Sample records for glucose monitoring techniques

  1. Non-Invasive Glucose Monitoring Techniques: A review and current trends

    Poddar, Raju; Shukla, Pratyoosh; Sen, Pratima


    Diabetes mellitus is a complex group of syndromes that have in common a disturbance in the body's use of glucose, resulting in an elevated blood sugar. Once detected, sugar diabetes can be controlled by an appropriate regimen that should include diet therapy, a weight reduction program for those persons who are overweight, a program of exercise and insulin injections or oral drugs to lower blood glucose. Blood glucose monitoring by the patient and the physician is an important aspect in the control of the devastating complications (heart disease, blindness, kidney failure or amputations) due to the disease. Intensive therapy and frequent glucose testing has numerous benefits. With ever improving advances in diagnostic technology, the race for the next generation of bloodless, painless, accurate glucose instruments has begun. In this paper, we reviewed various methods, techniques and approaches successfully demonstrated for measuring or monitoring blood glucose. Invasive, minimally invasive and noninvasive tec...

  2. Techniques of monitoring blood glucose during pregnancy for women with pre-existing diabetes.

    Moy, Foong Ming; Ray, Amita; Buckley, Brian S; West, Helen M


    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is recommended as a key component of the management plan for diabetes therapy during pregnancy. No existing systematic reviews consider the benefits/effectiveness of various techniques of blood glucose monitoring on maternal and infant outcomes among pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes. The effectiveness of the various monitoring techniques is unclear. To compare techniques of blood glucose monitoring and their impact on maternal and infant outcomes among pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 November 2016), searched reference lists of retrieved studies and contacted trial authors. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing techniques of blood glucose monitoring including SMBG, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) or clinic monitoring among pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus (type 1 or type 2). Trials investigating timing and frequency of monitoring were also included. RCTs using a cluster-randomised design were eligible for inclusion but none were identified. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. This review update includes at total of 10 trials (538) women (468 women with type 1 diabetes and 70 women with type 2 diabetes). The trials took place in Europe and the USA. Five of the 10 included studies were at moderate risk of bias, four studies were at low to moderate risk of bias, and one study was at high risk of bias. The trials are too small to show differences in important outcomes such as macrosomia, preterm birth, miscarriage or death of baby. Almost all the reported GRADE outcomes were assessed as being very low-quality evidence. This was due to design limitations in the studies, wide confidence intervals, small

  3. Nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring

    Bay, Christiane; Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik;


    Abstract Background: A reliable method to detect biochemical nocturnal hypoglycemia is highly needed, especially in patients with recurrent severe hypoglycemia. We evaluated reliability of nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes at high risk of severe...

  4. Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems: A Review

    Sandeep Kumar Vashist


    Full Text Available There have been continuous advances in the field of glucose monitoring during the last four decades, which have led to the development of highly evolved blood glucose meters, non-invasive glucose monitoring (NGM devices and continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS. Glucose monitoring is an integral part of diabetes management, and the maintenance of physiological blood glucose concentration is the only way for a diabetic to avoid life-threatening diabetic complications. CGMS have led to tremendous improvements in diabetic management, as shown by the significant lowering of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c in adults with type I diabetes. Most of the CGMS have been minimally-invasive, although the more recent ones are based on NGM techniques. This manuscript reviews the advances in CGMS for diabetes management along with the future prospects and the challenges involved.

  5. Bedside Blood Glucose Monitoring in Hospitals

    American Diabetes Association


    Bedside Blood Glucose Monitoring in Hospitals American Diabetes Association The modern management of hospitalized patients with diabetes includes capillary blood glucose determinations at the bedside...

  6. Recent advances in noninvasive glucose monitoring

    So CF


    Full Text Available Chi-Fuk So,1 Kup-Sze Choi,1 Thomas KS Wong,2 Joanne WY Chung2,31Centre for Integrative Digital Health, School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, 2Department of Nursing and Health Sciences, Tung Wah College, Hong Kong, 3Department of Health and Physical Education, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong KongAbstract: The race for the next generation of painless and reliable glucose monitoring for diabetes mellitus is on. As technology advances, both diagnostic techniques and equipment improve. This review describes the main technologies currently being explored for noninvasive glucose monitoring. The principle of each technology is mentioned; its advantages and limitations are then discussed. The general description and the corresponding results for each device are illustrated, as well as the current status of the device and the manufacturer; internet references for the devices are listed where appropriate. Ten technologies and eleven potential devices are included in this review. Near infrared spectroscopy has become a promising technology, among others, for blood glucose monitoring. Although some reviews have been published already, the rapid development of technologies and information makes constant updating mandatory. While advances have been made, the reliability and the calibration of noninvasive instruments could still be improved, and more studies carried out under different physiological conditions of metabolism, bodily fluid circulation, and blood components are needed.Keywords: noninvasive, glucose monitoring, diabetes mellitus, blood glucose measurement

  7. Middle infrared optoelectronic absorption systems for monitoring physiological glucose solutions

    Martin, W. Blake

    Tight monitoring of the glucose levels for diabetic individuals is essential to control long-term complications. A definitive diabetes management system has yet to be developed for the diabetic. This research investigates the application of middle infrared absorption frequencies for monitoring glucose levels in biological solutions. Three frequencies were identified using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and correlated to changes in glucose concentrations. The 1035 +/- 1 cm-1 frequency was determined to be the best representative frequency. Other biological molecules contributed no significant interference to monitoring glucose absorption. A second frequency at 1193 cm-1 was suggested as a representative background absorption frequency, which could be used for more accurate glucose absorption values. Next, a quantum cascade laser optoelectronic absorption system was designed and developed to monitor glucose. After careful alignment and design, the system was used to monitor physiological glucose concentrations. Correlation at 1036 cm-1 with glucose changes was comparable to the previous results. The use of the background absorption frequency was verified. This frequency essentially acts as a calibrating frequency to adjust in real-time to any changes in the background absorption that may alter the accuracy of the predicted glucose value. An evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy technique was explored to monitor molecules in a biological solution. Visible light at 425 nm was used to monitor hemoglobin in control urine samples. An adsorption isotherm for hemoglobin was detectable to limit of 5.8 nM. Evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy would be useful for a glucose solution. Given an equivalent system designed for the middle infrared, the molar extinction coefficient of glucose allows for a detectable limit of 45 mg/dl for a free-floating glucose solution, which is below normal physiological concentrations. The future use of a hydrophobic

  8. A novel noninvasive blood glucose monitor.

    Malchoff, Carl D; Shoukri, Kamal; Landau, Julian I; Buchert, Janusz M


    To evaluate the precision and accuracy of a new advanced prototype of a noninvasive blood glucose monitor across a wide range of serum glucose concentrations. An advanced handheld noninvasive glucose monitor prototype was calibrated and tested using patients recruited by the General Research Center of the University of Connecticut Health Center. The monitor, developed by Infratec, uses principles of thermal emission spectroscopy. The noninvasive measurement of tympanic membrane glucose concentration was calibrated to the serum glucose concentration using 432 paired measurements from 20 subjects with insulin-requiring diabetes. This calibration was subsequently tested (results of power analyses) in a blind fashion with 126 paired measurements from six diabetic subjects who require insulin. In vivo measurements demonstrated the reproducibility of the methodology of the noninvasive glucose monitor. Based on the calibration model, predicted glucose concentrations for six subjects were as follows (for 126 data points): SD = 32 mg/dl, mean absolute relative error (%MARE) = 11.6, with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.87. Noninvasive glucose results were also compared with laboratory reference measurements using an error-in-variables method. Clark error grid analysis showed that 100% of the measurements fell within zones A and B (90% in zone A and 10% in zone B). The SD for all noninvasive measured concentrations was 27 mg/dl, %MARE was 8.6, and the correlation coefficient was r = 0.94. This first independent clinical study of an advanced noninvasive blood glucose prototype based on thermal emission in the mid-infrared spectral region has demonstrated glucose measurements with clinically acceptable accuracy but without the necessity of individual daily calibration.

  9. Toward a Continuous Intravascular Glucose Monitoring System

    Pedro Irazoqui


    Full Text Available Proof-of-concept studies that display the potential of using a glucose-sensitive hydrogel as a continuous glucose sensor are presented. The swelling ratio, porosity, and diffusivity of the hydrogel increased with glucose concentration. In glucose solutions of 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/dL, the hydrogel swelling ratios were 4.9, 12.3, 15.9, and 21.7, respectively, and the swelling was reversible. The impedance across the hydrogel depended solely on the thickness and had an average increase of 47 W/mm. The hydrogels exposed to a hyperglycemic solution were more porous than the hydrogels exposed to a normal glycemic solution. The diffusivity of 390 Da MW fluorescein isothiocyanate in hydrogels exposed to normal and hyperglycemic solutions was examined using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and was found to be 9.3 × 10−14 and 41.4 × 10−14 m2/s, respectively, compared to 6.2 × 10−10 m2/s in glucose solution. There was no significant difference between the permeability of hydrogels in normal and hyperglycemic glucose solutions with averages being 5.26 × 10−17 m2 and 5.80 × 10−17 m2, respectively, which resembles 2–4% agarose gels. A prototype design is presented for continuous intravascular glucose monitoring by attaching a glucose sensor to an FDA-approved stent.

  10. Noninvasive in vivo glucose sensing using an iris based technique

    Webb, Anthony J.; Cameron, Brent D.


    Physiological glucose monitoring is important aspect in the treatment of individuals afflicted with diabetes mellitus. Although invasive techniques for glucose monitoring are widely available, it would be very beneficial to make such measurements in a noninvasive manner. In this study, a New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit animal model was utilized to evaluate a developed iris-based imaging technique for the in vivo measurement of physiological glucose concentration. The animals were anesthetized with isoflurane and an insulin/dextrose protocol was used to control blood glucose concentration. To further help restrict eye movement, a developed ocular fixation device was used. During the experimental time frame, near infrared illuminated iris images were acquired along with corresponding discrete blood glucose measurements taken with a handheld glucometer. Calibration was performed using an image based Partial Least Squares (PLS) technique. Independent validation was also performed to assess model performance along with Clarke Error Grid Analysis (CEGA). Initial validation results were promising and show that a high percentage of the predicted glucose concentrations are within 20% of the reference values.

  11. Limitations of Continuous Glucose Monitor Usage.

    Anhalt, Henry


    Much progress has been made in diabetes treatments since the first dose of insulin was administered in 1921. However, a truly transformational moment in diabetes care occurred when urine testing gave way to capillary blood home glucose monitoring. As improvements were made to these devices, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was introduced. The advantages of experiential learnings gleaned from seeing continuous real-time data have been borne out in numerous peer-reviewed journals. Limitations to use of CGM include patient's level of numeracy and literacy, development of alarm fatigue, interfering substances leading to erroneous readings, high rates of discontinuation, and poor reimbursement.

  12. Recommending blood glucose monitors, a pharmacy perspective.

    Carter, Alan


    Selection of what blood glucose monitoring system to utilize has become an issue for physicians, diabetes educators, pharmacists, and patients. The field of competing makes and models of blood glucose monitoring systems has become crowded, with manufacturers touting improvements in accuracy, ease of use/alternate site options, stored results capacity, software evaluation tools, and/or price point. Personal interviews of 12 pharmacists from community and academic practice settings about monitor preference, as well as results from a national survey of pharmacist recommendations, were compared to actual wholesale sales data to estimate the impact of such recommendations on final monitor selection by the patient. Accu-Chek monitors were recommended 34.65% of the time and represented 28.58% of sales, with a success rate of 82.48% of being the monitor selected. OneTouch monitors had 27.72% of recommendations but represented 31.43% of sales, indicating possible patient brand loyalty or formulary preference for that product. FreeStyle(R) monitors came in third for pharmacist recommendations and were selected by the patient 61.68% of the time when recommended. The category of "other monitor" choices was selected 60.89% of the time by patients given those suggestions. Included in the "other monitor" category was the new disposable monitor marketed as the Sidekick. Based on sales data provided, the Sidekick made up 2.87% of "other monitor" category sales, representing 68% of the "other monitor" segment. While patients frequently follow pharmacist monitoring system suggestions, the ultimate deciding factor is most often the final out-of-pocket cost to the patient. As a result, cost of supplies often becomes the most important determining factor in final monitor selection at the patient level. If the patient cannot afford to perform the recommended daily testing intervals, all other determining factors and suggestions become moot.

  13. Continuous glucose monitoring in acute coronary syndrome.

    Rodríguez-Quintanilla, Karina Alejandra; Lavalle-González, Fernando Javier; Mancillas-Adame, Leonardo Guadalupe; Zapata-Garrido, Alfonso Javier; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Zacarías; Tamez-Pérez, Héctor Eloy


    Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To compare the efficacy of devices for continuous glucose monitoring and capillary glucose monitoring in hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndrome using the following parameters: time to achieve normoglycemia, period of time in normoglycemia, and episodes of hypoglycemia. We performed a pilot, non-randomized, unblinded clinical trial that included 16 patients with acute coronary artery syndrome, a capillary or venous blood glucose ≥ 140 mg/dl, and treatment with a continuous infusion of fast acting human insulin. These patients were randomized into 2 groups: a conventional group, in which capillary measurement and recording as well as insulin adjustment were made every 4h, and an intervention group, in which measurement and recording as well as insulin adjustment were made every hour with a subcutaneous continuous monitoring system. Student's t-test was applied for mean differences and the X(2) test for qualitative variables. We observed a statistically significant difference in the mean time for achieving normoglycemia, favoring the conventional group with a P = 0.02. Continuous monitoring systems are as useful as capillary monitoring for achieving normoglycemia. Copyright © 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Continuous glucose monitoring: current clinical use.

    Kim, Hun-Sung; Shin, Jeong-Ah; Chang, Jin-Sun; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Son, Ho-Young; Yoon, Kun-Ho


    Four kinds of subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) machines have been currently introduced in clinical practice. These machines exhibit real-time glucose on the monitor every 5 minutes and have alarms to indicate hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia. However, thus far, there is no clear consensus about the clinical indications for CGM in actual clinical practice. CGM should be an ideal and powerful tool for monitoring glucose variability. Glycaemic variability has become a major concern over the years with growing evidence on its detrimental impact with respect to the risk of diabetic complications. Although the HbA1c level is ubiquitously measures in clinical practice, this level does not adequately represent glycaemic variability. Currently available evidence indicates that CGM aids in lowering the HbA1c level without increasing the incidence of severe hypoglycaemic episodes in patients with type 1 diabetes. Thus far, CGM has not been indicated for preventing severe hypoglycaemia or for treating type 2 diabetes because sufficient supporting evidence has not been obtained. Promising results have been obtained for the use of CGM for pregnant women with diabetes and for patients with hospital hyperglycaemia. Predictions regarding the feasibility of the closed-loop system have proven to be optimistic. CGM-integrated communication systems using information technology such as smart phone help controlling blood glucose more easily and effectively.

  15. Current Trends in Continuous Glucose Monitoring.

    Lodwig, Volker; Kulzer, Bernhard; Schnell, Oliver; Heinemann, Lutz


    The market introduction of systems for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) some 15 years ago did not immediately revolutionize the treatment of diabetes; however, for a given group of patients, it would almost be inconceivable nowadays to imagine life without CGM. One day the development of insulin pumps together with CGM could culminate in an artificial pancreas system. The performance of the glucose sensors used for glucose measurement in the interstitial fluid in the subcutaneous tissue and the algorithms employed to analyze these data have improved so much over the past decade that current CGM systems by far outperform those of the first generations. This commentary discusses a number of aspects about what we have learned since CGM systems entered the market and what current trends exist in their usage. Some of these are major hurdles facing a more widespread usage of CGM.

  16. A tale of two compartments: interstitial versus blood glucose monitoring.

    Cengiz, Eda; Tamborlane, William V


    Self-monitoring of blood glucose was described as one of the most important advancements in diabetes management since the invention of insulin in 1920. Recent advances in glucose sensor technology for measuring interstitial glucose concentrations have challenged the dominance of glucose meters in diabetes management, while raising questions about the relationships between interstitial and blood glucose levels. This article will review the differences between interstitial and blood glucose and some of the challenges in measuring interstitial glucose levels accurately.

  17. Continuous Glucose Monitoring and Trend Accuracy

    Gottlieb, Rebecca; Le Compte, Aaron; Chase, J. Geoffrey


    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices are being increasingly used to monitor glycemia in people with diabetes. One advantage with CGM is the ability to monitor the trend of sensor glucose (SG) over time. However, there are few metrics available for assessing the trend accuracy of CGM devices. The aim of this study was to develop an easy to interpret tool for assessing trend accuracy of CGM data. SG data from CGM were compared to hourly blood glucose (BG) measurements and trend accuracy was quantified using the dot product. Trend accuracy results are displayed on the Trend Compass, which depicts trend accuracy as a function of BG. A trend performance table and Trend Index (TI) metric are also proposed. The Trend Compass was tested using simulated CGM data with varying levels of error and variability, as well as real clinical CGM data. The results show that the Trend Compass is an effective tool for differentiating good trend accuracy from poor trend accuracy, independent of glycemic variability. Furthermore, the real clinical data show that the Trend Compass assesses trend accuracy independent of point bias error. Finally, the importance of assessing trend accuracy as a function of BG level is highlighted in a case example of low and falling BG data, with corresponding rising SG data. This study developed a simple to use tool for quantifying trend accuracy. The resulting trend accuracy is easily interpreted on the Trend Compass plot, and if required, performance table and TI metric. PMID:24876437

  18. Optical coherence tomography for blood glucose monitoring through signal attenuation

    De Pretto, Lucas R.; Yoshimura, Tania M.; Ribeiro, Martha S.; de Freitas, Anderson Z.


    Development of non-invasive techniques for glucose monitoring is crucial to improve glucose control and treatment adherence in patients with diabetes. Hereafter, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) may offer a good alternative for portable glucometers, since it uses light to probe samples. Changes in the object of interest can alter the intensity of light returning from the sample and, through it, one can estimate the sample's attenuation coefficient (μt) of light. In this work, we aimed to explore the behavior of μt of mouse's blood under increasing glucose concentrations. Different samples were prepared in four glucose concentrations using a mixture of heparinized blood, phosphate buffer saline and glucose. Blood glucose concentrations were measured with a blood glucometer, for reference. We have also prepared other samples diluting the blood in isotonic saline solution to check the effect of a higher multiple-scattering component on the ability of the technique to differentiate glucose levels based on μt. The OCT system used was a commercial Spectral Radar OCT with 930 nm central wavelength and spectral bandwidth (FWHM) of 100 nm. The system proved to be sensitive for all blood glucose concentrations tested, with good correlations with the obtained attenuation coefficients. A linear tendency was observed, with an increase in attenuation with higher values of glucose. Statistical difference was observed between all groups (p<0.001). This work opens the possibility towards a non-invasive diagnostic modality using OCT for glycemic control, which eliminates the use of analytes and/or test strips, as in the case with commercially available glucometers.


    Ida Bagus Adi Kayana


    Full Text Available Head injury is the most significant cause of increased morbidity and mortality. An estimated 1.4 million head injuries occur each year, with and more than 1.1 million come to the Emergency Unit. On each patient head injury, an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP related to poor outcomes and aggressive therapy to increased ICP can improve the outcomes. ICP monitoring is the most widely used because of the prevention and control of ICP as well as maintain the pressure increase perfusion of cerebral (Cerebral Perfusion Pressure/CPP is the basic purpose of handling head injury. There are two methods of monitoring ICP that is an invasive methods (directly and non-invasive techniques (indirectly. The method commonly used, namely intraventricular and intraparenkimal (microtransducer sensor because it is more accurate but keep attention to the existence of the risk of bleeding and infection resulting from installation. Monitoring of ICT can determine the actions that avoid further brain injury, which can be lethal and irreversibel.

  20. Correlation of cure monitoring techniques

    Chang, S. S.; Mopsik, F. I.; Hunston, D. L.

    Six different composite matrix or neat resin cure-monitoring methods are presently used to follow the cure process in a model epoxy system, and the results obtained are compared. Differential scanning calorimetry, viscosity monitoring, the ultrasonic shear wave propagation technique, dielectric spectrometry, and two different fluorescence intensity techniques are compared with a view to common traits and differences. Dielectric fluorescence and ultrasonic measurement techniques are noted to be applicable to on-line process monitoring.

  1. CGM Versus FGM; or, Continuous Glucose Monitoring Is Not Flash Glucose Monitoring.

    Heinemann, Lutz; Freckmann, Guido


    It remains to be seen as to what share of the market FGM will achieve if the manufacturer can supply any amount desired.Will a significant portion of the glucose monitoring market then be taken over by FGM? The availability of FGM as anew option for glucose monitoring can basically be evaluated positively and it does indeed clearly show the benefit of“more information” on the glucose trend. The relatively low price for glucose monitoring using FGM and the unusual market introduction (not first via the National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Funds, as was the case with CGM) have given increased attention to the use of more glucose information. It will likely take a certain amount of time before other providers are able to bring different FGM systems to the market.The option of coupling a CGM system with an insulin pump offers the perspective of an automated insulin application,that is, a closed-loop system. Such systems are currently being tested under everyday conditions, although it is not possible to predict when they will actually reach the market.There are, however, such couplings where algorithms are responsible for shutting off insulin delivery when the glucose concentration reaches a defined level or if it will be reached in the foreseeable future. This significantly helps prevent hypoglycemia. These options are only available with CGM. The aim of this commentary is to present the differences between CGM and FGM, including the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches. We see significant benefits in both options based on the different positioning of the approaches and the different user groups.

  2. Monitoring of tissue optical properties using OCT: application for blood glucose analysis

    Larin, Kirill V.; Eledrisi, Mohsen S.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.


    Noninvasive monitoring of tissue optical properties in real time could significantly improve diagnostics and management of various diseases. Recently we proposed to use high- resolution Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique for measurement of tissue scattering coefficient at the depth of up to 1mm. Our pilot studies performed in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that measurement of tissue scattering with this technique can potentially be applied for noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration. High resolution and coherent photon detection of the OCT technique allowed detection of glucose-induced changes in the scattering coefficient. In this paper we report results of in vivo studies performed in dog, New Zealand rabbits, and first human subjects. OCT system with the wavelength of 1300 nm was used in our experiments. OCT signal slope was measured and compared with actual blood glucose concentration. Bolus glucose injections and glucose clamping administrations were used in animal studies. OCT signals were recorded form human subjects during oral glucose tolerance test. Results obtained form both animal and human studies show good correlation between slope of the OCT signals and actual blood glucose concentration measured using standard glucometesr. Sensitivity and accuracy of blood glucose concentrations monitoring with the OCT is discussed. Obtained result suggest that OCT is a promising technique for noninvasive monitoring of tissue analytes including glucose.

  3. Noninvasive glucose monitoring using saliva nano-biosensor

    Wenjun Zhang


    Full Text Available Millions of people worldwide live with diabetes and several millions die from it each year. A noninvasive, painless method of glucose testing would highly improve compliance and glucose control while reducing complications and overall disease management costs. To provide accurate, low cost, and continuous glucose monitoring, we have developed a unique, disposable saliva nano-biosensor. More than eight clinical trials on real-time noninvasive salivary glucose monitoring were carried out on two healthy individuals (a 2–3 h-period for each trial, including both regular food and standard glucose beverage intake with more than 35 saliva samples obtained. Excellent clinical accuracy was revealed as compared to the UV Spectrophotometer. By measuring subjects’ salivary glucose and blood glucose in parallel, we found the two generated profiles share the same fluctuation trend but the correlation between them is individual dependent. There is a time lag between the peak glucose values from blood and from saliva. However, the correlation between the two glucose values at fasting is constant for each person enabling noninvasive diagnosis of diabetes through saliva instead of blood. Furthermore, a good correlation of glucose levels in saliva and in blood before and 2 h after glucose intake was observed. Glucose monitoring before and 2 h after meals is usually prescribed by doctors for diabetic patients. Thus, this disposable biosensor will be an alternative for real-time salivary glucose tracking at any time.

  4. Carbon nanotube composites for glucose biosensor incorporated with reverse iontophoresis function for noninvasive glucose monitoring

    Tai-Ping Sun


    Full Text Available Tai-Ping Sun1,2,5, Hsiu-Li Shieh2, Congo Tak-Shing Ching1,2,5, Yan-Dong Yao3, Su-Hua Huang4, Chia-Ming Liu1, Wei-Hao Liu1, Chung-Yuan Chen21Graduate Institute of Biomedicine and Biomedical Technology, 2Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chi Nan University, Nantou, Taiwan, ROC; 3Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong; 4Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC; 5These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: This study aims to develop an amperometric glucose biosensor, based on carbon nanotubes material for reverse iontophoresis, fabricated by immobilizing a mixture of glucose oxidase (GOD and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT epoxy-composite, on a planar screen-printed carbon electrode. MWCNT was employed to ensure proper incorporation into the epoxy mixture and faster electron transfer between the GOD and the transducer. Results showed this biosensor possesses a low detection potential (+500 mV, good sensitivity (4 μA/mM and an excellent linear response range (r2 = 0.999; 0–4 mM of glucose detection at +500 mV (versus Ag/AgCl. The response time of the biosensor was about 25 s. In addition, the biosensor could be used in conjunction with reverse iontophoresis technique. In an actual evaluation model, an excellent linear relationship (r2 = 0.986 was found between the glucose concentration of the actual model and the biosensor’s current response. Thus, a glucose biosensor based on carbon nanotube composites and incorporated with reverse iontophoresis function was developed.Keywords: amperometric, carbon nanotubes, glucose monitoring, biosensors, reverse iontophoresis

  5. Glucose monitoring in diabetic dogs and cats: adapting new technology for home and hospital care.

    Wiedmeyer, Charles E; DeClue, Amy E


    Glucose levels in dogs and cats with diabetes mellitus can be monitored using a variety of techniques. Selecting the best monitoring technique requires involvement of the pet owner, communication between the owner and veterinarian, and practicality of the method. Some of the techniques typically used in dogs and cats are identical to those used in human diabetic patients. The use of modern technology designed specifically for people is being used increasingly for the management of diabetes in dogs and cats and offers a new mechanism for monitoring glucose in diabetic animals.

  6. Monitoring changes in the scattering properties of mouse skin with optical coherence tomography during an in vivo glucose tolerance test

    Kinnunen, M.; Tausta, S.; Myllylä, R.; Vainio, S.


    A non-invasive glucose monitoring technique would make evaluation of blood glucose values easier and more convenient. This would help diabetic patients to control their blood glucose values more regularly. A few years ago optical coherence tomography (OCT) was proposed as a non-invasive sensor for monitoring changes in blood glucose concentration. The method is based on monitoring glucose-induced changes in the scattering properties of the target. This article describes how OCT was used to monitor changes in the scattering properties of mouse skin during an in vivo glucose tolerance test. The results show that OCT has the potential to register glucose-induced changes in the optical properties of the sample. However, a commercial OCT device with a probe designed for imaging is not very suitable for non-invasive monitoring of glucose-induced changes in scattering. The problems confronted in this study, possibly originating from the small size of the animals, are discussed in the article.

  7. Environmental monitoring using optical techniques

    Svanberg, Sune


    An overview of optical techniques for environmental monitoring is presented. Range-resolved measurements of atmospheric pollutants can be performed using the differential absorption lidar technique. Fluorescence lidar allows assessment of vegetation status and also the conditions of the facades of historical buildings. Diode lasers provide particularly realistic schemes for atmospheric gas analysis, where certain wavelength ranges, which are not easily directly assessed, can be reached by sum- and difference frequency generation. Finally, the gas correlation principle can be used for real-time imaging of hydrocarbons. Several types of such optical environmental monitoring are illustrated with examples from research at the Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden.

  8. Measurement of tissue optical properties with optical coherence tomography: Implication for noninvasive blood glucose concentration monitoring

    Larin, Kirill V.

    Approximately 14 million people in the USA and more than 140 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes mellitus. The current glucose sensing technique involves a finger puncture several times a day to obtain a droplet of blood for analysis. There have been enormous efforts by many scientific groups and companies to quantify glucose concentration noninvasively using different optical techniques. However, these techniques face limitations associated with low sensitivity, accuracy, and insufficient specificity of glucose concentrations over a physiological range. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), a new technology, is being applied for noninvasive imaging in tissues with high resolution. OCT utilizes sensitive detection of photons coherently scattered from tissue. The high resolution of this technique allows for exceptionally accurate measurement of tissue scattering from a specific layer of skin compared with other optical techniques and, therefore, may provide noninvasive and continuous monitoring of blood glucose concentration with high accuracy. In this dissertation work I experimentally and theoretically investigate feasibility of noninvasive, real-time, sensitive, and specific monitoring of blood glucose concentration using an OCT-based biosensor. The studies were performed in scattering media with stable optical properties (aqueous suspensions of polystyrene microspheres and milk), animals (New Zealand white rabbits and Yucatan micropigs), and normal subjects (during oral glucose tolerance tests). The results of these studies demonstrated: (1) capability of the OCT technique to detect changes in scattering coefficient with the accuracy of about 1.5%; (2) a sharp and linear decrease of the OCT signal slope in the dermis with the increase of blood glucose concentration; (3) the change in the OCT signal slope measured during bolus glucose injection experiments (characterized by a sharp increase of blood glucose concentration) is higher than that measured in

  9. Lab-on-a-chip technology for continuous glucose monitoring.

    Gravesen, Peter; Raaby Poulsen, Kristian; Dirac, Holger


    The demand for continuous glucose monitoring systems is greater than ever. The microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) approach has the advantage of being relatively easy to upscale to a commercial level; the preferred MEMS technique would be to run several detectors at once and, through the improved statistics, get a both more accurate and more reliable device than is currently available. Lab-on-a-chip technology may be seen as a further development of MEMS technology for analytical sensors. Lab-on-a-chip systems may be used to obtain improvements on several important characteristics of a sensor system: remove or decrease cross-sensitivity, improve sensor stability, improve accuracy, and/or improve response time compared to similar laboratory-equipment methods.

  10. Point-of-Care Glucose and Ketone Monitoring.

    Chong, Siew Kim; Reineke, Erica L


    Early and rapid identification of hypo- and hyperglycemia as well as ketosis is essential for the practicing veterinarian as these conditions can be life threatening and require emergent treatment. Point-of-care testing for both glucose and ketone is available for clinical use and it is important for the veterinarian to understand the limitations and potential sources of error with these tests. This article discusses the devices used to monitor blood glucose including portable blood glucose meters, point-of-care blood gas analyzers and continuous glucose monitoring systems. Ketone monitoring options discussed include the nitroprusside reagent test strips and the 3-β-hydroxybutyrate ketone meter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Blood Glucose Measurement Using Bioimpedance Technique


    Bioimpedance measurement is gaining importance in wide field of bioresearch and biomedical systems due to its noninvasive nature. Noninvasive measurement method is very important to decrease infection and physical injuries which result due to invasive measurement. This paper presents basic principle of bioimpedance along with its application for blood glucose analysis and effect of frequency on impedance measurement. Input from bioimpedance sensor is given to amplifier and signal conditioner ...

  12. Application of optical coherence tomography for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring during hyperglycemia

    Larin, Kirill V.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.


    Approximately 14 million people in the USA and more than 140 million people worldwide suffer from Diabetes Mellitus. The current glucose sensing technique involves a finger puncture several times a day to obtain a droplet of blood for chemical analysis. Recently we proposed to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) for continuous noninvasive blood glucose sensing through skin. In this paper we tested the OCT technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration in lip tissue of New Zealand rabbits and Yucatan micropigs during glucose clamping experiments. Obtained results show good agreement with results obtained in skin studies, good correlation of changes in the OCT signal slope measured at the depth of 250 to 500 μm with changes in blood glucose concentration, and higher stability of the OCT data points than that obtained from skin.

  13. Blood Glucose Measurement Using Bioimpedance Technique

    D. K. Kamat


    Full Text Available Bioimpedance measurement is gaining importance in wide field of bioresearch and biomedical systems due to its noninvasive nature. Noninvasive measurement method is very important to decrease infection and physical injuries which result due to invasive measurement. This paper presents basic principle of bioimpedance along with its application for blood glucose analysis and effect of frequency on impedance measurement. Input from bioimpedance sensor is given to amplifier and signal conditioner AD5933. AD5933 is then interfaced with microcontroller LPC1768 using I2C bus for displaying reading on LCD. Results can also be stored in database using UART interface of LPC1768.

  14. Modelling, verification, and calibration of a photoacoustics based continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring system.

    Pai, Praful P; Sanki, Pradyut K; Sarangi, Satyabrata; Banerjee, Swapna


    This paper examines the use of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) at an excitation wavelength of 905 nm for making continuous non-invasive blood glucose measurements. The theoretical background of the measurement technique is verified through simulation. An apparatus is fabricated for performing photoacoustic measurements in vitro on glucose solutions and in vivo on human subjects. The amplitude of the photoacoustic signals measured from glucose solutions is observed to increase with the solution concentration, while photoacoustic amplitude obtained from in vivo measurements follows the blood glucose concentration of the subjects, indicating a direct proportionality between the two quantities. A linear calibration method is applied separately on measurements obtained from each individual in order to estimate the blood glucose concentration. The estimated glucose values are compared to reference glucose concentrations measured using a standard glucose meter. A plot of 196 measurement pairs taken over 30 normal subjects on a Clarke error grid gives a point distribution of 82.65% and 17.35% over zones A and B of the grid with a mean absolute relative deviation (MARD) of 11.78% and a mean absolute difference (MAD) of 15.27 mg/dl (0.85 mmol/l). The results obtained are better than or comparable to those obtained using photoacoustic spectroscopy based methods or other non-invasive measurement techniques available. The accuracy levels obtained are also comparable to commercially available continuous glucose monitoring systems.

  15. Analysis of Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Pregnant Women With Diabetes

    Law, Graham R; Ellison, George T H; Secher, Anna L;


    ) and type 2 diabetes (n = 28) who used repeated CGM during pregnancy were recruited from secondary care multidisciplinary obstetric clinics for diabetes in the U.K. and Denmark. LGA was defined as birth weight ≥90th percentile adjusted for sex and gestational age. RESULTS: A total of 54 of 117 (46%) women......OBJECTIVE: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is increasingly used to assess glucose control in diabetes. The objective was to examine how analysis of glucose data might improve our understanding of the role temporal glucose variation has on large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants born to women...... with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Functional data analysis (FDA) was applied to 1.68 million glucose measurements from 759 measurement episodes, obtained from two previously published randomized controlled trials of CGM in pregnant women with diabetes. A total of 117 women with type 1 diabetes (n = 89...

  16. Continuous Glucose Monitoring Sensors: Past, Present and Future Algorithmic Challenges

    Andrea Facchinetti


    Full Text Available Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM sensors are portable devices that allow measuring and visualizing the glucose concentration in real time almost continuously for several days and are provided with hypo/hyperglycemic alerts and glucose trend information. CGM sensors have revolutionized Type 1 diabetes (T1D management, improving glucose control when used adjunctively to self-monitoring blood glucose systems. Furthermore, CGM devices have stimulated the development of applications that were impossible to create without a continuous-time glucose signal, e.g., real-time predictive alerts of hypo/hyperglycemic episodes based on the prediction of future glucose concentration, automatic basal insulin attenuation methods for hypoglycemia prevention, and the artificial pancreas. However, CGM sensors’ lack of accuracy and reliability limited their usability in the clinical practice, calling upon the academic community for the development of suitable signal processing methods to improve CGM performance. The aim of this paper is to review the past and present algorithmic challenges of CGM sensors, to show how they have been tackled by our research group, and to identify the possible future ones.

  17. Specificity of noninvasive blood glucose sensing using optical coherence tomography technique: a pilot study.

    Larin, Kirill V; Motamedi, Massoud; Ashitkov, Taras V; Esenaliev, Rinat O


    Noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration in diabetic patients would significantly reduce complications and mortality associated with this disease. In this paper, we experimentally and theoretically studied specificity of noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with the optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique. OCT images and signals were obtained from skin of Yucatan micropigs and New Zealand rabbits. Obtained results demonstrate that: (1) several body osmolytes may change the refractive index mismatch between the interstitial fluid (ISF) and scattering centres in tissue, however the effect of the glucose is approximately one to two orders of magnitude higher; (2) an increase of the ISF glucose concentration in the physiological range (3-30 mM) may decrease the scattering coefficient by 0.22% mM(-1) due to cell volume change; (3) stability of the OCT signal slope is dependent on tissue heterogeneity and motion artefacts; and (4) moderate skin temperature fluctuations (+/- 1 degree C) do not decrease accuracy and specificity of the OCT-based glucose sensor, however substantial skin heating or cooling (several degrees C) significantly change the OCT signal slope. These results suggest that the OCT technique may provide blood glucose concentration monitoring with sufficient specificity under normal physiological conditions.

  18. Evaluating clinical accuracy of continuous glucose monitoring devices: other methods.

    Wentholt, Iris M E; Hart, August A; Hoekstra, Joost B L; DeVries, J Hans


    With more and more continuous glucose monitoring devices entering the market, the importance of adequate accuracy assessment grows. This review discusses pros and cons of Regression Analysis and Correlation Coefficient, Relative Difference measures, Bland Altman plot, ISO criteria, combined curve fitting, and epidemiological analyses, the latter including sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value for hypoglycaemia. Finally, recommendations for much needed head-to-head studies are given. This paper is a revised and adapted version of How to assess and compare the accuracy of continuous glucose monitors?, Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics 2007, in press, published with permission of the editor.

  19. Challenges and trends in glucose monitoring technologies

    Batra, Padma; Tomar, Reena; Kapoor, Rajiv


    It is known that diabetes is a very serious disease as it may lead to heart attack, kidney failure and neuro diseases. The present study was aimed to review and compare various techniques useful for detecting diabetes or hypoglycemia in human body. In this paper we discuss the invasive and non-invasive techniques which are used for early detection of hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia and highlight their advantages as well as limitations. The use of bio impedance measurement technology has been described as it is an emerging non-invasive technique useful for the same purpose.

  20. Continuous glucose monitoring, oral glucose tolerance, and insulin - glucose parameters in adolescents with simple obesity.

    El Awwa, A; Soliman, A; Al-Ali, M; Yassin, M; De Sanctis, V


    In obese adolescents pancreatic beta-cells may not be able to cope with insulin resistance leading to hyperglycemia and type2 diabetes (T2DM To assess oral glucose tolerance, 72-h continuous blood glucose concentrations (CGM) and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) in 13 adolescents with simple obesity (BMI SDS=4 ± 1.06). OGTT performed in 13 obese adolescents (13.47 ± 3 years) revealed 3 cases (23%) with impaired fasting glucose (IFG: fasting glucose >5.6 mmol/L), 4 cases (30%) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT: 2h blood glucose >7.8 7.8 and 11.1 mmol/L (diabetes) in one case (7.6%). Five cases had a minimum BG recorded of 2.6 and QUICKI values <0.35 denoting insulin resistance. Beta cell mass percent (B %) = 200 ± 94.8% and insulin sensitivity values (IS)=50.4 ± 45.5% denoted insulin resistance with hyper-insulinaemia and preserved beta cell mass. In obese adolescents, CGMS is superior to OGTT and HbA1C in detecting glycemic abnormalities, which appears to be secondary to insulin resistance.

  1. A continuous glucose monitoring device by graphene modified electrochemical sensor in microfluidic system.

    Pu, Zhihua; Zou, Chongwei; Wang, Ridong; Lai, Xiaochen; Yu, Haixia; Xu, Kexin; Li, Dachao


    This paper presents a continuous glucose monitoring microsystem consisting of a three-electrode electrochemical sensor integrated into a microfluidic chip. The microfluidic chip, which was used to transdermally extract and collect subcutaneous interstitial fluid, was fabricated from five polydimethylsiloxane layers using micromolding techniques. The electrochemical sensor was integrated into the chip for continuous detection of glucose. Specifically, a single-layer graphene and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were decorated onto the working electrode (WE) of the sensor to construct a composite nanostructured surface and improve the resolution of the glucose measurements. Graphene was transferred onto the WE surface to improve the electroactive nature of the electrode to enable measurements of low levels of glucose. The AuNPs were directly electrodeposited onto the graphene layer to improve the electron transfer rate from the activity center of the enzyme to the electrode to enhance the sensitivity of the sensor. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized onto the composite nanostructured surface to specifically detect glucose. The factors required for AuNPs deposition and GOx immobilization were also investigated, and the optimized parameters were obtained. The experimental results displayed that the proposed sensor could precisely measure glucose in the linear range from 0 to 162 mg/dl with a detection limit of 1.44 mg/dl (S/N = 3). The proposed sensor exhibited the potential to detect hypoglycemia which is still a major challenge for continuous glucose monitoring in clinics. Unlike implantable glucose sensors, the wearable device enabled external continuous monitoring of glucose without interference from foreign body reaction and bioelectricity.

  2. CMOS image sensors as an efficient platform for glucose monitoring.

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Kim, Sanghyo; Choi, Cheol Soo


    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors have been used previously in the analysis of biological samples. In the present study, a CMOS image sensor was used to monitor the concentration of oxidized mouse plasma glucose (86-322 mg dL(-1)) based on photon count variation. Measurement of the concentration of oxidized glucose was dependent on changes in color intensity; color intensity increased with increasing glucose concentration. The high color density of glucose highly prevented photons from passing through the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chip, which suggests that the photon count was altered by color intensity. Photons were detected by a photodiode in the CMOS image sensor and converted to digital numbers by an analog to digital converter (ADC). Additionally, UV-spectral analysis and time-dependent photon analysis proved the efficiency of the detection system. This simple, effective, and consistent method for glucose measurement shows that CMOS image sensors are efficient devices for monitoring glucose in point-of-care applications.

  3. A signal processing application for evaluating self-monitoring blood glucose strategies in a software agent model.

    Wang, Zhanle; Paranjape, Raman


    We propose the signal processing technique of calculating a cross-correlation function and an average deviation between the continuous blood glucose and the interpolation of limited blood glucose samples to evaluate blood glucose monitoring frequency in a self-aware patient software agent model. The diabetic patient software agent model [1] is a 24-h circadian, self-aware, stochastic model of a diabetic patient's blood glucose levels in a software agent environment. The purpose of this work is to apply a signal processing technique to assist patients and physicians in understanding the extent of a patient's illness using a limited number of blood glucose samples. A second purpose of this work is to determine an appropriate blood glucose monitoring frequency in order to have a minimum number of samples taken that still provide a good understanding of the patient's blood glucose levels. For society in general, the monitoring cost of diabetes is an extremely important issue, and these costs can vary tremendously depending on monitoring approaches and monitoring frequencies. Due to the cost and discomfort associated with blood glucose monitoring, today, patients expect monitoring frequencies specific to their health profile. The proposed method quantitatively assesses various monitoring protocols (from 6 times per day to 1 time per week) in nine predefined categories of patient agents in terms of risk factors of health status and age. Simulation results show that sampling 6 times per day is excessive, and not necessary for understanding the dynamics of the continuous signal in the experiments. In addition, patient agents in certain conditions only need to sample their blood glucose 1 time per week to have a good understanding of the characteristics of their blood glucose. Finally, an evaluation scenario is developed to visualize this concept, in which appropriate monitoring frequencies are shown based on the particular conditions of patient agents. This base line can

  4. Current and Emerging Technology for Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    Cheng Chen


    Full Text Available Diabetes has become a leading cause of death worldwide. Although there is no cure for diabetes, blood glucose monitoring combined with appropriate medication can enhance treatment efficiency, alleviate the symptoms, as well as diminish the complications. For point-of-care purposes, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM devices are considered to be the best candidates for diabetes therapy. This review focuses on current growth areas of CGM technologies, specifically focusing on subcutaneous implantable electrochemical glucose sensors. The superiority of CGM systems is introduced firstly, and then the strategies for fabrication of minimally-invasive and non-invasive CGM biosensors are discussed, respectively. Finally, we briefly outline the current status and future perspective for CGM systems.

  5. Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy: prospects for device miniaturization

    Wróbel, M. S.


    The number of patients with diabetes has reached over 350 million, and still continues to increase. The need for regular blood glucose monitoring sparks the interest in the development of modern detection technologies. One of those methods, which allows for noninvasive measurements, is Raman spectroscopy. The ability of infrared light to penetrate deep into tissues allows for obtaining measurements through the skin without its perforation. This paper presents the limitations and possibilities of non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy. Especially focusing on the possibilities for device miniaturization. Such device incorporates a Raman spectrometer, a fiber-optical probe, and a computing device (microcontroller, smartphone, etc.) which calculates the glucose concentration using specialized algorithms. Simplification of device design, as well as turbidity correction technique and a new proposed method of synchronized detection are described.

  6. Optical fibre biosensors using enzymatic transducers to monitor glucose

    Scully, P. J.; Betancor, L.; Bolyo, J.; Dzyadevych, S.; Guisan, J. M.; Fernández-Lafuente, R.; Jaffrezic-Renault, N.; Kuncová, G.; Matejec, V.; O'Kennedy, B.; Podrazky, O.; Rose, K.; Sasek, L.; Young, J. S.


    The construction and performance of a novel enzyme based optical sensor for in situ continuous monitoring of glucose in biotechnological production processes is presented. Sensitive optical coatings are formed from inorganic-organic hybrid polymers (ORMOCER®sORMOCER®: Trademark of Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e. V. in Germany.) combined with a flurophore (ruthenium complex) and an enzyme, and applied to lenses, declad polymer optical fibre (POF) and polymer clad silica fibre (PCS). The enzyme, glucose oxidase, catalyzes oxidization of glucose to gluconic acid by depleting oxygen. Oxygen consumption is determined by measuring the fluorescence lifetime of metal organic ruthenium complexes which are quenched by oxygen. The coatings developed were designed to adhere to glass and polymer surfaces, to be compatible with enzymes and ruthenium complexes, and were demonstrated both as double- and single-layer structures. The sensor response to gaseous oxygen, dissolved oxygen and dissolved glucose was measured via fluorescence lifetime changes. A best detection limit of 0.5% (vol) has been determined for gaseous O2 with selected ORMOCER® sensing layers. Glucose concentrations were measured to a detection limit of 0.1 mmol L-1 over a range up to 30 mmol L-1. The sensor was usable for 30 days in a bioreactor. The opto-electronic instrumentation and performance in laboratory bioreactors and in an industrial reactor are evaluated.

  7. An Implantable RFID Sensor Tag toward Continuous Glucose Monitoring.

    Xiao, Zhibin; Tan, Xi; Chen, Xianliang; Chen, Sizheng; Zhang, Zijian; Zhang, Hualei; Wang, Junyu; Huang, Yue; Zhang, Peng; Zheng, Lirong; Min, Hao


    This paper presents a wirelessly powered implantable electrochemical sensor tag for continuous blood glucose monitoring. The system is remotely powered by a 13.56-MHz inductive link and utilizes an ISO 15693 radio frequency identification (RFID) standard for communication. This paper provides reliable and accurate measurement for changing glucose level. The sensor tag employs a long-term glucose sensor, a winding ferrite antenna, an RFID front-end, a potentiostat, a 10-bit sigma-delta analog to digital converter, an on-chip temperature sensor, and a digital baseband for protocol processing and control. A high-frequency external reader is used to power, command, and configure the sensor tag. The only off-chip support circuitry required is a tuned antenna and a glucose microsensor. The integrated chip fabricated in SMIC 0.13-μm CMOS process occupies an area of 1.2 mm ×2 mm and consumes 50 μW. The power sensitivity of the whole system is -4 dBm. The sensor tag achieves a measured glucose range of 0-30 mM with a sensitivity of 0.75 nA/mM.

  8. Educating Families on Real Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    Messer, Laurel; Ruedy, Katrina; Xing, Dongyuan; Coffey, Julie; Englert, Kimberly; Caswell, Kimberly; Ives, Brett


    Purpose The purpose of this article is to describe the process of educating families and children with type 1 diabetes on real time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) and to note the similarities and differences of training patients using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) versus multiple daily injections (MDI). Methods A total of 30 CSII participants and 27 MDI participants were educated using the Navigator RT-CGM in a clinical trial. Time spent with families for visits and calls was tracked and compared between patient groups. The Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet) educators were surveyed to assess the most crucial, time intensive, and difficult educational concepts related to CGM. Results Of the 27 MDI families, an average of 9.6 hours was spent on protocol-prescribed visits and calls (not measured in CSII) and 2 hours on participant-initiated contacts over 3 months. MDI families required an average of 5.4 more phone contacts over 3 months than CSII families. According to the DirecNet educators, lag time and calibrations were the most crucial teaching concepts for successful RT-CGM use. The most time was spent on teaching technical aspects, troubleshooting, and insulin dosing. The most unanticipated difficulties were skin problems including irritation and the sensor not adhering well. Conclusion Educators who teach RT-CGM should emphasize lag time and calibration techniques, technical device training, and sensor insertion. Follow-up focus should include insulin dosing adjustments and skin issues. The time and effort required to introduce RT-CGM provided an opportunity for the diabetes educators to reemphasize good diabetes care practices and promote self-awareness and autonomy to patients and families. PMID:19244568

  9. Gallium arsenide based surface plasmon resonance for glucose monitoring

    Patil, Harshada; Sane, Vani; Sriram, G.; Indumathi, T. S; Sharan, Preeta


    The recent trends in the semiconductor and microwave industries has enabled the development of scalable microfabrication technology which produces a superior set of performance as against its counterparts. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) based biosensors are a special class of optical sensors that become affected by electromagnetic waves. It is found that bio-molecular recognition element immobilized on the SPR sensor surface layer reveals a characteristic interaction with various sample solutions during the passage of light. The present work revolves around developing painless glucose monitoring systems using fluids containing glucose like saliva, urine, sweat or tears instead of blood samples. Non-invasive glucose monitoring has long been simulated using label free detection mechanisms and the same concept is adapted. In label-free detection, target molecules are not labeled or altered, and are detected in their natural forms. Label-free detection mechanisms involves the measurement of refractive index (RI) change induced by molecular interactions. These interactions relates the sample concentration or surface density, instead of total sample mass. After simulation it has been observed that the result obtained is highly accurate and sensitive. The structure used here is SPR sensor based on channel waveguide. The tools used for simulation are RSOFT FULLWAVE, MEEP and MATLAB etc.

  10. A miniaturized transcutaneous system for continuous glucose monitoring.

    Croce, Robert A; Vaddiraju, SanthiSagar; Kondo, Jun; Wang, Yan; Zuo, Liang; Zhu, Kai; Islam, Syed K; Burgess, Diane J; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios; Jain, Faquir C


    Implantable sensors for continuous glucose monitoring hold great potential for optimal diabetes management. This is often undermined by a variety of issues associated with: (1) negative tissue response; (2) poor sensor performance; and (3) lack of device miniaturization needed to reduce implantation trauma. Herein, we report our initial results towards constructing an implantable device that simultaneously address all three aforementioned issues. In terms of device miniaturization, a highly miniaturized CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) potentiostat and signal processing unit was employed (with a combined area of 0.665 mm(2)). The signal processing unit converts the current generated by a transcutaneous, Clark-type amperometric sensor to output frequency in a linear fashion. The Clark-type amperometric sensor employs stratification of five functional layers to attain a well-balanced mass transfer which in turn yields a linear sensor response from 0 to 25 mM of glucose concentration, well beyond the physiologically observed (2 to 22 mM) range. In addition, it is coated with a thick polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel with embedded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres intended to provide continuous, localized delivery of dexamethasone to suppress inflammation and fibrosis. In vivo evaluation in rat model has shown that the transcutaneous sensor system reproducibly tracks repeated glycemic events. Clarke's error grid analysis on the as-obtained glycemic data has indicated that all of the measured glucose readings fell in the desired Zones A & B and none fell in the erroneous Zones C, D and E. Such reproducible operation of the transcutaneous sensor system, together with low power (140 μW) consumption and capability for current-to-frequency conversion renders this a versatile platform for continuous glucose monitoring and other biomedical sensing devices.


    Hirsch, Irl B; Verderese, Carol A


    Recent consensus statements strongly advocate downloading and interpretation of continuous glucose data for diabetes management in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Supplementing periodic A1C testing with intermittent continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) using a standardized report form known as the ambulatory glucose profile (AGP) is an evolving standard of care. The rationale for this approach and its implementation with a recently approved novel monitoring technology are explored. Search of the medical literature, professional guidelines, and realworld evidence guided this introduction of an integrative practice framework that uses AGP in conjunction with intermittent continuous "flash" glucose monitoring (CFGM) as a supplement to A1C testing. The combination of intermittent continuous glucose pattern analysis, standardized glucose metrics, and a readily interpretable data report, as discussed in this review, has the potential to practically extend the recognized benefits of CGM to more patients, and clarify the relationship between A1C and average glucose levels in individual cases. Novel CFGM technologies portend greater use of continuous forms of glucose monitoring and wider adoption of AGP report analysis. Additional formal and empirical evidence is needed to more fully characterize best practice.

  12. Assessment of glucose metabolism in humans with the simultaneous use of indirect calorimetry and tracer techniques.

    Tappy, L; Paquot, N; Tounian, P; Schneiter, P; Jéquier, E


    Concomitant measurements of sytemic glucose delivery and carbohydrate oxidation are frequently performed in human investigations. Systemic glucose delivery (SGD) is usually determined using dilution of infused glucose tracers; net carbohydrate oxidation rate (net CHOOX) can be calculated from respiratory gas exchanges and urinary nitrogen excretion (indirect calorimetry); alternatively, glucose oxidation can be measured from labelled CO2 production during infusion of carbon-labelled glucose tracers. In this paper, the theory underlying the use of each of these techniques is briefly reviewed and qualitative differences are outlined. SGD represents the sum of hepatic glucogenolysis, gluconeogenesis from amino acids or glycerol, and, according to the glucose tracer used, glucose cycles (glucose-phosphate cycle, fructose-phosphate cycle, Cori and glucose-alanine cycles); systemic delivery of exogenous glucose after oral or i.v. glucose administration is also measured. Net CHOOX represents oxidation of glucose arising from hepatic or muscle glycogen or from exogenous glucose; it does not take into account oxidation of glucose formed from amino acids or glycerol, which is included in net protein or lipid oxidation. In contrast, isotopic determination of glucose oxidation corresponds to oxidation of glucose originating from hepatic glycogen breakdown, of exogenously administered glucose, and of glucose formed from amino acids and glycerol. Non-oxidative glucose disposal, calculated as SGD-net CHOOX, corresponds to the sum of gluconeogenesis from amino acids or glycerol (which are included in net protein and lipid oxidation), glucose cycles, and glycogen synthesis.

  13. Experiences on MIC monitoring by electrochemical techniques

    Cristiani, P.; Perboni, G.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel;


    Some results of practical experiences on the performances of electrochemical and electric MIC monitoring techniques, coming from the discussion in the Brite-Euram thematic network "MIC of industrial materials", are presented in this paper.......Some results of practical experiences on the performances of electrochemical and electric MIC monitoring techniques, coming from the discussion in the Brite-Euram thematic network "MIC of industrial materials", are presented in this paper....

  14. Diabetes Technology: Markers, Monitoring, Assessment, and Control of Blood Glucose Fluctuations in Diabetes

    Boris P. Kovatchev


    Full Text Available People with diabetes face a life-long optimization problem: to maintain strict glycemic control without increasing their risk for hypoglycemia. Since the discovery of insulin in 1921, the external regulation of diabetes by engineering means has became a hallmark of this optimization. Diabetes technology has progressed remarkably over the past 50 years—a progress that includes the development of markers for diabetes control, sophisticated monitoring techniques, mathematical models, assessment procedures, and control algorithms. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM was introduced in 1999 and has evolved from means for retroactive review of blood glucose profiles to versatile reliable devices, which monitor the course of glucose fluctuations in real time and provide interactive feedback to the patient. Technology integrating CGM with insulin pumps is now available, opening the field for automated closed-loop control, known as the artificial pancreas. Following a number of in-clinic trials, the quest for a wearable ambulatory artificial pancreas is under way, with a first prototype tested in outpatient setting during the past year. This paper discusses key milestones of diabetes technology development, focusing on the progress in the past 10 years and on the artificial pancreas—still not a cure, but arguably the most promising treatment of diabetes to date.




    Methods for the monitoring of glucose and lactate in intensive care units (ICU) based on microdialysis and continuous flow enzyme reactions plus some in vitro and in vivo characteristics of the probes used and the detection systems are described. Two microdialysis techniques were developed for clini



    Methods for the monitoring of glucose and lactate in intensive care units (ICU) based on microdialysis and continuous flow enzyme reactions plus some in vitro and in vivo characteristics of the probes used and the detection systems are described. Two microdialysis techniques were developed for

  17. Detection of aqueous glucose based on a cavity size- and optical-wavelength-independent continuous-wave photoacoustic technique.

    Camou, S; Haga, T; Tajima, T; Tamechika, E


    Toward the achievement of noninvasive and continuous monitoring of blood glucose level, we developed a new measurement method based on the continuous-wave photoacoustic (CW-PA) technique and performed the first validation in vitro with calibrated aqueous glucose solutions. The PA technique has been studied in the past but exclusively based on the pulse setup since the CW one exhibits dependence on the cavity dimensions, which is not compatible with the final application requirements. This paper describes a new strategy relying on the monitoring of the resonant-frequency relative shift induced by the change of glucose concentrations rather than amplitude signal levels at a fixed frequency. From in vitro results, we demonstrate a stable and reproducible response to glucose at various cavity dimensions and optical wavelengths, with a slope of 0.19 ±0.01%/g/dL. From theoretical considerations, this method is consistent with a relative acoustic velocity measurement, which also explains the aforementioned stability. The proposed method then resolves most of the issues usually associated with the CW-PA technique and makes it a potential alternative for the noninvasive and continuous monitoring of glycemia levels. However, experimental determination of sensor responses to albumin and temperature as two potential interferents shows similar levels, which points to the selectivity to glucose as a major issue we should deal with in future development.

  18. Ultrasonic techniques for process monitoring and control.

    Chien, H.-T.


    Ultrasonic techniques have been applied successfully to process monitoring and control for many industries, such as energy, medical, textile, oil, and material. It helps those industries in quality control, energy efficiency improving, waste reducing, and cost saving. This paper presents four ultrasonic systems, ultrasonic viscometer, on-loom, real-time ultrasonic imaging system, ultrasonic leak detection system, and ultrasonic solid concentration monitoring system, developed at Argonne National Laboratory in the past five years for various applications.

  19. Acoustic Techniques for Structural Health Monitoring

    Frankenstein, B.; Augustin, J.; Hentschel, D.; Schubert, F.; Köhler, B.; Meyendorf, N.


    Future safety and maintenance strategies for industrial components and vehicles are based on combinations of monitoring systems that are permanently attached to or embedded in the structure, and periodic inspections. The latter belongs to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and can be enhanced or partially replaced by structural health monitoring systems. However, the main benefit of this technology for the future will consist of systems that can be differently designed based on improved safety philosophies, including continuous monitoring. This approach will increase the efficiency of inspection procedures at reduced inspection times. The Fraunhofer IZFP Dresden Branch has developed network nodes, miniaturized transmitter and receiver systems for active and passive acoustical techniques and sensor systems that can be attached to or embedded into components or structures. These systems have been used to demonstrate intelligent sensor networks for the monitoring of aerospace structures, railway systems, wind energy generators, piping system and other components. Material discontinuities and flaws have been detected and monitored during full scale fatigue testing. This paper will discuss opportunities and future trends in nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring based on new sensor principles and advanced microelectronics. It will outline various application examples of monitoring systems based on acoustic techniques and will indicate further needs for research and development.

  20. The effect of real-time continuous glucose monitoring in pregnant women with diabetes

    Secher, Anna L; Ringholm, Lene; Damm, Peter;


    To assess whether intermittent real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) improves glycemic control and pregnancy outcome in unselected women with pregestational diabetes.......To assess whether intermittent real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) improves glycemic control and pregnancy outcome in unselected women with pregestational diabetes....

  1. Reproducibility and reliability of hypoglycaemic episodes recorded with Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS) in daily life

    Høi-Hansen, T; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Thorsteinsson, B


    AIM: Continuous glucose monitoring may reveal episodes of unrecognized hypoglycaemia. We evaluated reproducibility and reliability of hypoglycaemic episodes recorded in daily life by the Medtronic MiniMed Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS). METHODS: Twenty-nine adult patients with Type 1...

  2. Dynamics-based Nondestructive Structural Monitoring Techniques


    in the practice of non- destructive evaluation ( NDE ) and structural health monitoring (SHM). Guided wave techniques have several advantages over...conventional bulk wave ultrasonic NDE /SHM techniques. Some of these advantages are outlined in Table I. However, in addition to the advantages of...PVDF transducers for SHM applications with controlled guided wave modes and frequencies [7]. Wilcox used EMATs with circular coils in a guided wave

  3. Regularised Model Identification Improves Accuracy of Multisensor Systems for Noninvasive Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Diabetes Management

    Mattia Zanon


    Full Text Available Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM by suitable portable sensors plays a central role in the treatment of diabetes, a disease currently affecting more than 350 million people worldwide. Noninvasive CGM (NI-CGM, in particular, is appealing for reasons related to patient comfort (no needles are used but challenging. NI-CGM prototypes exploiting multisensor approaches have been recently proposed to deal with physiological and environmental disturbances. In these prototypes, signals measured noninvasively (e.g., skin impedance, temperature, optical skin properties, etc. are combined through a static multivariate linear model for estimating glucose levels. In this work, by exploiting a dataset of 45 experimental sessions acquired in diabetic subjects, we show that regularisation-based techniques for the identification of the model, such as the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (better known as LASSO, Ridge regression, and Elastic-Net regression, improve the accuracy of glucose estimates with respect to techniques, such as partial least squares regression, previously used in the literature. More specifically, the Elastic-Net model (i.e., the model identified using a combination of and norms has the best results, according to the metrics widely accepted in the diabetes community. This model represents an important incremental step toward the development of NI-CGM devices effectively usable by patients.

  4. In vivo glucose monitoring using dual-wavelength polarimetry to overcome corneal birefringence in the presence of motion.

    Pirnstill, Casey W; Malik, Bilal H; Gresham, Vincent C; Coté, Gerard L


    Over the past 35 years considerable research has been performed toward the investigation of noninvasive and minimally invasive glucose monitoring techniques. Optical polarimetry is one noninvasive technique that has shown promise as a means to ascertain blood glucose levels through measuring the glucose concentrations in the anterior chamber of the eye. However, one of the key limitations to the use of optical polarimetry as a means to noninvasively measure glucose levels is the presence of sample noise caused by motion-induced time-varying corneal birefringence. In this article our group presents, for the first time, results that show dual-wavelength polarimetry can be used to accurately detect glucose concentrations in the presence of motion-induced birefringence in vivo using New Zealand White rabbits. In total, nine animal studies (three New Zealand White rabbits across three separate days) were conducted. Using the dual-wavelength optical polarimetric approach, in vivo, an overall mean average relative difference of 4.49% (11.66 mg/dL) was achieved with 100% Zone A+B hits on a Clarke error grid, including 100% falling in Zone A. The results indicate that dual-wavelength polarimetry can effectively be used to significantly reduce the noise due to time-varying corneal birefringence in vivo, allowing the accurate measurement of glucose concentration in the aqueous humor of the eye and correlating that with blood glucose.

  5. Contactless optoelectronic technique for monitoring epoxy cure.

    Cusano, A; Buonocore, V; Breglio, G; Calabrò, A; Giordano, M; Cutolo, A; Nicolais, L


    We describe a novel noninvasive optical technique to monitor the refractive-index variation in an epoxy-based resin that is due to the polymerization process. This kind of resin is widely used in polymer matrix composites. It is well known that the process of fabricating a thermoset-based composite involves mass and heat transfer coupled with irreversible chemical reactions that induce physical changes. To improve the quality and the reliability of these materials, monitoring the cure and optimization of the manufacturing process are of key importance. We discuss the basic operating principles of an optical system based on angle deflection measurements and present typical cure-monitoring results obtained from optical characterization. The method provides a flexible, high-sensitivity, material-independent, low-cost, noninvasive tool for monitoring real-time refractive-index variation.

  6. Evaluation of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program

    Augusto, Mariana Cristina; Nitsche, Maria José Trevizani; Parada, Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite


    OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the structure, process and results of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program in a Brazilian city. METHOD: epidemiological, cross-sectional study. The methodological framework of Donabedian was used to construct indicators of structure, process and outcome. A random sample (n = 288) of users enrolled and 96 health professionals who worked in the program was studied. Two questionnaires were used that were constructed for this study, one for professionals and one for users, both containing data for the evaluation of structure, process and outcome. Anthropometric measures and laboratory results were collected by consulting the patients' health records. The analysis involved descriptive statistics. RESULTS: most of the professionals were not qualified to work in the program and were not knowledgeable about the set of criteria for patient registration. None of the patients received complete and correct orientations about the program and the percentage with skills to perform conducts autonomously was 10%. As regards the result indicators, 86.4% of the patients and 81.3% of the professionals evaluated the program positively. CONCLUSION: the evaluation indicators designed revealed that one of the main objectives of the program, self-care skills, has not been achieved. PMID:25493676

  7. Reliable Remote-Monitoring Electrochemical Potentiostat for Glucose Measurements

    JIN Yang; WANG Hong; LV Zhengliang; YANG Shiyuan; CAI Haoyuan; JIANG Junfeng


    Electrochemical methods have been widely used in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, which require accurate concentration measurements, chemical reaction detections and analyses. The elec-trochemical potentiostat, the core element in electrochemical instruments, have been discussed as a hot topic addressing the difficulty of applying high-preclsion constant voltage and picoampere current meas-urements. Meanwhile, reliable potenUostats are in demand for complicated industrial environments with noises as well as requirements of remotemonitors. This paper describes a potentiostat for industrial glucose measurement that is not only accurate but also fault tolerant to guarantee high reliability in industrial envi-ronments. The instrument uses standard industrial communication protocols, profibus, and a 4-20 mA cur-rent loop, for remote control and monitoring. Experimental results show that this design has 0.01% accuracy with 1 mV resolution for voltage applications and 0.01% accuracy with 1 pA resolution for current measure-ments. The design is also shown to be highly reliable in noisy environments.

  8. Evaluation of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program

    Mariana Cristina Augusto


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the structure, process and results of the Capillary Blood Glucose Self-monitoring Program in a Brazilian city.METHOD: epidemiological, cross-sectional study. The methodological framework of Donabedian was used to construct indicators of structure, process and outcome. A random sample (n = 288 of users enrolled and 96 health professionals who worked in the program was studied. Two questionnaires were used that were constructed for this study, one for professionals and one for users, both containing data for the evaluation of structure, process and outcome. Anthropometric measures and laboratory results were collected by consulting the patients' health records. The analysis involved descriptive statistics.RESULTS: most of the professionals were not qualified to work in the program and were not knowledgeable about the set of criteria for patient registration. None of the patients received complete and correct orientations about the program and the percentage with skills to perform conducts autonomously was 10%. As regards the result indicators, 86.4% of the patients and 81.3% of the professionals evaluated the program positively.CONCLUSION: the evaluation indicators designed revealed that one of the main objectives of the program, self-care skills, has not been achieved.

