and establish that 100% of the [Na+]i of the RBC is visible by NMR. Glucose measurements determined by 2H-NMR correlated closely (correlation coefficient = 0.93) with enzymatic analysis. These studies showed no evidence that sepsis disturbed RBC membrane function or metabolism

  18. Leisure Time Physical Activity and Its Determinants among Adults in Tehran: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momenan, Amir Abbas; Delshad, Maryam; Mirmiran, Parvin; Ghanbarian, Arash; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess leisure time physical activity and its determinants among adults in Tehran. This cross-sectional study comprised adults (n = 7285), aged 20 years and older. The subjects were participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study between 2002 and 2004. Information on the number of days spent on different activities during a week and the time devoted to each activity on a typical day was recorded. In addition, each activity, weighted by its relative intensity, was referred to as a metabolic equivalent. The prevalence of inactivity was 69.8% (95% CI: 68.7-70.8) in the whole population and 30.2% (95% CI: 27.2-33.1%) of men and 30.3% (95% CI: 27.7-32.8%) of women were considered as active. Leisure time physical activity less than 30 min/week was scored in 1590 (50.6%) men and 1803 (43.5%) women. The most frequent leisure time physical activity performed by men (96.1%) and women (95.2%) was walking. A negative association was observed in men between leisure time physical activity and increased work hours, older age, more cigarette smoking and higher body mass index (69.8% were overweight and 75.3% were obese; P women. The prevalence of physical inactivity among adults in Tehran was high. Leisure time physical inactivity was more likely to be associated with older age, more cigarette smoking, more working hours, and higher body mass index. Public health efforts are needed to improve people's participation in physical activities in Iran.

  19. Studies of matrix diffusion in gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartikainen, K.; Timonen, J.; Vaeaetaeinen, K.; Pietarila, H.

    1994-03-01

    The diffusion of solutes from fractures into rock matrix is an important factor in the safety analysis of disposal of radioactive waste. Laboratory measurements are needed to complement field investigations for a reliable determination of the necessary transport parameters. Measurements of diffusion coefficients in tight rock samples are usually time consuming because the diffusion processes are slow. On the other hand it is well known that diffusion coefficients in the gas phase are roughly four orders of magnitude larger than those in the liquid phase. Therefore, for samples whose structures do not change much upon drying, it is possible to estimate the diffusion properties of the liquid phase when the properties of the gas phase are known. Advantages of the gas method are quick and easy measurements. In the measurements nitrogen was used as the carrier gas and helium as the tracer gas, and standard techniques have been used for helium detection. Techniques have been developed for both channel flow and through-diffusion measurements. The breakthrough curves have been measured in every experiment and all measurements have been modelled by using appropriate analytical models. As a result matrix porosities and effective diffusion coefficients in the gas phase have been determined. (12 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.)

  20. Comparison of vildagliptin twice daily vs. sitagliptin once daily using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM): Crossover pilot study (J-VICTORIA study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background No previous studies have compared the DPP-4 inhibitors vildagliptin and sitagliptin in terms of blood glucose levels using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and cardiovascular parameters. Methods Twenty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly allocated to groups who received vildagliptin then sitagliptin, or vice versa. Patients were hospitalized at 1 month after starting each drug, and CGM was used to determine: 1) mean (± standard deviation) 24-hour blood glucose level, 2) mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), 3) fasting blood glucose level, 4) highest postprandial blood glucose level and time, 5) increase in blood glucose level after each meal, 6) area under the curve (AUC) for blood glucose level ≥180 mg/dL within 3 hours after each meal, and 7) area over the curve (AOC) for daily blood glucose level vildagliptin than sitagliptin (142.1 ± 35.5 vs. 153.2 ± 37.0 mg/dL; p = 0.012). In patients taking vildagliptin, MAGE was significantly lower (110.5 ± 33.5 vs. 129.4 ± 45.1 mg/dL; p = 0.040), the highest blood glucose level after supper was significantly lower (206.1 ± 40.2 vs. 223.2 ± 43.5 mg/dL; p = 0.015), the AUC (≥180 mg/dL) within 3 h was significantly lower after breakfast (484.3 vs. 897.9 mg/min/dL; p = 0.025), and urinary CPR level was significantly higher (97.0 ± 41.6 vs. 85.2 ± 39.9 μg/day; p = 0.008) than in patients taking sitagliptin. There were no significant differences in plasma HbA1c, GA, 1,5AG, IRI, CPR, BNP, or PAI-1 levels between patients taking vildagliptin and sitagliptin. Conclusions CGM showed that mean 24-h blood glucose, MAGE, highest blood glucose level after supper, and hyperglycemia after breakfast were significantly lower in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking vildagliptin than those taking sitagliptin. There were no significant differences in BNP and PAI-1 levels between patients taking vildagliptin and

  1. Development and use of a new perfusion technique to study glucose metabolism of the aortic wall in normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated (1) possible alterations in glucose uptake and utilization in the perfused, normal, and diabetic vascular wall of rabbits and (2) the effects thereon of insulin and exogenous glucose concentration. Part I involved development and characterization of an in vitro perfusion technique that closely reproduced predetermined in vivo conditions of aortic blood flow, arterial blood pressure, heart rate and pulse pressure. The responsiveness of the preparation to vasoactive agents was assessed with concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) from 10 -9 to 10 -4 M. In Part II, the effects of NE-induced tension development on glucose metabolism were determined by perfusion with oxygenated physiological salt solution (PSS) containing 7 mM glucose and tracer amounts of uniformly labeled 14 C-glucose. Aortas from 8 week-diabetic rabbits were perfused under similar conditions employing a NE infusion in the presence or absence of insulin (150 uU/ml) and variable levels of glucose. Effects of NE-induced tension development include an apparent increase (39%) in glucose uptake and a twofold increase in 14 CO 2 and lactate production. Aortas from diabetic rabbits perfused with PSS containing 7 mM glucose demonstrated marked decreases in glucose uptake (74%), 14 CO 2 (68%), lactate (30%), total tissue glycogen (75%) and labeled tissue phospholipids (70%). Insulin or elevation of exogenous glucose to 25 mM (diabetic levels) normalized glucose uptake, but had differential effects on the pattern of substrate utilization. The marked alterations of glucose metabolism in the diabetic state may contribute to the functional changes observed in diabetic blood vessels

  2. Effects of elevated glucose concentration on cultured bovine retinal endothelial (BRE) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capetandes, A.; Gerritsen, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    Salient clinical features of diabetic retinopathy include capillary microaneurysm and neovascularization, which progress with the severity of the disease. It has been suggested that exposure of the retinal vascular cells to high glucose concentrations may play a causative role in the retinopathy. In the present study, the effects of variant media glucose concentrations on BRE cell growth were determined. Normal growth curves were obtained with glucose concentrations of 100, 450 and 600 mg%, but the replication rate was decreased with 600 mg%. To determine if elevated glucose concentrations also altered DNA synthesis, BRE cells cultivated with 100 and 600 mg% glucose demonstrated increased thymidine uptake and total DNA content compared to the 100 mg% group. Furthermore, vacuolation and increased cell diameter occurred in BRE cells cultivated 600 mg% compared to 100 mg% glucose. In conclusion, increases in media glucose concentrations result in a decreased cellular replication rate, increased DNA synthesis and increased cell diameter during the log phase of growth

  3. [Delphi consensus on management of dyslipidaemia in patients with impaired glucose metabolism: Diana study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Botet, Juan; Barrios, Vivencio; Pascual, Vicente; Ascaso, Juan F; Cases, Aleix; Millán, Jesús; Serrano, Adalberto; Pintó, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a multidisciplinary consensus based on the Delphi system to establish clinical recommendations for the management of dyslipidaemia when hyperglycaemia is present, and the relevant factors that should be taken into consideration when prescribing and monitoring treatment with statins. The questionnaire developed by the scientific committee included four blocks of questions about dyslipidaemia in patients with impaired glucose metabolism. The results of the first two blocks are presented here: a) management of dyslipidaemia; b) relevant factors that should be taken into consideration when prescribing and monitoring treatment with statins. Among the 497 experts who participated in the study, an agreement of over 90% was attained for recommending screening for dyslipidaemia in patients with diabetes or pre-diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease or a family history and/or abdominal obesity and/or hypertension. There was a high degree of agreement that a statin is the lipid-lowering treatment of choice, and that it should be switched when side effects develop. Also, the choice of statin and dose should be made according to baseline LDL cholesterol levels, the target to achieve, and the possible drug-drug interactions. The screening of dyslipidaemia is primarily conducted in patients with cardiovascular disease, or any major cardiovascular risk factor. When prescribing a statin, physicians mainly focus on the ability to reduce LDL cholesterol and the risk of drug interactions. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. [Tetra-saccharide glucose as a diagnostic biomarker for Pompe disease: a study with 35 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobillo Lobato, Joaquín; Durán Parejo, Pilar; Tejero Díez, Pedro; Jiménez Jiménez, Luis M

    2013-08-04

    Pompe disease is a disorder originating from an acid alpha-glycosidase (AAG) enzyme deficiency. This disease produces an accumulation of lysosomal glycogen in different tissues, whereby the skeletal and heart muscles are especially involved. The established diagnosis is achieved through the identification of the AAG deficiency. There are also other secondary diagnostic biomarkers, such as tetra-saccharide glucose (Glc4), which shows high levels in the urine of these patients. In this study it is highlighted the usefulness of Glc4 as a diagnostic biomarker for Pompe disease in its different forms of presentation, using a high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV) adapted to the study. A total of 75 individuals have been analyzed: 40 healthy controls and 35 patients diagnosed with Pompe disease. Twenty-four hour samples of urine were collected from all of the patients and their Glc4 levels were determined by means of HPLC/UV. The evaluation of the urinary Glc4 shows a high discrimination ability between healthy/sick individuals. In addition, the results obtained have allowed to establish the most appropriate level of decision or cut-off point for the identification of sick people. Glc4 urinary levels are found to be high in patients suffering from Pompe disease and even though increased levels are also found in other conditions, the existence of a AAG deficiency together with a compatible clinical symptoms, prove very helpful for a correct diagnosis of this serious disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Immediate effect of three different electroacupuncture protocols on fasting blood glucose in obese patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belivani, Maria; Lundeberg, Thomas; Cummings, Mike; Dimitroula, Charikleia; Belivani, Nicole; Vasilakos, Dimitris; Hatzitolios, Apostolos

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is an increasing global health problem, and current methods of management are limited. Preliminary research data suggest that acupuncture may have an influence on metabolic parameters related to obesity. To determine the electroacupuncture (EA) protocol to be used in a future clinical trial examining the effect of acupuncture on metabolic parameters related to obesity and to examine whether a single EA treatment can change fasting blood glucose in obese subjects. 16 obese women aged 30-52 years with body mass index >30 kg/m(2) were assigned consecutively into three groups and their fasting blood glucose was measured before and after administering a single session, lasting 30 min, of one of three EA treatment protocols. The Dorsal group received EA to dorsal segmental acupuncture points BL18-23 bilaterally (corresponding to the segmental levels innervating the pancreas); the Ear group received EA to ear points in the cavum conchae; and the Limb group received EA to points in the arms and legs (LI10-LI11, ST36-Zongping). After a single session of EA there was a statistically significant decrease in fasting blood glucose in the Dorsal and Limb groups, but there was no change and even a trend towards an increase in the glucose level in the Ear group. The findings of this small pilot study suggest that EA to either dorsal segmental points corresponding to the pancreas or to muscle points in all four limbs may exert a beneficial effect on glucose metabolism in obese women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. A Disposable Tear Glucose Biosensor-Part 4: Preliminary Animal Model Study Assessing Efficacy, Safety, and Feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Belle, Jeffrey T; Engelschall, Erica; Lan, Kenneth; Shah, Pankti; Saez, Neil; Maxwell, Stephanie; Adamson, Teagan; Abou-Eid, Michelle; McAferty, Kenyon; Patel, Dharmendra R; Cook, Curtiss B

    2014-01-01

    A prototype tear glucose (TG) sensor was tested in New Zealand white rabbits to assess eye irritation, blood glucose (BG) and TG lag time, and correlation with BG. A total of 4 animals were used. Eye irritation was monitored by Lissamine green dye and analyzed using image analysis software. Lag time was correlated with an oral glucose load while recording TG and BG readings. Correlation between TG and BG were plotted against one another to form a correlation diagram, using a Yellow Springs Instrument (YSI) and self-monitoring of blood glucose as the reference measurements. Finally, TG levels were calculated using analytically derived expressions. From repeated testing carried over the course of 12 months, little to no eye irritation was detected. TG fluctuations over time visually appeared to trace the same pattern as BG with an average lag times of 13 minutes. TG levels calculated from the device current measurements ranged from 4 to 20 mg/dL and correlated linearly with BG levels of 75-160 mg/dL (TG = 0.1723 BG = 7.9448 mg/dL; R 2 = .7544). The first steps were taken toward preliminary development of a sensor for self-monitoring of tear glucose (SMTG). No conjunctival irritation in any of the animals was noted. Lag time between TG and BG was found to be noticeable, but a quantitative modeling to correlate lag time in this study is unnecessary. Measured currents from the sensors and the calculated TG showed promising correlation to BG levels. Previous analytical bench marking showed BG and TG levels consistent with other literature. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  7. 14 C-Glucose uptake studies in the red rot toxin treated sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal toxins cause serious damage to the cellular functions of host tissue. In the present report the toxin extracted from Colletotrichum falcatum Went was partially purified and treatments were given to the callus of susceptible sugarcane callus variety CoC 671. The influence on 14C-glucose uptake and its further utilization ...

  8. Perspectives of patients with type 1 or insulintreated type 2 diabetes on self-monitoring of blood glucose : a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortensius, Johanna; Kars, Marijke C.; Wierenga, Willem S.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Bilo, Henk J. G.; van der Bijl, Jaap J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), including self-regulation, is an important tool to achieve good glycemic control. However, many patients measure their glucose concentrations less often than is recommended. This study investigates patients' perspectives of SMBG and all relevant

  9. Retrospective study on the efficacy of a low-carbohydrate diet for impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maekawa S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Maekawa,1 Tetsuya Kawahara,2 Ryosuke Nomura,1 Takayuki Murase,1 Yasuyoshi Ann,1 Masayuki Oeholm,1 Masaru Harada31Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Japan Labor Health and Welfare Organization, Niigata Rosai Hospital, Joetsu, Niigata, Japan; 3Third Department of Internal Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, JapanBackground: In recent years, the number of people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT has increased steadily worldwide. It is clear that the prevention of diabetes is important from the perspective of public health, medical care, and economics. It was recently reported that a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD is useful for achieving weight loss and glycemic control, but there is no information about the effects of the LCD on IGT. We designed a 7-day in-hospital educational program focused on the LCD for IGT.Methods: The subjects were 72 patients with IGT (36 in the LCD group and 36 in the control group who were enrolled from April 2007–March 2012 and followed for 12 months. We retrospectively compared the LCD group with the control group.Results: In 69.4% of the LCD group, blood glucose was normalized at 12 months and the 2-hour plasma glucose level in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was reduced by 33 mg/dL. In addition, the incidence of diabetes was significantly lower in the LCD group than in the control group at 12 months (0% versus 13.9%, P=0.02. The LCD group showed a significant decrease in fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, the homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance value, body weight and serum triglycerides (TGs at 12 months, while there was a significant increase of the serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol level.Conclusion: The LCD is effective for normalizing blood glucose and preventing progression to type 2 diabetes in

  10. Brain glucose utilization in systemic lupus erythematosus with neuropsychiatric symptoms: a controlled positron emission tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otte, A. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland)]|[Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Weiner, S.M. [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Peter, H.H. [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Mueller-Brand, J. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Goetze, M. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Moser, E. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Gutfleisch, J. [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Hoegerle, S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Juengling, F.D. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Nitzsche, E.U. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)

    1997-07-01

    In contrast to morphological imaging [such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography], functional imaging may be of advantage in the detection of brain abnormalities in cases of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Therefore, we studied 13 patients (aged 40{+-}14 years, 11 female, 2 male) with neuropsychiatric SLE who met four of the American Rheumatism Association criteria for the classification of SLE. Ten clinically and neurologically healthy volunteers served as controls (aged 40{+-}12 years, 5 female, 5 male). Both groups were investigated using fluorine-18-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose brain positron emission tomography (PET) and cranial MRI. The normal controls and 11 of the 13 patients showed normal MRI scans. However, PET scan was abnormal in all 13 SLE patients. Significant group-to-group differences in the glucose metabolic index (GMI=region of interest uptake/global uptake at the level of the basal ganglia and thalamus) were found in the parieto-occipital region on both sides: the GMI of the parieto-occipital region on the right side was 0.922{+-}0.045 in patients and 1.066{+-}0.081 in controls (P<0.0001, Mann Whitney U test), while on the left side it was 0.892{+-}0.060 in patients and 1.034{+-}0.051 in controls (P=0.0002). Parieto-occipital hypometabolism is a conspicuous finding in mainly MRI-negative neuropsychiatric SLE. As the parieto-occipital region is located at the boundary of blood supply of all three major arteries, it could be the most vulnerable zone of the cerebrum and may be affected at an early stage of the cerebrovascular disease. (orig.). With 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in frontotemporal dementia: a study with FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S. S.; Jeong, J.; Kang, S. J.; Na, D. L.; Choe, Y. S.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, Y.; Kim, B. T.; Kim, S. E. [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a common cause of presenile dementia. We investigated the regional cerebral glucose metabolic impairments in patients with FTD using FDG PET. We analysed the regional metabolic patterns on FDG PET images obtained from 30 patients with FTD and age- and sex-matched 15 patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and 11 healthy subjects using SPM99. We also compared the inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry among the three groups by counting the total metabolic activity of each hemisphere and computing asymmetry index (AL) between hemispheres. The hypometabolic brain regions in FTD patients compared with healthy controls were as follows: superior middle and medial frontal lobules, superior and middle temporal lobules, anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, uncus, insula, lateral globus pallidus and thalamus. The regions with decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with AD patients were as follows: superior, inferior and medial frontal lobules, anterior cingulate gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Twenty-five (83%) out of the 30 FTD patients had AI values that was beyond the 95% confidence interval of the AI values obtained from healthy controls; 10 patients had hypometabolism more severe on the right and 15 patients had the opposite pattern. In comparison, 10 (67%) out of the 15 AD patients had asymmetric metabolism. Our SPM analysis of FDG PET revealed additional areas of decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with prior studies using the ROI method, involving frontal, temporal, cingulate gyrus, corpus callosum, uncus, insula, and some subcortical areas. The inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry was common in FTD patients, which can be another metabolic feature that helps differentiate FTD from AD.

  12. Brain glucose utilization in systemic lupus erythematosus with neuropsychiatric symptoms: a controlled positron emission tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otte, A.; Weiner, S.M.; Peter, H.H.; Mueller-Brand, J.; Goetze, M.; Moser, E.; Gutfleisch, J.; Hoegerle, S.; Juengling, F.D.; Nitzsche, E.U.

    1997-01-01

    In contrast to morphological imaging [such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography], functional imaging may be of advantage in the detection of brain abnormalities in cases of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Therefore, we studied 13 patients (aged 40±14 years, 11 female, 2 male) with neuropsychiatric SLE who met four of the American Rheumatism Association criteria for the classification of SLE. Ten clinically and neurologically healthy volunteers served as controls (aged 40±12 years, 5 female, 5 male). Both groups were investigated using fluorine-18-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose brain positron emission tomography (PET) and cranial MRI. The normal controls and 11 of the 13 patients showed normal MRI scans. However, PET scan was abnormal in all 13 SLE patients. Significant group-to-group differences in the glucose metabolic index (GMI=region of interest uptake/global uptake at the level of the basal ganglia and thalamus) were found in the parieto-occipital region on both sides: the GMI of the parieto-occipital region on the right side was 0.922±0.045 in patients and 1.066±0.081 in controls (P<0.0001, Mann Whitney U test), while on the left side it was 0.892±0.060 in patients and 1.034±0.051 in controls (P=0.0002). Parieto-occipital hypometabolism is a conspicuous finding in mainly MRI-negative neuropsychiatric SLE. As the parieto-occipital region is located at the boundary of blood supply of all three major arteries, it could be the most vulnerable zone of the cerebrum and may be affected at an early stage of the cerebrovascular disease. (orig.). With 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in frontotemporal dementia: a study with FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S. S.; Jeong, J.; Kang, S. J.; Na, D. L.; Choe, Y. S.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, Y.; Kim, B. T.; Kim, S. E.

    2002-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a common cause of presenile dementia. We investigated the regional cerebral glucose metabolic impairments in patients with FTD using FDG PET. We analysed the regional metabolic patterns on FDG PET images obtained from 30 patients with FTD and age- and sex-matched 15 patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and 11 healthy subjects using SPM99. We also compared the inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry among the three groups by counting the total metabolic activity of each hemisphere and computing asymmetry index (AL) between hemispheres. The hypometabolic brain regions in FTD patients compared with healthy controls were as follows: superior middle and medial frontal lobules, superior and middle temporal lobules, anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, uncus, insula, lateral globus pallidus and thalamus. The regions with decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with AD patients were as follows: superior, inferior and medial frontal lobules, anterior cingulate gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Twenty-five (83%) out of the 30 FTD patients had AI values that was beyond the 95% confidence interval of the AI values obtained from healthy controls; 10 patients had hypometabolism more severe on the right and 15 patients had the opposite pattern. In comparison, 10 (67%) out of the 15 AD patients had asymmetric metabolism. Our SPM analysis of FDG PET revealed additional areas of decreased metabolism in FTD patients compared with prior studies using the ROI method, involving frontal, temporal, cingulate gyrus, corpus callosum, uncus, insula, and some subcortical areas. The inter-hemispheric metabolic asymmetry was common in FTD patients, which can be another metabolic feature that helps differentiate FTD from AD

  14. Psychological trauma symptoms and Type 2 diabetes prevalence, glucose control, and treatment modality among American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Michelle M; Gonzales, Kelly L; Calhoun, Darren; Beals, Janette; Muller, Clemma Jacobsen; Goldberg, Jack; Nelson, Lonnie; Welty, Thomas K; Howard, Barbara V

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to examine the relationship between psychological trauma symptoms and Type 2 diabetes prevalence, glucose control, and treatment modality among 3776 American Indians in Phase V of the Strong Heart Family Study. This cross-sectional analysis measured psychological trauma symptoms using the National Anxiety Disorder Screening Day instrument, diabetes by American Diabetes Association criteria, and treatment modality by four categories: no medication, oral medication only, insulin only, or both oral medication and insulin. We used binary logistic regression to evaluate the association between psychological trauma symptoms and diabetes prevalence. We used ordinary least squares regression to evaluate the association between psychological trauma symptoms and glucose control. We used binary logistic regression to model the association of psychological trauma symptoms with treatment modality. Neither diabetes prevalence (22%-31%; p=0.19) nor control (8.0-8.6; p=0.25) varied significantly by psychological trauma symptoms categories. However, diabetes treatment modality was associated with psychological trauma symptoms categories, as people with greater burden used either no medication, or both oral and insulin medications (odds ratio=3.1, ppsychological trauma symptoms suggests future research investigate patient and provider treatment decision making. © 2013.

  15. Stability study of 2-[18F]Fluoro-2-Deoxy-D-Glucose (18FDG) stored at room temperature by physicochemical and microbiological assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Soraya Z.; Silva, Juliana B. da; Waquil, Samira S.; Correia, Ricardo F.

    2009-01-01

    The most widely used radiopharmaceutical in the expanding medical imaging technology of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 FDG). The increasing demand for 18 FDG requires reliable production in large amounts. The synthesis of 18 FDG is based on a nucleophilic substitution of the triflate-leaving group from the precursor, mannose triflate, in the presence of Crypt and 2.2.2, as a phase-transfer agent. After labeling, the removal of the acetyl protecting groups from resulting 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-1,3,4,6-tetra-Oacetyl- D-glucose is performed by alkaline hydrolysis, followed by purification and final filtration (0.22 μm). It was reported that 18 FDG decomposes in vitro, resulting in the degradation of the radiochemical purity with time. The aim of this study was to evaluate physicochemical and microbiological stability of 18 FDG, stored at room temperature (15-30 deg C), at different time intervals. It was investigated how the quality of this radiopharmaceutical varies with time under the influence of environmental factors. 18 FDG pH, radionuclidic identity and purity, radiochemical identity and purity, chemical purity, residual solvents, bacterial endotoxins and sterility were evaluated according to the United States Pharmacopeia 31 th edition analytical methods and acceptance criteria. The results suggest that 18 FDG has physicochemical and microbiological stability up to 10 hours after the end of synthesis, under experimental conditions. (author)

  16. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel Bring

    2016-01-01

    was to investigate how the blood glucose level affects the glucagon and insulin responses to GIP in healthy subjects (Study 1) and patients with Type 2 diabetes (Study 2), and more specifically to investigate the effects of GIP and GLP-1 at low blood glucose in patients with Type 1 diabetes without endogenous...... as his own control. Interventions were intravenous administration of hormones GIP, GLP-1 and placebo (saline) during different blood glucose levels maintained (clamped) at a certain level. The end-points were plasma concentrations of glucagon and insulin as well as the amount of glucose used to clamp...... the blood glucose levels. In Study 3, we also used stable glucose isotopes to estimate the endogenous glucose production and assessed symptoms and cognitive function during hypoglycaemia. The results from the three studies indicate that GIP has effects on insulin and glucagon responses highly dependent upon...

  17. Development of 18F-FDG ([F-18]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose) injection for imaging of tumor reflecting glucose metabolism. Results of preclinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ino, Sento; Shimada, Takayuki; Kanagawa, Masaru; Suzuki, Noriaki; Kondo, Susumu; Shirakami, Yoshifumi; Ito, Osamu; Kato-Azuma, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    Fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) injection was prepared by a modification of a method originally developed by Hamacher et al. The dosage form is the injectable solution (2 ml) containing 185 MBq of 18 F-FDG at a calibration time. Preclinical studies of the agent were performed. Its radiochemical purity is more than 95% and expiration time is 4 hours after the calibration time at ambient temperature. No toxicity was observed with up to 200 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of non-radioactive FDG intravenously injected to rats and dogs in single dose toxicity tests, respectively. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that the radioactivity was mainly distributed into brain (3.0 to 3.3% I.D./Organ at 30 minutes) and heart (4.2 to 5.8% I.D./Organ at 1 to 3 hours) after intravenous injection of the agent to normal rats. In a tumor transplanted mouse model (colon 26), tumor uptake was 10.9±3.5% I.D./g at 1 hr after intravenous injection of the agent, the radioactivity was retained until 3 hours. The radiation absorbed dose was estimated according to the MIRD Pamphlet based on the biodistribution data both in humans reported by Mejia et al. and rats described in this report. The radiation absorbed dose was not higher than those of commercially available radiopharmaceuticals. In conclusion, the 18 F-FDG injection is expected to be useful for further clinical application. (author)

  18. Studies of genetic variability of the glucose transporter 2 promoter in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, A M; Jensen, N M; Pildal, J

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed to test the hypothesis that genetic variation in the promoter of the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) might predispose to prediabetic phenotypes or type 2 diabetes. A total of 1611 bp comprising the minimal promoter region of the GLUT2 gene were examined by combined single-s......-tolerant subjects. In conclusion, we found no evidence supporting the hypothesis that genetic variability in the minimal promoter of the GLUT2 is associated with type 2 diabetes or prediabetic phenotypes in the Danish population.......This study was performed to test the hypothesis that genetic variation in the promoter of the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) might predispose to prediabetic phenotypes or type 2 diabetes. A total of 1611 bp comprising the minimal promoter region of the GLUT2 gene were examined by combined single...