  9. Continuous glucose monitoring microsensor with a nanoscale conducting matrix and redox mediator

    Pesantez, Daniel

    The major limiting factor in kidney clinical transplantation is the shortage of transplantable organs. The current inability to distinguish viability from non-viability on a prospective basis represents a major obstacle in any attempt to expand organ donor criteria. Consequently, a way to measure and monitor a relevant analyte to assess kidney viability is needed. For the first time, the initial development and characterization of a metabolic microsensor to assess kidney viability is presented. The rate of glucose consumption appears to serve as an indicator of kidney metabolism that may distinguish reversible from irreversible kidney damage. The proposed MetaSense (Metabolic Sensor) microdevice would replace periodic laboratory diagnosis tests with a continuous monitor that provides real-time data on organ viability. Amperometry, a technique that correlates an electrical signal with analyte concentration, is used as a method to detect glucose concentrations. A novel two-electrode electrochemical sensing cell design is presented. It uses a modified metallic working electrode (WE) and a bare metallic reference electrode (RE) that acts as a pseudo-reference/counter electrode as well. The proposed microsensor has the potential to be used as a minimally invasive sensor for its reduced number of probes and very small dimensions achieved by micromachining and lithography. In order to improve selectivity of the microdevice, two electron transfer mechanisms or generations were explored. A first generation microsensor uses molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor in the enzymatic reaction and oxidizes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to get the electrical signal. The microsensor's modified WE with conductive polymer polypyrrole (PPy) and corresponding enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized into its matrix, constitutes the electrochemical detection mechanism. Photoluminescence spectroscopic analysis confirmed and quantified enzyme immobilized concentrations within the matrix. In

  10. Measurement of the absorption coefficient of a glucose solution through transmission of light and polarymetry techniques

    Yáñez M., J.


    Diabetes is a disease with no cure, but can be controlled to improve the quality of life of sufferers. Currently there are means to control, but this means they have the disadvantage that in order to measure the amount of glucose is necessary to take blood samples that are painful. This paper presents a system for measuring glucose using non-invasive optical techniques: using absorption spectroscopy and polarimetry technique. It shows the results obtained from experiments done on samples containing distilled water and different amounts of glucose to study the absorption coefficient of glucose with both techniques. Water is used because it is one of the main elements in the blood and interferes with glucose measurement. This experiment will develop a prototype to measure glucose through a non-invasive technique.

  11. An Investigation of the Glucose Monitoring Practices of Nurses in Stroke Care: A Descriptive Cohort Study

    Elizabeth Ann Laird


    Full Text Available Glucose derangement is commonly observed among adults admitted to hospital with acute stroke. This paper presents the findings from a descriptive cohort study that investigated the glucose monitoring practices of nurses caring for adults admitted to hospital with stroke or transient ischaemic attack. We found that a history of diabetes mellitus was strongly associated with initiation of glucose monitoring and higher frequency of that monitoring. Glucose monitoring was continued for a significantly longer duration of days for adults with a history of diabetes mellitus, when compared to the remainder of the cohort. As glucose monitoring was not routine practice for adults with no history of diabetes mellitus, the detection and treatment of hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia events could be delayed. There was a significant positive association between the admission hospital that is most likely to offer stroke unit care and the opportunity for glucose monitoring. We concluded that adults with acute stroke, irrespective of their diabetes mellitus status prior to admission to hospital, are vulnerable to both hyperglycaemic and hypoglycaemic events. This study suggests that the full potential of nurses in the monitoring of glucose among hospitalised adults with stroke has yet to be realised.

  12. Glucose control in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Studies using a continuous glucose monitoring system

    Kerssen, Anneloes


    Pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with neonatal morbidity. It is commonly agreed that the morbidity decreases when diabetic control is tightened. The most common methods for the determination of diabetic control are the self-monitoring of blood glucose levels (SMBG) and

  13. Virtual Machine Monitor Indigenous Memory Reclamation Technique

    Muhammad Shams Ul Haq


    Full Text Available Sandboxing is a mechanism to monitor and control the execution of malicious or untrusted program. Memory overhead incurred by sandbox solutions is one of bottleneck for sandboxing most of applications in a system. Memory reclamation techniques proposed for traditional full virtualization do not suit sandbox environment due to lack of full scale guest operating system in sandbox. In this paper, we propose memory reclamation technique for sandboxed applications. The proposed technique indigenously works in virtual machine monitor layer without installing any driver in VMX non root mode and without new communication channel with host kernel. Proposed Page reclamation algorithm is a simple modified form of Least recently used page reclamation and Working set page reclamation algorithms. For efficiently collecting working set of application, we use a hardware virtualization extension, page Modification logging introduced by Intel. We implemented proposed technique with one of open source sandboxes to show effectiveness of proposed memory reclamation method. Experimental results show that proposed technique successfully reclaim up to 11% memory from sandboxed applications with negligible CPU overheads

  14. Hydrogel-based electrochemical sensor for non-invasive and continuous glucose monitoring

    Park, Habeen; Lee, Ji-Young; Kim, Dong-Chul; Koh, Younggook; Cha, Junhoe


    Monitoring blood glucose level of diabetic patients is crucial in diabetes care from life threating complications. Selfmonitoring blood glucose (SMBG) that involves finger prick to draw blood samples into the measurement system is a widely-used method of routine measurement of blood glucose levels to date. SMBG includes, however, unavoidable pain problems resulting from the repetitive measurements. We hereby present a hydrogel-based electrochemical (H-EC) sensor to monitor the glucose level, non-invasively. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized in the disc-type hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) based hydrogel and kept intact in the hydrogel. Fast electron transfer mediated by Prussian blue (PB, hexacyanoferrate) generated efficient signal amplifications to facilitate the detection of the extracted glucose from the interstitial fluid. The linear response and the selectivity against glucose of the H-EC sensor were validated by chronoamperometry. For the practical use, the outcomes from the correlation of the extracted glucose concentration and the blood glucose value by on-body extraction, as well as the validation of the hydrogel-based electrochemical (H-EC) device, were applied to the on-body glucose monitoring.

  15. Mouthguard biosensor with telemetry system for monitoring of saliva glucose: A novel cavitas sensor.

    Arakawa, Takahiro; Kuroki, Yusuke; Nitta, Hiroki; Chouhan, Prem; Toma, Koji; Sawada, Shin-Ichi; Takeuchi, Shuhei; Sekita, Toshiaki; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Minakuchi, Shunsuke; Mitsubayashi, Kohji


    We develop detachable "Cavitas sensors" to apply to the human oral cavity for non-invasive monitoring of saliva glucose. A salivary biosensor incorporating Pt and Ag/AgCl electrodes on a mouthguard support with an enzyme membrane is developed and tested. Electrodes are formed on the polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) surface of the mouthguard. The Pt working electrode is coated with a glucose oxidase (GOD) membrane. The biosensor seamlessly is integrated with a glucose sensor and a wireless measurement system. When investigating in-vitro performance, the biosensor exhibits a robust relationship between output current and glucose concentration. In artificial saliva composed of salts and proteins, the glucose sensor is capable of highly sensitive detection over a range of 5-1000µmol/L of glucose, which encompasses the range of glucose concentrations found in human saliva. We demonstrate the ability of the sensor and wireless communication module to monitor saliva glucose in a phantom jaw imitating the structure of the human oral cavity. Stable and long-term real-time monitoring (exceeding 5h) with the telemetry system is achieved. The mouthguard biosensor will be useful as a novel method for real-time non-invasive saliva glucose monitoring for better management of dental patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The development of digital monitoring technique

    Koo, In Soo; Kim, D. H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, G. O.; Park, H. Y.; Suh, S. Y.; Sung, S. H.; Song, S. J.; Lee, C. K.; Jang, G. S.; Hur, S.


    A study has been performed for advanced DSP technology for the digital nuclear I and C systems for the monitoring and diagnosis techniques for high-pressurized structures integrity in NSSS. In the development of advanced DSP technology, real time process, communication network and signal validation were selected as the essential technologies of the digital signal process, and the requirements and methodology for the application of these technologies in NPP were established through technical analysis. Based on its results, the DPIS and the signal validation algorithm were developed. For the real-time process, the necessary requirements were define and the methodology of real-time software modeling was developed. For the communication network, the methodology of selection of the communication technique and developing procedure were established with an extraction of requirements. Functions, requirements, structure and technical specification were developed for the DPIS, and a real-time signal validation algorithm was developed and implemented for the signal validation. In a study on monitoring techniques for abnormal conditions, test and experimental facilities have been set up in order to carry out the required tests during research activities. Studies concentrated on how to acquire proper vibration or emission signals from mechanical structures and equipments, and to diagnose effectively the abnormal conditions of high pressure structure integrity. The algorithms of automatic signal analysis and diagnosis for abnormal conditions have been developed in this study to assist the operator`s monitoring and diagnosis activities on structure integrity using new technologies. (author). 23 refs., 68 tabs., 196 figs.

  17. Multi-modality analysis of glucose aqueous solution using photoacoustic and dielectric spectroscopy for non-invasive glucose monitoring

    Tajima, Takuro; Tanaka, Yujiro; Nakamura, Masahito; Seyama, Michiko


    Quantitative analysis of glucose using conventional optical spectroscopy suffers from a lack of repeatability due to high optical scattering in skin tissue. Here we present a multi-modality analysis of glucose aqueous solution using photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS). These techniques involve the direct detection of the acoustic and electromagnetic waves propagating through or reflecting from tissue without their being scattered. They therefore have potential for better tolerance to the variation of scattering. For PAS, to differentiate signals induced by water absorption, we select another laser wavelength (1.38 μm) that exhibits the same absorbance for water at 1.61 μm. Furthermore, one of the two photoacoustic signals is used to normalize the variations of acoustic properties in differential signal. Measured results for glucose solutions (0-2 g/dL) showed that the differential signal has a sensitivity of 1.61%/g·dL-1 and a detection limit of 120 mg/dL. We also tested glucose detection with BDS (500 MHz to 50 GHz) by detecting glucose hydration bonding at around 10-20 GHz. Using a partial least square analysis and first derivation on broadband spectra, we obtained an RMS error 19 mg/dL and a detection limit of 59 mg/dL. Using both the low-scattering ultrasonic and microwave detection techniques, we successfully captured the glucose footprint in the physiological range.

  18. Evaluation of two methods of rapid blood-glucose monitoring by unskilled personnel during surgery

    Madsbad, S; Adelhøj, B; Bigler, Dennis Richard


    The accuracy of two rapid methods of blood-glucose monitoring without (Haemo-glucotest 1-44) and with a reflectance meter (Hypocount B) was compared using a laboratory method. The assessment was carried out by personnel with no previous experience in measuring blood glucose. Eighty-five percent...

  19. Methodological aspects of glucose monitoring with a slow continuous subcutaneous and intravenous ultrafiltration system in rats

    Kaptein, WA; Kemper, RHA; Ruiters, MHJ; Venema, K; Tiessen, RG; Korf, J


    A method for the continuous ultrafiltration of venous blood or subcutaneous fluid is demonstrated with glucose monitoring in the living rat. Ultrafiltrate was withdrawn at a constant flow rate of approximately 100 nl/min. Glucose content of the ultrafiltrates was electrochemically determined with a




    A method to monitor extracellular glucose in freely moving rats, based on intracerebral microdialysis coupled to an enzyme reactor is described. The dialysate is continuously mixed with a solution containing the enzymes hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and the fluorescence of NADPH

  1. Inspection and Monitoring Techniques for Power Lines

    DAI Kaoshan; CHEN Shenen


    Structural assessment is prerequisite for proper maintenance of civil infrastructure.In the begining of this paper, modern inspection and monitoring methods are briefly reviewed.Experiences in applying imagebased methods for highway bridge inspection are described shortly afterward.Studies are then extended to explore technologies for power delivery infrastructure evaluation.Typical power line components are first introduced.Structural analyses show complicated coupling phenomena in the power line system; and its vulnerability is intensified by extreme environment or human induced events.As a main interest, the state-of-art of power line inspection is summarized.Both visual observations and inspections assisted with novel techniques are presented.Real time monitoring of the power line is also investigated in this paper.Technologies that have potentials for monitoring power cables, insulators, and support structures are identified.A conceptual integrated design is proposed by the authors through combining innovative inspection with promising monitoring methods to ensure a sustainable, smart power line.

  2. Effects of self-monitoring of blood glucose on diabetes control in a ...

    found no definite evidence that home blood glucose monitoring improved blood ... from Denmark). The data collection was approved by the UMgungundlovu Health ..... in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the.

  3. Monitoring and evaluation techniques for airborne contamination

    Xia Yihua [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)


    Monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are of great importance for the purpose of protection of health and safety of workers in nuclear installations. Because airborne contamination is one of the key sources to cause exposure to individuals by inhalation and digestion, and to cause diffusion of contaminants in the environment. The main objectives of monitoring and evaluation of airborne contamination are: to detect promptly a loss of control of airborne material, to help identify those individuals and predict exposure levels, to assess the intake and dose commitment to the individuals, and to provide sufficient documentation of airborne radioactivity. From the viewpoint of radiation protection, the radioactive contaminants in air can be classified into the following types: airborne aerosol, gas and noble gas, and volatile gas. In this paper, the following items are described: sampling methods and techniques, measurement and evaluation, and particle size analysis. (G.K.)

  4. Performance Monitoring Techniques Supporting Cognitive Optical Networking

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko


    to solve this issue by realizing a network that can observe, act, learn and optimize its performance, taking into account end-to-end goals. In this letter we present the approach of cognition applied to heterogeneous optical networks developed in the framework of the EU project CHRON: Cognitive...... Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network. We focus on the approaches developed in the project for optical performance monitoring, which enable the feedback from the physical layer to the cognitive decision system by providing accurate description of the performance of the established lightpaths.......High degree of heterogeneity of future optical networks, such as services with different quality-of-transmission requirements, modulation formats and switching techniques, will pose a challenge for the control and optimization of different parameters. Incorporation of cognitive techniques can help...

  5. Glucose excursions and glycaemic control during Ramadan fasting in diabetic patients: insights from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM).

    Lessan, N; Hannoun, Z; Hasan, H; Barakat, M T


    Ramadan fasting represents a major shift in meal timing and content for practicing Muslims. This study used continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to assess changes in markers of glycaemic excursions during Ramadan fasting to investigate the short-term safety of this practice in different groups of patients with diabetes. A total of 63 subjects (56 with diabetes, seven healthy volunteers; 39 male, 24 female) had CGM performed during, before and after Ramadan fasting. Mean CGM curves were constructed for each group for these periods that were then used to calculate indicators of glucose control and excursions. Post hoc data analyses included comparisons of different medication categories (metformin/no medication, gliptin, sulphonylurea and insulin). Medication changes during Ramadan followed American Diabetes Association guidelines. Among patients with diabetes, there was a significant difference in mean CGM curve during Ramadan, with a slow fall during fasting hours followed by a rapid rise in glucose level after the sunset meal (iftar). The magnitude of this excursion was greatest in the insulin-treated group, followed by the sulphonylurea-treated group. Markers of control deteriorated in a small number (n=3) of patients. Overall, whether fasting or non-fasting, subjects showed no statistically significant changes in mean interstitial glucose (IG), mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (MAGE), high and low blood glucose indices (HBGI/LBGI), and number of glucose excursions and rate of hypoglycaemia. The main change in glycaemic control with Ramadan fasting in patients with diabetes is in the pattern of excursions. Ramadan fasting caused neither overall deterioration nor improvement in the majority of patients with good baseline glucose control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of Postprandial Glucose Excursion Using a Novel Minimally Invasive Glucose Area-Under-the-Curve Monitoring System

    Sachi Kuranuki


    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET to monitor postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC without blood sampling, we evaluated the accuracy of glucose AUC measured by MIET and compared with that by blood sampling after food intake. Methods: Interstitial fluid glucose AUC (IG-AUC following consumption of 6 different types of foods was measured by MIET. MIET consisted of stamping microneedle arrays, placing hydrogel patches on the areas, and calculating IG-AUC based on glucose levels in the hydrogels. Glycemic index (GI was determined using IG-AUC and reference AUC measured by blood sampling. Results: IG-AUC strongly correlated with reference AUC (R = 0.91, and GI determined using IG-AUC showed good correlation with that determined by reference AUC (R = 0.88. Conclusions: IG-AUC obtained by MIET can accurately predict the postprandial glucose excursion without blood sampling. In addition, feasibility of GI measurement by MIET was confirmed.

  7. The optothermal approach to a real time monitoring of glucose content during fermentation by brewers' yeast.

    Favier, J P; Bicanic, D; Helander, P; van Iersel, M


    During production of both normal and low-alcohol beers, sugar is fermented to ethanol, carbon dioxide and several flavour products. Tight control of fermentation is necessary in order to keep production costs low, and to prevent formation of excessive ethanol in low-alcohol beer. Several types of control devices based on, e.g., determination of carbon dioxide, ethanol, and extract have been developed so far; the main disadvantage of these devices is their unsuitability for on-line applications. Here, the optothermal window was used in a laboratory experiment as a new sensor for real time monitoring fermentation of glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the results were compared to those obtained by conventional techniques.

  8. Comparison of Photogrammetric Techniques for Rockfalls Monitoring

    Buill, Felipe; Amparo Núñez-Andrés, María; Lantada, Nieves; Prades, Albert


    The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, UAVs to image capture for monitoring natural hazards has had a major boost for its wide possibilities in the last decade. These are, for example, the studying and monitoring of unstable slopes, glaciers and rocky escarpments. Moreover, to evaluate the risk after a rockfall or debris flow event, for example measuring volume of displaced material, trajectories of blocks or building and/or infrastructure damaged. But the use of these devices requires a specific treatment regarding the studied case and geomatic techniques suitable to get the adequate precision of the movement, size of items or events to study. For each application it is necessary to determine what kind of capture is the most appropriate to obtain an optimal benefit-cost ratio. A comparison of the use of terrestrial photogrammetry, UAV photogrammetry and video from UAV has been done. The best result has been obtained combining techniques aerial and terrestrial since ground points with a best quality can be identified and measured and all the surface has a best image coverage.

  9. A simple deep monitoring well dilution technique.

    Rogiers, Bart; Labat, Serge; Gedeon, Matej; Vandersteen, Katrijn


    Well dilution techniques are well known and studied as one of the basic techniques to quantify groundwater fluxes. A typical well dilution test consists of the injection of a tracer, a mixing mechanism (e.g. water circulation with a pump) to achieve a homogeneous concentration distribution within the well, and monitoring of the evolution of tracer concentration with time. An apparent specific discharge can be obtained from such a test, and when details on the well construction are known, it can be converted into a specific discharge representative of the undisturbed aquifer. For deep wells however, the injection of tracer becomes less practical and the use of pumps for circulating and mixing the water becomes problematic. This is due to the limited pressure that common pumps can endure at the outlet, as well as the large volume of water that makes it difficult to achieve a homogeneous concentration, and the impracticalities of getting a lot of equipment to large depths in very small monitoring wells. Injection and monitoring of tracer at a specific depth omits several of the problems with deep wells. We present a very simple device that can be used to perform a dilution test at a specific depth in deep wells. The injection device consists of a PVC tube with a detachable rubber seal at its bottom. To minimize disturbance of the water column in the well, we integrated an EC sensor in this injection device, which enables us to use demineralized water or dissolved salts as a tracer. Once at the target depth, the PVC tube is retracted and the EC sensor and tracer become subject to groundwater flow. The device was tested on a shallow well, on which different types of dilution tests were performed. The results of the other tests agree well with the injection tube results. Finally, the device was used to perform a dilution test in a deep well in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.

  10. Wireless Remote Monitoring of Glucose Using a Functionalized ZnO Nanowire Arrays Based Sensor

    Magnus Willander


    Full Text Available This paper presents a prototype wireless remote glucose monitoring system interfaced with a ZnO nanowire arrays-based glucose sensor, glucose oxidase enzyme immobilized onto ZnO nanowires in conjunction with a Nafion® membrane coating, which can be effectively applied for the monitoring of glucose levels in diabetics. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM services like General Packet Radio Service (GPRS and Short Message Service (SMS have been proven to be logical and cost effective methods for gathering data from remote locations. A communication protocol that facilitates remote data collection using SMS has been utilized for monitoring a patient’s sugar levels. In this study, we demonstrate the remote monitoring of the glucose levels with existing GPRS/GSM network infra-structures using our proposed functionalized ZnO nanowire arrays sensors integrated with standard readily available mobile phones. The data can be used for centralized monitoring and other purposes. Such applications can reduce health care costs and allow caregivers to monitor and support to their patients remotely, especially those located in rural areas.

  11. Accuracy of self-monitored blood glucose in type 2 diabetes.

    Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Soni, Sonia; Evans, Arthur T; Graham, Kelly; Fisher, Betty


    The prevalence and predictors of inaccurate self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) diaries in type 2 diabetes are not well defined. This was a cross-sectional study of adults with type 2 diabetes in a diabetes clinic at a large urban public hospital. We collected copies of SMBG diaries and downloaded data from their glucose meters if patients brought them to their clinic appointment. Trained interviewers used standard tests to assess literacy, depression, and cognitive function. The main outcome measure was accuracy of the glucose diary assessed by comparing reported values to meter memory readings and to results of hemoglobin A(1c). Blood glucose self-monitoring was either missing or misleading for 48% (55 of 115) because (1) patients brought neither meter nor the SMBG diary (n = 26) or (2) the diary was inaccurate (n = 29). An inaccurate glucose diary (by comparison with meter readings) was predicted by normotension (odd ratio 5.6, P = 0.02) and one measure of cognitive impairment, slow Digit Symbol Coding (odds ratio 2.2, P = 0.02). A patient's self-assessment of his or her diary's accuracy was unreliable (sensitivity 63%, specificity 56%). SMBG diaries are frequently either not accurate or not brought to clinic visit. Some inaccuracy might be due to cognitive impairment. To achieve maximum benefit from glucose self-monitoring, glucose meter memory analysis is crucial before making therapy adjustments based on SMBG.

  12. Sensor Monitoring of Physical Activity to Improve Glucose Management in Diabetic Patients: A Review

    Sandrine Ding


    Full Text Available Diabetic individuals need to tightly control their blood glucose concentration. Several methods have been developed for this purpose, such as the finger-prick or continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMs. However, these methods present the disadvantage of being invasive. Moreover, CGMs have limited accuracy, notably to detect hypoglycemia. It is also known that physical exercise, and even daily activity, disrupt glucose dynamics and can generate problems with blood glucose regulation during and after exercise. In order to deal with these challenges, devices for monitoring patients’ physical activity are currently under development. This review focuses on non-invasive sensors using physiological parameters related to physical exercise that were used to improve glucose monitoring in type 1 diabetes (T1DM patients. These devices are promising for diabetes management. Indeed they permit to estimate glucose concentration either based solely on physical activity parameters or in conjunction with CGM or non-invasive CGM (NI-CGM systems. In these last cases, the vital signals are used to modulate glucose estimations provided by the CGM and NI-CGM devices. Finally, this review indicates possible limitations of these new biosensors and outlines directions for future technologic developments.

  13. Salivary glucose in monitoring glycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    Naing, Cho; Mak, Joon Wah


    Incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide. Monitoring glycaemia is essential for control of diabetes mellitus. Conventional blood-based measurement of glucose requires venepuncture or needle prick, which is not free from pain and risk of infection. The non-invasiveness, ease and low-cost in collection made saliva an attractive alternative sample. The objective of this review was to systematically review the evidence on the relationship between salivary glucose level and blood glucose level in monitoring glycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We searched studies which evaluate salivary glucose levels and serum glycaemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus in electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid and Google Scholar. We selected the eligible studies, following the inclusion criteria set for this review. Due to heterogeneity of studies, we conducted qualitative synthesis of studies. Ten observational studies were included in this review, including a total of 321 cases and 323 controls with ages between 3 and 61 years and the majority were males (62%). Two studies were done exclusively on children below 17 years old. The significant difference between salivary glucose levels in type 1 diabetes mellitus and controls were reported in 6 studies with 8 data sets. Five studies with 7 datasets reported the correlation coefficient between salivary glucose and blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Findings suggest that salivary glucose concentrations may be helpful in monitoring glycaemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the utility of using salivary glucose level to monitor glycaemia should be evaluated in future well designed, prospective studies with adequate number of participants with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  14. Continuous glucose monitoring system and new era of early diagnosis of diabetes in high risk groups

    Ashraf Soliman


    Full Text Available Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM systems are an emerging technology that allows frequent glucose measurements to monitor glucose trends in real time. Their use as a diagnostic tool is still developing and appears to be promising. Combining intermittent glucose self-monitoring (SGM and CGM combines the benefits of both. Significant improvement in the treatment modalities that may prevent the progress of prediabetes to diabetes have been achieved recently and dictates screening of high risk patients for early diagnosis and management of glycemic abnormalities. The use of CGMS in the diagnosis of early dysglycemia (prediabetes especially in high risk patients appears to be an attractive approach. In this review we searched the literature to investigate the value of using CGMS as a diagnostic tool compared to other known tools, namely oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C in high risk groups. Those categories of patients include adolescents and adults with obesity especially those with family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO, gestational diabetes, cystic fibrosis, thalassemia major, acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and after renal transplantation. It appears that the ability of the CGMS for frequently monitoring (every 5 min glucose changes during real-life settings for 3 to 5 days stretches the chance to detect more glycemic abnormalities during basal and postprandial conditions compared to other short-timed methods.

  15. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors.

    Mortazavi, Smj; Gholampour, M; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, G; Mortazavi, Ar


    Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students), blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2) while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students), two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (|ΔC|) in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P < 0.001, two-tailed test). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors.

  16. Artificial intelligence techniques for monitoring dangerous infections.

    Lamma, Evelina; Mello, Paola; Nanetti, Anna; Riguzzi, Fabrizio; Storari, Sergio; Valastro, Gianfranco


    The monitoring and detection of nosocomial infections is a very important problem arising in hospitals. A hospital-acquired or nosocomial infection is a disease that develops after admission into the hospital and it is the consequence of a treatment, not necessarily a surgical one, performed by the medical staff. Nosocomial infections are dangerous because they are caused by bacteria which have dangerous (critical) resistance to antibiotics. This problem is very serious all over the world. In Italy, almost 5-8% of the patients admitted into hospitals develop this kind of infection. In order to reduce this figure, policies for controlling infections should be adopted by medical practitioners. In order to support them in this complex task, we have developed a system, called MERCURIO, capable of managing different aspects of the problem. The objectives of this system are the validation of microbiological data and the creation of a real time epidemiological information system. The system is useful for laboratory physicians, because it supports them in the execution of the microbiological analyses; for clinicians, because it supports them in the definition of the prophylaxis, of the most suitable antibi-otic therapy and in monitoring patients' infections; and for epidemiologists, because it allows them to identify outbreaks and to study infection dynamics. In order to achieve these objectives, we have adopted expert system and data mining techniques. We have also integrated a statistical module that monitors the diffusion of nosocomial infections over time in the hospital, and that strictly interacts with the knowledge based module. Data mining techniques have been used for improving the system knowledge base. The knowledge discovery process is not antithetic, but complementary to the one based on manual knowledge elicitation. In order to verify the reliability of the tasks performed by MERCURIO and the usefulness of the knowledge discovery approach, we performed a test

  17. Integrated insulin pump therapy with continuous glucose monitoring for improved adherence: technology update

    Tumminia A


    Full Text Available Andrea Tumminia,1 Laura Sciacca,1 Lucia Frittitta,1 Sebastiano Squatrito,1 Riccardo Vigneri,2 Rosario Le Moli,1 Letizia Tomaselli2 1Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Garibaldi-Nesima Hospital, Catania, Italy; 2Endocrinology, Garibaldi-Nesima Hospital, Catania, Italy Abstract: Insulin pump therapy combined with real-time continuous glucose monitoring, known as sensor-augmented pump (SAP therapy, has been shown to improve metabolic control and to reduce the rate of hypoglycemia in adults with type 1 diabetes compared to multiple daily injections or standard continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Glycemic variability is also reduced in patients on SAP therapy. This approach allows patients to monitor their glucose levels being informed of glycemic concentration and trend. Trained diabetic patients, therefore, can appropriately modify insulin infusion and/or carbohydrate intake in order to prevent hypo- or hyperglycemia. For these reasons, SAP therapy is now considered the gold standard for type 1 diabetes treatment. To be clinically effective, however, devices and techniques using advanced technology should not only have the potential to theoretically ameliorate metabolic control, but also be well accepted by patients in terms of satisfaction and health-related quality of life, because these factors will improve treatment adherence and consequently overall outcome. SAP therapy is generally well tolerated by patients; however, many clinical trials have identified significant noncompliance in the use of this device, most notably in the pediatric and adolescent populations. In this review we aim to analyze the main reasons for good or poor adherence to SAP therapy and to provide useful tips in order to fully benefit from this kind of novel therapeutic approach. Keywords: sensor-augmented insulin pump therapy, type 1 diabetes, quality of life, patient adherence, continuous subcutaneous insulin

  18. Non-Enzymatic Graphene-Based Biosensors for Continous Glucose Monitoring

    Serry, Mohamed


    A novel mediator-free, non-enzymatic electrochemical sensor, based on a graphene-Schottky junction, was fabricated for glucose detection. The sensor offers a promising alternative to the conventional enzyme-catalyzed electrochemical continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGM), as it overcomes many of the drawbacks attributed to the enzymatic nature; namely, irreversibility, drift, and interference with body fluids, which affect their accuracy, reliability and longevity. Enhanced performance of the sensors is demonstrated through the band interaction at the graphene-Schottky junction, which yields stronger forward/reverse currents in response to 50 {\\mu}L glucose drop. Under optimized conditions, the linear response of the sensor to glucose concentration was valid in the range from 0 to 15 mmol/L with a detection limit of 0.5 mmol/L. The results indicated that the proposed sensor provided a highly sensitive, more facile method with good reproducibility for continuous glucose detection.

  19. The Health Behavior Schedule-II for Diabetes Predicts Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    Frank, Maxwell T.; Cho, Sungkun; Heiby, Elaine M.; Lee, Chun-I; Lahtela, Adrienne L.


    The Health Behavior Schedule-II for Diabetes (HBS-IID) is a 27-item questionnaire that was evaluated as a predictor of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). The HBS-IID was completed by 96 adults with Type 2 diabetes. Recent glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c and fasting blood glucose results were taken from participants' medical records. Only 31.3%…

  20. Assessment of the accuracy of real-time continuous glucose monitoring system and its correlated factors



    Objective To assess the factors that influence the accuracy of real-time continuous glucose monitoring system(RT-CGM).Methods A total of 79 diabetic patients wore RT-CGM for three days continuously while calibrating by interphalangeal glucose values 4-8 times a day.We counted matching rate of interphalangeal glucose values and RT-CGM probe value,and analyzed correlation of the matching rate with MAGE,SDBG,MBG,AUC10,AUC3.9,and NGE by Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear

  1. Optical coherence tomography for blood glucose monitoring in vitro through spatial and temporal approaches

    De Pretto, Lucas Ramos; Yoshimura, Tania Mateus; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Zanardi de Freitas, Anderson


    As diabetes causes millions of deaths worldwide every year, new methods for blood glucose monitoring are in demand. Noninvasive approaches may increase patient adherence to treatment while reducing costs, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) may be a feasible alternative to current invasive diagnostics. This study presents two methods for blood sugar monitoring with OCT in vitro. The first, based on spatial statistics, exploits changes in the light total attenuation coefficient caused by different concentrations of glucose in the sample using a 930-nm commercial OCT system. The second, based on temporal analysis, calculates differences in the decorrelation time of the speckle pattern in the OCT signal due to blood viscosity variations with the addition of glucose with data acquired by a custom built Swept Source 1325-nm OCT system. Samples consisted of heparinized mouse blood, phosphate buffer saline, and glucose. Additionally, further samples were prepared by diluting mouse blood with isotonic saline solution to verify the effect of higher multiple scattering components on the ability of the methods to differentiate glucose levels. Our results suggest a direct relationship between glucose concentration and both decorrelation rate and attenuation coefficient, with our systems being able to detect changes of 65 mg/dL in glucose concentration.

  2. Cultural diversity as a factor in self-monitoring blood glucose in gestational diabetes.

    Langer, O; Langer, N; Piper, J M; Elliott, B; Anyaegbunam, A


    The routine use of self-monitoring of capillary blood glucose by pregnant diabetic patients currently provides the basis for both clinical management and ongoing investigation. Strategies must therefore be developed to ensure that these data are reliable and accurately reported by patients and are not influenced by diverse socioeconomic levels or varied geographic locations. To explore this issue, we used glucose reflectance meters with a memory microchip capable of storing up to 440 consecutive blood glucose determinations. Two diverse groups of women from Texas and New York who had gestational diabetes performed self-monitoring of blood glucose from diagnosis until delivery. Both groups recorded their blood glucose results daily in a logbook. The reporting performance of all the participating subjects resulted in an actual compliance rate of 60% to 70% of testings required of the patients. Comparison of African-American, Mexican-American, and white populations revealed no significant differences in patient performance or compliance. Moreover, no differences were found between the groups at different geographic locations (New York, Texas) in patients' willingness and ability to comply with the regimen of self-monitoring blood glucose. These findings suggest that the use of memory reflectance meters, in conjunction with patient education and positive interaction between patient and care provider, will result in high patient compliance regardless of socioeconomic level or ethnic diversity.

  3. Optimization of a Liquid Crystal-based Sensory Platform for Monitoring Enzymatic Glucose Oxidation

    Wei, Yibin; Jang, Chang-Hyun [Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)


    Managing glucose levels in human blood is extremely important for the treatment of diabetes. Here, an innovative sensory strategy has been developed to monitor the enzymatic activities of glucose and glucose oxidase by using confined liquid crystal (LC) birefringent droplet patterns. Acidic products released during the glucose oxidation process lead to a slight decrease in the pH of aqueous systems that can be monitored by pH-sensitive LC materials. Of the existing pH-sensitive LC materials, dodecanoic acid-doped 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl is inexpensive and easily adjusted to satisfy the 7.4 ± 0.05 pH requirement of human blood. Moreover, the orientational alignment of capillary-confined pH-responsive LCs can be disrupted at the aqueous/LC interface following a slight decrease in the critical pH of aqueous reaction systems, which results in an optical signal that can be observed with the naked eye by using polarizing optical microscopy. Based on the stable LC droplet patterns generated by the cylindrical confinement system, the functionalized LCs can selectively detect glucose at concentrations as low as 0.1 pM. This study further advances the previously reported LC-based glucose monitoring systems by reducing production costs and instituting a smarter LC sensory design. This improved system shows potential for the use in clinical bioassay applications.

  4. Benefits of blinded continuous glucose monitoring during a randomized clinical trial.

    Muchmore, Douglas; Sharp, Melissa; Vaughn, Daniel


    Real-time, personal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a validated technology that can help patients improve glycemic control. Blinded CGM is a promising technology for obtaining retrospective data in clinical research where the quantity and quality of blood glucose information is important. This study was designed to investigate the use of novel procedures to enhance data capture from blinded CGM. Following a 4-week run-in, 46 patients with type 1 diabetes were randomized to one of two prandial insulins for a 12-week treatment period, after which they were crossed over to the alternate treatment for 12 weeks. Continuous glucose monitoring was implemented at the end of run-in (practice only) and during the last 2 weeks of each treatment period. Eighty percent of 288 possible daily glucose values were required for at least three days. Continuous glucose monitoring was extended for an additional week if these criteria were not met, and patients were allowed to insert sensors at home when necessary. Continuous glucose monitoring results were compared to reference eight-point self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Higher than expected sensor failure rate was approximately 25%. During run-in, 12 of 45 attempted profiles failed adequacy criteria. However, treatment periods had only 1 of 82 attempted profiles considered inadequate (6 cases required an additional week of CGM). Using SMBG as reference, 93.7% of 777 CGM values were in Clarke error grid zones A+B. With appropriate training, adequate practice, and opportunity to repeat blinded CGM as needed, nearly 100% of attempted profiles can be obtained successfully. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  5. An Integrated Glucose Sensor with an All-Solid-State Sodium Ion-Selective Electrode for a Minimally Invasive Glucose Monitoring System

    Junko Kojima


    Full Text Available We developed a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system that uses a microneedle to permeate the skin surface and a small hydrogel to accumulate interstitial fluid glucose. The measurement of glucose and sodium ion levels in the hydrogel is required for estimating glucose levels in blood; therefore, we developed a small, enzyme-fixed glucose sensor with a high-selectivity, all-solid-state, sodium ion-selective electrode (ISE integrated into its design. The glucose sensor immobilized glucose oxidase showed a good correlation between the glucose levels in the hydrogels and the reference glucose levels (r > 0.99, and exhibited a good precision (coefficient of variation = 2.9%, 0.6 mg/dL. In the design of the sodium ISEs, we used the insertion material Na0.33MnO2 as the inner contact layer and DD16C5 exhibiting high Na+/K+ selectivity as the ionophore. The developed sodium ISE exhibited high selectivity (\\( \\log \\,k^{pot}_{Na,K} = -2.8\\ and good potential stability. The sodium ISE could measure 0.4 mM (10−3.4 M sodium ion levels in the hydrogels containing 268 mM (10−0.57 M KCl. The small integrated sensor (ϕ < 10 mm detected glucose and sodium ions in hydrogels simultaneously within 1 min, and it exhibited sufficient performance for use as a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system.

  6. Design of a portable noninvasive photoacoustic glucose monitoring system integrated laser diode excitation with annular array detection

    Zeng, Lvming; Liu, Guodong; Yang, Diwu; Ren, Zhong; Huang, Zhen


    A near-infrared photoacoustic glucose monitoring system, which is integrated dual-wavelength pulsed laser diode excitation with eight-element planar annular array detection technique, is designed and fabricated during this study. It has the characteristics of nonivasive, inexpensive, portable, accurate location, and high signal-to-noise ratio. In the system, the exciting source is based on two laser diodes with wavelengths of 905 nm and 1550 nm, respectively, with optical pulse energy of 20 μJ and 6 μJ. The laser beam is optically focused and jointly projected to a confocal point with a diameter of 0.7 mm approximately. A 7.5 MHz 8-element annular array transducer with a hollow structure is machined to capture photoacoustic signal in backward mode. The captured signals excitated from blood glucose are processed with a synthetic focusing algorithm to obtain high signal-to-noise ratio and accurate location over a range of axial detection depth. The custom-made transducer with equal area elements is coaxially collimated with the laser source to improve the photoacoustic excite/receive efficiency. In the paper, we introduce the photoacoustic theory, receive/process technique, and design method of the portable noninvasive photoacoustic glucose monitoring system, which can potentially be developed as a powerful diagnosis and treatment tool for diabetes mellitus.

  7. [Today data management in self-monitoring of blood glucose for diabetic patients].

    Fermon, C


    Improving diabetes treatment needs intensive glucose monitoring which is restricting for patients and time-consuming for physicians. Up-to-date tools of data management were developed, following progress in computing technology and home computing. Glucometers with memory and softwares are able to improve data management of self blood glucose monitoring, personalized interactivity with physician. They are very important to develop telemedecine systems in diabetes care. These systems are designed to complement the daily care and intensive management of diabetics through telemonitoring and telecare services.

  8. Community pharmacy-based intervention to improve self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients

    Müller U


    Full Text Available Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG is clearly correlated with increased life expectancy and quality of life in type 2 diabetic patients. Objective: The objective of our study was to record and assess the errors patients make in preparing, performing, and processing self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG. Furthermore, the study aimed to determine to what extent a single standardized SMBG instruction session in a community pharmacy might reduce the number of patients making errors or the number of errors per patient. Methods: Between May and October 2005, SMBG of 462 randomly selected patients with type 2 diabetes was monitored in 32 pharmacies specialized in diabetes care. The patients performed blood glucose self-tests using their own blood glucose meters. Self-testing was monitored using a standardized documentation sheet on which any error made during the performance of the test was recorded. If necessary, patients were instructed in the accurate operation of their meter and the use of the necessary equipment. Additionally, patients obtained written instructions. Six weeks later, assessment of the quality of patient’s SMBG was repeated.Results: During the first observation, 383 patients (83% made at least one mistake performing SMBG. By the time of the second observation, this frequency had fallen to 189 (41% (p<0.001. The average number of mistakes fell from 3.1 to 0.8 per patient. Mistakes that may potentially have led to inaccurate readings were initially recorded for 283 (61% and at study end for 110 (24% patients (p<0.001. Conclusion: It is important to periodically instruct type 2 diabetic patients in the proper SMBG technique in order to ensure accurate measurements. In this study it was shown that community pharmacies specialized in diabetes care can provide this service effectively.

  9. Comparative study of different control techniques for the regulation of blood glucose level in diabetic patients.

    Ibbini, Mohammed S


    Blood glucose regulation is of a great concern for insulin-dependant patients with excessive glucose in blood (hyperglycaemia), or low glucose profile (hypoglycaemia) due to excess insulin delivery. Both conditions can cause dangerous complications for diabetic patients, and hence glucose regulation in blood is of prime importance. Insulin pumps are used to deliver insulin in small quantities, allowing the glucose level to remain as close as possible to that of non-diabetics (near 100 mg dl(-1)). Different control techniques are used to maintain the glucose level and most of them depend on an exact mathematical or empirical model of insulin-glucose interaction. Recently, we have proposed different controllers that are based on fuzzy logic and so do not use mathematical modelling, which in general is nonlinear, complex and suffers from uncertainties. PI fuzzy controllers are physically related to classical PI and PID controllers, which are extremely popular. The parameter settings of classical and fuzzy logic controllers are based on deep common physical background. In this manuscript, a comparative study is proposed to evaluate the use of fuzzy logic controllers over other conventional controllers such as PI and PID controllers to maintain the blood glucose level within a normoglycaemic average especially when a diabetic patient is subjected to different conditions.

  10. New Criteria for Assessing the Accuracy of Blood Glucose Monitors meeting, October 28, 2011.

    Walsh, John; Roberts, Ruth; Vigersky, Robert A; Schwartz, Frank


    Glucose meters (GMs) are routinely used for self-monitoring of blood glucose by patients and for point-of-care glucose monitoring by health care providers in outpatient and inpatient settings. Although widely assumed to be accurate, numerous reports of inaccuracies with resulting morbidity and mortality have been noted. Insulin dosing errors based on inaccurate GMs are most critical. On October 28, 2011, the Diabetes Technology Society invited 45 diabetes technology clinicians who were attending the 2011 Diabetes Technology Meeting to participate in a closed-door meeting entitled New Criteria for Assessing the Accuracy of Blood Glucose Monitors. This report reflects the opinions of most of the attendees of that meeting. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the public, and several medical societies are currently in dialogue to establish a new standard for GM accuracy. This update to the FDA standard is driven by improved meter accuracy, technological advances (pumps, bolus calculators, continuous glucose monitors, and insulin pens), reports of hospital and outpatient deaths, consumer complaints about inaccuracy, and research studies showing that several approved GMs failed to meet FDA or International Organization for Standardization standards in postapproval testing. These circumstances mandate a set of new GM standards that appropriately match the GMs' analytical accuracy to the clinical accuracy required for their intended use, as well as ensuring their ongoing accuracy following approval. The attendees of the New Criteria for Assessing the Accuracy of Blood Glucose Monitors meeting proposed a graduated standard and other methods to improve GM performance, which are discussed in this meeting report.

  11. Development of a nanowire based titanium needle probe sensor for glucose monitoring

    Deshpande, Devesh C.

    The need for continuous monitoring of various physiological functions such as blood glucose levels, neural functions and cholesterol levels has fostered the research and development of various schemes of biosensors to sense and help control the respective function. The needs of patients for sensors with minimal discomfort, longer life and better performance have necessitated the development towards smaller and more efficient sensors. In addition, the need for higher functionality from smaller sensors has led to the development of sensors with multiple electrodes, each electrode capable of sensing a different body function. Such multi-electrode sensors need to be fabricated using micro-fabrication processes in order to achieve precise control over the size, shape and placement of the electrodes. Multielectrode sensors fabricated using silicon and polymers have been demonstrated. One physiological function that attracts widespread interest is continuous glucose monitoring in our blood, since Diabetes affects millions of people all over the world. Significant deviations of blood glucose levels from the normal levels of 4-8 mM can cause fainting, coma and damage to the eyes, kidneys, nerves and blood vessels. For chronic patients, continuous monitoring of glucose levels is essential for accurate and timely treatment. A few continuous monitoring sensors are available in the market, but they have problems and cannot replace the strip type one-time glucose monitoring systems as yet. To address this need, large scale research efforts have been targeted towards continuous monitoring. The demand for higher accuracy and sensitivity has motivated researchers to evaluate the use of nanostructures in sensing. The large surface area-to-volume ratio of such structures could enable further miniaturization and push the detection limits, potentially enabling even single molecule detection. This research involved the development of a biocompatible titanium needle probe sensor for

  12. Bio-inspired computational techniques based on advanced condition monitoring

    Su Liangcheng; He Shan; Li Xiaoli; Li Xinglin


    The application of bio-inspired computational techniques to the field of condition monitoring is addressed.First, the bio-inspired computational techniques are briefly addressed; the advantages and disadvantages of these computational methods are made clear. Then, the roles of condition monitoring in the predictive maintenance and failures prediction and the development trends of condition monitoring are discussed. Finally, a case study on the condition monitoring of grinding machine is described, which shows the application of bio-inspired computational technique to a practical condition monitoring system.

  13. Patient satisfaction and barriers to initiating real-time continuous glucose monitoring in early pregnancy in women with diabetes

    Secher, A L; Madsen, A B; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm;


    for 6 days at median 9 (range 6-14) gestational weeks and were asked to answer a semi-structured questionnaire on patient satisfaction. Results: Median HbA(1c) was 49 (range 34-86) mmol/mol) [6.6 (5.3-10.0) %] and duration of diabetes was 12 (0.5-37) years. Continuous glucose monitoring was used for 6......Aim: To evaluate self-reported satisfaction and barriers to initiating real-time continuous glucose monitoring in early pregnancy among women with pregestational diabetes. Methods: Fifty-four women with Type 1 diabetes and 14 women with Type 2 diabetes were offered continuous glucose monitoring...... monitoring during daytime and twelve (18%) during sleep. Many women reported improved diabetes understanding (52%) and would recommend continuous glucose monitoring to others (83%). Twenty-four patients (36%) had continuous glucose monitoring removed earlier than planned (before the intended 6 days...

  14. Protective coating and hyperthermal atomic oxygen texturing of optical fibers used for blood glucose monitoring

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)


    Disclosed is a method of producing cones and pillars on polymethylmethacralate (PMMA) optical fibers for glucose monitoring. The method, in one embodiment, consists of using electron beam evaporation to deposit a non-contiguous thin film of aluminum on the distal ends of the PMMA fibers. The partial coverage of aluminum on the fibers is randomly, but rather uniformly distributed across the end of the optical fibers. After the aluminum deposition, the ends of the fibers are then exposed to hyperthermal atomic oxygen, which oxidizes the areas that are not protected by aluminum. The resulting PMMA fibers have a greatly increased surface area and the cones or pillars are sufficiently close together that the cellular components in blood are excluded from passing into the valleys between the cones and pillars. The optical fibers are then coated with appropriated surface chemistry so that they can optically sense the glucose level in the blood sample than that with conventional glucose monitoring.

  15. A label-free fiber-optic Turbidity Affinity Sensor (TAS) for continuous glucose monitoring.

    Dutt-Ballerstadt, Ralph; Evans, Colton; Pillai, Arun P; Gowda, Ashok


    In this paper, we describe the concept of a novel implantable fiber-optic Turbidity Affinity Sensor (TAS) and report on the findings of its in-vitro performance for continuous glucose monitoring. The sensing mechanism of the TAS is based on glucose-specific changes in light scattering (turbidity) of a hydrogel suspension consisting of small particles made of crosslinked dextran (Sephadex G100), and a glucose- and mannose-specific binding protein - Concanavalin A (ConA). The binding of ConA to Sephadex particles results in a significant turbidity increase that is much greater than the turbidity contribution by the individual components. The turbidity of the TAS was measured by determining the intensity of light passing through the suspension enclosed within a small semi-permeable hollow fiber (OD: 220 μm, membrane thickness: 20 μm, molecular weight cut-off: 10 kDa) using fiber optics. The intensity of measured light of the TAS was proportional to the glucose concentration over the concentration range from 50mg/dL to 400mg/dL in PBS and whole blood at 37°C (R>0.96). The response time was approximately 4 min. The stability of the glucose response of the TAS decreased only slightly (by 20%) over an 8-day study period at 37°C. In conclusion, this study demonstrated proof-of-concept of the TAS for interstitial glucose monitoring. Due to the large signal amplitude of the turbidity change, and the lack of need for wavelength-specific emission and excitation filters, a very small, robust and compact TAS device with an extremely short optical pathlength could be feasibly designed and implemented for in-vivo glucose monitoring in people with diabetes.

  16. Development of the MOSFET hybrid biosensor for self-monitoring of blood glucose

    Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Kuroda, Tatsuro; Hirai, Yasutomo; Iwamoto, Naoyuki; Nakanishi, Naoyuki; Uetsuji, Yasutomo; Nakamachi, Eiji


    We focus on the research to develop a compact Self Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG). The SMBG consists of (1) a micro electrical pumping system for blood extraction, (2) a painless microneedle as same size as a female mosquito's labium and (3) a biosensor to detect and evaluate an amount of glucose in extracted blood, by using enzyme such as glucose oxidase (GOx). A gold (Au) plate immobilized GOx was used as a biosensor and attached to the gate electrode of MOSFET. GOx was immobilized on a self-assembled spacer combined with an Au electrode by the cross-link method using BSA (bovine serum albumin) as an additional bonding material. The electrode could detect electrons generated by the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide produced by the reaction between GOx and glucose using the constant electric current measurement system of the MOSFET type hybrid biosensor system. The system can measure the change of gate voltage. The extracting speed for whole blood using the micro electrical pumping system was about 2 μl/min. The extracted volume was sufficient to determine the glucose level in the blood; it was comparable to the volume extracted in a commercial glucose level monitor. In the functional evaluation of the biosensor system using hydrogen peroxide solution, it is shown that the averaged output voltage increases in alignment to hydrogen peroxide concentration. The linear value was shown with the averaged output voltage in corresponding hydrogen peroxide concentration with the averaged output voltage obtained from the biosensor system by glucose solution concentration. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the averaged output voltage from the biosensor system obtained by whole blood showed the same voltage in corresponding glucose solution concentration. The hybrid biosensor obtained the useful performance for the SMBG.

  17. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose : Professional Advice and Daily Practice of Patients With Diabetes

    Hortensius, Johanna; van der Bijl, Jaap J.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Bilo, Henk J. G.


    Purpose This study investigated the advice given by diabetes educators in Europe, and the daily practice of Dutch patients with diabetes regarding the use of the first or second drop of blood and other aspects concerning self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Method During a diabetes conference in

  18. Self-monitoring of blood glucose during pregnancy: indications and limitations

    Negrato Carlos Antonio


    Full Text Available Abstract Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG is an important tool to treat diabetes during pregnancy. However, proper implementation of SMBG in pregnant women requires understanding of its applications and limitations. This article reviews issues related to the implementation, efficacy, and accuracy of SMBG and discusses factors that can confound results of SMBG during pregnancy.

  19. Exercise strategies to optimize glycemic control in type 2 diabetes : a continuing glucose monitoring perspective

    van Dijk, Jan-Willem; van Loon, Luc J C


    IN BRIEF The introduction of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) several years ago enabled researchers to investigate the impact of exercise strategies on 24-hour glycemic control. Such unique information on the glucoregulatory properties of exercise will ultimately lead to more effective exercise p

  20. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in tablet-treated type 2 diabetic patients (ZODIAC)

    Kleefstra, Nanno; Hortensius, J.; Logtenberg, Susan; Slingerland, R. J.; Groenier, K. H.; Houweling, S. T.; Gans, R. O. B.; van Ballegooie, E; Bilo, H. J. G.


    Background: Whether self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) improves glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) not using insulin is questionable. Our aim was to investigate the effects of SMBG in patients with T2DM who were in persistent moderate glycaemic control whilst not

  1. Accuracy evaluation of a new real-time continuous glucose monitoring algorithm in hypoglycemia

    Mahmoudi, Zeinab; Jensen, Morten Hasselstrøm; Johansen, Mette Dencker;


    UNLABELLED: Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a new continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) calibration algorithm and to compare it with the Guardian(®) REAL-Time (RT) (Medtronic Diabetes, Northridge, CA) calibration algorithm in hypoglycemia. SUBJECTS...

  2. The validation of the Z-Scan technique for the determination of plasma glucose

    Alves, Sarah I.; Silva, Elaine A. O.; Costa, Simone S.; Sonego, Denise R. N.; Hallack, Maira L.; Coppini, Ornela L.; Rowies, Fernanda; Azzalis, Ligia A.; Junqueira, Virginia B. C.; Pereira, Edimar C.; Rocha, Katya C.; Fonseca, Fernando L. A.


    Glucose is the main energy source for the human body. The concentration of blood glucose is regulated by several hormones including both antagonists: insulin and glucagon. The quantification of glucose in the blood is used for diagnosing metabolic disorders of carbohydrates, such as diabetes, idiopathic hypoglycemia and pancreatic diseases. Currently, the methodology used for this determination is the enzymatic colorimetric with spectrophotometric. This study aimed to validate the use of measurements of nonlinear optical properties of plasma glucose via the Z-Scan technique. For this we used samples of calibrator patterns that simulate commercial samples of patients (ELITech ©). Besides calibrators, serum glucose levels within acceptable reference values (normal control serum - Brazilian Society of Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine) and also overestimated (pathological control serum - Brazilian Society of Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine) were used in the methodology proposal. Calibrator dilutions were performed and determined by the Z-Scan technique for the preparation of calibration curve. In conclusion, Z-Scan method can be used to determinate glucose levels in biological samples with enzymatic colorimetric reaction and also to apply the same quality control parameters used in biochemistry clinical.

  3. NiMoO{sub 4} nanofibres designed by electrospining technique for glucose electrocatalytic oxidation

    Liao, Sheng-Hui; Lu, Shi-Yu; Bao, Shu-Juan, E-mail:; Yu, Ya-Nan; Wang, Min-Qiang


    Electrochemical oxidation of glucose is the guarantee to realize nonenzymatic sensing of glucose, but greatly hindered by the slow kinetics of its oxidation process. Herein, various nanomaterials were designed as catalysts to accelerate glucose oxidation reaction. However, how to effectively build an excellent platform for promoting the glucose oxidation is still a great challenge. In our work, 1D CaMoO{sub 4} and NiMoO{sub 4} nanofibres with same morphologies and sub-microstructures were fabricated by electrospinning technique in the first time, and explored to modify the detection electrodes of nonenzymatic glucose sensors. The electrochemical results indicated that the NiMoO{sub 4} based sensor exhibited a good catalytic activity toward glucose including the low response potential (0.5 V), high sensitivity(193.8 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}) with a linear response region of 0.01–8 mM, low detection limit (4.6 μM) and fast response time (2 s), all of which are superior to the corresponding values of CaMoO{sub 4} nanofibres and even higher than those of most reported NiO and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} catalysts, which is due to the NiMoO{sub 4} nanofibres are not only advantageous to electron transfer, but can mediated the electrocatalytic reaction of glucose. This work should provide a new pathway for the design of advanced glucose catalysts for nonenzymatic sensor. - Graphical abstract: Electrocatalytic reaction of NiMoO{sub 4} based non-enzymatic glucose sensor. - Highlights: • 1D NiMoO{sub 4} nanofibres were fabricated by electrospinning technique in the first time. • 1D NiMoO{sub 4} nanofibres were applied in nonenzymatic glucose sensors firstly. • A possible electrocatalytic mechanism of the nanoparticles for the glucose oxidation was proposed. • This work holds great promise for development advanced glucose catalysts for nonenzymatic sensor.

  4. An enzymatic microreactor based on chaotic micromixing for enhanced amperometric detection in a continuous glucose monitoring application

    Moon, B.-U.; Koster, S.; Wientjes, K.J.C.; Kwapiszewski, R.M.; Schoonen, A.J.M.; Westerink, B.H.C.; Verpoorte, E.


    The development of continuous glucose monitoring systems is a major trend in diabetes-related research. Small, easy-to-wear systems which are robust enough to function over many days without maintenance are the goal. We present a new sensing system for continuous glucose monitoring based on a micror

  5. An enzymatic microreactor based on chaotic micromixing for enhanced amperometric detection in a continuous glucose monitoring application

    Moon, B.-U.; Koster, S.; Wientjes, K.J.C.; Kwapiszewski, R.M.; Schoonen, A.J.M.; Westerink, B.H.C.; Verpoorte, E.


    The development of continuous glucose monitoring systems is a major trend in diabetes-related research. Small, easy-to-wear systems which are robust enough to function over many days without maintenance are the goal. We present a new sensing system for continuous glucose monitoring based on a

  6. The use and efficacy of continuous glucose monitoring in type 1 diabetes treated with insulin pump therapy

    Battelino, T; Conget, I; Olsen, B


    The aim of this multicentre, randomised, controlled crossover study was to determine the efficacy of adding continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to insulin pump therapy (CSII) in type 1 diabetes.......The aim of this multicentre, randomised, controlled crossover study was to determine the efficacy of adding continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to insulin pump therapy (CSII) in type 1 diabetes....

  7. [Designing and implementation of a web-based quality monitoring system for plasma glucose measurement in multicenter population study].

    Liu, Yong; Wang, Limin; Pang, Richard; Mo, Nanxun; Hu, Yan; Deng, Qian; Hu, Zhaohui


    The aim of this paper is to describe the designing and implementation of a web-based plasma glucose measurement quality monitoring system to assess the analytical quality of plasma glucose measurements in multicenter population study and provide evidence for the future studies. In the chronic non-communicable disease and related factor surveillance in China, a web based quality monitoring system for plasma glucose measurement was established to conduct evaluation on plasma glucose monitoring quality and effectiveness in 302 surveillance centers, including quality control data entry, transmission and feedback. The majority of the surveillance centers met the quality requirements and passed the evaluation of reproducibility and precision of plasma glucose measurement, only a few centers required intensive training and re-assessment. In order to ensure the completeness and reliability of plasma glucose measurement in the surveillance centers, the establishment of web-based plasma glucose measurement quality control system can facilitate the identification of the qualified surveillance centers and evaluation of plasma glucose measurement quality in different regions. Communication and training are important in ensuring plasma glucose measurement quality. It is necessary to further improve this web-based plasma glucose measurement quality monitoring system in the future to reduce the method specific plasma glucose measurement bias.

  8. Artificial neural networks based controller for glucose monitoring during clamp test.

    Merav Catalogna

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance (IR is one of the most widespread health problems in modern times. The gold standard for quantification of IR is the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic glucose clamp technique. During the test, a regulated glucose infusion is delivered intravenously to maintain a constant blood glucose concentration. Current control algorithms for regulating this glucose infusion are based on feedback control. These models require frequent sampling of blood, and can only partly capture the complexity associated with regulation of glucose. Here we present an improved clamp control algorithm which is motivated by the stochastic nature of glucose kinetics, while using the minimal need in blood samples required for evaluation of IR. A glucose pump control algorithm, based on artificial neural networks model was developed. The system was trained with a data base collected from 62 rat model experiments, using a back-propagation Levenberg-Marquardt optimization. Genetic algorithm was used to optimize network topology and learning features. The predictive value of the proposed algorithm during the temporal period of interest was significantly improved relative to a feedback control applied at an equivalent low sampling interval. Robustness to noise analysis demonstrates the applicability of the algorithm in realistic situations.

  9. Impact of shock requiring norepinephrine on the accuracy and reliability of subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring.

    Holzinger, Ulrike; Warszawska, Joanna; Kitzberger, Reinhard; Herkner, Harald; Metnitz, Philipp G H; Madl, Christian


    To evaluate the impact of circulatory shock requiring norepinephrine therapy on the accuracy and reliability of a subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in critically ill patients. A prospective, validation study of a medical intensive care unit at a university hospital was carried out. Continuous glucose monitoring was performed subcutaneously in 50 consecutive patients on intensive insulin therapy (IIT), who were assessed according to the a priori strata of circulatory shock requiring norepinephrine therapy or not. A total of 736 pairs of sensor glucose (SG)/blood glucose (BG) values were analysed (502 without and 234 with norepinephrine therapy). For all values, repeated measures Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of 0.08 mmol/l (limits of agreement: -1.26 and 1.43 mmol/l). Circulatory shock requiring norepinephrine therapy did not influence the relation of arterial BG with SG in a multivariable random effects linear regression analysis. The covariates norepinephrine dose, body mass index (BMI), glucose level and severity of illness also had no influence. Insulin titration grid analysis showed that 98.6% of the data points were in the acceptable treatment zone. No data were in the life-threatening zone. Circulatory shock requiring norepinephrine therapy, as well as other covariates, had no influence on the accuracy and reliability of the CGMS in critically ill patients.

  10. Remote Blood Glucose Monitoring in mHealth Scenarios: A Review

    Giordano Lanzola


    Full Text Available Glucose concentration in the blood stream is a critical vital parameter and an effective monitoring of this quantity is crucial for diabetes treatment and intensive care management. Effective bio-sensing technology and advanced signal processing are therefore of unquestioned importance for blood glucose monitoring. Nevertheless, collecting measurements only represents part of the process as another critical task involves delivering the collected measures to the treating specialists and caregivers. These include the clinical staff, the patient’s significant other, his/her family members, and many other actors helping with the patient treatment that may be located far away from him/her. In all of these cases, a remote monitoring system, in charge of delivering the relevant information to the right player, becomes an important part of the sensing architecture. In this paper, we review how the remote monitoring architectures have evolved over time, paralleling the progress in the Information and Communication Technologies, and describe our experiences with the design of telemedicine systems for blood glucose monitoring in three medical applications. The paper ends summarizing the lessons learned through the experiences of the authors and discussing the challenges arising from a large-scale integration of sensors and actuators.

  11. Comparison of corrosion monitoring techniques in district heating systems

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.


    Investigations aimed at evaluating monitoring techniques as a function of the specific water chemistry has been conducted as a part of a Nordic project focused on improving the quality of corrosion monitoring in municipal district heating. A combination of techniques has been selected to measure...

  12. Evaluation of the serum fructosamine test to monitor plasma glucose concentration in the transition dairy cow.

    Sorondo, María L; Cirio, Alberto


    The usefulness of the serum fructosamine (Fser) to monitor the retrospective glucose concentrations in transitional dairy cows (n=17) was evaluated. In weekly blood samples (3 weeks before to 5 weeks after calving) concentrations of plasma glucose and serum fructosamine, beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta OHB) and total proteins were determined. The observed Fser concentrations (271+/-55 mean value, range 152-423 mumol/l) were within the range reported in the literature, and showed a progressive and significant decrease after calving. Mean plasma glucose concentration was 60.6+/-5.0 (range 39.9-82.2) mg/dl increasing from week 3 before calving to the week of calving and then decreasing during the next 5 weeks of lactation. This decrease was coincident with inverse relationships between plasma glucose and milk yield (P=0.03) and serum beta OHB (P<0.001). Linear regression analysis performed between serum fructosamine and (a) plasma glucose concentration of the same sampling and (b) plasma glucose concentration of 1, 2 and 3 weeks preceding the sampling, did not show significant and systematizing positive correlations. Persistent hypoproteinaemias that could affect the fructosamine concentrations were not found: mean value and range of serum proteins was 6.3+/-1.0 and 4.8-7.8 g/dl, respectively, and no correlation was found between serum proteins and Fser (P=0.26). Results did not support the possibility of retrospective monitoring of the plasma glucose concentration by serum fructosamine in dairy cows in the transition period.

  13. Accuracy of a novel noninvasive transdermal continuous glucose monitor in critically ill patients.

    Saur, Nicole M; England, Michael R; Menzie, Wayne; Melanson, Ann Marie; Trieu, My-Quyen; Berlin, Jason; Hurley, James; Krystyniak, Keith; Kongable, Gail L; Nasraway, Stanley A


    Stress hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the critically ill. Intermittent, random blood glucose (BG) measurements can miss episodes of hyper- and hypoglycemia. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the Symphony® continuous glucose monitor (CGM) in critically ill cardiac surgery patients. Fifteen adult cardiac surgery patients were evaluated immediately postoperatively in the intensive care unit. Prelude® SkinPrep prepared the skin and a sensor was applied to 2 test sites on each subject to monitor interstitial fluid glucose. Reference BG was sampled at 30- to 60-minute intervals. The skin at the test sites was inspected for adverse effects. Accuracy of the retrospectively analyzed CGM data relative to reference BG values was determined using continuous glucose-error grid analysis (CG-EGA) and mean absolute relative difference (MARD). Using 570 Symphony CGM glucose readings paired with reference BG measurements, CG-EGA showed that 99.6% of the readings were within zones A and B. BG measurements ranged from 73 to 251 mg/dL. The MARD was 12.3%. No adverse device effects were reported. The Symphony CGM system is able to safely, continuously, and noninvasively monitor glucose in the transdermal interstitial fluid of cardiac surgery intensive care unit patients with accuracy similar to that reported with other CGM systems. Future versions of the system will need real-time data analysis, fast warm-up, and less frequent calibrations to be used in the clinical setting. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  14. Evaluation of artificial pancreas technology for continuous blood glucose monitoring in dogs.

    Mori, Akihiro; Lee, Peter; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Oda, Hitomi; Saeki, Kaori; Miki, Yohei; Nozawa, Satoshi; Azakami, Daigo; Momota, Yutaka; Makino, Yuki; Matsubara, Takako; Osaka, Motohisa; Ishioka, Katsumi; Arai, Toshiro; Sako, Toshinori


    Artificial pancreas technology, involving "closed-loop" controls with real-time blood glucose monitoring, has been increasing in reliability as its potential for clinical use and application grows. One such device, based on this technology, is the STG-22 (Nikkiso Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) artificial pancreas apparatus. In order to assess the reliability and accuracy of the device for measuring blood glucose, it is important to compare its readings to those obtained using a 'gold standard' method, such as the hexokinase method. Therefore, in the present study, canine blood [glucose] measurements using the STG-22 were compared to those obtained using a previously established commercial reagent, Quickauto-Neo GLU-HK. Furthermore, two different sample types (whole blood versus plasma constituent) were compared to determine which sample type results in more accurate and optimal readings with the STG-22. Given that the STG-22 was not primarily designed for canine blood samples, results for canine blood samples were not accurate. Measurements performed by the STG-22 with whole blood were significantly lower than reference [glucose] counterparts. Alternatively, an opposite trend was observed with plasma measurements that were significantly higher. A conversion format using the following formula, Hexokinase [glucose] = STG-22 [glucose] × 1.407 + 1.532, was observed with canine samples in our study.