  19. Building Enclosure Hygrothermal Performance Study, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2002-08-08

    The moisture performance of three different classes of wall systems has been investigated in the context of the preliminary hygrothermal analysis of walls in Seattle. The results reported in this phase specifically address the moisture performance of walls designed with loads that have some unintentional water penetration. The results have been developed in a manner to present the relative performance of the walls in the same climate with similar water penetration effects. The analysis was performed with the best available input data. Several limitations should be recognized within the context of this study. Results showed that selection of wooden sheathing boards on interior vapor-tight assemblies does not significantly influence the performance of stucco-clad walls. A larger effect was observed when the interior vapor control is made vapor open. When continuous cavity ventilation is employed, the effect of the selection of the type of sheathing board on the hygrothermal performance of the wall was found to be negligible. When comparing oriented strand board sheathing performance against the performance of exterior grade gypsum, the differences are very significant in terms of the amount of moisture content present in the walls. Moisture content alone does not indicate their respective durability as durability is directly related to the combination of relative humidity and temperature, mechanical, chemical, and biological properties of the substrates. This study did not investigate the durability performance of either sheathing. In terms of interior vapor control, inhabitant behavior must be considered during the wall hygrothermal design stage. If interior relative humidity is maintained below 60%, then a latex primer and paint may perform better than the use of PVA or even a polyethylene sheet. When the interior environment is maintained at a higher relative humidity, then stricter vapor control is needed. Multilayered building paper was experimentally shown to

  20. Retrobiosynthetic NMR studies with 13C-labeled glucose. Formation of gallic acid in plants and fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, I.; Bacher, A.; Eisenreich, W.

    1997-01-01

    The biosynthesis of gallic acid was studied in cultures of the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus and in leaves of the tree Rhus typhina. Fungal cultures were grown with [1-13C]glucose or with a mixture of unlabeled glucose and [U-13C6]glucose. Young leaves of R. typhina were kept in an incubation chamber and were supplied with a solution containing a mixture of unlabeled glucose and [U-13C6]glucose via the leaf stem. Isotope distributions in isolated gallic acid and aromatic amino acids were analyzed by one-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. A quantitative analysis of the complex isotopomer composition of metabolites was obtained by deconvolution of the 13C13C coupling multiplets using numerical simulation methods. This approach required the accurate analysis of heavy isotope chemical shift effects in a variety of different isotopomers and the analysis of long range 13C13C coupling constants. The resulting isotopomer patterns were interpreted using a retrobiosynthetic approach based on a comparison between the isotopomer patterns of gallic acid and tyrosine. The data show that both in the fungus and in the plant all carbon atoms of gallic acid are biosynthetically equivalent to carbon atoms of shikimate. Notably, the carboxylic group of gallic acid is derived from the carboxylic group of an early intermediate of the shikimate pathway and not from the side chain of phenylalanine or tyrosine. It follows that the committed precursor of gallic acid is an intermediate of the shikimate pathway prior to prephenate or arogenate, most probably 5-dehydroshikimate. A formation of gallic acid via phenylalanine, the lignin precursor, caffeic acid, or 3,4, 5-trihydroxycinnamic acid can be ruled out as major pathways in the fungus and in young leaves of R. typhina. The incorporation of uniformly 13C-labeled glucose followed by quantitative NMR analysis of isotopomer patterns is suggested as a general method for biosynthetic studies. As shown by the plant experiment, this

  1. Evaluation of Salivary Glucose, IgA and Flow Rate in Diabetic Patients: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bakianian Vaziri, P.; Vahedi, M.; Mortazavi, H.; Abdollahzadeh, Sh.; Hajilooi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: An association between diabetes mellitus and alterations in the oral cavity has been noted. In this study, we evaluated differences between salivary IgA, glucose and flow rate in diabetic patients compared with healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with type 1 diabetes, 40 patients with type 2 diabetes and 40 healthy controls were selected. Whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected by the standard method and the salivary flow rate was determined. Nephelomet...

  2. A 96-well automated method to study inhibitors of human sodium-dependent D-glucose transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Francisco; Kinne, Rolf K-H

    2005-12-01

    The sodium-dependent D-glucose transporter (SGLT) family is involved in glucose uptake via intestinal absorption (SGLT1) or renal reabsorption (SGLT1 and SGLT2). Current methods for the screening of inhibitors of SGLT transporters are complex, expensive and very labor intensive, and have not been applied to human SGLT transporters. The purpose of the present study was to develop an alternative 96-well automated method to study the activity of human SGLT1 and SGLT2. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) Flp-In cells were stably transfected with pcDNA5-SGLT1 or pcDNA5-SGLT2 plasmid and maintained in hygromycin-selection Ham's F12 culture medium until hygromycin-resistant clones were developed. SGLT1 and SGLT2 gene expression was evaluated by relative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) quantification, Western blotting, and immunocytochemical analysis. The clones with higher expression of SGLT1 and SGLT2 were used for transport studies using [14C]-methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside ([14C]AMG). The advantage of using the 96-well format is the low amount of radioactive compounds and inhibitory substances required, and its ability to establish reproducibility because repetition into the assay. This method represents an initial approach in the development of transport-based high-throughput screening in the search for inhibitors of glucose transport. The proposed method can easily be performed to yield quantitative data regarding key aspects of glucose membrane transport and kinetic studies of potential inhibitors of human SGLT1 and SGLT2.

  3. Co-consumption of sugars or ethanol and glucose in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain deleted in the HXK2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raamsdonk, L M; Diderich, J A; Kuiper, A; van Gaalen, M; Kruckeberg, A L; Berden, J A; Van Dam, K; Kruckberg, A L

    2001-08-01

    In previous studies it was shown that deletion of the HXK2 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yields a strain that hardly produces ethanol and grows almost exclusively oxidatively in the presence of abundant glucose. This paper reports on physiological studies on the hxk2 deletion strain on mixtures of glucose/sucrose, glucose/galactose, glucose/maltose and glucose/ethanol in aerobic batch cultures. The hxk2 deletion strain co-consumed galactose and sucrose, together with glucose. In addition, co-consumption of glucose and ethanol was observed during the early exponential growth phase. In S.cerevisiae, co-consumption of ethanol and glucose (in the presence of abundant glucose) has never been reported before. The specific respiration rate of the hxk2 deletion strain growing on the glucose/ethanol mixture was 900 micromol.min(-1).(g protein)(-1), which is four to five times higher than that of the hxk2 deletion strain growing oxidatively on glucose, three times higher than its parent growing on ethanol (when respiration is fully derepressed) and is almost 10 times higher than its parent growing on glucose (when respiration is repressed). This indicates that the hxk2 deletion strain has a strongly enhanced oxidative capacity when grown on a mixture of glucose and ethanol. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. [Comparative study on oral candidal infection in individuals with diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing-hua; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hong-wei

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the positive rate, infection rate and bearing rate of salivary candida in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), individuals with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and their predisposing factors. Questionnaire was given to 145 patients with DM, 142 individuals with IGR and 149 NGT individuals. Oral examination was carried out, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level and plasma glucose level of 2 hours post glucose-load (PG2h), resting salivary flow, salivary pH value were tested. Salivary candida was cultured. In DM, IGR and NGT groups, the positive rates of salivary candida were 21.4% (31/145), 7.0% (10/142), 4.7% (7/149) respectively, the infection rates were 7.6% (11/145), 1.4% (2/142), 1.3% (2/149) respectively, and the bearing rates of salivary candida were 13.8% (20/145), 5.6% (8/142), 3.4% (5/149) respectively. The candida positive rate, candida infection rate in DM group were higher than those of IGR and NGT groups respectively (P 0.05). Resting salivary flow in DM [(1.30 ± 1.20) ml/10 min] and IGR [(1.40 ± 1.17) ml/10 min]groups were lower than that in NGT group [(1.93 ± 1.66) ml/10 min], salivary pH values in DM (7.11 ± 0.56) and IGR (7.05 ± 0.48) groups were lower than that in NGT group (7.38 ± 0.48) (P salivary candida was influenced to some degree by age, FPG level and bearing denture (OR value = 1.106, 1.258, 3.166). The patients with DM were more subjected to bearing or infection of candida than individuals with IGR and NGT. To control the plasma glucose level will help to decrease the positive rate and infection rate of oral candida.

  5. Measuring brain glucose phosphorylation with labeled glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brondsted, H.E.; Gjedde, A.

    1988-01-01

    This study tested whether glucose labeled at the C-6 position generates metabolites that leave brain so rapidly that C-6-labeled glucose cannot be used to measure brain glucose phosphorylation (CMRGlc). In pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, the parietal cortex uptake of [ 14 C]glucose labeled in the C-6 position was followed for times ranging from 10 s to 60 min. We subtracted the observed radioactivity from the radioactivity expected with no loss of labeled metabolites from brain by extrapolation of glucose uptake in an initial period when loss was negligible. The observed radioactivity was a monoexponentially declining function of the total radioactivity expected in the absence of metabolite loss. The constant of decline was 0.0077.min-1 for parietal cortex. Metabolites were lost from the beginning of the experiment. However, with correction for the loss of labeled metabolites, it was possible to determine an average CMRGlc between 4 and 60 min of circulation of 64 +/- 4 (SE; n = 49) mumol.hg-1.min-1

  6. Fasting glucose, obesity, and metabolic syndrome as predictors of type 2 diabetes: the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFina, Laura F; Vega, Gloria Lena; Leonard, David; Grundy, Scott M

    2012-12-01

    To determine risk for type 2 diabetes in subjects with fasting glucose levels in the ranges of normoglycemia, mild hyperglycemia, and intermediate hyperglycemia and to assess the effect of obesity and metabolic syndrome on this risk. Incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was evaluated in 28,209 relatively healthy subjects participating in the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study. They were included in the study if they had more than 1 fasting plasma glucose measurement, anthropometry, and other parameters of interest. Three subgroups were identified: normoglycemic (obesity, and metabolic syndrome status. Incident diabetes was assessed at the earliest clinic visit at which the individual exhibited a blood glucose level of more than 7.0 mmol/L or reported a diagnosis of diabetes. Thirty-one percent of men and 15.9% of women had mild hyperglycemia and 11.9% of men and 3.6% of women had intermediate hyperglycemia. Yearly conversion rates to diabetes were low in individuals with normoglycemia and mild hyperglycemia but were strikingly higher in those with intermediate hyperglycemia. In subjects with intermediate hyperglycemia, presence of obesity and/or metabolic syndrome doubled conversion rates to diabetes. This study showed a marked difference in outcomes in subjects with mild and intermediate hyperglycemia. Moreover, obesity and metabolic syndrome were associated with strikingly elevated risk for diabetes in subjects with intermediate hyperglycemia. Thus intermediate hyperglycemia plus obesity/metabolic syndrome seemingly justifies intensive clinical intervention for prevention of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  7. Dietary fructose and glucose differentially affect lipid and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Ernst J; Gleason, Joi A; Dansinger, Michael L

    2009-06-01

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first-pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these 2 monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial triglyceride (TG) levels and has little effect on serum glucose concentrations, whereas dietary glucose has the opposite effects. When dietary glucose and fructose have been directly compared at approximately 20-25% of energy over a 4- to 6-wk period, dietary fructose caused significant increases in fasting TG and LDL cholesterol concentrations, whereas dietary glucose did not, but dietary glucose did increase serum glucose and insulin concentrations in the postprandial state whereas dietary fructose did not. When fructose at 30-60 g ( approximately 4-12% of energy) was added to the diet in the free-living state, there were no significant effects on lipid or glucose biomarkers. Sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain approximately equal amounts of fructose and glucose and no metabolic differences between them have been noted. Controlled feeding studies at more physiologic dietary intakes of fructose and glucose need to be conducted. In our view, to decrease the current high prevalence of obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and diabetes, the focus should be on restricting the intake of excess energy, sucrose, HFCS, and animal and trans fats and increasing exercise and the intake of vegetables, vegetable oils, fish, fruit, whole grains, and fiber.

  8. Detection of glycemic abnormalities in adolescents with beta thalassemia using continuous glucose monitoring and oral glucose tolerance in adolescents and young adults with β-thalassemia major: Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both insulin deficiency and resistance are reported in patients with β-thalassemia major (BTM. The use of continuous blood glucose monitoring (CGM, among the different methods for early detection of glycemic abnormalities, has not been studied thoroughly in these adolescents. Materials and Methods: To assess the oralglucose tolerance (OGT and 72-h continuous glucose concentration by the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA, and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI was conducted in 16 adolescents with BTM who were receiving regular blood transfusions every 2-4 weeks and iron-chelation therapy since early childhood. Results: Sixteen adolescents with BTM (age: 19.75 ± 3 years were investigated. Using OGTT, (25% had impaired fasting blood (plasma glucose concentration (BG (>5.6 mmol/L. 2-h after the glucose load, one of them had BG = 16.2 mmol/L (diabetic and two had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT (BG > 7.8 and 11.1 mmol/L and 9 with IGT (56%. HOMA and QUICKI revealed levels 0.33 (0.36 ± 0.03, respectively, ruling out significant insulin resistance in these adolescents. There was a significant negative correlation between the β-cell function (B% on one hand and the fasting and the 2-h BG (r=−0.6, and − 0.48, P < 0.01, respectively on the other hand. Neither fasting serum insulin nor c-peptide concentrations were correlated with fasting BG or ferritin levels. The average and maximum blood glucose levels during CGM were significantly correlated with the fasting BG (r = 0.68 and 0.39, respectively, with P < 0.01 and with the BG at 2-hour after oral glucose intake (r = 0.87 and 0.86 respectively, with P < 0.001. Ferritin concentrations were correlated with the fasting BG and the 2-h blood glucose levels in the OGTT (r = 0.52, and r = 0.43, respectively, P < 0.01 as well as with the average BG recorded by CGM (r = 0.75, P < 0.01. Conclusion: CGM has proven to

  9. Symptoms of depression in people with impaired glucose metabolism or Type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Hoorn Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaanse, M C; Dekker, J M; Heine, R J; Snoek, F J; Beekman, A J; Stehouwer, C D; Bouter, L M; Nijpels, G; Pouwer, F

    2008-07-01

    To study the prevalence and risk factors of depressive symptoms, comparing subjects with normal glucose metabolism (NGM), impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Cross-sectional data from a population-based cohort study conducted among 550 residents (276 men and 274 women) of the Hoorn region, the Netherlands. Levels of depressive symptoms were measured using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D score > or = 16). Glucose metabolism status was determined by means of fasting and post-load glucose levels. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in men with NGM, IGM and DM2 was 7.7, 7.0 and 15.0% (P = 0.19) and for women 7.7, 23.1 and 19.7% (P women with IGM [odds ratio (OR) = 3.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.57 to 8.28] and women with DM2 (OR = 3.18, 95% CI = 1.31 to 7.74). In men, depression was not associated with IGM (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.32 to 2.57) and non-significantly more common in DM2 (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 0.75 to 5.49). Adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease and diabetes symptoms reduced the strength of these associations. Depressive symptoms are more common in women with IGM, but not men. Adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease and diabetes symptoms partially attenuated these associations, suggesting that these variables could be intermediate factors.

  10. The study of a fluorescent biosensor based on polyelectrolyte microcapsules with encapsulated glucose oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakova, L. I.; Sirota, N. P.; Sirota, T. V.; Shabarchina, L. I.

    2017-09-01

    A fluorescent biosensor is synthesized and described. The biosensor consists of polyelectrolyte microcapsules with glucose oxidase (GOx) entrapped in the cavities and an oxygen-sensitive fluorescent indicator Ru(dpp) immobilized in shells, where Ru(dpp) is tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) dichloride. The theoretical activity of the encapsulated GOx and the effect storage time and medium composition have on the stability of sensor microcapsules are determined from polarographic measurements. No change in the activity of the encapsulated enzyme and or its loss to the storage medium are detected over the test period. The dispersion medium (water or a phosphate buffer) are shown to have no effect on the activity of microcapsules with immobilized GOx. The described optical sensor could be used as an alternative to electrochemical sensors for in vitro determination of glucose in the clinically important range of concentrations (up to 10 mmol/L).

  11. Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose in mood disorders. Studies with positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose F 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, L.R. Jr.; Phelps, M.E.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Schwartz, J.M.; Gerner, R.H.; Selin, C.E.; Sumida, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose were examined in patients with unipolar depression (N = 11), bipolar depression (N = 5), mania (N = 5), bipolar mixed states (N = 3), and in normal controls (N = 9) using positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose F 18. All subjects were studied supine under ambient room conditions with eyes open. Bipolar depressed and mixed patients had supratentorial whole brain glucose metabolic rates that were significantly lower than those of the other comparison groups. The whole brain metabolic rates for patients with bipolar depression increased going from depression or a mixed state to a euthymic or manic state. Patients with unipolar depression showed a significantly lower ratio of the metabolic rate of the caudate nucleus, divided by that of the hemisphere as a whole, when compared with normal controls and patients with bipolar depression

  12. Systematic review of economic evaluation studies and budget impact on ambulatory monitoring of capillary glucose in type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; Moya Garrido, María Natividad; Espín Balbino, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Realise a review of studies of economic evaluation about the ambulatory monitoring of capillary glucose (AMGC) in diabetic type II persons. A review of the literature was conducted, in MedLine, various websites, referenced paper and provided by expert's persons. Five studies concluded that the AMGC was a cost-effective strategic, of this papers use Kaiser Permanente data base, its make that these studies could be considered a solely one study. The rest of the papers did not find difference in the AMGC use. The use of AMGC has an uncertainty efficiency. More studies are needed. Copyright © 2013 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Glucose and triglyceride excursions following a standardized meal in individuals with diabetes: ELSA-Brasil study

    OpenAIRE

    Riboldi, B?rbara P; Luft, Vivian C; de Castilhos, Cristina D; de Cardoso, Let?cia O; Schmidt, Maria I; Barreto, Sandhi M; de Sander, Maria F; Alvim, Sheila M; Duncan, Bruce B

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess glucose and triglyceride excursions 2 hours after the ingestion of a standardized meal and their associations with clinical characteristics and cardiovascular complications in individuals with diabetes. Research design and methods: Blood samples of 898 subjects with diabetes were collected at fasting and 2 hours after a meal containing 455 kcal, 14 g of saturated fat and 47 g of carbohydrates. Self-reported morbidity, socio-demographic characteristics and clinical measure...

  14. Estimation of glucose kinetics in fetal-maternal studies: Potential errors, solutions, and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, R.K.; Bloch, C.A.; Sperling, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    We investigated whether errors occur in the estimation of ovine maternal-fetal glucose (Glc) kinetics using the isotope dilution technique when the Glc pool is rapidly expanded by exogenous (protocol A) or endogenous (protocol C) Glc entry and sought possible solutions (protocol B). In protocol A (n = 8), after attaining steady-state Glc specific activity (SA) by [U-14C]glucose (period 1), infusion of Glc (period 2) predictably decreased Glc SA, whereas. [U-14C]glucose concentration unexpectedly rose from 7,208 +/- 367 (means +/- SE) in period 1 to 8,558 +/- 308 disintegrations/min (dpm) per ml in period 2 (P less than 0.01). Fetal endogenous Glc production (EGP) was negligible during period 1 (0.44 +/- 1.0), but yielded a physiologically impossible negative value of -2.1 +/- 0.72 mg.kg-1.min-1 during period 2. When the fall in Glc SA during Glc infusion was prevented by addition of [U-14C]glucose admixed with the exogenous Glc (protocol B; n = 7), EGP was no longer negative. In protocol C (n = 6), sequential infusions of four increasing doses of epinephrine serially decreased SA, whereas tracer Glc increased from 7,483 +/- 608 to 11,525 +/- 992 dpm/ml plasma (P less than 0.05), imposing an obligatory underestimation of EGP. Thus a tracer mixing problem leads to erroneous estimations of fetal Glc utilization and Glc production via the three-compartment model in sheep when the Glc pool is expanded exogenously or endogenously. These errors can be minimized by maintaining the Glc SA relatively constant

  15. Metformin improves glucose effectiveness, not insulin sensitivity: predicting treatment response in women with polycystic ovary syndrome in an open-label, interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Cindy T; Keefe, Candace; Duran, Jessica; Welt, Corrine K

    2014-05-01

    Although metformin is widely used to improve insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), its mechanism of action is complex, with inconsistent effects on insulin sensitivity and variability in treatment response. The aim of the study was to delineate the effect of metformin on glucose and insulin parameters, determine additional treatment outcomes, and predict patients with PCOS who will respond to treatment. We conducted an open-label, interventional study at an academic medical center. Women with PCOS (n = 36) diagnosed by the National Institutes of Health criteria participated in the study. Subjects underwent fasting blood sampling, an IV glucose tolerance test, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan, transvaginal ultrasound, and measurement of human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated androgen levels before and after 12 weeks of treatment with metformin extended release 1500 mg/d. Interval visits were performed to monitor anthropometric measurements and menstrual cycle parameters. Changes in glucose and insulin parameters, androgen levels, anthropometric measurements, and ovulatory menstrual cycles were evaluated. Insulin sensitivity did not change despite weight loss. Glucose effectiveness (P = .002) and the acute insulin response to glucose (P = .002) increased, and basal glucose levels (P = .001) decreased after metformin treatment. T levels also decreased. Women with improved ovulatory function (61%) had lower baseline T levels and lower baseline and stimulated T and androstenedione levels after metformin treatment (all P effectiveness and insulin sensitivity, metformin does not improve insulin sensitivity in women with PCOS but does improve glucose effectiveness. The improvement in glucose effectiveness may be partially mediated by decreased glucose levels. T levels also decreased with metformin treatment. Ovulation during metformin treatment was associated with lower baseline T levels and greater T and androstenedione decreases during

  16. Changes in cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with posttraumatic cognitive impairment after memantine therapy. A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-Wook; Shin, Ji-Cheol; An, Young-Sil

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with posttraumatic cognitive impairment after memantine therapy. We performed serial F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography studies before and after memantine therapy (20 mg per day) on 17 patients with posttraumatic cognitive impairment using statistical parametric mapping analysis. In addition, covariance analysis was performed to identify regions, where changes in regional cerebral glucose metabolism correlated significantly with increased Mini-Mental Status Examination scores. Statistical parametric mapping analysis demonstrated that, compared with baseline, significantly increased cerebral glucose metabolism occurred in both inferior, middle and superior frontal gyri, both angular gyri, both precuneus, the right middle cingulum, the left inferior parietal lobule, the left fusiform gyrus, the left precentral gyrus, the left paracentral lobule, and the left lingual gyrus after memantine therapy (P uncorrected uncorrected corrected <0.0001). Our findings indicate that the prefrontal and the parietal association cortices may be the relevant structures for the pharmacological response to memantine therapy in patients with posttraumatic cognitive impairment. (author)

  17. Socioeconomic inequalities in lipid and glucose metabolism in early childhood in a population-based cohort: the ABCD-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berg Gerrit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease are pervasive, yet much remains to be understood about how they originate. The objective of this study was to explore the relations of socioeconomic status to lipid and glucose metabolism as indicators of cardiovascular health in 5–6 year olds. Additionally to explore the explanatory role of maternal factors, birth outcome, and child factors. Methods In 1308 5–6 year old ethnic Dutch children from the ABCD cohort study, lipids (cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, glucose and C-peptide were measured after an overnight-fast. Results There were no differences in cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides between socioeconomic groups, as indicated by maternal education and income adequacy. However, children of low educated mothers had on average a higher glucose (β = 0.15; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.03 – 0.27, logC-peptide (β = 0.07; 95% CI 0.04 – 0.09, and calculated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (β = 0.15; 95% CI 0.08 – 0.22 compared to children of high educated mothers. Only childhood BMI partly explained these differences (models controlled for age, height, and sex. Conclusions The socioeconomic gradient in cardiovascular risk factors seems to emerge in early childhood. In absence of underlying mechanisms these empirical findings are relevant for public health care and further explanatory research.

  18. Glucose but not insulin or insulin resistance is associated with memory performance in middle-aged non-diabetic women: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backeström, Anna; Eriksson, Sture; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Olsson, Tommy; Rolandsson, Olov

    2015-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of plasma glucose appear to play a role in memory impairment, and it has been suggested that insulin might also have a negative effect on cognitive function. Our aim was to study whether glucose, insulin or insulin resistance are associated with episodic or semantic memory in a non-diabetic and non-demented population. We linked and matched two population-based data sets identifying 291 participants (127 men and 164 women, mean age of 50.7 ± 8.0 years). Episodic and semantic memory functions were tested, and fasting plasma insulin, fasting plasma glucose, and 2-hour glucose were analysed along with other potential influencing factors on memory function. Since men and women display different results on memory functions they were analysed separately. Insulin resistance was calculated using the HOMA-IR method. A higher fasting plasma glucose concentration was associated with lower episodic memory in women (r = -0.08, 95% CI -0.14; -0.01), but not in men. Plasma insulin levels and insulin resistance were not associated with episodic or semantic memory in women or in men after adjustments for age, fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, BMI, education, smoking, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cholesterol, and physical activity. This indicates that fasting glucose but not insulin, might have impact on episodic memory in middle-aged women.

  19. Higher glucose, insulin and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in childhood predict adverse cardiovascular risk in early adulthood: the Pune Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Katre, Prachi A; Joshi, Suyog M; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman; Bhat, Dattatray S; Lubree, Himangi G; Memane, Nilam; Kinare, Arun S; Pandit, Anand N; Bhave, Sheila A; Bavdekar, Ashish; Fall, Caroline H D

    2015-07-01

    The Pune Children's Study aimed to test whether glucose and insulin measurements in childhood predict cardiovascular risk factors in young adulthood. We followed up 357 participants (75% follow-up) at 21 years of age who had undergone detailed measurements at 8 years of age (glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and other indices). Oral glucose tolerance, anthropometry, plasma lipids, BP, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured at 21 years. Higher fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR at 8 years predicted higher glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, BP, lipids and IMT at 21 years. A 1 SD change in 8 year variables was associated with a 0.10-0.27 SD change at 21 years independently of obesity/adiposity at 8 years of age. A greater rise in glucose-insulin variables between 8 and 21 years was associated with higher cardiovascular risk factors, including PWV. Participants whose HOMA-IR measurement remained in the highest quartile (n = 31) had a more adverse cardiovascular risk profile compared with those whose HOMA-IR measurement remained in the lowest quartile (n = 28). Prepubertal glucose-insulin metabolism is associated with adult cardiovascular risk and markers of atherosclerosis. Our results support interventions to improve glucose-insulin metabolism in childhood to reduce cardiovascular risk in later life.

  20. Assessment of Knowledge of Self Blood Glucose Monitoring and Extent of Self Titration of Anti-Diabetic Drugs among Diabetes Mellitus Patients - A Cross Sectional, Community Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, V; Thirunavukkarasu, J

    2016-03-01

    Self blood glucose monitoring is an important context of self care in the management of diabetes mellitus. All the guidelines must be followed while performing self blood glucose monitoring and tracking of values is essential to facilitate the physician while titrating the drugs and /or doses of anti diabetes medication. Self titration by patients following self monitoring must be discouraged. To assess the knowledge and practice of self blood glucose monitoring among diabetes patients and extent of self titration of anti diabetes medicines among diabetes patients based on self blood glucose monitoring. This pilot, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted using a validated questionnaire among adult male and female diabetes patients performing self blood glucose monitoring at home. Diabetes patients with complications and juvenile diabetes patients were excluded. Out of 153 patients surveyed, only 37 (24.1%) (20 males, 17 females) patients were aware and have been following self blood glucose monitoring appropriately. About 116 (75.8%) (64 males, 52 females) of patients were devoid of adequate knowledge and did not practice self blood glucose monitoring in a proper way. Ninety eight (64.05%) accepted that they self titrate their anti diabetic medicines based on self monitoring. Self monitoring of blood glucose should be encouraged and patients should be taught importance of following correct steps and tracking of self monitoring by physician or diabetes educator.

  1. Favorable glucose tolerance and lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in offspring without diabetes mellitus of nonagenarian siblings: the Leiden longevity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozing, Maarten P; Westendorp, Rudi G J; de Craen, Anton J M; Frölich, Marijke; de Goeij, Moniek C M; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Beekman, Marian; Wijsman, Carolien A; Mooijaart, Simon P; Blauw, Gerard-Jan; Slagboom, P Eline; van Heemst, Diana

    2010-03-01

    To explore measures of metabolic syndrome and glucose metabolism in families with exceptional longevity. Case-control study. A university hospital in Leiden, the Netherlands. One hundred twenty-one offspring of nonagenarian siblings, who were enriched for familial factors promoting longevity, and 113 of their partners. No subject had diabetes mellitus. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the criteria of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program. Glucose tolerance was assessed according to a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. The offspring of nonagenarians siblings had a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (P=.03), similar body composition, lower mean fasting blood glucose levels (4.99 vs 5.16 mmol/L; P=.01), lower mean fasting insulin levels (5.81 vs 6.75 mU/L; P=.04), a higher mean homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (0.78 vs 0.65; P=.02), and a more-favorable glucose tolerance (mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for glucose (13.2 vs 14.3; P=.007) than their partners. No significant differences were observed between the offspring and their partners in beta-cell function (insulogenic index 13.6 vs 12.5; P=.38). Despite similar body composition, the offspring of nonagenarian siblings showed a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome and better glucose tolerance than their partners, centralizing the role of favorable glucose metabolism in familial longevity.

  2. Hydrogen bonding analysis of hydroxyl groups in glucose aqueous solutions by a molecular dynamics simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Cong; Li, Wei Zhong; Song, Yong Chen; Weng, Lin Dong; Zhang, Ning

    2012-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate hydrogen bonding characteristics of hydroxyl groups in glucose aqueous solutions with different concentrations. The hydrogen bonding abilities and strength of different O and H atom types have been calculated and compared. The acceptor/donor efficiencies have been predicted and it has been found that: (1) O2-HO2 and O3-HO3 are more efficient intramolecular hydrogen bonding acceptors than donors; (2) O1-HO1, O4-HO4 and O6-HO6 are more efficient intramolecular hydrogen bonding donors than acceptors; (5) O1-HO1 and O6-HO6 are more efficient intermolecular hydrogen bonding acceptors than donors while hydroxyl groups O2-HO2 and O4-HO4 are more efficient intermolecular hydrogen bonding donors than acceptors. The hydrogen bonding abilities of hydroxyl groups revealed that: (1) the hydrogen bonding ability of OH2-H w is larger than that of hydroxyl groups in glucose; (2) among the hydroxyl groups in glucose, the hydrogen bonding ability of O6-HO6 is the largest and the hydrogen bonding ability of O4-HO4 is the smallest; (3) the intermolecular hydrogen bonding ability of O6-HO6 is the largest; (4) the order for intramolecular hydrogen bonding abilities (from large to small) is O2-HO2, O1-HO1, O3-HO3, O6-HO6 and O4-HO4

  3. Consumption of dairy foods in relation to impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Maastricht Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eussen, Simone J P M; van Dongen, Martien C J M; Wijckmans, Nicole; den Biggelaar, Louise; Oude Elferink, Stefanie J W H; Singh-Povel, Cécile M; Schram, Miranda T; Sep, Simone J S; van der Kallen, Carla J; Koster, Annemarie; Schaper, Nicolaas; Henry, Ronald M A; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Dagnelie, Pieter C

    2016-04-01

    Observational studies suggest an inverse association between total dairy product intake and diabetes risk. However, there is a lack of information on the relationship of specific dairy products with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Individuals aged 40-75 years were recruited for the Maastricht Study. All the participants filled out a 253-food item FFQ, covering fifty specific dairy items that captured differences between full-fat, semi-skimmed and skimmed products, as well as fermented and non-fermented products. Glucose metabolism status was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test, and participants were informed on their glucose metabolism status after returning the FFQ. Data of 2391 individuals were available to estimate OR (95 % CI) for IGM (n 470) and newly diagnosed (ND) T2DM (n 125), with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, physical activity, smoking status, education, energy intake and intakes of vegetables, fruits, meat and fish. For IGM, fully adjusted analyses revealed inverse associations, with OR comparing the highest with the lowest tertile of intake of 0·73 (95 % CI 0·55, 0·96) for skimmed products and 0·74 (95 % CI 0·54, 0·99) for fermented products. These dairy products were not associated with ND T2DM. In contrast, full-fat products were positively associated with ND T2DM (OR 2·01; 95 % CI 1·16, 3·47), whereas total dairy product intake was inversely associated with ND T2DM (OR 0·50; 95 % CI 0·26, 0·93). In conclusion, individuals with a high consumption of skimmed and fermented products had lower odds of having IGM, and individuals with a high consumption of total dairy products had lower odds of having ND T2DM. High intake of full-fat products was not related to IGM but was positively related to ND T2DM.

  4. Liquid–liquid equilibria in the quinary aqueous two-phase system of poly(ethylene glycol) 6000 + sodium sulfate + water in the presence of glucose and ethanol: Experimental investigation and thermodynamic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hekayati, Javad; Roosta, Aliakbar; Javanmardi, Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Quinary LLE phase equilibria involving PEG 6000 + Na_2SO_4 + H_2O + glucose + ethanol. • Favorable partition coefficients of ethanol and glucose. • Satisfactory correlation of the LLE experimental data with the original NRTL model. • Root mean squared deviations (RMSDs) of less than 0.6%. - Abstract: Extractive fermentation processes involving aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) are considered as viable means of overcoming the problems associated with product inhibition. Practical development of these processes requires accurate knowledge of the liquid–liquid equilibrium (LLE) of the ATPS forming components alongside the substrate and product of the fermentation process. In this work, the quinary aqueous two-phase LLE of poly(ethylene glycol) 6000 + sodium sulfate + water in the presence of glucose and ethanol have been experimentally determined at 298.15 K using spectrophotometric methods. The resulting LLE data were then satisfactorily correlated by the non-random two-liquid (NRTL) activity coefficient model based on mass fractions. In doing so, the binary energy interaction parameters of the NRTL activity coefficient model were obtained and reported. Calculated RMS deviations below 0.6% demonstrate that the original NRTL activity coefficient model can accurately correlate the LLE data of the quinary aqueous biphasic system of interest.

  5. Liquid–liquid equilibria in the quinary aqueous two-phase system of poly(ethylene glycol) 6000 + sodium sulfate + water in the presence of glucose and ethanol: Experimental investigation and thermodynamic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekayati, Javad; Roosta, Aliakbar, E-mail: aa.roosta@sutech.ac.ir; Javanmardi, Jafar

    2016-02-10

    Highlights: • Quinary LLE phase equilibria involving PEG 6000 + Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O + glucose + ethanol. • Favorable partition coefficients of ethanol and glucose. • Satisfactory correlation of the LLE experimental data with the original NRTL model. • Root mean squared deviations (RMSDs) of less than 0.6%. - Abstract: Extractive fermentation processes involving aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) are considered as viable means of overcoming the problems associated with product inhibition. Practical development of these processes requires accurate knowledge of the liquid–liquid equilibrium (LLE) of the ATPS forming components alongside the substrate and product of the fermentation process. In this work, the quinary aqueous two-phase LLE of poly(ethylene glycol) 6000 + sodium sulfate + water in the presence of glucose and ethanol have been experimentally determined at 298.15 K using spectrophotometric methods. The resulting LLE data were then satisfactorily correlated by the non-random two-liquid (NRTL) activity coefficient model based on mass fractions. In doing so, the binary energy interaction parameters of the NRTL activity coefficient model were obtained and reported. Calculated RMS deviations below 0.6% demonstrate that the original NRTL activity coefficient model can accurately correlate the LLE data of the quinary aqueous biphasic system of interest.

  6. A review of metabolism of labeled glucoses for use in measuring glucose recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, R.W.; Young, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The fate of tritium from each carbon of D-glucose and the metabolism of L-glucose and 2-deoxy-D-glucose are known. Differences in metabolism of labeled glucoses can be used to quantify physical and chemical recycling of glucose. Only physical recycling is measured by [1- 3 H]-L-glucose, whereas [U- 14 C]-D-glucose measures total recycling. The difference between [1- 3 H]-L-glucose and [U- 14 C]-D-glucose, therefore, is chemical recycling. Recycling from extracellular binding sites and hepatic glucose 6-phosphate can be measured by difference between [1,2- 3 H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose and [1- 3 H]-L-glucose, and the difference in irreversible loss of the two will measure extrahepatic uptake of D-glucose. Recycling via Cori-alanine cycle plus CO 2 is the difference in irreversible loss measured by using [6- 3 H]-glucose and [U- 14 C]-D-glucose. Recycling via the hexose monophosphate pathway can be determined by difference in irreversible loss between [1- 3 H]-D-glucose and [6- 3 H]-D-glucose. Recycling via CO 2 and glycerol must be measured directly with [U- 14 C]glucose, bicarbonate, and glycerol. Recycling via hepatic glycogen can be estimated by subtracting all other measured chemical recycling from total chemical recycling. This review describes means to quantify glucose recycling in vivo, enabling studies of mechanisms for conservation and utilization of glucose. 54 references

  7. Ambient air pollution, adipokines, and glucose homeostasis: The Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyuan; Dorans, Kirsten S; Wilker, Elissa H; Rice, Mary B; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel D; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent A; Gold, Diane R; Meigs, James B; Fox, Caroline S; Mittleman, Murray A

    2018-02-01

    To examine associations of proximity to major roadways, sustained exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), and acute exposure to ambient air pollutants with adipokines and measures of glucose homeostasis among participants living in the northeastern United States. We included 5958 participants from the Framingham Offspring cohort examination cycle 7 (1998-2001) and 8 (2005-2008) and Third Generation cohort examination cycle 1 (2002-2005) and 2 (2008-2011), who did not have type 2 diabetes at the time of examination visit. We calculated 2003 annual average PM 2.5 at participants' home address, residential distance to the nearest major roadway, and daily PM 2.5 , black carbon (BC), sulfate, nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and ozone concentrations. We used linear mixed effects models for fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) which were measured up to twice, and used linear regression models for adiponectin, resistin, leptin, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) which were measured only once, adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic position, lifestyle, time, and seasonality. The mean age was 51years and 55% were women. Participants who lived 64m (25th percentile) from a major roadway had 0.28% (95% CI: 0.05%, 0.51%) higher fasting plasma glucose than participants who lived 413m (75th percentile) away, and the association appeared to be driven by participants who lived within 50m from a major roadway. Higher exposures to 3- to 7-day moving averages of BC and NO x were associated with higher glucose whereas the associations for ozone were negative. The associations otherwise were generally null and did not differ by median age, sex, educational attainment, obesity status, or prediabetes status. Living closer to a major roadway or acute exposure to traffic-related air pollutants were associated with dysregulated glucose homeostasis but not with adipokines among participants from the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation

  8. Factors associated to adherence to blood glucose self-monitoring in patients with diabetes treated with insulin. The dapa study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Florc, Mercè; Jansà Morató, Margarita; Galindo Rubio, Mercedes; Penalba Martínez, Maite

    2018-02-01

    To assess adherence to self-monitoring of blood glucose and the main factors associated with it, particularly those related to self-perception of glycemia, in patients with diabetes on insulin therapy. An epidemiological, observational, prospective, multicenter study conducted in standard clinical practice in primary care, outpatient centers, and hospitals from different Spanish regions. Sociodemographic, clinical and treatment data were collected. Patients were considered adherent to self-monitoring if they performed the minimum number of controls recommended by the Spanish Society of Diabetes (SED). Adherence was shown in 61.6% of patients. Factors associated to adherence included treatment with less than three insulin injections daily (OR 2.678; 95% CI 2.048- 3.5029; p <0.001), presence of peripheral vascular disease (OR 1.529; 95% CI 1.077 - 2.171; p=0.018), alcohol abstinence (OR 1.442; 95% CI 1.118 - 1.858; p=0.005), and collection of the glucose test strips from the pharmacy (OR 1.275; 95% CI 1.026 - 1.584; p=0.028). Adequate self-perception of glycemia was found in 21.4% of patients. Our results show a suboptimal adherence to the recommended protocol for blood glucose self-monitoring in patients with diabetes on insulin therapy. Independent variables associated to good adherence were treatment with less than three insulin injections dailyu, presence of peripheral vascular disease, alcohol abstinence, and collection of glucose test strips from the pharmacy. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Insulin, glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate responses to a medium-chain triglyceride-based sports supplement: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Wood

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a current trend in endurance sports to move athletes towards a low-carbohydrate diet or use periods of low carbohydrate consumption to increase both health and performance. As a result, a market is developing for sports supplements to provide nutritional support during training and racing for athletes who follow a low-carbohydrate lifestyle. PHAT FIBRE (PF is a powdered sports supplement that includes medium-chain triglycerides suspended in a digestion-resistant carbohydrate and is tailored to the needs of low-carb athletes. Eleven healthy participants were administered 25 g of PF after an overnight fast. After 30 minutes, median blood glucose increased by 6 mg/dl from 94 mg/dl to 100 mg/dl (p = 0.002. At the same time points, median blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB increased from 0.3 mmol/L to 0.5 mmol/L. The increase in BHB was significant (p = 0.02 after excluding one outlier who had elevated levels of fasting BHB. Insulin levels did not change significantly at any point during the study. In a single participant, a revised formulation of PF (PFv2 produced a 0.6 mmol/L increase in BHB with no effect on blood glucose. These data suggest that PF can provide a source of energy for the low-carb athlete by supporting ketone production without negatively impacting insulin or blood glucose levels.

  10. Evaluation of Salivary Glucose, IgA and Flow Rate in Diabetic Patients: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bakianian Vaziri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An association between diabetes mellitus and alterations in the oral cavity has been noted. In this study, we evaluated differences between salivary IgA, glucose and flow rate in diabetic patients compared with healthy controls.Materials and Methods: Forty patients with type 1 diabetes, 40 patients with type 2 diabetes and 40 healthy controls were selected. Whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected by the standard method and the salivary flow rate was determined. Nephelometricand Pars method were used to measure salivary IgA and salivary glucose concentrations,respectively. Statistical analysis was performed by Chi-square and t test.Results: There were no significant differences in salivary IgA and glucose concentrations between type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and their matched control subjects (P>0.05.Salivary flow rate was significantly lower in diabetic patients (P<0.05. In addition,DMFT was higher in diabetic patients than the controls.Conclusion: Determination of salivary constituents may be useful in the description and management of oral findings in diabetic patients.

  11. Study of the levels of beta hydroxy butyrate, glucose, protein and albumin in Holstein cows with subclinical ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Amouoghli Tabrizi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to comparatively evaluate the levels of beta hydroxy butyrate (BHB, glucose, protein and albumin in serum of healthy Holstein cows and those with subclinical ketosis. In this survey, blood samples were collected at two stages from cows selected at 7 dairy farms in Shahriar province of Tehran. Five to 7 ml of blood were taken from the coccygeal vein of 100 cows during the last week of pregnancy when the animals were dry and once again 2 months after parturition from the same cows, their sera separated and the amounts of BHB, glucose, protein and albumin determined by enzymatic techniques and commercially available kits. With the cut point of BHB at 1.2, 1.4 and 1.7 mmol/lit, the percentage of cows affected with subclinical ketosis were 18, 14 and 4 percent, respectively. Mean levels of BHB in ketotic cows was significantly higher than healthy cows before and after parturition while mean levels of glucose, protein and albumin was significantly lower during the same periods (P

  12. α-Glucosidase inhibitor miglitol attenuates glucose fluctuation, heart rate variability and sympathetic activity in patients with type 2 diabetes and acute coronary syndrome: a multicenter randomized controlled (MACS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Michio; Tanaka, Atsushi; Sata, Masataka; Dai, Kazuoki; Shibata, Yoshisato; Inoue, Yohei; Ikenaga, Hiroki; Kishimoto, Shinji; Ogasawara, Kozue; Takashima, Akira; Niki, Toshiyuki; Arasaki, Osamu; Oshiro, Koichi; Mori, Yutaka; Ishihara, Masaharu; Node, Koichi

    2017-07-06

    Little is known about clinical associations between glucose fluctuations including hypoglycemia, heart rate variability (HRV), and the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in patients with acute phase of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This pilot study aimed to evaluate the short-term effects of glucose fluctuations on HRV and SNS activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with recent ACS. We also examined the effect of suppressing glucose fluctuations with miglitol on these variables. This prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint, multicenter, parallel-group comparative study included 39 T2DM patients with recent ACS, who were randomly assigned to either a miglitol group (n = 19) or a control group (n = 20). After initial 24-h Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) (Day 1), miglitol was commenced and another 24-h Holter ECG (Day 2) was recorded. In addition, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was performed throughout the Holter ECG. Although frequent episodes of subclinical hypoglycemia (≤4.44 mmo/L) during CGM were observed on Day 1 in the both groups (35% of patients in the control group and 31% in the miglitol group), glucose fluctuations were decreased and the minimum glucose level was increased with substantial reduction in the episodes of subclinical hypoglycemia to 7.7% in the miglitol group on Day 2. Holter ECG showed that the mean and maximum heart rate and mean LF/HF were increased on Day 2 in the control group, and these increases were attenuated by miglitol. When divided 24-h time periods into day-time (0700-1800 h), night-time (1800-0000 h), and bed-time (0000-0700 h), we found increased SNS activity during day-time, increased maximum heart rate during night-time, and glucose fluctuations during bed-time, which were attenuated by miglitol treatment. In T2DM patients with recent ACS, glucose fluctuations with subclinical hypoglycemia were associated with alterations of HRV and SNS activity, which were mitigated by

  13. Radioimmuoassay study of antidigitoxin antibodies in liquid phase and after coupling on a solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collignon, A.; German, A.; Scherrmann, J.M.; Bourdon, R.

    1983-01-01

    Antidigitoxin antibodies prepared by immunizing rabbits with a digitoxin-bovine serum albumin conjugate have been studied by radioimmunoassay in the native serum (homogeneous phase antibodies) and after coupling on glass beads (heterogeneous phase antibodies). Homogeneous phase antibodies present a satisfactory titer and affinity constant and react very specifically with digitoxin. Fixation of antibodies on a solid phase induce a loss of their immunoreactivity as it is showed by modification of the inhibition curves, by a greater sensitivity to the chemical structure of the tracer and by a decrease of the affinity constant. Reactionnal kinetic and sensitivity to the incubation temperature are not modified. Heterogeneous phase antibodies present a greater stability. Both antibodies types can be used for a digitoxin radioimmunoassay [fr

  14. Associations of Body Composition Measurements with Serum Lipid, Glucose and Insulin Profile: A Chinese Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunxiao; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Zhou, Bin; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To quantitate and compare the associations of various body composition measurements with serum metabolites and to what degree genetic or environmental factors affect obesity-metabolite relation. Methods Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean body mass (LBM), percent body fat (PBF), fasting serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, insulin and lifestyle factors were assessed in 903 twins from Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from fasting serum glucose and insulin. Linear regression models and bivariate structural equation models were used to examine the relation of various body composition measurements with serum metabolite levels and genetic/environmental influences on these associations, respectively. Results At individual level, adiposity measurements (BMI, WC and PBF) showed significant associations with serum metabolite concentrations in both sexes and the associations still existed in male twins when using within-MZ twin pair comparison analyses. Associations of BMI with TG, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly stronger in male twins compared to female twins (BMI-by-sex interaction p = 0.043, 0.020 and 0.019, respectively). Comparison of various adiposity measurements with levels of serum metabolites revealed that WC explained the largest fraction of variance in serum LDL-C, TG, TC and glucose concentrations while BMI performed best in explaining variance in serum HDL-C, insulin and HOMA-IR levels. Of these phenotypic correlations, 64–81% were attributed to genetic factors, whereas 19–36% were attributed to unique environmental factors. Conclusions We observed different associations between adiposity and serum metabolite profile and demonstrated that WC and BMI explained the largest fraction of variance in serum lipid profile and insulin

  15. Changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in normal aging process : A study with FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joon Kee; Kim, Sang Eun; Lee, Kyung Han; Choi, Yong; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung Tae [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-08-01

    Normal aging results in detectable changes in the brain structure and function. We evaluated the changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in the normal aging process with FDG PET. Brain PET images were obtained in 44 healthy volunteers (age range 20-69'y'; M:F = 29:15) who had no history of neuropsychiatric disorders. On 6 representative transaxial images, ROls were drawn in the cortical and subcortical areas. Regional FDG uptake was normalized using whole brain uptake to adjust for the injection dose and correct for nonspecific declines of glucose metabolism affecting all brain areas equally. In the prefrontal, temporoparietal and primary sensorimotor cortex, the normalized FDG uptake (NFU) reached a peak In subjects in their 30s. The NFU in the prefrontal and primary sensorimotor cortex declined with age after 30s at a rate of 3.15%/decade and 1.93%/decade, respectively. However, the NFU in the lernporoparietal cortex did not change significantly with age after 30s. The anterior (prefrontal) posterior (temporoparietal) gradient peaked in subjects in their 30s and declined with age the reafter at a rate of 35%/decade. The NFU in the caudate nucleus was decreased with age after 20s at a rate of 2.39%/decade. In the primary visual cortex, putamen, and thalamus, the NFU values did not change significantly throughout the ages covered. These patterns were not significantly different between right and left cerebral hemispheres. Of interest was that the NFU in the left cerebellar cortex was increased with age after 20s at a rate of 2.86%/decade. These data demonstrate regional variation of the age-related changes in the cerebral glucose metabolism, with the most prominent age-related decline of metabolism in the prefrontal cortex. The increase in the cerebellar metabolism with age might reflect a process of neuronal plasticity associated with aging.

  16. Studies on glucose metabolism and blood perfusion in childhood partial seizure by positron emission CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michihiro, Narumi

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the glucose metabolism and blood perfusion of the interictal epileptic focus, 15 positron emission tomography (PET) measurements were performed in 14 children with partial seizures (2 with simple partial seizures, 2 with complex partial seizures, and 10 with partial seizures evolving to secondary generalized seizures), comprising 7 males and 7 females aged 1 to 12 years old at the onset of the epileptic seizures. The intervals between the seizure onset and PET examinations were 1 month to 7 years (mean 3 1/4 years). Radiopharmaceuticals such as 11 C-glucose, 11 CO 2 and 11 CO were used as indicators of local cerebral glucose metabolism, blood perfusion and blood flow, respectively. Apart from 2 cases, none of the patients showed abnormal x-ray computed tomographic scans (X-CT). The abnormal X-CT findings included cortical atrophy of the cerebrum apart from the epiletic focus in one case and cavum vergae in the other. Hypometabolism and hypoperfusion at the epileptic focus were observed in 10 patients undergoing single examinations who had suffered from epileptic seizures for more than 1 year. Out of 4 patients who had suffered from epileptic seizures for 1 year or less, one revealed a zone of hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in the epileptic focus and expanded region larger than that of the epileptic focus on the electroencephalogram. Two other patients revealed a zone of hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in an area contralateral to the epileptic focus. In the remaining one patient, PET examinations were performed twice. The initial PET pictures one year after seizure onset revealed a zone of hypermetabolism and hyperperfusion in the cerebellum ipsilateral to the epileptic focus, and the second PET at 6 months after the initial examination revealed hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in the focus, similarly to the 10 cases mentioned above. (J.P.N.)

  17. Changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in normal aging process : A study with FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Joon Kee; Kim, Sang Eun; Lee, Kyung Han; Choi, Yong; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung Tae

    2001-01-01

    Normal aging results in detectable changes in the brain structure and function. We evaluated the changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in the normal aging process with FDG PET. Brain PET images were obtained in 44 healthy volunteers (age range 20-69'y'; M:F = 29:15) who had no history of neuropsychiatric disorders. On 6 representative transaxial images, ROls were drawn in the cortical and subcortical areas. Regional FDG uptake was normalized using whole brain uptake to adjust for the injection dose and correct for nonspecific declines of glucose metabolism affecting all brain areas equally. In the prefrontal, temporoparietal and primary sensorimotor cortex, the normalized FDG uptake (NFU) reached a peak In subjects in their 30s. The NFU in the prefrontal and primary sensorimotor cortex declined with age after 30s at a rate of 3.15%/decade and 1.93%/decade, respectively. However, the NFU in the lernporoparietal cortex did not change significantly with age after 30s. The anterior (prefrontal) posterior (temporoparietal) gradient peaked in subjects in their 30s and declined with age the reafter at a rate of 35%/decade. The NFU in the caudate nucleus was decreased with age after 20s at a rate of 2.39%/decade. In the primary visual cortex, putamen, and thalamus, the NFU values did not change significantly throughout the ages covered. These patterns were not significantly different between right and left cerebral hemispheres. Of interest was that the NFU in the left cerebellar cortex was increased with age after 20s at a rate of 2.86%/decade. These data demonstrate regional variation of the age-related changes in the cerebral glucose metabolism, with the most prominent age-related decline of metabolism in the prefrontal cortex. The increase in the cerebellar metabolism with age might reflect a process of neuronal plasticity associated with aging

  18. The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia implicates glucose metabolism: association study in three independent samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line; Hansen, Thomas; Jakobsen, Klaus D.

    2008-01-01

    networks implicated by the candidate genes resulting from the estrogen selection. We identified ten candidate genes using this approach that are all active in glucose metabolism and particularly in the glycolysis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that variants of the glycolytic genes are associated...... to nationality or gender. CONCLUSION: Several gene variants in the Glycolysis were associated with schizophrenia in three independent samples. However, the findings are weak and not resistant to correction for multiple testing, which may indicate that they are either spurious or may relate to a particular...

  19. NMR studies of the fate of adenine nucleotides in glucose-starved erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, W.A.; Mulquiney, P.J.; Kuchel, P.W.; Rohwer, J.; De Atauri, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: As a consequence of many refinements during the past 30 years, we now have a detailed understanding of the glycolytic pathway in human erythrocytes. By comparison, and notwithstanding their central importance to four key steps in erythrocyte glycolysis, our knowledge of the catabolism of adenine nucleotides remains relatively limited. In particular, the mechanism for the degradation of AMP, whose concentration rises under conditions of oxidative stress or glucose deprivation, remains poorly understood, AMP degradation may proceed via two possible pathways which converge in the production of inosine. Analysis of the key intermediates for the respective pathways, adenosine and AMP, as well as determination of end products is not straightforward. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy affords a potentially simple analytical solution to this problem but is complicated by spectral overlap and the sensitivity of key resonances to variations in pH and the concentrations of cations such as Mg 2+ . We describe a multinuclear NMR approach towards characterising the intermediates and end-products of adenine nucleotide metabolism in glucose-starved human erythrocytes. Assignments based on homo- and heteronuclear correlation experiments for both 13 C and 31 P are presented

  20. Microflora Disturbance during Progression of Glucose Intolerance and Effect of Sitagliptin: An Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinfeng Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Emerging evidences have shown a close interplay between obesity, diabetes, and intestinal flora disturbance. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, exemplified by sitagliptin, is highly efficacious in treating type 2 diabetes (T2DM, yet little is known if sitagliptin exerts beneficial effects on microbiota associated with obesity and T2DM. We evaluated changes of gut microbiota following the induction of obesity and T2DM in a streptozotocin treated high fat/high carbohydrate fed (HF/HC-STZ rat model and explored the effect of sitagliptin on gut microbiota for HF/HC-STZ rats. Methods. Sitagliptin was administered via oral gavage to diabetic rats. Fecal DNA extraction and 454 pyrosequencing based on analysis of 16S rRNA genes was utilized to determine the overall structure of microbiota in fecal DNA samples. Results. Results showed that, at the level of phylum, there was higher abundance of Firmicutes and Tenericutes and less abundance of Bacteroidetes in obese rats compared to their lean counterparts. At the level of genus, short-chain fatty acid- (SCFA- producing bacteria, Blautia, Roseburia, and Clostridium, and probiotics Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and so forth were identified significantly different from each other among conditions. Conclusion. Marked shifts of the gut microbiota structure were observed in the rats during development of glucose intolerance. Intestinal flora changed in the process of glucose intolerance, and treatment of sitagliptin moderately corrected the dysbiosis of microbiota in T2DM.

  1. Effect of chronic hypoglycaemia on glucose concentration and glycogen content in rat brain: a localized 13C NMR study

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Hongxia; Gruetter, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    While chronic hypoglycaemia has been reported to increase unidirectional glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and to increase GLUT1 expression at the endothelium, the effect on steady-state brain d-glucose and brain glycogen content is currently unknown. Brain glucose and glycogen concentrations were directly measured in vivo using localized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) following 12-14 days of hypoglycaemia. Brain glucose content was significantly increased by 4...

  2. Triglyceride and glucose (TyG) index as a predictor of incident hypertension: a 9-year longitudinal population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Rongjiong; Mao, Yushan

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypertension and the triglyceride and glucose index both have been associated with insulin resistance; however, the longitudinal association remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the longitudinal association between the triglyceride and glucose index and incident hypertension among the Chinese population. Methods We studied 4686 subjects (3177 males and 1509 females) and followed up for 9?years. The subjects were divided into four groups based on the triglyceride ...