  15. Role of Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Clinical Trials: Recommendations on Reporting.

    Schnell, Oliver; Barnard, Katharine; Bergenstal, Richard; Bosi, Emanuele; Garg, Satish; Guerci, Bruno; Haak, Thomas; Hirsch, Irl B; Ji, Linong; Joshi, Shashank R; Kamp, Maarten; Laffel, Lori; Mathieu, Chantal; Polonsky, William H; Snoek, Frank; Home, Philip


    Thanks to significant improvements in the precision, accuracy, and usability of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), its relevance in both ambulatory diabetes care and clinical research is increasing. In this study, we address the latter perspective and derive provisional reporting recommendations. CGM systems have been available since around the year 2000 and used primarily in people with type 1 diabetes. In contrast to self-measured glucose, CGM can provide continuous real-time measurement of glucose levels, alerts for hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and a detailed assessment of glycemic variability. Through a broad spectrum of derived glucose data, CGM should be a useful tool for clinical evaluation of new glucose-lowering medications and strategies. It is the only technology that can measure hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic exposure in ambulatory care, or provide data for comprehensive assessment of glucose variability. Other advantages of current CGM systems include the opportunity for improved self-management of glycemic control, with particular relevance to those at higher risk of or from hypoglycemia. We therefore summarize the current status and limitations of CGM from the perspective of clinical trials and derive suggested recommendations for how these should facilitate optimal CGM use and reporting of data in clinical research.

  16. Monitoring beach changes using GPS surveying techniques

    Morton, Robert; Leach, Mark P.; Paine, Jeffrey G.; Cardoza, Michael A.


    A need exists for frequent and prompt updating of shoreline positions, rates of shoreline movement, and volumetric nearshore changes. To effectively monitor and predict these beach changes, accurate measurements of beach morphology incorporating both shore-parallel and shore-normal transects are required. Although it is possible to monitor beach dynamics using land-based surveying methods, it is generally not practical to collect data of sufficient density and resolution to satisfy a three-dimensional beach-change model of long segments of the coast. The challenge to coastal scientists is to devise new beach monitoring methods that address these needs and are rapid, reliable, relatively inexpensive, and maintain or improve measurement accuracy.

  17. Novel current monitoring techniques without shunt resistors

    VODA Adriana


    Full Text Available Current measurement for automotiveelectrical actuator applications (with motors or valvesis necessary for appropriate control in many cases anda safety requirement in all cases: the control algorithmmay be dependent on the data but safety relevantfunctions will use it to determine possible over-current,over-temperature or failure conditions. This paperproposes an alternative method of monitoring thecurrent, without using sensors or current shunts.Instead, measurements are made on the motor in thedevelopment stages and low/high frequency variationsin the supply line are monitored, through low/highpassfilters, by available AD channels in the system.This results in cost reduction for the final product, byreducing hardware complexity.

  18. A review of bridge scour monitoring techniques

    L.J. Prendergast; K. Gavin


    The high profile failure of the Malahide Viaduct in Dublin, Ireland, which is a part of the EU TEN-T network of critical transport links, was caused by foundation scour. Scour is a common soil-structure interaction problem. In light of current changes in climate, increasing frequency of flooding, coupled with the increasing magnitude of these flood events, will lead to a higher risk of bridge failure. Moni-toring scour is of paramount importance to ensure the continued safe operation of the aging bridge asset network. Most monitoring regimes are based on expensive underwater instrumentation that can often be subjected to damage during times of flooding, when scour risk is at its highest. This paper presents a critical review of existing scour monitoring equipments and methodologies with a particular focus on those using the dynamic response of the structure to indicate the existence and severity of the scour phenomenon affecting the structure. A sensitivity study on a recently developed monitoring method is also undertaken.

  19. A review of bridge scour monitoring techniques

    L.J. Prendergast


    Full Text Available The high profile failure of the Malahide Viaduct in Dublin, Ireland, which is a part of the EU TEN-T network of critical transport links, was caused by foundation scour. Scour is a common soil-structure interaction problem. In light of current changes in climate, increasing frequency of flooding, coupled with the increasing magnitude of these flood events, will lead to a higher risk of bridge failure. Monitoring scour is of paramount importance to ensure the continued safe operation of the aging bridge asset network. Most monitoring regimes are based on expensive underwater instrumentation that can often be subjected to damage during times of flooding, when scour risk is at its highest. This paper presents a critical review of existing scour monitoring equipments and methodologies with a particular focus on those using the dynamic response of the structure to indicate the existence and severity of the scour phenomenon affecting the structure. A sensitivity study on a recently developed monitoring method is also undertaken.

  20. Novel OSNR Monitoring Technique in Dense WDM Systems using Inherently Generated CW Monitoring Channels

    Petersen, Martin Nordal


    We present a simple, yet effective OSNR monitoring technique based on an inherent effect in the optical modulator. Highly accurate OSNR monitoring is demonstrated in a 40 Gb/s dense WDM system with 50 GHz channel spacing....

  1. Nanotechnology in glucose monitoring: advances and challenges in the last 10 years.

    Scognamiglio, Viviana


    In the last decades, a wide multitude of research activity has been focused on the development of biosensors for glucose monitoring, devoted to overcome the challenges associated with smart analytical performances with commercial implications. Crucial issues still nowadays elude biosensors to enter the market, such as sensitivity, stability, miniaturisation, continuous and in situ monitoring in a complex matrix. A noteworthy tendency of biosensor technology is likely to push towards nanotechnology, which allows to reduce dimensions at the nanoscale, consenting the construction of arrays for high throughput analysis with the integration of microfluidics, and enhancing the performance of the biological components by using new nanomaterials. This review aims to highlight current trends in biosensors for glucose monitoring based on nanotechnology, reporting widespread representative examples of the recent approaches for nanobiosensors over the past 10 years. Progress in nanotechnology for the development of biosensing systems for blood glucose level monitoring will be discussed, in view of their design and construction on the bases of the new materials offered by nanotechnology.

  2. Noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration in diabetic patients with optical coherence tomography

    Lan, Y. T.; Kuang, Y. P.; Zhou, L. P.; Wu, G. Y.; Gu, P. C.; Wei, H. J.; Chen, K.


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to noninvasively monitor the blood glucose concentration (BGC) in healthy subjects with good accuracy and acceptable specificity. Based on this, the paper further considered the possibility of OCT in noninvasive monitoring BGC in diabetic patients. The OCT signal slope (OCTSS) changed with variation of BGC. The correlation coefficient R between BGC and OCTSS in diabetic patients was 0.91; while the correlation coefficient R in healthy volunteers was 0.78. Thus, a better linear dependence of OCTSS on BGC in diabetic patients was presented in the experiment. The results showed that the capability and accuracy of OCT in noninvasive monitoring BGC of diabetic patients, and the noninvasive monitoring BGC in diabetic patients may be better than the monitoring in the healthy subjects.

  3. The business of self-monitoring of blood glucose: a market profile.

    Hughes, Mark D


    The market for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) approached $8.8 billion worldwide in 2008. Yet despite dramatic double-digit growth in sales of SMBG products since 1980, the business is now facing declining prices and slower dollar growth. Given that SMBG meters and test strips are viewed by consumers and insurers as essentially generic products, it will be extremely challenging for new market entrants to displace well-entrenched existing competitors without a truly innovative technology. Also, in the face of declining glucose test strip prices, market expansion can only occur through identification of more of the undiagnosed diabetes population and convincing existing diabetes patients to adopt glucose testing or to test more frequently. Ultimately, a combination of technology innovations, patient education, and economic incentives may be needed to significantly expand the SMBG market and build sustainable long-term dollar growth for SMBG vendors.

  4. Monitoring of Glucose in Beer Brewing by a Carbon Nanotubes Based Nylon Nanofibrous Biosensor

    Marco Mason


    Full Text Available This work presents the design, preparation, and characterization of a novel glucose electrochemical biosensor based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOX into a nylon nanofibrous membrane (NFM prepared by electrospinning and functionalized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT. A disc of such GOX/CNT/NFM membrane (40 μm in thickness was used for coating the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The resulting biosensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, with ferrocene methanol as mediator. The binding of GOX around the CNT/NFM greatly enhances the electron transfer, which results in a biosensor with a current five times higher than without CNT. The potential usefulness of the proposed biosensor was demonstrated with the analysis of glucose in commercial beverages and along the monitoring of the brewing process for making beer, from the mashing to the fermentation steps.

  5. Monitoring Techniques for Microbially Influenced Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel


    Abstract Monitoring Techniques for Microbially Influenced Corrosion of Carbon Steel Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel may occur in media with microbiological activity of especially sulphate-reducing bacteria, e.g. on pipelines buried in soil and on marine structures. MIC...... of carbon steel must be monitored on-line in order to provide an efficient protection and control the corrosion. A number of monitoring techniques is industrially used today, and the applicability and reliability of these for monitoring MIC is evaluated. Coupons and ER are recommended as necessary basic...... techniques even though localised corrosion rate cannot be measured. FSM measures general corrosion and detects localised corrosion, but the sensitivity is not high enough for monitoring initiation of pitting and small attacks. Electrochemical techniques as LPR and EIS give distorted data and unreliable...

  6. Monitoring Techniques for Microbially Influenced Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel


    of carbon steel must be monitored on-line in order to provide an efficient protection and control the corrosion. A number of monitoring techniques is industrially used today, and the applicability and reliability of these for monitoring MIC is evaluated. Coupons and ER are recommended as necessary basic......Abstract Monitoring Techniques for Microbially Influenced Corrosion of Carbon Steel Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel may occur in media with microbiological activity of especially sulphate-reducing bacteria, e.g. on pipelines buried in soil and on marine structures. MIC...... techniques even though localised corrosion rate cannot be measured. FSM measures general corrosion and detects localised corrosion, but the sensitivity is not high enough for monitoring initiation of pitting and small attacks. Electrochemical techniques as LPR and EIS give distorted data and unreliable...

  7. Simultaneous Monitoring of Glucose and Lactate by Self-powered Biosensor

    Ankit Baingane


    Full Text Available A dual self-powered biosensing system integrated with energy amplification circuit is described, for simultaneously monitoring glucose and lactate. The self-powered biosensing system is based on the conventional enzymatic biofuel cell equipped with three 4 mm x 4 mm massively dense mesh network of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs bioelectrodes in parallel configuration. The bioelectrodes employed pyroquinoline quinone glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH as the biocatalyst for the glucose oxidation and D-Lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH as the biocatalyst for lactate oxidation. A common laccase modified-MWCNTs bioelectrode served as the cathode for the reduction of molecular oxygen. Two charge pump circuits were coupled with 0.1 mF capacitors functioning as transducers. The advantages of employing capacitors were coupled with the efficient energy amplification of the charge pump circuit to amplify the power output from each of the biofuel and charge/discharge the corresponding capacitor. Under operating conditions, the open circuit voltages and short circuit current densities for 180 mg/dL glucose and 25 mM lactate were 339.2 mV and 228.75 µA/cm2 and 370 mV and 66.17 µA/cm2, respectively. The responses for glucose and lactate were linear up to 630 mg/dL and 30 mM with sensitivities of 20.11 Hz/ mM cm-2 and 9.869 Hz/ mM cm-2, respectively. The potential of the described system was demonstrated to provide stable voltage and current output that was capable of driving the charge pump circuit integrated with the capacitor for simultaneously monitoring glucose and lactate. These results were in good agreement with those previously reported.

  8. Nano-Engineered Biomimetic Optical Sensors for Glucose Monitoring in Diabetes

    Sajid Rauf


    Full Text Available Diabetes is a rapidly growing disease that can be monitored at an individual level by controlling the blood glucose level, hence minimizing the negative impact of the disease. Significant research efforts have been focused on the design of novel and improved technologies to overcome the limitations of existing glucose analysis methods. In this context, nanotechnology has enabled the diagnosis at the single cell and molecular level with the possibility of incorporation in advanced molecular diagnostic biochips. Recent years have witnessed the exploration and synthesis of various types of nanomaterials with enzyme-like properties, with their subsequent integration into the design of biomimetic optical sensors for glucose monitoring. This review paper will provide insights on the type, nature and synthesis of different biomimetic nanomaterials. Moreover, recent developments in the integration of these nanomaterials for optical glucose biosensing will be highlighted, with a final discussion on the challenges that must be addressed for successful implementation of these nano-devices in the clinical applications is presented.

  9. Using Continuous Glucose Monitoring Data and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis to Determine Patient Condition

    Thomas, Felicity; Signal, Matthew; Chase, J. Geoffrey


    Patients admitted to critical care often experience dysglycemia and high levels of insulin resistance, various intensive insulin therapy protocols and methods have attempted to safely normalize blood glucose (BG) levels. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices allow glycemic dynamics to be captured much more frequently (every 2-5 minutes) than traditional measures of blood glucose and have begun to be used in critical care patients and neonates to help monitor dysglycemia. In an attempt to obtain a better insight relating biomedical signals and patient status, some researchers have turned toward advanced time series analysis methods. In particular, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) has been a topic of many recent studies in to glycemic dynamics. DFA investigates the “complexity” of a signal, how one point in time changes relative to its neighboring points, and DFA has been applied to signals like the inter-beat-interval of human heartbeat to differentiate healthy and pathological conditions. Analyzing the glucose metabolic system with such signal processing tools as DFA has been enabled by the emergence of high quality CGM devices. However, there are several inconsistencies within the published work applying DFA to CGM signals. Therefore, this article presents a review and a “how-to” tutorial of DFA, and in particular its application to CGM signals to ensure the methods used to determine complexity are used correctly and so that any relationship between complexity and patient outcome is robust. PMID:26134835

  10. Nano-Engineered Biomimetic Optical Sensors for Glucose Monitoring in Diabetes.

    Rauf, Sajid; Hayat Nawaz, Muhammad Azhar; Badea, Mihaela; Marty, Jean Louis; Hayat, Akhtar


    Diabetes is a rapidly growing disease that can be monitored at an individual level by controlling the blood glucose level, hence minimizing the negative impact of the disease. Significant research efforts have been focused on the design of novel and improved technologies to overcome the limitations of existing glucose analysis methods. In this context, nanotechnology has enabled the diagnosis at the single cell and molecular level with the possibility of incorporation in advanced molecular diagnostic biochips. Recent years have witnessed the exploration and synthesis of various types of nanomaterials with enzyme-like properties, with their subsequent integration into the design of biomimetic optical sensors for glucose monitoring. This review paper will provide insights on the type, nature and synthesis of different biomimetic nanomaterials. Moreover, recent developments in the integration of these nanomaterials for optical glucose biosensing will be highlighted, with a final discussion on the challenges that must be addressed for successful implementation of these nano-devices in the clinical applications is presented.

  11. Monitoring of glucose, salt and pure water in human whole blood: An in vitro study.

    Imran, Muhammad; Ullah, Hafeez; Akhtar, Munir; Sial, Muhammad Aslam; Ahmed, Ejaz; Durr-E-Sabeeh; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Hussain, Fayyaz


    Designing and implementation of non-invasive methods for glucose monitoring in blood is main focus of biomedical scientists to provide a relief from skin puncturing of diabete patient. The objective of this research work is to investigate the shape deformations and the aggregation of red blood cells (RBCs) in the human blood after addition of three different analytes i) (0mM-400mM: Range) of glucose (C(6)H(12)O(6)), ii) (0mM-400mM: range) of pure salt (NaCl) and iii) (0mM- 350mM: range) of pure water (H(2)O). We have observed that the changes in the shape of individual cells from biconcave discs to spherical shapes and eventually the lysis of the cells at optimum concentration of glucose, salts and pure water. This demonstration also provides a base line to facilitate diabetes during partial diagnosis and monitoring of the glucose levels qualitatively both in research laboratories and clinical environment.

  12. Monitoring of glucose levels in mouse blood with noninvasive optical methods

    Ullah, H.; Ahmed, E.; Ikram, M.


    We report the quantification/monitoring of glucose levels in a blood sample using optical diffuse reflectance (ODR) underlying variations in optical parameters with a white light source (at peak wavelength ˜600 nm and range 450-850 nm) and in blood in vivo using M-mode optical coherence tomography (OCT) in terms of the translational diffusion coefficient (DT). In the ODR experiments, we have investigated two types of mono-dispersive particles, i.e. polystyrene microspheres (PMSs) with diameters of 1.4 μm (variable concentrations) and 2.6 μm (fixed concentration) in a water phantom by observing changes in the reduced scattering coefficient. We believe that these differences in optical properties will be helpful for the understanding and optimal use of laser applications in blood glucometry without piercing the skin. In the OCT experiments, this idea of glucose monitoring was applied on an in vivo normal mouse without injection of glucose intravenously to provide the threshold levels by envisioning/identifying a blood vessel by speckle variance (SV-OCT) using a dorsal skinfold mouse windows chamber model. We report an average value of translation decorrelation time τT = 41.18 ± 1.92 ms and DT = 8.90 × 10-14 m2 s-1 underlying the dynamic light scattering (DLS). Our results have a potential application in the quantification of higher glucose levels in vivo administrated intravenously.

  13. Vascular Glucose Sensor Symposium: Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems (CGMS) for Hospitalized and Ambulatory Patients at Risk for Hyperglycemia, Hypoglycemia, and Glycemic Variability.

    Joseph, Jeffrey I; Torjman, Marc C; Strasma, Paul J


    Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glycemic variability have been associated with increased morbidity, mortality, length of stay, and cost in a variety of critical care and non-critical care patient populations in the hospital. The results from prospective randomized clinical trials designed to determine the risks and benefits of intensive insulin therapy and tight glycemic control have been confusing; and at times conflicting. The limitations of point-of-care blood glucose (BG) monitoring in the hospital highlight the great clinical need for an automated real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) that can accurately measure the concentration of glucose every few minutes. Automation and standardization of the glucose measurement process have the potential to significantly improve BG control, clinical outcome, safety and cost.

  14. An In-Line Photonic Biosensor for Monitoring of Glucose Concentrations

    Ala'aldeen Al-Halhouli


    Full Text Available This paper presents two PDMS photonic biosensor designs that can be used for continuous monitoring of glucose concentrations. The first design, the internally immobilized sensor, consists of a reactor chamber, micro-lenses and self-alignment structures for fiber optics positioning. This sensor design allows optical detection of glucose concentrations under continuous glucose flow conditions of 33 µL/h based on internal co-immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOX and horseradish peroxidase (HRP on the internal PDMS surface of the reactor chamber. For this design, two co-immobilization methods, the simple adsorption and the covalent binding (PEG methods were tested. Experiments showed successful results when using the covalent binding (PEG method, where glucose concentrations up to 5 mM with a coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.99 and a limit of detection of 0.26 mM are detectable. The second design is a modified version of the internally immobilized sensor, where a microbead chamber and a beads filling channel are integrated into the sensor. This modification enabled external co-immobilization of enzymes covalently onto functionalized silica microbeads and allows binding a huge amount of HRP and GOX enzymes on the microbeads surfaces which increases the interaction area between immobilized enzymes and the analyte. This has a positive effect on the amount and rate of chemical reactions taking place inside the chamber. The sensor was tested under continuous glucose flow conditions and was found to be able to detect glucose concentrations up to 10 mM with R2 of 0.98 and a limit of detection of 0.7 mM. Such results are very promising for the application in photonic LOC systems used for online analysis.

  15. Effect of training on the performance of blood glucose monitoring using a reagent strip (Glucoprofil).

    Chantelau, E; Starostina, E G; Antsiferov, M B


    A relatively simple, new test-strip for blood-glucose monitoring, the Glucoprofil strip with a reaction-zone of film-foil, was evaluated by testing 100 different blood glucose concentrations between 2.1 and 29.7 mmol/l. The results were obtained visually before and after training to read the color changes of the strip according to the scale on the strip-container. Plasma glucose measurements with the Beckman Glucose-Analyzer were used for reference. The results show that the Glucoprofil-strip readings correlated well with the reference method (r = 0.97), thorough training provided. The mean deviation of the strip results was less than 1 mmol/l. Similar results were obtained using another blood glucose strip, the Haemoglukotest 20-800 R. Our study indicates that the performance of the Glucoprofil strip is satisfactory, and hence the strip may be useful for clinical purposes. Consistent with previous reports we could demonstrate that training improved the reading results of the Glucoprofil strip.

  16. Frequency and motives of blood glucose self-monitoring in type 1 diabetes

    Hansen, M V; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Heller, S R


    AIMS: Recommendations for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) from the DCCT have not been implemented with the same rigour as recommendations for intensifying insulin therapy. We assessed the frequency of and motives for SMBG and compared SMBG behaviour with clinical, behavioural and demograp......AIMS: Recommendations for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) from the DCCT have not been implemented with the same rigour as recommendations for intensifying insulin therapy. We assessed the frequency of and motives for SMBG and compared SMBG behaviour with clinical, behavioural...... hypoglycaemia and awareness of hypoglycaemia were independently associated with testing behaviour, whereas the presence of late diabetic complications was not. Lower HbA1c was associated with more frequent testing. CONCLUSION: Patient compliance regarding SMBG is limited. Thus, almost two thirds of the patients...

  17. Transformer ageing modern condition monitoring techniques and their interpretations

    Purkait, Prithwiraj


    This book is a one-stop guide to state-of-the-art research in transformer ageing, condition monitoring and diagnosis. It is backed by rigorous research projects supported by the Australian Research Council in collaboration with several transmission and distribution companies. Many of the diagnostic techniques and tools developed in these projects have been applied by electricity utilities and would appeal to both researchers and practicing engineers. Important topics covered in this book include transformer insulation materials and their ageing behaviour, transformer condition monitoring techniques and detailed diagnostic techniques and their interpretation schemes. It also features a monitoring framework for smart transformers as well as a chapter on biodegradable oil.

  18. Exercise Strategies to Optimize Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes: A Continuing Glucose Monitoring Perspective

    van Dijk, Jan-Willem; van Loon, Luc J. C.


    IN BRIEF The introduction of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) several years ago enabled researchers to investigate the impact of exercise strategies on 24-hour glycemic control. Such unique information on the glucoregulatory properties of exercise will ultimately lead to more effective exercise programs to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes. This article reviews the role of exercise and physical activity in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, complemented by recent data obtained by CGM.

  19. Effectiveness of 3-Day Continuous Glucose Monitoring for Improving Glucose Control in Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Clinical Practice

    Soo Kyoung Kim


    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study was to investigate whether adjusting diabetic treatment regimens according to the information obtained from a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS might lead to improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.MethodsWe reviewed the medical charts of 172 patients who used the CGMS for 1 year starting in December 2008 and the records of 1,500 patients who visited their regular outpatient clinics during December 2008. Of these patients, a total of 65 CGMS patients and 301 regular outpatients (control group were enrolled in the study after propensity score matching. There were no differences in baseline glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, age, and duration of diabetes between the CGMS and the control groups after propensity score matching. The changes in the HbA1c levels from baseline to 6 months were calculated.ResultsThe CGMS group showed a significant improvement in the HbA1c level compared to the control group at 3 months (7.9%±1.6% vs. 7.4%±1.2%, P=0.001 and at 6 months (7.4%±1.2% vs. 7.9%±1.6%, P=0.010. There were significant differences in the treatment modality changes between the CGMS group and the control group.ConclusionUsing a 3-day CGMS was advantageous for improving glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes and may help these patients to optimize glycemic control in clinical practice.

  20. Microdialysis based monitoring of subcutaneous interstitial and venous blood glucose in Type 1 diabetic subjects by mid-infrared spectrometry for intensive insulin therapy

    Heise, H. Michael; Kondepati, Venkata Radhakrishna; Damm, Uwe; Licht, Michael; Feichtner, Franz; Mader, Julia Katharina; Ellmerer, Martin


    Implementing strict glycemic control can reduce the risk of serious complications in both diabetic and critically ill patients. For this purpose, many different blood glucose monitoring techniques and insulin infusion strategies have been tested towards the realization of an artificial pancreas under closed loop control. In contrast to competing subcutaneously implanted electrochemical biosensors, microdialysis based systems for sampling body fluids from either the interstitial adipose tissue compartment or from venous blood have been developed, which allow an ex-vivo glucose monitoring by mid-infrared spectrometry. For the first option, a commercially available, subcutaneously inserted CMA 60 microdialysis catheter has been used routinely. The vascular body interface includes a double-lumen venous catheter in combination with whole blood dilution using a heparin solution. The diluted whole blood is transported to a flow-through dialysis cell, where the harvesting of analytes across the microdialysis membrane takes place at high recovery rates. The dialysate is continuously transported to the IR-sensor. Ex-vivo measurements were conducted on type-1 diabetic subjects lasting up to 28 hours. Experiments have shown excellent agreement between the sensor readout and the reference blood glucose concentration values. The simultaneous assessment of dialysis recovery rates renders a reliable quantification of whole blood concentrations of glucose and metabolites (urea, lactate etc) after taking blood dilution into account. Our results from transmission spectrometry indicate, that the developed bed-side device enables reliable long-term glucose monitoring with reagent- and calibration-free operation.

  1. Monitoring DNAPL pumping using integrated geophysical techniques

    Newmark, R.L.


    The removal of DNAPL during pumping was monitored. At Hill AFB in Utah, a free-product DNAPL plume (predominantly TCE, with some TCA, PCE, methylene chloride) is pooled in water-wet soil on a thick clay aquitard. Groundwater pumping at Operable Unit 2 began in 1994; to date, nearly 30,000 gal DNAPL have been recovered. From Sept. 1994 through Sept. 1995, changes in the basin during DNAPL pumping were monitored using fiber optic chemical sensors, neutron logs, and electrical resistance tomography (ERT). The first two sensor types verify the presence of DNAPL in vicinity of 3 boreholes which form a cross section from the perimeter of the basin to its center. Cross borehole ERT images the changes in formation electrical properties due to removal of DNAPL, extending the understanding of DNAPL removal between the boreholes. During pumping, electrical resistivities decreased; we suggest these decreases are directly caused by the reduction in DNAPL. During ground water pumping, water with relatively low resistivity replaces some of the DNAPL pockets as the highly insulating DNAPL is removed. Results suggest that, as DNAPL is pumped from a nearby well, product slowly drains along the top of an aquitard and into the pump well, where it collects.

  2. Monitoring technique for seepage line of tailings dam

    李夕兵; 蒋卫东


    An automatic monitoring technique of the seepage line, including the monitoring design, the automatic monitoring system and the backfill technique of the measuring probe of pore-water pressure, was used in a tailings dam, and a shallow refractive seismic method was investigated for obtaining the seepage line of those areas outside the monitoring zone. The results show that the automatic monitoring has the error within ± 3 % relative to piezometric tube method and improves monitoring efficiency greatly, and the shallow refractive seismic method has the error within ± 10% but expands the area of monitoring. Both of them can be used for a daily measurement in monitoring the seepage line. The result of the automatic monitoring also shows that not only the design of the survey line and the backfill technique of the measuring probe of pore-water pressure are reasonable and economic but also the reliability and safety of the automatic monitoring system are better. Testing result by the shallow refractive seismic method in tailings reveals that the energy excited by hammering iron sheet-pole is strong enough and safe, and that the character of anti-jamming by the detectors with long tailcone is better.

  3. Continuous glucose monitoring and trend accuracy: news about a trend compass.

    Signal, Matthew; Gottlieb, Rebecca; Le Compte, Aaron; Chase, J Geoffrey


    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices are being increasingly used to monitor glycemia in people with diabetes. One advantage with CGM is the ability to monitor the trend of sensor glucose (SG) over time. However, there are few metrics available for assessing the trend accuracy of CGM devices. The aim of this study was to develop an easy to interpret tool for assessing trend accuracy of CGM data. SG data from CGM were compared to hourly blood glucose (BG) measurements and trend accuracy was quantified using the dot product. Trend accuracy results are displayed on the Trend Compass, which depicts trend accuracy as a function of BG. A trend performance table and Trend Index (TI) metric are also proposed. The Trend Compass was tested using simulated CGM data with varying levels of error and variability, as well as real clinical CGM data. The results show that the Trend Compass is an effective tool for differentiating good trend accuracy from poor trend accuracy, independent of glycemic variability. Furthermore, the real clinical data show that the Trend Compass assesses trend accuracy independent of point bias error. Finally, the importance of assessing trend accuracy as a function of BG level is highlighted in a case example of low and falling BG data, with corresponding rising SG data. This study developed a simple to use tool for quantifying trend accuracy. The resulting trend accuracy is easily interpreted on the Trend Compass plot, and if required, performance table and TI metric. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. Italian Contributions to the Development of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Sensors for Diabetes Management

    Claudio Cobelli


    Full Text Available Monitoring glucose concentration in the blood is essential in the therapy of diabetes, a pathology which affects about 350 million people around the World (three million in Italy, causes more than four million deaths per year and consumes a significant portion of the budget of national health systems (10% in Italy. In the last 15 years, several sensors with different degree of invasiveness have been proposed to monitor glycemia in a quasi-continuous way (up to 1 sample/min rate for relatively long intervals (up to 7 consecutive days. These continuous glucose monitoring (CGM sensors have opened new scenarios to assess, off-line, the effectiveness of individual patient therapeutic plans from the retrospective analysis of glucose time-series, but have also stimulated the development of innovative on-line applications, such as hypo/hyper-glycemia alert systems and artificial pancreas closed-loop control algorithms. In this review, we illustrate some significant Italian contributions, both from industry and academia, to the growth of the CGM sensors research area. In particular, technological, algorithmic and clinical developments performed in Italy will be discussed and put in relation with the advances obtained in the field in the wider international research community.

  5. A multistep algorithm for processing and calibration of microdialysis continuous glucose monitoring data.

    Mahmoudi, Zeinab; Dencker Johansen, Mette; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl; Hejlesen, Ole Kristian


    The deviation of continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring (CGM) data from reference blood glucose measurements is substantial, and adequate signal processing is required to reduce the discrepancy between subcutaneous glucose and blood glucose values. The purpose of this study was to develop a multistep algorithm for the processing and calibration of continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring data with high accuracy and short delay. Algorithm The algorithm comprises three steps: rate-limiting filtering, selective smoothing, and robust calibration. Initially, the algorithm detects nonphysiological glucose rate-of-change and corrects it with a weighted local polynomial. Noisy signal parts that require smoothing are then detected based on zero crossing count of the sensor signal first-order differences, and an exponentially weighted moving average smooths the noisy parts of the signal afterward. Finally, calibration is performed using a first-order polynomial as the conversion function, with coefficients being estimated using robust regression with a bi-square weight function. ALGORITHM PERFORMANCE: The performance of the algorithm was evaluated on 16 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. To compare the algorithm with state-of-the-art CGM data denoising and calibration, the rate-limiting filter and selective smoothing were replaced with an adaptive Kalman filter, and the calibration method was replaced with the calibration algorithm presented in one of the Medtronic (Northridge, CA) CGM patents. The median (mean) of the absolute relative deviation (ARD) of the sensor glucose values processed by the newly developed algorithm from capillary reference blood glucose measurements was 14.8% (22.6%), 10.6% (14.6%), and 8.9% (11.7%) in hypoglycemia, euglycemia, and hyperglycemia, respectively, whereas for the alternative algorithm, the median (mean) was 22.2% (26.9%), 12.1% (15.9%), and 8.8 (11.3%), respectively. The median (mean) ARD in all ranges was 10.3% (14.7%) for

  6. A Post-Marketing Surveillance Study to Evaluate Performance of the EXIMO™ Blood Glucose Monitoring System.

    Chandnani, Sonia R; Ramakrishna, C D; Dave, Bhargav A; Kothavade, Pankaj S; Thakkar, Ashok S


    The performance of Blood Glucose Monitoring System (BGMS) is critical as the information provided by the system guide the patient or health care professional in making treatment decisions. However, besides evaluating accuracy of the BGMS in laboratory setting, it is equally important that the intended users (healthcare professionals and patients) should be able to achieve blood glucose measurements with similar level of high accuracy. To assess the performance of EXIMO™ (Meril Diagnostics Pvt. Ltd., Vapi, Gujarat, India) BGMS as per International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2013 section 8 user performance criteria. This was a non-randomized and post-marketing study conducted at a tertiary care centre of India. A total of 1005 patients with diabetes themselves performed fingertip blood glucose measurement using EXIMO™ BGMS. Immediately after capillary blood glucose measurement using the blood glucose monitoring system, venous blood sample from each patient was obtained by a trained technician which was assessed by reference laboratory method- Cobas Integra 400 plus (Roche Instrument Centre, Rotkreuz, Switzerland). All the blood glucose measurements assessed by EXIMO™ were compared with laboratory results. Performance of the system was assessed as per ISO 15197:2013 criteria using Bland-Altman plot, Parkes-Consensus Error Grid (CEG) and Surveillance Error Grid analyses (SEG). A total of 1005 patients participated in the study. Average age of the patients was 44.93±14.65 years. Evaluation of capillary fingertip blood glucose measurements demonstrated that 95.82% measurements fulfilled ISO 15197:2013 section 8 user performance criteria. All the results lie within clinically non-critical zones; Zone A (99.47%; n=1000) and Zone B (0.53%; n=05) of the CEG analysis. As per SEG analysis, majority of the results fell within "no-risk" zone (risk score 0 to 0.5; 90.42%). The result of the study confirmed that intended users are able to obtain accurate

  7. Runtime Monitoring Technique to handle Tautology based SQL Injection Attacks

    Ramya Dharam


    Full Text Available Software systems, like web applications, are often used to provide reliable online services such as banking, shopping, social networking, etc., to users. The increasing use of such systems has led to a high need for assuring confidentiality, integrity, and availability of user data. SQL Injection Attacks (SQLIAs is one of the major security threats to web applications. It allows attackers to get unauthorized access to the back-end database consisting of confidential user information. In this paper we present and evaluate a Runtime Monitoring Technique to detect and prevent tautology based SQLIAs in web applications. Our technique monitors the behavior of the application during its post- deployment to identify all the tautology based SQLIAs. A framework called Runtime Monitoring Framework, that implements our technique, is used in the development of runtime monitors. The framework uses two pre-deployment testing techniques, such as basis-path and data-flow to identify a minimal set of all legal/valid execution paths of the application. Runtime monitors are then developed and integrated to perform runtime monitoring of the application, during its post-deployment for the identified valid/legal execution paths. For evaluation we targeted a subject application with a large number of both legitimate inputs and illegitimate tautology based inputs, and measured the performance of the proposed technique. The results of our study show that runtime monitor developed for the application was successfully able to detect all the tautology based attacks without generating any false positives.

  8. Evaluation of a novel artificial pancreas: closed loop glycemic control system with continuous blood glucose monitoring.

    Tsukamoto, Yuuki; Kinoshita, Yoshihiko; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Munekage, Eri; Takezaki, Yuka; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Koichi; Yamazaki, Rie; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Tarumi, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Mishina, Suguru; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro


    A closed-loop glycemic control system using an artificial pancreas has been applied with many clinical benefits in Japan since 1987. To update this system incorporating user-friendly features, we developed a novel artificial pancreas (STG-55). The purpose of this study was to evaluate STG-55 for device usability, performance of blood glucose measurement, glycemic control characteristics in vivo in animal experiments, and evaluate its clinical feasibility. There are several features for usability improvement based on the design concepts, such as compactness, display monitor, batteries, guidance function, and reduction of the preparation time. All animal study data were compared with a clinically available artificial pancreas system in Japan (control device: STG-22). We examined correlations of both blood glucose levels between two groups (STG-55 vs. control) using Clarke's error grid analysis, and also compared mean glucose infusion rate (GIR) during glucose clamp. The results showed strong correlation in blood glucose concentrations (Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient: 0.97; n = 1636). Clarke's error grid analysis showed that 98.4% of the data fell in Zones A and B, which represent clinically accurate or benign errors, respectively. The difference in mean GIRs was less than 0.2 mg/kg/min, which was considered not significant. Clinical feasibility study demonstrated sufficient glycemic control maintaining target glucose range between 80 and 110 (mg/dL), and between 140 and 160 without any hypoglycemia. In conclusion, STG-55 was a clinically acceptable artificial pancreas with improved interface and usability. A closed-loop glycemic control system with STG-55 would be a useful tool for surgical and critical patients in intensive care units, as well as diabetic patients.

  9. Monitoring of Concrete Structures Using Ofdr Technique

    Henault, J. M.; Salin, J.; Moreau, G.; Delepine-Lesoille, S.; Bertand, J.; Taillade, F.; Quiertant, M.; Benzarti, K.


    Structural health monitoring is a key factor in life cycle management of infrastructures. Truly distributed fiber optic sensors are able to provide relevant information on large structures, such as bridges, dikes, nuclear power plants or nuclear waste disposal facilities. The sensing chain includes an optoelectronic unit and a sensing cable made of one or more optical fibers. A new instrument based on Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR), enables to perform temperature and strain measurements with a centimeter scale spatial resolution over hundred of meters and with a level of precision equal to 1 μstrain and 0.1 °C. Several sensing cables are designed with different materials targeting to last for decades in a concrete aggressive environment and to ensure an optimal transfer of temperature and strain from the concrete matrix to the optical fiber. Tests were carried out by embedding various sensing cables into plain concrete specimens and representative-scale reinforced concrete structural elements. Measurements were performed with an OFDR instrument; meanwhile, mechanical solicitations were imposed to the concrete element. Preliminary experiments are very promising since measurements performed with distributed sensing system are comparable to values obtained with conventional sensors used in civil engineering and with the Strength of Materials Modelling. Moreover, the distributed sensing system makes it possible to detect and localize cracks appearing in concrete during the mechanical loading.

  10. Comparison of corrosion monitoring techniques in district heating systems

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.


    Investigations aimed at evaluating monitoring techniques as a function of the specific water chemistry has been conducted as a part of a Nordic project focused on improving the quality of corrosion monitoring in municipal district heating. A combination of techniques has been selected to measure...... both general and localised corrosion. Electrochemical techniques (LPR, EIS) as well as direct techniques (high sensitive ER, weight loss, local crevice corrosion current) have been applied. The data show that the water quality in Danish systems is high resulting in low corrosion rates, but changes...... in the water quality induce localised corrosion. Useful monitoring results have been obtained with high sensitive ER technique (MetriCorr) and crevice corrosion measurements with the LOCORR cell (FORCE TECHNOLOGY)....

  11. The effects of real-time continuous glucose monitoring on oxidative stress and mortality in critically ill patients



    Objective To evaluate the effects of real-time continuous glucose monitoring(RT-CGM) system on oxidative stress and mortality in critically ill patients and to explore the correlation between glucose index,oxidative stress and mortality. Methods 123 selected cases of

  12. Recurrent potential pulse technique for improvement of glucose sensing ability of 3D polypyrrole

    Cysewska, Karolina; Karczewski, Jakub; Jasiński, Piotr


    In this work, a new approach for using a 3D polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer as a sensing material for glucose detection is proposed. Polypyrrole is electrochemically polymerized on a platinum screen-printed electrode in an aqueous solution of lithium perchlorate and pyrrole. PPy exhibits a high electroactive surface area and high electrochemical stability, which results in it having excellent electrocatalytic properties. The studies show that using the recurrent potential pulse technique results in an increase in PPy sensing stability, compared to the amperometric approach. This is due to the fact that the technique, under certain parameters, allows the PPy redox properties to be fully utilized, whilst preventing its anodic degradation. Because of this, the 3D PPy presented here has become a very good candidate as a sensing material for glucose detection, and can work without any additional dopants, mediators or enzymes.

  13. Alternative techniques for deep-water monitoring

    Matveev, Viktor A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Zheleznykh, Igor M., E-mail: [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Korotin, Pavel I. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul' yanov Str., 46, Nizhnii Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Paka, Vadim T. [P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology - Atlantic Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Mir Prospect 1, Kaliningrad 236022 (Russian Federation); Surin, Nikolai M. [N.S. Enikolopov Institute of Synthetic Polymer Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsojuznaya Str. 70, Moscow 117393 (Russian Federation)


    A cruise of the Soviet R/V 'Dmitry Mendeleyev' in the Mediterranean Sea in 1989 is mentioned as the first step towards an international cooperation for high energy neutrino astrophysics in the Mediterranean. New proposals are considered related to carrying out common investigations connected with the construction of a large-scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean. In these investigations new techniques, which were developed in the last years or are being developed now by the Russian institutes, could be used, and in particular: (1) a system of multi-parameter non-tethered probes for deep-water hydrographic measurements, (2) a bottom-mounted acoustical antenna consisting of smart digital hydrophones, and (3) a deep-water scintillation spectrometer for the determination of the composition and for measuring the concentration of dissolved radionuclides. Given the necessity of making a best choice for the KM3 Neutrino Telescope construction, the idea of using light-weight flexible elements for making a 'flexible tower' presented at the Taormina Workshop in 1997 is reviewed.

  14. Monitoring Techniques for Microbially Influenced Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel


    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel may occur in media with microbiological activity of especially sulphate-reducing bacteria, e.g. on pipelines buried in soil and on marine structures. MIC of carbon steel must be monitored on-line in order to provide an efficient protection...... corrosion and detects localised corrosion, but the sensitivity is not high enough for monitoring initiation of pitting and small attacks. Electrochemical techniques as LPR and EIS give distorted data and unreliable corrosion rates, when biofilm and corrosion products cover the steel surface. However, EIS...... and control the corrosion. A number of monitoring techniques is industrially used today, and the applicability and reliability of these for monitoring MIC is evaluated. Coupons and ER are recommended as necessary basic techniques even though localised corrosion rate cannot be measured. FSM measures general...

  15. Monitoring Techniques for Microbially Influenced Corrosion of Carbon Steel

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel


    and control the corrosion. A number of monitoring techniques is industrially used today, and the applicability and reliability of these for monitoring MIC is evaluated. Coupons and ER are recommended as necessary basic techniques even though localised corrosion rate cannot be measured. FSM measures general......Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel may occur in media with microbiological activity of especially sulphate-reducing bacteria, e.g. on pipelines buried in soil and on marine structures. MIC of carbon steel must be monitored on-line in order to provide an efficient protection...... corrosion and detects localised corrosion, but the sensitivity is not high enough for monitoring initiation of pitting and small attacks. Electrochemical techniques as LPR and EIS give distorted data and unreliable corrosion rates, when biofilm and corrosion products cover the steel surface. However, EIS...

  16. Monitoring of PON System Using Compound Surveillance Technique

    Sun-Chien Ko; Hsiu-Jung Chuang; Si-Chong Chen; Chih-Yih Wang; Sheng-Fwu Lin


    A passive optical network (PON) monitoring system combined light pulse and frequency sweep techniques is proposed and verified in a field test. The light pulse surveys over the all whole network and the frequency sweep are used to investigate any fault in the link. The field test is performed with 4 PONs. Each PON is monitored at 4 ports, one is the splitter port and the other three are arbitrary chosen multiple optical units(ONUs). All the tested PONs are monitored in turns once per hour. Faults at the feeder and branch fiber have been observed in this field test and have been analyzed with the monitoring system.

  17. Continuous glucose monitoring for suspected dumping syndrome in infants after Nissen fundoplication.

    Ueda, Kazutoshi; Mizumoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Hirofumi; Miyauchi, Yuya; Sato, Masahito; Hata, Daisuke


    Dumping syndrome is infrequently reported, but known to occur after Nissen fundoplication in children. However, it may be difficult both to diagnose and manage. Here we presented four infants who received Nissen fundoplication for severe gastroesophageal reflux disease, two of whom developed dumping syndrome whilst the other two did not. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was very useful to clearly detect large glycemic fluctuation around each feeding. CGM was also helpful to prove the effect of treatment to avoid abnormal glucose levels. We believe that dumping syndrome in children may be underdiagnosed if clinicians rely solely on the recognition of symptoms or limited frequency of blood samplings. CGM might be the most sensitive diagnostic tool.

  18. Effect of continuous glucose monitoring accuracy on clinicians' retrospective decision making in diabetes

    Mahmoudi, Zeinab; Johansen, Mette Dencker; Nørgaard, Hanne Holdflod;


    BACKGROUND: The use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in clinical decision making in diabetes could be limited by the inaccuracy of CGM data when compared to plasma glucose measurements. The aim of the present study is to investigate the impact of CGM numerical accuracy on the precision...... of the interclinician agreement and the intraclinician reproducibility of the decisions. The Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to assess the precision of the decisions. The study was based on retrospective and blind CGM data. RESULTS: For the interclinician agreement, in the first occasion, the kappa of algorithm 1...... was .32, and that of algorithm 2 was .36. For the interclinician agreement, in the second occasion, the kappas of algorithms 1 and 2 were .17 and .22, respectively. For the intraclinician reproducibility of the decisions, the kappas of algorithm 1 were .35, .22, and .80 and the kappas of algorithm 2 were...

  19. Continuous Glucose Monitoring for Evaluation of Glycemic Excursions after Gastric Bypass

    Florencia Halperin


    Full Text Available Background. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia with neuroglycopenia is a rare complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB. We hypothesized that continuous glucose monitoring (CGM would be useful to characterize glycemic variability after RYGB. Methods. CGM and mixed meal tolerance testing (MMTT were performed on sixteen post-RYGB subjects, ten with a history of neuroglycopenia on medical treatment and six asymptomatic controls. Results. 9 of 10 subjects with neuroglycopenia developed hypoglycemia defined by glucose <70 mg/dL on CGM, and 3 of 9 on MMTT. In asymptomatic subjects, 3 of 6 had asymptomatic hypoglycemia during CGM, and 3 of 5 on MMTT. Therefore, the sensitivity and specificity to detect clinically significant hypoglycemia was 90% and 50% for CGM and 33% and 40% for MMTT.Conclusions. Asymptomatic hypoglycemia after RYGB is more frequent than commonly recognized. For clinicians evaluating patients for postbypass neuroglycopenia, CGM may be a valuable diagnostic tool.

  20. Use of real time continuous glucose monitoring and intravenous insulin in type 1 diabetic mothers to prevent respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in infants

    Passaro Patrizia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy in Type 1 diabetic patients is a precarious condition, both for mother and fetus with increased the risk of prematurity and, immediately after delivery with risk of respiratory distress syndrome and hypoglycaemia in newborns. A strict control and monitoring of diabetes throughout pregnancy is important in reducing the impact of the disease on the fetus and newborn. In recent years many new technologies have been introduced to ameliorate diabetes monitoring, where the last is the Real-time Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (RT-CGMS. Methods In the last three years, 72 h continuous glucose monitoring system (RT-CGMS (Medtronic, CA was performed in 18 pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes in two moments of pregnancy: during treatment with betamethasone to prevent respiratory distress and during delivery. In both cases insulin was administered intravenous and the dose was changed on the basis of glycaemia. Results The results present the use of this new technique during two topics moments of pregnancy of type 1 diabetes patients when is very important intensively to monitor diabetes and to obtain the well being of the fetus. No infant experimented hypoglycaemia or respiratory distress syndrome at the moment and in the first hours after the birth. Conclusion We wish to stress the importance reducing glycaemia during administration of betamethasone and during labor. It is conceivable that the scarce attention paid to monitoring glucose levels in diabetic mothers during labor in gynaecological world may be due to the difficulty in glucose monitoring with the devices until now available. Hopefully, our anecdotal account may prompt improvements with RT-CGMS, and may lead to a better approach to the problem, thereby changing the prognosis of infants born to diabetic mothers.

  1. Comparison of Glucose Monitoring Methods during Steady-State Exercise in Women

    Kelly L. Pritchett


    Full Text Available Data from Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM systems may help improve overall daily glycemia; however, the accuracy of CGM during exercise remains questionable. The objective of this single group experimental study was to compare CGM-estimated values to venous plasma glucose (VPG and capillary plasma glucose (CPG during steady-state exercise. Twelve recreationally active females without diabetes (aged 21.8 ± 2.4 years, from Central Washington University completed the study. CGM is used by individuals with diabetes, however the purpose of this study was to first validate the use of this device during exercise for anyone. Data were collected between November 2009 and April 2010. Participants performed two identical 45-min steady-state cycling trials (~60% Pmax on non-consecutive days. Glucose concentrations (CGM-estimated, VPG, and CPG values were measured every 5 min. Two carbohydrate gel supplements along with 360 mL of water were consumed 15 min into exercise. A product-moment correlation was used to assess the relationship and a Bland-Altman analysis determined error between the three glucose measurement methods. It was found that the CGM system overestimated mean VPG (mean absolute difference 17.4 mg/dL (0.97 mmol/L and mean CPG (mean absolute difference 15.5 mg/dL (0.86 mmol/L. Bland-Altman analysis displayed wide limits of agreement (95% confidence interval of 44.3 mg/dL (2.46 mmol/L (VPG compared with CGM and 41.2 mg/dL (2.29 mmol/L (CPG compared with CGM. Results from the current study support that data from CGM did not meet accuracy standards from the 15197 International Organization for Standardization (ISO.

  2. Web-based telemedicine system is useful for monitoring glucose control in pregnant women with diabetes.

    Carral, Florentino; Ayala, María del Carmen; Fernández, Juan Jesús; González, Carmen; Piñero, Antonia; García, Gloria; Cañavate, Concepción; Jiménez, Ana Isabel; García, Concepción


    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a Web-based telemedicine system for monitoring glucose control in pregnant women with diabetes on healthcare visits, metabolic control, and pregnancy outcomes. A prospective, single-center, interventional study with two parallel groups was performed in Puerto Real University Hospital (Cadiz, Spain). Women were assigned to two different glucose monitoring groups: the control group (CG), which was managed only by follow-ups with the Gestational Diabetes Unit (GDU), and the telemedicine group (TMG), which was monitored by both more spaced GDU visits and a Web-based telemedicine system. The number of healthcare visits, degree of metabolic control, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were evaluated. One hundred four pregnant women with diabetes (77 with gestational diabetes, 16 with type 1 diabetes, and 11 with type 2 diabetes) were included in the TMG (n=40) or in the CG (n=64). There were no significant differences in mean glycated hemoglobin level during pregnancy or after delivery, despite a significantly lower number of visits to the GDU (3.2±2.3 vs. 5.9±2.3 visits; P3.0±1.7 visits; PWeb-based telemedicine system can be a useful tool facilitating the management of pregnant diabetes patients, as a complement to conventional outpatient clinic visits.

  3. Privacy and Security Issues Surrounding the Protection of Data Generated by Continuous Glucose Monitors.

    Britton, Katherine E; Britton-Colonnese, Jennifer D


    Being able to track, analyze, and use data from continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) and through platforms and apps that communicate with CGMs helps achieve better outcomes and can advance the understanding of diabetes. The risks to patients' expectation of privacy are great, and their ability to control how their information is collected, stored, and used is virtually nonexistent. Patients' physical security is also at risk if adequate cybersecurity measures are not taken. Currently, data privacy and security protections are not robust enough to address the privacy and security risks and stymies the current and future benefits of CGM and the platforms and apps that communicate with them.

  4. 糖尿病血糖精准监测%Accurate monitoring of blood glucose in diabetic patients



    ABSTRACT:Precision medicine is the medical model proposed in the era of big data,diabetes blood glucose monitoring is also affected by the impact of precision thinking.Based on adequate assessment of various means of monitoring blood glucose,blood glucose monitoring is recommended from the self monitoring of the"point"blood sugar,to dynamically monitor the blood glucose change curve,and then to reflect the total blood glucose level of three months of glycosylated hemoglobin under the present stage.Future artificial pancreas technology will achieve accurate blood glucose management.%精准医学是在大数据时代提出的医疗模式,糖尿病血糖监测也受到精准思维的影响。充分评估血糖监测手段精准性基础上,现阶段血糖监测推荐从自我监测的“点”血糖,到动态监测血糖变化“曲线”,再到反映3个月总体血糖水平的糖化血红蛋白。未来人工胰腺技术将实现精准的血糖管理。

  5. Continuous glucose monitoring and HbA1c in the evaluation of glucose metabolism in children at high risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Helminen, Olli; Pokka, Tytti; Tossavainen, Päivi; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta


    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) parameters, self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG), HbA1c and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were studied during preclinical type 1 diabetes mellitus. Ten asymptomatic children with multiple (⩾2) islet autoantibodies (cases) and 10 age and sex-matched autoantibody-negative controls from the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Study were invited to 7-day CGM with Dexcom G4 Platinum Sensor. HbA1c and two daily SMBG values (morning and evening) were analyzed. Five-point OGTTs were performed and carbohydrate intake was assessed by food records. The matched pairs were compared with the paired sample t-test. The cases showed higher mean values and higher variation in glucose levels during CGM compared to the controls. The time spent ⩾7.8mmol/l was 5.8% in the cases compared to 0.4% in the controls (p=0.040). Postprandial CGM values were similar except after the dinner (6.6mmol/l in cases vs. 6.1mmol/l in controls; p=0.023). When analyzing the SMBG values higher mean level, higher evening levels, as well as higher variation were observed in the cases when compared to the controls. HbA1c was significantly higher in the cases [5.7% (39mmol/mol) vs. 5.3% (34mmol/mol); p=0.045]. No differences were observed in glucose or C-peptide levels during OGTT. Daily carbohydrate intake was slightly higher in the cases (254.2g vs. 217.7g; p=0.034). Glucose levels measured by CGM and SMBG are useful indicators of dysglycemia during preclinical type 1 diabetes mellitus. Increased evening glucose values seem to be common in children with preclinical type 1 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pain reduction and financial incentives to improve glucose monitoring adherence in a community health center.

    Mary Ann H Huntsman

    Full Text Available Self-monitoring of blood glucose is a critical component of diabetes management. However, patients often do not maintain the testing schedule recommended by their healthcare provider. Many barriers to testing have been cited, including cost and pain. We present a small pilot study to explore whether the use of financial incentives and pain-free lancets could improve adherence to glucose testing in a community health center patient population consisting largely of non-English speaking ethnic minorities with low health literacy. The proportion of patients lost to follow-up was 17%, suggesting that a larger scale study is feasible in this type of setting, but we found no preliminary evidence suggesting a positive effect on adherence by either financial incentives or pain-free lancets. Results from this pilot study will guide the design of larger-scale studies to evaluate approaches to overcome the variety of barriers to glucose testing that are present in disadvantaged patient populations.

  7. System Accuracy Evaluation of the GlucoRx Nexus Voice TD-4280 Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    Muhammad Khan


    Full Text Available Use of blood glucose (BG meters in the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG significantly lowers the risk of diabetic complications. With several BG meters now commercially available, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO ensures that each BG meter conforms to a set degree of accuracy. Although adherence to ISO guidelines is a prerequisite for commercialization in Europe, several BG meters claim to meet the ISO guidelines yet fail to do so on internal validation. We conducted a study to determine whether the accuracy of the GlucoRx Nexus TD-4280 meter, utilized by our department for its cost-effectiveness, complied with ISO guidelines. 105 patients requiring laboratory blood glucose analysis were randomly selected and reference measurements were determined by the UniCel DxC 800 clinical system. Overall the BG meter failed to adhere to the ≥95% accuracy criterion required by both the 15197:2003 (overall accuracy 92.4% and 15197:2013 protocol (overall accuracy 86.7%. Inaccurate meters have an inherent risk of over- and/or underestimating the true BG concentration, thereby risking patients to incorrect therapeutic interventions. Our study demonstrates the importance of internally validating the accuracy of BG meters to ensure that its accuracy is accepted by standardized guidelines.

  8. Glucose Fluctuations during Gestation: An Additional Tool for Monitoring Pregnancy Complicated by Diabetes

    M. G. Dalfrà


    Full Text Available Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM gives a unique insight into magnitude and duration of daily glucose fluctuations. Limited data are available on glucose variability (GV in pregnancy. We aimed to assess GV in healthy pregnant women and cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus or gestational diabetes (GDM and its possible association with HbA1c. CGM was performed in 50 pregnant women (20 type 1, 20 GDM, and 10 healthy controls in all three trimesters of pregnancy. We calculated mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE, standard deviation (SD, interquartile range (IQR, and continuous overlapping net glycemic action (CONGA, as parameters of GV. The high blood glycemic index (HBGI and low blood glycemic index (LBGI were also measured as indicators of hyperhypoglycemic risk. Women with type 1 diabetes showed higher GV, with a 2-fold higher risk of hyperglycemic spikes during the day, than healthy pregnant women or GDM ones. GDM women had only slightly higher GV parameters than healthy controls. HbA1c did not correlate with GV indicators in type 1 diabetes or GDM pregnancies. We provided new evidence of the importance of certain GV indicators in pregnant women with GDM or type 1 diabetes and recommended the use of CGM specifically in these populations.

  9. Glucose Fluctuations during Gestation: An Additional Tool for Monitoring Pregnancy Complicated by Diabetes

    Dalfrà, M. G.; Chilelli, N. C.; Di Cianni, G.; Mello, G.; Lencioni, C.; Biagioni, S.; Scalese, M.; Sartore, G.; Lapolla, A.


    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) gives a unique insight into magnitude and duration of daily glucose fluctuations. Limited data are available on glucose variability (GV) in pregnancy. We aimed to assess GV in healthy pregnant women and cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus or gestational diabetes (GDM) and its possible association with HbA1c. CGM was performed in 50 pregnant women (20 type 1, 20 GDM, and 10 healthy controls) in all three trimesters of pregnancy. We calculated mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), standard deviation (SD), interquartile range (IQR), and continuous overlapping net glycemic action (CONGA), as parameters of GV. The high blood glycemic index (HBGI) and low blood glycemic index (LBGI) were also measured as indicators of hyperhypoglycemic risk. Women with type 1 diabetes showed higher GV, with a 2-fold higher risk of hyperglycemic spikes during the day, than healthy pregnant women or GDM ones. GDM women had only slightly higher GV parameters than healthy controls. HbA1c did not correlate with GV indicators in type 1 diabetes or GDM pregnancies. We provided new evidence of the importance of certain GV indicators in pregnant women with GDM or type 1 diabetes and recommended the use of CGM specifically in these populations. PMID:24319455

  10. The Technique of Building a Networked Manufacturing Process Monitoring System

    XIE Yong; ZHANG Yu; YANG Musheng


    This paper introduces the constitute, structure and the software model of a set of networked manufacturing process monitoring system, using JAVA network technique to realize a set of three layer distributed manufacturing process monitoring system which is comprised with remote manage center, manufacturing process supervision center and the units of measure and control layer such as displacement sensor, the device of temperature measure and alarm etc. The network integration of the production management layer, the process control layer and the hard ware control layer is realized via using this approach. The design using object-oriented technique based on JAVA can easily transport to different operation systems with high performance of the expansibility.

  11. Performance of two updated blood glucose monitoring systems: an evaluation following ISO 15197:2013.

    Pleus, Stefan; Baumstark, Annette; Rittmeyer, Delia; Jendrike, Nina; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido


    Objective For patients with diabetes, regular self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is essential to ensure adequate glycemic control. Therefore, accurate and reliable blood glucose measurements with SMBG systems are necessary. The international standard ISO 15197 describes requirements for SMBG systems, such as limits within which 95% of glucose results have to fall to reach acceptable system accuracy. The 2013 version of this standard sets higher demands, especially regarding system accuracy, than the currently still valid edition. ISO 15197 can be applied by manufacturers to receive a CE mark for their system. Research design and methods This study was an accuracy evaluation following ISO 15197:2013 section 6.3 of two recently updated SMBG systems (Contour * and Contour TS; Bayer Consumer Care AG, Basel, Switzerland) with an improved algorithm to investigate whether the systems fulfill the requirements of the new standard. For this purpose, capillary blood samples of approximately 100 participants were measured with three test strip lots of both systems and deviations from glucose values obtained with a hexokinase-based comparison method (Cobas Integra † 400 plus; Roche Instrument Center, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) were determined. Percentages of values within the acceptance criteria of ISO 15197:2013 were calculated. This study was registered at (NCT02358408). Main outcome Both updated systems fulfilled the system accuracy requirements of ISO 15197:2013 as 98.5% to 100% of the results were within the stipulated limits. Furthermore, all results were within the clinically non-critical zones A and B of the consensus error grid for type 1 diabetes. Conclusions The technical improvement of the systems ensured compliance with ISO 15197 in the hands of healthcare professionals even in its more stringent 2013 version. Alternative presentation of system accuracy results in radar plots provides additional information with certain advantages. In addition

  12. Test-retest reliability of a continuous glucose monitoring system in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Terada, Tasuku; Loehr, Sarah; Guigard, Emmanuel; McCargar, Linda J; Bell, Gordon J; Senior, Peter; Boulé, Normand G


    This study determined the test-retest reliability of a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) (iPro™2; Medtronic, Northridge, CA) under standardized conditions in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Fourteen individuals with T2D spent two nonconsecutive days in a calorimetry unit. On both days, meals, medication, and exercise were standardized. Glucose concentrations were measured continuously by CGMS, from which daily mean glucose concentration (GLU(mean)), time spent in hyperglycemia (t(>10.0 mmol/L)), and meal, exercise, and nocturnal mean glucose concentrations, as well as glycemic variability (SD(w), percentage coefficient of variation [%cv(w)], mean amplitude of glycemic excursions [MAGEc, MAGE(ave), and MAGE(abs.gos)], and continuous overlapping net glycemic action [CONGA(n)]) were estimated. Absolute and relative reliabilities were investigated using coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation, respectively. Relative reliability ranged from 0.77 to 0.95 (Pmeal, exercise, and nocturnal glycemia with CV ranging from 3.9% to 11.7%. Despite significant relative reliability (R=0.93; P10.0 mmol/L) showed larger CV (54.7%). Among the different glycemic variability measures, a significant between-day difference was observed in MAGEc, MAGE(ave), CONGA6, and CONGA12. The remaining measures (i.e., SD(w), %cv(w), MAGE(abs.gos), and CONGA1-4) indicated no between-day differences and significant relative reliability. In individuals with T2D, CGMS-estimated glycemic profiles were characterized by high relative and absolute reliability for both daily and shorter-term measurements as represented by GLUmean and meal, exercise, and nocturnal glycemia. Among the different methods to calculate glycemic variability, our results showed SD(w), %cv(w), MAGE(abs.gos), and CONGAn with n ≤ 4 were reliable measures. These results suggest the usefulness of CGMS in clinical trials utilizing repeated measured.

  13. In vivo continuous glucose monitoring using a chip based near infrared sensor

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Sigloch, S.; Frese, I.; Welzel, K.; Göddel, M.; Klotzbücher, T.


    Diabetes is a serious health condition considered to be one of the major healthcare epidemics of modern era. An effective treatment of this disease can be only achieved by reliable continuous information on blood glucose levels. In this work we present a minimally invasive, chip-based near infrared (NIR) sensor, combined with microdialysis, for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). The sensor principle is based on difference absorption spectroscopy in the 1st overtone band of the near infrared spectrum. The device features a multi-emitter LED and InGaAs-Photodiodes, which are located on a single electronic board (non-disposable part), connected to a personal computer via Bluetooth. The disposable part consists of a chip containing the fluidic connections for microdialysis, two fluidic channels acting as optical transmission cells and total internally reflecting mirrors for in- and out-coupling of the LED light to the chip and to the detectors. The sensor is combined with an intraveneous microdialysis to separate the glucose from the cells and proteins in the blood and operates without any chemical consumption. In vitro measurements showed a linear relationship between glucose concentration and the integrated difference signal with a coefficient of determination of 99 % in the relevant physiological concentration range from 0 to 400 mg/dl. In vivo measurements on 10 patients showed that the NIR-CGM sensor data reflects the blood reference values adequately, if a proper calibration and signal drift compensation is applied. The MARE (mean absolute relative error) value taken over all patient data is 13.8 %. The best achieved MARE value is at 4.8 %, whereas the worst is 25.8 %, with a standard deviation of 5.5 %.

  14. Performance Evaluation and Labeling Comprehension of a New Blood Glucose Monitoring System with Integrated Information Management

    List, Susan M; Starks, Nykole; Baum, John; Greene, Carmine; Pardo, Scott; Parkes, Joan L; Schachner, Holly C; Cuddihy, Robert


    Background This study evaluated performance and product labeling of CONTOUR® USB, a new blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) with integrated diabetes management software and a universal serial bus (USB) port, in the hands of untrained lay users and health care professionals (HCPs). Method Subjects and HCPs tested subject's finger stick capillary blood in parallel using CONTOUR USB meters; deep finger stick blood was tested on a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) glucose analyzer for reference. Duplicate results by both subjects and HCPs were obtained to assess system precision. System accuracy was assessed according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003 guidelines [within ±15 mg/dl of mean YSI results (samples <75 mg/dl) and ±20% (samples ≥75 mg/dl)]. Clinical accuracy was determined by Parkes error grid analysis. Subject labeling comprehension was assessed by HCP ratings of subject proficiency. Key system features and ease-of-use were evaluated by subject questionnaires. Results All subjects who completed the study (N = 74) successfully performed blood glucose measurements, connected the meter to a laptop computer, and used key features of the system. The system was accurate; 98.6% (146/148) of subject results and 96.6% (143/148) of HCP results exceeded ISO 15197:2003 criteria. All subject and HCP results were clinically accurate (97.3%; zone A) or associated with benign errors (2.7%; zone B). The majority of subjects rated features of the BGMS as “very good” or “excellent.” Conclusions CONTOUR USB exceeded ISO 15197:2003 system performance criteria in the hands of untrained lay users. Subjects understood the product labeling, found the system easy to use, and successfully performed blood glucose testing. PMID:22027308

  15. Feasibility of adjacent insulin infusion and continuous glucose monitoring via the Medtronic Combo-Set.

    O'Neal, David N; Adhya, Sumona; Jenkins, Alicia; Ward, Glenn; Welsh, John B; Voskanyan, Gayane


    Subcutaneously infused insulin may interfere with the function of nearby glucose-sensing electrodes and vice versa. The prototype of the Combo-Set device (Medtronic) incorporates a subcutaneous insulin delivery catheter and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensor assembled on the same platform and separated by 11 mm. We aim to evaluate Combo-Set's insulin delivery and glucose-sensing functions. Ten subjects with type 1 diabetes wore a Combo-Set and a Sof-Sensor inserted subcutaneously in contralateral abdominal areas connected to iPro recorders (Medtronic) for 53.25 ± 0.75 h (mean ± standard deviation). The Combo-Set delivered insulin diluent except during meal tests on days 1 and 3 when insulin lispro was delivered as a meal bolus and postmeal basal. Venous plasma samples were collected at the following time points from meal start: 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min for insulin measurements. The accuracy of the Combo-Set sensors was evaluated and compared with that of the Sof-Sensor, with each referenced against capillary glucose values (Contour Link Meter, Bayer). Accuracy of the Combo-Set sensor was comparable to that of the Sof-Sensor. Clarke error grid analysis showed that 97% of Combo-Set and 93% of Sof-Sensor values were in the A+B regions (p = .20, not significant). The Combo-Set showed the expected postbolus peak insulin time (67 ± 9 min, mean ± standard error). One "no delivery" alarm occurred during the 21 patient days of use. A device providing for simultaneous adjacent placement of an insulin infusion catheter and a CGM sensor is feasible and functions within acceptable limits. The low "no delivery" alarm rate was similar to that of other infusion sets. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  16. Association between self-monitoring of blood glucose and diet among minority patients with diabetes*

    McANDREW, Lisa M.; HOROWITZ, Carol R.; LANCASTER, Kristie J.; QUIGLEY, Karen S.; POGACH, Leonard M.; MORA, Pablo A.; LEVENTHAL, Howard


    Background Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is used to regulate glucose control. It is unknown whether SMBG can motivate adherence to dietary recommendations. We predicted that participants who used more SMBG would also report lower fat and greater fruit and vegetable consumption. Methods The present study was a cross-sectional study of 401 primarily minority individuals living with diabetes in East Harlem, New York. Fat intake and fruit and vegetable consumption were measured with the Block Fruit/Vegetable/Fiber and Fat Screeners. Results Greater frequency of SMBG was associated with lower fat intake (rs = −0.15; P < 0.01), but not fruit and vegetable consumption. The effects of SMBG were not moderated by insulin use; thus, the relationship was significant for those individuals both on and not on insulin. A significant interaction was found between frequency of SMBG and changing one’s diet in response to SMBG on total fat intake. The data suggest that participants who use SMBG to guide their diet do not have to monitor multiple times a day to benefit. Conclusion The present study found that the frequency of SMBG was associated with lower fat intake. Patients are often taught to use SMBG to guide their self-management. This is one of the first studies to examine whether SMBG is associated with better dietary intake. PMID:21599868

  17. Perceived accuracy in continuous glucose monitoring: understanding the impact on patients.

    Polonsky, William H; Hessler, Danielle


    In terms of accuracy and reliability, the technology of real-time (RT) continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is advancing quickly. Still, current devices are imperfect; as a result, patient complaints and frustrations are not uncommon. How do patients' perceptions of device accuracy affect their experience with RT-CGM? In this article, we argue that patients' satisfaction, or dissatisfaction, with accuracy has a major impact on how much they are likely to trust the device and how confident they may feel in using the information that is displayed. The available data suggest that greater satisfaction with accuracy is linked to better RT-CGM adherence, more confident and aggressive insulin adjustments, improvements in quality of life, reduced reliance on self-monitoring of blood glucose, and--potentially--less alarm fatigue. As the technology continues to mature, RT-CGM will become increasingly accurate and patients' confidence and trust in the available devices will likely grow, leading to greater uptake and more proactive use of RT-CGM. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  18. CFRP Structural Health Monitoring by Ultrasonic Phased Array Technique

    Boychuk, A.S.; Generalov, A.S.; A.V. Stepanov


    International audience; The report deals with ultrasonic phased array (PA) application for high-loaded CFRP structural health monitoring in aviation. Principles of phased array technique and most dangerous types of damages are briefly described. High-performance inspection technology suitable for periodic plane structure check is suggested. The results of numerical estimation of detection probability for impact damages and delaminations by PA technique are presented. The experience of PA impl...