  3. Tumour and lymph node uptakes on dual-phased 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography correlate with prognostic parameters in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chuan; Tu, Hung-Pin; Chen, Yu-Wen; Lin, Chia-Yang; Hou, Ming-Feng

    2014-12-01

    To examine correlations between the uptake of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) by primary tumours and axillary lymph nodes, and clinical and biological tumour prognostic parameters, in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Newly diagnosed breast cancer patients who had received a dual-phased FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan for pretreatment staging were enrolled retrospectively. Maximal standardized uptake values at 1 h (SUV1), 2 h (SUV2), and retention indices (RI) of the tumours and ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes were measured. SUV and RI were compared with clinical and biological prognostic parameters. A total of 32 patients participated in the study. Tumour FDG uptake correlated with histological grade and tumour size. FDG uptake in axillary lymph nodes correlated positively with lymph node status, metastasis status and clinical stage. RI values for the tumour and lymph nodes were significantly positively correlated with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positivity. FDG uptake in tumours and lymph nodes showed correlations with some clinical and biological parameters, and may serve as a predictive marker of tumour biological behaviour in breast cancer. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Effect of isochronal annealing on phase transformation studies of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mixed phase sample shows higher value of magnetization because of the presence of ferromagnetic γ-Fe2O3 ... 1. Introduction. The study of particle size, phase transformation and micros- ..... The results are in qualitative agreement with ...

  5. Study of Strange Quark Mass in CFL Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; L(U) Xiao-Fu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we introduce bilocal fields in the global color symmetry model and consider color and electrical neutrality conditions simultaneously to study the effect of strange quark mass Ms for the momentum-dependent condensate of color-flavor locked phase. Consequently we find that there will be a quantum phase transition occurring.

  6. Small modular biopower initiative Phase 1 feasibility studies executive summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, R.

    2000-03-06

    The Phase 1 objective is a feasibility study that includes a market assessment, resource assessment, preliminary system design, and assessment of relevant environmental and safety considerations, and evaluation of financial and cost issues, and a preliminary business plan and commercialization strategy. Each participating company will share at least 20% of the cost of the first phase.

  7. Electrochemical quartz crystal impedance study on immobilization of glucose oxidase in a polymer grown from dopamine oxidation at an Au electrode for glucose sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mingrui; Deng Chunyan; Xie Qingji; Yang Yang; Yao Shouzhuo

    2006-01-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOD) was codeposited into a polymer grown from oxidation of dopamine (DA) at an Au electrode in a neutral phosphate aqueous solution for the first time. The electrochemical quartz crystal impedance analysis (EQCIA) method was used to monitor the GOD-immobilization process. Effects of concentrations of phosphate buffer, DA and GOD were investigated, and the optimal concentrations were found to be 20.0mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), 30.0mM DA and 5.00mgml -1 GOD. A glucose biosensor was thus constructed, and effects of various experimental parameters on the sensor performance, including applied potential, solution pH and electroactive interferents, were examined. At an optimal potential of 0.6V versus the KCl-saturated calomel electrode (SCE), the current response of the biosensor in the selected phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) was linear with the concentration of glucose from 0.05 to 9mM, with a lower detection limit of 3μM (S/N=3), short response time (within 15s) and good anti-interferent ability. The Michaelis constant (K m app ) was estimated to be 9.6mM. The biosensor exhibited good storage stability, i.e. 96% of its initial response was retained after 7-day storage in the selected phosphate buffer at 4deg. C, and even after another 3 weeks the biosensor retained 86% of its initial response. In addition, the enzymatic specific activity and enzymatic relative activity of the GOD immobilized in the polymer from dopamine oxidation (PFDO) were estimated from the EQCIA method to be 1.43kUg -1 and 3.7%, respectively, which were larger than the relevant values obtained experimentally using poly(o-aminophenol) and poly(N-methylpyrrole) matrices, suggesting that the PFDO is a better matrix to immobilize GOD

  8. High "normal" blood glucose is associated with decreased brain volume and cognitive performance in the 60s: the PATH through life study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyra E Mortby

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is associated with cerebral atrophy, cognitive impairment and dementia. We recently showed higher glucose levels in the normal range not to be free of adverse effects and to be associated with greater hippocampal and amygdalar atrophy in older community-dwelling individuals free of diabetes.This study aimed to determine whether blood glucose levels in the normal range (<6.1 mmol/L were associated with cerebral volumes in structures other than the hippocampus and amygdale, and whether these glucose-related regional volumes were associated with cognitive performance.210 cognitively healthy individuals (68-73 years without diabetes, glucose intolerance or metabolic syndrome were assessed in the large, community-based Personality and Total Health Through Life (PATH study.Baseline blood glucose levels in the normal range (3.2-6.1 mmol/l were used to determine regional brain volumes and associated cognitive function at wave 3.Higher blood glucose levels in the normal range were associated with lower grey/white matter regional volumes in the frontal cortices (middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus precentral gyrus. Moreover, identified cerebral regions were associated with poorer cognitive performance and the structure-function associations were gender specific to men.These findings stress the need to re-evaluate what is considered as healthy blood glucose levels, and consider the role of higher normal blood glucose as a risk factor for cerebral health, cognitive function and dementia. A better lifetime management of blood glucose levels may contribute to improved cerebral and cognitive health in later life and possibly protect against dementia.

  9. Histological studies on the telencephalon of Hynobius leechii at the metamorphosis phase and the adult phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying-Ying; Shao, Ran; Liang, Chuan-Cheng; Wang, Yong; Wang, Li-Wen

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the telencephalon developmental characteristics of Hynobius leehii, and enrich the research data of comparable neurobiology and nervous system development of amphibian. HE staining and Nissl staining methods were used to study the telencephalon histological structure of Hynobius leechii at both the metamorphosis and the adult phases, and to explore the developmental phases of telencephalon. The olfactory bulb could be roughly divided into 6 layers from lateral to medial. The lateral cerebral ventricles at the metamorphosis phase were smaller than those at the adult phase, and there were no clear borderlines between the primordial pallium and the primordial hippocampus, or between the primordial pallium and the primordial piriform area. Moreover, the cells in the primordial piriform area were more closely distributed than those in the primordial hippocampus or the primordial pallium. Compared with those at the adult phase, cells in nucleuses at the metamorphosis phase were larger in number and more closely distributed. The telencephalon of Hynobius leehii at the metamorphosis phase has generally formed the adult structure. However, it is still at a transition state of differentiation to maturity during the development of Hynobius leehii.

  10. SCAPIS Pilot Study: Sitness, Fitness and Fatness - Is Sedentary Time Substitution by Physical Activity Equally Important for Everyone's Markers of Glucose Regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Ekblom, Örjan; Bolam, Kate A; Ekblom, Björn; Bergström, Göran; Börjesson, Mats

    2016-07-01

    Although moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is mainly recommended for glucose control, light physical activity (LIPA) may also have the potential to induce favorable changes. We investigated sedentary time (SED) substitution with equal time in LIPA and MVPA, and the association with markers of glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity after stratification by waist circumference, fitness and fasting glucose levels. A total of 654 men and women, 50 to 64 years, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Daily SED, LIPA and MVPA were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were determined. Substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA was significantly associated with 3.0% lower fasting insulin values and 3.1% lower HOMA-IR values, with even lower levels when substituting SED with MVPA. Participants with lower fitness and participants with high fasting glucose levels benefited significantly more from substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA compared with participants with normal to high fitness levels and participants with normal glucose levels, respectively. LIPA, and not only MVPA, may have beneficial associations with glucose regulation. This is of great clinical and public health importance, not least because it may confer a higher compliance rate to regular PA.

  11. Electrochemical studies of biocatalytic anode of sulfonated graphene/ferritin/glucose oxidase layer-by-layer biocomposite films for mediated electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamuddin; Haque, Sufia Ul; Naushad, Mu

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a bioanode was developed by using layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of sulfonated graphene (SG)/ferritin (Frt)/glucose oxidase (GOx). The SG/Frt biocomposite was used as an electron transfer elevator and mediator, respectively. Glucose oxidase (GOx) from Aspergillus niger was applied as a glucose oxidation biocatalyst. The electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose using GOx modified electrode increases with an increase in the concentration of glucose in the range of 10-50mM. The electrochemical measurements of the electrode was carried out by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) at different scan rates (20-100mVs(-1)) in 30mM of glucose solution prepared in 0.3M potassium ferrocyanide (K4Fe(CN)6) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). A saturation current density of 50±2mAcm(-2) at a scan rate of 100mVs(-1) for the oxidation of 30Mm glucose is achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Parameters of glucose metabolism and the aging brain: a magnetization transfer imaging study of brain macro- and micro-structure in older adults without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintola, Abimbola A; van den Berg, Annette; Altmann-Schneider, Irmhild; Jansen, Steffy W; van Buchem, Mark A; Slagboom, P Eline; Westendorp, Rudi G; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2015-08-01

    Given the concurrent, escalating epidemic of diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases, two age-related disorders, we aimed to understand the relation between parameters of glucose metabolism and indices of pathology in the aging brain. From the Leiden Longevity Study, 132 participants (mean age 66 years) underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test to assess glucose tolerance (fasted and area under the curve (AUC) glucose), insulin sensitivity (fasted and AUC insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS)) and insulin secretion (insulinogenic index). 3-T brain MRI was used to detect macro-structural damage (atrophy, white matter hyper-intensities, infarcts and/or micro-bleeds) and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) to detect loss of micro-structural homogeneity that remains otherwise invisible on conventional MRI. Macro-structurally, higher fasted glucose was significantly associated with white matter atrophy (P = 0.028). Micro-structurally, decreased magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) peak height in gray matter was associated with higher fasted insulin (P = 0.010), AUCinsulin (P = 0.001), insulinogenic index (P = 0.008) and lower HOMA-IS index (P glucose was associated with macro-structural damage, impaired insulin action was associated more strongly with reduced micro-structural brain parenchymal homogeneity. These findings offer some insight into the association between different parameters of glucose metabolism (impairment of which is characteristic of diabetes mellitus) and brain aging.

  13. Oak Ridge Health Studies phase 1 report, Volume 1: Oak Ridge Phase 1 overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbrough, M.I.; Van Cleave, M.L.; Turri, P.; Daniel, J.

    1993-09-01

    In July 1991, the State of Tennessee initiated the Health Studies Agreement with the United States Department of Energy to carry out independent studies of possible adverse health effects in people living in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge Reservation. The health studies focus on those effects that could have resulted or could result from exposures to chemicals and radioactivity released at the Reservation since 1942. The major focus of the first phase was to complete a Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. This study was designed to find out if enough data exist about chemical and radionuclide releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation to conduct a second phase. The second phase will lead to estimates of the actual amounts or the ``doses`` of various contaminants received by people as a result of off-site releases. Once the doses of various contaminants have been estimated, scientists and physicians will be better able to evaluate whether adverse health effects could have resulted from the releases.

  14. Oak Ridge Health Studies phase 1 report, Volume 1: Oak Ridge Phase 1 overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbrough, M.I.; Van Cleave, M.L.; Turri, P.; Daniel, J.

    1993-09-01

    In July 1991, the State of Tennessee initiated the Health Studies Agreement with the United States Department of Energy to carry out independent studies of possible adverse health effects in people living in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge Reservation. The health studies focus on those effects that could have resulted or could result from exposures to chemicals and radioactivity released at the Reservation since 1942. The major focus of the first phase was to complete a Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. This study was designed to find out if enough data exist about chemical and radionuclide releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation to conduct a second phase. The second phase will lead to estimates of the actual amounts or the ''doses'' of various contaminants received by people as a result of off-site releases. Once the doses of various contaminants have been estimated, scientists and physicians will be better able to evaluate whether adverse health effects could have resulted from the releases

  15. Crime Self-Reporting Study: Phase 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buck, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    The PERSEREC Crime Self-Reporting Study covers criminal record checks conducted in CY00 on 14,470 subjects of DoD security clearance investigations, including uniformed military, civilian, and contractor personnel...

  16. Design of the NL-ENIGMA study: Exploring the effect of Souvenaid on cerebral glucose metabolism in early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheltens, Nienke M E; Kuyper, Ingrid S; Boellaard, Ronald; Barkhof, Frederik; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Broersen, Laus M; Lansbergen, Marieke M; van der Flier, Wiesje M; van Berckel, Bart N M; Scheltens, Philip

    2016-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease is associated with early synaptic loss. Specific nutrients are known to be rate limiting for synapse formation. Studies have shown that administering specific nutrients may improve memory function, possibly by increasing synapse formation. This Dutch study explores the Effect of a specific Nutritional Intervention on cerebral Glucose Metabolism in early Alzheimer's disease (NL-ENIGMA, Dutch Trial Register NTR4718, http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=4718). The NL-ENIGMA study is designed to test whether the specific multinutrient combination Fortasyn Connect present in the medical food Souvenaid influences cerebral glucose metabolism as a marker for improved synapse function. This study is a double-blind, randomized controlled parallel-group single-center trial. Forty drug-naive patients with mild cognitive impairment or mild dementia with evidence of amyloid deposition are 1:1 randomized to receive either the multinutrient combination or placebo once daily. Main exploratory outcome parameters include absolute quantitative positron emission tomography with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (including arterial sampling) and standard uptake value ratios normalized for the cerebellum or pons after 24 weeks. We expect the NL-ENIGMA study to provide further insight in the potential of this multinutrient combination to improve synapse function.

  17. German risk study on nuclear power stations. Phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The German Risk Study on Nuclear Power Stations is concerned with investigations of accidents in nuclear facilities and their associated risks. These investigations are undertaken on behalf of the federal Minister of Research and Technology. They have been broken down into two phases (Phase A and Phase B). The results of Phase A were published in 1979 (GRS 79). This report contains a summary of the investigations relating to Phase B. After an introduction setting out the basic principles and aim of the study, a general review will be given of the most important results. The course of the investigations and the results have already been published in a Technical Report (GRS 89). (author)

  18. Studies on acetate, propionate and glucose utilization for milk fat and other milk components in buffalo and cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahal, C.K.; Varma, A.; Singh, U.B.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on two lactating buffaloes and two lactating cows, to study the differences in the utilization of 14 C-acetate, 14 C-propionate and 3 H-glucose for the synthesis of milk fat, milk casein and milk lactalbumin. The animals were maintained on identical condition of feed. Single infusion technique was used throughout the course of investigation. Samples of milk were collected at different time intervals between 0 to 48 h and the radioactivity was determined in different milk fractions after separation. (author)

  19. Studies on acetate, propionate and glucose utilization for milk fat and other milk components in buffalo and cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahal, C K; Varma, A; Singh, U B; Ranjhan, S K [Indian Veterinary Research Inst., Izatnagar. Div. of Animal Nutrition

    1974-12-01

    Experiments were conducted on two lactating buffaloes and two lactating cows, to study the differences in the utilization of /sup 14/C-acetate, /sup 14/C-propionate and /sup 3/H-glucose for the synthesis of milk fat, milk casein and milk lactalbumin. The animals were maintained on identical condition of feed. Single infusion technique was used throughout the course of investigation. Samples of milk were collected at different time intervals between 0 to 48 h and the radioactivity was determined in different milk fractions after separation.

  20. Predictive Value of Triglyceride Glucose Index for the Risk of Incident Diabetes: A 4-Year Retrospective Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Da Young; Lee, Eun Seo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young

    2016-01-01

    The Triglyceride Glucose Index (TyG index) is considered a surrogate marker of insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the TyG index has a predictive role in identifying individuals with a high risk of incident diabetes and to compare it with other indicators of metabolic health. A total 2900 non-diabetic adults who attended five consecutive annual health check-ups at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital was divided into four subgroups using three methods: (1) baseline TyG ind...

  1. Prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in Peru: report from PERUDIAB, a national urban population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seclen, Segundo N; Rosas, Moises E; Arias, Arturo J; Huayta, Ernesto; Medina, Cecilia A

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the prevalences of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in a national sample in Peru and assess the relationships with selected sociodemographic variables. We estimated prevalence in PERUDIAB study participants, a nationwide, stratified urban and suburban population selected by random cluster sampling. Between 2010 and 2012, questionnaires were completed and blood tests obtained from 1677 adults ≥25 years of age. Known diabetes was defined as participants having been told so by a doctor or nurse and/or receiving insulin or oral antidiabetic agents. Newly diagnosed diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL determined during the study and without a previous diabetes diagnosis. IFG was defined as fasting plasma glucose of 100-125 mg/dL. The estimated national prevalence of diabetes was 7.0% (95% CI 5.3% to 8.7%) and it was 8.4% (95% CI 5.6% to 11.3%) in metropolitan Lima. No gender differences were detected. Known and newly diagnosed diabetes prevalences were estimated as 4.2% and 2.8%, respectively. A logistic regression response surface model showed a complex trend for an increased prevalence of diabetes in middle-aged individuals and in those with no formal education. Diabetes prevalence was higher in coastal (8.2%) than in highlands (4.5%; p=0.03), and jungle (3.5%; pdiabetes as an important public health problem, especially for middle-aged individuals and those with no formal education. 40% of the affected individuals were undiagnosed. The elevated prevalence of IFG shows that nearly a quarter of the adult population of Peru has an increased risk of diabetes.

  2. Duodenal and ileal glucose infusions differentially alter gastrointestinal peptides, appetite response, and food intake: a tube feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppitt, Sally D; Shin, Hyun Sang; McGill, Anne-Thea; Budgett, Stephanie C; Lo, Kim; Pahl, Malcolm; Duxfield, Janice; Lane, Mark; Ingram, John R

    2017-09-01

    Background: Activation of the ileal brake through the delivery of nutrients into the distal small intestine to promote satiety and suppress food intake provides a new target for weight loss. Evidence is limited, with support from naso-ileal lipid infusion studies. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether glucose infused into the duodenum and ileum differentially alters appetite response, food intake, and secretion of satiety-related gastrointestinal peptides. Design: Fourteen healthy male participants were randomly assigned to a blinded 4-treatment crossover, with each treatment of single-day duration. On the day before the intervention (day 0), a 380-cm multilumen tube (1.75-mm diameter) with independent port access to the duodenum and ileum was inserted, and position was confirmed by X-ray. Subsequently (days 1-4), a standardized breakfast meal was followed midmorning by a 90-min infusion of isotonic glucose (15 g, 235 kJ) or saline to the duodenum or ileum. Appetite ratings were assessed with the use of visual analog scales (VASs), blood samples collected, and ad libitum energy intake (EI) measured at lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner. Results: Thirteen participants completed the 4 infusion days. There was a significant effect of nutrient infused and site (treatment × time, P appetite, and decreased ad libitum EI at a subsequent meal. Although glucose to the duodenum also suppressed appetite ratings, eating behavior was not altered. This trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12612000429853. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Glucose intolerance and gestational diabetes risk in relation to sleep duration and snoring during pregnancy: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Ihunnaya O

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insufficient sleep and poor sleep quality, considered endemic in modern society, are associated with obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. Little, however, is known about the consequences of insufficient sleep and poor sleep quality during pregnancy on glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. Methods A cohort of 1,290 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. We collected information about sleep duration and snoring during early pregnancy. Results from screening and diagnostic testing for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM were abstracted from medical records. Generalized linear models were fitted to derive relative risk (RR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs of GDM associated with sleep duration and snoring, respectively. Results After adjusting for maternal age and race/ethnicity, GDM risk was increased among women sleeping ≤ 4 hours compared with those sleeping 9 hours per night (RR = 5.56; 95% CI 1.31-23.69. The corresponding RR for lean women (2 was 3.23 (95% CI 0.34-30.41 and 9.83 (95% CI 1.12-86.32 for overweight women (≥ 25 kg/m2. Overall, snoring was associated with a 1.86-fold increased risk of GDM (RR = 1.86; 95% CI 0.88-3.94. The risk of GDM was particularly elevated among overweight women who snored. Compared with lean women who did not snore, those who were overweight and snored had a 6.9-fold increased risk of GDM (95% CI 2.87-16.6. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest associations of short sleep duration and snoring with glucose intolerance and GDM. Though consistent with studies of men and non-pregnant women, larger studies that include objective measures of sleep duration, quality and apnea are needed to obtain more precise estimates of observed associations.

  4. Compressed-tube pressure cell for optical studies at ocean pressures: Application to glucose mutarotation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamelas, F J

    2016-12-01

    A self-contained compressed-tube pressure cell is tested to 25 MPa. The cell is very simple to construct and offers stable pressure control with optical access to fluid samples. The physical path length of light through the cell is large enough to measure optical activity. The entire system is relatively small and portable, and it is vibration-free, since a compressor is not used. Operation of the cell is demonstrated by measuring the mutarotation rate of aqueous glucose solutions at 25 °C. A logarithmic plot of the rate constant vs. pressure yields an activation volume for mutarotation of -22 cm 3 /mol, approximately twice the value measured previously at higher pressures.

  5. Volumetric and viscometric studies of glucose in binary aqueous solutions of urea at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, T.; Saharay, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Densities and viscosities of glucose in (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0) mass% aqueous urea solutions have been measured at T = (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K, respectively. Apparent molar volumes, limiting partial molar volume, and relative viscosity have been obtained from the density and viscosity results. Limiting partial molar expansibilities have also been calculated from the temperature dependence of limiting partial molar volumes. The viscosity data have been analyzed by using the modified Jones-Dole equation. The results are used to establish the nature of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions. Transition state treatment of the relative viscosity was also used for the calculation of activation parameters of viscous flow. Pour findings show that the solute acts as a water structure former and provides strong solute-solvent interaction.

  6. Volumetric and viscometric studies of urea in binary aqueous solutions of glucose at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, T.; Ray, A.

    2010-01-01

    Densities and viscosities of urea in (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0) mass% of aqueous glucose solutions have been measured at T = (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K, respectively. Apparent molar volumes, limiting partial molar volume, and relative viscosity have been obtained from the density and viscosity data. Limiting partial molar expansibilities have also been calculated from the temperature dependence of limiting partial molar volumes. The viscosity data has been analyzed using the Jones-Dole equation. The results are used to establish the nature of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions. The activation parameters of viscous flow have also been calculated on the basis of transition state treatment of the relative viscosity. Result shows that the solute acts as water structure breaker and posses' weak solute-solvent interaction.

  7. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ORAL OLANZAPINE AND ORAL HALOPERIDOL ON GLUCOSE TOLERANCE LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N S Sangeetha Lakshmi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by persistent defects in the perception, thinking or the expression of reality. The term “schizophrenia” translates roughly as “shattered mind,” and comes from the Greek (schizo, “to split” or “to divide” and (phrēn, “mind”. Material and Methods: The study was designed to be a prospective control study. Schizophrenic patients taking Olanzapine and Haloperidol were selected and follow up at three weeks and six weeks was done. Results: In this prospective control study, Olanzapine and Haloperidol were associated with an increase in Blood Glucose Levels. The mean changes in Glucose remained within clinically normal range in this six week study. Conclusion: Antipsychotic treatmemt leads to the development of Diabetes mellitus in a significant 10.1% of patients within 6 weeks. Given the serious implications for morbidity and mortality attributable to diabetes mellitus, clinicians need to be aware of these risk factors when treating patients with chronic schizophrenia

  8. Cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and diabetes incidence after lifestyle intervention for people with impaired glucose tolerance in the Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study: a 23-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangwei; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Jinping; An, Yali; Gong, Qiuhong; Gregg, Edward W; Yang, Wenying; Zhang, Bo; Shuai, Ying; Hong, Jing; Engelgau, Michael M; Li, Hui; Roglic, Gojka; Hu, Yinghua; Bennett, Peter H

    2014-06-01

    Lifestyle interventions among people with impaired glucose tolerance reduce the incidence of diabetes, but their effect on all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality is unclear. We assessed the long-term effect of lifestyle intervention on long-term outcomes among adults with impaired glucose tolerance who participated in the Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study. The study was a cluster randomised trial in which 33 clinics in Da Qing, China-serving 577 adults with impaired glucose tolerance-were randomised (1:1:1:1) to a control group or lifestyle intervention groups (diet or exercise or both). Patients were enrolled in 1986 and the intervention phase lasted for 6 years. In 2009, we followed up participants to assess the primary outcomes of cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and incidence of diabetes in the intention-to-treat population. Of the 577 patients, 439 were assigned to the intervention group and 138 were assigned to the control group (one refused baseline examination). 542 (94%) of 576 participants had complete data for mortality and 568 (99%) contributed data to the analysis. 174 participants died during the 23 years of follow-up (121 in the intervention group vs 53 in the control group). Cumulative incidence of cardiovascular disease mortality was 11.9% (95% CI 8.8-15.0) in the intervention group versus 19.6% (12.9-26.3) in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.59, 95% CI 0.36-0.96; p=0.033). All-cause mortality was 28.1% (95% CI 23.9-32.4) versus 38.4% (30.3-46.5; HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.51-0.99; p=0.049). Incidence of diabetes was 72.6% (68.4-76.8) versus 89.9% (84.9-94.9; HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.40-0.76; p=0.001). A 6-year lifestyle intervention programme for Chinese people with impaired glucose tolerance can reduce incidence of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality and diabetes. These findings emphasise the long-term clinical benefits of lifestyle intervention for patients with impaired glucose tolerance and provide further justification for

  9. Phase I clinical studies with WR-2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kligerman, M.M.; Shaw, M.T.; Slavik, M.; Yuhas, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Toxicity studies of S-2-(3 aminopropylamino)-ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721) access patients in remission following radiation therapy. The dose has been escalated from 25 to 250 mg/m2 without significant symptoms. Inconsistent variation in the systolic blood pressure in some patients has been observed over an 8-10-point range without producing any symptoms. Combining WR-2721 with conventional radiotherapy is contemplated by intravenous injection the drug 20 to 30 minutes before irradiation. This will start as weekly injections, and the number of weekly injections will be increased progessively. Animal studies suggest that the level already safely reached could give significant protection to the normal tissues without protecting tumor

  10. Study of two-phase foam flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurbanov, R S; Guliev, B B; Mekhtiev, K G; Kerimov, R G

    1970-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine characteristics of aqueous foam flow through porous media and to estimate the depth of foam penetration into a formation. Foam was generated by mixing air and 1% solution of surfactant PO-1. Foam density was maintained at 0.14 g/cc in all experiments. The foam was passed through sand columns (800 mm long x 30 mm diam) of permeabilities 26, 39, 80, 111, and 133 darcys. Flow rates were measured at various pressure drops and the relationship between system parameters was expressed analytically and graphically. From the data, distance of foam penetration into a formation as a function of pressure drop and permeability was calculated. The data indicate that under most conditions, foam will penetrate the formation to a negligible distance. This study indicates that when foam is used to remove sand from a well, a negligible loss of foam to the formation occurs.

  11. Cerebral glucose metabolism and cognition in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease: ICICLE-PD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firbank, M J; Yarnall, A J; Lawson, R A; Duncan, G W; Khoo, T K; Petrides, G S; O'Brien, J T; Barker, R A; Maxwell, R J; Brooks, D J; Burn, D J

    2017-04-01

    To assess reductions of cerebral glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease (PD) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), and their associations with cognitive decline. FDG-PET was performed on a cohort of 79 patients with newly diagnosed PD (mean disease duration 8 months) and 20 unrelated controls. PD participants were scanned while on their usual dopaminergic medication. Cognitive testing was performed at baseline, and after 18 months using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) computerised batteries, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). We used statistical parametric mapping (SPM V.12) software to compare groups and investigate voxelwise correlations between FDG metabolism and cognitive score at baseline. Linear regression was used to evaluate how levels of cortical FDG metabolism were predictive of subsequent cognitive decline rated with the MMSE and MoCA. PD participants showed reduced glucose metabolism in the occipital and inferior parietal lobes relative to controls. Low performance on memory-based tasks was associated with reduced FDG metabolism in posterior parietal and temporal regions, while attentional performance was associated with more frontal deficits. Baseline parietal to cerebellum FDG metabolism ratios predicted MMSE (β=0.38, p=0.001) and MoCA (β=0.3, p=0.002) at 18 months controlling for baseline score. Reductions in cortical FDG metabolism were present in newly diagnosed PD, and correlated with performance on neuropsychological tests. A reduced baseline parietal metabolism is associated with risk of cognitive decline and may represent a potential biomarker for this state and the development of PD dementia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Neuroscience of glucose homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Fleur, S E; Fliers, E; Kalsbeek, A

    2014-01-01

    Plasma glucose concentrations are homeostatically regulated and maintained within strict boundaries. Several mechanisms are in place to increase glucose output when glucose levels in the circulation drop as a result of glucose utilization, or to decrease glucose output and increase tissue glucose

  13. Pancreatic α- and β-Cell Function and Metabolic Changes during Oral L-Alanine and Glucose Administration: Comparative Studies between Normal, Diabetic and Cirrhotic Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    HATTORI, TADAKAZU; HOTTA, NIGISHI; OHARA, KIYOJI; SHINODA, HIROSHI; KUNIEDA, TAKEHIDE; NOMURA, TAKAHIDE; KAKUTA, HIRONOBU; TAMAGAWA, TATSUO; SAKAMOTO, NOBUO

    1989-01-01

    The present study investigated whether or not, in addition to the oral glucose tolerance test, oral alanine loading was a useful diagnostic tool for hormonal and metabolic diseases. Fifty g of L-alanine was administered orally in 14 normal, 12 diabetic, and 8 liver cirrhotic subjects. The influence of oral alanine loading on hormones and metabolites was compared with the results of 100g oral glucose loading. The results obtained were as follows: 1) In the normal subjects and cirrhotics, lacta...

  14. Blood lipid levels in relation to glucose status in European men and women without a prior history of diabetes: the DECODE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, L.; Qiao, Q.; Tuomilehto, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Dyslipidaemia is present not only in diabetic but also in prediabetic subjects. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between lipid and glucose levels in a large European population without a prior history of diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data from....... RESULTS: In subjects without a prior history of diabetes, positive relationships were shown between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and total cholesterol (TC) (beta=0.06 and 0.03, respectively for men and women, p

  15. Advanced supersonic propulsion study, phase 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Installation characteristics for a Variable Stream Control Engine (VSCE) were studied for three advanced supersonic airplane designs. Sensitivity of the VSCE concept to change in technology projections was evaluated in terms of impact on overall installed performance. Based on these sensitivity results, critical technology requirements were reviewed, resulting in the reaffirmation of the following requirements: low-noise nozzle system; a high performance, low emissions duct burner and main burner; hot section technology; variable geometry components; and propulsion integration features, including an integrated electronic control system.

  16. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Phase 2 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Lefton, S.; Kumar, N.; Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation summarizes the scope and results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

  17. Accuracy evaluation of five blood glucose monitoring systems obtained from the pharmacy: a European multicenter study with 453 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Cornelius; Pohlmeier, Harald; Behnke, Thomas; Schmid, Volkmar; Grenningloh, Marco; Forst, Thomas; Pfützner, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    This multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the performance of five recently introduced blood glucose (BG) monitoring (BGM) devices under daily routine conditions in comparison with the YSI (Yellow Springs, OH) 2300 Stat Plus glucose analyzer. Five hundred one diabetes patients with experience in self-monitoring of BG were randomized to use three of five different BGM devices (FreeStyle Lite® [Abbott Diabetes Care Inc., Alameda, CA], FreeStyle Freedom Lite [Abbott Diabetes Care], OneTouch® UltraEasy® [LifeScan Inc., Milpitas, CA], Accu-Chek® Aviva [Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany], and Contour® [Bayer Vital GmbH, Leverkusen, Germany]) in a daily routine setting. All devices and strips were purchased from local regular distribution sources (pharmacies, four strip lots per device). The patients performed the finger prick and the glucose measurement on their own. In parallel, a healthcare professional performed the glucose assessment with the reference method (YSI 2300 Stat Plus). The primary objective was the comparison of the mean absolute relative differences (MARD). Secondary objectives were compliance with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) accuracy criteria under these routine conditions and Clarke and Parkes Error Grid analyses. MARD ranged from 4.9% (FreeStyle Lite) to 9.7% (OneTouch UltraEasy). The ISO 15197:2003 requirements were fulfilled by the FreeStyle Lite (98.8%), FreeStyle Freedom Lite (97.5%), and Accu-Chek Aviva (97.0%), but not by the Contour (92.4%) and OneTouch UltraEasy (91.1%). The number of values in Zone A of the Clarke Error Grid analysis was highest for the FreeStyle Lite (98.8%) and lowest for the OneTouch Ultra Easy (90.4%). FreeStyle Lite, FreeStyle Freedom Lite, and Accu-Chek Aviva performed very well in this study with devices and strips purchased through regular distribution channels, with the FreeStyle Lite achieving the lowest MARD in this investigation.

  18. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) affects the initial response to intravenous glucose: a randomised placebo-controlled cross-over study in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinisch, B B; Vila, G; Resl, M; Riedl, M; Dieplinger, B; Mueller, T; Luger, A; Pacini, G; Clodi, M

    2012-05-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a hormone released from cardiomyocytes in response to cell stretching and elevated in heart failure. Recent observations indicate a distinct connection between chronic heart failure and diabetes mellitus. This study investigated the role of BNP on glucose metabolism. Ten healthy volunteers (25 ± 1 years; BMI 23 ± 1 kg/m(2); fasting glucose 4.6 ± 0.1 mmol/l) were recruited to a participant-blinded investigator-open placebo-controlled cross-over study, performed at a university medical centre. They were randomly assigned (sequentially numbered opaque sealed envelopes) to receive either placebo or 3 pmol kg(-1) min(-1) BNP-32 intravenously during 4 h on study day 1 or 2. One hour after beginning the BNP/placebo infusion, a 3 h intravenous glucose tolerance test (0.33 g/kg glucose + 0.03 U/kg insulin at 20 min) was performed. Plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide were frequently measured. Ten volunteers per group were analysed. BNP increased the initial glucose distribution volume (13 ± 1% body weight vs 11 ± 1%, p < 0.002), leading to an overall reduction in glucose concentration (p < 0.001), particularly during the initial 20 min of the test (p = 0.001), accompanied by a reduction in the initial C-peptide levels (1.42 ± 0.13 vs 1.62 ± 0.10 nmol/l, p = 0.015). BNP had no impact on beta cell function, insulin clearance or insulin sensitivity and induced no adverse effects. Intravenous administration of BNP increases glucose initial distribution volume and lowers plasma glucose concentrations following a glucose load, without affecting beta cell function or insulin sensitivity. These data support the theory that BNP has no diabetogenic properties, but improves metabolic status in men, and suggest new questions regarding BNP-induced differences in glucose availability and signalling in various organs/tissues. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01324739 The study was funded by Jubilée Fonds of the Austrian National Bank (OeNB-Fonds).

  19. Effects of ingested turmeric oleoresin on glucose and lipid metabolisms in obese diabetic mice: a DNA microarray study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Shinichi; Aoki, Fumiki; Tanaka, Hozumi; Kishida, Hideyuki; Nishiyama, Tozo; Okada, Shinji; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Abe, Keiko; Mae, Tatsumasa

    2006-11-29

    Turmeric, the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., has a wide range of effects on human health. Turmeric oleoresin, an extract of turmeric, is often used for flavoring and coloring. Curcuminoids and turmeric essential oil are both contained in turmeric oleoresin, and both of these fractions have hypoglycemic effects. In the present study, we comprehensively assessed the effect of turmeric oleoresin on hepatic gene expression in obese diabetic KK-Ay mice using DNA microarray analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Female KK-Ay mice aged 6 weeks (n = 6/group) were fed a high-fat diet containing turmeric oleoresin, curcuminoids, and essential oil for 5 weeks. The same diet without any of these fractions was used as a control diet. Ingestion of turmeric oleoresin and essential oil inhibited the development of increased blood glucose and abdominal fat mass, while curcuminoids only inhibited the increase in blood glucose. DNA microarray analysis indicated that turmeric oleoresin ingestion up-regulated the expression of genes related to glycolysis, beta-oxidation, and cholesterol metabolism in the liver of KK-Ay mice, while expression of gluconeogenesis-related genes was down-regulated. Real-time PCR analysis was conducted to assess the contribution of the curcuminoids and essential oil in turmeric oleoresin to the changes in expression of representative genes selected by DNA microarray analysis. This analysis suggested that curcuminoids regulated turmeric oleoresin ingestion-induced expression of glycolysis-related genes and also that curcuminoids and turmeric essential oil acted synergistically to regulate the peroxisomal beta-oxidation-related gene expression induced by turmeric oleoresin ingestion. These changes in gene expression were considered to be the mechanism by which the turmeric oleoresin affected the control of both blood glucose levels and abdominal adipose tissue masses. All of these results suggest that the use of whole turmeric

  20. Review of human studies investigating the post-prandial blood-glucose lowering ability of oat and barley food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, S M

    2013-04-01

    Oat and barley foods have been shown to reduce human glycaemic response, compared to similar wheat foods or a glucose control. The strength of the evidence supporting the hypothesis that the soluble fibre, mixed linkage β-glucan, reduces glycaemic response was evaluated. A search of the literature was conducted to find clinical trials with acute glycaemic response as an end point using oat or barley products. Of the 76 human studies identified, 34 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Dose response and ratio of β-glucan to available carbohydrate as predictors of glycaemic response were assessed. Meals provided 0.3-12.1 g oat or barley β-glucan, and reduced glycaemic response by an average of 48 ± 33 mmol · min/l compared to a suitable control. Regression analysis on 119 treatments indicated that change in glycaemic response (expressed as incremental area under the post-prandial blood-glucose curve) was greater for intact grains than for processed foods. For processed foods, glycaemic response was more strongly related to the β-glucan dose alone (r(2)=0.48, Pfoods containing 4 g of β-glucan, the linear model predicted a decrease in glycaemic response of 27 ± 3 mmol · min/l, and 76% of treatments significantly reduced glycaemic response. Thus, intact grains as well as a variety of processed oat and barley foods containing at least 4 g of β-glucan and 30-80 g available carbohydrate can significantly reduce post-prandial blood glucose.

  1. External fuel vaporization study, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szetela, E. J.; Chiappetta, L.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to evaluate the effect of variations in fuel properties on the design of an external fuel vaporizaton system. The fuel properties that were considered included thermal stability, critical temperature, enthalpy a critical conditions, volatility, and viscosity. The design parameters that were evaluated included vaporizer weight and the impact on engine requirement such as maintenance, transient response, performance, and altitude relight. The baseline fuel properties were those of Jet A. The variation in thermal stability was taken as the thermal stability variation for Experimental Referee Broad Specification (ERBS) fuel. The results of the analysis indicate that a change in thermal stability equivalent to that of ERBS would increase the vaporization system weight by 20 percent, decrease oprating time between cleaning by 40 percent and make altitude relight more difficult. An increase in fuel critical temperature of 39 K would require a 40 percent increase in vaporization system weight. The assumed increase in enthalpy and volatility would also increase vaporizer weight by 40 percent and make altitude relight extremely difficult. The variation in fuel viscosity would have a negligible effect on the design parameters.

  2. Study of Stationary Phase Metabolism Via Isotopomer Analysis of Amino Acids from an Isolated Protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, AfshanS.; Tang, YinjieJ.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Martin, Hector Garcia; Gin, Jennifer; Benke, Peter; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-09-14

    Microbial production of many commercially important secondary metabolites occurs during stationary phase, and methods to measure metabolic flux during this growth phase would be valuable. Metabolic flux analysis is often based on isotopomer information from proteinogenic amino acids. As such, flux analysis primarily reflects the metabolism pertinent to the growth phase during which most proteins are synthesized. To investigate central metabolism and amino acids synthesis activity during stationary phase, addition of fully 13C-labeled glucose followed by induction of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression during stationary phase was used. Our results indicate that Escherichia coli was able to produce new proteins (i.e., GFP) in the stationary phase, and the amino acids in GFP were mostly from degraded proteins synthesized during the exponential growth phase. Among amino acid biosynthetic pathways, only those for serine, alanine, glutamate/glutamine, and aspartate/asparagine had significant activity during the stationary phase.

  3. Applying decision tree for identification of a low risk population for type 2 diabetes. Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezankhani, Azra; Pournik, Omid; Shahrabi, Jamal; Khalili, Davood; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to create a prediction model using data mining approach to identify low risk individuals for incidence of type 2 diabetes, using the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) database. For a 6647 population without diabetes, aged ≥20 years, followed for 12 years, a prediction model was developed using classification by the decision tree technique. Seven hundred and twenty-nine (11%) diabetes cases occurred during the follow-up. Predictor variables were selected from demographic characteristics, smoking status, medical and drug history and laboratory measures. We developed the predictive models by decision tree using 60 input variables and one output variable. The overall classification accuracy was 90.5%, with 31.1% sensitivity, 97.9% specificity; and for the subjects without diabetes, precision and f-measure were 92% and 0.95, respectively. The identified variables included fasting plasma glucose, body mass index, triglycerides, mean arterial blood pressure, family history of diabetes, educational level and job status. In conclusion, decision tree analysis, using routine demographic, clinical, anthropometric and laboratory measurements, created a simple tool to predict individuals at low risk for type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Accuracy Evaluation of 19 Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems Manufactured in the Asia-Pacific Region: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Fei, Wang; Wei-Ping, Jia; Ming-Hsun, Wu; Miao-O, Chien; Ming-Chang, Hsieh; Chi-Pin, Wang; Ming-Shih, Lee

    2017-09-01

    System accuracy of current blood glucose monitors (BGMs) in the market has already been evaluated extensively, yet mostly focused on European and North American manufacturers. Data on BGMs manufactured in the Asia-Pacific region remain to be established. In this study, we sought to assess the accuracy performance of 19 BGMs manufactured in the Asia-pacific region. A total of 19 BGMs were obtained from local pharmacies in China. The study was conducted at three hospitals located in the Asia-Pacific region. Measurement results of each system were compared with results of the reference instrument (YSI 2300 PLUS Glucose Analyzer), and accuracy evaluation was performed in accordance to the ISO 15197:2003 and updated 2015 guidelines. Radar plots, which is a new method, are described herein to visualize the analytical performance of the 19 BGMs evaluated. Consensus error grid is a tool for evaluating the clinical significance of the results. The 19 BGMs resulted in a satisfaction rate between 83.5% and 100.0% within ISO 15197:2003 error limits, and between 71.3% and 100.0% within EN ISO 15197:2015 (ISO 15197:2013) error limits. Of the 19 BGMs evaluated, 12 met the minimal accuracy requirement of the ISO 15197:2003 standard, whereas only 4 met the tighter EN ISO 15197:2015 (ISO 15197:2013) requirements. Accuracy evaluation of BGMs should be performed regularly to maximize patient safety.

  5. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and PET/CT for noninvasive study of exercise-induced glucose uptake in rat skeletal muscle and tendon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Kjaer, Michael; El-Ali, Henrik; Kjaer, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    To investigate exercise-related glucose uptake in rat muscle and tendon using PET/CT and to study possible explanatory changes in gene expression for the glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT4). The sciatic nerve in eight Wistar rats was subjected to electrostimulation to cause unilateral isometric contractions of the calf muscle. 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose was administered and a PET/CT scan of the hindlimbs was performed. SUVs were calculated in both Achilles tendons and the triceps surae muscles. To exclude a spill-over effect the tendons and muscles from an ex vivo group of eight rats were cut out and scanned separately (distance≥1 cm). Muscle contractions increased glucose uptake approximately sevenfold in muscles (p<0.001) and 36% in tendons (p<0.01). The ex vivo group confirmed the increase in glucose uptake in intact animals. GLUT1 and GLUT4 were expressed in both skeletal muscle and tendon, but no changes in mRNA levels could be detected. PET/CT can be used for studying glucose uptake in rat muscle and tendon in relation to muscle contractions; however, the increased uptake of glucose was not explained by changes in gene expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4. (orig.)

  6. Higher transport and metabolism of glucose in astrocytes compared with neurons: a multiphoton study of hippocampal and cerebellar tissue slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakoby, Patrick; Schmidt, Elke; Ruminot, Iván; Gutiérrez, Robin; Barros, L Felipe; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2014-01-01

    Glucose is the most important energy substrate for the brain, and its cellular distribution is a subject of great current interest. We have employed fluorescent glucose probes, the 2-deoxy-D-glucose derivates 6- and 2-([N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose) (2-NBDG), to measure transport and metabolism of glucose in acute slices of mouse hippocampus and cerebellum. In the hippocampus, 6-NBDG, which is not metabolized and hence indicates glucose transport, was taken up faster in astrocyte-rich layers (Stratum radiatum [S.r.], Stratum oriens [S.o.]) than in pyramidal cells. Metabolizable 2-NBDG showed larger signals in S.r. and S.o. than in Stratum pyramidale, suggesting faster glucose utilization rate in the astrocyte versus the neuronal compartment. Similarly, we found higher uptake and temperature-sensitive metabolism of 2-NBDG in Bergmann glia when compared with adjacent Purkinje neurons of cerebellar slices. A comparison between 6-NBDG transport and glucose transport in cultured cells using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer nanosensor showed that relative to glucose, 6-NBDG is transported better by neurons than by astrocytes. These results indicate that the preferential transport and metabolism of glucose by glial cells versus neurons proposed for the hippocampus and cerebellum by ourselves (in vitro) and for the barrel cortex by Chuquet et al. (in vivo) is more pronounced than anticipated.

  7. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs.

  8. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs

  9. Wave Tank Studies of Phase Velocities of Short Wind Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, S.; Sergievskaya, I.; Shchegolkov, Yu.

    Wave tank studies of phase velocities of short wind waves have been carried out using Ka-band radar and an Optical Spectrum Analyser. The phase velocities were retrieved from measured radar and optical Doppler shifts, taking into account measurements of surface drift velocities. The dispersion relationship was studied in centimetre (cm)- and millimetre(mm)-scale wavelength ranges at different fetches and wind speeds, both for a clean water surface and for water covered with surfactant films. It is ob- tained that the phase velocities do not follow the dispersion relation of linear capillary- gravity waves, increasing with fetch and, therefore, depending on phase velocities of dominant decimetre (dm)-centimetre-scale wind waves. One thus can conclude that nonlinear cm-mm-scale harmonics bound to the dominant wind waves and propagat- ing with the phase velocities of the decimetric waves are present in the wind wave spectrum. The resulting phase velocities of short wind waves are determined by re- lation between free and bound waves. The relative intensity of the bound waves in the spectrum of short wind waves is estimated. It is shown that this relation depends strongly on the surfactant concentration, because the damping effect due to films is different for free and bound waves; this results to changes of phase velocities of wind waves in the presence of surfactant films. This work was supported by MOD, UK via DERA Winfrith (Project ISTC 1774P) and by RFBR (Project 02-05-65102).

  10. Studying Suspended Sediment Mechanism with Two-Phase PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinpour, H.; Atkinson, J. F.; Bennett, S. J.; Guala, M.

    2017-12-01

    Suspended sediment transport affects soil erosion, agriculture and water resources quality. Turbulent diffusion is the most primary force to maintain sediments in suspension. Although extensive previous literature have been studying the interactions between turbulent motion and suspended sediment, mechanism of sediments in suspension is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigate suspension of sediments as two distinct phases: one phase of sediments and another phase of fluid with turbulent motions. We designed and deployed a state-of-the-art two-phase PIV measurement technique to discriminate these two phases and acquire velocities of each phase separately and simultaneously. The technique that we have developed is employing a computer-vision based method, which enables us to discriminate sediment particles from fluid tracer particles based on two thresholds, dissimilar particle sizes and different particle intensities. Results indicate that fluid turbulence decreases in the presence of suspended sediments. Obtaining only sediment phase consecutive images enable us to compute fluctuation sediment concentration. This result enlightens understanding of complex interaction between the fluctuation velocities and the fluctuation of associated mass and compares turbulent viscosity with turbulent eddy diffusivity experimentally.

  11. Structural and phase studies of stainless wire after electroplastic drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, O.A.; Baldokhin, Yu.V.; Kir'yanchev, N.E.; Ryzhkov, V.G.; Kalugin, V.D.; Sokolov, N.V.; Klekovkin, A.A.; Klevtsur, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Structural and phase properties of the 12Kh18N10T steel wire are studied after usual and electroplastic drawing from 0.40 up to 0.11 mm with 18-22% reduction per pass with passing 250 A/mm 2 electric current. The earlier made observation on a sharp decrease in content of deformation-induced martensite of α-phase takes place in the wire from stainless metastable austenitic steel as a result of electroplastic drawing. Distribution of the remained α-phase by the wire cross section is established

  12. Neutron scattering studies of pretransitional phenomena in structural phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.M.

    1979-03-01

    Materials exhibiting structural phase transformations are well known to possess pretransitional phenomena. Below the transition temperature, T/sub c/, an order parameter appears and the pretransitional effects are associated with the fluctuations of the order parameter. Neutron scattering techniques have proved invaluable in studying the temporal and spatial dependence of these fluctuations. SrTiO 3 is the prototypical example of a structural phase transformation exhibiting features observable in other transformations such as martensitic and order-disorder. The experimental evolution of the understanding of the phase transformation in SrTiO 3 will be reviewed and the features observed will be shown to typify other systems

  13. Theoretical study of titanium phases; Etude theorique des phases du titane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinite, V

    2006-10-15

    The aim of this work is to obtain a good understanding of the phase diagram of titanium within density functional theory. This diagram is composed of the alpha phase, the high pressure omega phase and the high temperature beta phase. This requires the differences in total energy to be predicted with a great precision, because these differences are around 50 meV. I find the omega phase to be the most stable one by ab initio calculation at zero temperature and pressure, in contradiction to the experimental results. I find this inversion of the stability also appears in titanium dioxide and zirconium. I have analyzed all the approximations brought into play in the ab initio approach. I have estimated the zero point energy and studied the impact of including the semi-core states as well as the effect of the exchange-correlation functionals. The conclusion is that the usual approximations for the exchange-correlation generate the biggest part of the error. A possible correction is to take into account the electronic self-interaction. I have apply this correction to the semi-core states and find a systematic improvement of the cell parameters, but no improvement on the phase stability. So I can conclude that a better description of the exchange interaction on the localized 3d states is needed. Although the standard functionals of exchange-correlation are not accurate enough to predict the phase diagrams of titanium, they perform well in describing physical properties less demanding in terms of precision, like elastic constants. However, I find important that the predicted equilibrium volume must be precise, as these properties are found strongly dependent on the volume. (author)

  14. Life and death of proteins: a case study of glucose-starved Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, Stephan; Bernhardt, Jörg; Otto, Andreas; Moche, Martin; Becher, Dörte; Meyer, Hanna; Lalk, Michael; Schurmann, Claudia; Schlüter, Rabea; Kock, Holger; Gerth, Ulf; Hecker, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The cellular amount of proteins not only depends on synthesis but also on degradation. Here, we expand the understanding of differential protein levels by complementing synthesis data with a proteome-wide, mass spectrometry-based stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture analysis of protein degradation in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus during glucose starvation. Monitoring protein stability profiles in a wild type and an isogenic clpP protease mutant revealed that 1) proteolysis mainly affected proteins with vegetative functions, anabolic and selected catabolic enzymes, whereas the expression of TCA cycle and gluconeogenesis enzymes increased; 2) most proteins were prone to aggregation in the clpP mutant; 3) the absence of ClpP correlated with protein denaturation and oxidative stress responses, deregulation of virulence factors and a CodY repression. We suggest that degradation of redundant, inactive proteins disintegrated from functional complexes and thereby amenable to proteolytic attack is a fundamental cellular process in all organisms to regain nutrients and guarantee protein homeostasis.

  15. Life and Death of Proteins: A Case Study of Glucose-starved Staphylococcus aureus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, Stephan; Bernhardt, Jörg; Otto, Andreas; Moche, Martin; Becher, Dörte; Meyer, Hanna; Lalk, Michael; Schurmann, Claudia; Schlüter, Rabea; Kock, Holger; Gerth, Ulf; Hecker, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The cellular amount of proteins not only depends on synthesis but also on degradation. Here, we expand the understanding of differential protein levels by complementing synthesis data with a proteome-wide, mass spectrometry-based stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture analysis of protein degradation in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus during glucose starvation. Monitoring protein stability profiles in a wild type and an isogenic clpP protease mutant revealed that 1) proteolysis mainly affected proteins with vegetative functions, anabolic and selected catabolic enzymes, whereas the expression of TCA cycle and gluconeogenesis enzymes increased; 2) most proteins were prone to aggregation in the clpP mutant; 3) the absence of ClpP correlated with protein denaturation and oxidative stress responses, deregulation of virulence factors and a CodY repression. We suggest that degradation of redundant, inactive proteins disintegrated from functional complexes and thereby amenable to proteolytic attack is a fundamental cellular process in all organisms to regain nutrients and guarantee protein homeostasis. PMID:22556279

  16. Regional glucose utilization and blood flow in experimental brain tumors studied by double tracer autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, A.; Sako, K.; Diksic, M.; Yamamoto, Y.L.; Feindel, W.

    1985-01-01

    Coupling of regional glucose utilization (GLU) and blood flow (CBF) was examined in rats with implanted brain tumors (AA ascites tumor) by quantitative double tracer autoradiography using YF-2-fluorodeoxyglucose and 14C-iodoantipyrine. Four to 13 days after implantation, the animals were injected with the two tracers to obtain autoradiograms from the same brain section before and after the decay of YF. The autoradiograms were then analyzed by an image processor to obtain a metabolic coupling index (MCI = GLU/CBF). In the tumor, high GLU and low CBF were uncoupled to give a high MCI which implied anerobic glycolysis. In large tumors, the CBF was even lower. In the peri-tumoral region, GLU was reduced and reduction was lowest around the larger tumors. CBF in the peri-tumoral region was also reduced, but this reduction became less as the distance from the tumor margin increased. The GLU and CBF of white matter was little influenced by the presence of tumors except for some reduction in these values in relation to the larger tumors. The MCI in the tumor was higher than in the cortex of the same as well as the opposite hemisphere. These findings indicate that the metabolism and blood flow of the tumor and surrounding brain are variable and directly related to tumor size.

  17. EXAFS studies on the reaction of gold (III) chloride complex ions with sodium hydroxide and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacławski, K; Zajac, D A; Borowiec, M; Kapusta, Cz; Fitzner, K

    2010-11-11

    EXAFS and QEXAFS experiments were carried out at Hasylab laboratory in DESY center (X1 beamline, Hamburg, Germany) to monitor the course of the hydrolysis reactions of [AuCl(4)](-) complex ions as well as their reduction using glucose. As a result, changes in the spectra of [AuCl(4)](-) ions and disappearance of absorption Au-L(3) edge were registered. From the results of the experiments we have carried out, the changes in bond lengths between Au(3+) central ion and Cl(-) ligands as well as the reduction of Au(3+) to metallic form (colloidal gold was formed in the system) are evident. Good quality spectra obtained before and after the reactions gave a chance to determine the bond length characteristic of Au-Cl, Au-OH and Au-Au pairs. Additionally, the obtained results were compared with the simulated spectra of different gold (III) complex ions, possibly present in the solution. Finally, the mechanism of these reactions was suggested. Unfortunately, it was not possible to detect the changes in the structure of gold (III) complex ions within the time of reaction, because of too high rates of both processes (hydrolysis and reduction) as compared with the detection time.

  18. Progression from impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes in obese children and adolescents: a 3-6-year cohort study in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruratanasirikul, Somchit; Thammaratchuchai, Sudarat; Puwanant, Maneerat; Mo-Suwan, Ladda; Sriplung, Hutcha

    2016-11-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with abnormal glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study evaluated the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in asymptomatic obese children and adolescents, and determined the percentage of T2DM development after 3-6 years of follow-up. During 2007-2013, 177 obese children and adolescents who had normal fasting plasma glucose (FPG100 mg/dL) were given an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The participants were classified into four groups: normal glucose tolerance (NGT), NGT-hyperinsulinemia (NGT-HI), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes mellitus (DM). Blood chemistries, including FPG, glycated hemoglobin, and lipid profiles, and liver function test were performed every 6-12 months or when the patient developed any symptom or sign indicative of diabetes. Glucose metabolism alterations were detected in 81.4% of the participants: 63.8% with NGT-HI, 15.3% with IGT, and 2.3% with T2DM. The median levels of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in patients with IGT (8.63) were significantly greater than those in the patients with NGT (4.04) (p1). During the follow-up, 22 patients (14.4%) developed T2DM significantly more from the IGT group (nine of 33 cases, 27.3%) than the NGT-HI group (12 of 108 cases, 11.1%) (p=0.022). The predicting parameters for T2DM conversion were weight status, body mass index (BMI), FBG, fasting insulin, alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, and HOMA-IR. Glucose metabolism alteration was commonly found among obese adolescents. Factors associated with T2DM development were greater weight status and the severity of insulin resistance as shown by higher HOMA-IR levels.