  19. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in noninsulin-treated type 2 diabetes: an overview

    Nanne Kleefstra


    Full Text Available Nanne Kleefstra1, Johanna Hortensius1, Kornelis JJ van Hateren1, Susan JJ Logtenberg1, Sebastiaan T Houweling2, Rijk OB Gans3, Henk JG Bilo11Diabetes Centre, Isala Clinics, Zwolle, The Netherlands; 2Langerhans Medical Research Group, The Netherlands; 3Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The NetherlandsIntroduction: The effectiveness of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG in noninsulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM remains unclear. We aimed to review the trials investigating the effects of SMBG in this population.Methods: Medline was searched until June 29, 2009. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs of at least 12 weeks’ duration were included. Data on the following aspects were gathered: patient and study characteristics, effects on HbA1c, quality of life and treatment satisfaction, and methodological quality.Results: The search revealed 9 original RCTs. These studies were very heterogeneous, and 5 were classified as of high quality. The studies with the best methodology did not show an effect of SMBG on HbA1c, the studies with the worst methodological quality did. Two out of the 4 studies that assessed quality of life showed a significant change in favor of the control group, 1 study showed a significant change in favor of SMBG.Discussion and conclusion: We found an inverse relation between study quality and efficacy of SMBG. At this moment, there is no basis for general use of SMBG in noninsulin-treated T2DM patients.Keywords: blood glucose self-monitoring, diabetes mellitus, type 2, blood glucose, hemoglobin A, glycosylated

  20. [Comparative study of two techniques of ciclosporine monitoring].

    Charfi, Rim; El Jebari, Hanène; Gaïes, Emna; Charfi, Ons; Jebabli, Nadia; Thouraya, Riahi; Ben Messaouda, Mhamed; Lakhal, Mohamed; Klouz, Anis; Salouage, Issam; Trabelsi, Sameh


    Ciclosporine (CsA) is an immunosuppressant drug used in bone marrow transplantation in order to extend allograft survival. Despite its efficiency, CsA can expose to therapeutic failure or to toxicity because of underdosing or overdosage. So, many techniques of monitoring CsA in blood were used, the referance one is the chromatographic technique then, the automated techniques: fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and chimiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). In this study, we aimed to compare the results of CsA concentrations measured by the two automised techniques. Statistical studies showed that the two techniques were repeatable and reproductible. Results obtained by FPIA were slightly higher than those obtained by CMIA but without a significative difference. In conclusion, FPIA technique could be used to measure CsA blood concentration in replacement of CMIA in case of technical problems.

  1. Real-time measurement of glucose using chrono-impedance technique on a second generation biosensor.

    Mayorga Martinez, Carmen C; Treo, Ernesto F; Madrid, Rossana E; Felice, Carmelo C


    Chrono-impedance technique (CIT) was implemented as a new transduction method for real time measurement of glucose in a biosensor system based in carbon paste (CP)/Ferrocene (FC)/glucose oxidase (GOx). The system presents high selectivity because the optimal stimulation signal composed by a 165mV DC potential and 50mV(RMS) AC signal at 0.4Hz was used. The low DC potential used decreased the interfering species effect and the biosensor showed a linear impedance response toward glucose detection at concentrations from 0mM to 20mM,with 0.9853 and 0.9945 correlation coefficient for impedance module (|Z|) and phase (Φ), respectively. The results of quadruplicate sets reveal the high repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements with a relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 10%. CIT presented good accuracy (within 10% of the actual value) and precision did not exceed 15% of RSD for high concentration values and 20% for the low concentration ones. In addition, a high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.9954) between chrono-impedance and colorimetric methods was obtained. On the other hand, when two samples prepared at the same conditions were measured in parallel with both methods (the measurement was repeated four times), it should be noticed that student's t-test produced no difference between the two mentioned methods (p=1). The biosensor system hereby presented is highly specific to glucose detection and shows a better linear range than the one reported on the previous article.


    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Agarwal, Vivek; Neal, Kyle; Kosson, David; Adams, Douglas


    The existing fleets of nuclear power plants in the United States have initial operating licenses of 40 years, though most these plants have applied for and received license extensions. As plant structures, systems, and components age, their useful life—considering both structural integrity and performance—is reduced as a result of deterioration of the materials. The online monitoring of concrete structure conducted under the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Technologies Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory will develop and demonstrate concrete structures health monitoring capabilities. Assessment and management of aging concrete structures in nuclear plants require a more systematic approach than simple reliance on existing code margins of safety. Therefore, the structural health monitoring is required to produce actionable information regarding structural integrity that supports operational and maintenance decisions. Through this research project, several national laboratories and Vanderbilt University proposes to develop a framework of research activities for the health monitoring of nuclear power plant concrete structures that includes integration of four elements—damage modeling, monitoring, data analytics, and uncertainty quantification. This report briefly discusses available techniques and ongoing challenges in each of the four elements of the proposed framework with emphasis on degradation mechanisms and online monitoring techniques.

  3. Interim Report on Concrete Degradation Mechanisms and Online Monitoring Techniques

    Mahadevan, Sankaran [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Neal, Kyle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kosson, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Adams, Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The existing nuclear power plants in the United States have initial operating licenses of 40 years, though most of these plants have applied for and received license extensions. As plant structures, systems, and components age, their useful life—considering both structural integrity and performance—is reduced as a result of deterioration of the materials. The research on online monitoring of concrete structures conducted under the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program at Idaho National Laboratory will develop and demonstrate concrete structures health monitoring capabilities. Assessment and management of aging concrete structures in nuclear plants require a more systematic approach than simple reliance on existing code margins of safety. Therefore, structural health monitoring is required to produce actionable information regarding structural integrity that supports operational and maintenance decisions. Through this research project, several national laboratories and Vanderbilt University propose to develop a framework of research activities for the health monitoring of nuclear power plant concrete structures that includes the integration of four elements—damage modeling, monitoring, data analytics, and uncertainty quantification. This report briefly discusses available techniques and ongoing challenges in each of the four elements of the proposed framework with emphasis on degradation mechanisms and online monitoring techniques.

  4. An intensity-monitoring technique for measuring ellipsometric transients

    Droog, J.M.M.; Bootsma, G.A.


    Intensity-monitoring techniques make possible the measurement of rapid changes in the ellipsometric parameters. Methods used hitherto have been suitable for measuring slight changes only and require prior knowledge of the Δ and Ψ values for the initial surface. It is shown that larger changes can al

  5. Condition Monitoring of Cables Task 3 Report: Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables

    Villaran, M.; Lofaro, R.; na


    For more than 20 years the NRC has sponsored research studying electric cable aging degradation, condition monitoring, and environmental qualification testing practices for electric cables used in nuclear power plants. This report summarizes several of the most effective and commonly used condition monitoring techniques available to detect damage and measure the extent of degradation in electric cable insulation. The technical basis for each technique is summarized, along with its application, trendability of test data, ease of performing the technique, advantages and limitations, and the usefulness of the test results to characterize and assess the condition of electric cables.

  6. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring shows high accuracy within 6 hours after sensor calibration: a prospective study.

    Xiao-Yan Yue

    Full Text Available Accurate and timely glucose monitoring is essential in intensive care units. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS has been advocated for many years to improve glycemic management in critically ill patients. In order to determine the effect of calibration time on the accuracy of CGMS, real-time subcutaneous CGMS was used in 18 critically ill patients. CGMS sensor was calibrated with blood glucose measurements by blood gas/glucose analyzer every 12 hours. Venous blood was sampled every 2 to 4 hours, and glucose concentration was measured by standard central laboratory device (CLD and by blood gas/glucose analyzer. With CLD measurement as reference, relative absolute difference (mean±SD in CGMS and blood gas/glucose analyzer were 14.4%±12.2% and 6.5%±6.2%, respectively. The percentage of matched points in Clarke error grid zone A was 74.8% in CGMS, and 98.4% in blood gas/glucose analyzer. The relative absolute difference of CGMS obtained within 6 hours after sensor calibration (8.8%±7.2% was significantly less than that between 6 to 12 hours after calibration (20.1%±13.5%, p<0.0001. The percentage of matched points in Clarke error grid zone A was also significantly higher in data sets within 6 hours after calibration (92.4% versus 57.1%, p<0.0001. In conclusion, real-time subcutaneous CGMS is accurate in glucose monitoring in critically ill patients. CGMS sensor should be calibrated less than 6 hours, no matter what time interval recommended by manufacturer.

  7. Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Female NOD Mice Reveals Daily Rhythms and a Negative Correlation With Body Temperature.

    Korstanje, Ron; Ryan, Jennifer L; Savage, Holly S; Lyons, Bonnie L; Kane, Kevin G; Sukoff Rizzo, Stacey J


    Previous studies with continuous glucose monitoring in mice have been limited to several days or weeks, with the mouse's physical attachment to the equipment affecting behavior and measurements. In the current study, we measured blood glucose and body temperature at 10-second intervals for 12 weeks in a cohort of NOD/ShiLtJ female mice using wireless telemetry. This allowed us to obtain a high-resolution profile of the circadian rhythm of these two parameters and the onset of hyperglycemic development in real time. The most striking observations were the elevated nocturnal concentrations of glucose into the diabetic range days before elevations in diurnal glucose (when glucose concentrations are historically measured) and the strong, negative correlation between elevated blood glucose concentrations and body temperature with a steady decline of the body temperature with diabetes development. Taken together, this technological advancement provides improved resolution in the study of the disease trajectory of diabetes in mouse models, including relevant translatability to the current technologies of continuous glucose monitoring now regularly used in patients. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  8. Robust satellite techniques for volcanicand seismic hazards monitoring

    I. Scaffidi


    Full Text Available Several satellite techniques have been proposed to monitor events related to seismic and volcanic activity. A selfadaptive approach (RAT, Robust AVHRR Techniques has recently been proposed which seems able to recognise space-time anomalies, differently related to such events, also in the presence of highly variable contributions from atmospheric (transmittance, surface (emissivity and morphology and observational (time/season, but also solar and satellite zenithal angles conditions. On the basis of NOAA-AVHRR data, the RAT aprroach has already been applied to Mount Etna volcanic ash cloud monitoring in daytime, and to seismic area monitoring in Southern Italy. This paper presents the theoretical basis for the extension of RAT approach also to nighttime volcanic ash cloud detection, together with its possible implementation to lava flow monitoring. One example of successful forecasting (few days before of a new lava vent opening during the Mount Etna eruption of July 2001 will be discussed in some detail. Progress on the use of the same approach on seismically active area monitoring will be discussed by comparison with previous results achieved on the Irpinia-Basilicata earthquake (MS = 6.9, which occurred on November 23rd 1980 in Southern Italy.

  9. Cross-validity of a portable glucose capillary monitors in relation to enzymatic spectrophotometer methods

    William Alves Lima


    Full Text Available The glucose is an important substrate utilizaded during exercise. Accurate measurement of glucose is vital to obtain trustworthy results. The enzymatic spectrophotometer methods are generally considered the “goldstandard” laboratory procedure for measuring of glucose (GEnz, is time consuming, costly, and inappropriate for large scale field testing. Compact and portable glucose monitors (GAccu are quick and easy methods to assess glucose on large numbers of subjects. So, this study aimed to test the cross-validity of GAccu. The sample was composed of 107 men (aged= 35.4±10.7 years; stature= 168.4±6.9 cm; body mass= 73.4±11.2 kg; %fat= 20.9±8.3% – by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Blood for measuring fasting glucose was taken in basilar vein (Genz, Bioplus: Bio-2000 and in ring finger (GAccu: Accu-Chek© Advantage©, after a 12-hour overnight fast. GEnz was used as the criterion for cross-validity. Paired t-test shown differences (p RESUMO A glicose é um substrato importante utilizado durante o exercício físico. Medidas acuradas da glicose são fundamentais para a obtenção de resultados confiáveis. O método laboratorial de espectrofotometria enzimática geralmente é considerado o procedimento “padrão ouro” para medir a glicose (GEnz, o qual requer tempo, custo e é inapropriado para o uso em larga escala. Monitores portáteis de glicose (GAccu são rápidos e fáceis para medir a glicose em um grande número de sujeitos. Então, este estudo teve por objetivo testar a validade concorrente do GAccu. A amostra foi composta por 107 homens (idade= 35,4±10,7 anos; estatura= 168,4±6,9 cm; massa corporal= 73,4±11,2 kg; %gordura= 20,9±8,3% – por absortometria de raio-x de dupla energia. O sangue para mensurar a glicose em jejum foi tirado na veia basilar (Genz, Bioplus: Bio-2000 e no dedo anular (GAccu - Accu- Chek© Advantage©, depois de 12h de jejum noturno. O GEnz foi usado como critério para testar a validade

  10. Advanced Process Monitoring Techniques for Safeguarding Reprocessing Facilities

    Orton, Christopher R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Peper, Shane M.


    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-grade nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies, including both the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor and a spectroscopy-based monitoring system, to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The MIP Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major cold flowsheet chemicals using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. This paper will provide an overview of our methods and report our on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies.

  11. Continuous Glucose Monitoring Enables the Detection of Losses in Infusion Set Actuation (LISAs

    Daniel P. Howsmon


    Full Text Available Reliable continuous glucose monitoring (CGM enables a variety of advanced technology for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. In addition to artificial pancreas algorithms that use CGM to automate continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII, CGM can also inform fault detection algorithms that alert patients to problems in CGM or CSII. Losses in infusion set actuation (LISAs can adversely affect clinical outcomes, resulting in hyperglycemia due to impaired insulin delivery. Prolonged hyperglycemia may lead to diabetic ketoacidosis—a serious metabolic complication in type 1 diabetes. Therefore, an algorithm for the detection of LISAs based on CGM and CSII signals was developed to improve patient safety. The LISA detection algorithm is trained retrospectively on data from 62 infusion set insertions from 20 patients. The algorithm collects glucose and insulin data, and computes relevant fault metrics over two different sliding windows; an alarm sounds when these fault metrics are exceeded. With the chosen algorithm parameters, the LISA detection strategy achieved a sensitivity of 71.8% and issued 0.28 false positives per day on the training data. Validation on two independent data sets confirmed that similar performance is seen on data that was not used for training. The developed algorithm is able to effectively alert patients to possible infusion set failures in open-loop scenarios, with limited evidence of its extension to closed-loop scenarios.

  12. Use of microneedle array devices for continuous glucose monitoring: a review.

    El-Laboudi, Ahmed; Oliver, Nick S; Cass, Anthony; Johnston, Desmond


    Microneedle array devices provide the opportunity to overcome the barrier characteristics of the outermost skin layer, the stratum corneum. This novel technology can be used as a therapeutic tool for transdermal drug delivery, including insulin, or as a diagnostic tool providing access to dermal biofluids, with subsequent analysis of its contents. Over the last decade, the use of microneedle array technology has been the focus of extensive research in the field of transdermal drug delivery. More recently, the diagnostic applications of microneedle technology have been developed. This review summarizes the existing evidence for the use of microneedle array technology as biosensors for continuous monitoring of the glucose content of interstitial fluid, focusing also on mechanics of insertion, microchannel characteristics, and safety profile.

  13. Fault and meal detection by redundant continuous glucose monitors and the unscented Kalman filter

    Mahmoudi, Zeinab; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    The purpose of this study is to develop a method for detecting and compensating the anomalies of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors as well as detecting unannounced meals. Both features, sensor fault detection/correction and meal detection, are necessary to have a reliable artificial...... is in terms of a patient simulation model, where the model in the detector is the same as the patient simulation model used for evaluation of the detector. The detection module consists of two CGM sensors, two fault detectors, a fault isolator, and an adaptive unscented Kalman filter (UKF). Two types...... of sensor faults, i.e., drift and pressure induced sensor attenuation (PISA), are simulated by a Gaussian random walk model. Each of the fault detectors has a local UKF that receives the signal from the associated sensor, detects faults, and finally tunes the adaptive UKF. A fault isolator that accepts data...

  14. Fermentation of glucose by Zymomonas mobilis CP4 utilising continuous transient technique

    João Batista Buzato


    Full Text Available Ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis CP4 under continuous transient operation has been investigated. The bacteria was grown under alternating glucose amplitudes of 2% and 5% (w/p and cycle time values of 2, 4 and 6 hours. The ethanol production was compared to data obtained in simple chemostat operation grown 3.5%(w/v glucose medium. The value of dilution rate was fixed as 0.2h-1 for both techniques. When cycle time value of 2 hours was used, values of biomass and ethanol kept constant. The appliance of cycle time of 4 hours produced smooth responses from the organisms. The values of biomass oscillated from 0.7 to 0.93 g/l. When cycle time of 6 hours was used the oscillations on biomass and ethanol were pronounced. The minimum and maximum values of biomass were respectively 0.61 and 1g/l. As far as conversion efficiency to ethanol is concerned the values of 84, 85 and 89% (corresponding to cycle time of 2, 4 and 6 hours were found whereas conversion efficiency was low as 50% when simple chemostat was used.

  15. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is associated with problem-solving skills in hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia.

    Wang, Jing; Zgibor, Janice; Matthews, Judith T; Charron-Prochownik, Denise; Sereika, Susan M; Siminerio, Linda


    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and problem-solving skills in response to detected hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia among patients with type 2 diabetes. Data were obtained from the American Association of Diabetes Educators Outcome System, implemented in 8 diabetes self-management education programs in western Pennsylvania. SMBG was measured by asking patients how often they checked, missed checking, or checked blood glucose later than planned. Problem-solving skill was measured by asking how often they modified their behaviors after detecting high or low blood glucose. Most patients checked their blood glucose at least once per day. However, when blood glucose was high or low, many of them reported doing nothing, and only some of them resolved the problem. There were significant associations between self-monitoring of blood glucose and problem-solving skills for hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, education, and time since diagnosis. Patients reported poor problem-solving skills when detecting hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia via SMBG. Patients need to learn problem-solving skills along with SMBG training to achieve glycemic control.

  16. Glucose >200 mg/dL during Continuous Glucose Monitoring Identifies Adult Patients at Risk for Development of Cystic Fibrosis Related Diabetes

    J. L. Taylor-Cousar


    Full Text Available Rationale. Cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD is the most common comorbidity in patients with CF. In spite of increased screening, diagnosis, and treatment of CFRD, the mortality rate in patients with CFRD still far exceeds the mortality rate in those without CFRD. Guidelines suggest that screening for CFRD be performed annually using the 2-hour 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Adherence to recommended screening has been poor, with only approximately one-quarter of adults with CF undergoing OGTT in 2014. Use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM for diagnosis may become an alternative. Objectives. Our objective was to determine whether abnormal CGM predicts subsequent development of CFRD, lung function, and body mass index (BMI decline and increased rate of CF pulmonary exacerbations in adults with CF. Methods. In a prospective single center pilot trial from September 2009 to September 2010, 21 adult patients due for routine OGTT were recruited to complete simultaneous 3-day CGM and 2-hour 75 gram OGTT. Subsequently, clinical information was reviewed from 2008 to 2015. Conclusions. There was a moderate correlation between interpreted results of 2-hour OGTT and CGM (p=0.03; CGM indicated a greater level of glucose impairment than OGTT. Glucose >200 mg/dL by CGM predicted development of CFRD (p=0.0002.

  17. Continuous glucose monitors: use of waveform versus glycemic values in the improvements of glucose control, quality of life, and fear of hypoglycemia.

    Walker, Tomas C; Yucha, Carolyn B


    How patients are benefitting from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) remains poorly understood. The focus on numerical glucose values persists, even though access to the glucose waveform and rate of change may contribute more to improved control. This pilot study compared outcomes of patients using CGMs with or without access to the numerical values on their CGM. Ten persons with type 1 diabetes, naïve to CGM use, enrolled in a 12-week study. Subjects were randomly assigned to either unmodified CGM receivers, or to CGM receivers that had their numerical values obscured but otherwise functioned normally. HbA1c, quality of life (QLI-D), and fear of hypoglycemia (HFS) were assessed, at baseline and at week 12. Baseline HbA1c for the entire group was 7.46 ± 1.27%. At week 12 the experimental group HbA1c reduction was 1.5 ± 0.9% (p control group's reduction was 0.06 ± 0.61% (p > .05). Repeated measures testing revealed no significant difference in HbA1c reduction between groups. Both groups had reductions in HFS; these reductions were statistically significant within groups (p quality of life. The display of a numerical glucose value did not improve control when compared to numerically blinded units. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  18. Sodium‐glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor luseogliflozin improves glycaemic control, assessed by continuous glucose monitoring, even on a low‐carbohydrate diet

    Nishimura, R.; Omiya, H.; Sugio, K.; Ubukata, M.; Sakai, S.


    This randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, crossover study was the first to determine the effects of luseogliflozin in combination with a low‐carbohydrate diet (LCD) on 24‐h glucose variability, assessed by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). A total of 18 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized into two groups, in which patients first received luseogliflozin 2.5 mg once daily then placebo for 8 days each, or vice versa. Patients took luseogliflozin or placebo with a normal‐carbohydrate diet (NCD) on day 7 and with the LCD on day 8. CGM was performed on both days. Luseogliflozin significantly reduced glucose exposure in terms of the area under the curve over the course of 24 h when administered with the NCD (difference vs placebo: −555.6 mg/dl·h [1 mg/dl = 0.0556 mmol/l]; p diet. Although glucose levels were lower with the LCD than with the NCD in the placebo treatment period, luseogliflozin with the LCD improved glycaemic control throughout the day to nearly the same extent as luseogliflozin with the NCD, without inducing hypoglycaemia. PMID:26639943

  19. Reliable glucose monitoring by ex-vivo blood microdialysis and infrared spectrometry for patients in critical care

    Vahlsing, Thorsten; Delbeck, Sven; Budde, Janpeter; Ihrig, Dieter; Leonhardt, Steffen; Heise, H. Michael


    Blood glucose monitoring has been realised by biosensors in combination with micro-dialysis, using either subcutaneously or intravascularly implanted catheters. Another alternative is ex-vivo micro-dialysis of continuously sampled heparinized whole blood available from the patient even under critical care conditions. However, most devices suffer from inaccuracies due to variable recovery rates. Infrared spectrometry has been suggested for analyte quantification, since besides glucose other clinically relevant analytes can be simultaneously determined that are, e.g., important for intensive care patients. Perfusates with acetate and mannitol have been investigated as recovery markers (internal standards). In contrast to the previously used acetate, an almost linear dependency between mannitol loss and glucose recovery was observed for micro-dialysis of glucose spiked aqueous albumin solutions or porcine heparinized whole blood when testing flat membranes within a custom-made micro-dialysator. By this, a straightforward compensation of any dialysis recovery rate variation during patient monitoring is possible. The combination of microdialysis with infrared spectrometry provides a calibration-free assay for accurate continuous glucose monitoring, as reference spectra of dialysate components can be a-priori allocated.

  20. Noninvasive monitoring of glucose concentration using differential absorption low-coherence interferometry based on rapid scanning optical delay line

    Zhou Yong; Zeng Nan; He Yonghong, E-mail: [Laboratory of Optical Imaging and Sensing, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, 518055 (China)


    A non-invasive method of detecting glucose concentration using differential absorption low-coherence interferometry (DALCI) based on rapid scanning optical delay line is presented. Two light sources, one centered within (1625 nm) a glucose absorption band, while the other outside (1310 nm) the glucose absorption band, are used in the experiment. The low-coherence interferometry (LCI) is employed to obtain the signals back-reflecting from the iris which carries the messages of material concentration in anterior chamber. Using rapid scanning optical delay line (RSOD) as the reference arm, we can detect the signals in a very short time. Therefore the glucose concentration can be monitored in real-time, which is very important for the detection in vivo. In our experiments, the cornea and aqueous humor can be treated as nearly non-scattering substance. The difference in the absorption coefficient is much larger than the difference in the scattering coefficient, so the influence of scattering can be neglected. By subtracting the algorithmic low-coherence interference signals of the two wavelengths, the absorption coefficient can be calculated which is proportional to glucose concentration. To reduce the speckle noise, a 30 variation of signals were used before the final calculation of the glucose concentration. The improvements of our experiment are also discussed in the article. The method has a potential application for noninvasive detection of glucose concentration in vivo and in real-time.

  1. Atmospheric trace gases monitoring by UV-vis spectroscopic techniques

    Xie, Pinhua; Li, Ang; Wu, Fengcheng; Qin, Min; Hu, Rezhi; Xu, Jin; Si, Fuqi; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Wenqing


    Due to rapidly economic development, air pollution has become an important issue in China. Phenomena such as regional haze in winter and high O3 concentration in summer are strongly related to increasing trace species. For better understanding the air pollution formation, it is necessary to know spatial and temporal distribution of trace species in the atmosphere. UV-vis spectroscopic techniques are of great advantages for trace species monitoring to meet several requirements, e.g. versatility, high sensitivity, good temporal resolution and field applicability. We have studied and developed various trace gases monitoring techniques and instruments based on UV-vis spectroscopic technique for in-situ measurements and remote sensing, e.g. LP-DOAS, IBBCEAS, CRDS, MAX-DOAS and mobile DOAS for NO2, SO2, HCHO, HONO, NO3, and N2O5 etc. The principle, instrumentation and inversion algorithm are presented. As typical applications of these techniques, investigation of the evolution of HONO and NO3 radicals over Beijing area, measurements of regional pollution in NCP and YRD are discussed in the aspects of HONO and nocturnal NO3 radical characteristics, trace gases (NO2, SO2 etc.) temporal and spatial distribution, pollution transport pathway, emission sources.

  2. Investigation of the Influence of the As-Grown ZnO Nanorods and Applied Potentials on an Electrochemical Sensor for In-Vitro Glucose Monitoring

    Mohammed Marie


    Full Text Available The influence of the as-grown zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs on the fabricated electrochemical sensor for in vitro glucose monitoring were investigated. A direct growth of ZnO NRs was performed on the Si/SiO2/Au electrode, using hydrothermal and sol-gel techniques at low temperatures. The structure, consisting of a Si/SiO2/Au/GOx/Nafion membrane, was considered as a baseline, and it was tested under several applied potential 0.1–0.8 V. The immobilized working electrode, with GOx and a nafion membrane, was characterized amperometrically using a source meter Keithely 2410, and an electrochemical impedance Gamry potentiostat. The sensor exhibited the following: a high sensitivity of ~0.468 mA/cm2 mM, a low detection limit in the order of 166.6 µM, and a fast and sharp response time of around 2 s. The highest sensitivity and the lowest limit of detection were obtained at 0.4 volt, after the growth of ZnO NRs. The highest net sensitivity was obtained after subtracting the sensitivity of the baseline, and it was in the order of 0.315 mA/cm2·mM. The device was tested with a range of glucose concentrations from 1–10 mM, showing a linear line from 3–8 mM, and the device was saturated after exceeding high concentrations of glucose. Such devices can be used for in vitro glucose monitoring, since glucose changes can be accurately detected.

  3. Using Stochastic modelling to identify unusual continuous glucose monitor measurements and behaviour, in newborn infants

    Signal Matthew


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal blood glucose (BG concentrations have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in both critically ill adults and infants. Furthermore, hypoglycaemia and glycaemic variability have both been independently linked to mortality in these patients. Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM devices have the potential to improve detection and diagnosis of these glycaemic abnormalities. However, sensor noise is a trade-off of the high measurement rate and must be managed effectively if CGMs are going to be used to monitor, diagnose and potentially help treat glycaemic abnormalities. Aim To develop a tool that will aid clinicians in identifying unusual CGM behaviour and highlight CGM data that potentially need to be interpreted with care. Methods CGM data and BG measurements from 50 infants at risk of hypoglycaemia were used. Unusual CGM measurements were classified using a stochastic model based on the kernel density method and historical CGM measurements from the cohort. CGM traces were colour coded with very unusual measurements coloured red, highlighting areas to be interpreted with care. A 5-fold validation of the model was Monte Carlo simulated 25 times to ensure an adequate model fit. Results The stochastic model was generated using ~67,000 CGM measurements, spread across the glycaemic range ~2-10 mmol/L. A 5-fold validation showed a good model fit: the model 80% confidence interval (CI captured 83% of clinical CGM data, the model 90% CI captured 91% of clinical CGM data, and the model 99% CI captured 99% of clinical CGM data. Three patient examples show the stochastic classification method in use with 1 A stable, low variability patient which shows no unusual CGM measurements, 2 A patient with a very sudden, short hypoglycaemic event (classified as unusual, and, 3 A patient with very high, potentially un-physiological, glycaemic variability after day 3 of monitoring (classified as very unusual. Conclusions

  4. Monitoring of Refractory wall recession using radar technique

    University of missouri


    Furnaces are the most crucial components in the glass and metallurgical industry. Like any other components in an industry, furnaces require periodic maintenance and repair. Today, furnaces are being operated at higher temperatures and for longer periods of time thus increasing the rate of wear and tear on the furnace refractory lining. As a result of the competitive market facing these industries, longer furnace lifetime with shorter maintenance downtime are increasingly required. Higher fuel consumption, low production and safety are issues that accompany delayed maintenance. Consequently, there is a need to know the state of a refractory wall to prevent premature or unnecessary maintenance shutdowns. For many years the observation skills of an experienced operator has been the primary source of evaluating the wear associated with a refractory wall. The rate of regression of a refractory lining depends on the type of the refractory lining, the materials Monitoring of Refractory Wall Recession Using Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave (FM-CW) Radar Techniques: A Proof-of-Concept Study, Final Report, Submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE), September 2003. being melted, seepage, mechanical stresses, and temperature. Moreover, the regression of a refractory lining is also not uniform throughout a furnace and it is more prominent at the metal line along the sidewalls as this region is exposed to hot gaseous byproducts and flowing molten material. Hence, more accurate measurement techniques are required to determine the local residual thickness of a refractory lining so as to utilize the refractory lining to the maximum extent possible. The use of isotope radiators, thermocouples and endoscopes has also been investigated for monitoring regression. These techniques are capable of providing scanned thermal images showing the profile of the refractory wall. However, these techniques can only provide relative profile information and cannot provide absolute thickness

  5. Evaluation of OneTouch Verio, a new blood glucose self-monitoring system for patients with diabetes

    Littman, Karin; Petersen, Eva R.B.; Pussinen, Christel


    Introduction. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is important in diabetes management. Reliable and user-friendly instruments are essential. OneTouch Verio® is a new blood glucose concentration-measuring system designed to be used by patients with diabetes and healthcare professionals...... (ADA) quality goals. Blood samples were collected and measured on the OneTouch Verio® by laboratory personnel and patients with diabetes (n = 91, randomized into groups receiving personal training or mail instructions for the OneTouch Verio® system). Results were compared to a validated routine method......, imprecision and bias were calculated. User-friendliness was evaluated with a questionnaire. Results. Quality specifications for blood glucose concentration monitoring systems according to ISO 15197 were fulfilled. The mean coefficients of variation (CV%) of repeatability was 3.4% when tested by laboratory...

  6. Evaluation of OneTouch Verio(®), a new blood glucose self-monitoring system for patients with diabetes

    Littmann, Karin; Petersen, Eva; Pussinen, Christel;


    Introduction. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is important in diabetes management. Reliable and user-friendly instruments are essential. OneTouch Verio(®) is a new blood glucose concentration-measuring system designed to be used by patients with diabetes and healthcare professionals...... routine method, imprecision and bias were calculated. User-friendliness was evaluated with a questionnaire. Results. Quality specifications for blood glucose concentration monitoring systems according to ISO 15197 were fulfilled. The mean coefficients of variation (CV%) of repeatability was 3.4% when....... The objective of the present study was to evaluate the analytical performance of the OneTouch Verio(®). Method. The OneTouch Verio(®) was evaluated by the Scandinavian evaluation of laboratory equipment for primary healthcare (SKUP) according to a protocol based on ISO 15197 and the American Diabetes...

  7. Serial investigation of continuous glucose monitoring in a very low birth weight infant with transient late-onset hyperglycemia.

    Nakamura, Toshihiko; Hatanaka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Mari; Kusakari, Michiko; Takahashi, Hidehiro; Kamohara, Takashi


    Transient late-onset hyperglycemia was detected in a very low birth weight (VLBW) infant (gestational age 28 weeks, birth weight 1,082 g) by routine point-of-care glucose monitoring. The infant had no clinical symptom. Serial continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was conducted for 3 days at 31, 35, and 39 weeks' post conceptual age. The difference values between the maximum and minimum blood glucose levels during the interval from one enteral feeding to the next enteral feeding were 32.3±14.3 mg/dL, 47.5±22.9 mg/dL, and 27.5±12.9 mg/dL for the 1(st), 2(nd), and 3(rd) CGM, respectively. The serial change in the values was statistically significant (plate-onset hyperglycemia was investigated by serial CGM.

  8. On-line monitoring of Glucose and penicillin by sequential injection analysis

    Min, R.W.; Nielsen, Jens Bredal; Villadsen, John


    and a detector. The glucose analyzer is based on an enzymatic reaction using glucose oxidase, which converts glucose to glucono-lactone with formation of hydrogen peroxide and subsequent detection of H2O2 by a chemiluminescence reaction involving luminol. The penicillin analysis is based on formation...

  9. Accuracy Evaluation of a CE-Marked Glucometer System for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose With Three Reagent Lots Following ISO 15197:2013.

    Hehmke, Bernd; Berg, Sabine; Salzsieder, Eckhard


    Continuous standardized verification of the accuracy of blood glucose meter systems for self-monitoring after their introduction into the market is an important clinically tool to assure reliable performance of subsequently released lots of strips. Moreover, such published verification studies permit comparison of different blood glucose monitoring systems and, thus, are increasingly involved in the process of evidence-based purchase decision making.

  10. Monitoring of tissue coagulation during thermotherapy using optoacoustic technique

    Larin, Kirill V [Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Larina, Irina V [Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Esenaliev, Rinat O [Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)


    In this paper we have applied the laser optoacoustic technique for real time noninvasive monitoring of thermal damage in tissues. Changes in tissue optical properties during coagulation were detected by measuring and analysing amplitude and temporal characteristics of optoacoustic signals. Coagulation of liver, myocardium and prostate was induced by interstitial continuous wave Nd : YAG laser irradiation of the samples or by conductive heating. Real time detection of thermally-induced changes in optical properties was performed with sensitive wide-band acoustic transducers. Combination of optoacoustic and diffuse reflectance technique was applied for determination of tissue optical properties: effective attenuation, total diffuse reflectance, reduced scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient. The optical properties did not change up to temperature of coagulation (about 53{sup 0}C) and sharply increased during heating up to 70{sup 0}C. Monitoring of the expansion of interstitial coagulation front within freshly excised canine tissues was performed in real time with spatial resolution of about 0.6 mm. The results of our study suggest that this technique can potentially be used for real time precise thermotherapy of malignant and benign lesions at depths of the order of the centimetre.

  11. Analysis of ultrasonic techniques for monitoring milk coagulation during cheesemaking

    Budelli, E.; Pérez, N.; Lema, P.; Negreira, C.


    Experimental determination of time of flight and attenuation has been proposed in the literature as alternatives to monitoring the evolution of milk coagulation during cheese manufacturing. However, only laboratory scale procedures have been described. In this work, the use of ultrasonic time of flight and attenuation to determine cutting time and its feasibility to be applied at industrial scale were analyzed. Limitations to implement these techniques at industrial scale are shown experimentally. The main limitation of the use of time of flight is its strong dependence with temperature. Attenuation monitoring is affected by a thin layer of milk skin covering the transducer, which modifies the signal in a non-repetitive way. The results of this work can be used to develop alternative ultrasonic systems suitable for application in the dairy industry.

  12. Development of infrared spectroscopy techniques for environmental monitoring

    Sandsten, Jonas


    Infrared spectroscopy techniques have long been utilized in identifying and quantifying species of interest to us. Many of the elementary molecules in the atmosphere interact with infrared radiation through their ability to absorb and emit energy in vibrational and rotational transitions. A large variety of methods for monitoring of molecules and aerosol particles by collecting samples or by using remote sensing methods are available. The objective of the work presented in this thesis was to develop infrared spectroscopic techniques to further enhance the amount of useful information obtained from gathering spectral data. A new method for visualization and quantification of gas flows based on gas-correlation techniques was developed. Real-time imaging of gas leaks and incomplete or erratic flare combustion of ethene was demonstrated. The method relies on the thermal background as a radiation source and the gas can be visualized in absorption or in emission depending on the temperature difference. Diode laser spectroscopy was utilized to monitor three molecular species at the same time and over the same path. Two near-infrared diode lasers beams were combined in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal and by difference-frequency generation a third beam was created, enabling simultaneous monitoring of oxygen, water vapor and methane. Models of aerosol particle cross sections were used to simulate the diffraction pattern of light scattered by fibers, spherical particles and real particles, such as pollen, through a new aerosol particle sensing prototype. The instrument, using a coupled cavity diode laser, has been designed with a ray-tracing program and the final prototype was employed for single aerosol particle sizing and identification.

  13. Nocturnal hypoglycemia identified by a continuous glucose monitoring system in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's Disease).

    Meyer, Gesine; Hackemann, Annika; Reusch, Juergen; Badenhoop, Klaus


    Hypoglycemia can be a symptom in patients with Addison's disease. The common regimen of replacement therapy with oral glucocorticoids results in unphysiological low cortisol levels in the early morning, the time of highest insulin sensitivity. Therefore patients with Addison's disease are at risk for unrecognized and potentially severe nocturnal hypoglycemia also because of a disturbed counterregulatory function. Use of a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) could help to adjust hydrocortisone treatment and to avoid nocturnal hypoglycemia in these patients. Thirteen patients with Addison's disease were screened for hypoglycemia wearing a CGMS for 3-5 days. In one patient we identified a hypoglycemic episode at 3:45 a.m. with a blood glucose level of 46 mg/dL, clearly beneath the 95% tolerance interval of minimal glucose levels between 2 and 4 a.m. (53.84 mg/dL). After the hydrocortisone replacement scheme was changed, the minimum blood glucose level between 2 and 4 a.m. normalized to 87 mg/dL. Continuous glucose monitoring can detect nocturnal hypoglycemia in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency and hence prevent in these patients an impaired quality of life and even serious adverse effects.

  14. Sensors Array Technique for Monitoring Aluminum Alloy Spot Welding

    王蕤; 罗震; 单平; 步贤政; 袁书现; 敖三三


    In this paper,the sensors array technique is applied to the quality detection of aluminum alloy spot welding.The sensors array has three forms,i.e.,linear magnetic sensors array,annular magnetic sensors array and cross magnetic sensors array.An algorithm based on principal component analysis is proposed to extract the signal eigenvalues.The three types of magnetic sensors array are used in the experiment of monitoring the signal.After the eigenvalues are extracted,they are used to build a relationship with ...

  15. An integrated sensing technique for smart monitoring of water pipelines

    Bernini, Romeo; Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco; Crocco, Lorenzo


    Lowering the rate of water leakage from the network of underground pipes is one of the requirements that "smart" cities have to comply with. In fact, losses in the water supply infrastructure have a remarkable social, environmental and economic impact, which obviously conflicts with the expected efficiency and sustainability of a smart city. As a consequence, there is a huge interest in developing prevention policies based on state-of-art sensing techniques and possibly their integration, as well as in envisaging ad hoc technical solutions designed for the application at hand. As a contribution to this framework, in this communication we present an approach aimed to pursue a thorough non-invasive monitoring of water pipelines, with both high spatial and temporal resolution. This goal is necessary to guarantee that maintenance operations are performed timely, so to reduce the extent of the leakage and its possible side effects, and precisely, so to minimize the cost and the discomfort resulting from operating on the water supply network. The proposed approach integrates two sensing techniques that work at different spatial and temporal scales. The first one is meant to provide a continuous (in both space and time) monitoring of the pipeline and exploits a distributed optic fiber sensor based on the Brillouin scattering phenomenon. This technique provides the "low" spatial resolution information (at meter scale) needed to reveal the presence of a leak and call for interventions [1]. The second technique is based on the use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and is meant to provide detailed images of area where the damage has been detected. GPR systems equipped with suitable data processing strategies [2,3] are indeed capable of providing images of the shallow underground, where the pipes would be buried, characterized by a spatial resolution in the order of a few centimeters. This capability is crucial to address in the most proper way maintenance operations, by for

  16. In-line-focus monitoring technique using lens aberration effect

    Yamamoto, Tomohiko; Sawano, Toshio; Yao, Teruyoshi; Kobayashi, Katsuyoshi; Asai, Satoru


    Process windows have become narrower as nano-processing technology has advanced. The semiconductor industry, faced with this situation, has had to impose extremely severe tool controls. Above all, with the advent of 90-nm device production, demand has arisen for strict levels of control that exceed the machine specifications of ArF exposure systems. Consequently, high-accuracy focus control and focus monitoring techniques for production wafers will be necessary in order for this to be achieved for practical use. Focus monitoring techniques that measure pattern placement errors and resist features using special reticle and mark have recently been proposed. Unfortunately, these techniques have several disadvantages. They are unable to identify the direction of a focus error, and there are limits on the illumination conditions. Furthermore, they require the use of a reticle that is more expensive than normal and they suffer from a low level of measurement accuracy. To solve these problems, the authors examined methods of focus control and focus error measurement for production wafers that utilize the lens aberration of the exposure tool system. The authors call this method FMLA (focus monitoring using lens aberration). In general, astigmatism causes a difference in the optimum focal point between the horizontal and vertical patterns in the same image plane. If a focus error occurs, regardless of the reason, a critical dimension (CD) difference arises between the sparse horizontal and vertical lines. In addition, this CD difference decreases or increases monotonously with the defocus value. That is to say, it is possible to estimate the focus errors to measure the vertical and horizontal line CD formed by exposure tool with astigmatism. In this paper, the authors examined the FMLA technique using astigmatism. First, focus monitoring accuracy was investigated. Using normal scholar type simulation, FMLA was able to detect a 32.3-nm focus error when 10-mλ astigmatism was

  17. Amperometric enzyme electrodes for aerobic and anaerobic glucose monitoring prepared by glucose oxidase immobilized in mixed ferrocene-cobaltocenium dendrimers.

    Alonso, Beatriz; Armada, Pilar García; Losada, José; Cuadrado, Isabel; González, Blanca; Casado, Carmen M


    The enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) has been immobilized electrostatically onto carbon and platinum electrodes modified with mixed ferrocene-cobaltocenium dendrimers. The ferrocene units have been used successfully as mediators between the GOx and the electrode under anaerobic conditions. In experiments carried out in the presence of oxygen, the cobaltocenium moieties act as electrocatalysts in the reduction of the oxygen in the solution, thus making possible the determination of the oxygen variation due to the enzymatic reaction, with high sensitivity. The current response of the electrode was determined by measuring steady-state current values obtained applying a constant potential. The effect of the substrate concentration, the dendrimer generation, the thickness of the dendrimer layer, interferences, and storage on the response of the sensors were investigated.

  18. Monitoring of Lactic Fermentation Process by Ultrasonic Technique

    Alouache, B.; Touat, A.; Boutkedjirt, T.; Bennamane, A.

    The non-destructive control by using ultrasound techniques has become of great importance in food industry. In this work, Ultrasound has been used for quality control and monitoring the fermentation stages of yogurt, which is a highly consumed product. On the contrary to the physico-chemical methods, where the measurement instruments are directly introduced in the sample, ultrasound techniques have the advantage of being non-destructive and contactless, thus reducing the risk of contamination. Results obtained in this study by using ultrasound seem to be in good agreement with those obtained by physico-chemical methods such as acidity measurement by using a PH-meter instrument. This lets us to conclude that ultrasound method may be an alternative for a healthy control of yoghurt fermentation process.

  19. Integration of Field and Remote Sensing Techniques For Landslides Monitoring

    Allievi, J.; Ambrosi, C.; Ceriani, M.; Colesanti, C.; Crosta, G. B.; Ferretti, A.; Fossati, D.; Menegaz, A.

    The definition of the state of activity of slope movements is of major interest both at local and at regional scale. The Geological Survey of the Regione Lombardia has re- cently started a series of projects aimed to the identification of areas subjected to slope instability and to the assessment of their state of activity. Field survey, aerial photo interpretation and advanced remote sensing techniques have been applied. Some ex- amples of large rock slope instabilities have been investigated in the Valtellina area (Lombardia, Northern Italy). In particular, we demonstrate the degree of integration of the adopted techniques for one of the largest rock slope movements actually recog- nised in the area. The remote sensing approach that has been adopted is the Perma- nent Scatterers (PS) Technique. This technique has been recently developed as a new methodology for surface deformation monitoring, using ESA ERS-SAR data. Its ap- plication to large slope movements in alpine and prealpine areas, with a relatively low urban development, has been tried for the first time in order to evaluate its potential in supporting studies for landslide hazard assessment. Previous results show that this ap- proach allows to reach an accuracy very close to the theoretical limit. This study shows the very good agreement reached for displacement velocities between historical trends and recent PS measurements. Scatterers have been identified by field surveying and some of them are located close to historically monitored benchmark for topographic measurements. Furthermore, the integration of these data with field observations al- lowed us to perform a preliminary reconstrucion of the landslide mechanism and to assess the activity of different landslide structures (scarps, etc.).

  20. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring systems in the classroom/school environment.

    Benassi, Kari; Drobny, Jessica; Aye, Tandy


    Children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) spend 4-7 h/day in school with very little supervision of their diabetes management. Therefore, families have become more dependent on technology, such as use of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM), to provide increased supervision of their diabetes management. We sought to assess the impact of RT-CGM use in the classroom/school environment. Children with T1D using RT-CGM, their parents, and teachers completed a questionnaire about RT-CGM in the classroom/school environment. The RT-CGM was tolerated well in the classroom/school environment. Seventy percent of parents, 75% of students, and 51% of teachers found RT-CGM useful in the classroom/school environment. The students found the device to be more disruptive than did their parents and teachers. However, all three groups agreed that RT-CGM increased their comfort with diabetes management at school. Our study suggests that RT-CGM is useful and not disruptive in the classroom/school environment. The development of education materials for teachers could further increase its acceptance in the classroom/school environment.

  1. Continuous glucose monitoring-enabled insulin-pump therapy in diabetic pregnancy

    Secher, Anna L; Schmidt, Signe; Nørgaard, Kirsten;


    We describe the feasibility of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)-enabled insulin-pump therapy during pregnancy in a woman with type 1 diabetes, who was treated with CGM-enabled insulin-pump therapy in her third pregnancy. During her first pregnancy, the woman was treated with multiple daily...... injections and baseline HbA1c was 8.9%. Due to pre-eclampsia, the child was born preterm, and had neonatal hypoglycemia. In the planning of the second pregnancy, insulin-pump therapy was initiated, resulting in an HbA1c of 6.8% in early pregnancy. Due to pre-eclampsia, the second child was born preterm......, but without neonatal morbidity. Before her third pregnancy, CGM-enabled insulin-pump therapy was introduced, and HbA1c was 6.4% in early pregnancy. The patient was satisfied with this therapy, pre-eclampsia did not occur, and the child was born at term without neonatal morbidity. CGM-enabled insulin...

  2. Continuous glucose monitoring-enabled insulin-pump therapy in diabetic pregnancy

    Secher, Anna L; Schmidt, Signe; Nørgaard, Kirsten


    We describe the feasibility of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)-enabled insulin-pump therapy during pregnancy in a woman with type 1 diabetes, who was treated with CGM-enabled insulin-pump therapy in her third pregnancy. During her first pregnancy, the woman was treated with multiple daily...... injections and baseline HbA1c was 8.9%. Due to pre-eclampsia, the child was born preterm, and had neonatal hypoglycemia. In the planning of the second pregnancy, insulin-pump therapy was initiated, resulting in an HbA1c of 6.8% in early pregnancy. Due to pre-eclampsia, the second child was born preterm......, but without neonatal morbidity. Before her third pregnancy, CGM-enabled insulin-pump therapy was introduced, and HbA1c was 6.4% in early pregnancy. The patient was satisfied with this therapy, pre-eclampsia did not occur, and the child was born at term without neonatal morbidity. CGM-enabled insulin-pump...

  3. Development of structural health monitoring techniques using dynamics testing

    James, G.H. III [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Structural Dynamics Dept.


    Today`s society depends upon many structures (such as aircraft, bridges, wind turbines, offshore platforms, buildings, and nuclear weapons) which are nearing the end of their design lifetime. Since these structures cannot be economically replaced, techniques for structural health monitoring must be developed and implemented. Modal and structural dynamics measurements hold promise for the global non-destructive inspection of a variety of structures since surface measurements of a vibrating structure can provide information about the health of the internal members without costly (or impossible) dismantling of the structure. In order to develop structural health monitoring for application to operational structures, developments in four areas have been undertaken within this project: operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage identification. The developments in each of these four aspects of structural health monitoring have been exercised on a broad range of experimental data. This experimental data has been extracted from structures from several application areas which include aging aircraft, wind energy, aging bridges, offshore structures, structural supports, and mechanical parts. As a result of these advances, Sandia National Laboratories is in a position to perform further advanced development, operational implementation, and technical consulting for a broad class of the nation`s aging infrastructure problems.

  4. Wetland assessment, monitoring and management in India using geospatial techniques.

    Garg, J K


    Satellite remote sensing and GIS have emerged as the most powerful tools for inventorying, monitoring and management of natural resources and environment. In the special context of wetland ecosystems, remotely sensed data from orbital platforms have been extensively used in India for the inventory, monitoring and preparation of action plans for conservation and management. First scientific inventory of wetlands in India was carried out in 1998 by Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad using indigenous IRS (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite) data of 1992-93 timeframe, which stimulated extensive use of geospatial techniques for wetland conservation and management. Subsequently, with advances in GIS, studies were carried out for development of Wetland Information System for a state (West Bengal) and for Loktak lake wetland (a Ramsar site) as a prelude to National Wetland Information System. Research has also been carried out for preparation of action plans especially for Ramsar sites in the country. In a novel research, use of the geospatial technology has also been demonstrated for biodiversity conservation using landscape ecological metrics. A country-wide estimate of emission of methane, a Green House Gas, from wetlands has also been made using MODIS data. Present article critically reviews the work carried out in India for wetland conservation and management using geospatial techniques.

  5. Land subsidence monitoring by D-InSAR technique

    Fan Hongdong; Deng Kazhong; Ju Chengyu; Zhu Chuanguang; Xue Jiqun


    Nowadays,the researches of using Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (D-InSAR) technique to monitor the land subsidence are mainly on how to qualitatively analyze the subsidence areas and values,but the analysis of subsidence process and mechanism are insufficient.In order to resolve these problems,6 scenes of ERS1/2 images captured during 1995 and 2000 in a certain place of Jiangsu province were selected to obtain the subsidence and velocities in three time segments by “two-pass” DInSAR method.Then the relationships among distributions of pumping wells,exploitation quantity of groundwater,and confined water levels were studied and the subsidence mechanism was systematically analyzed.The results show that using D-InSAR technique to monitor the deformation of large area can obtain high accuracies,the disadvantages of classical observation methods can be remedied and there is a linear relationship among the velocities of land subsidence,the water level and the exploitation quantity.

  6. Structural health condition monitoring of rails using acoustic emission techniques

    Yilmazer, Pinar

    In-service rails can develop several types of structural defects due to fatigue and wear caused by rolling stock passing over them. Most rail defects will develop gradually over time thus permitting inspection engineers to detect them in time before final failure occurs. In the UK, certain types of severe rail defects such as tache ovales, require the fitting of emergency clamps and the imposing of an Emergency Speed Restriction (ESR) until the defects are removed. Acoustic emission (AE) techniques can be applied for the detection and continuous monitoring of defect growth therefore removing the need of imposing strict ESRs. The work reported herewith aims to develop a sound methodology for the application of AE in order to detect and subsequently monitor damage evolution in rails. To validate the potential of the AE technique, tests have been carried out under laboratory conditions on three and four-point bending samples manufactured from 260 grade rail steel. Further tests, simulating the background noise conditions caused by passing rolling stock have been carried out using special experimental setups. The crack growth events have been simulated using a pencil tip break..

  7. Real-Time Monitoring System and Advanced Characterization Technique for Civil Infrastructure Health Monitoring

    V. Bennett


    Full Text Available Real-time monitoring of civil infrastructure provides valuable information to assess the health and condition of the associated systems. This paper presents the recently developed shape acceleration array (SAA and local system identification (SI technique, which constitute a major step toward long-term effective health monitoring and analysis of soil and soil-structure systems. The SAA is based on triaxial micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS sensors to measure in situ deformation (angles relative to gravity and dynamic accelerations up to a depth of one hundred meters. This paper provides an assessment of this array's performance for geotechnical instrumentation applications by reviewing the recorded field data from a bridge replacement site and a full-scale levee test facility. The SI technique capitalizes on the abundance of static and dynamic measurements from the SAA. The geotechnical properties and constitutive response of soil contained within a locally instrumented zone are analyzed and identified independently of adjacent soil strata.

  8. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI Technique for Landslide Characterization and Monitoring

    Nicola Casagli


    Full Text Available : The measurement of landslide superficial displacement often represents the most effective method for defining its behavior, allowing one to observe the relationship with triggering factors and to assess the effectiveness of the mitigation measures. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI represents a powerful tool to measure landslide displacement, as it offers a synoptic view that can be repeated at different time intervals and at various scales. In many cases, PSI data are integrated with in situ monitoring instrumentation, since the joint use of satellite and ground-based data facilitates the geological interpretation of a landslide and allows a better understanding of landslide geometry and kinematics. In this work, PSI interferometry and conventional ground-based monitoring techniques have been used to characterize and to monitor the Santo Stefano d’Aveto landslide located in the Northern Apennines, Italy. This landslide can be defined as an earth rotational slide. PSI analysis has contributed to a more in-depth investigation of the phenomenon. In particular, PSI measurements have allowed better redefining of the boundaries of the landslide and the state of activity, while the time series analysis has permitted better understanding of the deformation pattern and its relation with the causes of the landslide itself. The integration of ground-based monitoring data and PSI data have provided sound results for landslide characterization. The punctual information deriving from inclinometers can help in defining the actual location of the sliding surface and the involved volumes, while the measuring of pore water pressure conditions or water table level can suggest a correlation between the deformation patterns and the triggering factors.

  9. Effect of monitoring technique on quality of conservation science.

    Jewell, Zoe


    Monitoring free-ranging animals in their natural habitat is a keystone of ecosystem conservation and increasingly important in the context of current rates of loss of biological diversity. Data collected from individuals of endangered species inform conservation policies. Conservation professionals assume that these data are reliable-that the animals from whom data are collected are representative of the species in their physiology, ecology, and behavior and of the populations from which they are drawn. In the last few decades, there has been an enthusiastic adoption of invasive techniques for gathering ecological and conservation data. Although these can provide impressive quantities of data, and apparent insights into animal ranges and distributions, there is increasing evidence that these techniques can result in animal welfare problems, through the wide-ranging physiological effects of acute and chronic stress and through direct or indirect injuries or compromised movement. Much less commonly, however, do conservation scientists consider the issue of how these effects may alter the behavior of individuals to the extent that the data they collect could be unreliable. The emerging literature on the immediate and longer-term effects of capture and handling indicate it can no longer be assumed that a wild animal's survival of the process implies the safety of the procedure, that the procedure is ethical, or the scientific validity of the resulting data. I argue that conservation professionals should routinely assess study populations for negative effects of their monitoring techniques and adopt noninvasive approaches for best outcomes not only for the animals, but also for conservation science.

  10. Robust satellite techniques for oil spill detection and monitoring

    Casciello, D.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    Discharge of oil into the sea is one of the most dangerous, among technological hazards, for the maritime environment. In the last years maritime transport and exploitation of marine resources continued to increase; as a result, tanker accidents are nowadays increasingly frequent, continuously menacing the maritime security and safety. Satellite remote sensing could contribute in multiple ways, in particular for what concerns early warning and real-time (or near real-time) monitoring. Several satellite techniques exist, mainly based on the use of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) technology, which are able to recognise, with sufficient accuracy, oil spills discharged into the sea. Unfortunately, such methods cannot be profitably used for real-time detection, because of the low observational frequency assured by present satellite platforms carrying SAR sensors (the mean repetition rate is something like 30 days). On the other hand, potential of optical sensors aboard meteorological satellites, was not yet fully exploited and no reliable techniques have been developed until now for this purpose. Main limit of proposed techniques can be found in the ``fixed threshold'' approach which makes such techniques difficult to implement without operator supervision and, generally, without an independent information on the oil spill presence that could drive the choice of the best threshold. A different methodological approach (RAT, Robust AVHRR Techniques) proposed by Tramutoli (1998) and already successfully applied to several natural and environmental emergencies related to volcanic eruptions, forest fires and seismic activity. In this paper its extension to near real-time detection and monitoring of oil spills by means of NOAA-AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) records will be described. Briefly, RAT approach is an automatic change-detection scheme that considers a satellite image as a space-time process, described at each place (x,y) and time t, by the value of

  11. Geophysical Techniques for Monitoring CO2 Movement During Sequestration

    Erika Gasperikova; G. Michael Hoversten


    The relative merits of the seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques are examined as monitoring tools for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This work does not represent an exhaustive study, but rather demonstrates the capabilities of a number of geophysical techniques for two synthetic modeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the Schrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. EOR/sequestration projects in general and Schrader Bluff in particular represent relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and CO{sub 2}). This model represents the most difficult end member of a complex spectrum of possible sequestration scenarios. The time-lapse performance of seismic, gravity, and EM techniques are considered for the Schrader Bluff model. The second scenario is a gas field that in general resembles conditions of Rio Vista reservoir in the Sacramento Basin of California. Surface gravity, and seismic measurements are considered for this model.

  12. Noble Gas Measurement and Analysis Technique for Monitoring Reprocessing Facilities

    Charlton, William S [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    An environmental monitoring technique using analysis of stable noble gas isotopic ratios on-stack at a reprocessing facility was developed. This technique integrates existing technologies to strengthen safeguards at reprocessing facilities. The isotopic ratios are measured using a mass spectrometry system and are compared to a database of calculated isotopic ratios using a Bayesian data analysis method to determine specific fuel parameters (e.g., burnup, fuel type, fuel age, etc.). These inferred parameters can be used by investigators to verify operator declarations. A user-friendly software application (named NOVA) was developed for the application of this technique. NOVA included a Visual Basic user interface coupling a Bayesian data analysis procedure to a reactor physics database (calculated using the Monteburns 3.01 code system). The integrated system (mass spectrometry, reactor modeling, and data analysis) was validated using on-stack measurements during the reprocessing of target fuel from a U.S. production reactor and gas samples from the processing of EBR-II fast breeder reactor driver fuel. These measurements led to an inferred burnup that matched the declared burnup with sufficient accuracy and consistency for most safeguards applications. The NOVA code was also tested using numerous light water reactor measurements from the literature. NOVA was capable of accurately determining spent fuel type, burnup, and fuel age for these experimental results. Work should continue to demonstrate the robustness of this system for production, power, and research reactor fuels.

  13. Analysis article on the performance analysis of the OneTouch UltraVue blood glucose monitoring system.

    Solnica, Bogdan


    In this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Chang and colleagues present the analytical performance evaluation of the OneTouch UltraVue blood glucose meter. This device is an advanced construction with a color display, used-strip ejector, no-button interface, and short assay time. Accuracy studies were performed using a YSI 2300 analyzer, considered the reference. Altogether, 349 pairs of results covering a wide range of blood glucose concentrations were analyzed. Patients with diabetes performed a significant part of the tests. Obtained results indicate good accuracy of OneTouch UltraVue blood glucose monitoring system, satisfying the International Organization for Standardization recommendations and thereby locating >95% of tests within zone A of the error grid. Results of the precision studies indicate good reproducibility of measurements. In conclusion, the evaluation of the OneTouch UltraVue meter revealed good analytical performance together with convenient handling useful for self-monitoring of blood glucose performed by elderly diabetes patients.

  14. Volcanic Monitoring Techniques Applied to Controlled Fragmentation Experiments

    Kueppers, U.; Alatorre-Ibarguengoitia, M. A.; Hort, M. K.; Kremers, S.; Meier, K.; Scharff, L.; Scheu, B.; Taddeucci, J.; Dingwell, D. B.


    ejection and that the evaluated results were mostly in good agreement. We will discuss the technical difficulties encountered, e.g. the temporal synchronisation of the different techniques. Furthermore, the internal data management of the DR prevents at present a continuous recording and only a limited number of snapshots is stored. Nonetheless, in at least three experiments the onset of particle ejection was measured by all different techniques and gave coherent results of up to 100 m/s. This is a very encouraging result and of paramount importance as it proofs the applicability of these independent methods to volcano monitoring. Each method by itself may enhance our understanding of the pressurisation state of a volcano, an essential factor in ballistic hazard evaluation and eruption energy estimation. Technical adaptations of the DR will overcome the encountered problems and allow a more refined data analysis during the next campaign.

  15. 8th Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG): April 16-18, 2015, Republic of Malta.

    Parkin, Christopher G; Homberg, Anita; Hinzmann, Rolf


    International experts in the fields of diabetes, diabetes technology, endocrinology, mobile health, sport science, and regulatory issues gathered for the 8(th) Annual Symposium on Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) with a focus on personalized diabetes management. The aim of this meeting was to facilitate new collaborations and research projects to improve the lives of people with diabetes. The 2015 meeting comprised a comprehensive scientific program, parallel interactive workshops, and two keynote lectures.

  16. Monitoring Therapeutic Treatments against Burkholderia Infections Using Imaging Techniques

    Tiffany M. Mott


    Full Text Available Burkholderia mallei, the etiologic agent of glanders, are Category B select agents with biothreat potential, and yet effective therapeutic treatments are lacking. In this study, we showed that CpG administration increased survival, demonstrating protection in the murine glanders model. Bacterial recovery from infected lungs, liver and spleen was significantly reduced in CpG-treated animals as compared with non-treated mice. Reciprocally, lungs of CpG-treated infected animals were infiltrated with higher levels of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes, as compared to control animals. Employing the B. mallei bioluminescent strain CSM001 and the Neutrophil-Specific Fluorescent Imaging Agent, bacterial dissemination and neutrophil trafficking were monitored in real-time using multimodal in vivo whole body imaging techniques. CpG-treatment increased recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs and reduced bioluminescent bacteria, correlating with decreased bacterial burden and increased protection against acute murine glanders. Our results indicate that protection of CpG-treated animals was associated with recruitment of neutrophils prior to infection and demonstrated, for the first time, simultaneous real time in vivo imaging of neutrophils and bacteria. This study provides experimental evidence supporting the importance of incorporating optimized in vivo imaging methods to monitor disease progression and to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic treatment during bacterial infections.

  17. Isotopolog perturbation techniques for metabolic networks: metabolic recycling of nutritional glucose in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Ettenhuber, Christian; Laupitz, Ralf; Theus, Cornelia; Bacher, Adelbert


    Drosophila melanogaster strain Oregon-R(*) was grown on standard medium supplemented with [U-(13)C(6)]glucose. One to two days after hatching, flies were extracted with water. Glucose was isolated chromatographically from the extract and was analyzed by (13)C NMR spectroscopy. All (13)C signals of the isolated glucose were multiplets arising by (13)C(13)C coupling. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the coupling constants and heavy isotope shifts in glucose, the integrals of individual (13)C signal patterns afforded the concentrations of certain groups of (13)C isotopologs. These data were deconvoluted by a genetic algorithm affording the abundances of all single-labeled and of 15 multiply labeled isotopologs. Among the latter group, seven isotopologs were found at concentrations >0.1 mol % with [1,2-(13)C(2)]glucose as the most prominent species. The multiply (13)C-labeled glucose isotopologs are caused by metabolic remodeling of the proffered glucose via a complex network of catabolic and anabolic processes involving glycolysis and/or passage through the pentose phosphate, the Cori cycle and/or the citrate cycle. The perturbation method described can be adapted to a wide variety of experimental systems and isotope-labeled precursors.

  18. Simultaneous Monitoring of Glucose, Lactate and L-Glutamate in Rat Blood by a Flow-injection Enzyme Electrode Array System

    万巧; 张芬芬; 刘梅川; 朱自强; 鲜跃仲; 金利通


    Rapid measurement of glucose, lactate and L-glutamate level in blood is important for studying the balance of energy in body. The flow-injection analysis (FIA) system with enzyme electrode array was based on neutral red-doped silica (NRDS) nanoparticles as electrocatalyst. These uniform NRDS nanoparticles (about 50±3 nm) were prepared by a water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion method, and characterized by TEM technique. The doped inside neutral red maintained its high electron-activity, while the outside nano silica surface prevented neutral red from leaching out into the aqueous solutions and showed high biocompability. These nanoparticles were then mixed with the glucose oxidase (GOD), lactate oxidase (LOD) or L-glutamate oxidase (L-GLOD), and immobilized on a three carbon-disk electrode (CE) array, respectively. A thin Nation film was coated on the enzyme layer to prevent interference such as ascorbic acid and uric acid in the blood. The proposed flow-injection analysis with NRDS-enzyme electrode array method enables simultaneously monitoring various levels of glucose, lactate and L-glutamate in blood.

  19. Monitoring protocol for field testing. Monitoring of heating techniques under practical conditions; Monitoringsprotocol voor veldtesten. Monitoring van warmtetechnieken onder praktijkomstandigheden

    Fennema, E.; Jansen, C.