  19. Diabetes mellitus and abnormal glucose tolerance development after gestational diabetes: A three-year, prospective, randomized, clinical-based, Mediterranean lifestyle interventional study with parallel groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ferre, Natalia; Del Valle, Laura; Torrejón, Maria José; Barca, Idoya; Calvo, María Isabel; Matía, Pilar; Rubio, Miguel A; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso L

    2015-08-01

    Women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in later life. The study aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention for the prevention of glucose disorders (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance or DM2) in women with prior GDM. A total of 260 women with prior GDM who presented with normal fasting plasma glucose at six to twelve weeks postpartum were randomized into two groups: a Mediterranean lifestyle intervention group (n = 130) who underwent an educational program on nutrition and a monitored physical activity program and a control group (n = 130) with a conventional follow-up. A total of 237 women completed the three-year follow-up (126 in the intervention group and 111 in the control group). Their glucose disorders rates, clinical and metabolic changes and rates of adherence to the Mediterranean lifestyle were analyzed. Less women in the intervention group (42.8%) developed glucose disorders at the end of the three-year follow-up period compared with the control group (56.75%), p Lifestyle intervention was effective for the prevention of glucose disorders in women with prior GDM. Body weight gain and an unhealthy fat intake pattern were found to be the most predictive factors for the development of glucose disorders. Current Controlled trials: ISRCTN24165302. http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/pf/24165302. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental study on effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis fruits on glucose homeostasis and metabolic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Snehal S.; Goyal, Ramesh K.; Shah, Rajendra S.; Tirgar, Pravin R.; Jadav, Pinakin D.

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenols from natural source are potential therapeutics that act alone or supplement anti-diabetic drugs in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of fruits of Emblica officinalis on type 1 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg i.v.). HE (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 4 weeks and at the end of treatment, blood samples were collected and analyzed for various biochemical parameters. STZ produced a diabetic state exhibiting all the cardinal symptoms such as loss of body weight, polydipsia, polyuria, glucosuria, polyphagia, hypoinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia associated with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Treatment with HE prevented cardinal symptoms and caused significant decrease in fasting serum glucose, AUCglucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very LDL in diabetic rats. However, insulin, AUCinsulin, and serum high-density lipoprotein level were not significantly altered by treatment. Treatment also reduced lipid peroxidation and increased anti-oxidant parameters in the liver homogenates of diabetic rats. Polyphenol enriched fraction of HE significantly improved disarranged carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of chemically induced diabetes in rats. The mechanism of its anti-diabetic activity appears to be either improvement in peripheral glucose utilization, increased insulin sensitivity, or anti-oxidant property. PMID:24696584

  1. Aging of snubbers in nuclear service: Phase I study results and Phase II plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.L.; Bush, S.H.; Page, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Two major research areas were investigated in the Phase I snubber aging studies. The first area involved a preliminary evaluation of the effects of various aging mechanisms on snubber operation; failure modes of mechanisms were identified and their contributions to aging degradation were assessed relative to other failure modes. The second area involved estimating the efficacy of existing tests and examinations that are intended to determine the effects of aging and degradation. Available data on snubber behavior and operating experience were reviewed, using licensee event reports and other historical data for the 10-year period from 1973 through 1983. Value-impact was considered in terms of (1) exposure of workers to radioactive environments for examination/testing and (2) the cost for expansion of the snubber testing program due to failed snubbers. Results from the Phase I studies identified the need to modify or improve examination and testing procedures to enhance snubber reliability. Based on the results of the Phase I snubber studies, the seals and fluids were identified as the two principal elements affected by aging degradation in hydraulic snubbers. Phase II work, which was initiated in FY 1987, will develop cooperative activities between PNL and operating utilities through the Snubber Utility Group (SNUG), who will work to establish a strong data and experience base for both hydraulic and mechanical snubbers based on actual operating and maintenance history at nuclear power plants. Application guidelines for snubbers will be recommended based on the study results

  2. Classified study and clinical value of the phase imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Yaping; Ma Aiqun; Zheng Xiaopu; Yang Aimin; Xiao Jiang; Gao Xinyao

    2000-01-01

    445 patients with various heart diseases were examined by the gated cardiac blood pool imaging, and the phase was classified. The relationship between the seven types with left ventricular function index, clinical heart function, different heart diseases as well as electrocardiograph was studied. The results showed that the phase image classification could match with the clinical heart function. It can visually, directly and accurately indicate clinical heart function and can be used to identify diagnosis of heart disease

  3. Considerations of stationary-phase interactions in groundwater pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.S.

    1980-01-01

    Studies of groundwater pollution are complicated by retention of both pollutant and tracers as static phases associated with the rock matrix. Three types of static phase are considered: (1) immobile pore water, (2) equilibrium adsorbed layers and (3) bulk precipitates, including biological systems. A brief discussion of the systems is given with examples from the work of the Water Research Centre on the problems encountered in quantifying groundwater pollution where static contamination may occur. (author)

  4. Phase equilibrium study on system uranium-plutonium-tungsten-carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugajin, Mitsuhiro

    1976-11-01

    Metallurgical properties of the U-Pu-W-C system have been studied with emphasis on phases and reactions. Free energy of compound formation, carbon activity and U/Pu segregation in the W-doped carbide fuel are estimated using phase diagram data. The results indicate that tungsten metal is useful as a thermochemical stabilizer of the carbide fuel. Tungsten has high temperature stability in contact with uranium carbide and mixed uranium-plutonium carbide. (auth.)

  5. Dysglycemia and long-term mortality: observations from the Israel study of glucose intolerance, obesity and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Michael; Chetrit, Angela; Roth, Jesse; Dankner, Rachel

    2015-05-01

    We describe the relationship between dysglycemia and long-term mortality and elucidate the relationship between blood glucose levels during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and haemoglobin A1 (HbA1) and mortality. A cohort of 1410 individuals was followed for 33 years since 1980. Fasting and post-OGTT glucose parameters were used to categorize the cohort according to baseline glycemic status. The mortality rate increased from 43% in normoglycemic individuals to 53.3, 61.7, 72.9 and 88.0% in those with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), IFG/IGT and diabetes, respectively. The highest mortality rate, compared with the normoglycemic category, was observed in individuals with IFG/IGT and diabetes according to a Cox proportional hazard model (HR = 1.38, 95%CI 1.10-1.74 and HR = 2.14, 95%CI 1.70-2.70, respectively), followed by individuals with IGT and IFG, but this did not reach statistical significance. We speculate that the IFG group may represent a mixture of individuals en route from normal to the next two categories as well as another cohort whose glucose levels are stably set at the upper reaches of the normal distribution. Significant differences were found between 1 and 2 h glucose values (p Fasting, 60 and 120 min glucose values were positively associated with increasing HbA1 quintiles (p continuous relationship between the severity of dysglycemia and long-term mortality and should promote the early recognition of prediabetes. The 1 h post-load glucose level was continuously associated with increasing HbA1 concentrations and may therefore serve as an early marker for abnormalities in glucose tolerance. An elevated 1 h post-load glucose level may potentially identify at-risk individuals well before the traditional 2 h glucose value. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Study on the mechanism of human blood glucose concentration measuring using mid-infrared spectral analysis technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang

    2016-10-01

    All forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications. Blood glucose monitoring is of great importance for controlling diabetes procedure, preventing the complications and improving the patient's life quality. At present, the clinical blood glucose concentration measurement is invasive and could be replaced by noninvasive spectroscopy analytical techniques. The mid-infrared spectral region contains strong characteristic and well-defined absorption bands. Therefore, mid-infrared provides an opportunity for monitoring blood glucose invasively with only a few discrete bonds. Although the blood glucose concentration measurement using mid-infrared spectroscopy has a lot of advantages, the disadvantage is also obvious. The absorption in this infrared region is fundamental molecular group vibration. Absorption intensity is very strong, especially for biological molecules. In this paper, it figures out that the osmosis rate of glucose has a certain relationship with the blood glucose concentration. Therefore, blood glucose concentration could be measured indirectly by measuring the glucose exudate in epidermis layer. Human oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out to verify the correlation of glucose exudation in shallow layer of epidermis layer and blood glucose concentration. As it has been explained above, the mid-infrared spectral region contains well-defined absorption bands, the intensity of absorption peak around 1123 cm-1 was selected to measure the glucose and that around 1170 cm-1 was selected as reference. Ratio of absorption peak intensity was recorded for each set of measurement. The effect and importance of the cleaning the finger to be measured before spectrum measuring are discussed and also verified by experiment.

  7. Brain glucose transport and phosphorylation under acute insulin-induced hypoglycemia in mice: an 18F-FDG PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alf, Malte F; Duarte, João M N; Schibli, Roger; Gruetter, Rolf; Krämer, Stefanie D

    2013-12-01

    We addressed the questions of how cerebral glucose transport and phosphorylation change under acute hypoglycemia and what the underlying mechanisms of adaptation are. Quantitative (18)F-FDG PET combined with the acquisition of real-time arterial input function was performed on mice. Hypoglycemia was induced and maintained by insulin infusion. PET data were analyzed with the 2-tissue-compartment model for (18)F-FDG, and the results were evaluated with Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics. Glucose clearance from plasma to brain (K1,glc) and the phosphorylation rate constant increased with decreasing plasma glucose (Gp), in particular at a Gp of less than 2.5 mmol/L. Estimated cerebral glucose extraction ratios taking into account an increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) at a Gp of less than 2 mmol/L were between 0.14 and 0.79. CBF-normalized K1,glc values were in agreement with saturation kinetics. Phosphorylation rate constants indicated intracellular glucose depletion at a Gp of less than 2-3 mmol/L. When brain regions were compared, glucose transport under hypoglycemia was lowest in the hypothalamus. Alterations in glucose transport and phosphorylation, as well as intracellular glucose depletion, under acute hypoglycemia can be modeled by saturation kinetics taking into account an increase in CBF. Distinct transport kinetics in the hypothalamus may be involved in its glucose-sensing function.

  8. Identification of four amino acid substitutions in hexokinase II and studies of relationships to NIDDM, glucose effectiveness, and insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Echwald, Søren Morgenthaler; Bjørbaek, C; Hansen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    not predict any change in amino acid composition of the protein. One homozygous and nine heterozygous carriers of the codon 142 mutation were found among the NIDDM patients. The mutations at codons 148, 497, and 844 were each found in one diabetic subject and only on one allele. There were no carriers......Human hexokinase (HK) II, a glucose phosphorylating enzyme in muscle tissue, plays a central role in glucose metabolism. Since reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and reduced glucose-6-phosphate content in muscle have been demonstrated in pre-non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (pre...

  9. Identification of Mutation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehy-drogenase (G6PD) in Iran: Meta- analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Nekoei-Moghadam, Mahmood; Aliram-Zany, Maryam; Amiresmaili, Mohammadreza

    2013-09-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is one of the most common genetic deficiencies, which approximately 400 million people in the world suffer from. According to authors' initial search, numerous studies have been carried out in Iran regarding molecular variants of this enzyme. Thus, this meta-analysis presented a reliable estimation about prevalence of different types of molecular mutations of G6PD Enzyme in Iran. Keywords "glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase or G6PD, Mediterranean or Chatham or Cosenza and mutation, Iran or Iranian and their Persian equivalents" were searched in different databases. Moreover, reference list of the published studies were examined to increase sensitivity and to select more studies. After studying titles and abstracts of retrieved articles, excluding the repeated and unrelated ones, and evaluating quality of articles, documents were selected. Data was analyzed using STATA. After performing systematic review, 22 papers were entered this meta-analysis and 1698 subjects were examined concerning G6PD molecular mutation. In this meta-analysis, prevalence of Mediterranean mutation, Chatham mutation and Cosenza mutation in Iran was estimated 78.2%, 9.1% and 0.5% respectively. This meta-analysis showed that in spite of prevalence of different types of G6PD molecular mutations in center, north, north-west and west of Iran, the most common molecular mutations in people with G6PD deficiency in Iran, like other Mediterranean countries and countries around Persian Gulf, were Mediterranean mutation, Chatham mutation and Cosenza mutation. It is also recommended that future studies may focus on races and regions which haven't been taken into consideration up to now.

  10. Increased muscle glucose uptake after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik

    1985-01-01

    responsiveness of glucose uptake was noted only in controls. Analysis of intracellular glucose-6-phosphate, glucose, glycogen synthesis, and glucose transport suggested that the exercise effect on responsiveness might be due to enhancement of glucose disposal. After electrical stimulation of diabetic...... of glucose. At maximal insulin concentrations, the enhancing effect of exercise on glucose uptake may involve enhancement of glucose disposal, an effect that is probably less in muscle from diabetic rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)......It has recently been shown that insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis is increased after a single exercise session. The present study was designed to determine whether insulin is necessary during exercise for development of these changes found after exercise...

  11. Study of the brain glucose metabolism in different stage of mixed-type multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Zhang Benshu; Cai Li; Zhang Meiyun; Gao Shuo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the brain glucose metabolism in different stage of mixed-type multiple system atrophy (MSA). Methods: Forty-six MSA patients with cerebellar or Parkinsonian symptoms and 18 healthy controls with similar age as patients were included. According to the disease duration,the patients were divided into three groups: group 1 (≤ 12 months, n=14), group 2 (13-24 months, n=13), group 3 (≥ 25 months, n=19). All patients and controls underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT brain imaging. To compare metabolic distributions between different groups, SPM 8 software and two-sample t test were used for image data analysis. When P<0.005, the result was considered statistically significant. Results: At the level of P<0.005, the hypometabolism in group 1 (all t>3.49) was identified in the frontal lobe, lateral temporal lobe, insula lobe, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate nucleus and anterior cerebellar hemisphere. The regions of hypometabolism extended to posterolateral putamen and part of posterior cerebellar hemisphere in group 2 (all t>3.21). In group 3, the whole parts of putamen and cerebellar hemisphere were involved as hypometabolism (all t>4.08). In addition to the hypometabolism regions, there were also stabled hypermetabolism regions mainly in the parietal lobe, medial temporal lobe and the thalamus in all patient groups (all t>3.27 in group 1, all t>3.02 in group 2,all t>3.30 in group 3). Conclusions: Disease duration is closely related to the FDG metabolism in the MSA patients. Frontal lobe, lateral temporal lobe, anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus can be involved at early stage of the disease. Putaminal hypometabolism begins in its posterolateral part. Cerebellar hypometabolism occurs early at its anterior part. Besides, thalamus shows hypermetabolism in the whole duration. 18 F-FDG metabolic changes of brain can reflect the development of mixed-type MSA. (authors)

  12. Study on a phase space representation of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaivoson, R.T.R; Raoelina Andriambololona; Hanitriarivo, R.; Raboanary, R.

    2013-01-01

    A study on a method for the establishment of a phase space representation of quantum theory is presented. The approach utilizes the properties of Gaussian distribution, the properties of Hermite polynomials, Fourier analysis and the current formulation of quantum mechanics which is based on the use of Hilbert space and linear operators theory. Phase space representation of quantum states and wave functions in phase space are introduced using properties of a set of functions called harmonic Gaussian functions. Then, new operators called dispersion operators are defined and identified as the operators which admit as eigenstates the basis states of the phase space representation. Generalization of the approach for multidimensional cases is shown. Examples of applications are given.

  13. Preliminary Studies Of A Phase Modulation Technique For Measuring Chromaticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    The classical method for measuring chromaticity is to slowly modulate the RF frequency and then measure the betatron tune excursion. The technique that is discussed in this paper instead modulates the phase of the RF and then the chromaticity is obtained by phase demodulating the betatron tune. This technique requires knowledge of the betatron frequency in real time in order for the phase to be demodulated. Fortunately, the Tevatron has a tune tracker based on the phase locked loop principle which fits this requirement. A preliminary study with this technique has showed that it is a promising method for doing continuous chromaticity measurement and raises the possibility of doing successful chromaticity feedback with it

  14. Natural history of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the progression from normal glucose tolerance to impaired fasting glycemia and impaired glucose tolerance: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, Kristine; Vaag, Allan; Holst, Jens J

    2008-01-01

    of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS), early-phase insulin release (EPIR), and insulin secretion relative to insulin action (disposition index) were estimated. RESULTS: Five years before the pre-diabetes diagnoses (i-IFG, i-IGT, and IFG/IGT), ISI, HOMA-IS, EPIR, and disposition index were lower than...

  15. Plutonium disposition study phase 1b final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report provides the results of the Westinghouse activities performed as part of the Plutonium Disposition Study Phase 1b. These activities, which took place from May 16, 1993 to September 15, 1993, build upon the work completed in Phase 1a, which concluded on May 15, 1993. In Phase 1a, three Plutonium Disposal Reactor (PDR) options were developed for the disposal of excess weapons grade plutonium from returned and dismantled nuclear weapons. This report documents the results of several tasks that were performed to further knowledge in specific areas leading up to Phase 2 of the PDR Study. The Westinghouse activities for Phase 1b are summarized as follows: (1) resolved technical issues concerning reactor physics including equilibrium cycle calculations, use of gadolinium, moderator temperature coefficient, and others as documented in Section 2.0; (2) analyzed large Westinghouse commercial plants for plutonium disposal; (3) reactor safety issues including the steam line break were resolved, and are included in Section 2.0; (4) several tasks related to the PDR Fuel Cycle were examined; (5) cost and deployment options were examined to determine optimal configuration for both plutonium disposal and tritium production; (6) response to questions from DOE and National Academy of Scientists (NAS) reviewers concerning the PDR Phase 1a report are included in Appendix A

  16. Coffee Consumption, Newly Diagnosed Diabetes, and Other Alterations in Glucose Homeostasis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmolinsky, James; Mueller, Noel T.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Bisi Molina, Maria del Carmen; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Observational studies have reported fairly consistent inverse associations between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, but this association has been little investigated with regard to lesser degrees of hyperglycemia and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, the association between coffee consumption and diabetes has been rarely investigated in South American populations. We examined the cross-sectional relationships of coffee intake with newly diagnosed diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, in a large Brazilian cohort of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods We used baseline data from 12,586 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes. Analysis of covariance was used to assess coffee intake in relation to two-hour glucose from an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting and –2-hour postload insulin and measures of insulin sensitivity. Results We found an inverse association between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes, after adjusting for multiple covariates [23% and 26% lower odds of diabetes for those consuming coffee 2–3 and >3 times per day, respectively, compared to those reporting never or almost never consuming coffee, (p = .02)]. An inverse association was also found for 2-hour postload glucose [Never/almost never: 7.57 mmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 7.48 mmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 7.22 mmol/L, >3 times/day: 7.12 mol/L, p3 times/day: 262.2 pmol/L, p = 0.0005) but not with fasting insulin concentrations (p = .58). Conclusion Our present study provides further evidence of a protective effect of coffee on risk of adult-onset diabetes. This effect appears to act primarily, if not exclusively, through postprandial, as opposed to fasting, glucose homeostasis. PMID:25978631

  17. Coffee Consumption, Newly Diagnosed Diabetes, and Other Alterations in Glucose Homeostasis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Yarmolinsky

    Full Text Available Observational studies have reported fairly consistent inverse associations between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, but this association has been little investigated with regard to lesser degrees of hyperglycemia and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, the association between coffee consumption and diabetes has been rarely investigated in South American populations. We examined the cross-sectional relationships of coffee intake with newly diagnosed diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, in a large Brazilian cohort of middle-aged and elderly individuals.We used baseline data from 12,586 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes. Analysis of covariance was used to assess coffee intake in relation to two-hour glucose from an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting and -2-hour postload insulin and measures of insulin sensitivity.We found an inverse association between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes, after adjusting for multiple covariates [23% and 26% lower odds of diabetes for those consuming coffee 2-3 and >3 times per day, respectively, compared to those reporting never or almost never consuming coffee, (p = .02]. An inverse association was also found for 2-hour postload glucose [Never/almost never: 7.57 mmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 7.48 mmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 7.22 mmol/L, >3 times/day: 7.12 mol/L, p3 times/day: 262.2 pmol/L, p = 0.0005 but not with fasting insulin concentrations (p = .58.Our present study provides further evidence of a protective effect of coffee on risk of adult-onset diabetes. This effect appears to act primarily, if not exclusively, through postprandial, as opposed to fasting, glucose homeostasis.

  18. Differential Effects of Red Meat/Refined Grain Diet and Dairy/Chicken/Nuts/Whole Grain Diet on Glucose, Insulin and Triglyceride in a Randomized Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoona; Keogh, Jennifer B; Clifton, Peter M

    2016-10-30

    Epidemiological studies suggest that a diet high in processed meat, with a high glycemic index is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. It is not clear if this is due to altered insulin sensitivity or an enhanced postprandial glucose. We aimed to compare the acute metabolic response of two different types of meals after ingestion of the matching diet for four weeks. The study was a randomized, crossover acute meal study. Volunteers consumed either a red meat/refined grain meal or a dairy/chicken/nuts/wholegrain meal after four weeks of the matching diet. After a three-week washout period and four weeks of the alternate diet, they consumed the matching meal. The diets differed with respect to both protein and carbohydrate sources. Blood samples were taken for 180 min for the measurement of glucose, insulin, C-peptide and triglyceride. Fifty-one participants (age: 35.1 ± 15.6 years; body mass index: 27.7 ± 6.9 kg/m², 17 with normal and 34 with impaired glucose tolerance) completed two meal tests. The area under the curve ( p glucose tolerance group ( p glucose; the red meat/refined grain diet increased glucose relative to the dairy/chicken/nuts/whole grain diet only in the normal group (+2.5 mmol/L/3 h). The red meat/refined grain diet increased glucose and insulin responses compared with the dairy/chicken/nuts/whole grain diet. This meal pattern would increase pancreatic stress long term and may account for the increased risk of type 2 diabetes with this diet.

  19. Relation between fasting glucose and retinopathy for diagnosis of diabetes: three population-based cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tien Y; Liew, Gerald; Tapp, Robyn J; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Zimmet, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan

    2008-03-01

    The WHO and American Diabetes Association criteria for diagnosing diabetes mellitus assume the presence of a glycaemic threshold with high sensitivity for identifying retinopathy. However, this assumption is based on data from three previous studies that had important limitations in detecting retinopathy. We aimed to provide updated data for the relation between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and retinopathy, and to assess the diagnostic accuracy of current FPG thresholds in identifying both prevalent and incident retinopathy. We examined the data from three cross-sectional adult populations: those in the Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES, Australia, n=3162), the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab, Australia, n=2182), and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA, USA, n=6079). Retinopathy was diagnosed from multiple retinal photographs of each eye, and graded according to the modified Airlie House Classification system. Plasma glucose concentrations were measured from fasting venous blood samples. The overall prevalence of retinopathy was 11.5% in BMES (95% CI 10.4-12.6%), 9.6% in AusDiab (8.4-10.9), and 15.8% in MESA (14.9-16.7). However, we found inconsistent evidence of a uniform glycaemic threshold for prevalent and incident retinopathy, with analyses suggesting a continuous relation. The widely used diabetes FPG cutoff of 7.0 mmol/L or higher had sensitivity less than 40% (range 14.8-39.1) for detecting retinopathy, with specificity between 80.8% and 95.8%. The area under receiver operating characteristic curves for FPG and retinopathy was low and ranged from 0.56 to 0.61. We saw no evidence of a clear and consistent glycaemic threshold for the presence or incidence of retinopathy across different populations. The current FPG cutoff of 7.0 mmol/L used to diagnose diabetes did not accurately identify people with and without retinopathy. These findings suggest that the criteria for diagnosing diabetes could need reassessment.

  20. Phase field model for the study of boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruyer, P.

    2006-07-01

    This study concerns both the modeling and the numerical simulation of boiling flows. First we propose a review concerning nucleate boiling at high wall heat flux and focus more particularly on the current understanding of the boiling crisis. From this analysis we deduce a motivation for the numerical simulation of bubble growth dynamics. The main and remaining part of this study is then devoted to the development and analyze of a phase field model for the liquid-vapor flows with phase change. We propose a thermodynamic quasi-compressible formulation whose properties match the one required for the numerical study envisaged. The system of governing equations is a thermodynamically consistent regularization of the sharp interface model, that is the advantage of the di use interface models. We show that the thickness of the interface transition layer can be defined independently from the thermodynamic description of the bulk phases, a property that is numerically attractive. We derive the kinetic relation that allows to analyze the consequences of the phase field formulation on the model of the dissipative mechanisms. Finally we study the numerical resolution of the model with the help of simulations of phase transition in simple configurations as well as of isothermal bubble dynamics. (author)

  1. Effect of glibenclamide on insulin release at moderate and high blood glucose levels in normal man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtenberg, JJM; Venker, CE; Sluiter, WJ; VanHaeften, TW

    Insulin release occurs in two phases; sulphonylurea derivatives may have different potencies in stimulating first-and second-phase insulin release. We studied the effect of glibenclamide on insulin secretion at submaximally and maximally stimulating blood glucose levels with a primed hyperglycaemic

  2. Lifestyle, glucose regulation and the cognitive effects of glucose load in middle-aged adults

    OpenAIRE

    Riby, Leigh; McLaughlin, Jennifer; Riby, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Interventions aimed at improving glucose regulatory mechanisms have been suggested as a possible source of cognitive enhancement in the elderly. In particular, previous research has identified episodic memory as a target for facilitation after either moderate increases in glycaemia (after a glucose drink) or after improvements in glucose regulation. The present study aimed to extend this research by examining the joint effects of glucose ingestion and glucose regulation on cognition. In addit...

  3. Dietary Fructose and Glucose Differentially Affect Lipid and Glucose Homeostasis1–3

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Ernst J.; Gleason, Joi A.; Dansinger, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first-pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these 2 monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial triglyceride (TG) levels and has little effect on serum glucose concentrations, whereas dietary glucose has the opposite effects. When dietary glucose and fructose have been directly compared at ∼20–25% ...

  4. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Kumar, N.; Lefton, S.; Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.; King, J.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation accompanies Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, a follow-on to Phase 1, which examined the operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation on the electric power system in the West and was one of the largest variable generation studies to date. High penetrations of variable generation can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 calculated these costs and emissions, and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of variable generation on the fossil-fueled fleet. The presentation highlights the scope of the study and results.

  5. Comparative Simulation Study of Glucose Control Methods Designed for Use in the Intensive Care Unit Setting via a Novel Controller Scoring Metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJournett, Jeremy; DeJournett, Leon

    2017-11-01

    Effective glucose control in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting has the potential to decrease morbidity and mortality rates and thereby decrease health care expenditures. To evaluate what constitutes effective glucose control, typically several metrics are reported, including time in range, time in mild and severe hypoglycemia, coefficient of variation, and others. To date, there is no one metric that combines all of these individual metrics to give a number indicative of overall performance. We proposed a composite metric that combines 5 commonly reported metrics, and we used this composite metric to compare 6 glucose controllers. We evaluated the following controllers: Ideal Medical Technologies (IMT) artificial-intelligence-based controller, Yale protocol, Glucommander, Wintergerst et al PID controller, GRIP, and NICE-SUGAR. We evaluated each controller across 80 simulated patients, 4 clinically relevant exogenous dextrose infusions, and one nonclinical infusion as a test of the controller's ability to handle difficult situations. This gave a total of 2400 5-day simulations, and 585 604 individual glucose values for analysis. We used a random walk sensor error model that gave a 10% MARD. For each controller, we calculated severe hypoglycemia (140 mg/dL), and coefficient of variation (CV), as well as our novel controller metric. For the controllers tested, we achieved the following median values for our novel controller scoring metric: IMT: 88.1, YALE: 46.7, GLUC: 47.2, PID: 50, GRIP: 48.2, NICE: 46.4. The novel scoring metric employed in this study shows promise as a means for evaluating new and existing ICU-based glucose controllers, and it could be used in the future to compare results of glucose control studies in critical care. The IMT AI-based glucose controller demonstrated the most consistent performance results based on this new metric.

  6. Light at night acutely impairs glucose tolerance in a time-, intensity- and wavelength-dependent manner in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opperhuizen, Anne-Loes; Stenvers, Dirk J; Jansen, Remi D; Foppen, Ewout; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to light at night (LAN) has increased dramatically in recent decades. Animal studies have shown that chronic dim LAN induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Furthermore, several studies in humans have demonstrated that chronic exposure to artificial LAN may have adverse health effects with an increased risk of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes. It is well-known that acute exposure to LAN affects biological clock function, hormone secretion and the activity of the autonomic nervous system, but data on the effects of LAN on glucose homeostasis are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of LAN on glucose metabolism. Male Wistar rats were subjected to i.v. glucose or insulin tolerance tests while exposed to 2 h of LAN in the early or late dark phase. In subsequent experiments, different light intensities and wavelengths were used. LAN exposure early in the dark phase at ZT15 caused increased glucose responses during the first 20 min after glucose infusion (p light of 50 and 150 lx induced greater glucose responses than 5 and 20 lx, whereas all intensities other than 5 lx reduced locomotor activity. Green light induced glucose intolerance, but red and blue light did not, suggesting the involvement of a specific retina-brain pathway. Together, these data show that exposure to LAN has acute adverse effects on glucose metabolism in a time-, intensity- and wavelength-dependent manner.