    Incentivisation of renewable energy requires large-scale implementation of technologies such as heat-cold storage, heat pumps, cogeneration, solar boilers and waste heat utilization. In practice, the performances of such systems often turn out to deviate from the manufacturer's specifications. Therefore it is important to obtain objective data from practice to gain insight in the differences between theoretical and practical performances and items for improvement of various technologies. The aim of monitoring practice is formulated as: 'gaining insight in the energetic performances of heating techniques under practical circumstances by means of monitoring'. Large-scale measuring in a uniform manner requires a monitoring protocol. Such a protocol safeguards the quality, objectivity, uniformity and hence the reliability of the measuring data. [Dutch] Stimulering van duurzame energie vraagt om grootschalige toepassingen van technologieen zoals warmte-koude opslag, warmtepompen, warmtekracht, zonneboilers en restwarmtebenutting. Het blijkt dat de prestaties van dergelijke systemen in de praktijk vaak afwijken van de fabrikantspecificaties. Daarom is het van belang om objectieve praktijkgegevens te verkrijgen waarmee inzicht wordt verkregen in het verschil tussen theoretische en praktische prestaties, en de verbeterpunten van verschillende technologieen. Het doel van praktijkmonitoring is als volgt geformuleerd: via monitoring het inzicht te verkrijgen in de energetische prestaties van warmtetechnieken onder praktijkomstandigheden. Het uitvoeren van grootschalige metingen op een uniforme wijze vereist een monitoring protocol. Zo'n protocol waarborgt de kwaliteit, objectiviteit, uniformiteit en daarmee de betrouwbaarheid van de meetdata.

  20. Ultrasonic technique for monitoring of liquid density variations.

    Kazys, R; Rekuviene, R; Sliteris, R; Mazeika, L; Zukauskas, E


    A novel ultrasonic measurement technique for density measurements of different liquids in extreme conditions has been developed. The proposed density measurement method is based on transformation of the acoustic impedance of the measured liquid. The higher accuracy of measurements is achieved by means of the λ/4 acoustic matching layer between the load and the ultrasonic waveguide transducer. Introduction of the matching layer enhances sensitivity of the measurement system. Sometimes, the density measurements must be performed in very complex conditions: high temperature (up to 200 °C), pressure (up to 10 MPa), and high chemical activity of the medium under measurement. In this case, the special geometry metal waveguides are proposed to use in order to protect the piezoelectric transducer surface from influence of a high temperature. The experimental set-up of technique was calibrated using the reference liquids with different densities: ethyl ether, ethyl alcohol, distilled water, and different concentration (20%, 40%, and 60%) sugar-water solutions. The uncertainty of measurements is less than 1%. The proposed measurement method was verified in real conditions by monitoring the density of a melted polypropylene during manufacturing process.

  1. In situ sensor techniques in modern bioprocess monitoring.

    Beutel, Sascha; Henkel, Steffen


    New reactor concepts as multi-parallel screening systems or disposable bioreactor systems for decentralized and reproducible production increase the need for new and easy applicable sensor technologies to access data for process control. These sophisticated reactor systems require sensors to work with the lowest sampling volumes or, even better, to measure directly in situ, but in situ sensors are directly incorporated into a reactor or fermenter within the sterility barrier and have therefore to stand the sterilization procedures. Consequently, these in situ sensor technologies should enable the measurement of multi-analytes simultaneously online and in real-time at a low price for the robust sensing element. Current research therefore focuses on the implementation of noninvasive spectroscopic and optical technologies, and tries to employ them through fiber optics attached to disposable sensing connectors. Spectroscopic methods reach from ultraviolet to infrared and further comprising fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy. Also, optic techniques like microscopy are adapted for the direct use in bioreactor systems (Ulber et al. in Anal Bioanal Chem 376:342-348, 2003) as well as various electrochemical methods (Joo and Brown in Chem Rev 108:638-651, 2008). This review shows the variety of modern in situ sensing principles in bioprocess monitoring with emphasis on spectroscopic and optical techniques and the progress in the adaption to latest reactor concepts.



    Dynamic characteristics of large structures,such as tall buildings,long-span suspension,cable-stayed bridges and tall chimneys,are key to assess their drift and stress conditions.The dynamic characteristics of large structures are difficult to measure directly under the condition of earthquakes or strong winds using traditional techniques such as laser collimator,total station and accelerometers.Therefore there is a great need for developing new method or technique for this purpose.Recent advances in Global Positioning System (GPS) technology provide a great opportunity to monitor long-period changes of structures reliably.GPS receivers capable to gauge the motion at the centimeter or sub-centimeter level with sampling frequency 10Hz or even 20 Hz are now available from several manufacturers.To the authors' knowledge,the capability of identifying dynamic characteristics from GPS observations has not been widely verified.For the feasibility study on using kinematic GPS technology to identify the dynamic characteristics of tall buildings,some experiments were conducted in a simulative environment.This paper discusses in detail the experiment device,and the ways through them GPS data are recorded,processed and analyzed.With post-processing version of NovAtel's Softsurv software and auto-regressive (AR) spectral analysis method,relative displacements and corresponding vibrating frequencies have been derived from GPS observations.The results indicate that the dynamic characteristics can be identified accurately by kinematic GPS technology.

  3. System Accuracy Evaluation of Four Systems for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Following ISO 15197 Using a Glucose Oxidase and a Hexokinase-Based Comparison Method.

    Link, Manuela; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Baumstark, Annette; Rittmeyer, Delia; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido


    The standard ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 15197 is widely accepted for the accuracy evaluation of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Accuracy evaluation was performed for 4 SMBG systems (Accu-Chek Aviva, ContourXT, GlucoCheck XL, GlucoMen LX PLUS) with 3 test strip lots each. To investigate a possible impact of the comparison method on system accuracy data, 2 different established methods were used. The evaluation was performed in a standardized manner following test procedures described in ISO 15197:2003 (section 7.3). System accuracy was assessed by applying ISO 15197:2003 and in addition ISO 15197:2013 criteria (section 6.3.3). For each system, comparison measurements were performed with a glucose oxidase (YSI 2300 STAT Plus glucose analyzer) and a hexokinase (cobas c111) method. All 4 systems fulfilled the accuracy requirements of ISO 15197:2003 with the tested lots. More stringent accuracy criteria of ISO 15197:2013 were fulfilled by 3 systems (Accu-Chek Aviva, ContourXT, GlucoMen LX PLUS) when compared to the manufacturer's comparison method and by 2 systems (Accu-Chek Aviva, ContourXT) when compared to the alternative comparison method. All systems showed lot-to-lot variability to a certain degree; 2 systems (Accu-Chek Aviva, ContourXT), however, showed only minimal differences in relative bias between the 3 evaluated lots. In this study, all 4 systems complied with the evaluated test strip lots with accuracy criteria of ISO 15197:2003. Applying ISO 15197:2013 accuracy limits, differences in the accuracy of the tested systems were observed, also demonstrating that the applied comparison method/system and the lot-to-lot variability can have a decisive influence on accuracy data obtained for a SMBG system. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. Detection of Glucose Based on Gold & Silver Nanoparticles using Z-scan Technique

    Abdulwahab, Fatema


    Diabetes is a common chronic disease, characterized by defects in insulin action, secretion or both causing hyperglycemia. Diabetes can have serious long-term complications as it important to control blood glucose levels. Chemical and optical methods are used mainly in measuring glucose levels. Chemical methods require drawing blood several times a day which is uncomfortable for the patient. Optical sensor measurements are affected by physical and chemical parameters and environmental changes...

  5. An iterative matching and locating technique for borehole microseismic monitoring

    Chen, H.; Meng, X.; Niu, F.; Tang, Y.


    Microseismic monitoring has been proven to be an effective and valuable technology to image hydraulic fracture geometry. The success of hydraulic fracturing monitoring relies on the detection and characterization (i.e., location and focal mechanism estimation) of a maximum number of induced microseismic events. All the events are important to quantify the stimulated reservior volume (SRV) and characterize the newly created fracture network. Detecting and locating low magnitude events, however, are notoriously difficult, particularly at a high noisy production environment. Here we propose an iterative matching and locating technique (iMLT) to obtain a maximum detection of small events and the best determination of their locations from continuous data recorded by a single azimuth downhole geophone array. As the downhole array is located in one azimuth, the regular M&L using the P-wave cross-correlation only is not able to resolve the location of a matched event relative to the template event. We thus introduce the polarization direction in the matching, which significantly improve the lateral resolution of the M&L method based on numerical simulations with synthetic data. Our synthetic tests further indicate that the inclusion of S-wave cross-correlation data can help better constrain the focal depth of the matched events. We apply this method to a dataset recorded during hydraulic fracturing treatment of a pilot horizontal well within the shale play in southwest China. Our approach yields a more than fourfold increase in the number of located events, compared with the original event catalog from traditional downhole processing.

  6. Monitoring arterio-venous differences of glucose and lactate in the anesthetized rat with or without brain damage with ultrafiltration and biosensor technology

    Leegsma-Vogt, G; Venema, K; Postema, F; Korf, J


    Continuous monitoring of arterio-venous glucose and lactate differences may serve as a diagnostic tool to assess normal brain function and brain pathology. We describe a method and some results obtained with arterio-venous measurements of glucose and lactate in the blood of the halothane-anesthetize

  7. Barriers to self-monitoring of blood glucose among adults with diabetes in an HMO: A cross sectional study

    Barton Mary B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies suggest that patients at greatest risk for diabetes complications are least likely to self-monitor blood glucose. However, these studies rely on self-reports of monitoring, an unreliable measure of actual behavior. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between patient characteristics and self-monitoring in a large health maintenance organization (HMO using test strips as objective measures of self-monitoring practice. Methods This cross-sectional study included 4,565 continuously enrolled adult managed care patients in eastern Massachusetts with diabetes. Any self-monitoring was defined as filling at least one prescription for self-monitoring test strips during the study period (10/1/92–9/30/93. Regular SMBG among test strip users was defined as testing an average of once per day for those using insulin and every other day for those using oral sulfonylureas only. Measures of health status, demographic data, and neighborhood socioeconomic status were obtained from automated medical records and 1990 census tract data. Results In multivariate analyses, lower neighborhood socioeconomic status, older age, fewer HbA1c tests, and fewer physician visits were associated with lower rates of self-monitoring. Obesity and fewer comorbidities were also associated with lower rates of self-monitoring among insulin-managed patients, while black race and high glycemic level (HbA1c>10 were associated with less frequent monitoring. For patients taking oral sulfonylureas, higher dose of diabetes medications was associated with initiation of self-monitoring and HbA1c lab testing was associated with more frequent testing. Conclusions Managed care organizations may face the greatest challenges in changing the self-monitoring behavior of patients at greatest risk for poor health outcomes (i.e., the elderly, minorities, and people living in low socioeconomic status neighborhoods.

  8. Avoidable iatrogenic hypoglycemia in patients on peritoneal dialysis: the risks of nonspecific glucose monitoring devices and drug-device interaction.

    Firanek, Catherine A; Jacob, Dalia T; Sloand, James A


    Health care professionals (HCPs) depend upon "point-of-care" (POC) glucometers to provide appropriate treatment in emergency and hospital environments. Most devices located in these settings use nonspecific test strip methodology (NSTSM), which is unable to distinguish glucose from nonglucose sugars, including maltose. This flaw can result in erroneous administration of insulin and harm to patients. Icodextrin is a colloidal osmotic agent used in peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions to augment ultrafiltration and waste removal. The main metabolite of icodextrin is maltose. Three representative case reports of inappropriate medical action related to in-hospital use of NSTSM monitoring in PD patients using icodextrin are provided to emphasize importance of this interaction and HCP awareness. PD patients using icodextrin before hospitalization exhibited marked discrepancy between blood glucose (BG) measurements obtained from POC-NSTSM glucometers and those obtained by glucose-specific methods in clinical chemistry laboratories leading to inappropriate administration of insulin by HCPs and symptomatic hypoglycemia in all patients. None of the patients received icodextrin during hospitalization. Non-nephrology HCPs are unaware that POC glucometers are nonglucose specific and do not possess comprehensive knowledge of drug metabolism, particularly for uncommonly seen agents. The case reports highlight the absolute need for use of glucose-specific assays in BG determinations for patients using icodextrin within 2 weeks of hospitalization. To avoid future devastating consequences including severe hypoglycemia, coma, or death related to the drug-device interaction described, hospital protocols should require that all PD patients' BGs are measured in central chemistry laboratories.

  9. Investigation of Various Condition Monitoring Techniques Based on a Damaged Wind Turbine Gearbox

    Sheng, S.


    This paper is a continuation of a 2009 paper presented at the 7th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring that described various wind turbine condition-monitoring techniques. This paper presents the results obtained by various condition- monitoring techniques from a damaged Gearbox Reliability Collaborative test gearbox.

  10. Monitoring of Grandes Jorasses hanging glacier (Aosta Valley, Italy): improving monitoring techniques for glaciers instability

    Vagliasindi, Marco; Funk, Martin; Faillettaz, Jerome; Dalban, Pierre; Lucianaz, Claudio; Diotri, Fabrizio; Motta, Elena; Margreth, Stephan


    Grandes Jorasses serac is an unbalanced hanging glacier located on the south side of Mont Blanc Massif (Aosta Valley - Italy). It stands above Ferret Valley, a famous and most frequented touristic site both in winter and summer. Historical data and morphological evidences show that the glacier is subject to recurrent icefalls which can be dangerous especially in winter, as they can trigger catastrophic combined snow and ice avalanches. Serac dynamic was monitored in 1997-98 by prof. M Funk (ETH Zurich) by means of temperature and topographic measurement. These allowed to forecast the breakdown within a 2 days time. Thanks to a monitoring program, a new instability could be recognized in autumn 2008: a crevasse opening in the lower part of the hanging glacier. A new monitoring system was installed recently, consisting of stakes with prisms on serac surface and an automatic total station (theodolite plus distantiometer) sited on the valley floor. Monitoring is based on an empirically based power law (developed by ETH) that describes the increasing displacement rate before collapse. This monitoring system requires to measure displacement rate of the serac continuously. Although the topographic system is so far the method, it implies some troubles: (i) the difficulty in placing stakes on the steep and dangerous glacier surface; (ii) potential instability of stakes themselves due to snow pressure in winter and surface ice melting in summer; (iii) impossibility to carry out measurement in case of cloudy or stormy weather, which is rather a frequent situation on Grandes Jorasses peak. Moreover, hazard and risk management require some more informations, such as the instable ice mass volume. New technologies have been applied, and are still under test, to achieve a more reliable monitoring system and a better understanding of the serac dynamics. Close-range photogrammetry techniques have been used, allowing to process helicopter-taken images and obtain

  11. Intelligent instruments for process measurement techniques (monitoring of sensors)

    Bauer, B.; Hess, H. D.; Kalinski, J. R.; Leisenberg, W.; Marsch, D.


    Possibilities to extract redundant information of temperature sensors (resistance thermometers, thermocouples, semiconductor temperature sensors), and to find out which of the suggested redundancies are most suited for self controlled monitoring were investigated. Practical experience with equipment for process measurement techniques shows that sensor failures are five times more frequent than electronic malfunction. For resistance thermometers the measured values of the redundant information source (ac resistance) are too small (relative inductivity change 7 million). The information sources strain gage and propagation of ultrasonic waves are excluded because of physical properties in the sensor materials. Changes in the crystalline structure of thermocouples have the effect that there is no well defined relationship between thermoelectric voltage and the redundant information sources, resistance and coupled current impulses. A correlation of thermovoltage with these redundant values would yield a measurement uncertainty corresponding to more than + or - 50 K. Experiments with negative temperature coefficient sensors show that a failure is proceeded by a change in capacitance of the order of 0.1 pF.

  12. Sensors Array Technique for Monitoring Aluminum Alloy Spot Welding

    WANG Rui; LUO Zhen; SHAN Ping; BU Xianzheng; YUAN Shuxian; AO Sansan


    In this paper, the sensors array technique is applied to the quality detection of aluminum alloy spot weld-ing. The sensors array has three forms, i.e., linear magnetic sensors array, annular magnetic sensors array and cross magnetic sensors array. An algorithm based on principal component analysis is proposed to extract the signal eigen-values. The three types of magnetic sensors array are used in the experiment of monitoring the signal. After the eigen-values are extracted, they are used to build a relationship with the nugget information. The result shows that when the distance between the core of the array and the pole is 60 mm, the arrays work best. In this case, when the eigenvalues' range of the linear array is 0.006 5-0.015 1, the quality of the spots is eligible. To the annular and cross array, when the ranges are 0.082 9—0.131 6 and 0.085 1—0.098 2 respectively, the nugget quality is eligible.

  13. On the use of photothermal techniques for monitoring constructed wetlands

    Gatts, C. E. N.; Faria, R. T.; Vargas, H.; Lannes, L. S.; Aragon, G. T.; Ovalle, A. R. C.


    Wetlands are a valued part of landscapes throughout the world. The steady increase of industrial facilities and disorganized urbanization processes, especially in developing countries, became a serious menace to these systems. The capability of wetlands to serve as a sink for nonpoint pollutants, particularly nutrients, is remarkable, but not limitless. For this reason, efforts to preserve them are considered a strategic issue for several countries. In addition, due to the exploding costs for sewage treatment, constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment (reed-bed systems) have been widely used under a variety of different conditions. Wetlands present unique characteristics related to biogeochemical cycles, the transport and transformation of chemicals due to interrelated physical, and chemical, and biological processes. Particularly, vegetated wetlands can act as a source for greenhouse gases through the emission of sediment-produced methane (CH4) to atmosphere. From studies concerning the behavior of Salvinia auriculata Aublet., we intend to demonstrate the potential use of photothermal techniques for monitoring gaseous emissions in wetlands.

  14. Monitoring corrosion in prestressed concrete beams using acoustic emission technique

    ElBatanouny, Mohamed K.; Mangual, Jesé; Vélez, William; Ziehl, Paul H.; Matta, Fabio; González, Miguel


    Early detection of corrosion can help reduce the cost of maintenance and extend the service life of structures. Acoustic emission (AE) sensing has proven to be a promising method for early detection of corrosion in reinforced concrete members. A test program is presented composed of four medium-scale prestressed concrete T-beams. Three of the beams have a length of 16 ft. 4 in. (4.98 m), and one is 9 ft. 8 in. (2.95 m). In order to corrode the specimens a 3% NaCl solution was prepared, which is representative of sea salt concentration. The beams were subjected to wet-dry cycles to accelerate the corrosion process. Two of the specimens were pre-cracked prior to conditioning in order to examine the effect of crack presence. AE data was recorded continuously while half-cell potential measurements and corrosion rate by Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) were measured daily. Corrosion current was also being acquired constantly to monitor any change in the concrete resistivity. Results indicate that the onset of corrosion may be identified using AE features, and were corroborated with measurements obtained from electrochemical techniques. Corroded areas were located using source triangulation. The results indicate that cracked specimens showed corrosion activity prior to un-cracked specimens and experienced higher corrosion rates. The level of corrosion was determined using corrosion rate results. Intensity analysis was used to link the corrosion rate and level to AE data.

  15. Signal Processing Algorithms Implementing the “Smart Sensor” Concept to Improve Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Diabetes

    Facchinetti, Andrea; Sparacino, Giovanni; Cobelli, Claudio


    Glucose readings provided by current continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices still suffer from accuracy and precision issues. In April 2013, we proposed a new conceptual architecture to deal with these problems and render CGM sensors algorithmically smarter, which consists of three modules for denoising, enhancement, and prediction placed in cascade to a commercial CGM sensor. The architecture was assessed on a data set consisting of 24 type 1 diabetes patients collected in four clinical centers of the AP@home Consortium (a European project of 7th Framework Programme funded by the European Committee). This article, as a companion to our prior publication, illustrates the technical details of the algorithms and of the implementation issues. PMID:24124959

  16. Application of the Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter for Fault Detection in Continuous Glucose Monitors for Type 1 Diabetes

    Mahmoudi, Zeinab; Boiroux, Dimitri; Hagdrup, Morten


    The purpose of this study is the online detection of faults and anomalies of a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). We simulated a type 1 diabetes patient using the Medtronic virtual patient model. The model is a system of stochastic differential equations and includes insulin pharmacokinetics......, insulin-glucose interaction, and carbohydrate absorption. We simulated and detected two types of CGM faults, i.e., spike and drift. A fault was defined as a CGM value in any of the zones C, D, and E of the Clarke error grid analysis classification. Spike was modelled by a binomial distribution, and drift...... was modelled by a Gaussian random walk. We used a continuous-discrete extended Kalman filter for the fault detection, based on the statistical tests of the filter innovation and the 90-min prediction residuals of the sensor measurements. The spike detection had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 100...

  17. Microwave-Based Microfluidic Sensor for Non-Destructive and Quantitative Glucose Monitoring in Aqueous Solution

    Thomas Chretiennot


    Full Text Available This paper presents a reliable microwave and microfluidic miniature sensor dedicated to the measurement of glucose concentration in aqueous solution. The device; which is integrated with microtechnologies; is made of a bandstop filter implemented in a thin film microstrip technology combined with a fluidic microchannel. Glucose aqueous solutions have been characterized for concentration ranging from 80 g/L down to 0.3 g/L and are identified with the normalized insertion loss at optimal frequency. The sensitivity of the sensor has consequently been estimated at 7.6 × 10−3 dB/(g/L; together with the experimental uncertainty; the resolution of the sensor comes to 0.4 g/L. These results demonstrate the potentialities of such a sensor for the quantitative analysis of glucose in aqueous solution.

  18. System Accuracy Evaluation of Different Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems Following ISO 15197:2013 by Using Two Different Comparison Methods.

    Freckmann, Guido; Link, Manuela; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Baumstark, Annette; Haug, Cornelia


    Adherence to established standards (e.g., International Organization for Standardization [ISO] 15197) is important to ensure comparable and sufficient accuracy of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Accuracy evaluation was performed for different SMBG systems available in Europe with three reagent lots each. Test procedures followed the recently published revision ISO 15197:2013. Comparison measurements were performed with a glucose oxidase (YSI 2300 STAT Plus™ glucose analyzer; YSI Inc., Yellow Springs, OH) and a hexokinase (cobas Integra(®) 400 Plus analyzer; Roche Instrument Center, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) method. Compliance with ISO 15197:2013 accuracy criteria was determined by calculating the percentage of results within ±15% or within ±0.83 mmol/L of the comparison measurement results for glucose concentrations at and above or below 5.55 mmol/L, respectively, and by calculating the percentage of results within consensus error grid Zones A and B. Seven systems showed with all three tested lots that 95-100% of the results were within the accuracy limits of ISO 15197:2013 and that 100% of results were within consensus error grid Zones A and B, irrespective of the comparison method used. Regarding results of individual lots, slight differences between the glucose oxidase method and the hexokinase method were found. Accuracy criteria of ISO 15197:2003 (±20% for concentrations ≥4.2 mmol/L and±0.83 mmol/L for concentrations ISO 15197:2013. The results also indicate that the comparison measurement method/system is important, as it may have a considerable impact on accuracy data obtained for a system.

  19. On-line near infrared bioreactor monitoring of cell density and concentrations of glucose and lactate during insect cell cultivation.

    Qiu, Jiang; Arnold, Mark A; Murhammer, David W


    Near infrared spectroscopy is demonstrated as a suitable method for monitoring real time cell density and concentrations of glucose and lactate during insect cell cultivation. The utility of this approach is illustrated during the cultivation of Trichoplusia ni BTI-Tn-5B1-4 insect cells in a stirred-tank bioreactor. On-line near infrared measurements are made by passing unaltered culture medium through an autoclavable near infrared flow-through sample cell during the cultivation process. Single-beam near infrared spectra were collected over the combination spectral range (5000-4000cm(-1)) through a 1.5mm path length sample. Cell density calibration model was established by uni-variable linear regressions with measured mean absorbance values of on-line spectra collected during a cultivation run. Calibration models are generated for glucose and lactate by regression analysis of both off line and on line spectra collected during a series of pre-measurement cultivation runs. Analyte-specific calibration models are generated by using a combination of spectra from both natural, unaltered samples and samples spiked with known levels of glucose and lactate. Spiked samples are used to destroy concentration correlations between solutes, thereby enhancing the selectivity of the calibration models. Absorbance spectra are used to build partial least squares calibration models for glucose and lactate. The calibration model for cell density corresponds to a univariate linear regression calibration model based on the mean absorbance between 4750 and 4250cm(-1). The standard errors of prediction are 1.54mM, 0.83mM, and 0.38×10(6)cells/mL for the glucose, lactate, and cell density models, respectively.

  20. Accuracy of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Measurements in Normo-Glycemic Individuals

    Akintola, Abimbola A; Noordam, Raymond; Jansen, Steffy W


    a 24-hour period. Validity of CGM-derived individual glucose measurements, calculated measures of glycemia over daytime (09:00h-23:00h) and nighttime (23:00h-09:00h), and calculated measures of glycemic variability (e.g. 24h standard deviation [SD]) were assessed by Pearson correlation coefficients......, mean absolute relative difference (MARD) and paired t-tests. RESULTS: The median correlation coefficient between CGM and venous glucose measurements per participant was 0.68 (interquartile range: 0.40-0.78), and the MARD was 17.6% (SD = 17%). Compared with venous sampling, the calculated measure...

  1. Determination of glucose levels using dried filter paper blood spots: new perspective in home monitoring

    Laura Sterian Ward

    Full Text Available We present a method for the determination of blood glucose using dried filter paper blood spots.To validate this method, we compared our results using filter paper and simultaneously collected venous blood. We demonstrated that there is a linear relationship between the filter paper glucose levels and those determined in whole blood (r=0.98. There was no significant difference between the results of the two methods (p>0.05.This method is a cheap alternative which may improve the control of diabetes mellitus, and may also be very useful in the diagnosis of postprandial hypoglycemia and other special situations.

  2. Optimizing insulin injection technique and its effect on blood glucose control

    Giorgio Grassi, MD


    Conclusions: Targeted individualized training in IT, including the switch to a 4 mm needle, is associated with improved glucose control, greater satisfaction with therapy, better and simpler injection practices and possibly lower consumption of insulin after only a three month period.

  3. Blood Glucose Monitoring as a Teaching Tool for Endocrinology: A New Perspective

    Moats, Robert K., II


    The education of new allied health professionals and nurses in proper endocrine evaluation and care has become critical in recent years, especially considering the greatly increased prevalence of diabetes in adults and children. The evaluation of blood glucose levels in human volunteers over time is a powerful teaching tool for endocrinology that…

  4. Intensified glucose self-monitoring with education in Saudi DM patients.

    Ba-Essa, Ebtesam M; Mobarak, Eman I; Alghamdi, Abdulaziz; Al-Daghri, Nasser M


    The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of intensified SMBG with patient education on DM patients at the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. 60 poorly controlled adult type 1 and 2 DM patients (30 intervention; 30 control) were included in this 4-month case-control study. All patients were subjected to the same educational program at baseline. Controls were followed up after 3 months. The intervention group was followed monthly. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c and lipid profile levels were the main outcome measures. The intervention arm showed significant reduction in the post-fasting glucose (P<0.001) and HbA1c (P<0.001) levels as well as a significant increase in glucose testing (P<0.001) than pre-levels. Both post-fasting glucose and HbA1c levels were significantly lower in the intervention arm than the control arm (P<0.001 and P=0.001, respectively). The intervention group also showed higher improvement in knowledge, attitude and behavior than the controls (P<0.001). Short duration of structured periodic SMBG with patient education significantly improved glycemic control in all DM patients, regardless of the type or mode of treatment. It facilitated timely and aggressive treatment modification and encouraged patient self-care behavior.

  5. Application of Condition-Based Monitoring Techniques for Remote Monitoring of a Simulated Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    Hooper, David A [ORNL; Henkel, James J [ORNL; Whitaker, Michael [ORNL


    This paper presents research into the adaptation of monitoring techniques from maintainability and reliability (M&R) engineering for remote unattended monitoring of gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) for international safeguards. Two categories of techniques are discussed: the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) for diagnostic monitoring, and sequential Monte Carlo (SMC or, more commonly, particle filtering ) for prognostic monitoring. Development and testing of the application of condition-based monitoring (CBM) techniques was performed on the Oak Ridge Mock Feed and Withdrawal (F&W) facility as a proof of principle. CBM techniques have been extensively developed for M&R assessment of physical processes, such as manufacturing and power plants. These techniques are normally used to locate and diagnose the effects of mechanical degradation of equipment to aid in planning of maintenance and repair cycles. In a safeguards environment, however, the goal is not to identify mechanical deterioration, but to detect and diagnose (and potentially predict) attempts to circumvent normal, declared facility operations, such as through protracted diversion of enriched material. The CBM techniques are first explained from the traditional perspective of maintenance and reliability engineering. The adaptation of CBM techniques to inspector monitoring is then discussed, focusing on the unique challenges of decision-based effects rather than equipment degradation effects. These techniques are then applied to the Oak Ridge Mock F&W facility a water-based physical simulation of a material feed and withdrawal process used at enrichment plants that is used to develop and test online monitoring techniques for fully information-driven safeguards of GCEPs. Advantages and limitations of the CBM approach to online monitoring are discussed, as well as the potential challenges of adapting CBM concepts to safeguards applications.

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Two Venous Sampling Techniques for the Assessment of Pancreatic Insulin and Zinc Release upon Glucose Challenge.

    Pillai, Anil Kumar; Silvers, William; Christensen, Preston; Riegel, Matthew; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Lingvay, Ildiko; Sun, Xiankai; Öz, Orhan K


    Advances in noninvasive imaging modalities have provided opportunities to study β cell function through imaging zinc release from insulin secreting β cells. Understanding the temporal secretory pattern of insulin and zinc corelease after a glucose challenge is essential for proper timing of administration of zinc sensing probes. Portal venous sampling is an essential part of pharmacological and nutritional studies in animal models. The purpose of this study was to compare two different percutaneous image-guided techniques: transhepatic ultrasound guided portal vein access and transsplenic fluoroscopy guided splenic vein access for ease of access, safety, and evaluation of temporal kinetics of insulin and zinc release into the venous effluent from the pancreas. Both techniques were safe, reproducible, and easy to perform. The mean time required to obtain desired catheter position for venous sampling was 15 minutes shorter using the transsplenic technique. A clear biphasic insulin release profile was observed in both techniques. Statistically higher insulin concentration but similar zinc release after a glucose challenge was observed from splenic vein samples, as compared to the ones from the portal vein. To our knowledge, this is the first report of percutaneous methods to assess zinc release kinetics from the porcine pancreas.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Two Venous Sampling Techniques for the Assessment of Pancreatic Insulin and Zinc Release upon Glucose Challenge

    Anil Kumar Pillai


    Full Text Available Advances in noninvasive imaging modalities have provided opportunities to study β cell function through imaging zinc release from insulin secreting β cells. Understanding the temporal secretory pattern of insulin and zinc corelease after a glucose challenge is essential for proper timing of administration of zinc sensing probes. Portal venous sampling is an essential part of pharmacological and nutritional studies in animal models. The purpose of this study was to compare two different percutaneous image-guided techniques: transhepatic ultrasound guided portal vein access and transsplenic fluoroscopy guided splenic vein access for ease of access, safety, and evaluation of temporal kinetics of insulin and zinc release into the venous effluent from the pancreas. Both techniques were safe, reproducible, and easy to perform. The mean time required to obtain desired catheter position for venous sampling was 15 minutes shorter using the transsplenic technique. A clear biphasic insulin release profile was observed in both techniques. Statistically higher insulin concentration but similar zinc release after a glucose challenge was observed from splenic vein samples, as compared to the ones from the portal vein. To our knowledge, this is the first report of percutaneous methods to assess zinc release kinetics from the porcine pancreas.

  8. Thumb-size ultrasonic-assisted spectroscopic imager for in-situ glucose monitoring as optional sensor of conventional dialyzers

    Nogo, Kosuke; Mori, Keita; Qi, Wei; Hosono, Satsuki; Kawashima, Natsumi; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro


    We proposed the ultrasonic-assisted spectroscopic imaging for the realization of blood-glucose-level monitoring during dialytic therapy. Optical scattering and absorption caused by blood cells deteriorate the detection accuracy of glucose dissolved in plasma. Ultrasonic standing waves can agglomerate blood cells at nodes. In contrast, around anti-node regions, the amount of transmitted light increases because relatively clear plasma appears due to decline the number of blood cells. Proposed method can disperse the transmitted light of plasma without time-consuming pretreatment such as centrifugation. To realize the thumb-size glucose sensor which can be easily attached to dialysis tubes, an ultrasonic standing wave generator and a spectroscopic imager are required to be small. Ultrasonic oscillators are ∅30[mm]. A drive circuit of oscillators, which now size is 41×55×45[mm], is expected to become small. The trial apparatus of proposed one-shot Fourier spectroscopic imager, whose size is 30×30×48[mm], also can be little-finger size in principal. In the experiment, we separated the suspension mixed water and micro spheres (Θ10[mm) into particles and liquid regions with the ultrasonic standing wave (frequency: 2[MHz]). Furthermore, the spectrum of transmitted light through the suspension could be obtained in visible light regions with a white LED.

  9. Accuracy of a real-time continuous glucose monitoring system in children with septic shock: A pilot study

    Prabhudesai, Sumant; Kanjani, Amruta; Bhagat, Isha; Ravikumar, Karnam G.; Ramachandran, Bala


    Aims: The aim of this prospective, observational study was to determine the accuracy of a real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in children with septic shock. Subjects and Methods: Children aged 30 days to 18 years admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit with septic shock were included. A real-time CGMS sensor was used to obtain interstitial glucose readings. CGMS readings were compared statistically with simultaneous laboratory blood glucose (BG). Results: Nineteen children were included, and 235 pairs of BG-CGMS readings were obtained. BG and CGMS had a correlation coefficient of 0.61 (P 180 mg/dL, 44%, 100%, and 76.9% readings were in zones A and B, respectively (P 141 mg/dL predicted hyperglycemia (sensitivity 84.6%, specificity 89.6%, AUC = 0.87). Conclusion: CGMS provides a fairly, accurate estimate of BG in children with septic shock. It is unaffected by a variety of clinical variables. The accuracy over extremes of blood sugar may be a concern. We recommend larger studies to evaluate its use for the early detection of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. PMID:26730114

  10. Accuracy of a real-time continuous glucose monitoring system in children with septic shock: A pilot study

    Sumant Prabhudesai


    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this prospective, observational study was to determine the accuracy of a real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS in children with septic shock. Subjects and Methods: Children aged 30 days to 18 years admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit with septic shock were included. A real-time CGMS sensor was used to obtain interstitial glucose readings. CGMS readings were compared statistically with simultaneous laboratory blood glucose (BG. Results: Nineteen children were included, and 235 pairs of BG-CGMS readings were obtained. BG and CGMS had a correlation coefficient of 0.61 (P 180 mg/dL, 44%, 100%, and 76.9% readings were in zones A and B, respectively (P 141 mg/dL predicted hyperglycemia (sensitivity 84.6%, specificity 89.6%, AUC = 0.87. Conclusion: CGMS provides a fairly, accurate estimate of BG in children with septic shock. It is unaffected by a variety of clinical variables. The accuracy over extremes of blood sugar may be a concern. We recommend larger studies to evaluate its use for the early detection of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia.

  11. Review of Physical Based Monitoring Techniques for Condition Assessment of Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

    Ying Lei


    Full Text Available Monitoring the condition of steel corrosion in reinforced concrete (RC is imperative for structural durability. In the past decades, many electrochemistry based techniques have been developed for monitoring steel corrosion. However, these electrochemistry techniques can only assess steel corrosion through monitoring the surrounding concrete medium. As alternative tools, some physical based techniques have been proposed for accurate condition assessment of steel corrosion through direct measurements on embedded steels. In this paper, some physical based monitoring techniques developed in the last decade for condition assessment of steel corrosion in RC are reviewed. In particular, techniques based on ultrasonic guided wave (UGW and Fiber Bragg grating (FBG are emphasized. UGW based technique is first reviewed, including important characters of UGW, corrosion monitoring mechanism and feature extraction, monitoring corrosion induced deboning, pitting, interface roughness, and influence factors. Subsequently, FBG for monitoring corrosion in RC is reviewed. The studies and application of the FBG based corrosion sensor developed by the authors are presented. Other physical techniques for monitoring corrosion in RC are also introduced. Finally, the challenges and future trends in the development of physical based monitoring techniques for condition assessment of steel corrosion in RC are put forward.

  12. Simultaneous telemetric monitoring of brain glucose and lactate and motion in freely moving rats.

    Rocchitta, Gaia; Secchi, Ottavio; Alvau, Maria Domenica; Farina, Donatella; Bazzu, Gianfranco; Calia, Giammario; Migheli, Rossana; Desole, Maria Speranza; O'Neill, Robert D; Serra, Pier A


    A new telemetry system for simultaneous detection of extracellular brain glucose and lactate and motion is presented. The device consists of dual-channel, single-supply miniature potentiostat-I/V converter, a microcontroller unit, a signal transmitter, and a miniaturized microvibration sensor. Although based on simple and inexpensive components, the biotelemetry device has been used for accurate transduction of the anodic oxidation currents generated on the surface of implanted glucose and lactate biosensors and animal microvibrations. The device was characterized and validated in vitro before in vivo experiments. The biosensors were implanted in the striatum of freely moving animals and the biotelemetric device was fixed to the animal's head. Physiological and pharmacological stimulations were given in order to induce striatal neural activation and to modify the motor behavior in awake, untethered animals.

  13. IDegLira Improves Both Fasting and Postprandial Glucose Control as Demonstrated Using Continuous Glucose Monitoring and a Standardized Meal Test

    Holst, Jens J; Buse, John B; Rodbard, Helena W


    : In this substudy, 260 (15.6%) of the original 1663 patients with inadequate glycemic control participating in a 26-week, open-label trial (DUAL I) were randomized 2:1:1 to once-daily IDegLira, insulin degludec or liraglutide. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) for 72 hours and a meal test were performed. RESULTS......: At week 26, IDegLira produced a significantly greater decrease from baseline in mean PPG increment (normalized iAUC0-4h) than insulin degludec (estimated treatment difference [ETD] -12.79 mg/dl [95% CI: -21.08; -4.68], P = .0023) and a similar magnitude of decrease as liraglutide (ETD -1.62 mg/dl [95% CI......: -10.09; 6.67], P = .70). CGM indicated a greater reduction in change from baseline in PPG increment (iAUC0-4h) for IDegLira versus insulin degludec over all 3 main meals (ETD -6.13 mg/dl [95% CI: -10.27, -1.98], P = .0047) and similar reductions versus liraglutide (ETD -1.80 mg/dl [95% CI: -2.52, 5...

  14. A comparative study of sampling techniques for monitoring carcass contamination

    Snijders, J.M.A.; Janssen, M.H.W.; Gerats, G.E.; Corstiaensen, G.P.


    Four bacteriological sampling techniques i.e. the excision, double swab, agar contract and modified agar contact techniques were compared by sampling pig carcasses before and after chilling. As well as assessing the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques particular attention was paid to

  15. A comparative study of sampling techniques for monitoring carcass contamination

    Snijders, J.M.A.; Janssen, M.H.W.; Gerats, G.E.; Corstiaensen, G.P.


    Four bacteriological sampling techniques i.e. the excision, double swab, agar contract and modified agar contact techniques were compared by sampling pig carcasses before and after chilling. As well as assessing the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques particular attention was paid to vari

  16. Time-Series Analysis of Continuously Monitored Blood Glucose: The Impacts of Geographic and Daily Lifestyle Factors

    Sean T. Doherty


    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is known to be associated with environmental, behavioral, and lifestyle factors. However, the actual impacts of these factors on blood glucose (BG variation throughout the day have remained relatively unexplored. Continuous blood glucose monitors combined with human activity tracking technologies afford new opportunities for exploration in a naturalistic setting. Data from a study of 40 patients with diabetes is utilized in this paper, including continuously monitored BG, food/medicine intake, and patient activity/location tracked using global positioning systems over a 4-day period. Standard linear regression and more disaggregated time-series analysis using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA are used to explore patient BG variation throughout the day and over space. The ARIMA models revealed a wide variety of BG correlating factors related to specific activity types, locations (especially those far from home, and travel modes, although the impacts were highly personal. Traditional variables related to food intake and medications were less often significant. Overall, the time-series analysis revealed considerable patient-by-patient variation in the effects of geographic and daily lifestyle factors. We would suggest that maps of BG spatial variation or an interactive messaging system could provide new tools to engage patients and highlight potential risk factors.

  17. Human monitoring, smart health and assisted living techniques and technologies

    Longhi, Sauro; Freddi, Alessandro


    This book covers the three main scientific and technological areas critical for improving people's quality of life - namely human monitoring, smart health and assisted living - from both the research and development points of view.

  18. Modern Techniques and Technologies Applied to Training and Performance Monitoring.

    Sands, William A; Kavanaugh, Ashley A; Murray, Steven R; McNeal, Jeni R; Jemni, Monèm


    Athlete preparation and performance continues to increase in complexity and costs. Modern coaches are shifting from reliance on personal memory, experience, and opinion to evidence from collected training load data. Training load monitoring may hold vital information for developing systems of monitoring that follow the training process with such precision that both performance prediction and day-to-day management of training become an adjunct to preparation and performance. Time series data collection and analyses in sport are still in their infancy with considerable efforts being applied in "big-data" analytics and models of the appropriate variables to monitor and methods for doing so. Training monitoring has already garnered important applications, but lacks a theoretical framework from which to develop further. As such, we propose a framework involving the following: analyses of individuals, trend analyses, rules-based analysis, and statistical process control.

  19. Investigation of Various Wind Turbine Drivetrain Condition Monitoring Techniques (Presentation)

    Sheng, S.


    This presentation was given at the 2011 Wind Turbine Reliability Workshop sponsored by Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM on August 2-3, 2011. It discusses work for the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative including downtime caused by turbine subsystems, annual failure frequency of turbine subsystems, cost benefits of condition monitoring (CM), the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative's condition monitoring approach and rationale, test setup, and results and observations.

  20. Behavior Change Techniques Implemented in Electronic Lifestyle Activity Monitors: A Systematic Content Analysis

    Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Mayrsohn, Brian G; Rowland, Jennifer L


    Background Electronic activity monitors (such as those manufactured by Fitbit, Jawbone, and Nike) improve on standard pedometers by providing automated feedback and interactive behavior change tools via mobile device or personal computer. These monitors are commercially popular and show promise for use in public health interventions. However, little is known about the content of their feedback applications and how individual monitors may differ from one another. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the behavior change techniques implemented in commercially available electronic activity monitors. Methods Electronic activity monitors (N=13) were systematically identified and tested by 3 trained coders for at least 1 week each. All monitors measured lifestyle physical activity and provided feedback via an app (computer or mobile). Coding was based on a hierarchical list of 93 behavior change techniques. Further coding of potentially effective techniques and adherence to theory-based recommendations were based on findings from meta-analyses and meta-regressions in the research literature. Results All monitors provided tools for self-monitoring, feedback, and environmental change by definition. The next most prevalent techniques (13 out of 13 monitors) were goal-setting and emphasizing discrepancy between current and goal behavior. Review of behavioral goals, social support, social comparison, prompts/cues, rewards, and a focus on past success were found in more than half of the systems. The monitors included a range of 5-10 of 14 total techniques identified from the research literature as potentially effective. Most of the monitors included goal-setting, self-monitoring, and feedback content that closely matched recommendations from social cognitive theory. Conclusions Electronic activity monitors contain a wide range of behavior change techniques typically used in clinical behavioral interventions. Thus, the monitors may represent a medium by which

  1. Monitoring HIV-infected Patients with Diabetes: Hemoglobin A1c, Fructosamine, or Glucose?

    Kim, So-Young; Friedmann, Patricia; Seth, Amit; Fleckman, Adrienne M


    Published studies report inappropriately low hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) values that underestimate glycemia in HIV patients. We reviewed the charts of all HIV patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) at our clinic. Fifty-nine patients had HbA1c data, of whom 26 patients also had fructosamine data. We compared the most recent HbA1c to finger-stick (FS) glucose averaged over three months, and fructosamine to FS averaged over six weeks. Predicted average glucose (pAG) was calculated as reported by Nathan et al: pAG (mg/dL) = 28.7 × A1C% - 46.7. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and Kruskal-Wallis test. HbA1c values underestimated (UE) actual average glucose (aAG) in 19% of these patients and overestimated (OE) aAG in 27%. HbA1c estimated aAG within the established range in only 54% of the patients. There were no statistical differences in the types of HIV medication used in patients with UE, OE, or accurately estimated (AE) glycemia. A Spearman correlation coefficient between HbA1c and aAG was r = 0.53 (P < 0.0001). Correlation between fructosamine and aAG was r = 0.47 (P = 0.016). The correlations between HbA1c and aAG and between fructosamine and aAG were weaker than expected, and fructosamine was not more accurate than HbA1c.

  2. Dissociation of glucose tracer uptake and glucose transporter distribution in the regionally ischaemic isolated rat heart: application of a new autoradiographic technique

    Southworth, Richard; Medina, Rodolfo A.; Garlick, Pamela B. [Department of Radiological Sciences, Guy' s, King' s and St Thomas' School of Medicine, Guy' s Campus, London, SE1 9RT (United Kingdom); Dearling, Jason L.J.; Flynn, Aiden A.; Pedley, Barbara R. [Cancer Research UK Targeting and Imaging Group, Academic Department of Oncology, University College London, Royal Free Campus, London, NW3 2PF (United Kingdom)


    Fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG) and carbon-14 2-deoxyglucose ({sup 14}C-2-DG) are both widely used tracers of myocardial glucose uptake and phosphorylation. We have recently shown, using positron emission tomography (PET) and nuclear magnetic resonance, that ischaemia-reperfusion (I-R) causes differential changes in their uptake. We describe here the novel application of an autoradiographic technique allowing the investigation of this phenomenon at high resolution, using tracer concentrations of both analogues in the dual-perfused isolated rat heart. We also investigate the importance of glucose transporter (GLUT 1 and GLUT 4) distribution in governing the observed phosphorylated analogue accumulation. Hearts (n=5) were perfused with Krebs buffer for 40 min, made regionally zero-flow ischaemic for 40 min and reperfused for 60 min with Krebs containing tracer {sup 18}FDG (200 MBq) and tracer {sup 14}C-2-DG (0.37 MBq). Hearts were then frozen and five sections (10 {mu}m) were cut per heart, fixed and exposed on phosphor storage plates for 18 h (for {sup 18}FDG) and then for a further 9 days (for {sup 14}C-2-DG). Quantitative digital images of tracer accumulation were obtained using a phosphor plate reader. The protocol was repeated in a second group of hearts and GLUT 1 and GLUT 4 distribution analysed. Post-ischaemic accumulation of {sup 18}FDG-6-P was inhibited by 38.2%{+-}1.7% and {sup 14}C-DG-6-P by 19.0%{+-}2.2%, compared with control (P<0.05). After placing seven ''lines of interrogation'' across each heart section and analysing the phosphorylated tracer accumulation along them, a transmural gradient of both tracers was observed; this was highest at the endocardium and lowest at the epicardium. GLUT 4 translocated to the sarcolemma in the ischaemic/reperfused region (from 24%{+-}3% to 59%{+-}5%), while there was no cellular redistribution of GLUT 1. We conclude that since decreased phosphorylated tracer accumulation occurs

  3. Statistical techniques for sampling and monitoring natural resources

    Hans T. Schreuder; Richard Ernst; Hugo Ramirez-Maldonado


    We present the statistical theory of inventory and monitoring from a probabilistic point of view. We start with the basics and show the interrelationships between designs and estimators illustrating the methods with a small artificial population as well as with a mapped realistic population. For such applications, useful open source software is given in Appendix 4....

  4. Monitoring of rapid sand filters using an acoustic imaging technique

    Allouche, N.; Simons, D.G.; Rietveld, L.C.


    A novel instrument is developed to acoustically image sand filters used for water treatment and monitor their performance. The instrument consists of an omnidirectional transmitter that generates a chirp with a frequency range between 10 and 110 kHz, and an array of hydrophones. The instrument was e

  5. Monitoring contaminant strategies: tools, techniques, methodologies and model approaches

    A century-long history of experiments on solute transport in soils has resulted in a wide range of experimental setups and procedures, as well as methods for interpreting observations which has led to considerable ambiguity regarding monitoring approaches. This presentation will focus on results an...

  6. Determination of the Na(+)/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) turnover rate using the ion-trap technique.

    Longpré, Jean-Philippe; Lapointe, Jean-Yves


    The Na(+)/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) is a membrane protein that couples the transport of two Na(+) ions and one glucose molecule using the so-called alternating access mechanism. According to this principle, each cotransporter molecule can adopt either of two main conformations: one with the binding sites accessible to the extracellular solution and one with the binding sites facing the intracellular solution. The turnover rate (TOR) is the number of complete cycles that each protein performs per second. Determination of the TOR has important consequences for investigation of the cotransport mechanism, as none of the rate constants involved in mediating transport in a given direction (conformational changes and binding and unbinding reactions) can be slower than the TOR measured under the same conditions. In addition, the TOR can be used to estimate the number of cotransporter molecules involved in generating a given ensemble activity. In this study, we obtain an independent estimation of the TOR for human SGLT1 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes applying the ion-trap technique. This approach detects the quantity of ions released in or taken up from the restricted space existing between the oocyte plasma membrane and the tip of a large ion-selective electrode. Taking advantage of the fact that hSGLT1 in the absence of Na(+) can cotransport glucose with protons, we used a pH electrode to determine a TOR of 8.00 ± 1.3 s⁻¹ in the presence of 35 mM α-methyl-glucose at -150 mV (pH 5.5). For the same group of oocytes, a TOR of 13.3 ± 2.4 s⁻¹ was estimated under near-V(max) conditions, i.e., in the presence of 90 mM Na(+) and 5 mM α-methyl-glucose. Under these circumstances, the average cotransport current was -1.08 ± 0.61 μA (n = 14), and this activity was generated by an average of 3.6 ± 0.7 × 10¹¹ cotransporter molecules/oocyte. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of the Na+/Glucose Cotransporter (SGLT1) Turnover Rate Using the Ion-Trap Technique

    Longpré, Jean-Philippe; Lapointe, Jean-Yves


    The Na+/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) is a membrane protein that couples the transport of two Na+ ions and one glucose molecule using the so-called alternating access mechanism. According to this principle, each cotransporter molecule can adopt either of two main conformations: one with the binding sites accessible to the extracellular solution and one with the binding sites facing the intracellular solution. The turnover rate (TOR) is the number of complete cycles that each protein performs per second. Determination of the TOR has important consequences for investigation of the cotransport mechanism, as none of the rate constants involved in mediating transport in a given direction (conformational changes and binding and unbinding reactions) can be slower than the TOR measured under the same conditions. In addition, the TOR can be used to estimate the number of cotransporter molecules involved in generating a given ensemble activity. In this study, we obtain an independent estimation of the TOR for human SGLT1 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes applying the ion-trap technique. This approach detects the quantity of ions released in or taken up from the restricted space existing between the oocyte plasma membrane and the tip of a large ion-selective electrode. Taking advantage of the fact that hSGLT1 in the absence of Na+ can cotransport glucose with protons, we used a pH electrode to determine a TOR of 8.00 ± 1.3 s−1 in the presence of 35 mM α-methyl-glucose at −150 mV (pH 5.5). For the same group of oocytes, a TOR of 13.3 ± 2.4 s−1 was estimated under near-Vmax conditions, i.e., in the presence of 90 mM Na+ and 5 mM α-methyl-glucose. Under these circumstances, the average cotransport current was −1.08 ± 0.61 μA (n = 14), and this activity was generated by an average of 3.6 ± 0.7 × 1011 cotransporter molecules/oocyte. PMID:21190656

  8. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring as a tool to prevent severe hypoglycaemia in selected pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes

    Secher, A L; Stage, E; Ringholm, Lene


    history were informed about their additional high risk of severe hypoglycaemia, their treatment was focused on restricted insulin doses during the first 16 gestational weeks, and they were offered real-time continuous glucose monitoring on top of self-monitored plasma glucose measurements. RESULTS: Among......AIMS: Among women with Type 1 diabetes who have had severe hypoglycaemia the year before pregnancy, 70% also experience this complication in pregnancy, and particularly in the first half of pregnancy. We evaluated whether routine use of real-time continuous glucose monitoring from early pregnancy...... onwards could prevent severe hypoglycaemia in these women. METHODS: All 136 consecutive pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes referred to our centre were asked about severe hypoglycaemic events in the year before pregnancy and early in pregnancy at their first antenatal visit. Women with a relevant recent...

  9. Color record in self-monitoring of blood glucose improves glycemic control by better self-management.

    Nishimura, Akiko; Harashima, Shin-ichi; Honda, Ikumi; Shimizu, Yoshiyuki; Harada, Norio; Nagashima, Kazuaki; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Hosoda, Kiminori; Inagaki, Nobuya


    Color affects emotions, feelings, and behaviors. We hypothesized that color used in self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is helpful for patients to recognize and act on their glucose levels to improve glycemic control. Here, two color-indication methods, color record (CR) and color display (CD), were independently compared for their effects on glycemic control in less frequently insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. One hundred twenty outpatients were randomly allocated to four groups with 2×2 factorial design: CR or non-CR and CD or non-CD. Blood glucose levels were recorded in red or blue pencil in the CR arm, and a red or blue indicator light on the SMBG meter was lit in the CD arm, under hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, respectively. The primary end point was difference in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction in 24 weeks. Secondary end points were self-management performance change and psychological state change. HbA1c levels at 24 weeks were significantly decreased in the CR arm by -0.28% but were increased by 0.03% in the non-CR arm (P=0.044). In addition, diet and exercise scores were significantly improved in the CR arm compared with the non-CR arm. The exercise score showed significant improvement in the CD arm compared with the non-CD arm but without a significant difference in HbA1c reduction. Changes in psychological states were not altered between the arms. CR has a favorable effect on self-management performance without any influence on psychological stress, resulting in improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients using less frequent insulin injection. Thus, active but not passive usage of color-indication methods by patients is important in successful SMBG.

  10. Verification of glycemic profiles using continuous glucose monitoring: cases with steroid use, liver cirrhosis, enteral nutrition, or late dumping syndrome.

    Kishimoto, Miyako; Noda, Mitsuhiko


    Glycemic control is often difficult to achieve in patients with diabetes, especially in the presence of comorbid diseases or conditions such as steroid-use or liver cirrhosis, or in patients receiving enteral nutrition. Moreover, reactive hypoglycemia due to late dumping syndrome in people having undergone gastrectomy is also a matter of concern. Empirically and theoretically, the typical glycemic profiles associated with these conditions have been determined; however, what actually happens during a 24-h span is still somewhat obscure. In order to verify and provide information about the 24-h glycemic profiles associated with these conditions, 8 patients with the 4 above-mentioned conditions were monitored using a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). For all 8 patients, CGMS provided detailed information regarding the 24-h glycemic profiles. The CGM results showed typical glycemic patterns for each condition, and we were moreover able to observe the effects of various practical treatments. Based on these cases, we conclude that the CGMS is highly useful for determining the glycemic patterns of patients with the aforementioned conditions in a practical setting; and this system may be used to monitor the treatment success of such cases.

  11. Biological water quality monitoring using chemiluminescent and bioluminescent techniques

    Thomas, R. R.


    Automated chemiluminescence and bioluminescence sensors were developed for the continuous monitoring of microbial levels in water supplies. The optimal chemical procedures were determined for the chemiluminescence system to achieve maximum sensitivity. By using hydrogen peroxide, reaction rate differentiation, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), and carbon monoxide pretreatments, factors which cause interference were eliminated and specificity of the reaction for living and dead bacteria was greatly increased. By employing existing technology with some modifications, a sensitive and specific bioluminescent system was developed.

  12. Data Quality Assurance Techniques for a Monitoring and Diagnosis System


    By researching the data quality problem in the monitoring and diagnosis system (MDS),the method of detecting non-condition data based on the development trend of equipment condition is proposed, and three requirements of criteria for detecting non-condition data: dynamic, syntheses and simplicity are discussed. According to the general mode of data management in MDS, a data quality assurance system (DQAS) comprising data quality monitoring, data quality diagnosis, detection criteria adjusting and artificial confirmation is set up. A route inspection system called MTREE realizes the DQAS. Aiming at vibration data of route inspection, two detecting criteria are made. One is the quality monitoring parameter, which is found through combining and optimizing some fundamental parameters by genetic programming (GP). The other is the quality diagnosis criterion, i. e. pseudo distance of Spectral-Energy-Vector (SEV) named Adjacent J-divergence, which indicates the variation degree of adjacent data's spectral energy distribution. Results show that DQAS, including these two criteria, is effective to improve the data quality of MDS.

  13. Convergence of continuous glucose monitoring and in-hospital tight glycemic control: closing the gap between caregivers and industry.

    Miller, Michaela; Skladany, Matthew J; Ludwig, Christopher R; Guthermann, Joshua S


    The convergence of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and tight glycemic control protocols is approaching. As with the diffusion of any innovative technology, there will be challenges that will likely delay widespread adoption. With the objective of assessing the current mindset of health care professionals toward CGM adoption in the hospital intensive care unit (ICU) setting and resulting implications to industry, Boston Biomedical Consultants surveyed >60 U.S. ICU managers and nurses during Spring 2007. The underlying sentiment expressed by survey respondents toward CGM was positive, with many citing potential benefits of CGM adoption, such as labor savings, improved glycemic control, and assistance with insulin dosing. While the demand for CGM in the hospital clearly exists, early stage product acceptance will remain limited given the substantial education, market development, and economic hurdles.

  14. Impact of continuous glucose monitoring on quality of life, treatment satisfaction, and use of medical care resources

    Hommel, E; Olsen, B; Battelino, T


    To investigate the impact of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), treatment satisfaction (TS) medical resource use, and indirect costs in the SWITCH study. SWITCH was a multicentre, randomized, crossover study. Patients with type 1 diabetes (n = 153) using...... continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) were randomized to a 12 month sensor-On/Off or sensor-Off/On sequence (6 months each treatment), with a 4-month washout between periods. HRQOL in children and TS in adults were measured using validated questionnaires. Medical resource utilization data were...... collected. In adults, TS was significantly higher in the sensor-On arm, and there were significant improvements in ratings for treatment convenience and flexibility. There were no clinically significant differences in children's HRQOL or parents' proxy ratings. The incidence of severe hypoglycaemia...

  15. Detecting failures of the glucose sensor-insulin pump system: improved overnight safety monitoring for Type-1 diabetes.

    Facchinetti, Andrea; Del Favero, Simone; Sparacino, Giovanni; Cobelli, Claudio


    New sensors for real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and pumps for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), possibly mounted on the same device, opened new scenarios for Type-1 diabetes treatment. However, possible failures of either CGM or CSII can expose diabetic patients to risks that can be dangerous especially overnight. In this contribution we present a proof-of-concept method, developed in a state-space context and implemented through a Kalman estimator, to detect in real time possible overnight failures of the sensor-pump system by simultaneously using CGM and CSII data. The method is tested on two simulated and one real subject. Results show that the method is able to correctly generate alerts for sensor-pump failures and stimulates further investigation on its development.

  16. Continuous glucose monitoring adds information beyond HbA1c in well-controlled diabetes patients with early cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy

    Fleischer, Jesper; Laugesen, Esben; Cichosz, Simon Lebech


    AIMS: Hyperglycemia as evaluated by HbA1c is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) may add information beyond HbA1c in patients with type 2 diabetes and CAN. METHODS...... analysis didn't change the results. CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasize the importance of monitoring glucose patterns over 24-h and not only rely on HbA1c as therapeutic target in patients with type 2 diabetes and CAN....

  17. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring in type 1 diabetes: a qualitative framework analysis of patient narratives.

    Pickup, John C; Ford Holloway, Melissa; Samsi, Kritika


    This study analyzed narratives about experiences of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in people with type 1 diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes using CGM and caregivers completed an online survey. Questions included duration of CGM, frequency of sensor wear, funding, and a free narrative about experiences or views about CGM. We used qualitative framework analysis to analyze 100 responses; 50% of participants were aged ≥ 18 years. Most participants (87%) used CGM with insulin pump therapy, 71% used sensors ≥ 75% of the time, and 66% received funding for CGM from the National Health Service. Four themes were identified: 1) metabolic control, 2) living with CGM (work and school, sleep, exercise, nutrition, frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose [SMBG]), 3) psychological issues and patient/caregiver attitudes, and 4) barriers to CGM use (technical issues, financial issues, attitudes of healthcare professionals toward CGM). Despite some hassles, experiences were overwhelmingly positive, with improved glycemic control, diet and exercise management, quality of life, and physical and psychological well-being, as well as reduced frequency of SMBG. Technical problems included sensor inaccuracy and unreliability, and "alarm fatigue." The advantages of CGM used with an insulin pump with automatic suspension of insulin delivery during hypoglycemia were recorded by several participants, noting reduced hypoglycemia frequency and fear of nocturnal hypoglycemia. Patient and caregiver narratives indicate that CGM is a valuable addition to diabetes care for many with type 1 diabetes. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  18. Some studies on condition monitoring techniques for on line condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of mine winder motor.

    Tarun Kumar. Chatterjee


    Full Text Available Survey of existing literature reveals that no serious attempt has been made so far to monitor the health of mine winder motors. The electrical motors are the critical equipment of the mine winders which require constant condition monitoring for planning the right time for their maintenance and thus ensure maximum machineavailability. In this research work an online condition monitoring instrumentation system has been developed based on axial flux, current and vibration monitoring technique for mine winder motor. The online condition monitoring instrumentation system is noninvasive in nature and can be connected with mine winder motors which are in operation. The developed instrumentation system would be able to diagnose the health of mine winder motor and the motor fault of incipient nature can be pinpointed by the trend analysis of the frequency spectrum of time varying signal of axial flux, motor current and vibration.

  19. Alizarin Complexone Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: A Smart System Integrating Glucose-Responsive Double-Drugs Release and Real-Time Monitoring Capabilities.

    Zou, Zhen; He, Dinggeng; Cai, Linli; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Yang, Xue; Li, Liling; Li, Siqi; Su, Xiaoya


    The outstanding progress of nanoparticles-based delivery systems capable of releasing hypoglycemic drugs in response to glucose has dramatically changed the outlook of diabetes management. However, the developed glucose-responsive systems have not offered real-time monitoring capabilities for accurate quantifying hypoglycemic drugs released. In this study, we present a multifunctional delivery system that integrates both delivery and monitoring issues using glucose-triggered competitive binding scheme on alizarin complexone (ALC) functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN). In this system, ALC is modified on the surface of MSN as the signal reporter. Gluconated insulin (G-Ins) is then introduced onto MSN-ALC via benzene-1,4-diboronic acid (BA) mediated esterification reaction, where G-Ins not only blocks drugs inside the mesopores but also works as a hypoglycemic drug. In the absence of glucose, the sandwich-type boronate ester structure formed by BA binding to the diols of ALC and G-Ins remains intact, resulting in an fluorescence emission peak at 570 nm and blockage of pores. Following a competitive binding, the presence of glucose cause the dissociation of boronate ester between ALC and BA, which lead to the pores opening and disappearance of fluorescence. As proof of concept, rosiglitazone maleate (RSM), an insulin-sensitizing agent, was doped into the MSN to form a multifunctional MSN (RSM@MSN-ALC-BA-Ins), integrating with double-drugs loading, glucose-responsive performance, and real-time monitoring capability. It has been demonstrated that the glucose-responsive release behaviors of insulin and RSM in buffer or in human serum can be quantified in real-time through evaluating the changes of fluorescence signal. We believe that this developed multifunctional system can shed light on the invention of a new generation of smart nanoformulations for optical diagnosis, individualized treatment, and noninvasive monitoring of diabetes management.

  20. Numerical and clinical precision of continuous glucose monitoring in Colombian patients treated with insulin infusion pump with automated suspension in hypoglycemia.

    Gómez, Ana M; Marín Sánchez, Alejandro; Muñoz, Oscar M; Colón Peña, Christian Alejandro


    Insulin pump therapy associated with continuous glucose monitoring has shown a positive clinical impact on diabetes control and reduction of hypoglycemia episodes. There are descriptions of the performance of this device in other populations, but its precision and accuracy in Colombia and Latin America are unknown, especially in the routine outpatient setting. Data from 33 type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients with sensor-augmented pump therapy with threshold suspend automation, MiniMed Paradigm® Veo™ (Medtronic, Northridge, California), managed at Hospital Universitario San Ignacio (Bogotá, Colombia) and receiving outpatient treatment, were analyzed. Simultaneous data from continuous glucose monitoring and capillary blood glucose were compared, and their precision and accuracy were calculating with different methods, including Clarke error grid. Analyses included 2,262 continuous glucose monitoring -reference paired glucose values. A mean absolute relative difference of 20.1% was found for all measurements, with a value higher than 23% for glucose levels ≤75mg/dL. Global compliance with the ISO criteria was 64.9%. It was higher for values >75mg/dl (68.3%, 1,308 of 1,916 readings), than for those ≤ 75mg/dl (49.4%, 171 of 346 readings). Clinical accuracy, as assessed by the Clarke error grid, showed that 91.77% of data were within the A and B zones (75.6% in hypoglycemia). A good numerical accuracy was found for continuous glucose monitoring in normo and hyperglycemia situations, with low precision in hypoglycemia. The clinical accuracy of the device was adequate, with no significant safety concerns for patients. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel Monitoring Techniques for Characterizing Frictional Interfaces in the Laboratory

    Paul A. Selvadurai


    Full Text Available A pressure-sensitive film was used to characterize the asperity contacts along a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA interface in the laboratory. The film has structural health monitoring (SHM applications for flanges and other precision fittings and train rail condition monitoring. To calibrate the film, simple spherical indentation tests were performed and validated against a finite element model (FEM to compare normal stress profiles. Experimental measurements of the normal stress profiles were within −7.7% to 6.6% of the numerical calculations between 12 and 50 MPa asperity normal stress. The film also possessed the capability of quantifying surface roughness, an important parameter when examining wear and attrition in SHM applications. A high definition video camera supplied data for photometric analysis (i.e., the measure of visible light of asperities along the PMMA-PMMA interface in a direct shear configuration, taking advantage of the transparent nature of the sample material. Normal stress over individual asperities, calculated with the pressure-sensitive film, was compared to the light intensity transmitted through the interface. We found that the luminous intensity transmitted through individual asperities linearly increased 0.05643 ± 0.0012 candelas for an increase of 1 MPa in normal stress between normal stresses ranging from 23 to 33 MPa.

  2. Loading of red blood cells with an analyte-sensitive dye for development of a long-term monitoring technique

    Ritter, Sarah C.; Meissner, Kenith E.


    Measurement of blood analytes, such as pH and glucose, provide crucial information about a patient's health. Some such analytes, such as glucose in the case of diabetes, require long-term or near-continuous monitoring for proper disease management. However, current monitoring techniques are far from ideal: multiple-per-day finger stick tests are inconvenient and painful for the patient; implantable sensors have short functional life spans (i.e., 3-7 days). Red blood cells serve as an attractive alternative for carriers of analyte sensors. Once reintroduced to the blood stream, these carriers may continue to live for the remainder of their life span (120 days for humans). They are also biodegradable and biocompatible, thereby eliminating the immune system response common for many implanted devices. The proposed carrier system takes advantage of the ability of the red blood cells to swell in response to a decrease in the osmolarity of the extracellular solution. Just before the membranes lyse, they develop small pores on the scale of tens of nanometers. Analyte-sensitive dyes in the extracellular solution may then diffuse into the perforated red blood cells and become entrapped upon restoration of physiological temperature and osmolarity. Because the membranes contain various analyte transporters, intracellular analyte levels rapidly equilibrate to those of the extracellular solution. A fluorescent dye has been loaded inside of red blood cells using a preswelling technique. Alterations in preparation parameters have been shown to affect characteristics of the resulting dye-loaded red blood cells (e.g., intensity of fluorescence).

  3. The Impact of Health Locus of Control and Anxiety on Self-Monitored Blood Glucose Concentration in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Miazgowski, Tomasz; Bikowska, Magdalena; Ogonowski, Jarosław; Taszarek, Aleksandra


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between health locus of control (HLC), anxiety, and glycemic control from the time of diagnosis of gestational diabetes (GDM) to the end of pregnancy. The study group comprised 165 women with GDM. Baseline HLC (∼27 weeks of gestation) was assessed by the Multidimensional HLC Scale. The level of anxiety was measured at baseline and follow-up (37 weeks of gestation) by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Using questionnaires, we collected information about the level of fear related to measuring blood glucose several times per day, dietary regimen, and insulin therapy, as well as fear for the baby and its health, patient's own health, and having diabetes in the next pregnancy. Glycemic control was evaluated by self-monitored fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels. Baseline state anxiety was significantly higher than trait anxiety. From baseline to follow-up, the state anxiety and percentage of women with increased fear for their infant's health, diabetic diet, self-monitoring of blood glucose, and insulin injection significantly decreased. In comparison to women with blood glucose in the low tertile, those with blood glucose in the high tertile had significantly higher scores in the chance HLC subscale and a similar level of state anxiety. Blood glucose was positively correlated with the chance HLC score. Chance HLC beliefs seem to be associated with poorer glycemic outcomes in women with GDM. Our results suggest the need for further efforts to reduce the GDM-associated state anxiety.

  4. Cleaning Verification Monitor Technique Based on Infrared Optical Methods


    Cleaning Verification Techniques.” Real-time methods to provide both qualitative and quantitative assessments of surface cleanliness are needed for a...detection VCPI method offer a wide range of complementary capabilities in real-time surface cleanliness verification. Introduction Currently...also has great potential to reduce or eliminate premature failures of surface coatings caused by a lack of surface cleanliness . Additional

  5. Opportunities for Process Monitoring Techniques at Delayed Access Facilities

    Curtis, Michael M.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Johnson, Shirley J.; Schanfein, Mark; Toomey, Christopher


    Except for specific cases where the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) maintains a continuous presence at a facility (such as the Japanese Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant), there is always a period of time or delay between the moment a State is notified or aware of an upcoming inspection, and the time the inspector actually enters the material balance area or facility. Termed by the authors as “delayed access,” this period of time between inspection notice and inspector entrance to a facility poses a concern. Delayed access also has the potential to reduce the effectiveness of measures applied as part of the Safeguards Approach for a facility (such as short-notice inspections). This report investigates the feasibility of using process monitoring to address safeguards challenges posed by delayed access at a subset of facility types.

  6. Monitoring fetal maturation - objectives, techniques and indices of autonomic function.

    Hoyer, Dirk; Zebrowski, Jan; Cysarz, Dirk; Goncalves, Hernani; Pytlik, Adelina; Amorim-Costa, Celia; Bernardes, Joao; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Witte, Otto; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Stroux, Lisa; Redman, Christopher; Georgieva, Antoniya; Payne, Stephen; Clifford, Gari; Signorini, Maria; Magenes, Giovanni; Andreotti, Fernando; Malberg, Hagen; Zaunseder, Sebastian; Lakhno, Igor; Schneider, Uwe


    Monitoring the fetal behavior does not only have implications for acute care but also for identifying developmental disturbances that burden the entire later life. The concept, of "fetal programming", also known as "developmental origins of adult disease hypothesis", e.g. applies for cardiovascular, metabolic, hyperkinetic, cognitive disorders. Since the autonomic nervous system is involved in all of those systems, cardiac autonomic control may provide relevant functional diagnostic and prognostic information. The fetal heart rate patterns (HRP) are one of the few functional signals in the prenatal period that relate to autonomic control and, therefore, is predestinated for its evaluation. The development of sensitive markers of fetal maturation and its disturbances requires the consideration of physiological fundamentals, recording technology and HRP parameters of autonomic control. Based on the ESGCO2016 special session on monitoring the fetal maturation we herein report the most recent results on: (i) functional fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS), Recurrence Quantitative Analysis and Binary Symbolic Dynamics of complex HRP resolve specific maturation periods, (ii) magnetocardiography (MCG) based fABAS was validated for cardiotocography (CTG), (iii) 30 min recordings are sufficient for obtaining episodes of high variability, important for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) detection in handheld Doppler, (iv) novel parameters from PRSA to identify Intra IUGR fetuses, (v) Electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings allowed a stable heart beat detection in the maturation periods between 20 to 28 weeks of gestation only, (vi) correlation between maternal and fetal HRV is disturbed in pre-eclampsia. The reported novel developments significantly extend the possibilities for the established CTG methodology. Novel HRP indices improve the accuracy of assessment due to their more appropriate consideration of complex autonomic processes across the recording technologies

  7. An online technique for condition monitoring the induction generators used in wind and marine turbines

    Yang, Wenxian; Tavner, P. J.; Court, R.


    Induction generators have been successfully applied to a variety of industries. However, their operation and maintenance in renewable wind and marine energy industries still face challenges due to harsh environments, limited access to site and relevant reliability issues. Hence, further enhancing their condition monitoring is regarded as one of the essential measures for improving their availability. To date, much effort has been made to monitor induction motors, which can be equally applied to monitoring induction generators. However, the achieved techniques still have constrains in particular when dealing with the condition monitoring problems in wind and marine turbine generators. For example, physical measurements of partial discharge, noise and temperature have been widely applied to monitoring induction machinery. They are simple and cost-effective, but unable to be used for fault diagnosis. The spectral analysis of vibration and stator current signals is also a mature technique popularly used in motor/generator condition monitoring practice. However, it often requires sufficient expertise for data interpretation, and significant pre-knowledge about the machines and their components. In particular in renewable wind and marine industries, the condition monitoring results are usually coupled with load variations, which further increases the difficulty of obtaining a reliable condition monitoring result. In view of these issues, a new condition monitoring technique is developed in this paper dedicated for wind and marine turbine generators. It is simple, informative and less load-dependent thus more reliable to deal with the online motor/generator condition monitoring problems under varying loading conditions. The technique has been verified through both simulated and practical experiments. It has been shown that with the aid of the proposed technique, not only the electrical faults but also the shaft unbalance occurring in the generator become detectable

  8. Utilizing distributional analytics and electronic records to assess timeliness of inpatient blood glucose monitoring in non-critical care wards

    Ying Chen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular and timely monitoring of blood glucose (BG levels in hospitalized patients with diabetes mellitus is crucial to optimizing inpatient glycaemic control. However, methods to quantify timeliness as a measurement of quality of care are lacking. We propose an analytical approach that utilizes BG measurements from electronic records to assess adherence to an inpatient BG monitoring protocol in hospital wards. Methods We applied our proposed analytical approach to electronic records obtained from 24 non-critical care wards in November and December 2013 from a tertiary care hospital in Singapore. We applied distributional analytics to evaluate daily adherence to BG monitoring timings. A one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (1S-KS test was performed to test daily BG timings against non-adherence represented by the uniform distribution. This test was performed among wards with high power, determined through simulation. The 1S-KS test was coupled with visualization via the cumulative distribution function (cdf plot and a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (2S-KS test, enabling comparison of the BG timing distributions between two consecutive days. We also applied mixture modelling to identify the key features in daily BG timings. Results We found that 11 out of the 24 wards had high power. Among these wards, 1S-KS test with cdf plots indicated adherence to BG monitoring protocols. Integrating both 1S-KS and 2S-KS information within a moving window consisting of two consecutive days did not suggest frequent potential change from or towards non-adherence to protocol. From mixture modelling among wards with high power, we consistently identified four components with high concentration of BG measurements taken before mealtimes and around bedtime. This agnostic analysis provided additional evidence that the wards were adherent to BG monitoring protocols. Conclusions We demonstrated the utility of our proposed analytical approach as a monitoring

  9. 77 FR 24228 - Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants


    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is issuing a new guide regulatory guide, (RG) 1.218, ``Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes techniques that the staff of the NRC considers acceptable for condition monitoring of electric cables for nuclear power plants. RG 1.218 is not intended to be prescriptive,......

  10. Dispersion Monitoring techniques in High Bit-rate Optical Communication Systems

    SANG Xin-zhu; YU Chong-xiu; ZHANG Qi; WANG Xu


    For the efficient dynamic dispersion compensation, it is essential to monitor the dispersion accurately. The existing main dispersion monitoring techniques in high bit- rate optical communication systems are presented as well as their operating principles and research progress. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are analyzed and discussed.

  11. Inline monitoring of CO2 absorption processes using simple analytical techniques and multivariate modeling

    Ham, L.V. van der; Bakker, D.E.; Geers, L.F.G.; Goetheer, E.L.V.


    The solvent and the dissolved CO2 concentrations are two essential properties of CO2 absorption processes. Currently, they are typically monitored using time-consuming offline analytical techniques. Initial development efforts aiming at a cost-effective and reliable inline monitoring system are desc

  12. Detection of glycemic abnormalities in adolescents with beta thalassemia using continuous glucose monitoring and oral glucose tolerance in adolescents and young adults with β-thalassemia major: Pilot study

    Ashraf T Soliman


    Full Text Available Background: Both insulin deficiency and resistance are reported in patients with β-thalassemia major (BTM. The use of continuous blood glucose monitoring (CGM, among the different methods for early detection of glycemic abnormalities, has not been studied thoroughly in these adolescents. Materials and Methods: To assess the oralglucose tolerance (OGT and 72-h continuous glucose concentration by the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA, and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI was conducted in 16 adolescents with BTM who were receiving regular blood transfusions every 2-4 weeks and iron-chelation therapy since early childhood. Results: Sixteen adolescents with BTM (age: 19.75 ± 3 years were investigated. Using OGTT, (25% had impaired fasting blood (plasma glucose concentration (BG (>5.6 mmol/L. 2-h after the glucose load, one of them had BG = 16.2 mmol/L (diabetic and two had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT (BG > 7.8 and 11.1 mmol/L and 9 with IGT (56%. HOMA and QUICKI revealed levels 0.33 (0.36 ± 0.03, respectively, ruling out significant insulin resistance in these adolescents. There was a significant negative correlation between the β-cell function (B% on one hand and the fasting and the 2-h BG (r=−0.6, and − 0.48, P < 0.01, respectively on the other hand. Neither fasting serum insulin nor c-peptide concentrations were correlated with fasting BG or ferritin levels. The average and maximum blood glucose levels during CGM were significantly correlated with the fasting BG (r = 0.68 and 0.39, respectively, with P < 0.01 and with the BG at 2-hour after oral glucose intake (r = 0.87 and 0.86 respectively, with P < 0.001. Ferritin concentrations were correlated with the fasting BG and the 2-h blood glucose levels in the OGTT (r = 0.52, and r = 0.43, respectively, P < 0.01 as well as with the average BG recorded by CGM (r = 0.75, P < 0.01. Conclusion: CGM has proven to

  13. Design and development of a miniaturised total chemical analysis system for on-line lactate and glucose monitoring in biological samples

    Dempsey, Eithne; Diamond, Dermot; Smyth, Malcolm R.; Urban, Gerald; Jobst, Gerhard; Moser, Isabella; Verpoorte, Elisabeth M.J.; Manz, Andreas; Widmer, H. Michael; Rabenstein, Kai; Freaney, Rosemarie


    A miniaturised Total chemical Analysis System (μTAS) for glucose and lactate measurement in biological samples constructed based on an integrated microdialysis sampling and detection system. The complete system incorporates a microdialysis probe for intravascular monitoring in an ex vivo mini-shunt

  14. Aerial monitoring in active mud volcano by UAV technique

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Capasso, Giorgio; Madonia, Paolo


    UAV photogrammetry opens various new applications in the close range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry. Between 2014 and 2015 tree aerial surveys have been carried out. Using a quadrotor drone, equipped with a compact camera, it was possible to generate high resolution elevation models and orthoimages of The "Salinelle", an active mud volcanoes area, located in territory of Paternò (South Italy). The main risks are related to the damages produced by paroxysmal events. Mud volcanoes show different cyclic phases of activity, including catastrophic events and periods of relative quiescence characterized by moderate activity. Ejected materials often are a mud slurry of fine solids suspended in liquids which may include water and hydrocarbon fluids, the bulk of released gases are carbon dioxide, with some methane and nitrogen, usually pond-shaped of variable dimension (from centimeters to meters in diameter). The scope of the presented work is the performance evaluation of a UAV system that was built to rapidly and autonomously acquire mobile three-dimensional (3D) mapping data in a volcanic monitoring scenario.


    Riddhi Patel


    Full Text Available Over the past decades diabetes is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the world, thus inventing glucose biosensors with accurate continuous monitoring is of growing concern amongst the scientists worldwide. This manuscript reviews the development of glucose biosensors over the last 50 years since the invention of the first glucose sensing electrode and various approaches considered to develop accurate and modern techniques of glucose sensing. This review provides brief introduction to principles of various glucose biosensors with systemization and classification of glucose monitoring principles. Thus the main aim of this manuscript is to check history of glucose biosensors, comment on their current status and commercial aspects, and examine future challenges.

  16. Can the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors be affected by the Received Signal Strength of 900 MHz GSM Mobile Phones?

    Eslami J.


    Full Text Available Background: People who use home blood glucose monitors may use their mobile phones in the close vicinity of medical devices. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Methods: Sixty non-diabetic volunteer individuals aged 21 - 28 years participated in this study. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose level by using a common blood glucose monitoring system. Each blood sample was analyzed twice, within ten minutes in presence and absence of electromagnetic fields generated by a common GSM mobile phone during ringing. Blood samples were divided into 3 groups of 20 samples each. Group 1: exposure to mobile phone radiation with weak signal strength. Group2: exposure to mobile phone radiation with strong signal strength. Group3: exposure to a switched–on mobile phone with no signal strength. Results: The magnitude of the changes in the first, second and third group between glucose levels of two measurements (׀ΔC׀ (were 7.4±3.9 mg/dl, 10.2±4.5 mg/ dl, 8.7±8.4 mg/dl respectively. The difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 1st and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Furthermore, the difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 2nd and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Findings of this study showed that the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones cannot play a significant role in changing the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors.

  17. ENVISION, developing motion monitoring techniques for particle therapy


    Particle therapy is an advanced technique of cancer radiation therapy, using protons or other ions to target the cancerous mass. ENVISION aims at developing medical imaging tools to improve the dose delivery to the patient, to ensure a safer and more effective treatment. The animation illustrates the challenge of treating a tumour as it moves due to patient breathing. The ENVISION project is co-funded by the European Commission under FP7 Grant Agreement N. 241851. ENVISION serves as a training platform for the Marie Curie Initial Training Programme ENTERVISION, funded by the European Commission under FP7 Grant Agreement N. 264552. Produced by: CERN KT/Life Sciences and ENVISION Project Management: Manuela Cirilli 3D animation: Jeroen Huijben, Nymus3d

  18. Neurophotonics: non-invasive optical techniques for monitoring brain functions

    Torricelli, Alessandro; Contini, Davide; Mora, Alberto Dalla; Pifferi, Antonio; Re, Rebecca; Zucchelli, Lucia; Caffini, Matteo; Farina, Andrea; Spinelli, Lorenzo


    Summary The aim of this review is to present the state of the art of neurophotonics, a recently founded discipline lying at the interface between optics and neuroscience. While neurophotonics also includes invasive techniques for animal studies, in this review we focus only on the non-invasive methods that use near infrared light to probe functional activity in the brain, namely the fast optical signal, diffuse correlation spectroscopy, and functional near infrared spectroscopy methods. We also present an overview of the physical principles of light propagation in biological tissues, and of the main physiological sources of signal. Finally, we discuss the open issues in models, instrumentation, data analysis and clinical approaches. PMID:25764252

  19. Ramadan fasting in diabetes patients on insulin pump therapy augmented by continuous glucose monitoring: an observational real-life study.

    Khalil, Ali Bernard; Beshyah, Salem A; Abu Awad, Samar M; Benbarka, Mahmoud M; Haddad, Marcil; Al-Hassan, Dana; Kahwatih, Marwa; Nagelkerke, Nico


    Hypoglycemia during the daytime of Ramadan fasting is the most feared complication of diabetes. Insulin pump therapy has been proposed as the ideal "theoretical" method for insulin delivery. We report a prospective observational, single-center study of insulin-treated patients using insulin pump therapy during Ramadan 2011. Twenty-one patients (10 males and 11 females) were selected; median age was 26 years. They adjusted their insulin as per their usual practices. Outcome measures obtained before and during Ramadan included body weight, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood glucose, total insulin dose differences, overriding tendency, suspension time during fasting, and number of hypoglycemic episodes. The patients fasted for a median of 29 days. The observed changes during Ramadan were overall not significant quantitatively, but some trends were noted. The total insulin administered during Ramadan was not different from that in the pre-Ramadan period, but there was a redistribution of insulin over a 24-h period in relation to the changes in the daily lifestyle and eating patterns. Basal insulin was decreased during the daytime by 5-20% from before Ramadan and increased during the nighttime. The mean change in the overall amount of basal insulin was not significant. A larger than usual amount of insulin bolus was given at the meals Iftar, Fowala, and Suhur; the change in the total amount of bolus insulin as a percentage change from total insulin was also not significant. No major hypoglycemic episodes were reported. Minor hypoglcemic episodes were equally distributed between daytime and nighttime and were managed by either basal insulin adjustment or suspension from the pump. This study confirms the advantages provided by insulin pump use in patients with diabetes were enhanced by the use of continuous glucose monitoring. We provided more evidence-based advice on how best to adjust the insulin pump during fasting.

  20. Structured self monitoring of blood glucose in Iranian people with type 2 diabetes; A cost consequence analysis

    Aghili Rokhsareh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG is considered as a key factor in management of people with diabetes which is a growing and cost demanding health problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of comprehensive patient management using structured SMBG on metabolic control as well as its cost consequence analysis. Methods Sixty subjects were recruited in an observational study for a period of 6 months. They were provided with the ACCU-CHEK 360° View tool to fill in the values of the 7-point blood glucose profiles in three consecutive days during the study on a monthly basis. Changes in metabolic control were assessed by HbA1c and lipid profile measurement at the beginning and at the end of the study. In addition, cost consequence analysis was done considering different level of health care professionals with or without insurance coverage. The Average Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ACER as well as Cost saving analysis were calculated and compared. Results The analysis showed significant reduction in HbA1c during the 6-month period in all subjects (P = 0.000. Furthermore, a positive effect was observed on lipid profile. The cost of endocrinologist’s visit in private sector was estimated to be 265.76 USD while this figure was149.15 USD for general practitioner in public sector with insurance coverage. Total complications and mortality cost saving was 154.8 USD. The lowest ACER was calculated for intervention with general practitioner in public sector with insurance coverage. Conclusion Structured SMBG results in significant improvement of glycemic status. Moreover, it is more cost saving in public sector with insurance coverage. It seems that general practitioner visits with insurance coverage is the most affordable option for people with type 2 diabetes.

  1. Personalized State-space Modeling of Glucose Dynamics for Type 1 Diabetes Using Continuously Monitored Glucose, Insulin Dose, and Meal Intake: An Extended Kalman Filter Approach.

    Wang, Qian; Molenaar, Peter; Harsh, Saurabh; Freeman, Kenneth; Xie, Jinyu; Gold, Carol; Rovine, Mike; Ulbrecht, Jan


    An essential component of any artificial pancreas is on the prediction of blood glucose levels as a function of exogenous and endogenous perturbations such as insulin dose, meal intake, and physical activity and emotional tone under natural living conditions. In this article, we present a new data-driven state-space dynamic model with time-varying coefficients that are used to explicitly quantify the time-varying patient-specific effects of insulin dose and meal intake on blood glucose fluctuations. Using the 3-variate time series of glucose level, insulin dose, and meal intake of an individual type 1 diabetic subject, we apply an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to estimate time-varying coefficients of the patient-specific state-space model. We evaluate our empirical modeling using (1) the FDA-approved UVa/Padova simulator with 30 virtual patients and (2) clinical data of 5 type 1 diabetic patients under natural living conditions. Compared to a forgetting-factor-based recursive ARX model of the same order, the EKF model predictions have higher fit, and significantly better temporal gain and J index and thus are superior in early detection of upward and downward trends in glucose. The EKF based state-space model developed in this article is particularly suitable for model-based state-feedback control designs since the Kalman filter estimates the state variable of the glucose dynamics based on the measured glucose time series. In addition, since the model parameters are estimated in real time, this model is also suitable for adaptive control.

  2. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients in China:current status and influential factors

    Yuan Li; Guo Xiaohui; Xiong Zhenzhen; Lou Qingqing; Shen Li; Zhao Fang; Sun Zilin


    Background Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) by individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is crucial for long-term health,yet numerous cultural,economic and health factors can reduce SMBG.Most studies on SMBG adherence have come out of the US and Europe,and their relevance to Asia is unclear.The aims of the present study were to assess the current state of SMBG in China and analyze demographic and diabetes-related characteristics that may influence it.Methods In this multi-center,cross-sectional study,5 953 individuals with T2D from 50 medical centers in 29 provinces across China filled out a standardized questionnaire that requested information on demographic characteristics,education level,occupation,income,lifestyle risk factors,duration of diabetes,chronic complications,and frequency of SMBG.Respondents were also asked whether their glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) had been checked in the past 6 months.The most recent values for fasting plasma glucose,2-hour postprandial blood glucose and HbA1c were recovered from medical records.Results Only 1 130 respondents (18.98%) performed SMBG with the recommended frequency,while 4 823 (81.02%) did not.In fact,nearly 2 105 (35.36%) reported never performing SMBG.In the subset of 3 661 individuals on insulin therapy,only 266 (7.27%) performed SMBG at least once a day,while 1 210 (33.05%) never performed it.In contrast,895 of 2 292 individuals (39.05%) on diet/exercise therapy or oral hypoglycemic therapy never performed it.Multivariate Logistic regression identified several factors associated with SMBG adherence:female gender,higher education level,higher income,longer T2D duration and education about SMBG.Conclusions SMBG adherence in our Chinese population with T2D was less frequent than that in developed countries.Several factors influence SMBG adherence:gender,education level,income,T2D duration,therapy regimen and exposure to education about SMBG.

  3. Role of Interleukin-1/Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Family of Cytokines in Long-Term Continuous Glucose Monitoring In Vivo

    Klueh, Ulrike; Antar, Omar; Qiao, Yi; Kreutzer, Donald L.


    Background Glucose-sensor-induced tissue reactions (e.g., inflammation and wound healing) are known to negatively impact sensor function in vivo. The roles of cytokine networks in controlling these tissue reactions (i.e., sensor biofouling) is not understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), a key anti-inflammatory antagonist of the proinflammatory interleukin-1 cytokines [i.e. interleukin-1 (IL-1) alpha and IL-1 beta] in controlling continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Methods To investigate the role of IL-1Ra in long-term CGM in vivo, we compared CGM in transgenic mice that overexpress IL-1Ra [interleukin-1 receptor antagonist overexpresser (IL-1Ra~OE), B6.Cg-Tg(IL1rn)1Dih/J] or are deficient in IL-1Ra [interleukin-1 receptor antagonist knockout (IL-1Ra~KO), B6.129S-IL1rntm1Dih/J] with mice that have normal levels of IL-1Ra (C57BL/6) over a 28-day time period. Results Mean absolute relative difference (MARD) analysis of CGM results among the mice of varying IL-1Ra levels demonstrated that during the first 21 days, IL-1~KO mice had the greatest tissue inflammation and the poorest sensor performance (i.e., higher MARD values) when compared with normal or IL-1Ra~OE mice. By 28 days post-sensor implantation, the inflammatory reactions had subsided and were replaced by varying degrees of fibrosis. Conclusions These data support our hypothesis on the importance of the IL-1 family of agonists and antagonists in controlling tissue reactions and sensor function in vivo. These data also suggest that local delivery of IL-1Ra genes or recombinant proteins (anakinra) or other IL-1 antagonists such as antibodies or soluble IL-1 receptors would suppress sensor-induced tissue reactions and likely enhance glucose sensor function by inhibiting inflammation and wound healing at sensor implantation sites. PMID:24351180

  4. Continuous glucose monitoring system in the operating room and intensive care unit: any difference according to measurement sites?

    Song, In-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kang, Joo-Eun; Park, Yang-Hyo; Kim, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jin-Tae


    Given the benefit of glucose control in the perioperative period, we evaluated the accuracy and performance of the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) depending on different measurement sites in the operating room (OR) and in the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients over 18 years of age scheduled for elective surgery and ICU admission were enrolled prospectively. Two CGMS sensors were inserted into the subcutaneous tissue of the proximal lateral thigh and the lateral abdomen. The rate of successful measurements from thigh and abdomen in the OR and in the ICU were calculated separately. Each CGMS values were compared with the time-matched arterial blood glucose measurements. CGMS values from both measurement sites were also compared. A total of 22 patients undergoing cardiac surgeries were studied. The rate of successful measurements was higher in the ICU (73.2 %) than in the OR (66.0 %) (P = 0.01); however, that from thigh (72.9 %) and from abdomen (58.7 %) showed statistically significant difference only in the OR (P = 0.04). The Pearson correlation coefficient of thigh and abdomen versus arterial values was 0.67 and 0.60, respectively (P < 0.001). In Clarke error grid analysis, 94.6 % (89.3 % in the OR and 96.1 % in the ICU) of values from thigh fell into clinically acceptable zones compared to 93.7 % (89.0 % in the OR and 95.4 % in the ICU) from abdomen. There were no statistically significant differences in the accuracy according to measurement sites. The CGMS showed high measurement failure rate, especially in the OR. In the OR, the rate of successful measurement was higher from thigh than from abdomen. The CGMS showed low accuracy compared to arterial reference values. Nevertheless, there was no difference in the accuracy of the CGMS between two measurement sites. Perioperative performance of the CGMS still needs to be improved considering relatively low successful measurement rates.

  5. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in patients with diabetes who do not use insulin--are guidelines evidence-based?

    Aakre, K M; Watine, J; Bunting, P S; Sandberg, S; Oosterhuis, W P


    To evaluate if clinical practice guideline recommendations regarding self-monitoring of blood glucose in patients with diabetes not using insulin follow the principles of evidence-based medicine. After a search from 1999 to 2011, 18 clinical practice guidelines were included. Recommendations regarding self-monitoring of blood glucose were graded on a scale from one (strongly against self-monitoring) to four (strongly in favour of self-monitoring) and compared with the similarly graded conclusions of systematic reviews that were cited by the clinical practice guidelines. We also investigated how clinical practice guideline characteristics, for example funding sources, and quality of references cited could be related to the guideline recommendations. The clinical practice guidelines cited in total 15 systematic reviews, 14 randomized controlled trials, 33 non-randomized controlled trials papers and 18 clinical practice guidelines or position statements. The clinical practice guideline recommendations had an average grade of 3.4 (range 2.0-4.0). Higher grades were seen for clinical practice guidelines that acknowledged industry funding (mean value 4.0) or were issued by organizations depending on private funding (mean value 3.6 vs. 3.0 for governmental funding). The conclusions of the 15 systematic reviews had a mean grade of 2.2 (range 1.0-3.8). Systematic reviews with low grades were less cited. In total, 21 randomized controlled trials were included in the systematic reviews. Approximately half of these evaluated an educational intervention where the effect of self-monitoring of blood glucose could not be clearly isolated. Clinical practice guidelines were more in favour of self-monitoring use than the systematic reviews that were cited. The citation practice was non-systematic and industry funding seemingly led to a more positive attitude towards use of self-monitoring of blood glucose. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  6. Self-monitoring of blood glucose improved glycaemic control and 10-year coronary heart disease risk profile of type 2 diabetic patients

    Ezenwaka Chidum; JonesLeCointe Altheia; Dimgba Agbai; Okali Fidelis; Skinner Teppany; Rodriguez Martina; Extavour Rian; Davis Verdine; Spencer Alida; Mayers Hasina


    Background The debate over the overall benefits of self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes patients is still continuing.We aimed to assess the difference in glycaemic control and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk levels of experimental type 2 diabetes patients provided with facilities for self-monitoring blood glucose and their counterparts without such facilities.Methods Sixty-one patients who had no prior experience in using glucometers were studied as intervention (n=30) and control (n=31) groups.The intervention group was trained in self-monitoring of blood glucose and documentation.Baseline blood glucose and fasting blood glucose were measured and the intervention patients were provided with glucometers and advised to self-monitor their fasting and postprandial blood glucose over six months.The 10-year CHD risk levels were determined with the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study-derived risk engine calculator.Results The age and diabetes duration were similar in the two groups (P >0.05).The majority of the patients were unemployed or retired females with only a primary level education.After 3 months,the haemogolbin A1c (HbA1c) levels of the control patients remained unchanged ((7.8±0.3)% vs.(7.9±0.4)%,P >0.05) whereas the HbA1c levels of the intervention patients were significantly reduced from the baseline at three ((9.6±0.3)% vs.(7.8±0.3)%,P <0.001) and six ((9.2±0.4)% vs.(7.5±0.3)%,P <0.001) months.Interestingly,while the 10-year CHD risk level of the control group remained unchanged after three months,that of the intervention group was remarkably reduced at three and six months from the baseline level ((7.4±1.3)% vs.(4.5±0.9)%,P=0.056).Conclusion Self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes patients significantly improved glycaemic control and the CHD risk profile,suggesting that type 2 diabetes patients will potentially benefit from inclusion of glucose meters and testing strips in their health-care package.

  7. Use of Stewart Control Chart Technique in Monitoring Student Performance

    A.A. Akinrefon


    Full Text Available Students' academic performance was assessed using quality control techniques. Results show that performance of students was out of control using mean chart (X ̅-Chart with Central Limit (CL = 2.35, Upper Control Limit (UCL = 3.20 (although grade points above this limit may not necessarily be regarded as out-of-control-points for academic performance and Lower Control Limit (LCL = 1.51. Similarly, students' performance was also found not to be in control using Standard Deviation (S-Chart with Central Limit (CL = 0.71, Upper Control Limit = 1.34, Lower Control Limit = 0.001 approximately.The chart shows point falling below lower control limit (1.51; that is, students with poor performance. This can be adopted as a bench mark for assessing whether or not students should proceed to the next academic level, some sort of 'Academic Good-Standing'. Above the upper control limit are exceptional/ good results. The average performance of students is 2.35 which corresponds to third class grade; this implies that on average, students graduate with third class.

  8. Application of Dynamic Speckle Techniques in Monitoring Biofilms Drying Process

    Enes, Adilson M.; Júnior, Roberto A. Braga; Dal Fabbro, Inácio M.; da Silva, Washington A.; Pereira, Joelma


    Horticultural crops exhibit losses far greater than grains in Brazil which are associated to inappropriate maturation, mechanical bruising, infestation by microorganisms, wilting, etc. Appropriate packing prevents excessive mass loss associated to transpiration as well as to respiration, by controlling gas exchanging with outside environment. Common packing materials are identified as plastic films, waxes and biofilms. Although research developed with edible films and biopolymers has increased during last years to attend the food industry demands, avoiding environmental problems, little efforts have been reported on biofilm physical properties investigations. These properties, as drying time and biofilm interactions with environment are considered of basic importance. This research work aimed to contribute to development of a methodology to evaluate yucca (Maniot vulgaris) based biofilms drying time supported by a biospeckle technique. Biospeckle is a phenomenon generated by a laser beam scattered on a dynamic active surface, producing a time varying pattern which is proportional to the surface activity level. By capturing and processing the biospeckle image it is possible to attribute a numerical quantity to the surface bioactivity. Materials exhibiting high moisture content will also show high activity, which will support the drying time determination. Tests were set by placing biofilm samples on polyetilen plates and further submitted to laser exposition at four hours interval to capture the pattern images, generating the Intensities Dispersion Modulus. Results indicates that proposed methodology is applicable in determining biofilm drying time as well as vapor losses to environment.

  9. Evaluation of Visualization Using a 50/50 (Contrast Media/Glucose 5% Solution) Technique for Radioembolization as an Alternative to a Standard Sandwich Technique.

    Paprottka, Karolin J; Todica, Andrei; Ilhan, Harun; Rübenthaler, Johannes; Schoeppe, Franziska; Michl, Marlies; Heinemann, Volker; Bartenstein, Peter; Reiser, Maximilian F; Paprottka, Philipp M


    Radioembolization (RE) with (90)yttrium ((90)Y) resin microspheres generally employs a sandwich technique with separate sequential administration of contrast medium (CM), followed by vehicle (e.g., glucose 5% [G5] solution), then (90)Y resin microspheres (in G5), then G5, and then CM again to avoid contact of CM and microspheres under fluoroscopic guidance. This study evaluates the visualization quality and safety of a modified sandwich technique with a 50/50-mixture of CM (Imeron 300) and G5 for administration of (90)Y resin microspheres. A retrospective analysis of 81 RE procedures in patients with primary or secondary liver tumors was performed. The quality of angiographic visualization of the hepatic vessels was assessed before the first injection and immediately before the whole dose has been injected. Visualization and flow rate were graded on a 5-point scale: 1 = very good to 5 = not visible/no antegrade flow. Univariate logistic regression models and multiple linear regression models were used to evaluate the prognostic variables associated with visualization and flow scores. Visualization quality was inversely related to flow rate, the lower the flow rate the better the grade of the visualization. Visualization quality was also inversely related to body-mass-index (BMI). Performing RE with the 50/50-CM/G5 mixture resulted in a mean injection time for 1 GBq of 15 min. No clinically significant adverse events, including radiation-induced liver disease were reported. RE with a 50/50-mixture of CM and G5 for administration of (90)Y resin microspheres in a modified sandwich technique is a safe administration alternative and provides good visualization of hepatic vessels, which is inversely dependent on flow rate and BMI. Injection time was reduced compared with our experience with the standard sandwich technique.

  10. Toward an optimisation technique for dynamically monitored environment

    Shurrab, Orabi M.


    The data fusion community has introduced multiple procedures of situational assessments; this is to facilitate timely responses to emerging situations. More directly, the process refinement of the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) is a meta-process to assess and improve the data fusion task during real-time operation. In other wording, it is an optimisation technique to verify the overall data fusion performance, and enhance it toward the top goals of the decision-making resources. This paper discusses the theoretical concept of prioritisation. Where the analysts team is required to keep an up to date with the dynamically changing environment, concerning different domains such as air, sea, land, space and cyberspace. Furthermore, it demonstrates an illustration example of how various tracking activities are ranked, simultaneously into a predetermined order. Specifically, it presents a modelling scheme for a case study based scenario, where the real-time system is reporting different classes of prioritised events. Followed by a performance metrics for evaluating the prioritisation process of situational awareness (SWA) domain. The proposed performance metrics has been designed and evaluated using an analytical approach. The modelling scheme represents the situational awareness system outputs mathematically, in the form of a list of activities. Such methods allowed the evaluation process to conduct a rigorous analysis of the prioritisation process, despite any constrained related to a domain-specific configuration. After conducted three levels of assessments over three separates scenario, The Prioritisation Capability Score (PCS) has provided an appropriate scoring scheme for different ranking instances, Indeed, from the data fusion perspectives, the proposed metric has assessed real-time system performance adequately, and it is capable of conducting a verification process, to direct the operator's attention to any issue, concerning the prioritisation capability

  11. Landslide monitoring at hillside residential area using GPS static and inclinometer techniques

    Othman, Z.; Wan Aziz, W. A.; Anuar, A.


    Landslide is one of prominent geohazards that continuously affecting the tropical countries including Malaysia. Frequent occurrences of landslides at hillslopes during the heavy rainy periods have resulted in public fear for the safety of their life and properties. For the past 25 years, many landslides have occurrences have been reported in Klang Valley especially at the hilly terrain residential areas. A landslide monitoring scheme is therefore very crucial and should be carried out continuously. Various studies have been conducted to monitor landslide activities such as conventional geotechnical and geodetic techniques. Each of these techniques has its own advantages and limitations. Therefore, this study focuses on the effectiveness of the combination approach of GPS technology and inclinometer techniques for landslide monitoring. The study area is located at residential area Section 5, Wangsa Maju, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The inclinometer instrument has been placed at five (5) selected monitoring points and three (3) epochs of inclinometer measurements were made. At the same time, the GPS observations have also been carried out for three (3) epochs separately using GPS static techniques. This GPS network consists of four (4) control points and eleven (11) monitoring points. The GPS observations data were validated, processed and adjusted using two (2) adjustment software namely Trimble Geomatic Office (TGO) version 1.6, and GPS Adjustment and Deformation Analysis (GADA). The results have shown that the GPS technique can be implemented with inclinometer technique to detect horizontal displacements up to +/- 30 mm and vertical displacements less than +/- 50 mm.

  12. Review of neutron calibration facilities and monitoring techniques: new needs for emerging fields.

    Gressier, V


    Neutron calibration facilities and monitoring techniques have been developed since the middle of the 20th century to support research and nuclear power energy development. The technical areas needing reference neutron fields and related instruments were mainly cross section measurements, radiation protection, dosimetry and fission reactors, with energy ranging from a few millielectronvolts to about 20 MeV. The reference neutron fields and calibration techniques developed for these purposes will be presented in this paper. However, in recent years, emerging fields have brought new needs for calibration facilities and monitoring techniques. These new challenges for neutron metrology will be exposed with their technical difficulties.

  13. Tumor response to ionizing radiation and combined 2-deoxy-D-glucose application in EATC tumor bearing mice: monitoring of tumor size and microscopic observations

    Latz, D. (Dept. of Radiotherapy, Heidelberg Univ. (Germany)); Thonke, A. (Inst. of Biophysics, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany)); Jueling-Pohlit, L. (Inst. of Biophysics, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany)); Pohlit, W. (Inst. of Biophysics, Frankfurt Univ. (Germany))


    The present study deals with the changes induced by two fractionation schedules (5x9 Gy and 10x4.5 Gy; 30 MeV-electrons) of ionizing radiations and 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose (2-DG) application on EATC tumor bearing swiss albino mice. The monitoring of tumor response was carried out by means of calliper measurement on the macroscopic level and by histopathological examination of tumor preparations stained with hematoxiline and eosine on the microscopic level. The tumor material was assessed at suitable intervals after treatment by killing the animals. The tumor response was analysed in the histological preparations and the thickness of the tumor band was determined quantitatively by an ocularmicrometric technique. Tumor damage was most extensive in the combined treated animals (5x9 Gy + 2-DG). Only in this group local tumor control was achievable. The histological analysis of tumor preparations revealed additional data about treatment-induced changes in the tumor compared to the measurement of the tumor volume with mechanical callipers. We also found that the treatment outcome could be predicted from the histopathological analysis. It is concluded that studies involving histopathological examinations may give some insight into the way cancer is controlled by radiotherapy and may be of value in prognosis and selection of treatment in patients. (orig.)

  14. Investigation of novel geophysical techniques for monitoring CO2 movement during sequestration

    Hoversten, G. Michael; Gasperikova, Erika


    Cost effective monitoring of reservoir fluid movement during CO{sub 2} sequestration is a necessary part of a practical geologic sequestration strategy. Current petroleum industry seismic techniques are well developed for monitoring production in petroleum reservoirs. The cost of time-lapse seismic monitoring can be born because the cost to benefit ratio is small in the production of profit making hydrocarbon. However, the cost of seismic monitoring techniques is more difficult to justify in an environment of sequestration where the process produces no direct profit. For this reasons other geophysical techniques, which might provide sufficient monitoring resolution at a significantly lower cost, need to be considered. In order to evaluate alternative geophysical monitoring techniques we have undertaken a series of numerical simulations of CO{sub 2} sequestration scenarios. These scenarios have included existing projects (Sleipner in the North Sea), future planned projects (GeoSeq Liberty test in South Texas and Schrader Bluff in Alaska) as well as hypothetical models based on generic geologic settings potentially attractive for CO{sub 2} sequestration. In addition, we have done considerable work on geophysical monitoring of CO{sub 2} injection into existing oil and gas fields, including a model study of the Weyburn CO{sub 2} project in Canada and the Chevron Lost Hills CO{sub 2} pilot in Southern California (Hoversten et al. 2003). Although we are specifically interested in considering ''novel'' geophysical techniques for monitoring we have chosen to include more traditional seismic techniques as a bench mark so that any quantitative results derived for non-seismic techniques can be directly compared to the industry standard seismic results. This approach will put all of our finding for ''novel'' techniques in the context of the seismic method and allow a quantitative analysis of the cost/benefit ratios of the newly

  15. PS2-17: Diabetes Social Support Feasibility Pilot Study: Utilizing Mobile Technology and Self-Identified Supporters to Enhance Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    Robinson, Brandi; Roblin, Douglas; Hipkens, James; Vupputuri, Suma; McMahon, Kevin


    Background and Aims: Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is associated with improved glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes, however, the practice of daily self-monitoring is not optimal. Telecommunications technology may improve adherence to recommended self-management practices by remotely transmitting automated reminders to motivate patients, and utilizing social networking for peer support. The purpose of this pilot study is to demonstrate the feasibility and usability of mobile technology and the potential added value of social support to improve SMBG frequency and glycemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Adults 25–74 years of age with type 2 DM and an average HbA1c > 8.0% were recruited from Kaiser Permanente Georgia (KPGA) and Oakhurst Medical Center (OMC, a community health clinic) to participate in a 3-month study using wireless technology. Enrollment sessions with presentations on SMBG techniques, use of the wireless technology, and motivational coaching to enhance social support were conducted in November 2009. During the subsequent 3-months, both diabetes patients and their self-selected supporters will receive text messages to their cell phones summarizing a patient’s SMBG frequency and levels. Participants and their supporters will attend a disenrollment session in February 2010 when feasibility and usability will be assessed in focus groups. Results: 6 of 161 eligible diabetes patients at KPGA and 9 of 28 eligible diabetes patients at OMC, and their self-selected supporters, consented to participate. The average age of diabetes patients was 49.3 years. 86.7% (N=13) were African-American; and 33.3% (N=5) were male. Five days after enrollment, 60% (N=9) of patients had connected their wireless transmitters and had current blood glucose data. Follow-up phone calls will be made to ensure that all participants are connected to the wireless technology within 10 days of the enrollment session. Conclusion

  16. Is there a difference in pregnancy and glycemic outcome in patients with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump with constant or intermittent glucose monitoring? A pilot study.

    Petrovski, Goran; Dimitrovski, Cedomir; Bogoev, Milco; Milenkovic, Tatjana; Ahmeti, Irfan; Bitovska, Iskra


    The aim of the study is to describe glycemic and insulin outcomes by trimester and maternal and fetal outcome in patients with type 1 diabetes using an insulin pump with constant or intermittent continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Twenty-five women with type 1 diabetes with newly diagnosed pregnancy were treated with insulin pump therapy (Medtronic 722, Medtronic Minimed, Northridge, CA) for at least 1 year. Insulin pump and CGM (Medtronic Paradigm Real-Time) were implemented at least 3 months before conception. Patients were randomized in two groups: constant CGM group, 12 patients on insulin pump with glucose sensor, 24 h/day; and intermittent CGM group, 13 patients on insulin pump with intermittent glucose sensor, 14 days/month. The following parameters were analyzed: glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), mean blood glucose, insulin requirement (in IU/kg/day), weight gain, severe hypoglycemic events, diabetic ketoacidosis, macrosomia, cesarean section, and neonatal hypoglycemia. Both groups achieved good glucose control during their pregnancies (PInsulin pump therapy together with constant or intermittent CGM can improve diabetes control and pregnancy outcome in type 1 diabetes. The quality of the glucose profile at conception was the important factor for pregnancy outcome.

  17. Study of techniques applicable for monitoring MIC in soil or sediment

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel


    Microbially influenced corrosion of carbon steel in anaerobic environment is difficult to monitor with electrochemical techniques because of heterogeneous surface conditions and electrochemically active corrosion products. Weight loss measurement, LPR, EIS, hydrogen permeation, and a refined ER...... technique have been evaluated including field tests in soil and marine sediment. The conclusions are that EIS can detect combined biofilm and corrosion product film formation, but corrosion rate is overestimated. The ER technique seems to give a correct and sensitive corrosion rate measurement within...

  18. Study of techniques applicable for monitoring MIC in soil or sediment

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel


    Microbially influenced corrosion of carbon steel in anaerobic environment is difficult to monitor with electrochemical techniques because of heterogeneous surface conditions and electrochemically active corrosion products. Weight loss measurement, LPR, EIS, hydrogen permeation, and a refined ER...... technique have beeen evaluated including field tests in soil and marine sediment. The conclusions are that EIS can detect combined biofilm and corrosion product film formation, but corrosion rate is overestimated. The ER technique seems to give a correct and sensitive corrosion rate measurement within...

  19. Comparison of vildagliptin twice daily vs. sitagliptin once daily using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM: Crossover pilot study (J-VICTORIA study

    Sakamoto Masaya


    Full Text Available Abstract Background No previous studies have compared the DPP-4 inhibitors vildagliptin and sitagliptin in terms of blood glucose levels using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM and cardiovascular parameters. Methods Twenty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly allocated to groups who received vildagliptin then sitagliptin, or vice versa. Patients were hospitalized at 1 month after starting each drug, and CGM was used to determine: 1 mean (± standard deviation 24-hour blood glucose level, 2 mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE, 3 fasting blood glucose level, 4 highest postprandial blood glucose level and time, 5 increase in blood glucose level after each meal, 6 area under the curve (AUC for blood glucose level ≥180 mg/dL within 3 hours after each meal, and 7 area over the curve (AOC for daily blood glucose level Results The mean 24-hour blood glucose level was significantly lower in patients taking vildagliptin than sitagliptin (142.1 ± 35.5 vs. 153.2 ± 37.0 mg/dL; p = 0.012. In patients taking vildagliptin, MAGE was significantly lower (110.5 ± 33.5 vs. 129.4 ± 45.1 mg/dL; p = 0.040, the highest blood glucose level after supper was significantly lower (206.1 ± 40.2 vs. 223.2 ± 43.5 mg/dL; p = 0.015, the AUC (≥180 mg/dL within 3 h was significantly lower after breakfast (484.3 vs. 897.9 mg/min/dL; p = 0.025, and urinary CPR level was significantly higher (97.0 ± 41.6 vs. 85.2 ± 39.9 μg/day; p = 0.008 than in patients taking sitagliptin. There were no significant differences in plasma HbA1c, GA, 1,5AG, IRI, CPR, BNP, or PAI-1 levels between patients taking vildagliptin and sitagliptin. Conclusions CGM showed that mean 24-h blood glucose, MAGE, highest blood glucose level after supper, and hyperglycemia after breakfast were significantly lower in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking vildagliptin than those taking sitagliptin. There

  20. Glycemic control after hospital discharge in insulin-treated type 2 diabetes: a randomized pilot study of daily remote glucose monitoring.

    Wei, Nancy J; Nathan, David M; Wexler, Deborah J


    Little is known about glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients treated with insulin in the high-risk period between hospital discharge and follow-up. We sought to assess the impact of remote glucose monitoring on postdischarge glycemic control and insulin titration. We randomly assigned 28 hospitalized type 2 diabetes patients who were discharged home on insulin therapy to routine specialty care (RSC) or RSC with daily remote glucose monitoring (RGM). We compared the primary outcome of mean blood glucose and exploratory outcomes of hypoglycemia/hyperglycemia rates, change in hemoglobin A1c and glycated albumin, and insulin titration frequency between groups. Mean blood glucose was not significantly different between the treatment arms (144 ± 34 mg/dL in the RSC group and 172 ± 41 mg/dL in the RGM group; not significant), nor were there significant differences in any of the other measures of glycemia during the month after discharge. Hypoglycemia (glucometer reading control after hospital discharge; however, the high rate of hypoglycemia in the postdischarge transition period and the higher frequency of insulin titration in patients who used RGM suggest a safety role for such monitoring in the transition from hospital to home.

  1. Design of a sup 13 C (1H) RF probe for monitoring the in vivo metabolism of (1- sup 13 C)glucose in primate brain

    Hammer, B.E.; Sacks, W.; Bigler, R.E.; Hennessy, M.J.; Sacks, S.; Fleischer, A.; Zanzonico, P.B. (Intermagnetics General Corporation, Guilderland, NY (USA))


    The design of an RF probe suitable for obtaining proton-decoupled {sup 13}C spectra from a subhuman primate brain is described. Two orthogonal saddle coils, one tuned to the resonant frequency of {sup 13}C and the other to the resonant frequency of 1H, were used to monitor the in vivo metabolism of (1-{sup 13}C)glucose in rhesus monkey brain at 2.1 T. Difference spectra showed the appearance of {sup 13}C-enriched glutamate and glutamine 30 to 40 min after a bolus injection of (1-{sup 13}C)glucose.

  2. Self monitoring of blood glucose - a survey of diabetes UK members with type 2 diabetes who use SMBG

    Young Amanda J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim - to survey members of Diabetes UK who had Type 2 diabetes and who used self monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG, to elicit their views on its usefulness in the management of their diabetes, and how they used the results. A questionnaire was developed for the Diabetes UK website. The questionnaire was posted on the Diabetes UK website until over 500 people had responded. Questions asked users to specify the benefits gained from SMBG, and how these benefits were achieved. We carried out both quantitative analysis and a thematic analysis for the open ended free-text questions. Findings 554 participants completed the survey, of whom 289 (52.2% were male. 20% of respondents were recently diagnosed ( 80% of respondents reported high satisfaction with SMBG, and reported feeling more 'in control' of their diabetes management using it. The most frequently reported use of SMBG was to make adjustments to food intake or confirm a hyperglycaemic episode. Women were significantly more likely to report feelings of guilt or self-chastisement associated with out of range readings (p = Conclusion SMBG was clearly of benefit to this group of confirmed users, who used the results to adjust diet, physical activity or medications. However many individuals (particularly women reported feelings of anxiety and depression associated with its use.

  3. Continuous Glucose Monitoring Analysis as Predictor of Islet Yield and Insulin Requirements in Autologous Islet Transplantation After Complete Pancreatectomy

    Georgiev, George Ivanov; Cercone, Renee; Tiwari, Mukesh; Rilo, Horacio L. R.


    We analyzed the pretransplant continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data of 45 patients that underwent total pancreatectomy followed by autologous islet transplantation (AIT) at the University of Arizona Medical Center. Traditional and novel metrics of CGM time series were correlated to the total islet count (TIC), islet equivalents (IEQs), and weight-normalized IEQs (IEQ/kg). In a subset cohort (n = 26) we analyzed the relationship among the infused number of islets, the CGM indicators, and the first recorded insulin requirement after the procedure. We conclude that receiving a high islet yield is sufficient yet not necessary to achieve low or null insulin requirements within the first 50 days after surgery. Furthermore, CGM inertia and CGM length of curve (2 novel CGM indicators) are shown to be correlated to islet yield, and the CGMs normalized area (Ao) and time ratio above hyperglycemic level (To) are strongly correlated to insulin requirement. A screening test based on To is shown to have 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity discriminating insulin independence upon discharge. PMID:25190081

  4. Effects of self-monitoring of glucose in non-insulin treated patients with type 2 diabetes: design of the IN CONTROL-trial

    Kostense Piet J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes specific emotional problems interfere with the demanding daily management of living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Possibly, offering direct feedback on diabetes management may diminish the presence of diabetes specific emotional problems and might enhance the patients' belief they are able to manage their illness. It is hypothesized that self-monitoring of glucose in combination with an algorithm how and when to act will motivate T2DM patients to become more active participants in their own care leading to a decrease in diabetes related distress and an increased self-efficacy. Methods and design Six hundred patients with T2DM (45 ≤ 75 years who receive care in a structured diabetes care system, HbA1c ≥ 7.0%, and not using insulin will be recruited and randomized into 3 groups; Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG, Self-monitoring of Urine Glucose (SMUG and usual care (n = 200 per group. Participants are eligible if they have a known disease duration of over 1 year and have used SMBG or SMUG less than 3 times in the previous year. All 3 groups will receive standardized diabetes care. The intervention groups will receive additional instructions on how to perform self-monitoring of glucose and how to interpret the results. Main outcome measures are changes in diabetes specific emotional distress and self-efficacy. Secondary outcome measures include difference in HbA1c, patient satisfaction, occurrence of hypoglycaemia, physical activity, costs of direct and indirect healthcare and changes in illness beliefs. Discussion The IN CONTROL-trial is designed to explore whether feedback from self-monitoring of glucose in T2DM patients who do not require insulin can affect diabetes specific emotional distress and increase self-efficacy. Based on the self-regulation model it is hypothesized that glucose self-monitoring feedback changes illness perceptions, guiding the patient to reduce emotional responses to

  5. Monitoring Crustal Movement of the Coastal Zone in Eastern China with GPS Technique


    In this paper, various dominating factors affecting crustal movement of the coastal zone in eastern China are analyzed, and major characteristics of crustal movement are summarized. Subduction of the pacific plate and Philippine plate and southeastward "escape" of Qinghai-Tibet plateau are believed to be dominating factors affecting crustal movement of that zone. Undoubtedly, it is a best way to monitor this kind of large-scale crustal movement with GPS technique. The feasibility of monitoring crustal m...

  6. Full-field speckle correlation technique as applied to blood flow monitoring

    Vilensky, M. A.; Agafonov, D. N.; Timoshina, P. A.; Shipovskaya, O. V.; Zimnyakov, D. A.; Tuchin, V. V.; Novikov, P. A.


    The results of experimental study of monitoring the microcirculation in tissue superficial layers of the internal organs at gastro-duodenal hemorrhage with the use of laser speckles contrast analysis technique are presented. The microcirculation monitoring was provided in the course of the laparotomy of rat abdominal cavity in the real time. Microscopic hemodynamics was analyzed for small intestine and stomach under different conditions (normal state, provoked ischemia, administration of vasodilative agents such as papaverine, lidocaine). The prospects and problems of internal monitoring of micro-vascular flow in clinical conditions are discussed.

  7. Process/health monitoring for wind turbine blade by using FBG sensors with multiplexing techniques

    Eum, S. H.; Kageyama, K.; Murayama, H.; Uzawa, K.; Ohsawa, I.; Kanai, M.; Igawa, H.


    In this study, we applied fiber Bragg grating sensors to conduct process/health monitoring of wind turbine blade manufactured by VaRTM. In this study, we used a long gauge FBG (about 100mm) based optical frequency domain reflectometory (OFDR) and 8 FBGs on a single fiber based wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). Resin flow front and resin cure were detected during VaRTM. After manufacturing, structural health monitoring was conducted with the blades. These sensors with multiplexing techniques were able to monitor VaRTM process and wind turbine blade successfully.

  8. In-situ laser material process monitoring using a cladding power detection technique

    Su, Daoning; Norris, Ian; Peters, Chris; Hall, Denis R.; Jones, Julian D. C.

    Progress in laser material processing may require real-time monitoring and process control for consistent quality and productivity. We report a method of in-situ monitoring of laser metal cutting and drilling using cladding power monitoring of an optical fibre beam delivery system—a technique which detects the light reflected or scattered from the workpiece. The light signal carries information about the quality of the process. Experiments involving drilling and cutting of two samples, a thin aluminum foil and a 2-mm thick stainless steel plate, confirmed the effectiveness of this method.

  9. Noninvasive near-infrared blood glucose monitoring using a calibration model built by a numerical simulation method: Trial application to patients in an intensive care unit.

    Maruo, Katsuhiko; Oota, Tomohiro; Tsurugi, Mitsuhiro; Nakagawa, Takehiro; Arimoto, Hidenobu; Hayakawa, Mineji; Tamura, Mamoru; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Yamada, Yukio


    We have applied a new methodology for noninvasive continuous blood glucose monitoring, proposed in our previous paper, to patients in ICU (intensive care unit), where strict controls of blood glucose levels are required. The new methodology can build calibration models essentially from numerical simulation, while the conventional methodology requires pre-experiments such as sugar tolerance tests, which are impossible to perform on ICU patients in most cases. The in vivo experiments in this study consisted of two stages, the first stage conducted on healthy subjects as preliminary experiments, and the second stage on ICU patients. The prediction performance of the first stage was obtained as a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.71 and standard error of prediction (SEP) of 28.7 mg/dL. Of the 323 total data, 71.5% were in the A zone, 28.5% were in the B zone, and none were in the C, D, and E zones for the Clarke error-grid analysis. The prediction performance of the second stage was obtained as an r of 0.97 and SEP of 27.2 mg/dL. Of the 304 total data, 80.3% were in the A zone, 19.7% were in the B zone, and none were in the C, D, and E zones. These prediction results suggest that the new methodology has the potential to realize a noninvasive blood glucose monitoring system using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in ICUs. Although the total performance of the present monitoring system has not yet reached a satisfactory level as a stand-alone system, it can be developed as a complementary system to the conventional one used in ICUs for routine blood glucose management, which checks the blood glucose levels of patients every few hours.

  10. Development and evaluation of a technique for in vivo monitoring of 60Co in human lungs

    de Mello, J. Q.; Lucena, E. A.; Dantas, A. L. A.; Dantas, B. M.


    60Co is a fission product of 235U and represents a risk of internal exposure of workers in nuclear power plants, especially those involved in the maintenance of potentially contaminated parts and equipment. The control of 60Co intake by inhalation can be performed through in vivo monitoring. This work describes the evaluation of a technique through the minimum detectable activity and the corresponding minimum detectable effective doses, based on biokinetic and dosimetric models of 60Co in the human body. The results allow to state that the technique is suitable either for monitoring of occupational exposures or evaluation of accidental intake.

  11. On-line monitoring of poly dimethylsiloxane surface modification using the photothermal deflection technique

    Najmoddin, Najmeh, E-mail:; Khosroshahi, Mohammad E.


    Over the last decade, there has been particular interest in surface modification of biomaterials with regard to understanding the importance of surface characterization. This paper reports the use of photothermal deflection (PTD) technique to monitor modifications in poly dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface induced following laser treatments. The FTIR results are in agreement with PTD results, indicating that no structural changes occurred using Argon laser up to 180 s and 200 mW at 454, 488 and 514 nm wavelengths. However, with CO{sub 2} laser some physical and chemical changes occurred which are monitored by PTD technique and proved by SEM images.

  12. Effects of Acute Ingestion of Native Banana Starch on Glycemic Response Evaluated by Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Obese and Lean Subjects

    Guadalupe Jiménez-Domínguez


    Full Text Available An abnormal glycemic profile, including postprandial glycemia and acute glucose spikes, precedes the onset of overt diabetes in obese subjects. Previous studies have shown the beneficial effects of chronic native banana starch (NBS supplementation. In this study, we examined the effects of acute ingestion of NBS on glycemic profiles by means of continuous glucose monitoring in obese and lean subjects. In a crossover study, obese and lean subjects consumed beverages containing either 38.3 g of NBS or 38.3 g of digestible corn starch (DCS twice daily during 4 days. On day 5, a 3-h meal tolerance test (MTT was performed to evaluate glucose and insulin responses. After 1 week of washout period, treatments were inverted. NBS supplementation reduced the 48-h glycemia AUC in lean, obese, and in the combined group of lean and obese subjects in comparison with DCS. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses at MTT were reduced after NBS in comparison with DCS in all groups. However, no changes were observed in glycemic variability (GV indexes between groups. In conclusion, acute NBS supplementation improved postprandial glucose and insulin responses in obese and lean subjects during 48 h of everyday life and at MTT. Further research to elucidate the mechanism behind these changes is required.

  13. Effects of Acute Ingestion of Native Banana Starch on Glycemic Response Evaluated by Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Obese and Lean Subjects

    Jiménez-Domínguez, Guadalupe; Ble-Castillo, Jorge L.; Aparicio-Trápala, María A.; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E.; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A.; Ble-Castillo, Deysi J.; García-Vázquez, Carlos; Olvera-Hernández, Viridiana; Pérez-Pimienta, Bedelia; Diaz-Zagoya, Juan C.; Mendez, José D.


    An abnormal glycemic profile, including postprandial glycemia and acute glucose spikes, precedes the onset of overt diabetes in obese subjects. Previous studies have shown the beneficial effects of chronic native banana starch (NBS) supplementation. In this study, we examined the effects of acute ingestion of NBS on glycemic profiles by means of continuous glucose monitoring in obese and lean subjects. In a crossover study, obese and lean subjects consumed beverages containing either 38.3 g of NBS or 38.3 g of digestible corn starch (DCS) twice daily during 4 days. On day 5, a 3-h meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed to evaluate glucose and insulin responses. After 1 week of washout period, treatments were inverted. NBS supplementation reduced the 48-h glycemia AUC in lean, obese, and in the combined group of lean and obese subjects in comparison with DCS. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses at MTT were reduced after NBS in comparison with DCS in all groups. However, no changes were observed in glycemic variability (GV) indexes between groups. In conclusion, acute NBS supplementation improved postprandial glucose and insulin responses in obese and lean subjects during 48 h of everyday life and at MTT. Further research to elucidate the mechanism behind these changes is required. PMID:26154657

  14. Continuous Non-Invasive Arterial Pressure Technique Improves Patient Monitoring during Interventional Endoscopy

    Sylvia Siebig, Felix Rockmann, Karl Sabel, Ina Zuber-Jerger, Christine Dierkes, Tanja Brünnler, Christian E. Wrede


    Full Text Available Introduction: Close monitoring of arterial blood pressure (BP is a central part of cardiovascular surveillance of patients at risk for hypotension. Therefore, patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic procedures with the use of sedating agents are monitored by discontinuous non-invasive BP measurement (NIBP. Continuous non-invasive BP monitoring based on vascular unloading technique (CNAP®, CN Systems, Graz may improve patient safety in those settings. We investigated if this new technique improved monitoring of patients undergoing interventional endoscopy. Methods: 40 patients undergoing interventional endoscopy between April and December 2007 were prospectively studied with CNAP® in addition to standard monitoring (NIBP, ECG and oxygen saturation. All monitoring values were extracted from the surveillance network at one-second intervals, and clinical parameters were documented. The variance of CNAP® values were calculated for every interval between two NIBP measurements. Results: 2660 minutes of monitoring were recorded (mean 60.1±34.4 min/patient. All patients were analgosedated with midazolam and pethidine, and 24/40 had propofol infusion (mean 90.9±70.3 mg. The mean arterial pressure for CNAP® was 102.4±21.2 mmHg and 106.8±24.8 mmHg for NIBP. Based on the first NIBP value in an interval between two NIBP measurements, BP values determined by CNAP® showed a maximum increase of 30.8±21.7% and a maximum decrease of 22.4±28.3% (mean of all intervals. Discussion: Conventional intermittent blood pressure monitoring of patients receiving sedating agents failed to detect fast changes in BP. The new technique CNAP® improved the detection of rapid BP changes, and may contribute to a better patient safety for those undergoing interventional procedures.



    Railway tunnel inspection and monitoring has predominantly been a visual and manual procedure, which is time-consuming and subjective, giving rise to variance in standards and quality. Thus, alternative, novel, automated techniques need to be developed, for more efficient and reliable tunnel examination. The reported research aimed to investigate the application of a laser scanning technique for the inspection of tunnel degradation and structural integrity. The proposed method may either subs...

  16. Toward an agent-based patient-physician model for the adoption of continuous glucose monitoring technology.

    Verella, J Tipan; Patek, Stephen D


    Health care is a major component of the U.S. economy, and tremendous research and development efforts are directed toward new technologies in this arena. Unfortunately few tools exist for predicting outcomes associated with new medical products, including whether new technologies will find widespread use within the target population. Questions of technology adoption are rife within the diabetes technology community, and we particularly consider the long-term prognosis for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology. We present an approach to the design and analysis of an agent model that describes the process of CGM adoption among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), their physicians, and related stakeholders. We particularly focus on patient-physician interactions, with patients discovering CGM technology through word-of-mouth communication and through advertising, applying pressure to their physicians in the context of CGM device adoption, and physicians, concerned about liability, looking to peers for a general level of acceptance of the technology before recommending CGM to their patients. Repeated simulation trials of the agent-based model show that the adoption process reflects the heterogeneity of the adopting community. We also find that the effect of the interaction between patients and physicians is agents. Each physician, say colored by the nature of the environment as defined by the model parameters. We find that, by being able to represent the diverse perspectives of different types of stakeholders, agent-based models can offer useful insights into the adoption process. Models of this sort may eventually prove to be useful in helping physicians, other health care providers, patient advocacy groups, third party payers, and device manufacturers understand the impact of their decisions about new technologies.

  17. Behavioral Analysis of Chinese Adult Patients with Type 1 Diabetes on Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose.

    Qin, Zhao-Yi; Yan, Jin-Hua; Yang, Dai-Zhi; Deng, Hong-Rong; Yao, Bin; Weng, Jian-Ping

    The information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model of health behavior is an effective tool to evaluate the behavior of diabetes self-management. The purpose of this study was to explore behavioral factors affecting the practice of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) within the frame of IMB model of health behavioral among adult patients with type 1 diabetes in a single diabetes clinic in China. A questionnaire with three subscales on SMBG information, motivation, and behavioral skills based on IMB model was developed. Validity and reliability of the measures were examined and guaranteed. Adult patients with type 1 diabetes visiting our diabetes clinic from January to March 2012 (n = 55) were consecutively interviewed. The self-completion questionnaires were administered and finished at face-to-face interviews among these patients. Both descriptive and correlational analyses were made. Fifty-five patients finished the questionnaires, with the median duration of diabetes 4.5 years and the median of SMBG frequency 2.00. Specific SMBG information deficits, motivation obstacles, and behavioral skill limitations were identified in a substantial proportion of participants. Scores of SMBG motivation (r = 0.299, P= 0.026) and behavioral skills (r = 0.425, P= 0.001) were significantly correlated with SMBG frequency. The multiple correlation of SMBG information, SMBG motivation, and SMBG behavioral skills with SMBG frequency was R = 0.411 (R2 = 0.169, P= 0.023). Adult patients with type 1 diabetes in our clinic had substantial SMBG information deficits, motivation obstacles, and skill limitations. This information provided potential-focused education targets for diabetes health-care providers.

  18. [Current status of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and continuous glucose monitoring systems in the Community of Madrid].