  7. Associations of circulating calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D with glucose metabolism in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study in European and South Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Donald C; Scally, Andrew J; Tuffnell, Derek J; Davies, T Jeffrey; Fraser, William D; Bhopal, Raj S; Wright, John; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2014-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is thought to impair insulin action and glucose metabolism; however, previous studies have not examined ethnic differences or the influence of calcium and parathyroid hormone. We investigated this in a cohort of predominantly white European and south Asian women during pregnancy. In this cross-sectional study from an urban population in northern England (53.8°N), 1467 women were recruited when undergoing glucose tolerance testing (75 g oral glucose tolerance test) at 26 weeks' gestation. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was diagnosed in 137 women (9.3%). Median 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration for the study population was 9.3 ng/mL (interquartile range 5.2, 16.9) and was higher in European [15.2 ng/mL (10.7, 23.5)] than in south Asian women [5.9 ng/mL (3.9, 9.4), P Asian women. These findings do not indicate any important association between vitamin D status and glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Relationships between circulating calcium and glucose metabolism warrant further investigation.

  8. Double-tracer autoradiographic study of protein synthesis and glucose consumption in rats with focal cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Balchen, T; Bruhn, T

    1999-01-01

    A double-tracer autoradiographic method for simultaneous measurement of regional glucose utilization (rCMRglc) and regional protein synthesis (PS) in consecutive brain sections is described and applied to study the metabolism of the ischemic penumbra 2 h after occlusion of the middle cerebral...... artery (MCAO) in rats. In halothane anesthesia, the left middle cerebral artery was permanently occluded. Two hours after MCAO an i.v. bolus injection of 14C-deoxyglucose and 3H-leucine was given and circulated for 45 min. Two sets of brain sections were processed for quantitative autoradiography....... Neighboring brain sections exposed an X-ray film (3H-insensitive), and a 3H-sensitive for determination of rCMRglc and PS, respectively. Sections for PS determination were washed in trichloroacetic acid (TCA) prior to film exposure in order to remove 14C-deoxyglucose and unincorporated 3H-leucine. Regional...

  9. Impact of high glucose concentration on aspirin-induced acetylation of human serum albumin: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Finamore

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin (ASA plays a key role in protecting high risk cardiovascular patients from ischaemic events. The modifications underlying its effects are the results of the trans-acetylation that occurs between ASA and the amino groups made up of lysine and N-terminal residues. ASA's effects have also been demonstrated on several plasma proteins, including human serum albumin (HSA. However, its beneficial effects seem to be lower in diabetic patients, suggesting that protein glycation may impair ASA's acetylation process. Using immunoblotting and mass spectrometry, this study characterized the degree of HSA acetylation mediated by ASA in vitro, as well as the impact of high glucose concentrations. Glycation's influence on HSA acetylation might impair the latter's biological functions, leading to a potential failure of ASA to prevent cardiovascular complications in diabetes.

  10. Studies of genetic variability of the glucose transporter 2 promoter in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, A M; Jensen, N M; Pildal, J

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed to test the hypothesis that genetic variation in the promoter of the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) might predispose to prediabetic phenotypes or type 2 diabetes. A total of 1611 bp comprising the minimal promoter region of the GLUT2 gene were examined by combined single......-tolerant subjects. In conclusion, we found no evidence supporting the hypothesis that genetic variability in the minimal promoter of the GLUT2 is associated with type 2 diabetes or prediabetic phenotypes in the Danish population.......-strand conformational polymorphism and heteroduplex analysis followed by direct sequencing of identified variants on genomic DNA from 96 randomly recruited Danish type 2 diabetic patients. We identified 4 nucleotide variants, -447g-->a, -149c-->a, -122t-->c, and -44g-->a. None of the variants were positioned in known...

  11. Single-phase and two phase bubbly flow in a T connection: theoretical and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervieu, Eric

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to highlight the driving factors of the separation of phases of a bubbly flow in a T junction, and to develop a prediction model. In a first part, the author reports the rigorous formulation of equations averaged on the T volume. He shows that it's not possible to solve globally the problem with these equations. Then, he reports a bibliographical study on the modelling of a bubbly flow, and, based upon this study, highlights intrinsic characteristics of the flow, and explains its dynamic mechanisms. He reports the development of the theoretical model, and describes the experimental installation used to validate it. In the third part, he reports the study of the liquid-gas interaction, and presents the adopted approach: study of the behaviour of an isolated bubble within a single-phase flow. Experimentation is used to check theoretical predictions. Results are used to compute phase separation. The obtained results are again compared with experimental results to validate the global relevance of the model [fr

  12. Predictive Value of Triglyceride Glucose Index for the Risk of Incident Diabetes: A 4-Year Retrospective Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da Young; Lee, Eun Seo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young

    The Triglyceride Glucose Index (TyG index) is considered a surrogate marker of insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the TyG index has a predictive role in identifying individuals with a high risk of incident diabetes and to compare it with other indicators of metabolic health. A total 2900 non-diabetic adults who attended five consecutive annual health check-ups at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital was divided into four subgroups using three methods: (1) baseline TyG index; (2) obesity status (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and cutoff value of TyG index; (3) obesity status and metabolic health, defined as having fewer than two of the five components of high blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and highest decile of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. The development of diabetes was assessed annually using self-questionnaire, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin. We compared the risk of incident diabetes using multivariate Cox analysis. During 11623 person-years there were 101 case of incident diabetes. Subjects with high TyG index had a high risk of diabetes. For TyG index quartiles, hazard ratios (HRs) of quartiles 3 and 4 were 4.06 (p = 0.033) and 5.65 (p = 0.006) respectively. When the subjects were divided by obesity status and cutoff value of TyG index of 8.8, the subgroups with TyG index ≥ 8.8 regardless of obesity had a significantly high risk for diabetes (HR 2.40 [p = 0.024] and 2.25 [p = 0.048]). For obesity status and metabolic health, the two metabolically unhealthy subgroups regardless of obesity had a significantly high risk for diabetes (HRs 2.54 [p = 0.024] and 2.73 [p = 0.021]). In conclusion, the TyG index measured at a single time point may be an indicator of the risk for incident diabetes. The predictive value of the TyG index was comparable to that of metabolic health.

  13. Colors of fruits and vegetables and 3-year changes of cardiometabolic risk factors in adults: Tehran lipid and glucose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, P; Bahadoran, Z; Moslehi, N; Bastan, S; Azizi, F

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to investigate the associations of colors of fruit and vegetable (FV) subgroups, with 3-year changes of cardiometabolic risk factors. This longitudinal study was conducted in the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, between 2006-2008 and 2009-2011, on 1272 adults. Total intake of FV and their subgroups have been assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline (2006-2008) and again at the second examination (2009-2011). Demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical measures were evaluated at baseline and 3 years later. The associations of anthropometric and lipid profile changes with FV subgroups were estimated. The mean age of men and women at baseline was 39.8±12.7 and 37.3±12.1 years, respectively. Mean total intake of FV, red/purple, yellow, green, orange and white FV was 706±337, 185±95, 141±91, 152±77, 141±87 and 22±18 g/day, respectively. In men, 3-year changes of weight (β=-0.13, P=0.01) and waist circumference (β=-0.14, P=0.01) were related to intake of red/purple FV; the yellow group was inversely associated with 3-year changes of total cholesterol (β=-0.09, P=0.03) and High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β=-0.11, P=0.03). Consumption of green and white FV was inversely related to abdominal fat gain, and atherogenic lipid parameters in men (Pfasting serum glucose and total cholesterol (P<0.05); yellow FV was also related to 3-year weight gain (β=-0.11, P=0.01). Various colors of FV subgroups had different effects on cardiometabolic risk factors; higher intake of red/purple FV may be related to lower weight and abdominal fat gain, and yellow, green and white FV may be related to lipid parameters.

  14. Rye-Based Evening Meals Favorably Affected Glucose Regulation and Appetite Variables at the Following Breakfast; A Randomized Controlled Study in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Jonna C; Björck, Inger M E; Nilsson, Anne C

    2016-01-01

    Whole grain has shown potential to prevent obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Possible mechanism could be related to colonic fermentation of specific indigestible carbohydrates, i.e. dietary fiber (DF). The aim of this study was to investigate effects on cardiometabolic risk factors and appetite regulation the next day when ingesting rye kernel bread rich in DF as an evening meal. Whole grain rye kernel test bread (RKB) or a white wheat flour based bread (reference product, WWB) was provided as late evening meals to healthy young adults in a randomized cross-over design. The test products RKB and WWB were provided in two priming settings: as a single evening meal or as three consecutive evening meals prior to the experimental days. Test variables were measured in the morning, 10.5-13.5 hours after ingestion of RKB or WWB. The postprandial phase was analyzed for measures of glucose metabolism, inflammatory markers, appetite regulating hormones and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in blood, hydrogen excretion in breath and subjective appetite ratings. With the exception of serum CRP, no significant differences in test variables were observed depending on length of priming (P>0.05). The RKB evening meal increased plasma concentrations of PYY (0-120 min, Pappetite ratings during the whole experimental period (Pappetite sensation could be beneficial in preventing obesity. These effects could possibly be mediated through colonic fermentation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02093481.

  15. A higher-complex carbohydrate diet in gestational diabetes mellitus achieves glucose targets and lowers postprandial lipids: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L; Van Pelt, Rachael E; Anderson, Molly A; Daniels, Linda J; West, Nancy A; Donahoo, William T; Friedman, Jacob E; Barbour, Linda A

    2014-01-01

    The conventional diet approach to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) advocates carbohydrate restriction, resulting in higher fat (HF), also a substrate for fetal fat accretion and associated with maternal insulin resistance. Consequently, there is no consensus about the ideal GDM diet. We hypothesized that, compared with a conventional, lower-carbohydrate/HF diet (40% carbohydrate/45% fat/15% protein), consumption of a higher-complex carbohydrate (HCC)/lower-fat (LF) Choosing Healthy Options in Carbohydrate Energy (CHOICE) diet (60/25/15%) would result in 24-h glucose area under the curve (AUC) profiles within therapeutic targets and lower postprandial lipids. Using a randomized, crossover design, we provided 16 GDM women (BMI 34 ± 1 kg/m2) with two 3-day isocaloric diets at 31 ± 0.5 weeks (washout between diets) and performed continuous glucose monitoring. On day 4 of each diet, we determined postprandial (5 h) glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TGs), and free fatty acids (FFAs) following a controlled breakfast meal. There were no between-diet differences for fasting or mean nocturnal glucose, but 24-h AUC was slightly higher (∼6%) on the HCC/LF CHOICE diet (P = 0.02). The continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) revealed modestly higher 1- and 2-h postprandial glucose on CHOICE (1 h, 115 ± 2 vs. 107 ± 3 mg/dL, P ≤ 0.01; 2 h, 106 ± 3 vs. 97 ± 3 mg/dL, P = 0.001) but well below current targets. After breakfast, 5-h glucose and insulin AUCs were slightly higher (P diet. This highly controlled study randomizing isocaloric diets and using a CGMS is the first to show that liberalizing complex carbohydrates and reducing fat still achieved glycemia below current treatment targets and lower postprandial FFAs. This diet strategy may have important implications for preventing macrosomia.

  16. Body mass index, blood pressure, and glucose and lipid metabolism among permanent and fixed-term workers in the manufacturing industry: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Mariko; Minami, Masahide; Yano, Eiji

    2014-02-27

    Temporary employment, a precarious form of employment, is recognized as social determinant of poor health. However, evidence supporting precarious employment as a risk factor for health is mainly obtained from subjective data. Studies using objective clinical measurement data in the assessment of health status are limited. This study compared body mass index (BMI), lipid and glucose metabolism, and health-related lifestyle factors between permanent workers and fixed-term workers employed in the manufacturing industry. Data of 1,701 male manufacturing industry workers triglyceride levels were determined. For glucose metabolism, fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were measured. Multiple regression analysis adjusted for age and lifestyle factors was performed. BMI was significantly higher in permanent workers (22.9 kg/m2) compared with fixed-term workers (22.4 kg/m2). The leaner population (BMI triglyceride (β = 11.147), fasting blood glucose (β = 2.218), and HbA1c (β = 0.107) compared with permanent workers (all p glucose metabolism, even when adjusted for age and lifestyle variables, although BMI of fixed-term workers were lower than permanent workers. Precarious work might contribute to a deteriorating health status even among less overweight populations.

  17. Triglyceride and glucose (TyG) index as a predictor of incident hypertension: a 9-year longitudinal population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rongjiong; Mao, Yushan

    2017-09-13

    Hypertension and the triglyceride and glucose index both have been associated with insulin resistance; however, the longitudinal association remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the longitudinal association between the triglyceride and glucose index and incident hypertension among the Chinese population. We studied 4686 subjects (3177 males and 1509 females) and followed up for 9 years. The subjects were divided into four groups based on the triglyceride and glucose index. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used to analyse the risk factors of hypertension. After 9 years of follow-up, 2047 subjects developed hypertension. The overall 9-year cumulative incidence of hypertension was 43.7%, ranging from 28.5% in quartile 1 to 36.9% in quartile 2, 49.2% in quartile 3 and 59.8% in quartile 4 (p for trend triglyceride and glucose index was associated with an increased risk of subsequent incident hypertension. The triglyceride and glucose index can predict the incident hypertension among the Chinese population.

  18. Glucose and cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, M.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Mudde, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association and the World Health Organisation have recently redefined the spectrum of abnormal glucose tolerance. The criteria for diabetes mellitus were sharpened and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were classified as intermediate stages

  19. Association of glucose homeostasis measures with heart rate variability among Hispanic/Latino adults without diabetes: the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michelle L; Gotman, Nathan M; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Whitsel, Eric A; Arens, Raanan; Cai, Jianwen; Daviglus, Martha L; Denes, Pablo; González, Hector M; Moreiras, Juan; Talavera, Gregory A; Heiss, Gerardo

    2016-03-16

    Reduced heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of cardiac autonomic function, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Glucose homeostasis measures are associated with reduced cardiac autonomic function among those with diabetes, but inconsistent associations have been reported among those without diabetes. This study aimed to examine the association of glucose homeostasis measures with cardiac autonomic function among diverse Hispanic/Latino adults without diabetes. The Hispanic community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL; 2008-2011) used two-stage area probability sampling of households to enroll 16,415 self-identified Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years from four USA communities. Resting, standard 12-lead electrocardiogram recordings were used to estimate the following ultrashort-term measures of HRV: RR interval (RR), standard deviation of all normal to normal RR (SDNN) and root mean square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD). Multivariable regression analysis was used to estimate associations between glucose homeostasis measures with HRV using data from 11,994 adults without diabetes (mean age 39 years; 52 % women). Higher fasting glucose was associated with lower RR, SDNN, and RMSSD. Fasting insulin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was negatively associated with RR, SDNN, and RMSSD, and the association was stronger among men compared with women. RMSSD was, on average, 26 % lower in men with higher fasting insulin and 29 % lower in men with lower insulin resistance; for women, the corresponding estimates were smaller at 4 and 9 %, respectively. Higher glycated hemoglobin was associated with lower RR, SDNN, and RMSSD in those with abdominal adiposity, defined by sex-specific cut-points for waist circumference, after adjusting for demographics and medication use. There were no associations between glycated hemoglobin and HRV measures among those without abdominal adiposity

  20. Intensive glucose regulation in hyperglycemic acute coronary syndrome: Results of the randomized BIOMarker study to identify the acute risk of a coronary syndrome-2 (BIOMArCS-2) glucose trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Mulder (Maarten); V.A.W.M. Umans (Victor); J.H. Cornel (Jan); F.M. van der Zant (F.); F. Stam (Frank); R.M. Oemrawsingh (Rohit); K.M. Akkerhuis (Martijn); H. Boersma (Eric)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIMPORTANCE: Elevated plasma glucose levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) on hospital admission are associated with increased mortality. Clinical trials of glucose regulation have provided inconsistent results with respect to cardiovascular outcomes, perhaps because

  1. Seismic risk analysis in the German risk study phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasser, D.; Liemersdorf, J.

    1989-01-01

    The paper discusses some aspects of the seismic risk part of the German risk study for nuclear power plants, phase B. First simplified analyses in phase A of the study allowed a rough classification of structures and systems of the PWR reference plant according to their seismic risk contribution. These studies were extended in phase B using improved models for the dynamic analyses of buildings, structures and components as well as for the probabilistic analyses of seismic loading, failure probabilities and event trees. The methodology of deriving probabilistic seismic load descriptions is explained and compared with the methods in phase A of the study and in other studies. Some details of the linear and nonlinear dynamic analyses of structures are reported, in order to demonstrate the influence of different assumptions for material behavior and failure criteria. The probabilistic structural and event tree analyses are discussed with respect to the distribution assumptions, acceptable simplifications, special results for the PWR reference plant and, finally, the influence of model uncertainties

  2. Seismic risk analyses in the German Risk Study, phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosser, D.; Liemersdorf, H.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses some aspects of the seismic risk part of the German Risk Study for Nuclear Power Plants, Phase B. First simplified analyses in Phase A of the study allowed only a rough classification of structures and systems of the PWR reference plant according to their seismic risk contribution. These studies were extended in Phase B using improved models for the dynamic analyses of buildings, structures and components as well as for the probabilistic analyses of seismic loading, failure probabilities and event trees. The methodology of deriving probabilistic seismic load descriptions is explained and compared with the methods in Phase A of the study and in other studies. Some details of the linear and nonlinear dynamic analyses of structures are reported in order to demonstrate the influence of different assumptions for material behaviour and failure criteria. The probabilistic structural and event tree analyses are discussed with respect to distribution assumptions, acceptable simplifications and model uncertainties. Some results for the PWR reference plant are given. (orig.)

  3. Experimental study of inhibitory effects of diallyl trisulfide on the growth of human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells by downregulating expression of glucose-regulated protein 78

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Yue Zhang,1,* Wen-Peng Xie,1,* Yong-Kui Zhang,2 Yi-Qiang Chen,3 Dong-Li Wang,2 Gang Li,2 Dong-Hui Guan2 1First Clinical Medical College, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Orthopedics, Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Orthopedics, The First People’s Hospital of Taian City, Taian, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to the paper Background: Diallyl trisulfide (DATS is a natural organic sulfur compound isolated from garlic that has good anticancer activity according to many previous reports. There are many studies pointing out that DATS can downregulate expression of the glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78, which is associated with poor prognosis and drug resistance in various types of human cancers. However, it remains unknown whether DATS has the same effect on human osteosarcoma cells. This study attempted to clarify the potential molecular mechanisms of the action of DATS in human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells.Methods: We used an inverted phase microscope and immunofluorescent staining to observe the morphological changes of Saos-2 cells after being cultured in different concentrations of DATS (0, 25, 50, and 100 µM for 24 h, or for four time periods (24, 48, 72, and 96 h in the same DATS concentration (50 µM. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were used to detect the expression level of GRP78 mRNA and proteins in Saos-2 cells. GRP78 expression was suppressed in Saos-2 cells by utilizing small-interfering RNA, and the cells were subsequently used to study the anti-proliferative effects of DATS treatment.Results: The expression level of GRP78 mRNA and proteins was significantly downregulated due to the increased concentration and effective times of DATS (P<0.05. In addition, there were significant associations between GRP78

  4. Leishmania amazonensis chemotaxis under glucose gradient studied by the strength and directionality of forces measured with optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; Fontes, Adriana; de Thomaz, André A.; Barbosa, Luiz Carlos; Ayres, Diana Copi; Giorgio, Selma; Cesar, Carlos Lenz

    2007-02-01

    Chemotaxis is the mechanism microorganisms use to sense the environment surrounding them and to direct their movement towards attractive, or away from the repellent, chemicals. The biochemical sensing is almost the only way for communication between unicellular organisms. Prokaryote and Eukaryote chemotaxis has been mechanically studied mainly by observing the directionality and timing of the microorganisms movements subjected to a chemical gradient, but not through the directionality and strength of the forces it generates. To observe the vector force of microorganisms under a chemical gradient we developed a system composed of two large chambers connected by a tiny duct capable to keep the chemical gradient constant for more than ten hours. We also used the displacements of a microsphere trapped in an Optical Tweezers as the force transducer to measure the direction and the strength of the propulsion forces of flagellum of the microorganism under several gradient conditions. A 9μm diameter microsphere particle was trapped with a Nd:YAG laser and its movement was measured through the light scattered focused on a quadrant detector. We observed the behavior of the protozoa Leishmania amazonensis (eukaryote) under several glucose gradients. This protozoa senses the gradient around it by swimming in circles for three to five times following by tumbling, and not by the typical straight swimming/tumbling of bacteria. Our results also suggest that force direction and strength are also used to control its movement, not only the timing of swimming/tumbling, because we observed a higher force strength clearly directed towards the glucose gradient.

  5. The effects of adding group-based lifestyle counselling to individual counselling on changes in plasma glucose levels in a randomized controlled trial: The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, C.; Vistisen, D.; Toft, U.

    2011-01-01

    AimThis study aimed to assess whether group-based lifestyle counselling offered to a high-risk population subgroup had any effect beyond individual multifactorial interventions on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG) changes. MethodsIn a population-based study of 6784......% to low-intensity intervention (group B). All participants went through health examinations, risk assessments and individual lifestyle counselling. Participants in group A were further offered group-based lifestyle counselling. The intervention was repeated after 1 and 3 years. A total of 2738...... participants, 4053 were determined to be at high risk based on a risk estimate of ischaemic heart disease or the presence of risk factors (smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity, impaired glucose tolerance). Of these subjects, 90% were randomized to high-intensity intervention (group A) and 10...

  6. Study supporting the phasing out of environmentally harmful subsidies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withana, S.; Ten Brink, P.; Franckx, L.; Hirschnitz-Garbers, M.; Mayeres, I.; Oosterhuis, F.; Porsch, L.

    2012-10-15

    The need to reform ineffective or harmful public subsidies has long been recognised and has been a contentious point of discussion for several years. The EU has a long-standing commitment to removing or phasing out environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS). Most recently, the need to phase out EHS is reiterated in the 'Roadmap for a resource efficient Europe' which includes a milestone that 'by 2020 EHS will be phased out, with due regard to the impact on people in need'. Despite several commitments, progress has been slow and subsidies remain an issue in most EU countries. This study focuses specifically on EHS at the level of EU Member States; it identifies key types of EHS and examines cases of existing EHS across a range of environmental sectors and issues, including subsidies from non-action. The study also analyses examples of good practices in the reform of EHS in EU Member States and the lessons that can be learnt from these cases. Finally, based on this analysis, it develops practical recommendations on phasing out and reforming EHS to support the objectives of the Europe 2020 Strategy and the resource efficiency agenda. The study was carried out between January and October 2012 and is based on an analysis of literature and consultation with experts and policy makers. The sectoral cases studied are listed and discussed in the annexes report: agriculture, climate and energy, fisheries, food, forestry, materials, transport, waste, and water.

  7. Phase conjugation of gap solitons: A numerical study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the effect of a nearby phase-conjugate mirror (PCM) on the gap soliton of a. Kerr non-linear ... They are characterized by a sech field distribution corresponding to the ... It is a generalization of the earlier model proposed by Jose et.

  8. Study of effect of chromium on titanium dioxide phase transformation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Study of effect of chromium on titanium dioxide phase transformation by A Bellifa (pp 669–677). Figure S1. Structural ... 4 × 1⋅9486; 2 × 1⋅9799. Octahedral packing. 2 × 2 shared edges. 8 free edges. 3 shared edges. 4 corners. 5 free edges. 2 parallel shared edges. 2 corners. 10 free edges. O. O. Coordination scheme.

  9. Crystal growth, structure and phase studies on gold halides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Eugenius Maria Wilhelmus Janssen

    1977-01-01

    Only very corrosive substances attack gold, the most noble metal. In this study the reactivity and the phase diagrams of gold with the halogens chlorine, bromine and iodine have been investigated. owing to the noble behaviour of gold, its halides are sensitive to heat; on heating they decompose into

  10. Caelyx (TM) in malignant mesothelioma : A phase II EORTC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P; van Meerbeeck, J; Groen, H; Schouwink, H; Burgers, S; Daamen, S; Giaccone, G

    Background: The use of doxorubicin has shown some activity in malignant mesothelioma but prolonged administration is hampered by cardiotoxicity. Caelyx(TM), a new liposomal and pegylated form of doxorubicin has shown a better pharmacokinetic and toxic profile then doxorubicin. In a phase II study,

  11. Prediction of Glucose Tolerance without an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Babbar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionImpaired glucose tolerance (IGT is diagnosed by a standardized oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. However, the OGTT is laborious, and when not performed, glucose tolerance cannot be determined from fasting samples retrospectively. We tested if glucose tolerance status is reasonably predictable from a combination of demographic, anthropometric, and laboratory data assessed at one time point in a fasting state.MethodsGiven a set of 22 variables selected upon clinical feasibility such as sex, age, height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbA1c, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, serum potassium, fasting levels of insulin, C-peptide, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, proinsulin, prolactin, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, HDL, uric acid, liver transaminases, and ferritin, we used supervised machine learning to estimate glucose tolerance status in 2,337 participants of the TUEF study who were recruited before 2012. We tested the performance of 10 different machine learning classifiers on data from 929 participants in the test set who were recruited after 2012. In addition, reproducibility of IGT was analyzed in 78 participants who had 2 repeated OGTTs within 1 year.ResultsThe most accurate prediction of IGT was reached with the recursive partitioning method (accuracy = 0.78. For all classifiers, mean accuracy was 0.73 ± 0.04. The most important model variable was fasting glucose in all models. Using mean variable importance across all models, fasting glucose was followed by NEFA, triglycerides, HbA1c, and C-peptide. The accuracy of predicting IGT from a previous OGTT was 0.77.ConclusionMachine learning methods yield moderate accuracy in predicting glucose tolerance from a wide set of clinical and laboratory variables. A substitution of OGTT does not currently seem to be feasible. An important constraint could be the limited reproducibility of glucose tolerance status during a

  12. Changes of Brain Glucose Metabolism in the Pretreatment Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Retrospective PET/CT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weishan; Ning, Ning; Li, Xianjun; Niu, Gang; Bai, Lijun; Guo, Youmin; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The tumor-to-brain communication has been emphasized by recent converging evidences. This study aimed to compare the difference of brain glucose metabolism between patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and control subjects. NSCLC patients prior to oncotherapy and control subjects without malignancy confirmed by 6 months follow-up were collected and underwent the resting state 18F-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) PET/CT. Normalized FDG metabolism was calculated by a signal intensity ratio of each brain region to whole brain. Brain glucose metabolism was compared between NSCLC patients and control group using two samples t-test and multivariate test by statistical parametric maps (SPM) software. Compared with the control subjects (n = 76), both brain glucose hyper- and hypometabolism regions with significant statistical differences (Pbrain signal transduction pathways, and the hypometabolism regions (the left superior parietal lobule, bilateral inferior parietal lobule and left fusiform gyrus) lied in dorsal attention network and visuospatial function areas. The changes of brain glucose metabolism exist in NSCLC patients prior to oncotherapy, which might be attributed to lung-cancer related visceral sympathetic activation and decrease of dorsal attention network function.

  13. AGARICUS BLAZEI MURRILL MUSHROOM COMPOST STUDY ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Rózsa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Compost for the production of Agaricus blazei Murrill mushrooms, is produced from wheat straw, straw-bedded horse manure, chicken manure and gypsum. The substrate is made in two processes called Phase I (anaerobic and Phase II (aerobic. Phase I includes mixing and moistening of the ingredients and a period of uncontrolled self-heating where temperatures will rise to 80ºC. Phase II starts with a pasteurization period of 8h at 56-60ºC and continues with a conditioning period at 45ºC for up to 7 days until volatile NH3 has been cleared from the process by air. Quality parameters for compost cannot be established directly. Moisture and nitrogen contents and pH can be adjusted at the start of Phase I, but the values will be affected during processing. In this paperwork, we studied the physical properties (water content, electrical conductivity and chemical composition (pH, organic matter, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, ammonia of four recipes of compost: classical, synthetic, mixt and original. During the experience, we recorded every hour the compost and the air temperature and the air relative humidity. The highest yield was obtained on synthetic compost with 42 kg mushrooms on 100 kg of compost.

  14. Quantitative aspects of the cytochemical demonstration of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with tetranitro BT studied in a model system of polyacrylamide films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Tas, J.

    1980-01-01

    The cytochemical determination of the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) with tetranitro blue tetrazolium (TNBT) was studied with model films of polyacrylamide gel incorporating purified enzyme. This model system enabled a quantitative study to be made of different parameters

  15. Kinetic Studies on Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions: Oxidation of Glucose, Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide and Their Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhimin; Raffel, Ryan A.; Souid, Abdul-Kader; Goodisman, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    The kinetics of the glucose oxidase-catalyzed reaction of glucose with O2, which produces gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide, and the catalase-assisted breakdown of hydrogen peroxide to generate oxygen, have been measured via the rate of O2 depletion or production. The O2 concentrations in air-saturated phosphate-buffered salt solutions were monitored by measuring the decay of phosphorescence from a Pd phosphor in solution; the decay rate was obtained by fitting the tail of the phosphorescence intensity profile to an exponential. For glucose oxidation in the presence of glucose oxidase, the rate constant determined for the rate-limiting step was k = (3.0 ± 0.7) ×104 M−1s−1 at 37°C. For catalase-catalyzed H2O2 breakdown, the reaction order in [H2O2] was somewhat greater than unity at 37°C and well above unity at 25°C, suggesting different temperature dependences of the rate constants for various steps in the reaction. The two reactions were combined in a single experiment: addition of glucose oxidase to glucose-rich cell-free media caused a rapid drop in [O2], and subsequent addition of catalase caused [O2] to rise and then decrease to zero. The best fit of [O2] to a kinetic model is obtained with the rate constants for glucose oxidation and peroxide decomposition equal to 0.116 s−1 and 0.090 s−1 respectively. Cellular respiration in the presence of glucose was found to be three times as rapid as that in glucose-deprived cells. Added NaCN inhibited O2 consumption completely, confirming that oxidation occurred in the cellular mitochondrial respiratory chain. PMID:19348778

  16. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring shows high accuracy within 6 hours after sensor calibration: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Yue

    Full Text Available Accurate and timely glucose monitoring is essential in intensive care units. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS has been advocated for many years to improve glycemic management in critically ill patients. In order to determine the effect of calibration time on the accuracy of CGMS, real-time subcutaneous CGMS was used in 18 critically ill patients. CGMS sensor was calibrated with blood glucose measurements by blood gas/glucose analyzer every 12 hours. Venous blood was sampled every 2 to 4 hours, and glucose concentration was measured by standard central laboratory device (CLD and by blood gas/glucose analyzer. With CLD measurement as reference, relative absolute difference (mean±SD in CGMS and blood gas/glucose analyzer were 14.4%±12.2% and 6.5%±6.2%, respectively. The percentage of matched points in Clarke error grid zone A was 74.8% in CGMS, and 98.4% in blood gas/glucose analyzer. The relative absolute difference of CGMS obtained within 6 hours after sensor calibration (8.8%±7.2% was significantly less than that between 6 to 12 hours after calibration (20.1%±13.5%, p<0.0001. The percentage of matched points in Clarke error grid zone A was also significantly higher in data sets within 6 hours after calibration (92.4% versus 57.1%, p<0.0001. In conclusion, real-time subcutaneous CGMS is accurate in glucose monitoring in critically ill patients. CGMS sensor should be calibrated less than 6 hours, no matter what time interval recommended by manufacturer.

  17. Associations between ultrasound measures of abdominal fat distribution and indices of glucose metabolism in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes: the ADDITION-PRO study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelotte Philipsen

    Full Text Available Visceral adipose tissue measured by CT or MRI is strongly associated with an adverse metabolic risk profile. We assessed whether similar associations can be found with ultrasonography, by quantifying the strength of the relationship between different measures of obesity and indices of glucose metabolism in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes.A cross-sectional analysis of 1342 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. We measured visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue with ultrasonography, anthropometrics and body fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance. Indices of glucose metabolism were derived from a three point oral glucose tolerance test. Linear regression of obesity measures on indices of glucose metabolism was performed.Mean age was 66.2 years, BMI 26.9kg/m2, subcutaneous adipose tissue 2.5cm and visceral adipose tissue 8.0cm. All measures of obesity were positively associated with indicators of glycaemia and inversely associated with indicators of insulin sensitivity. Associations were of equivalent magnitude except for subcutaneous adipose tissue and the visceral/subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio, which showed weaker associations. One standard deviation difference in BMI, visceral adipose tissue, waist circumference, waist/height ratio and body fat percentage corresponded approximately to 0.2mmol/l higher fasting glucose, 0.7mmol/l higher 2-hr glucose, 0.06-0.1% higher HbA1c, 30 % lower HOMA index of insulin sensitivity, 20% lower Gutt's index of insulin sensitivity, and 100 unit higher Stumvoll's index of beta-cell function. After adjustment for waist circumference visceral adipose tissue was still significantly associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, whereas there was a trend towards inverse or no associations with subcutaneous adipose tissue. After adjustment, a 1cm increase in visceral adipose tissue was associated with ~5% lower insulin sensitivity (p≤0.0004 and ~0.18mmol/l higher 2-hr

  18. Impact of newly diagnosed abnormal glucose regulation on long-term prognosis in low risk patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: A follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelnoor Michael

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with acute myocardial infarction and newly detected abnormal glucose regulation have been shown to have a less favourable prognosis compared to patients with normal glucose regulation. The importance and timing of oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT in patients with acute myocardial infarction without known diabetes is uncertain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of abnormal glucose regulation classified by an OGTT in-hospital and at three-month follow-up on clinical outcome in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI without known diabetes. Methods Patients (n = 224, age 58 years with a primary percutanous coronary intervention (PCI treated STEMI were followed for clinical events (all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial re-infarction, recurrent ischemia causing hospital admission, and stroke. The patients were classified by a standardised 75 g OGTT at two time points, first, at a median time of 16.5 hours after hospital admission, then at three-month follow-up. Based on the OGTT results, the patients were categorised according to the WHO criteria and the term abnormal glucose regulation was defined as the sum of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2-diabetes. Results The number of patients diagnosed with abnormal glucose regulation in-hospital and at three-month was 105 (47% and 50 (25%, respectively. During the follow up time of (median 33 (27, 39 months, 58 (25.9% patients experienced a new clinical event. There were six deaths, 15 non-fatal re-infarction, 33 recurrent ischemia, and four strokes. Kaplan-Meier analysis of survival free of composite end-points showed similar results in patients with abnormal and normal glucose regulation, both when classified in-hospital (p = 0.4 and re-classified three months later (p = 0.3. Conclusions Patients with a primary PCI treated STEMI, without previously known diabetes, appear to have an excellent

  19. Reduced cerebral glucose metabolism and increased brain capillary permeability following high-dose methotrexate chemotherapy: a positron emission tomographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, P.C.; Dhawan, V.; Strother, S.C.; Sidtis, J.J.; Evans, A.C.; Allen, J.C.; Rottenberg, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Regional glucose metabolic rate constants and blood-to-brain transport of rubidium were estimated using positron emission tomography in an adolescent patient with a brain tumor, before and after chemotherapy with intravenous high-dose methotrexate. Widespread depression of cerebral glucose metabolism was apparent 24 hours after drug administration, which may reflect reduced glucose phosphorylation, and the influx rate constant for 82 Rb was increased, indicating a drug-induced alteration in blood-brain barrier function. Associated changes in neuropsychological performance, electroencephalogram, and plasma amino acid concentration were identified in the absence of evidence of systemic methotrexate toxicity, suggesting primary methotrexate neurotoxicity

  20. Main results of the german risk study, phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Work on the German Risk Study is under contract of the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology. The reference plant for the analysis is the Biblis nuclear power plant, Unit B, a KWU pressurized water reactor of the 1300 MWel class. The plant is in operation since 1976. First results on Phase A of the study have been published in 1979. Investigations on Phase B have been foreseen to endeepen the analysis. The principal purpose of these investigations is to improve and to optimize the plant's safety features on a more realistic basis. Main objectives of Phase B are: - Completeness of accident event tree analysis taking into account further accident initiating events. - Identification and analyses of accident management measures which are adequate to minimize accidental risk. - improvement of the analysis on an as far as possible realistic basis, thereby taking into account recent results of safety research. The paper deals with the most important results of the plant analyses (level 1 and level 2) which have been performed within the scope of Phases B of the study

  1. Fructose acute effects on glucose, insulin, and triglyceride after a solid meal compared with sucralose and sucrose in a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Clare; Keogh, Jennifer B; Pedersen, Eva; Clifton, Peter M

    2016-06-01

    Fructose, which is a sweetener with a low glycemic index, has been shown to elevate postprandial triglyceride compared with glucose. There are limited data on the effect of fructose in a solid mixed meal containing starch and protein. We determined the effects of sucrose, fructose, and sucralose on triglyceride, glucose, and insulin in an acute study in healthy, overweight, and obese individuals. The study had a randomized crossover design. Twenty-seven participants with a mean age of 44 y and a mean body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 26 completed the study. Fructose (52 g), sucrose (65 g), and sucralose (0.1 g) were delivered as sweet-taste-balanced muffins with a total fat load (66 g). Blood samples were taken at baseline and every 30 min for 4-h glucose, triglyceride, and insulin concentrations, and the area under the curve (AUC) and the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) were analyzed. No significant difference was shown between the 3 sweeteners for triglyceride and glucose concentrations and the AUC. The glucose iAUC was lower for fructose than for sucrose and sucralose (P triglyceride compared with sucrose or sucralose and lowered the glucose iAUC. These results indicate that these sweeteners, at an equivalent sweetness, can be used in normal solid meals. Fructose showed a lower insulin response, which may be beneficial in the long term in individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. This trial was registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12615000279527. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. /sup 1/H- and /sup 13/C-NMR spectroscopic study of glucose metabolism in eggs of Angiostrongylus cantonensis during their development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, M.; Kato, K.; Ohsaka, A.; Nishina, M.; Hori, E.; Matsushita, K.

    1987-02-01

    /sup 1/H- and /sup 13/C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to study aerobic glucose metabolism in eggs of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in an NCTC-109 medium supplemented with fetal calf serum. Without any pretreatment of the spent medium, we were able to identify and quantitate, by NMR, the end-products of glucose metabolism in eggs after cultivation for 2, 4, and 8 days. We demonstrated that A. cantonensis eggs took up glucose rapidly; among the major end products were found lactic acid, acetic acid and alanine. The eggs are parasitic in a sense that the energy metabolism in them is dependent mainly upon the energy source present in outer medium.

  3. In vitro characterization of luseogliflozin, a potent and competitive sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor: Inhibition kinetics and binding studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeko Uchida

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated an inhibition model of luseogliflozin on sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2. We also analyzed the binding kinetics of the drug to SGLT2 protein using [3H]-luseogliflozin. Luseogliflozin competitively inhibited human SGLT2 (hSGLT2-mediated glucose uptake with a Ki value of 1.10 nM. In the absence of glucose, [3H]-luseogliflozin exhibited a high affinity for hSGLT2 with a Kd value of 1.3 nM. The dissociation half-time was 7 h, suggesting that luseogliflozin dissociates rather slowly from hSGLT2. These profiles of luseogliflozin might contribute to the long duration of action of this drug.

  4. Heterogeneity in glucose response curves during an oral glucose tolerance test and associated cardiometabolic risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Simmons, Rebecca Kate; Vistisen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    patterns of plasma glucose change during the oral glucose tolerance test. Cardiometabolic risk factor profiles were compared between the identified groups. Using latent class trajectory analysis, five glucose response curves were identified. Despite similar fasting and 2-h values, glucose peaks and peak......We aimed to examine heterogeneity in glucose response curves during an oral glucose tolerance test with multiple measurements and to compare cardiometabolic risk profiles between identified glucose response curve groups. We analyzed data from 1,267 individuals without diabetes from five studies...... in Denmark, the Netherlands and the USA. Each study included between 5 and 11 measurements at different time points during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, resulting in 9,602 plasma glucose measurements. Latent class trajectories with a cubic specification for time were fitted to identify different...

  5. Glucose but not insulin or insulin resistance is associated with memory performance in middle-aged non-diabetic women : a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Backeström, Anna; Eriksson, Sture; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Olsson, Tommy; Rolandsson, Olov

    2015-01-01

    Background: Elevated concentrations of plasma glucose appear to play a role in memory impairment, and it has been suggested that insulin might also have a negative effect on cognitive function. Our aim was to study whether glucose, insulin or insulin resistance are associated with episodic or semantic memory in a non-diabetic and non-demented population.  Methods: We linked and matched two population-based data sets identifying 291 participants (127 men and 164 women, mean age of 50.7 +/- 8.0...

  6. Associations between Ultrasound Measures of Abdominal Fat Distribution and Indices of Glucose Metabolism in a Population at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The ADDITION-PRO Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Annelotte; Jørgensen, Marit E; Vistisen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    metabolism in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 1342 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. We measured visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue with ultrasonography, anthropometrics and body fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance. Indices...... standard deviation difference in BMI, visceral adipose tissue, waist circumference, waist/height ratio and body fat percentage corresponded approximately to 0.2mmol/l higher fasting glucose, 0.7mmol/l higher 2-hr glucose, 0.06-0.1% higher HbA1c, 30 % lower HOMA index of insulin sensitivity, 20% lower Gutt...

  7. Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarwar, N; Gao, P; Seshasai, S R Kondapally

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainties persist about the magnitude of associations of diabetes mellitus and fasting glucose concentration with risk of coronary heart disease and major stroke subtypes. We aimed to quantify these associations for a wide range of circumstances....

  8. Glucose and fructose 6-phosphate cycle in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlander, S.; Roovete, A.; Vranic, M.; Efendic, S.

    1986-01-01

    We have determined the rate of glucose cycling by comparing turnovers of [2- 3 H]- and [6- 3 H]glucose under basal conditions and during a glucose infusion. Moreover, the activity of the fructose 6-phosphate cycle was assessed by comparing [3- 3 H]- and [6- 3 H]glucose. The study included eight lean subjects with normal glucose tolerance. They participated in two randomly performed investigations. In one experiment [2- 3 H]- and [6- 3 H]glucose were given simultaneously, while in the other only [3- 3 H]glucose was given. The basal rate of glucose cycling was 0.32 +/- 0.08 mg X kg-1 X min-1 or 17% of basal glucose production (P less than 0.005). During glucose infusion the activity of endogenous glucose cycling did not change but since glucose production was suppressed it amounted to 130% of glucose production. The basal fructose 6-phosphate cycle could be detected only in three subjects and was suppressed during glucose infusion. In conclusion, the glucose cycle is active in healthy humans both in basal conditions and during moderate hyperglycemia. In some subjects, the fructose 6-phosphate cycle also appears to be active. Thus it is preferable to use [6- 3 H]glucose rather than [3- 3 H]glucose when measuring glucose production and particularly when assessing glucose cycle

  9. Study on thermal-hydraulics during a PWR reflood phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Tadashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    In-core thermal-hydraulics during a PWR reflood phase following a large-break LOCA are quite unique in comparison with two-phase flow which has been studied widely in previous researches, because the geometry of the flow path is complicated (bundle geometry) and water is at extremely low superficial velocity and almost under stagnant condition. Hence, some phenomena realized during a PWR reflood phase are not understood enough and appropriate analytical models have not been developed, although they are important in a viewpoint of reactor safety evaluation. Therefore, author investigated some phenomena specified as important issues for quantitative prediction, i.e. (1) void fraction in a bundle during a PWR reflood phase, (2) effect of radial core power profile on reflood behavior, (3) effect of combined emergency core coolant injection on reflood behavior, and (4) the core separation into two thermal-hydraulically different regions and the in-core flow circulation behavior observed during a combined injection PWR reflood phase. Further, author made analytical models for these specified issues, and succeeded to predict reflood behaviors at representative types of PWRs, i.e.cold leg injection PWRs and Combined injection PWRs, in good accuracy. Above results were incorporated into REFLA code which is developed at JAERI, and they improved accuracy in prediction and enlarged applicability of the code. In the present study, models were intended to be utilized in a practical use, and hence these models are simplified ones. However, physical understanding on the specified issues in the present study is basic and principal for reflood behavior, and then it is considered to be used in a future advanced code development and improvement. (author). 110 refs.

  10. Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Richa; Hivert, Marie-France; Langenberg, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6,958-30,620)......Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6...

  11. Genetically elevated fetuin-A levels, fasting glucose levels, and risk of type 2 diabetes: the cardiovascular health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Majken K; Bartz, Traci M; Djoussé, Luc; Kizer, Jorge R; Zieman, Susan J; Rimm, Eric B; Siscovick, David S; Psaty, Bruce M; Ix, Joachim H; Mukamal, Kenneth J

    2013-10-01

    Fetuin-A levels are associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes, but it is unknown if the association is causal. We investigated common (>5%) genetic variants in the fetuin-A gene (AHSG) fetuin-A levels, fasting glucose, and risk of type 2 diabetes. Genetic variation, fetuin-A levels, and fasting glucose were assessed in 2,893 Caucasian and 542 African American community-living individuals 65 years of age or older in 1992-1993. Common AHSG variants (rs4917 and rs2248690) were strongly associated with fetuin-A concentrations (Pfasting glucose concentrations (1.9 mg/dL [95% CI, 1.2-2.7] higher per SD in Caucasians), but Mendelian randomization analyses using both SNPs as unbiased proxies for measured fetuin-A did not support an association between genetically predicted fetuin-A levels and fasting glucose (-0.3 mg/dL [95% CI, -1.9 to 1.3] lower per SD in Caucasians). The difference between the associations of fasting glucose with actual and genetically predicted fetuin-A level was statistically significant (P=0.001). Results among the smaller sample of African Americans trended in similar directions but were statistically insignificant. Common variants in the AHSG gene are strongly associated with plasma fetuin-A concentrations, but not with risk of type 2 diabetes or glucose concentrations, raising the possibility that the association between fetuin-A and type 2 diabetes may not be causal.

  12. Fast food consumption in Iranian adults; dietary intake and cardiovascular risk factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Golzarand, Mahdieh; Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-06-01

    Although fast food consumption has drastically increased in Iran in recent years; there is a paucity of data in relation to the association between fast food consumption, dietary intake, and cardiovascular risk factors. This study aims to determine fast food consumption status among young and middle-aged Iranian adults, and to assess its impact on dietary intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on 1944 young and middle-aged adults (840 men and 1104 women), who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008). We collected dietary data by using a validated 168 item, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Total fast food consumption was calculated by summing up weekly consumption of the most commonly consumed fast foods in Iran. Mean consumption of fast food was 161g/week (95% CI: 147-175) for young adults and 108 g/week (95% CI: 101-115) for middle-aged adults. Mean dietary intakes of energy, fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, meat, and soft drinks increased significantly (P consumption decreased (P fast food in both age groups. In young adults, dietary energy density and protein intake increased significantly (P fast food tertiles (P fast food consumption and body mass index (BMI; β = 0.104; P consumption of fast foods is associated with poor dietary intake and some of the CVD risk factors in Iranian adults.

  13. Glucose metabolism of lactobacillus divergens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruyn, I.N.

    1987-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compile an optimal growth and selective medium for Lactobacillus divergens and to determine the pathway by which it metabolised glucose. The optimum growth temperature is 25 o C which is lower than that of most other lactobacilli. Citrate stimulates growth up to a concentration of 1% while acetate inhibits the organism at neutral pH, but it stimulates growth at pH 8.5 up to a concentration of 0.8%. MRS medium was therefore modified in order to obtain maximum growth of the organism. The acetate was omitted, sucrose was substituted for glucose and the pH was adjusted to 8.5. Sucrose was used, since a neutral pH is obtained after sterilisation of glucose in alkaline (pH ≥ 7.5) solution due to the degradation of glucose by the Maillard reaction. Various inhibitors and dyes were tested in order to formulate a selective medium. In the present study differently labelled glucose precursors were fermented by L. divergens and the fermentation products isolated by HPLC. The concentrations of acetate and formate were determined by comparison to a standard while the concentration of lactate and glucose was determined by enzymic assay. The radioactivity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and the positional labelling in lactate and acetate by chemical degradation. Fermentation of D-[U- 14 C]-glucose was included to correct for endogenous product dilution

  14. Ventromedial hypothalamic glucose sensing and glucose homeostasis vary throughout the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Ammy M; Clegg, Deborah J; Routh, Vanessa H

    2016-12-01

    17β-Estradiol (17βE) regulates glucose homeostasis in part by centrally mediated mechanisms. In female rodents, the influence of the ovarian cycle on hypoglycemia counterregulation and glucose tolerance is unclear. We found previously that in prepubertal females, 17βE modulates glucose sensing in nonadapting glucose-inhibited (GI) and adapting GI (AdGI) neurons within the ventrolateral portion of the ventromedial nucleus (VL-VMN). Nonadapting GI neurons persistently decrease their activity as glucose increases while AdGI neurons transiently respond to a glucose increase. To begin to understand if endogenous fluctuations in estrogen levels across the estrous cycle impact hypothalamic glucose sensing and glucose homeostasis, we assessed whether hypoglycemia counterregulation and glucose tolerance differed across the phases of the estrous cycle. We hypothesized that the response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) and/or glucose tolerance would vary throughout the estrous cycle according to changes in 17βE availability. Moreover, that these changes would correlate with estrous-dependent changes in the glucose sensitivity of VL-VMN glucose-sensing neurons (GSNs). These hypotheses were tested in female mice by measuring the response to IIH, glucose tolerance and the glucose sensitivity of VL-VMN GSNs during each phase of the estrous cycle. Furthermore, a physiological brain concentration of 17βE seen during proestrus was acutely applied to brain slices isolated on the day of diestrous and the response to low glucose in VL-VMN GSNs was assayed. The response to IIH was strongest during diestrous. The response of nonadapting GI and AdGI neurons to a glucose decrease from 2.5 to 0.5mM also peaked during diestrous; an effect which was blunted by the addition of 17βE. In contrast, the glucose sensitivity of the subpopulation of GSNs which are excited by glucose (GE) was not affected by estrous phase or exogenous 17βE application. These data suggest that physiological

  15. Ventromedial hypothalamic glucose sensing and glucose homeostasis vary throughout the estrous cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Ammy M.; Clegg, Deborah J.; Routh, Vanessa H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective 17β-Estradiol (17βE) regulates glucose homeostasis in part by centrally mediated mechanisms. In female rodents, the influence of the ovarian cycle on hypoglycemia counterregulation and glucose tolerance is unclear. We found previously that in prepubertal females, 17βE modulates glucose sensing in nonadapting glucose-inhibited (GI) and adapting GI (AdGI) neurons within the ventrolateral portion of the ventromedial nucleus (VL-VMN). Nonadapting GI neurons persistently decrease their activity as glucose increases while AdGI neurons transiently respond to a glucose increase. To begin to understand if endogenous fluctuations in estrogen levels across the estrous cycle impact hypothalamic glucose sensing and glucose homeostasis, we assessed whether hypoglycemia counterregulation and glucose tolerance differed across the phases of the estrous cycle. We hypothesized that the response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) and/or glucose tolerance would vary throughout the estrous cycle according to changes in 17βE availability. Moreover, that these changes would correlate with estrous-dependent changes in the glucose sensitivity of VL-VMN glucose-sensing neurons (GSNs). Methods These hypotheses were tested in female mice by measuring the response to IIH, glucose tolerance and the glucose sensitivity of VL-VMN GSNs during each phase of the estrous cycle. Furthermore, a physiological brain concentration of 17βE seen during proestrus was acutely applied to brain slices isolated on the day of diestrous and the response to low glucose in VL-VMN GSNs was assayed. Results The response to IIH was strongest during diestrous. The response of nonadapting GI and AdGI neurons to a glucose decrease from 2.5 to 0.5mM also peaked during diestrous; an effect which was blunted by the addition of 17βE. In contrast, the glucose sensitivity of the subpopulation of GSNs which are excited by glucose (GE) was not affected by estrous phase or exogenous 17βE application. Conclusion

  16. Test-retest studies of cerebral glucose metabolism using fluorine-18 deoxyglucose: validation of method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.A.; Di Chiro, G.; Zukerberg, B.W.; Bairamian, D.; Larson, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    In studies using [ 18 F]deoxyglucose (FDG), one often wants to compare metabolic rates following stimulation (drug or motor-sensory) with the baseline values. However, because of reproducibility problems with baseline variations of 25% in the same individual not uncommon, the global effect of the stimulation may be difficult to see. One approach to this problem is to perform the two studies sequentially. This means that, with the 110-min half-life of 18 F, one must take into account the residual activity from the first study when calculating metabolic rates for the second. We performed TEST-RETEST baseline studies on four subjects, with a 1-hr interval between injections. These studies were done without stimulation, in order to validate the repeatability of the method. To reduce the amount of residual activity from the first study, the first injection was only 2 mCi in three cases, and only 1 mCi in one case, out of a total injected dose of 5 mCi. A correction for residual activity was included in the RETEST calculation of metabolic rate. The results showed a global metabolic shift between the two studies of 2% to 9%. An error analysis shows that the shift could be further reduced if anatomically comparable scans are done at comparable postinjection times

  17. Elucidation of the glucose transport pathway in glucose transporter 4 via steered molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswathy Sheena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: GLUT4 is a predominant insulin regulated glucose transporter expressed in major glucose disposal tissues such as adipocytes and muscles. Under the unstimulated state, GLUT4 resides within intracellular vesicles. Various stimuli such as insulin translocate this protein to the plasma membrane for glucose transport. In the absence of a crystal structure for GLUT4, very little is known about the mechanism of glucose transport by this protein. Earlier we proposed a homology model for GLUT4 and performed a conventional molecular dynamics study revealing the conformational rearrangements during glucose and ATP binding. However, this study could not explain the transport of glucose through the permeation tunnel. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To elucidate the molecular mechanism of glucose transport and its energetic, a steered molecular dynamics study (SMD was used. Glucose was pulled from the extracellular end of GLUT4 to the cytoplasm along the pathway using constant velocity pulling method. We identified several key residues within the tunnel that interact directly with either the backbone ring or the hydroxyl groups of glucose. A rotation of glucose molecule was seen near the sugar binding site facilitating the sugar recognition process at the QLS binding site. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study proposes a possible glucose transport pathway and aids the identification of several residues that make direct interactions with glucose during glucose transport. Mutational studies are required to further validate the observation made in this study.

  18. Cognitive Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study on Serum Vitamin D and Its Interplay With Glucose Homeostasis in Dutch Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P.; van de Zwaluw, Nikita L.; In 't Veld, Paulette H.; Wins, Sophie; Swart, Karin M. A.; Enneman, Anke W.; Ham, Annelies C.; van Dijk, Suzanne C.; van Schoor, Natasja M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Lips, Paul; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Steegenga, Wilma T.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    First, the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and cognitive performance was examined. Second, we assessed whether there was evidence for an interplay between 25(OH)D and glucose homeostasis in the association with cognitive performance. Associations were studied using

  19. Size and shape of the associations of glucose, HbA, insulin and HOMA-IR with incident type 2 diabetes : the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijgrok, Carolien; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Beulens, Joline W; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Coupé, Veerle M H; Heymans, Martijn W; Sijtsma, Femke P C; Mela, David J; Zock, Peter L; Olthof, Margreet R; Alssema, Marjan

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glycaemic markers and fasting insulin are frequently measured outcomes of intervention studies. To extrapolate accurately the impact of interventions on the risk of diabetes incidence, we investigated the size and shape of the associations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h

  20. Branched chain enriched amino acid versus glucose treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. A double-blind study of 65 patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup, Hendrik; Gluud, C; Hardt, F

    1990-01-01

    We studied the effects of infusion of a branched chain enriched amino acid mixture versus glucose on acute hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis. Sixty-five patients were randomly treated with 1 g/kg per day of an amino acid mixture with 40% branched chain contents (32 patients...

  1. Peripheral insulin resistance rather than beta cell dysfunction accounts for geographical differences in impaired fasting blood glucose among sub-Saharan African individuals : findings from the RODAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeks, Karlijn A C; Stronks, Karien; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Addo, Juliet; Bahendeka, Silver; Beune, Erik; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Danquah, Ina; Galbete, Cecilia; Henneman, Peter; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Osei, Kwame; Schulze, Matthias B; Spranger, Joachim; Smeeth, Liam; Agyemang, Charles

    2017-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which insulin resi