    Arranz Martín, Alfonso; Calle Pascual, Alfonso; Del Cañizo Gómez, Francisco Javier; González Albarrán, Olga; Lisbona Gil, Arturo; Botella Serrano, Marta; Pallardo Sánchez, Luis Felipe


    To analyze the available information about continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems in the public health care system of the Community of Madrid. A survey consisting of 31 items was sent to the 28 endocrinology department of the Madrid public hospitals. Items focused on CSII and CGM and included patients' registrations, as well as data regarding healthcare, administrative, and logistic aspects. Responses from a total of 20 hospitals where these procedures are used were received from March 2013 to May 2014. Data about pediatric patients were obtained from adult endocrinology departments, except for two hospitals which directly reported the information. A total of 1256 CSII pumps were recorded in the Madrid region, of which 1089 were used by adults, and the remaining 167 by pediatric patients. During 2013, 151 new CSII systems were implanted (12% of the total), while 14 pumps were withdrawn. Availability of human resources (medical assistance) and the number of staff practitioners experienced in management of these systems widely varied between hospitals. Eighty-five percent of hospitals used retrospective CGM systems, and 40% routinely placed them before starting an insulin pump. Thirteen hospitals (65%) used long-term, real-time CGM systems in selected cases (a total of 67 patients). Use of these technologies in diabetes is unequal between public health care hospitals in Madrid, and is still significantly lower as compared to other countries with similar incomes. However, there appears to be a trend to an increase in their use. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidemiological characterization of diabetic patients on therapy with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and continuous glucose monitoring in real time.

    Aristizábal, Natalia; Ramírez, Alex; Hincapié-García, Jaime; Laiton, Estefany; Aristizábal, Carolina; Cuesta, Diana; Monsalve, Claudia; Hincapié, Gloria; Zapata, Eliana; Abad, Verónica; Delgado, Maria-Rocio; Torres, José-Luis; Palacio, Andrés; Botero, José


    To describe baseline characteristics of diabetic patients who were started on insulin pump and real time continuous glucose monitor (CSII-rtCGM) in a specialized center in Medellin, Colombia. All patients with diabetes with complete data who were started on CSII-rtCGM between February 2010 and May 2014 were included. This is a descriptive analysis of the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. 141 of 174 patients attending the clinic were included. 90,1% had type 1diabetes (T1D). The average age of T1D patients at the beginning of therapy was 31,4 years (SD 14,1). 75.8% of patients had normal weight (BMI30). The median duration of T1D was 13 years (P25-P75=10.7-22.0). 14,2% of the patients were admitted at least once in the year preceding the start of CSII-rtCGM because of diabetes related complications. Mean A1c was 8.6%±1.46%. The main reasons for starting CSII-rtCGM were: poor glycemic control (50.2%); frequent hypoglycemia, nocturnal hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia related to exercise, asymptomatic hypoglycemia (30.2%); severe hypoglycemia (16.44%) and dawn phenomena (3.1%). Baseline characteristics of patients included in this study who were started on CSII-rtCGM are similar to those reported in the literature. The Clinic starts CSII-rtCGM mainly in T1D patients with poor glycemic control, frequent or severe hypoglycemia despite being on basal/bolus therapy. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Proposed Application of Fast Fourier Transform in Near Infra Red Based Non Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    Jenie, R. P.; Iskandar, J.; Kurniawan, A.; Rustami, E.; Syafutra, H.; Nurdin, N. M.; Handoyo, T.; Prabowo, J.; Febryarto, R.; Rahayu, M. S. K.; Damayanthi, E.; Rimbawan; Sukandar, D.; Suryana, Y.; Irzaman; Alatas, H.


    Worldwide emergence of glycaemic status related health disorders, such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome, is growing in alarming rate. The objective was to propose new methods for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system, based on implementation of Fast Fourier Transform methods. This was an initial-lab-scale-research. Data on non invasive blood glucose measurement are referred from Scopus, Medline, and Google Scholar, from 2011 until 2016, and was used as design references, combined with in house verification. System was developed in modular fashion, based on aforementioned compiled references. Several preliminary tests to understand relationship between LED and photo-diode responses have been done. Several references were used as non invasive blood glucose measurement tools design basis. Solution is developed in modular fashion. we have proven different sensor responses to water and glucose. Human test for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system is needed.

  1. Comparative performance of lab tests and blood testing device to monitor glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol in type 2 diabetic patients

    Arnaldo Zubioli


    Full Text Available The performance of lab tests (LT and blood testing devices (BTD to monitor glycemia vs. glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1c were compared. In addition, the performance of blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC and triacylglycerol measured by LT and BDT were compared. All parameters were measured based on the same blood samples from overnight fasted type 2 diabetic patients (T2DP. Linear regression analysis was used for all comparisons. The results showed that A1c correlated better with LT-glucose (r = 0.58 than BTD-glucose (r = 0.42. Moreover, LT vs. BTD showed r values of 0.90, 0.82 and 0.92 for glucose, TC and triacylglycerol, respectively. It was concluded that the performance of LT-glucose was better than BDT-glucose. Moreover, since triacylycerol and TC measured by BTD correlated better with LT compared to BDT-glucose vs. LT-glucose, the inclusion of BTD-TC and BTD-triacylglycerol for detecting and monitoring hyperlipidemia in T2DP should be considered.Comparou-se a performance de avaliação da glicemia através de dosagens laboratoriais (DL ou dispositivo para teste de sangue capilar (DTSC vs. hemoglobina glicada A1c (A1c. Comparou-se ainda a performance de avaliação da glicemia, colesterol total (CT e triacilglicerol (DL vs. DTSC. Avaliou-se estes parametros a partir das mesmas amostras de sangue coletadas em pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 (PDT2 em jejum noturno, sendo as comparações realizadas através de análise de regressão linear. A A1c correlacionou-se melhor com a glicemia-DL (r = 0,58 em relação a glicemia-DTSC (r = 0,42. Comparou-se DL vs. DTSC obtendo se r = 0,90, 0,82 e 0,92 para glicemia, CT e triacilglicerol, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que houve melhor performance da glicose-DL em relação a glicose-DTSC. Além disso, considerando que o triacilglicerol e TC avaliado através de DTSC correlaciona-se melhor com DL em comparação a DTSC-glicose vs. DL-glicose, a inclusão de DTSC-TC e DTSC-triacilglicerol visando detectar e

  2. A clinical evaluation of an improved Holter monitoring technique for artificial pacemaker function.

    Kelen, G J; Bloomfield, D A; Hardage, M; Gomes, J A; Khan, R; Gopalaswamy, C; El Sherif, N


    This paper discusses shortcomings of conventional Holter monitoring in paced patients and describes a new technique which permits reliable detection of intermittent pacemaker malfunction and counts pacemaker activity during the recording period. Evaluation of the system of 64 consecutive patients revealed 15 with unsuspected episodic pacemaker dysfunction.

  3. Performance Analysis of a network using GriFT Monitoring Technique

    Priya Kundal


    Full Text Available Fault tolerance is an influential field of concern while working in a grid. Sharing as its primary goal of evolvement, a Grid includes hardware, software, and heterogeneous resources from different organizations spread over large geographical area which would make it a complex behaviour system. With this composite nature grid systems are hard to manage and will result in a faulty system. To over-come this breach of failure a monitoring technique is required that could observe and analyze the performance of the environment and report the existence of faults. This paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of the monitoring technique called GriFT which is developed using the concept of Grid Monitoring Architecture (GMA. The analysis is done by deploying it in a real laboratory set-up.

  4. Study of techniques applicable for monitoring MIC in soil or sediment

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel


    Microbially influenced corrosion of carbon steel in anaerobic environment is difficult to monitor with electrochemical techniques because of heterogeneous surface conditions and electrochemically active corrosion products. Weight loss measurement, LPR, EIS, hydrogen permeation, and a refined ER...... technique have beeen evaluated including field tests in soil and marine sediment. The conclusions are that EIS can detect combined biofilm and corrosion product film formation, but corrosion rate is overestimated. The ER technique seems to give a correct and sensitive corrosion rate measurement within...... minutes. Hydrogen permeation measurements can indirectly identify sulphide....

  5. Application of remote debugging techniques in user-centric job monitoring

    dos Santos, T.; Mättig, P.; Wulff, N.; Harenberg, T.; Volkmer, F.; Beermann, T.; Kalinin, S.; Ahrens, R.


    With the Job Execution Monitor, a user-centric job monitoring software developed at the University of Wuppertal and integrated into the job brokerage systems of the WLCG, job progress and grid worker node health can be supervised in real time. Imminent error conditions can thus be detected early by the submitter and countermeasures can be taken. Grid site admins can access aggregated data of all monitored jobs to infer the site status and to detect job misbehaviour. To remove the last "blind spot" from this monitoring, a remote debugging technique based on the GNU C compiler suite was developed and integrated into the software; its design concept and architecture is described in this paper and its application discussed.

  6. Application of Distributed Optical Fiber Sensing Technique in Monitoring the Ground Deformation

    Jin Liu


    Full Text Available The monitoring of ground deformation is important for the prevention and control of geological disaster including land subsidence, ground fissure, surface collapse, and landslides. In this study, a distributed optical fiber sensing technique based on Brillouin Optical Time-Domain Analysis (BOTDA was used to monitor the ground deformation. The principle behind the BOTDA is first introduced, and then laboratory calibration test and physical model test were carried out. Finally, BOTDA-based monitoring of ground fissure was carried out in a test site. Experimental results show that the distributed optical fiber can measure the soil strain during ground deformation process, and the strain curve responded to the soil compression and tension region clearly. During field test in Wuxi City, China, the ground fissures deformation area was monitored accurately and the trend of deformation can also be achieved to forecast and warn against the ground fissure hazards.

  7. Experimental and mumerical validation of the technique for concrete cure monitoring using piezoelectric admittance measurement

    Kim, Wan Cheol; Park, Gyu Hae [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper presents a new technique for monitoring the concrete curing process using embedded piezoelectric transducers via admittance measurements. When a piezoelectric transducer is embedded in a structure, the electrical impedance (admittance) of the transducer is coupled with the mechanical impedance of the host structure, which allows monitoring of the structural condition. In this study, the admittance signatures are used for monitoring the concrete curing process. This new method is based on an admittance-based sensor diagnostic process, in which the capacitance values of the piezoelectric transducers are dependent on the strength of the host structure. We numerically and experimentally investigated the variations in capacitive value during the curing process. The results demonstrate that there is a clear relationship between the concrete curing status and the slope, this indicates that the proposed method could be efficiently used for monitoring the curing status of a concrete structure.

  8. Integrated ultrasonic transducers made by the sol gel spray technique for structural health monitoring

    Kobayashi, M.; Jen, C.-K.; Moisan, J.-F.; Mrad, N.; Nguyen, S. B.


    Integrated piezoelectric-based ultrasonic transducers (UTs) have been developed for potential structural health monitoring. Fabrication techniques and performance evaluation of these transducers at selected monitoring sites are presented. Our novel transducer fabrication approach focuses on the use of handheld and readily accessible equipment to perform sol-gel spray coating, including the use of a heat gun or a torch, to carry out drying and firing, poling and electrode fabrication. The application of these integrated UTs for thickness measurement of graphite/epoxy composites, thickness monitoring of ice build up on aluminum plates at low temperatures, viscosity measurement of a cooling oil flow at temperatures up to 160 °C and monitoring metal debris in cooling oil engines is demonstrated.

  9. Development of Monitoring Technique for Cocoa Pod Borer(Conopomorpha cramerella Snell.

    Endang Sulistyowati


    Full Text Available Effectiveness and effiency of CPB control were influenced by the right time of control. To decided this methods, information about CPB infestation was needed. An experiment had been conducted to get a simple and accurate technique for CPB monitoring. The experiment was located in Tirawuta, a smallholder cocoa plantation in Kolaka district, South-East Sulawesi. The evaluated monitoring pods techniques using observing all ripe cocoa pod as standard method, i.e. pod colour changes as an indicator of CPB attack, observation on 100 pods during harvesting, moth trapping and observation on the presence of the holes caused by CPB. The collected data expressed as the percentage of CPB attack and compared with each other. Based on the Chi 2 value and time consumed for monitoring, it could be concluded that the observation of 100 attacked pods during harvesting was the most accurate technique closest to the standard method, with a lowest 2 value and not significantly different to standard method. On the contrary the visual observation on the pod colour showed the less accurate technique with  2 value of 242,25–335,33 followed by the bservation on the present of holes on the pod with  2 value of 243,45–282,87. Furthermore, monitoring technique by moth trapping could not be compared with the other techniques since their unit was unequal. However, no insect could be trapped during a night trapping using either chemical trapping or sticky trap. Development of sticky trap by variation in trap colour could be trapped of CPB moth during more than one week. Red trap was the most interesting (preferred for the CPB followed by the yellow, white and blue ones. There was significant correlation between number of tree sample and the time needed for observation. Larger size of tree sample consumed a longer time for the observation, but in visual symptom and entry/exit hole observation methods, larger sample size did not significantly influence its accuracy

  10. Evaluation of a blood glucose monitoring system with automatic high- and low-pattern recognition software in insulin-using patients: pattern detection and patient-reported insights.

    Grady, Mike; Campbell, Denise; MacLeod, Kirsty; Srinivasan, Aparna


    This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a glucose pattern recognition tool incorporated in a blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) and its association with clinical measures, and to assess user perception and understanding of the pattern messages they receive. Participants had type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus and were self-adjusting insulin doses for ≥1 year. During a 4-week home testing period, participants performed ≥6 daily self-tests, adjusted their insulin regimen based on BGMS results, and recorded pattern messages in the logbook. Participants reflected on usability of the pattern tool in a questionnaire. Study participants (n = 101) received a mean ± standard deviation of 4.5 ± 1.9 pattern messages per week (3.6 ± 1.8 high glucose patterns and 0.9 ± 1.3 low glucose patterns). Most received ≥1 high (96.5%) and/or ≥1 low (46.0%) pattern message per week. The average number of high- and low-pattern messages per week was associated with higher and lower, respectively, baseline hemoglobin A1c (p < .01) and fasting plasma glucose (p < .05). Participants found high- and low-pattern messages clear and easy to understand (84.2% and 83.2%, respectively) and considered the frequency of low (82.0%) and high (63.4%) pattern messages about right. Overall, 71.3% of participants indicated they preferred to use a meter with pattern messages. The on-device Pattern tool identified meaningful blood glucose patterns, highlighting potential opportunities for improving glycemic control in patients who self-adjust their insulin. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  11. Development of Cell Phone Application for Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring Based on ISO/IEEE 11073 and HL7 CCD

    Park, Hyun Sang; Cho, Hune


    Objectives The objectives of this research were to develop and evaluate a cell phone application based on the standard protocol for personal health devices and the standard information model for personal health records to support effective blood glucose management and standardized service for patients with diabetes. Methods An application was developed for Android 4.0.3. In addition, an IEEE 11073 Manager, Medical Device Encoding Rule, and Bluetooth Health Device Profile Connector were developed for standardized health communication with a glucometer, and a Continuity of Care Document (CCD) Composer and CCD Parser were developed for CCD document exchange. The developed application was evaluated by five healthcare professionals and 87 users through a questionnaire comprising the following variables: usage intention, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating condition, perceived risk, and voluntariness. Results As a result of the evaluation of usability, it was confirmed that the developed application is useful for blood glucose self-monitoring by diabetic patients. In particular, the healthcare professionals stated their own views that the application is useful to observe the trends in blood glucose change through the automatic function which records a blood glucose level measured using Bluetooth function, and the function which checks accumulated records of blood glucose levels. Also, a result of the evaluation of usage intention was 3.52 ± 0.42 out of 5 points. Conclusions The application developed by our research team was confirmed by the verification of healthcare professionals that accurate feedback can be provided to healthcare professionals during the management of diabetic patients or education for glucose management. PMID:25995960

  12. Development of Cell Phone Application for Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring Based on ISO/IEEE 11073 and HL7 CCD.

    Park, Hyun Sang; Cho, Hune; Kim, Hwa Sun


    The objectives of this research were to develop and evaluate a cell phone application based on the standard protocol for personal health devices and the standard information model for personal health records to support effective blood glucose management and standardized service for patients with diabetes. An application was developed for Android 4.0.3. In addition, an IEEE 11073 Manager, Medical Device Encoding Rule, and Bluetooth Health Device Profile Connector were developed for standardized health communication with a glucometer, and a Continuity of Care Document (CCD) Composer and CCD Parser were developed for CCD document exchange. The developed application was evaluated by five healthcare professionals and 87 users through a questionnaire comprising the following variables: usage intention, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating condition, perceived risk, and voluntariness. As a result of the evaluation of usability, it was confirmed that the developed application is useful for blood glucose self-monitoring by diabetic patients. In particular, the healthcare professionals stated their own views that the application is useful to observe the trends in blood glucose change through the automatic function which records a blood glucose level measured using Bluetooth function, and the function which checks accumulated records of blood glucose levels. Also, a result of the evaluation of usage intention was 3.52 ± 0.42 out of 5 points. The application developed by our research team was confirmed by the verification of healthcare professionals that accurate feedback can be provided to healthcare professionals during the management of diabetic patients or education for glucose management.

  13. Assessment of ground-based monitoring techniques applied to landslide investigations

    Uhlemann, S.; Smith, A.; Chambers, J.; Dixon, N.; Dijkstra, T.; Haslam, E.; Meldrum, P.; Merritt, A.; Gunn, D.; Mackay, J.


    A landslide complex in the Whitby Mudstone Formation at Hollin Hill, North Yorkshire, UK is periodically re-activated in response to rainfall-induced pore-water pressure fluctuations. This paper compares long-term measurements (i.e., 2009-2014) obtained from a combination of monitoring techniques that have been employed together for the first time on an active landslide. The results highlight the relative performance of the different techniques, and can provide guidance for researchers and practitioners for selecting and installing appropriate monitoring techniques to assess unstable slopes. Particular attention is given to the spatial and temporal resolutions offered by the different approaches that include: Real Time Kinematic-GPS (RTK-GPS) monitoring of a ground surface marker array, conventional inclinometers, Shape Acceleration Arrays (SAA), tilt meters, active waveguides with Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring, and piezometers. High spatial resolution information has allowed locating areas of stability and instability across a large slope. This has enabled identification of areas where further monitoring efforts should be focused. High temporal resolution information allowed the capture of 'S'-shaped slope displacement-time behaviour (i.e. phases of slope acceleration, deceleration and stability) in response to elevations in pore-water pressures. This study shows that a well-balanced suite of monitoring techniques that provides high temporal and spatial resolutions on both measurement and slope scale is necessary to fully understand failure and movement mechanisms of slopes. In the case of the Hollin Hill landslide it enabled detailed interpretation of the geomorphological processes governing landslide activity. It highlights the benefit of regularly surveying a network of GPS markers to determine areas for installation of movement monitoring techniques that offer higher resolution both temporally and spatially. The small sensitivity of tilt meter measurements

  14. 定期血糖监测对糖尿病患者血糖控制及生活方式的影响%Impact of Regular Blood Glucose Monitoring on Blood Glucose Control and Lifestyle of Diabetic Patients

    杨竹洁; 龚伟; 王稼颖; 陈亦如; 陈亮


    目的:探讨定期血糖监测对糖尿病血糖控制及生活方式的影响.方法:随机抽取我中心2010-2011年度确诊的老年2型糖尿病患者110例,随机分为干预组和对照组,每组各55例;2组均接受正规降糖药物治疗及生活方式指导,干预组每周进行一次血糖监测,每3个月测一次糖化血红蛋白,对照组按患者意愿测定血糖指标,通过12个月的观察,研究两组患者在血糖控制及生活方式上的差异.结果:干预组患者空腹血糖(FPG)由定期监测血糖前的(7.26± 1.36 )mmol/L降至(6.68± 1.10) mmol/L;餐后2小时血糖(2HPG)由定期监测血糖前的(12.34±2.29 )mmol/L降至(11.09±1.98) mmol/L;糖化血红蛋白由监测前的(7.99±1.61)%降至(6.60±0.87)%;差异具有显著性(P<0.05);生活方式亦有明显改善,差异具有显著性(P<0.05);而对照组的改变不如干预组.结论:通过定期血糖监测可以有效地控制血糖、糖化血红蛋白,促使老年2型糖尿病患者改变不良生活方式.%Objective: To investigate the impact of regular blood glucose monitoring on diabetic blood glucose control and lifestyle. Methods: We randomly selected 110 cases of elderly type 2 diabetic patients who have been confirmed by CHSC(Community Health Service Center) in 2010-2011. They were randomly divided into intervention and control groups, 55 cases respective. Both groups received regular Glucose-lowering drugs and life style directions. The intervention group also received regular blood glucose monitoring every week and Glycosylated hemoglobin assay every 3 months, while the control group had glycemic index test according to their own wishes. Observe them for 12 months and study the difference of glycemic control and lifestyle between the two groups. Results: The intervention group had the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) decreased from7.26± 1.36 mmol/L to 6.68 ± 1.10 mmol/L, and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose (2hPG)from 12.34± 2.29 mmol/L to 11.09± 1

  15. Analysis of time lags and other sources of error of the DexCom SEVEN continuous glucose monitor.

    Kamath, Apurv; Mahalingam, Aarthi; Brauker, James


    It has been assumed that continuous glucose sensors show substantial time lags versus blood glucose. This assumption has led to suggestions that sensors are less accurate during rapidly changing glucose levels and that sensors should only be calibrated when glucose levels are stable. The analysis presented here tests the assumption of substantial sensor time lag and its suggested effects using clinical data from the DexCom (San Diego, CA) SEVEN. Sensor and blood glucose data were collected from 117 adult subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes. Each subject wore the sensor for 7 days and underwent an 8-10-h in-clinic tracking study during which blood glucose was measured every 15-20 min. Accuracy (absolute relative difference [ARD]) versus blood glucose rate of change was evaluated on the in-clinic data set. The effect on accuracy of calibration during rapid rates of change was evaluated on the combined home-use and in-clinic data set. Average sensor time lag versus blood glucose was 5.7 min. Mean ARD versus rate of change (less than -2 to >2 mg/dL/minute) ranged between 15.0% to 16.3%. Across rates of change during calibration, mean ARD after calibration ranged between 13.2% and 16.0%. Calibration with reference measurements instead of patient measurements improved overall mean ARD from 16.0% to 8.5%. For this sensor, the assumption of substantial time lag and its suggested effects may be incorrect. The main source of error is the calibration process.

  16. Full-scale monitoring system for structural prestress loss based on distributed brillouin sensing technique

    Chunguang, Lan; Liguang, Zhou; Zhiyu, Huo


    Prestress loss is critical to impact the safety of prestressed structures. Unfortunately, up to date, there are no qualified techniques to handle this issue due to the fact that it is too hard for sensors to survive the harsh construction environments and the time-dependent service life of the large-span prestressed structures. This paper proposes a novel technique to monitor prestress loss in prestressed beams using Brillouin optical fiber sensors. A novel smart steel strand based on the sensing technique of full-scale Brillouin optical fiber sensors was introduced. Two kinds of prestressed structure were used to verify the concept of monitoring prestress loss using smart steel strands. The prestress loss data have been taken by Brillouin optical fiber sensors. And the monitoring results agree well with those from the conventional sensors. The monitoring data can reveal both the full-scale distribution and the time history of prestress loss during the construction stage and also in-service phrase.

  17. Application of data fusion techniques and technologies for wearable health monitoring.

    King, Rachel C; Villeneuve, Emma; White, Ruth J; Sherratt, R Simon; Holderbaum, William; Harwin, William S


    Technological advances in sensors and communications have enabled discrete integration into everyday objects, both in the home and about the person. Information gathered by monitoring physiological, behavioural, and social aspects of our lives, can be used to achieve a positive impact on quality of life, health, and well-being. Wearable sensors are at the cusp of becoming truly pervasive, and could be woven into the clothes and accessories that we wear such that they become ubiquitous and transparent. To interpret the complex multidimensional information provided by these sensors, data fusion techniques are employed to provide a meaningful representation of the sensor outputs. This paper is intended to provide a short overview of data fusion techniques and algorithms that can be used to interpret wearable sensor data in the context of health monitoring applications. The application of these techniques are then described in the context of healthcare including activity and ambulatory monitoring, gait analysis, fall detection, and biometric monitoring. A snap-shot of current commercially available sensors is also provided, focusing on their sensing capability, and a commentary on the gaps that need to be bridged to bring research to market.

  18. Probability-Based Diagnostic Imaging Technique Using Error Functions for Active Structural Health Monitoring

    Rahim Gorgin,


    Full Text Available This study presents a novel probability-based diagnostic imaging (PDI technique using error functions for active structural health monitoring (SHM. To achieve this, first the changes between baseline and current signals of each sensing path are measured, and by taking the root mean square of such changes, the energy of the scattered signal at different times can be calculated. Then, for different pairs of signal acquisition paths, an error function based on the energy of the scattered signals is introduced. Finally, the resultant error function is fused to the final estimation of the probability of damage presence in the monitoring area. As for applications, developed methods were employed to various damage identification cases, including cracks located in regions among an active sensor network with different configurations (pulse-echo and pitch-catch, and holes located in regions outside active network sensors with pitch-catch configuration. The results identified using experimental Lamb wave signals at different central frequencies corroborated that the developed PDI technique using error functions is capable of monitoring structural damage, regardless of its shape, size and location. The developed method doesn’t need direct interpretation of overlaid and dispersed lamb wave components for damage identification and can monitor damage located anywhere in the structure. These bright advantages, qualify the above presented PDI method for online structural health monitoring.

  19. The interrelationships of glycemic control measures: HbA1c, glycated albumin, fructosamine, 1,5-anhydroglucitrol, and continuous glucose monitoring.

    Beck, Roy; Steffes, Michael; Xing, Dongyuan; Ruedy, Katrina; Mauras, Nelly; Wilson, Darrell M; Kollman, Craig


    To describe the interrelationships of glycemic control measures: hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glycated albumin, fructosamine, 1,5-anhydroglucitrol (1,5-AG), and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. In total, 26 subjects of age 4-17 had HbA1c measurement followed within 14 d by three laboratory measures of glycemia and the collection of CGM glucose data (N = 21). Glycated albumin and fructosamine levels had a higher correlation with each other than with HbA1c. The correlation of 1,5-AG with HbA1c was lower (absolute r value = 0.25). All four measures had a similar degree of correlation with CGM-measured mean glucose (absolute r value = 0.50-0.56) and with hyperglycemic area under the curve (AUC) at 180 mg/dL (0.50-0.60). Each of the four measures (i.e., HbA1c, glycated albumin, fructosamine, and 1,5-AG) had a similar correlation with mean glucose and hyperglycemic AUC-180. 1,5-AG did not correlate with hyperglycemic AUC-180 better than did HbA1c. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Reduction in self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes: an observational controlled study in east London

    Robson, John; Smithers, Hannah; Chowdhury, Tahseen; Bennett-Richards, Philip; Keene, David; Dostal, Isabel; Mathur, Rohini; Dunne, Jack; Hull, Sally; Boomla, Kambiz


    Background Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) confers no benefit for many people with type 2 diabetes not being treated with insulin. It accounts for 21% of diabetes prescribing costs. Aim To improve care quality at reduced cost for type 2 diabetes by reducing unnecessary SMBG. Design and setting Non-randomised, observational controlled study in two intervention clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) and one control CCG in east London. Method In total, 19 602 people with type 2 diabetes not being treated with insulin were recruited from two intervention CCGs; 16 033 were recruited from a control CCG. The intervention (from 2010 to 2013) comprised implementation of a locally developed guideline, including IT support and peer feedback of performance. Data on practice prescribing SMBG testing strips were gathered using GP electronic health records. Information on costs were obtained via the ePACT electronic database. Results Over 4 years, in all non-insulin type 2 diabetes treatment groups, use of SMBG was reduced in the two intervention CCGs from 42.8% to 16.5%, and in the control CCG from 56.4% to 47.2%. In people on metformin alone or no treatment, intervention CCGs reduced SMBG use from 29.6% to 6.0%, and in the control CCG use dropped from 47.1% to 38.7% (P<0.001). From 2009 to 2012 the total cost of all SMBG prescribing (type 1 and type 2 diabetes, including users of insulin) was reduced by 4.9% (£62 476) in the two intervention CCGs and increased in the control CCG by 5.0% (£42 607); in England, the total cost increased by 13.5% (£19.4 million). In total, 20% (3865 of 19 602) fewer patients used SMBG in the intervention CCGs. Conclusion This low-cost programme demonstrated a major reduction in unnecessary prescribing of SMBG, along with cost savings. If replicated nationally, this would avoid unnecessary testing in 340 000 people and prescribing costs that total £21.8 million. PMID:25824186

  1. Evaluating Acoustic Emission Signals as an in situ process monitoring technique for Selective Laser Melting (SLM)

    Fisher, Karl A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Candy, Jim V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Guss, Gabe [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mathews, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    In situ real-time monitoring of the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process has significant implications for the AM community. The ability to adjust the SLM process parameters during a build (in real-time) can save time, money and eliminate expensive material waste. Having a feedback loop in the process would allow the system to potentially ‘fix’ problem regions before a next powder layer is added. In this study we have investigated acoustic emission (AE) phenomena generated during the SLM process, and evaluated the results in terms of a single process parameter, of an in situ process monitoring technique.


    Han-Mei CHEN


    Full Text Available Railway tunnel inspection and monitoring has predominantly been a visual and manual procedure, which is time-consuming and subjective, giving rise to variance in standards and quality. Thus, alternative, novel, automated techniques need to be developed, for more efficient and reliable tunnel examination. The reported research aimed to investigate the application of a laser scanning technique for the inspection of tunnel degradation and structural integrity. The proposed method may either substitute or supplement traditional survey techniques, being more efficient, and contributing thus to the standardisation of tunnel inspections. For the purpose of investigating the applicability and accuracy of laser scanning in tunnels, a set of tunnel lining models was constructed for laboratory tests, with the objective of determining the quality of the imaging. Initial tests were carried out using a performant laser scanner and demonstrated the feasibility of the concept. As a result, refined laboratory models were built, and experiments conducted, to establish the quality and precision of laser scanning imaging, for condition monitoring of tunnels. The experimental results indicate that the laser scanning technique used in this research has high potential for detecting the tunnel condition, monitoring the depth of weathered mortar, spalling bricks etc. with high accuracy in static scanning mode.

  3. Fabrication of glucose biosensor for whole blood based on Au/hyperbranched polyester nanoparticles multilayers by antibiofouling and self-assembly technique

    Sun, Chong [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Key Laboratory for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Chen, Xiaohan; Han, Qiaorong [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhou, Min [Department of Vascular Surgery, the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China); Mao, Chun, E-mail: [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhu, Qinshu [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Shen, Jian, E-mail: [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)


    Highlight: •A novel method for detection of glucose in whole blood has been developed. •The method based on antibiofouling and self-assembly technology was investigated. •The antibiofouling technique utilized for sensor is significant for diagnostics. -- Abstract: Acknowledging the benefits of hyperbranched polymers and their nanoparticles, herein we report the design and synthesis of sulfonic acid group functionalized hydroxyl-terminated hyperbranched polyester (H30-SO{sub 3}H) nanoparticles and their biomedical application. The H30-SO{sub 3}H nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR). The good hemocompatibility of H30-SO{sub 3}H nanoparticles was also investigated by coagulation tests, complement activation and platelet activation. The novel glucose biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing the positively charged Au nanoparticles, H30-SO{sub 3}H nanoparticles and glucose oxidase (GOx) onto the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). It can be applied in whole blood directly, which was based on the good hemocompatibility and antibiofouling property of H30-SO{sub 3}H nanoparticles. The biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward glucose with a wide linear range (0.2–20 mM), a low detection limit 1.2 × 10{sup −5} M in whole blood and good anti-interference property. The development of materials science will offer a novel platform for application to substance detection in whole blood.

  4. On-Line Life Monitoring Technique for Tube Bundles of Boiler High-Temperature Heating Surface

    Yang Dong; Wang Zhongyuan


    High-temperature heating surface such as superheater and reheater of large-sized utility boiler all experiences a relatively severe working conditions. The failure of boiler tubes will directly impact the safe and economic operation of boiler. An on-line life monitoring model of high-temperature heating surface was set up according to the well-known L-M formula of the creep damages. The tube wall metal temperature and working stress was measured by on-line monitoring, and with this model, the real-time calculation of the life expenditure of the heating surface tube bundles were realized. Based on the technique the on-line life monitoring and management system of high-temperature heating surface was developed for a 300 MW utility boiler. An effective device was thus suggested for the implementation of the safe operation and the condition-based maintenance of utility boilers.

  5. Impedance-Based Cable Force Monitoring in Tendon-Anchorage Using Portable PZT-Interface Technique

    Thanh-Canh Huynh


    Full Text Available In this paper, a portable PZT interface for tension force monitoring in the cable-anchorage subsystem is developed. Firstly, the theoretical background of the impedance-based method is presented. A few damage evaluation approaches are outlined to quantify the variation of impedance signatures. Secondly, a portable PZT interface is designed to monitor impedance signatures from the cable-anchorage subsystem. One degree-of-freedom analytical model of the PZT interface is established to explain how to represent the loss of cable force from the change in the electromechanical impedance of the PZT interface as well as reducing the sensitive frequency band by implementing the interface device. Finally, the applicability of the proposed PZT-interface technique is experimentally evaluated for cable force-loss monitoring in a lab-scaled test structure.

  6. Ultrasonic crystallization monitoring technique for simultaneous in-line measurement of liquid and solid phase

    Stelzer, T.; Pertig, D.; Ulrich, J.


    The mean crystal size, the suspension density and the liquid concentration are the three most important process parameters to quantify the progress of industrial crystallization processes. It will be shown that these parameters can be in-line monitored simultaneously by means of an ultrasonic crystallization monitoring technique (UCM), which will be introduced here in a proof of concept. This process analytical technology (PAT) differs from the known ultrasonic attenuation spectroscopy (UAS). For the UCM the ultrasonic velocity and attenuation were correlated and related to characteristic events during a crystallization process measured at only one frequency (no spectra of frequencies as it is used for UAS). The results shown in this study prepare the ground to establish the UCM as a simple, less complex, robust, universal applicable, inexpensive and, therefore, a winning alternative PAT to monitor and control in-line the solid as well as the liquid phase in the industrial crystallization by means of only one measuring device with two sensors.

  7. [Techniques of on-line monitoring volatile organic compounds in ambient air with optical spectroscopy].

    Du, Zhen-Hui; Zhai, Ya-Qiong; Li, Jin-Yi; Hu, Bo


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are harmful gaseous pollutants in the ambient air. The techniques of on-line monitoring VOCs are very significant for environment protection. Until now, there is no single technology that can meet all the needs of monitoring various VOCs. The characteristics and present situation of several optical methods, which can be applied to on-line monitoring VOCs, including non dispersive infrared (NDIR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), and laser spectroscopy were reviewed. Comparison was completed between the national standard methods and spectroscopic method for measuring VOCs. The main analysis was focused on the status and trends of tuning diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology.

  8. Lamb-Wave-Based Tomographic Imaging Techniques for Hole-Edge Corrosion Monitoring in Plate Structures

    Dengjiang Wang


    Full Text Available This study presents a novel monitoring method for hole-edge corrosion damage in plate structures based on Lamb wave tomographic imaging techniques. An experimental procedure with a cross-hole layout using 16 piezoelectric transducers (PZTs was designed. The A0 mode of the Lamb wave was selected, which is sensitive to thickness-loss damage. The iterative algebraic reconstruction technique (ART method was used to locate and quantify the corrosion damage at the edge of the hole. Hydrofluoric acid with a concentration of 20% was used to corrode the specimen artificially. To estimate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the real corrosion damage was compared with the predicted corrosion damage based on the tomographic method. The results show that the Lamb-wave-based tomographic method can be used to monitor the hole-edge corrosion damage accurately.

  9. A novel noninvasive all optical technique to monitor physiology of an exercising muscle

    Saxena, Vishal; Marcu, Laura; Karunasiri, Gamani


    An all optical technique based on near-infrared spectroscopy and mid-infrared imaging (MIRI) is applied as a noninvasive, in vivo tool to monitor the vascular status of skeletal muscle and the physiological changes that occur during exercise. A near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique, namely, steady state diffuse optical spectroscopy (SSDOS) along with MIRI is applied for monitoring the changes in the values of tissue oxygenation and thermometry of an exercising muscle. The NIRS measurements are performed at five discrete wavelengths in a spectral window of 650-850 nm and MIRI is performed in a spectral window of 8-12 µm. The understanding of tissue oxygenation status and the behavior of the physiological parameters derived from thermometry may provide a useful insight into muscle physiology, therapeutic response and treatment.

  10. Comparison of some very high resolution remote sensing techniques for the monitoring of a sandy beach

    Jaud, M.; Delacourt, C.; Allemand, P.; Deschamps, A.; Cancouët, R.; Ammann, J.; Grandjean, P.; Suanez, S.; Fichaut, B.; Cuq, V.


    Because the anthropogenic pressure on the coastal fringe is continuously increasing, the comprehension of morphological coastal changes is a key problem. An efficient, practical and affordable monitoring strategy is essential to investigate the physical processes that are on the origin of these changes and to model the changes to come. This paper presents an assessment of several very high resolution remote sensing techniques (DGPS, stereo-photogrammetry by drone, Terrestrial Laser Scanning and shallow-water multi-beam echo-sounder) which have been jointly used to survey a beach in French Brittany. These techniques allow an integrated approach for Digital Elevation Model (DEM) differencing in order to quantify morphological changes and to monitor the beach evolution. Gathering topographic and bathymetric data enables to draw up the sediment budget of a complete sediment compartment.

  11. The Study of New Signal Processing Technique in Photon Beam Position Monitors

    Lin, Shunfu; Lu, Ping; Sun Bao Gen; Wang, Jigang


    A log-ratio signal processing technique in photon beam position monitors (PBPM) was presented in this paper. The main performances (e.g. sensitivity, position offset and linearity range) of split PBPM and a pair of wires PBPM were analyzed , and the result of the measurement fit well with the theory. An inexpensive logarithmic amplifier chip which can measure photon currents from 0.1nA to 3.5mA was used in electronic circuits. The logarithmic ratio of the signal amplitudes from the PBPM provides a real-time analog signal that has wider linearity range and higher bandwidth than signal processing technique.

  12. Intraoperative monitoring by imaging and electrophysiological techniques during giant intracranial aneurysm surgery.

    Durand, A; Penchet, G; Thines, L


    Difficulties in giant intracranial aneurysm surgery are the consequence of aneurysmal wall histology and the complex angioarchitecture of the vascular tree. In order to reduce complications and risks of those procedures, various imaging and electrophysiological techniques can be implemented perioperatively. The authors review the principles, goals and main results in this context of micro-Doppler and flowmeter techniques, near-infrared spectroscopy, operative microscope-integrated indocyanine green video-angiography, neuro-endoscopy, selective intraoperative angiography and electrophysiological monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of rule-based data mining techniques to real time ATLAS Grid job monitoring data

    Ahrens, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Kalinin, S; Maettig, P; Sandhoff, M; dos Santos, T; Volkmer, F


    The Job Execution Monitor (JEM) is a job-centric grid job monitoring software developed at the University of Wuppertal and integrated into the pilot-based “PanDA” job brokerage system leveraging physics analysis and Monte Carlo event production for the ATLAS experiment on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). With JEM, job progress and grid worker node health can be supervised in real time by users, site admins and shift personnel. Imminent error conditions can be detected early and countermeasures can be initiated by the Job’s owner immideatly. Grid site admins can access aggregated data of all monitored jobs to infer the site status and to detect job and Grid worker node misbehaviour. Shifters can use the same aggregated data to quickly react to site error conditions and broken production tasks. In this work, the application of novel data-centric rule based methods and data-mining techniques to the real time monitoring data is discussed. The usage of such automatic inference techniques on monitorin...

  14. Application of rule-based data mining techniques to real time ATLAS Grid job monitoring data

    Ahrens, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Kalinin, S; Maettig, P; Sandhoff, M; dos Santos, T; Volkmer, F


    The Job Execution Monitor (JEM) is a job-centric grid job monitoring software developed at the University of Wuppertal and integrated into the pilot-based “PanDA” job brokerage system leveraging physics analysis and Monte Carlo event production for the ATLAS experiment on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). With JEM, job progress and grid worker node health can be supervised in real time by users, site admins and shift personnel. Imminent error conditions can be detected early and countermeasures can be initiated by the Job’s owner immideatly. Grid site admins can access aggregated data of all monitored jobs to infer the site status and to detect job and Grid worker node misbehaviour. Shifters can use the same aggregated data to quickly react to site error conditions and broken production tasks. In this work, the application of novel data-centric rule based methods and data-mining techniques to the real time monitoring data is discussed. The usage of such automatic inference techniques on monitorin...

  15. Remote and terrestrial ground monitoring techniques integration for hazard assessment in mountain areas

    Chinellato, Giulia; Kenner, Robert; Iasio, Christian; Mair, Volkmar; Mosna, David; Mulas, Marco; Phillips, Marcia; Strada, Claudia; Zischg, Andreas


    In high mountain regions the choice of appropriate sites for infrastructure such as roads, railways, cable cars or hydropower dams is often very limited. In parallel, the increasing demand for supply infrastructure in the Alps induces a continuous transformation of the territory. The new role played by the precautionary monitoring in the risk governance becomes fundamental and may overcome the modeling of future events, which represented so far the predominant approach to these sort of issues. Furthermore the consequence of considering methodologies alternative to those more exclusive allow to reduce costs and increasing the frequency of measurements, updating continuously the cognitive framework of existing hazard condition in most susceptible territories. The scale factor of the observed area and the multiple purpose of such regional ordinary surveys make it convenient to adopt Radar Satellite-based systems, but they need to be integrated with terrestrial systems for validation and eventual early warning purposes. Significant progress over the past decade in Remote Sensing (RS), Proximal Sensing and integration-based sensor networks systems now provide technologies, that allow to implement monitoring systems for ordinary surveys of extensive areas or regions, which are affected by active natural processes and slope instability. The Interreg project SloMove aims to provide solutions for such challenges and focuses on using remote sensing monitoring techniques for the monitoring of mass movements in two test sites, in South Tyrol (Italy) and in Grisons Canton (Switzerland). The topics faced in this project concern mass movements and slope deformation monitoring techniques, focusing mainly on the integration of multi-temporal interferometry, new generation of terrestrial technologies for differential digital terrain model elaboration provided by laser scanner (TLS), and GNSS-based topographic surveys, which are used not only for validation purpose, but also for

  16. The development of advanced instrumentation and control technology -The development of digital monitoring technique-

    Jun, Jong Sun; Lee, Byung Sun; Han, Sang Joon; Shin, Yong Chul; Kim, Yung Baek; Kim, Dong Hoon; Oh, Yang Kyoon; Suh, Yung; Choi, Chan Duk; Kang, Byung Hun; Hong, Hyung Pyo; Shin, Jee Tae; Moon, Kwon Kee; Lee, Soon Sung; Kim, Sung Hoh; Koo, In Soo; Kim, Dong Wan; Huh, Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    A study has been performed for the advanced DSP technology for digital nuclear I and C systems and its prototype, and for the monitoring and diagnosing techniques for the highly-pressurized components in NSSS. In the DSP part, the DSP requirements for NPPs have been induced for the performance of the DSP systems and the functional analysis for Reactor Coolant System (RCS) has been performed as the embodied target system. Total quantities of the I and C signals, signal types, and signal functions were also investigated in Ulchin NPP units 3 and 4. From these basis, the prototype facility was configured for performance validation and algorithm implementation. In order to develop the methods of DSP techniques and algorithms, the current signal validation methods have been studied and analyzed. In the analysis for the communication networks in NPP, the basic technique for the configuration of communication networks and the important considerations for applying to NPPs have been reviewed. Test and experimental facilities have been set up in order to carry out the required tests during research activities on the monitoring techniques for abnormal conditions. Studies were concentrated on methods how to acquire vibration signals from the mechanical structures and equipment including rotating machinery and reactor, and analyses for the characteristics of the signals. Fuzzy logic was evaluated as a good technique to improve the reliability of the monitoring and diagnosing algorithm through the application of the theory such as the automatic pattern recognition algorithm of the vibration spectrum, the alarm detection and diagnosis for collisions of loose parts. 71 figs, 32 tabs, 64 refs. (Author).

  17. Short-term use of continuous glucose monitoring system adds to glycemic control in young type 1 diabetes mellitus patients in the long run: A clinical trial

    Bukara-Radujković Gordana


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Balancing strict glycemic control with setting realistic goals for each individual child and family can optimize growth, ensure normal pubertal development and emotional maturation, and control long term complications in children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of short-term continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS application in improvement of glycemic control in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM patients. Methods. A total of 80 pediatric T1DM patients were randomly assigned into the experimental and the control group. The experimental group wore CGMS sensor for 72 hours at the beginning of the study. Self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG levels and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels were obtained for both groups at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months. Results. There was a significant improvement in HbA1c (p < 0.001, in both the experimental and the control group, without a significant difference between the groups. Nevertheless, after 6 months the improvement of mean glycemia was noticed only in the experimental group. This finding was accompanied with a decrease in the number of hyperglycemic events and no increase in the number of hypoglycemic events in the experimental group. Conclusions. The results suggest that the CGMS can be considered as a valuable tool in treating pediatric T1DM patients, however further research is needed to more accurately estimate to what extent, if any, it outperforms intensive self-monitoring of blood glucose.

  18. Crack monitoring method based on Cu coating sensor and electrical potential technique for metal structure

    Hou Bo


    Full Text Available Advanced crack monitoring technique is the cornerstone of aircraft structural health monitoring. To achieve real-time crack monitoring of aircraft metal structures in the course of service, a new crack monitoring method is proposed based on Cu coating sensor and electrical potential difference principle. Firstly, insulation treatment process was used to prepare a dielectric layer on structural substrate, such as an anodizing layer on 2A12-T4 aluminum alloy substrate, and then a Cu coating crack monitoring sensor was deposited on the structure fatigue critical parts by pulsed bias arc ion plating technology. Secondly, the damage consistency of the Cu coating sensor and 2A12-T4 aluminum alloy substrate was investigated by static tensile experiment and fatigue test. The results show that strain values of the coating sensor and the 2A12-T4 aluminum alloy substrate measured by strain gauges are highly coincident in static tensile experiment and the sensor has excellent fatigue damage consistency with the substrate. Thirdly, the fatigue performance discrepancy between samples with the coating sensor and original samples was investigated. The result shows that there is no obvious negative influence on the fatigue performance of the 2A12-T4 aluminum alloy after preparing the Cu coating sensor on its surface. Finally, crack monitoring experiment was carried out with the Cu coating sensor. The experimental results indicate that the sensor is sensitive to crack, and crack origination and propagation can be monitored effectively through analyzing the change of electrical potential values of the coating sensor.

  19. Performance of the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) during development of ketosis in patients on insulin pump therapy

    Pfuetzner, J.; Forst, T.; Butzer, R.; Forst, S.; Weber, M. M.; Pfuetzner, A. H.; Pfuetzner, A.


    Aims Ketoacidosis is one of the most severe complications of Type 1 diabetes. Development of ketosis leads to substantial shifts in electrolyte and ion concentrations in the different fluid compartments of the body. This study was performed to investigate the performance of the continuous glucose mo

  20. Sources of uncertainty in individual monitoring for photographic,TL and OSL dosimetry techniques

    Ferreira, Max S.; Silva, Everton R.; Mauricio, Claudia L.P., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The identification of the uncertainty sources and their quantification is essential to the quality of any dosimetric results. If uncertainties are not stated for all dose measurements informed in the monthly dose report to the monitored radiation facilities, they need to be known. This study aims to analyze the influence of different sources of uncertainties associated with photographic, TL and OSL dosimetric techniques, considering the evaluation of occupational doses of whole-body exposure for photons. To identify the sources of uncertainty it was conducted a bibliographic review in specific documents that deal with operational aspects of each technique and the uncertainties associated to each of them. Withal, technical visits to individual monitoring services were conducted to assist in this identification. The sources of uncertainty were categorized and their contributions were expressed in a qualitative way. The process of calibration and traceability are the most important sources of uncertainties, regardless the technique used. For photographic dosimetry, the remaining important uncertainty sources are due to: energy and angular dependence; linearity of response; variations in the films processing. For TL and OSL, the key process for a good performance is respectively the reproducibility of the thermal and optical cycles. For the three techniques, all procedures of the measurement process must be standardized, controlled and reproducible. Further studies can be performed to quantify the contribution of the sources of uncertainty. (author)

  1. Investigation of a Moire Based Crack Detection Technique for Propulsion Health Monitoring

    Woike, Mark R.; Abudl-Aziz, Ali; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, John D.


    The development of techniques for the health monitoring of the rotating components in gas turbine engines is of major interest to NASA s Aviation Safety Program. As part of this on-going effort several experiments utilizing a novel optical Moir based concept along with external blade tip clearance and shaft displacement instrumentation were conducted on a simulated turbine engine disk as a means of demonstrating a potential optical crack detection technique. A Moir pattern results from the overlap of two repetitive patterns with slightly different periods. With this technique, it is possible to detect very small differences in spacing and hence radial growth in a rotating disk due to a flaw such as a crack. The experiment involved etching a circular reference pattern on a subscale engine disk that had a 50.8 mm (2 in.) long notch machined into it to simulate a crack. The disk was operated at speeds up to 12 000 rpm and the Moir pattern due to the shift with respect to the reference pattern was monitored as a means of detecting the radial growth of the disk due to the defect. In addition, blade displacement data were acquired using external blade tip clearance and shaft displacement sensors as a means of confirming the data obtained from the optical technique. The results of the crack detection experiments and its associated analysis are presented in this paper.

  2. Development of a Robust Optical Glucose Sensor

    Cote, Gerard Laurence


    The long term objective of this research was the development of a noninvasive, optically-based, polarimetric sensor to monitor in vivo glucose concentrations. The goal of diabetes therapy is to approximate the 24-hour blood glucose profile of a normal individual. There have been major advances in the development of reliable, versatile, and accurate pumps for the delivery of insulin to diabetic patients and in the development of control algorithms for closed-loop insulin delivery, however, there remain major obstacles to the development of clinically useful, continuous glucose sensors. The development of an accurate noninvasive glucose sensor would have significant application in the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitis both in conjunction with, and independent of, the glucose pump controller applications. The linear polarization vector of light routes when it interacts with an optically active material such as glucose. The amount of rotation of polarization is directly proportional to the glucose concentration and to the path length. The ability to quantitate blood glucose levels for the limited available path length in our primary sensing site, namely, the anterior chamber of the eye, therefore depends on the signal-to-noise ratio of the polarization detector. Our primary research focused on the development and testing of a prototype optical polarimetry system using D + glucose solution in a test cell, as well as using an enucleated human eye to assess the sensitivity of the system to measure physiologic glucose levels for the approximate one centimeter path length present in the anterior chamber of the eye. Our research has led to the development of a true phase technique in which helium neon laser light was coupled through a rotating linear polarizer along with two stationary linear polarizers and two detectors to produce reference and signal outputs whose amplitudes varied sinusoidally and whose phase was proportional to the rotation of light caused by

  3. Sustainable microbial water quality monitoring programme design using phage-lysis and multivariate techniques.

    Nnane, Daniel Ekane


    Contamination of surface waters is a pervasive threat to human health, hence, the need to better understand the sources and spatio-temporal variations of contaminants within river catchments. River catchment managers are required to sustainably monitor and manage the quality of surface waters. Catchment managers therefore need cost-effective low-cost long-term sustainable water quality monitoring and management designs to proactively protect public health and aquatic ecosystems. Multivariate and phage-lysis techniques were used to investigate spatio-temporal variations of water quality, main polluting chemophysical and microbial parameters, faecal micro-organisms sources, and to establish 'sentry' sampling sites in the Ouse River catchment, southeast England, UK. 350 river water samples were analysed for fourteen chemophysical and microbial water quality parameters in conjunction with the novel human-specific phages of Bacteroides GB-124 (Bacteroides GB-124). Annual, autumn, spring, summer, and winter principal components (PCs) explained approximately 54%, 75%, 62%, 48%, and 60%, respectively, of the total variance present in the datasets. Significant loadings of Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, turbidity, and human-specific Bacteroides GB-124 were observed in all datasets. Cluster analysis successfully grouped sampling sites into five clusters. Importantly, multivariate and phage-lysis techniques were useful in determining the sources and spatial extent of water contamination in the catchment. Though human faecal contamination was significant during dry periods, the main source of contamination was non-human. Bacteroides GB-124 could potentially be used for catchment routine microbial water quality monitoring. For a cost-effective low-cost long-term sustainable water quality monitoring design, E. coli or intestinal enterococci, turbidity, and Bacteroides GB-124 should be monitored all-year round in this river catchment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All

  4. Smart Technique for Induction Motors Diagnosis by Monitoring the Power Factor Using Only the Measured Current

    Shnibha, R. A.; Albarabar, A. S.


    This paper is concerned with accurate, early and reliable induction motor IM fault detection and diagnosis using an enhanced power parameter measurement technique. IM protection devices typically monitor the motor current and/or voltage to provide the motor protection from e.g. current overload, over/under voltage, etc. One of the interesting parameters to monitor is the operating power factor (PF) of the IM which provides better under-load protection compared to the motor current based approaches. The PF of the motor is determined by the level of the current and voltage that are drawn, and offers non-intrusive monitoring. Traditionally, PF estimation would require both voltage and the current measurements to apply the displacement method. This paper will use a method of determining the operating PF of the IM using only the measured current and the manufacturer data that are typically available from the nameplate and/or datasheet for IM monitoring. The novelty of this work lies in detecting very low phase imbalance related faults and misalignment. Much of the previous work has dealt with detecting phase imbalance faults at higher degrees of severity, i.e. voltage drops of 10% or more. The technique was tested by empirical measurements on test rig comprised a 1.1 kW variable speed three phase induction motor with varying output load (No load, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% load). One common faults was introduced; imbalance in one phase as the electrical fault The experimental results demonstrate that the PF can be successfully applied for IM fault diagnosis and the present study shows that severity fault detection using PF is promising. The proposed method offers a potentially reliable, non-intrusive, and inexpensive CM tool which can be implemented with real-time monitoring systems

  5. Landslide monitoring by combining of CR-InSAR and GPS techniques

    Zhu, Wu; Zhang, Qin; Ding, XiaoLi; Zhao, Chaoying; Yang, Chengsheng; Qu, Feifei; Qu, Wei


    Considering the limitations related to the landslide monitoring by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technique, the method of integration of Globe Positioning System (GPS) with Corner Reflector Interferometric SAR (CR-InSAR) techniques is proposed in this paper. Firstly, deformation in radar line-of-slight (LOS) direction is optimized by introducing the GPS-measured height and atmospheric delay products into the CR-InSAR model. Then, GPS-measured horizontal deformation and CR-InSAR measured LOS deformation are combined to produce the more accurate vertical deformation. Finally, high precision three-dimensional deformation (N, E, U) is projected to the along-slope direction to monitor the actual movement of landslide. In order to test this method, four X-band stripmap-mode TerraSAR images, eight Trihedral Corner Reflectors (TCR) data and eight GPS observed data are collected to monitor the deformation of three potential landslide fields located at the north of Shaanxi province, China. The detailed analysis demonstrates that the estimated precision of along-slope direction is about two times better for proposed method (±1.1 mm) versus GPS (±2.1 mm) in this case. Meanwhile, our result indicates that almost all of the monitoring points present the trends of sliding down along the slope at the different levels from April 9 2011 to August 30 2011, showing the certain instability. Further investigation of the relationship between the magnitudes of displacement at CR points and the implementation of early control reflects the rationality of our result. Our proposed method could provide of the strong support in the high precision landslide deformation monitoring.

  6. A Parallel Sensing Technique for Automatic Bilayer Lipid Membrane Arrays Monitoring

    Michele ROSSI


    Full Text Available Ion channels are transmembrane proteins responsible of cell signaling and a large part of pharmaceutical compounds are interacting with them. In-vitro testing of ion channels is a promising technique for high throughput screening (HTS in drug discovery and personalized medicine. Automated tests of single ion channels embedded in artificial bilayer lipid membranes (BLM is gaining attention over patch clamp technique due to its characteristic of performing parallel tests on selected sets of channels or multiple pharmaceutical targets. However, BLM arrays formation is a critical process based on manual and time-consuming techniques. In this paper, an automatic liquid dispensing system for BLM formation monitored in real-time by using low-noise current amplifiers is presented. As proof of this approach, concurrent formation of BLMs is shown. Additionally, single ion channel recordings on an automatically formed BLM is presented and discussed.

  7. Land Subsidence Monitoring Using PS-InSAR Technique for L-Band SAR Data

    Thapa, S.; Chatterjee, R. S.; Singh, K. B.; Kumar, D.


    Differential SAR-Interferometry (D-InSAR) is one of the potential source to measure land surface motion induced due to underground coal mining. However, this technique has many limitation such as atmospheric in homogeneities, spatial de-correlation, and temporal decorrelation. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry synthetic aperture radar (PS-InSAR) belongs to a family of time series InSAR technique, which utilizes the properties of some of the stable natural and anthropogenic targets which remain coherent over long time period. In this study PS-InSAR technique has been used to monitor land subsidence over selected location of Jharia Coal field which has been correlated with the ground levelling measurement. This time series deformation observed using PS InSAR helped us to understand the nature of the ground surface deformation due to underground mining activity.

  8. Impact of Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring Use on Glucose Variability and Endothelial Function in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: New Technology—New Possibility to Decrease Cardiovascular Risk?

    Milena Jamiołkowska


    Full Text Available Children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM are the high-risk group of accelerated atherosclerosis. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM provides possibilities for the detection of glycaemic variability, newly recognized cardiovascular risk factor. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of RT-CGM as an educational tool to find and reduce glycaemic variability in order to improve endothelial function in T1DM adolescents. Forty patients aged 14.6 years were recruited. The study was based on one-month CGM sensors use. Parameters of glycaemic variability were analyzed during first and last sensor use, together with brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD to assess endothelial function. In the whole group, FMD improvement was found (10.9% to 16.6%, p<0.005, together with decrease in all studied glycaemic variability parameters. In patients with HbA1c improvement compared to the group without HbA1c improvement, we found greater increase of FMD (12% to 19%, p<0.005 versus 8.2% to 11.3%, p=0.080 and greater improvement of glucose variability. RT-CGM can be considered as an additional tool that offers T1DM adolescents the quick reaction to decrease glycaemic variability in short time observation. Whether such approach might influence improvement in endothelial function and reduction of the risk of future cardiovascular disease remains to be elucidated.

  9. Evaluation of a combined blood glucose monitoring and gaming system (Didget®) for motivation in children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

    Klingensmith, Georgeanna J; Aisenberg, Javier; Kaufman, Francine; Halvorson, Mary; Cruz, Eric; Riordan, Mary Ellen; Varma, Chandrasekhar; Pardo, Scott; Viggiani, Maria T; Wallace, Jane F; Schachner, Holly C; Bailey, Timothy


    The purpose of this study was to assess the performance and acceptability of a blood glucose meter coupled with a gaming system for children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes. During an in-clinic visit, duplicate blood samples were tested by subjects (N = 147; aged 5-24 yr) and health care providers (HCPs) to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the Didget® system. Subjects' meter results were compared against Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) reference results and HCP results using least squares regression and error grid analyses. Precision was measured by average within-subject and within-HCP coefficient of variation (CV). During the home-use component of this study, subjects (n = 58) tested their blood glucose at least two to three times daily for 3-5 d to evaluate routine use of the system. Subjects' meter results showed significant correlations with both YSI (r(2) = 0.94; p motivating, and helpful for building good blood glucose monitoring habits. Most HCPs agreed that the system fulfilled a need in diabetes management. In conclusion, the Didget® system was precise and clinically accurate in the hands of children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

  10. Glycemic Variability Assessed by Continuous Glucose Monitoring and Short-Term Outcome in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: An Observational Pilot Study

    Annunziata Nusca


    Full Text Available Poor glycemic control is associated with unfavorable outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, irrespective of diabetes mellitus. However a complete assessment of glycemic status may not be fully described by glycated hemoglobin or fasting blood glucose levels, whereas daily glycemic fluctuations may influence cardiovascular risk and have even more deleterious effects than sustained hyperglycemia. Thus, this paper investigated the effectiveness of a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM, registering the mean level of glycemic values but also the extent of glucose excursions during coronary revascularization, in detecting periprocedural outcome such as renal or myocardial damage, assessed by serum creatinine, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, and troponin I levels. High glycemic variability (GV has been associated with worse postprocedural creatinine and NGAL variations. Moreover, GV, and predominantly hypoglycemic variations, has been observed to increase in patients with periprocedural myocardial infarction. Thus, our study investigated the usefulness of CGM in the setting of PCI where an optimal glycemic control should be achieved in order to prevent complications and improve outcome.

  11. Evaluation of reactivity monitoring techniques at the Yalina - Booster sub-critical facility

    Becares Palacios, V.


    The management of long-lived radioactive wastes produced by nuclear reactors constitutes one of the main challenges of nuclear technology nowadays. A possible option for its management consists in the transmutation of long lived nuclides into shorter lived ones. Accelerator Driven Subcritical Systems (ADS) are one of the technologies in development to achieve this goal. An ADS consists in a subcritical nuclear reactor maintained in a steady state by an external neutron source driven by a particle accelerator. The interest of these systems lays on its capacity to be loaded with fuels having larger contents of minor actinides than conventional critical reactors, and in this way, increasing the transmutation rates of these elements, that are the main responsible of the long-term radiotoxicity of nuclear waste. One of the key points that have been identified for the operation of an industrial-scale ADS is the need of continuously monitoring the reactivity of the subcritical system during operation. For this reason, since the 1990s a number of experiments have been conducted in zero-power subcritical assemblies (MUSE, RACE, KUCA, Yalina, GUINEVERE/FREYA) in order to experimentally validate these techniques. In this context, the present thesis is concerned with the validation of reactivity monitoring techniques at the Yalina-Booster subcritical assembly. This assembly belongs to the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research (JIPNR-Sosny) of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Experiments concerning reactivity monitoring have been performed in this facility under the EUROTRANS project of the 6th EU Framework Program in year 2008 under the direction of CIEMAT. Two types of experiments have been carried out: experiments with a pulsed neutron source (PNS) and experiments with a continuous source with short interruptions (beam trips). For the case of the first ones, PNS experiments, two fundamental techniques exist to measure the reactivity, known as the prompt

  12. 基于动态血糖监测系统对指尖血糖最佳监测方法的统计研究%Continuous glucose monitoring system-based statistical research for the best finger tip blood glucose monitoring method

    赵敬敏; 张木勋


    目的 比较动态血糖监测与指尖血糖监测的平均血糖、平均血糖漂移幅度,探讨出最佳的血糖自我监测方案.方法 选取63例1型、2型糖尿病患者,应用动态血糖监测系统进行连续(72±6)h的血糖监测.同时进行4至7次指尖血糖加以校正.计算动态血糖的24 h平均血糖值(mean blood glucose,MBG)和日内平均血糖漂移幅度(mean amplitude of glucose excursions,MAGE),同时在测量结果中选点进行统计分析,找出合适、经济的自我监测点.结果 ① "常规8点"、"常规8点"中任意7点的MBG与24 h MBG均有显著相关,选取6点以下的取点的相关性逐渐下降,但取6点、5点均有显著相关性的最佳取点方式;② "常规8点"的MAGE与24 h MAGE具有高度相关性.同时取7点、6点、5点及"早餐后、午餐后、晚餐后、睡前"4点具有中度相关性.结论 ① 本文通过对平均血糖的比较提示"常规8点"、"任意7点"足以反映全天平均血糖浓度.② 本文对平均血糖波动幅度的研究得出:"常规8点"可以反映血糖波动情况,"早餐后、午餐后、晚餐后、睡前"对血糖波动的影响较大.%Objective The values of the mean blood glucose ( MBG) and the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions ( MAGE) obtained by continuous glucose monitoring system ( CGMS) were compared with those obtained by linger tip Wood glucose monitoring in order to get the perfect sell-monitoring method. Methods Totally 63 cases of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled. The blood glucose values of those cases were monitored by CGMS for about(72±6) hours, and were proved by finger tip blood glucose monitoring about 4-7 times in all process. The finger tip blood glucose and dynamic blood glucose were tested for correlation. The values of mean blood glucose and the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions in 24 hours were calculated. At the same time, the points in (CGMS) monitoring process were picked, and then analyzed statistically

  13. Point and trend accuracy of a continuous intravenous microdialysis-based glucose-monitoring device in critically ill patients: a prospective study.

    Leopold, J H; van Hooijdonk, R T M; Boshuizen, M; Winters, T; Bos, L D; Abu-Hanna, A; Hoek, A M T; Fischer, J C; van Dongen-Lases, E C; Schultz, M J


    Microdialysis is a well-established technology that can be used for continuous blood glucose monitoring. We determined point and trend accuracy, and reliability of a microdialysis-based continuous blood glucose-monitoring device (EIRUS(®)) in critically ill patients. Prospective study involving patients with an expected intensive care unit stay of ≥48 h. Every 15 min, device readings were compared with blood glucose values measured in arterial blood during blocks of 8 h per day for a maximum of 3 days. The Clarke error grid, Bland-Altman plot, mean absolute relative difference and glucose prediction error analysis were used to express point accuracy and the rate error grid to express trend accuracy. Reliability testing included aspects of the device and the external sensor, and the special central venous catheter (CVC) with a semipermeable membrane for use with this device. We collected 594 paired values in 12 patients (65 [26-80; 8-97] (median [IQR; total range]) paired values per patient). Point accuracy: 93.6 % of paired values were in zone A of the Clarke error grid, 6.4 % were in zone B; bias was 4.1 mg/dL with an upper limit of agreement of 28.6 mg/dL and a lower level of agreement of -20.5 mg/dL in the Bland-Altman analysis; 93.6 % of the values ≥75 mg/dL were within 20 % of the reference values in the glucose prediction error analysis; the mean absolute relative difference was 7.5 %. Trend accuracy: 96.4 % of the paired values were in zone A, and 3.3 and 0.3 % were in zone B and zone C of the rate error grid. Reliability: out of 16 sensors, 4 had to be replaced prematurely; out of 12 CVCs, two malfunctioned (one after unintentional flushing by unsupervised nurses of the ports connected to the internal microdialysis chamber, causing rupture of the semipermeable membrane; one for an unknown reason). Device start-up time was 58 [56-67] min; availability of real-time data was 100 % of the connection time. In this study in critically ill

  14. 自我血糖监测对预测糖调节异常者与糖尿病患者的日内血糖波动的价值%Estimating lntraday Blood Glucose Variability Through Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose in People with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes

    吕丽芳; 王椿; 刘关键; 陈大伟; 陈利鸿; 李永恒; 周健; 贾伟平; 冉兴无


    目的 探讨自我血糖监测(self-monitoring of blood glucose,SMBG)值与日内血糖波动参数之间的关系,并用SMBG值建立预测日内血糖波动参数的方程.方法 用动态血糖监测系统(continuous glucose monitoring system.CGMS)对一组糖调节异常(IGR)和新诊断为2型糖尿病(T2DM)的受试者行72 h持续血糖监测,得出两组受试者的平均血糖波动幅度(MAGE),平均餐后血糖漂移幅度(MPPGE)和血糖水平的标准差(sBG),同时行每日7次SMBG[即空腹血糖(FBG)、早餐后血糖(BGAB)、午餐前血糖(BGBL)、午餐后血糖(BGAL)、晚餐前血糖(BGBS)、晚餐后血糖(BGAS)和睡前血糖(BGBR)]得出相应的点值血糖.随机抽取80%的受试者进行多元逐步回归分析,以CGMS测定的血糖波动指标为应变量,受试者的年龄和SMBG值为自变量,建立上述指标的回归方程,然后用剩余20%的受试者对回归方程进行回代验证.结果 在IGR受试者,预测所有日内血糖波动指标的回归方程中均包括了BGAS、BGAB、BGAL和FBG,但预测MPPGE、SBG的回归方程中还包括了年龄;在T2DM受试者,预测所有日内血糖波动指标的回归方程中均包括了BGAs和BGAL.但预测MAGE的回归方程还包括了年龄,预测MPPGE的回归方程中包括了BGBL和BGBS,预测SBG的回归方程中包括了FBG.在回代验证中,MAGE的预测值与测量值之间的平均差异在IGR、T2DM组分别为4.1%和8.2%;MPPGE的预测值与测量值之间的平均差异在IGR、T2DM组分别为23.1%和1.3%;SBG的预测值与测量值之间的平均差异在IGR、T2DM组分别为1.2%和6.8%;除IGR组MPPGE的预测值与测量值之间的吻合程度较差外,两组人群其余指标的预测值与测量值之间的吻合程度较好.结论 IGR人群的MAGE、SBG和T2DM人群的MAGE、MPPGE、SDBG可以通过年龄与每日7次SMBG值来预测.%Objective To investigate the associations between the patterns of change of self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) and the

  15. Optimizing master event templates for CTBT monitoring with dimensionality reduction techniques: real waveforms vs. synthetics.

    Rozhkov, Mikhail; Bobrov, Dmitry; Kitov, Ivan


    The Master Event technique is a powerful tool for Expert Technical Analysis within the CTBT framework as well as for real-time monitoring with the waveform cross-correlation (CC) (match filter) approach. The primary goal of CTBT monitoring is detection and location of nuclear explosions. Therefore, the cross-correlation monitoring should be focused on finding such events. The use of physically adequate waveform templates may significantly increase the number of valid, both natural and manmade, events in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the International Data Centre. Inadequate templates for master events may increase the number of CTBT irrelevant events in REB and reduce the sensitivity of the CC technique to valid events. In order to cover the entire earth, including vast aseismic territories, with the CC based nuclear test monitoring we conducted a thorough research and defined the most appropriate real and synthetic master events representing underground explosion sources. A procedure was developed on optimizing the master event template simulation and narrowing the classes of CC templates used in detection and location process based on principal and independent component analysis (PCA and ICA). Actual waveforms and metadata from the DTRA Verification Database were used to validate our approach. The detection and location results based on real and synthetic master events were compared. The prototype of CC-based Global Grid monitoring system developed in IDC during last year was populated with different hybrid waveform templates (synthetics, synthetics components, and real components) and its performance was assessed with the world seismicity data flow, including the DPRK-2013 event. The specific features revealed in this study for the P-waves from the DPRK underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) can reduce the global detection threshold of seismic monitoring under the CTBT by 0.5 units of magnitude. This corresponds to the reduction in the test yield by a

  16. Combining non-invasive techniques for delimitation and monitoring of chlorinated solvents in groundwater

    Sparrenbom, Charlotte; Åkesson, Sofia; Hagerberg, David; Dahlin, Torleif; Holmstrand, Henry; Johansson, Sara


    Large numbers of polluted areas cause leakage of hazardous pollutants into our groundwater. Remediated actions are needed in a vast number of areas to prevent degradation of the quality of our water resources. As excavation of polluted masses is problematic as it often moves the pollutants from one site to another (in best case off site treatment is carried out), in-situ remediation and monitoring thereof needs further development. In general, we need to further develop and improve how we retrieve information on the status of the underground system. This is needed to avoid costly and hazardous shipments associated with excavations and to avoid unnecessary exposure when handling polluted masses. Easier, cheaper, more comprehensive and nondestructive monitoring techniques are needed for evaluation of remediation degree, degradation status of the contaminants and the remaining groundwater contaminant plume. We investigate the possibility to combine two investigation techniques, which are invasive to a very low degree and can give a very good visualization and evaluation of pollutant status underground and changes therein in time. The two methods we have combined are Direct Current resistivity and time-domain Induced Polarization tomography (DCIP) and Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA) and their use within the context of DNAPL contaminated sites. DCIP is a non-invasive and non-destructive geoelectrical measurement method with emerging new techniques for 4D mapping for promising visualization of underground hydrogeochemical structures and spatial distribution of contaminants. The strength of CSIA is that inherent degradation-relatable isotopic information of contaminant molecules remains unaffected as opposed to the commonly used concentration-based studies. Our aim is to evaluate the possibilities of gas sampling on the ground surface for this technique to become non-invasive and usable without interfering ground conditions.Drillings together with soil and

  17. Telecommunications end-to-end systems monitoring on TOPEX/Poseidon: Tools and techniques

    Calanche, Bruno J.


    The TOPEX/Poseidon Project Satellite Performance Analysis Team's (SPAT) roles and responsibilities have grown to include functions that are typically performed by other teams on JPL Flight Projects. In particular, SPAT Telecommunication's role has expanded beyond the nominal function of monitoring, assessing, characterizing, and trending the spacecraft (S/C) RF/Telecom subsystem to one of End-to-End Information Systems (EEIS) monitoring. This has been accomplished by taking advantage of the spacecraft and ground data system structures and protocols. By processing both the received spacecraft telemetry minor frame ground generated CRC flags and NASCOM block poly error flags, bit error rates (BER) for each link segment can be determined. This provides the capability to characterize the separate link segments, determine science data recovery, and perform fault/anomaly detection and isolation. By monitoring and managing the links, TOPEX has successfully recovered approximately 99.9 percent of the science data with an integrity (BER) of better than 1 x 10(exp 8). This paper presents the algorithms used to process the above flags and the techniques used for EEIS monitoring.

  18. Wastewater quality monitoring system using sensor fusion and machine learning techniques.

    Qin, Xusong; Gao, Furong; Chen, Guohua


    A multi-sensor water quality monitoring system incorporating an UV/Vis spectrometer and a turbidimeter was used to monitor the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and Oil & Grease (O&G) concentrations of the effluents from the Chinese restaurant on campus and an electrocoagulation-electroflotation (EC-EF) pilot plant. In order to handle the noise and information unbalance in the fused UV/Vis spectra and turbidity measurements during the calibration model building, an improved boosting method, Boosting-Iterative Predictor Weighting-Partial Least Squares (Boosting-IPW-PLS), was developed in the present study. The Boosting-IPW-PLS method incorporates IPW into boosting scheme to suppress the quality-irrelevant variables by assigning small weights, and builds up the models for the wastewater quality predictions based on the weighted variables. The monitoring system was tested in the field with satisfactory results, underlying the potential of this technique for the online monitoring of water quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  20. Low level waste management: a compilation of models and monitoring techniques. Volume 1

    Mosier, J.E.; Fowler, J.R.; Barton, C.J. (comps.)


    In support of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Science Applications, Inc., conducted a survey of models and monitoring techniques associated with the transport of radionuclides and other chemical species from LLW burial sites. As a result of this survey, approximately 350 models were identified. For each model the purpose and a brief description are presented. To the extent possible, a point of contact and reference material are identified. The models are organized into six technical categories: atmospheric transport, dosimetry, food chain, groundwater transport, soil transport, and surface water transport. About 4% of the models identified covered other aspects of LLW management and are placed in a miscellaneous category. A preliminary assessment of all these models was performed to determine their ability to analyze the transport of other chemical species. The models that appeared to be applicable are identified. A brief survey of the state-of-the-art techniques employed to monitor LLW burial sites is also presented, along with a very brief discussion of up-to-date burial techniques.

  1. Dual-wavelength photoacoustic technique for monitoring tissue status during thermal treatments

    Hsiao, Yi-Sing; Wang, Xueding; Deng, Cheri X.


    Photoacoustic (PA) techniques have been exploited for monitoring thermal treatments. However, PA signals depend not only on tissue temperature but also on tissue optical properties which indicate tissue status (e.g., native or coagulated). The changes in temperature and tissue status often occur simultaneously during thermal treatments, so both effects cause changes to PA signals. A new dual-wavelength PA technique to monitor tissue status independent of temperature is performed. By dividing the PA signal intensities obtained at two wavelengths at the same temperature, a ratio, which only depends on tissue optical properties, is obtained. Experiments were performed with two experimental groups, one with untreated tissue samples and the other with high-intensity focused ultrasound treated tissue samples including thermal coagulated lesion, using ex vivo porcine myocardium specimens to test the technique. The ratio of PA signal intensities obtained at 700 and 800 nm was constant for both groups from 25 to 43°C, but with distinct values for the two groups. Tissue alteration during thermal treatment was then studied using water bath heating of tissue samples from 35 to 60°C. We found that the ratio stayed constant before it exhibited a marked increase at around 55°C, indicating tissue changes at this temperature.

  2. A novel technique to monitor thermal discharges using thermal infrared imaging.

    Muthulakshmi, A L; Natesan, Usha; Ferrer, Vincent A; Deepthi, K; Venugopalan, V P; Narasimhan, S V


    Coastal temperature is an important indicator of water quality, particularly in regions where delicate ecosystems sensitive to water temperature are present. Remote sensing methods are highly reliable for assessing the thermal dispersion. The plume dispersion from the thermal outfall of the nuclear power plant at Kalpakkam, on the southeast coast of India, was investigated from March to December 2011 using thermal infrared images along with field measurements. The absolute temperature as provided by the thermal infrared (TIR) images is used in the Arc GIS environment for generating a spatial pattern of the plume movement. Good correlation of the temperature measured by the TIR camera with the field data (r(2) = 0.89) make it a reliable method for the thermal monitoring of the power plant effluents. The study portrays that the remote sensing technique provides an effective means of monitoring the thermal distribution pattern in coastal waters.

  3. On-line multi-analyzer monitoring of biomass, glucose and acetate for growth rate control of a Vibrio cholerae fed-batch cultivation.

    Navrátil, Marián; Norberg, Anna; Lembrén, Lars; Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik


    In situ near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and in-line electronic nose (EN) mapping were used to monitor and control a cholera-toxin producing Vibrio cholerae fed-batch cultivation carried out with a laboratory method as well as with a production method. Prediction models for biomass, glucose and acetate using NIR spectroscopy were developed based on spectral identification and partial-least squares (PLS) regression resulting in high correlation to reference data (standard errors of prediction for biomass, glucose and acetate were 0.20 gl(-1), 0.26 gl(-1) and 0.28 gl(-1)). A compensation algorithm for aerated bioreactor disturbances was integrated in the model computation, which in particular improved the prediction by the biomass model. First, the NIR data were applied together with EN in-line data selected by principal component analysis (PCA) for generating a trajectory representation of the fed-batch cultivation. A correlation between the culture progression and EN signals was demonstrated, which proved to be beneficial in monitoring the culture quality. It was shown that a deviation from a normal cultivation behavior could easily be recognized and that the trajectory was able to alarm a bacterial contamination. Second, the NIR data indicated the potential of predicting the concentration of formed cholera toxin with a model prediction error of 0.020 gl(-1). Third, the on-line biomass prediction based on the NIR model was used to control the overflow metabolism acetate formation of the V. cholerae culture. The controller compared actual specific growth rate as estimated from the prediction with the critical acetate formation growth rate, and from that difference adjusted the glucose feed rate.

  4. An acoustic-array based structural health monitoring technique for wind turbine blades

    Aizawa, Kai; Poozesh, Peyman; Niezrecki, Christopher; Baqersad, Javad; Inalpolat, Murat; Heilmann, Gunnar


    This paper proposes a non-contact measurement technique for health monitoring of wind turbine blades using acoustic beamforming techniques. The technique works by mounting an audio speaker inside a wind turbine blade and observing the sound radiated from the blade to identify damage within the structure. The main hypothesis for the structural damage detection is that the structural damage (cracks, edge splits, holes etc.) on the surface of a composite wind turbine blade results in changes in the sound radiation characteristics of the structure. Preliminary measurements were carried out on two separate test specimens, namely a composite box and a section of a wind turbine blade to validate the methodology. The rectangular shaped composite box and the turbine blade contained holes with different dimensions and line cracks. An acoustic microphone array with 62 microphones was used to measure the sound radiation from both structures when the speaker was located inside the box and also inside the blade segment. A phased array beamforming technique and CLEAN-based subtraction of point spread function from a reference (CLSPR) were employed to locate the different damage types on both the composite box and the wind turbine blade. The same experiment was repeated by using a commercially available 48-channel acoustic ring array to compare the test results. It was shown that both the acoustic beamforming and the CLSPR techniques can be used to identify the damage in the test structures with sufficiently high fidelity.

  5. Acoustic emission technique for monitoring the pyrolysis of composites for process control.

    Tittmann, B R; Yen, C E


    Carbonization is the first step in the heat and pressure treatment (pyrolysis) of composites in preparing carbon-carbon parts. These find many uses, including aircraft brakes, rocket nozzles and medical implants. This paper describes the acoustic emissions (AE) from various stages of the manufacturing process of carbon-carbon composites. This process involves carbonization at a high temperature and this results in both thermal expansion and volume change (due to pyrolysis in which a sacrificial polymer matrix is converted to carbon). Importantly the resultant matrix is porous and has a network of small intra-lamina cracks. The formation of these microcracks produces AE and this paper describes how this observation can be used to monitor (and eventually control) the manufacturing process. The aim is to speed up manufacture, which is currently time-consuming. The first section of the paper describes the design of unimodal waveguides to enable the AE to propagate to a cool environment where a transducer can be located. The second part of the paper describes various experimental observations of AE under a range of process conditions. In particular, this paper presents a technique based on detecting acoustic emissions and (1) uses wire waveguides to monitor parts within the autoclave to 800 degrees C, (2) monitors microcracking during pyrolysis, (3) uses a four-level threshold to distinguish between low- and high-amplitude cracking events, (4) recognizes the occurrence of harmful delaminations, and (5) guides the control of the heating rate for optimum efficiency of the pyrolysis process. In addition, supporting data are presented of in situ measurements of porosity, weight loss, cross-ply shrinkage, and mass spectroscopy of gases emitted. The process evolution is illustrated by the use of interrupted manufacturing cycle micrographs obtained by optical, scanning acoustic (SAM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopy. The technique promotes in-process monitoring and

  6. Development of a nuclear technique for monitoring water levels in pressurized vehicles

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Mall, G. H.


    A new technique for monitoring water levels in pressurized stainless steel cylinders was developed. It is based on differences in attenuation coefficients of water and air for Cs137 (662 keV) gamma rays. Experimentally observed gamma ray counting rates with and without water in model reservoir cylinder were compared with corresponding calculated values for two different gamma ray detection theshold energies. Calculated values include the effects of multiple scattering and attendant gamma ray energy reductions. The agreement between the measured and calculated values is reasonably good. Computer programs for calculating angular and spectral distributions of scattered radition in various media are included.

  7. Size measuring techniques as tool to monitor pea proteins intramolecular crosslinking by transglutaminase treatment.

    Djoullah, Attaf; Krechiche, Ghali; Husson, Florence; Saurel, Rémi


    In this work, techniques for monitoring the intramolecular transglutaminase cross-links of pea proteins, based on protein size determination, were developed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profiles of transglutaminase-treated low concentration (0.01% w/w) pea albumin samples, compared to the untreated one (control), showed a higher electrophoretic migration of the major albumin fraction band (26 kDa), reflecting a decrease in protein size. This protein size decrease was confirmed, after DEAE column purification, by dynamic light scattering (DLS) where the hydrodynamic radius of treated samples appears to be reduced compared to the control one.

  8. Awake Craniotomy Anesthesia: A Comparison of the Monitored Anesthesia Care and Asleep-Awake-Asleep Techniques.

    Eseonu, Chikezie I; ReFaey, Karim; Garcia, Oscar; John, Amballur; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Tripathi, Punita


    Commonly used sedation techniques for an awake craniotomy include monitored anesthesia care (MAC), using an unprotected airway, and the asleep-awake-asleep (AAA) technique, using a partially or totally protected airway. We present a comparative analysis of the MAC and AAA techniques, evaluating anesthetic management, perioperative outcomes, and complications in a consecutive series of patients undergoing the removal of an eloquent brain lesion. Eighty-one patients underwent awake craniotomy for an intracranial lesion over a 9-year period performed by a single-surgeon and a team of anesthesiologists. Fifty patients were treated using the MAC technique, and 31 were treated using the AAA technique. A retrospective analysis evaluated anesthetic management, intraoperative complications, postoperative outcomes, pain management, and complications. The MAC and AAA groups had similar preoperative patient and tumor characteristics. Mean operative time was shorter in the MAC group (283.5 minutes vs. 313.3 minutes; P = 0.038). Hypertension was the most common intraoperative complication seen (8% in the MAC group vs. 9.7% in the AAA group; P = 0.794). Intraoperative seizure occurred at a rate of 4% in the MAC group and 3.2% in the AAA group (P = 0.858). Awake cases were converted to general anesthesia in no patients in the MAC group and in 1 patient (3.2%) in the AAA group (P = 0.201). No cases were aborted in either group. The mean hospital length of stay was 3.98 days in the MAC group and 3.84 days in the AAA group (P = 0.833). Both the MAC and AAA sedation techniques provide an efficacious and safe method for managing awake craniotomy cases and produce similar perioperative outcomes, with the MAC technique associated with shorter operative time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Induced modifications on algae photosynthetic activity monitored by pump-and-probe technique

    Barbini, R.; Colao, F.; Fantoni, R.; Palucci, A.; Ribezzo, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Tarzillo, G.; Carlozzi, P.; Pelosi, E. [CNR, Florence (Italy). Centro Studi Microorganismi Autotrofi


    The lidar fluorosensor system available at ENEA Frascati has been used for a series of laboratory measurements on brackish-water and marine phytoplankton grown in laboratory with the proper saline solution. The system, already used to measure the laser induced fluorescence spectra of different algae species and their detection limits, has been upgraded with a short pulse Nd:YAG laser and rearranged to test a new technique based on laser pump and probe excitation. Results of this new technique for remote monitoring of the in-vivo photosynthetic activity will be presented, as measured during a field campaign carried out in Florence during the Autumn 1993, where the effects of an actinic saturating light and different chemicals have also been checked.

  10. Monitoring of Landslide Activity in Slovakia Territory Using Multi-Temporal InSAR Techniques

    Bakon, M.; Papco, J.; Perissin, D.; Lazecky, M.; Sousa, J. J.; Hlavacova, I.; Batorova, K.; Ondrejka, P.; Liscak, P.; Paudits, P.; Real, N.


    Slope deformations are the most important geohazards in Slovakia which annually cause an extensive economic damage of significant influence. About 22000 slope deformations have been registered so far, covering an area of almost 2600 km2 . Since 2010, 639 new slope failures have been witnessed and their activation was driven mainly by the climatic anomalies such as extraordinary rainfalls. Many of these landslides currently represent a direct threat to the lives, health and property of the residents in the affected areas. The landslide Nizna Mysla is considered to be the second most catastrophic landslide in the history of Slovakia. Damages to buildings and engineering networks had not been identified in the ‘90s of the last century when the first problems with the slope stability appeared. Up-to-now monitoring techniques has currently been reassessed to account for the results from satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques.

  11. Technique for using a geometry and visualization system to monitor and manipulate information in other codes

    Dickens, Thomas P.


    A technique was developed to allow the Aero Grid and Paneling System (AGPS), a geometry and visualization system, to be used as a dynamic real-time geometry monitor, manipulator, and interrogator for other codes. This technique involves the direct connection of AGPS with one or more external codes through the use of Unix pipes. AGPS has several commands that control communication with the external program. The external program uses several special subroutines that allow simple, direct communication with AGPS. The external program creates AGPS command lines and transmits the line over the pipes or communicates on a subroutine level. AGPS executes the commands, displays graphics/geometry information, and transmits the required solutions back to the external program. The basic ideas discussed in this paper could easily be implemented in other graphics/geometry systems currently in use or under development.

  12. Current techniques in acid-chloride corrosion control and monitoring at The Geysers

    Hirtz, Paul; Buck, Cliff; Kunzman, Russell


    Acid chloride corrosion of geothermal well casings, production piping and power plant equipment has resulted in costly corrosion damage, frequent curtailments of power plants and the permanent shut-in of wells in certain areas of The Geysers. Techniques have been developed to mitigate these corrosion problems, allowing continued production of steam from high chloride wells with minimal impact on production and power generation facilities.The optimization of water and caustic steam scrubbing, steam/liquid separation and process fluid chemistry has led to effective and reliable corrosion mitigation systems currently in routine use at The Geysers. When properly operated, these systems can yield steam purities equal to or greater than those encountered in areas of The Geysers where chloride corrosion is not a problem. Developments in corrosion monitoring techniques, steam sampling and analytical methodologies for trace impurities, and computer modeling of the fluid chemistry has been instrumental in the success of this technology.

  13. Innovative Ultrasonic Techniques for Inspection and Monitoring of Large Concrete Structures

    Wiggenhauser, H.; Niederleithinger, E.


    Ultrasonic echo and transmission techniques are used in civil engineering on a regular basis. New sensors and data processing techniques have lead to many new applications in the structural investigation as well as quality control. But concrete structures in the nuclear sector have special features and parameters, which pose problems for the methods and instrumentation currently available, e.g. extreme thickness, dense reinforcement, steel liners or special materials. Several innovative ultrasonic techniques have been developed to deal with these issues at least partly in lab experiments and pilot studies. Modern imaging techniques as multi-offset SAFT have been used e. g. to map delaminations. Thick concrete walls have successfully been inspected, partly through a steel liner. Embedded ultrasonic sensors have been designed which will be used in monitoring networks of large concrete structures above and below ground. In addition, sensitive mathematical methods as coda wave interferometry have been successfully evaluated to detect subtle changes in material properties. Examples of measurements and data evaluation are presented.

  14. Innovative Ultrasonic Techniques for Inspection and Monitoring of Large Concrete Structures

    Niederleithinger E.


    Full Text Available Ultrasonic echo and transmission techniques are used in civil engineering on a regular basis. New sensors and data processing techniques have lead to many new applications in the structural investigation as well as quality control. But concrete structures in the nuclear sector have special features and parameters, which pose problems for the methods and instrumentation currently available, e.g. extreme thickness, dense reinforcement, steel liners or special materials. Several innovative ultrasonic techniques have been developed to deal with these issues at least partly in lab experiments and pilot studies. Modern imaging techniques as multi-offset SAFT have been used e. g. to map delaminations. Thick concrete walls have successfully been inspected, partly through a steel liner. Embedded ultrasonic sensors have been designed which will be used in monitoring networks of large concrete structures above and below ground. In addition, sensitive mathematical methods as coda wave interferometry have been successfully evaluated to detect subtle changes in material properties. Examples of measurements and data evaluation are presented.

  15. Some problems of GPS RTK technique application to mining subsidence monitoring

    Liu Chao; Zhou Feng; Gao Jingxiang; Wang Jian


    Owing to the variability of mine surfaces,it is difficult to obtain the deformation monitoring data of the observation stations by traditional leveling technique.GPS RTK (Real-Time Kinematic) technique was employed to the subsidence observation in this paper,and its main sources of errors including rover pole deflection of the vertical,un-modeled systematic errors (gross error,multipath delay etc.) and the height transformation error,were analyzed systematically.Based on the fundamental theories of spherical fitting and Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD),the error reduction models were studied exhaustively.And two experiments were done in different environment to test the proposed models.The results show that the proposed methods can achieve a fourth-grade leveling accuracy,with (Root-Mean-Square) RMS in three orthogonal directions (N,E and H) of 4.1,3.3 and 3.1 mm.respectively,by 3-5 min continuous shaking of the observation GPS antenna,fully satisfying for mine surface subsidence deformation monitoring.

  16. Photoelasticity and DIC as optical techniques for monitoring masonry specimens under mechanical loads

    Colla, C.; Gabrielli, E.


    To evaluate the complex behaviour of masonry structures under mechanical loads, numerical models are developed and continuously implemented at diverse scales, whilst, from an experimental viewpoint, laboratory standard mechanical tests are usually carried out by instrumenting the specimens via traditional measuring devices. Extracted values collected in the few points where the tools were installed are assumed to represent the behaviour of the whole specimen but this may be quite optimistic or approximate. Optical monitoring techniques may help in overcoming some of these limitations by providing full-field visualization of mechanical parameters. Photoelasticity and the more recent DIC, employed to monitor masonry columns during compression tests are here presented and a lab case study is compared listing procedures, data acquisitions, advantages and limitations. It is shown that the information recorded by traditional measuring tools must be considered limited to the specific instrumented points. Instead, DIC in particular among the optical techniques, is proving both a very precise global and local picture of the masonry performance, opening new horizons towards a deeper knowledge of this complex construction material. The applicability of an innovative DIC procedure to cultural heritage constructions is also discussed.

  17. Respiration monitoring by Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) Technique in a group of healthy males. Calibration equations.

    Balleza, M.; Vargas, M.; Kashina, S.; Huerta, M. R.; Delgadillo, I.; Moreno, G.


    Several research groups have proposed the electrical impedance tomography (EIT) in order to analyse lung ventilation. With the use of 16 electrodes, the EIT is capable to obtain a set of transversal section images of thorax. In previous works, we have obtained an alternating signal in terms of impedance corresponding to respiration from EIT images. Then, in order to transform those impedance changes into a measurable volume signal a set of calibration equations has been obtained. However, EIT technique is still expensive to attend outpatients in basics hospitals. For that reason, we propose the use of electrical bioimpedance (EBI) technique to monitor respiration behaviour. The aim of this study was to obtain a set of calibration equations to transform EBI impedance changes determined at 4 different frequencies into a measurable volume signal. In this study a group of 8 healthy males was assessed. From obtained results, a high mathematical adjustment in the group calibrations equations was evidenced. Then, the volume determinations obtained by EBI were compared with those obtained by our gold standard. Therefore, despite EBI does not provide a complete information about impedance vectors of lung compared with EIT, it is possible to monitor the respiration.

  18. Development of Advanced In-Situ Techniques for Chemistry Monitoring and Corrosion Mitigation in SCWO Environments

    Macdonald, D. D.; Lvov, S. N.


    This project is developing sensing technologies and corrosion monitoring techniques for use in super critical water oxidation (SCWO) systems to reduce the volume of mixed low-level nuclear waste by oxidizing organic components in a closed cycle system where CO2 and other gaseous oxides are produced, leaving the radioactive elements concentrated in ash. The technique uses water at supercritical temperatures under highly oxidized conditions by maintaining a high fugacity of molecular oxygen in the system, which causes high corrosion rates of even the most corrosive resistant reactor materials. This project significantly addresses the high corrosion shortcoming through development of (a) advanced electrodes and sensors for in situ potentiometric monitoring of pH in high subcritical and supercritical aqueous solutions, (b) an approach for evaluating the association constants for 1-1 aqueous electrolytes using a flow-through electrochemical thermocell; (c) an electrochemical noise sensor for the in situ measurement of corrosion rate in subcritical and supercritical aqueous systems; (d) a model for estimating the effect of pressure on reaction rates, including corrosion reactions, in high subcritical and supercritical aqueous systems. The project achieved all objectives, except for installing some of the sensors into a fully operating SCWO system.

  19. Experience of molecular monitoring techniques in upstream oil and gas operations

    Mitchell, Anthony F.; Anfindsen, Hilde; Liengen, Turid; Molid, Solfrid [Statoil ASA (Denmark)


    For a numbers of years, molecular monitoring tools have been used in upstream oil and gas operations but the results have given only limited added value. This paper discusses the various techniques available for upstream molecular monitoring which provides scope for identification of microbial influenced problems. The methodology, which consists of analyzing solid samples using traditional as well as molecular techniques, is detailed. Two cases were studied with the objective of determining if microbial contamination was contributing to the problem. The first case was a study of amorphous deposits in production wells and mainly iron sulphide was found. The second study was of amorphous deposits in water injection wells and the analysis showed typical components of drilling and completion fluids with some organic material. Two more cases, corrosion of tubing in a water injection well and flow line corrosion, are discussed and the results are given. From the study, it can be concluded that failure can be due to several factors, chemical and biological.

  20. Preliminary studies for monitoring erosion in pipelines by the acoustic emission technique

    Tiboni, G.B. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais; Marquardt, T.A.S; SantaMaria, V.A.R.; Silva, C.H. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)


    The aim of this work is to present some applications of Acoustic Emission (AE), which is a powerful technique for nondestructive testing in Tribology, treated here as tests of friction, wear by contact fatigue, wear by slip and wear by erosion. In this work a special attention is given to solid particle erosion and hydro-abrasive erosion, problems found in almost every pipeline that lead to local loss of material and eventually rupture of the line. The technique of AE can be used as an efficient online tool when, primarily, to monitor tribological aspects such as the rate of wear of materials, as well as detect the spread of flaws in them. In wear by erosion, specifically, the parameters of RMS and acoustic energy are capable of correlation with the type of mechanism for removal of material. As a preliminary goal, erosive tests were performed with gas (air) without erosive particles, monitored by AE, varying the surface of the samples and the internal diameter the nozzle, taking the differences in signs of AE. Correlation between parameters of RMS and amplitude were noticed with the variables of the tests, such as roughness and fluid velocity. The RMS parameter showed a exponential correction with the fluid velocity, however the amplitude signals had a linear behavior. The knowledge of these parameters is essential for the development of a system that is able to quantify the wear rate of a pipeline without taking it out of operation. (author)

  1. Spectral fluorescence signature techniques and absorption measurements for continuous monitoring of biofuel-producing microalgae cultures

    Martín de la Cruz, M. C.; Gonzalez Vilas, L.; Yarovenko, N.; Spyrakos, E.; Torres Palenzuela, J. M.


    Biofuel production from microalgae can be both sustainable and economically viable. Particularly in the case of algal growth in wastewater an extra benefit is the removal or biotransformation of pollutants from these types of waters. A continuous monitoring system of the microalgae status and the concentration of different wastewater contaminants could be of great help in the biomass production and the water characterisation. In this study we present a system where spectral fluorescence signature (SFS) techniques are used along with absorption measurements to monitor microalgae cultures in wastewater and other mediums. This system aims to optimise the microalgae production for biofuel applications or other uses and was developed and tested in prototype indoor photo-bioreactors at the University of Vigo. SFS techniques were applied using the fluorescence analyser INSTAND-SCREENER developed by Laser Diagnostic Instruments AS. INSTAND-SCREENER permits wavelength scanning in two modes, one in UV and another in VIS. In parallel, it permits the on-line monitoring and rapid analysis of both water quality and phytoplankton status without prior treatment of the sample. Considering that different contaminants and microalgae features (density, status etc.) have different spectral signatures of fluorescence and absorption properties, it is possible to characterise them developing classification libraries. Several algorithms were used for the classification. The implementation of this system in an outdoor raceway reactor in a Spanish wastewater treatment plant is also discussed. This study was part of the Project EnerBioAlgae (, which was funded by the Interreg SUDOE and led by the University of Vigo.

  2. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Techniques to Monitor Radiation Damage in RPV and Internal Components

    Jacobs, Laurence [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kim, Jin-Yeon [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Qu, Jisnmin [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wall, Joe [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knoxville, TN (United States)


    The objective of this research is to demonstrate that nonlinear ultrasonics (NLU) can be used to directly and quantitatively measure the remaining life in radiation damaged reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and internal components. Specific damage types to be monitored are irradiation embrittlement and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Our vision is to develop a technique that allows operators to assess damage by making a limited number of NLU measurements in strategically selected critical reactor components during regularly scheduled outages. This measured data can then be used to determine the current condition of these key components, from which remaining useful life can be predicted. Methods to unambiguously characterize radiation related damage in reactor internals and RPVs remain elusive. NLU technology has demonstrated great potential to be used as a material sensor – a sensor that can continuously monitor a material’s damage state. The physical effect being monitored by NLU is the generation of higher harmonic frequencies in an initially monochromatic ultrasonic wave. The degree of nonlinearity is quantified with the acoustic nonlinearity parameter, β, which is an absolute, measurable material constant. Recent research has demonstrated that nonlinear ultrasound can be used to characterize material state and changes in microscale characteristics such as internal stress states, precipitate formation and dislocation densities. Radiation damage reduces the fracture toughness of RPV steels and internals, and can leave them susceptible to IASCC, which may in turn limit the lifetimes of some operating reactors. The ability to characterize radiation damage in the RPV and internals will enable nuclear operators to set operation time thresholds for vessels and prescribe and schedule replacement activities for core internals. Such a capability will allow a more clear definition of reactor safety margins. The research consists of three tasks: (1

  3. Intraoperative monitoring for safety of total hip arthroplasty using third-generation cementing technique

    LI Zi-jian; ZHANG Ke; YANG Hong; LIU Yan; L(U) Jing-qiao


    Background Controversies on the safety of the cement application between cemented and uncemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) have been existing for decades. The purpose of this study was to observe the changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and oxygen pressure (PaO2) during cemented THA, and to evaluate the intraoperative safety of using the third-generation cementing technique and investigate whether the intraoperative risk is higher in acute femoral neck fracture patients than non-traumatic patients. Methods Forty-two patients who underwent cemented THA between November 2005 and September 2007 were prospectively included in this study. The third-generation cementing technique as vacuum mixing and pulsatile lavage was used strictly. The MAP and HR were monitored and documented during each operation. Blood gas analysis was performed at exposure, cup implantation, stem implantation and wound closure. MAP, HR and PaO2 were compared between pre- and post-cement application. Comparisons of MAP, HR and PaO2 between patients with acute femoral neck fracture and non-traumatic patiens were performed as well. Results No intraoperative cardiopulmonary complication occurred in these cases. No obvious changes were observed in MAP, HR and PaO2 after cement application. There was no significant difference in MAP, HR and PaO2 between acute femoral fracture patients (18 patients) and non-traumatic patients (24 patients).Conclusions The results of this study suggested that the invasive blood pressure monitoring and blood gas analysis are essential for patients undergoing cemented THA, especially for patients with femoral neck fracture. The third-generation cementing technique is safe to use in THA.

  4. Effects of high-intensity interval exercise versus continuous moderate-intensity exercise on postprandial glycemic control assessed by continuous glucose monitoring in obese adults.

    Little, Jonathan P; Jung, Mary E; Wright, Amy E; Wright, Wendi; Manders, Ralph J F


    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of acute high-intensity interval training (HIIT) compared with continuous moderate-intensity (CMI) exercise on postprandial hyperglycemia in overweight or obese adults. Ten inactive, overweight or obese adults (41 ± 11 yrs, BMI = 36 ± 7 kg/m(2)) performed an acute bout of HIIT (10 × 1 min at approximately 90% peak heart rate (HRpeak) with 1-min recovery periods) or matched work CMI (30 min at approximately 65% HRpeak) in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Exercise was performed 2 h after breakfast, and glucose control was assessed by continuous glucose monitoring under standardized dietary conditions over 24 h. Postprandial glucose (PPG) responses to lunch, dinner, and the following day's breakfast were analyzed and compared with a no-exercise control day. Exercise did not affect the PPG responses to lunch, but performing both HIIT and CMI in the morning significantly reduced the PPG incremental area under the curve (AUC) following dinner when compared with control (HIIT = 110 ± 35, CMI = 125 ± 34, control = 162 ± 46 mmol/L × 2 h, p HIIT = 125 ± 53, CMI = 186 ± 55, control = 194 ± 96 mmol/L × 2 h) and the PPG spike (HIIT = Δ2.1 ± 0.9, CMI = Δ3.0 ± 0.9, control = Δ3.0 ± 1.5 mmol/l) following breakfast on the following day were significantly lower following HIIT compared with both CMI and control (p HIIT, CMI, or control for any meal (p > 0.05 for all). We conclude that a single session of HIIT has greater and more lasting effects on reducing incremental PPG when compared with CMI.

  5. Poor Reliability and Poor Adherence to Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Are Common in Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and May Be Associated With Poor Pregnancy Outcomes.

    Cosson, Emmanuel; Baz, Baz; Gary, Françoise; Pharisien, Isabelle; Nguyen, Minh Tuan; Sandre-Banon, Dorian; Jaber, Yahya; Cussac-Pillegand, Camille; Banu, Isabela; Carbillon, Lionel; Valensi, Paul


    To evaluate the compliance with self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and the reliability of diabetes logbooks in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), as well as the associated determinants and outcomes. We prospectively selected French-speaking women with newly diagnosed GDM who had been referred to our diabetes management program and understood SMBG principles. At the next follow-up visit, we collected SMBG results from glucose meters and logbooks. We analyzed pregnancy outcomes. Data were analyzed over 13 ± 3 days in 91 women. Only 61.5% had performed ≥80% of the required tests. Poor compliance was associated with a family history of diabetes, social deprivation, and non-European origin. The average time between pre- and postprandial tests was 141 ± 20 min, with 46.5% of women performing ≥80% of postprandial measurements 100-140 min after meals. Inadequate timing was associated with ethnicity and higher HbA1c at baseline. A total of 23.1% of women had <90% matched values in diary and meter memory, and a poor concordance was associated with a family history of diabetes. Poor adherence was associated with more preeclampsia (12.2 vs. 1.9%, P = 0.049), and inadequate postprandial test timing with a higher HbA1c at delivery (5.3 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.3% [34 ± 2 vs. 31 ± 2 mmol/mol], P < 0.01), despite more frequent insulin therapy. Although women with GDM are considered to be highly motivated, SMBG adherence and reliability are of concern and may be associated with poor gestational prognosis, suggesting that caregivers should systematically check the glucose meter memory to improve GDM management. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  6. Using the first drop of blood for monitoring blood glucose values in critically ill patients: An observational study

    Saini, Sunita; Kaur, Sukhpal; Das, Karobi; Saini, Vikas


    Context: Using the first drop or second drop of blood while measuring blood glucose (BG) values. Objective: The study was planned to compare the BG values from the first and second drops of blood. Research Settings: The study was conducted at the Main Intensive Care Unit, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India. Research Design: This study was a comparative study. Materials and Methods: Ninety patients aged 2–93 years were enrolled in this study. BG values from the first and second drops of blood were taken and compared. Statistical Analysis Used: Agreement between two drops was assessed using Bland–Altman analysis. A bias of <10 mg/dl was considered clinically acceptable. Linear regression of the mean difference (bias) with the BG readings was performed. Results: One thousand four hundred and seven pairs of BG readings were taken from the enrolled patients. BG values had a bias of 3.9 ± 14.9 mg/dl. Nearly 96.7% of BG readings were within the limits of agreement. The absolute difference between first and second drops of blood was calculated; nearly 75.4% of the readings had fallen between 0 and 10 mg/dl, i.e. clinically acceptable range. Conclusion: There is no compete concordance of values of blood glucose between the first and the second drops of blood; any of the drops can be used for measuring BG values as the difference is not statistically significant. However, if hands are visibly clean and to decrease the blood loss in the critically ill patients where the BG values are measured frequently, using the first drop of blood is advised. PMID:27994381

  7. Comparison of Three Techniques to Monitor Bathymetric Evolution in a Spatially Extensive, Rapidly Changing Environment

    Rutten, J.; Ruessink, G.


    The wide variety in spatial and temporal scales inherent to nearshore morphodynamics, together with site-specific environmental characteristics, complicate our current understanding and predictive capability of large (~ km)-scale, long-term (seasons-years) sediment transport patterns and morphologic evolution. The monitoring of this evolution at all relevant scales demands a smart combination of multiple techniques. Here, we compare depth estimates derived from operational optical (Argus video) and microwave (X-band radar) remote sensing with those from jet-ski echo-sounding in an approximately 2.5 km2 large region at the Sand Engine, a 20 Mm3 mega-nourishment at the Dutch coast. Using depth inversion techniques based on linear wave theory, frequent (hourly-daily) bathymetric maps were derived from instantaneous Argus video and X-band radar imagery. Jet-ski surveys were available every 2 to 3 months. Depth inversion on Argus imagery overestimates surveyed depths by up to 0.5 m in shallow water ( 5m) by up to 1 m. Averaged over the entire subtidal study area, the errors canceled in volumetric budget computations. Additionally, estimates of shoreline and subtidal sandbar positions were derived from Argus imagery and jet-ski surveys. Sandbar crest positions extracted from daily low-tide time-exposure Argus images reveal a persistent onshore offset of some 20 m, but do show the smaller temporal variability not visible from jet-ski surveys. Potential improvements to the applied depth-inversion technique will be discussed.

  8. Fast correlation technique for glacier flow monitoring by digital camera and space-borne SAR images

    Moreau Luc


    Full Text Available Abstract Most of the image processing techniques have been first proposed and developed on small size images and progressively applied to larger and larger data sets resulting from new sensors and application requirements. In geosciences, digital cameras and remote sensing images can be used to monitor glaciers and to measure their surface velocity by different techniques. However, the image size and the number of acquisitions to be processed to analyze time series become a critical issue to derive displacement fields by the conventional correlation technique. In this paper, a mathematical optimization of the classical normalized cross-correlation and its implementation are described to overcome the computation time and window size limitations. The proposed implementation is performed with a specific memory management to avoid most of the temporary result re-computations. The performances of the software resulting from this optimization are assessed by computing the correlation between optical images of a serac fall, and between Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images of Alpine glaciers. The optical images are acquired by a digital camera installed near the Argentière glacier (Chamonix, France and the SAR images are acquired by the high resolution TerraSAR-X satellite over the Mont-Blanc area. The results illustrate the potential of this implementation to derive dense displacement fields with a computational time compatible with the camera images acquired every 2 h and with the size of the TerraSAR-X scenes covering 30 × 50 km2.

  9. A Comparison of Imaging Techniques to Monitor Tumor Growth and Cancer Progression in Living Animals

    Anne-Laure Puaux


    Full Text Available Introduction and Purpose. Monitoring solid tumor growth and metastasis in small animals is important for cancer research. Noninvasive techniques make longitudinal studies possible, require fewer animals, and have greater statistical power. Such techniques include FDG positron emission tomography (FDG-PET, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and optical imaging, comprising bioluminescence imaging (BLI and fluorescence imaging (FLI. This study compared the performance and usability of these methods in the context of mouse tumor studies. Methods. B16 tumor-bearing mice (n=4 for each study were used to compare practicality, performance for small tumor detection and tumor burden measurement. Using RETAAD mice, which develop spontaneous melanomas, we examined the performance of MRI (n=6 mice and FDG-PET (n=10 mice for tumor identification. Results. Overall, BLI and FLI were the most practical techniques tested. Both BLI and FDG-PET identified small nonpalpable tumors, whereas MRI and FLI only detected macroscopic, clinically evident tumors. FDG-PET and MRI performed well in the identification of tumors in terms of specificity, sensitivity, and positive predictive value. Conclusion. Each of the four methods has different strengths that must be understood before selecting them for use.

  10. The Effective Ransomware Prevention Technique Using Process Monitoring on Android Platform

    Sanggeun Song


    Full Text Available Due to recent indiscriminate attacks of ransomware, damage cases including encryption of users’ important files are constantly increasing. The existing vaccine systems are vulnerable to attacks of new pattern ransomware because they can only detect the ransomware of existing patterns. More effective technique is required to prevent modified ransomware. In this paper, an effective method is proposed to prevent the attacks of modified ransomware on Android platform. The proposed technique specifies and intensively monitors processes and specific file directories using statistical methods based on Processor usage, Memory usage, and I/O rates so that the process with abnormal behaviors can be detected. If the process running a suspicious ransomware is detected, the proposed system will stop the process and take steps to confirm the deletion of programs associated with the process from users. The information of suspected and exceptional processes confirmed by users is stored in a database. The proposed technique can detect ransomware even if you do not save its patterns. Its speed of detection is very fast because it can be implemented in Android source code instead of mobile application. In addition, it can effectively determine modified patterns of ransomware and provide protection with minimum damage.

  11. Masked Hypertension Defined by Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Is Associated With an Increased Serum Glucose Level and Urinary Albumin-Creatinine Ratio

    Ishikawa, Joji; Hoshide, Satoshi; Eguchi, Kazuo; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Pickering, Thomas G.; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Kario, Kazuomi


    The authors evaluated the relationship of hypertensive target organ damage to masked hypertension assessed by ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and home blood pressure (HBP) monitoring in 129 participants without taking antihypertensive medication. Masked hypertension was defined as office BP ≤140/90 mm Hg and 24-hour ambulatory BP ≥130/80 mm Hg. The masked hypertensive participants defined by 24-hour ambulatory BP (n=13) had a higher serum glucose level (126 vs 96 mg/dL, P=.001) and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (38.0 vs 7.5 mg/gCr, P<.001) than the normotensive participants (n=74); however, these relationships were not observed when the authors defined groups using HBP (≥135/85 mm Hg). Masked hypertension by both 24-hour ambulatory BP and HBP had a higher urinary albumin-creatinine ratio than normotension by both 24-hour ambulatory BP and HBP (62.1 vs 7.4 mg/gCr, P=.001), and than masked hypertension by HBP alone (9.3 mg/gCr, P=.009). Masked hypertension defined by 24-hour ambulatory BP is associated with an increased serum glucose level and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio, but these relationships are not observed in masked hypertension defined by HBP. PMID:20695934

  12. Blood Glucose Levels

    Carlos Estela


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish a mathematical model which can be used to estimate glucose levels in the blood over time. The equations governing this process were manipulated with the use of techniques such as separation of variables and integration of first order differential equations, which resulted in a function that described the glucose concentration in terms of time. This function was then plotted, which allowed us to find when glucose concentration was at its highest. The model was then used to analyze two cases where the maximum glucose level could not exceed a certain level while the amount of carbohydrates and glycemic index were varied, independently.

  13. Development of a fluorescence-based method for monitoring glucose catabolism and its potential use in a biomass hydrolysis assay

    Anex Robert P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability and low cost of lignocellulosic biomass has caused tremendous interest in the bioconversion of this feedstock into liquid fuels. One measure of the economic viability of the bioconversion process is the ease with which a particular feedstock is hydrolyzed and fermented. Because monitoring the analytes in hydrolysis and fermentation experiments is time consuming, the objective of this study was to develop a rapid fluorescence-based method to monitor sugar production during biomass hydrolysis, and to demonstrate its application in monitoring corn stover hydrolysis. Results Hydrolytic enzymes were used in conjunction with Escherichia coli strain CA8404 (a hexose and pentose-consuming strain, modified to produce green fluorescent protein (GFP. The combination of hydrolytic enzymes and a sugar-consuming organism minimizes feedback inhibition of the hydrolytic enzymes. We observed that culture growth rate as measured by change in culture turbidity is proportional to GFP fluorescence and total growth and growth rate depends upon how much sugar is present at inoculation. Furthermore, it was possible to monitor the course of enzymatic hydrolysis in near real-time, though there are instrumentation challenges in doing this. Conclusion We found that instantaneous fluorescence is proportional to the bacterial growth rate. As growth rate is limited by the availability of sugar, the integral of fluorescence is proportional to the amount of sugar consumed by the microbe. We demonstrate that corn stover varieties can be differentiated based on sugar yields in enzymatic hydrolysis reactions using post-hydrolysis fluorescence measurements. Also, it may be possible to monitor fluorescence in real-time during hydrolysis to compare different hydrolysis protocols.

  14. Preparation of Fe3O4@Au nano-composites by self-assembly technique for immobilization of glucose oxidase

    WANG XianXiang; HUANG Shuo; Shan Zhi; YANG WanSheni


    Superparamagnetism amination nanocrystals Fe3O4 with 3-aminopropyltriethyloxy silane (APTES) were prepared by modified co-precipitation method. Next, 4-5 nm gold nanoparticles, prepared by classical Frens procedure, were coated on the surface of the amination Fe3O4 by self-assembly technology. The prepared Fe3O4@Au nanocomposite particles were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis, infrared spectrum (FT-IR), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) in order to eluci-date the morphology, optics and magnetic properties of the nanocomposites. Their uniform distribution of particle size, which is about 15 nm, and good magnetic responsiveness were observed. In view of the fact that Fe3O4 owns superparamagnetism and that nano-gold can readily combine with biological molecules, glucose oxidase (GOx) was chosen as a model to penetrate the condition of immobilizing enzyme, and enzymatic properties of resultant immobilized enzyme were studied as well. By systematic optimization, we established that at 28℃, and pH (5.5) and when mole ratio of Fe3O4:HAuCl4 was 0.5:1, the immobilization provided the best results. Finally, we are glad to find that the immobilized enzyme exhibits excellent thermostability in addition to its better stability than free enzyme. Thus, herein de-scribed immobilized enzyme could be used repeatedly with the assistance of an external magnetic field.

  15. Application of the photomodulated reflectance technique to the monitoring of metal layers

    Dobos, Gabor; Lenk, Sandor; Ujhelyi, Ferenc; Szita, Zsofia; Kocsanyi, Laszlo [Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki ut 8, 1111 Budapest (Hungary); Somogyi, Andras [Semilab Corporation, Prielle Kornelia ut 2, 1117 Budapest (Hungary)


    Photomodulated reflectance (PMR) measurement techniques are currently used for the monitoring of ultra-shallow junctions. This paper discusses the possibility of applying them to the characterisation of metal layers. A finite element method based computer model has been created to study the dependence of the PMR signal on different sample parameters. We present the results of these simulations and show that the method can be used to establish the thickness of a metal layer (if the material is known) and it can also provide information about the metal/semiconductor interface. This information might be used to characterise the barrier seed layer beneath the metal, by a non-contact and non-destructive way. Simulation results are also supported by actual measurements on test samples. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Western pond turtle: Biology, sampling techniques, inventory and monitoring, conservation, and management: Northwest Fauna No. 7

    Bury, R.B.; Welsh, Hartwell H.; Germano, David J.; Ashton, Donald T.


    One of only two native, freshwater turtle species in the western United States, western pond turtles are declining in portions of their original range. Declines are mostly due to habitat loss, introduction of non-native species, pollution, and lack of connectivity among populations. USGS zoologist R. Bruce Bury and colleagues from the U.S. Forest Service, California State University, and other agencies compiled and edited a new review and field manual of this charismatic species. Objectives were to determine its current distribution and abundance, summarize and evaluate population features, review techniques to detect population and habitat changes, and improve monitoring for long-term trends. Methods described in the manual should improve consistency, efficiency, and accuracy of survey data, resulting in improved management and conservation efforts.

  17. Spallation Process of Thermally Grown Oxides by In-Situ CCD Monitoring Technique

    QI Yu-hong; Philippe Lours; Yannick Le Maoult


    In cooling process of Fe-Cr-AI alloy oxidized at 1 300 ℃, the effect of cooling speed and exposure time on oxide spalled area fraction and successive variety of the spalled region were studied by investigating evolvement of the thermally grown oxide using in-situ CCD monitoring technique. The results showed that oxide spallation can be re-strained by controlling cooling speed and the critical temperature drop of spallation initiation which is closely related to the oxide thickness or exposure time, and the spallation process of a little region may be described in more detail as two routes:from the oxide/substrate interface micro-decohesion, micro-buckles, buckle spreading, buckle crack to spallation and from the interface micro-decohesion, micro-buckles, buckle crack and spallation to the residual oxide decohesion and spallation.

  18. Monitoring the stress build-up in dental cements: a novel optical characterization technique

    Ottevaere, Heidi; Tabak, M.; Bartholomees, F.; de Wilde, Willy P.; Veretennicoff, Irina P.; Thienpont, Hugo


    It is well known that during the curing of dental cements, polymerization shrinkage induces unacceptable stresses, which can result into cracks and an over-sensitivity of the teeth. We demonstrate that polarimetric optical fiber sensors can be used to characterize this shrinkage quantitatively. To determine the time evolution and the amount of shrinkage we embed a highly birefringent optical fiber in the dental cement and analyze the change in optical polarization at its output. This change is a measure for the dynamic stress-build up. We also demonstrate the repeatability of our characterization method for these cements. Moreover we given indications that this technique allows for in- vivo monitoring of the stress build-up dynamics between dentine and porcelain facings. This may bring durable all-ceramic restorations closer to reality. In this paper we present the principle of this original optical fiber sensor, its practical implementation and the experimental results we obtained for this application.

  19. Technique of ICP monitored stepwise intracranial decompression effectively reduces postoperative complications of severe bifrontal contusion

    Guan eSun


    Full Text Available Background Bifrontal contusion is a common clinical brain injury. In the early stage, it is often mild, but it progresses rapidly and frequently worsens suddenly. This condition can become life threatening and therefore requires surgery. Conventional decompression craniectomy is the commonly used treatment method. In this study, the effect of ICP monitored stepwise intracranial decompression surgery on the prognosis of patients with acute severe bifrontal contusion was investigated. Method A total of 136 patients with severe bifrontal contusion combined with deteriorated intracranial hypertension admitted from March 2001 to March 2014 in our hospital were selected and randomly divided into two groups, i.e., a conventional decompression group and an intracranial pressure (ICP monitored stepwise intracranial decompression group (68 patients each, to conduct a retrospective study. The incidence rates of acute intraoperative encephalocele, delayed hematomas, and postoperative cerebral infarctions and the Glasgow outcome scores (GOSs 6 months after the surgery were compared between the two groups.Results (1 The incidence rates of acute encephalocele and contralateral delayed epidural hematoma in the stepwise decompression surgery group were significantly lower than those in the conventional decompression group; the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05; (2 6 months after the surgery, the incidence of vegetative state and mortality in the stepwise decompression group were significantly lower than those in the conventional decompression group (P < 0.05; the rate of favorable prognosis in the stepwise decompression group was also significantly higher than that in the conventional decompression group (P < 0.05.Conclusions The ICP monitored stepwise intracranial decompression technique reduced the perioperative complications of traumatic brain injury through the gradual release of intracranial pressure and was beneficial to the prognosis of

  20. Degree of dispersion monitoring by ultrasonic transmission technique and excitation of the transducer's harmonics

    Schober, G.; Heidemeyer, P.; Kretschmer, K.; Bastian, M.; Hochrein, T.


    The degree of dispersion of filled polymer compounds is an important quality parameter for various applications. For instance, there is an influence on the chroma in pigment colored plastics or on the mechanical properties of filled or reinforced compounds. Most of the commonly used offline methods are work-intensive and time-consuming. Moreover, they do not allow an all-over process monitoring. In contrast, the ultrasonic technique represents a suitable robust and process-capable inline method. Here, we present inline ultrasonic measurements on polymer melts with a fundamental frequency of 1 MHz during compounding. In order to extend the frequency range we additionally excite the fundamental and the odd harmonics vibrations at 3 and 5 MHz. The measurements were carried out on a compound consisting of polypropylene and calcium carbonate. For the simulation of agglomerates calcium carbonate with a larger particle size was added with various rates. The total filler content was kept constant. The frequency selective analysis shows a linear correlation between the normalized extinction and the rate of agglomerates simulated by the coarser filler. Further experiments with different types of glass beads with a well-defined particle size verify these results. A clear correlation between the normalized extinction and the glass bead size as well as a higher damping with increasing frequency corresponds to the theoretical assumption. In summary the dispersion quality can be monitored inline by the ultrasonic technique. The excitation of the ultrasonic transducer's harmonics generates more information about the material as the usage of the pure harmonic vibration.

  1. The development of monitoring techniques for thermal stratification in nuclear plant piping

    Sim, Cheul Muu; Joo, Young Sang; Yoon, Kwang Sik; Park, Chi Seung; Choi, Ha Lim; Moon, Jae Wha; Bae, Sang Ho


    The conventional nondestructive testing has been performed in those area which are susceptible to thermal stress in according to NRC 88-08,11. In addition to that, it is necessary to set up a monitoring system to prevent severe thermal stress to pipes in early stages and to develop the non-intrusive techniques to diagnose the check valve because the thermal stratification has been caused by the malfunction of the check valve in ECCS pipe. Thermal stratification monitoring system has been designed and installed at ECCS line permanently and surge line temporally in YG nuclear power plant. The data is acceptable in according to TASCS guide line. Also, the data originated from ISMS is useful for the arrangement of a special UT program and stress analysis. Applying a togetherness of acoustics and magnetics signal, it is possible to determine the parameters of the function of the check valve internals without disassembling it. This series of tests show that the accelerometers can be use d to measure and to differentiate the three types of impacts; metal to metal impacts mechanical rubs, and worn internal parts. The magnet sensors can be used to detect the opening/closing of stainless check and fluttering of disk. (author). 50 refs., 5 tabs., 28 figs.

  2. Monitoring of resin transfer in CFRP molding using 3D-DIC technique

    Chen, Dingding; Arakawa, Kazuo; Uchino, Masakazu


    Vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is a manufacturing process that is used to make large and complex composite structures. While promising, VARTM still suffers from relatively low fiber volume fractions and high void content in the final products. The infusion step of VARTM is very important, because the quality of the final product is usually decided by this process. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of the infusion process is essential. In this study, a three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) testing system was set up to research the entire infusion process through the monitor of the thickness change of the laminates in this process. Two distinct VARTM processes, with and without a rigid cover mold, were designed to be studied. The 3D-DIC technique proved to be a valid method that not only can monitor the thickness evolution of isolated points but also can give a full-field distribution of the thickness change of the laminate. The results showed that, without the use of a rigid cover mold, the stack of reinforcements initially shrank and then expanded as the resin filled the cavities before closing the inlet, while when using a rigid cover mold there was an additional expansion period before the shrinkage occurred. Such an expansion stage could promote the flow of the resin, shortening the infusion time.

  3. Eco Assist Techniques through Real-time Monitoring of BEV Energy Usage Efficiency.

    Kim, Younsun; Lee, Ingeol; Kang, Sungho


    Energy efficiency enhancement has become an increasingly important issue for battery electric vehicles. Even if it can be improved in many ways, the driver's driving pattern strongly influences the battery energy consumption of a vehicle. In this paper, eco assist techniques to simply implement an energy-efficient driving assistant system are introduced, including eco guide, eco control and eco monitoring methods. The eco guide is provided to control the vehicle speed and accelerator pedal stroke, and eco control is suggested to limit the output power of the battery. For eco monitoring, the eco indicator and eco report are suggested to teach eco-friendly driving habits. The vehicle test, which is done in four ways, consists of federal test procedure (FTP)-75, new european driving cycle (NEDC), city and highway cycles, and visual feedback with audible warnings is provided to attract the driver's voluntary participation. The vehicle test result shows that the energy usage efficiency can be increased up to 19.41%.

  4. Eco Assist Techniques through Real-time Monitoring of BEV Energy Usage Efficiency

    Younsun Kim


    Full Text Available Energy efficiency enhancement has become an increasingly important issue for battery electric vehicles. Even if it can be improved in many ways, the driver’s driving pattern strongly influences the battery energy consumption of a vehicle. In this paper, eco assist techniques to simply implement an energy-efficient driving assistant system are introduced, including eco guide, eco control and eco monitoring methods. The eco guide is provided to control the vehicle speed and accelerator pedal stroke, and eco control is suggested to limit the output power of the battery. For eco monitoring, the eco indicator and eco report are suggested to teach eco-friendly driving habits. The vehicle test, which is done in four ways, consists of federal test procedure (FTP-75, new european driving cycle (NEDC, city and highway cycles, and visual feedback with audible warnings is provided to attract the driver’s voluntary participation. The vehicle test result shows that the energy usage efficiency can be increased up to 19.41%.

  5. Web based concept project for information and communication of monitoring policy and techniques

    Levy, D. S.; Sordi, G. M. A. A., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)


    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is growing in Brazil and worldwide. The servers processing power added to the technology of relational databases allow to integrate information from different sources, enabling complex queries with reduced response time. We believe that the use of information technology for the radiological protection programs for human activities shall help greatly the radioactive facility that requires such use. Therefore, this project aims the informatization of the monitoring policy and techniques in Portuguese, providing Brazilian radioactive facilities a complete repository for research, consultation and information in a quick, integrated and efficient way. In order to meet national and international standards, the development of this project includes concepts, definitions and theory about monitoring procedures in order to interrelate information, currently scattered in several publications and documents, in a consistent and appropriate manner. The Web platform tools and functionalities were developed according to our target public needs, regarding new possibilities of media, like mobile access, feeds of content and information sharing. Moreover, taking into account this is a pioneer project with the prospect of long-term use, our challenge involves the combination of multiple computer technologies that allows a robust, effective, and flexible system, which can be easily adapted according to future technological innovations. This pioneer project shell help greatly both radioactive facilities and researchers, and it is our target to make it an international reference for Portuguese Spoken countries. (Author)

  6. Monitoring fugitive methane and natural gas emissions, validation of measurement techniques.

    Robinson, Rod; Innocenti, Fabrizio; Gardiner, Tom; Helmore, Jon; Finlayson, Andrew; Connor, Andy


    The detection and quantification of fugitive and diffuse methane emissions has become an increasing priority in recent years. As the requirements for routine measurement to support industry initiatives increase there is a growing requirement to assess and validate the performance of fugitive emission measurement technologies. For reported emissions traceability and comparability of measurements is important. This talk will present recent work addressing these needs. Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) is a laser based remote sensing technology, able to map the concentration of gases in the atmosphere and determine emission fluxes for fugitive emissions. A description of the technique and its application for determining fugitive emissions of methane from oil and gas operations and waste management sites will be given. As DIAL has gained acceptance as a powerful tool for the measurement and quantification of fugitive emissions, and given the rich data it produces, it is being increasingly used to assess and validate other measurement approaches. In addition, to support the validation of technologies, we have developed a portable controlled release facility able to simulate the emissions from area sources. This has been used to assess and validate techniques which are used to monitor emissions. The development and capabilities of the controlled release facility will be described. This talk will report on recent studies using DIAL and the controlled release facility to validate fugitive emission measurement techniques. This includes side by side comparisons of two DIAL systems, the application of both the DIAL technique and the controlled release facility in a major study carried out in 2015 by South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in which a number of optical techniques were assessed and the development of a prototype method validation approach for techniques used to measure methane emissions from shale gas sites. In conclusion the talk will provide an

  7. Hydrogel-Forming Microneedle Arrays Allow Detection of Drugs and Glucose In Vivo: Potential for Use in Diagnosis and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring.

    Ester Caffarel-Salvador

    Full Text Available We describe, for the first time the use of hydrogel-forming microneedle (MN arrays for minimally-invasive extraction and quantification of drug substances and glucose from skin in vitro and in vivo. MN prepared from aqueous blends of hydrolysed poly(methyl-vinylether-co-maleic anhydride (11.1% w/w and poly(ethyleneglycol 10,000 daltons (5.6% w/w and crosslinked by esterification swelled upon skin insertion by uptake of fluid. Post-removal, theophylline and caffeine were extracted from MN and determined using HPLC, with glucose quantified using a proprietary kit. In vitro studies using excised neonatal porcine skin bathed on the underside by physiologically-relevant analyte concentrations showed rapid (5 min analyte uptake. For example, mean concentrations of 0.16 μg/mL and 0.85 μg/mL, respectively, were detected for the lowest (5 μg/mL and highest (35 μg/mL Franz cell concentrations of theophylline after 5 min insertion. A mean concentration of 0.10 μg/mL was obtained by extraction of MN inserted for 5 min into skin bathed with 5 μg/mL caffeine, while the mean concentration obtained by extraction of MN inserted into skin bathed with 15 μg/mL caffeine was 0.33 μg/mL. The mean detected glucose concentration after 5 min insertion into skin bathed with 4 mmol/L was 19.46 nmol/L. The highest theophylline concentration detected following extraction from a hydrogel-forming MN inserted for 1 h into the skin of a rat dosed orally with 10 mg/kg was of 0.363 μg/mL, whilst a maximum concentration of 0.063 μg/mL was detected following extraction from a MN inserted for 1 h into the skin of a rat dosed with 5 mg/kg theophylline. In human volunteers, the highest mean concentration of caffeine detected using MN was 91.31 μg/mL over the period from 1 to 2 h post-consumption of 100 mg Proplus® tablets. The highest mean blood glucose level was 7.89 nmol/L detected 1 h following ingestion of 75 g of glucose, while the highest mean glucose concentration

  8. Novel localized heating technique on centrifugal microfluidic disc with wireless temperature monitoring system.

    Joseph, Karunan; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Cho, Jongman


    Recent advances in the field of centrifugal microfluidic disc suggest the need for electrical interface in the disc to perform active biomedical assays. In this paper, we have demonstrated an active application powered by the energy harvested from the rotation of the centrifugal microfluidic disc. A novel integration of power harvester disc onto centrifugal microfluidic disc to perform localized heating technique is the main idea of our paper. The power harvester disc utilizing electromagnetic induction mechanism generates electrical energy from the rotation of the disc. This contributes to the heat generation by the embedded heater on the localized heating disc. The main characteristic observed in our experiment is the heating pattern in relative to the rotation of the disc. The heating pattern is monitored wirelessly with a digital temperature sensing system also embedded on the disc. Maximum temperature achieved is 82 °C at rotational speed of 2000 RPM. The technique proves to be effective for continuous heating without the need to stop the centrifugal motion of the disc.

  9. Infrared Thermography-based Biophotonics: Integrated Diagnostic Technique for Systemic Reaction Monitoring

    Vainer, Boris G.; Morozov, Vitaly V.

    A peculiar branch of biophotonics is a measurement, visualisation and quantitative analysis of infrared (IR) radiation emitted from living object surfaces. Focal plane array (FPA)-based IR cameras make it possible to realize in medicine the so called interventional infrared thermal diagnostics. An integrated technique aimed at the advancement of this new approach in biomedical science and practice is described in the paper. The assembled system includes a high-performance short-wave (2.45-3.05 μm) or long-wave (8-14 μm) IR camera, two laser Doppler flowmeters (LDF) and additional equipment and complementary facilities implementing the monitoring of human cardiovascular status. All these means operate synchronously. It is first ascertained the relationship between infrared thermography (IRT) and LDF data in humans in regard to their systemic cardiovascular reactivity. Blood supply real-time dynamics in a narcotized patient is first visualized and quantitatively represented during surgery in order to observe how the general hyperoxia influences thermoregulatory mechanisms; an abrupt increase in temperature of the upper limb is observed using IRT. It is outlined that the IRT-based integrated technique may act as a take-off runway leading to elaboration of informative new methods directly applicable to medicine and biomedical sciences.

  10. A technique for monitoring fast tuner piezoactuator preload forces for superconducting rf cavities

    Pischalnikov, Y.; Branlard, J.; Carcagno, R.; Chase, B.; Edwards, H.; Orris, D.; Makulski, A.; McGee, M.; Nehring, R.; Poloubotko, V.; Sylvester, C.; /Fermilab


    The technology for mechanically compensating Lorentz Force detuning in superconducting RF cavities has already been developed at DESY. One technique is based on commercial piezoelectric actuators and was successfully demonstrated on TESLA cavities [1]. Piezo actuators for fast tuners can operate in a frequency range up to several kHz; however, it is very important to maintain a constant static force (preload) on the piezo actuator in the range of 10 to 50% of its specified blocking force. Determining the preload force during cool-down, warm-up, or re-tuning of the cavity is difficult without instrumentation, and exceeding the specified range can permanently damage the piezo stack. A technique based on strain gauge technology for superconducting magnets has been applied to fast tuners for monitoring the preload on the piezoelectric assembly. The design and testing of piezo actuator preload sensor technology is discussed. Results from measurements of preload sensors installed on the tuner of the Capture Cavity II (CCII)[2] tested at FNAL are presented. These results include measurements during cool-down, warmup, and cavity tuning along with dynamic Lorentz force compensation.

  11. Glucose Sensing

    Geddes, Chris D


    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...