WorldWideScience

Sample records for glucose monitoring devices

  1. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are below 100 mg/dL before meals and fasting and are less than 140 mg/dL two hours after meals. People with diabetes should consult their doctor or health care provider to set appropriate blood glucose goals. ...

  2. Evaluating clinical accuracy of continuous glucose monitoring devices: other methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentholt, Iris M. E.; Hart, August A.; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.; DeVries, J. Hans

    2008-01-01

    With more and more continuous glucose monitoring devices entering the market, the importance of adequate accuracy assessment grows. This review discusses pros and cons of Regression Analysis and Correlation Coefficient, Relative Difference measures, Bland Altman plot, ISO criteria, combined curve

  3. Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy: prospects for device miniaturization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wróbel, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients with diabetes has reached over 350 million, and still continues to increase. The need for regular blood glucose monitoring sparks the interest in the development of modern detection technologies. One of those methods, which allows for noninvasive measurements, is Raman spectroscopy. The ability of infrared light to penetrate deep into tissues allows for obtaining measurements through the skin without its perforation. This paper presents the limitations and possibilities of non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy. Especially focusing on the possibilities for device miniaturization. Such device incorporates a Raman spectrometer, a fiber-optical probe, and a computing device (microcontroller, smartphone, etc.) which calculates the glucose concentration using specialized algorithms. Simplification of device design, as well as turbidity correction technique and a new proposed method of synchronized detection are described

  4. Comparison of lancing devices for self-monitoring of blood glucose regarding lancing pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Serge; Tshiananga, J K Tshiang; Koubek, Richard

    2009-09-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose empowers diabetes patients to effectively control their blood glucose (BG) levels. A potential barrier to frequent BG controls is lancing pain, intrinsically linked to pricking the finger several times a day. In this study, we compared different state-of-the-art lancing devices from leading manufacturers regarding lancing pain, and we intended to identify lancing devices that are less painful. First, 165 subjects compared 6 different BG monitoring systems-consisting of a lancing device and a BG meter-at home for 36 days and at least 3 BG tests per day. Second, the subjects directly compared 6 different lancing devices-independent from a BG meter-in a laboratory setting. The test results were collected in questionnaires, and lancing pain was rated on a numerical rating scale. One hundred fifty-seven subjects were included in the analysis. Accu-Chek BG monitoring systems were significantly (p competitor BG monitoring systems and were rated by >50% of the subjects as "less painful" than competitor BG monitoring systems. Accu-Chek lancing devices were significantly (p competitor lancing devices and were rated by >60% of the subjects as "less painful" than competitor lancing devices. We found significant differences in lancing pain between lancing devices. Diabetes patients clearly preferred lancing devices that cause less lancing pain. In order to improve patient compliance with respect to an adequate glycemic control, the medical staff should preferentially prescribe lancing devices that cause less lancing pain. 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  5. Why Have So Many Intravascular Glucose Monitoring Devices Failed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John L; Rice, Mark J

    2015-07-01

    Secondary to the inherent limitations of both point-of-care and central laboratory glucose technologies, continuous glucose measurement has recently enjoyed a high level of investment. Because of the perceived advantages by some of measuring in the intravascular space compared to the subcutaneous tissue, a number of technologies have been developed. In this review, we evaluate nine systems that have shown promise, although only one of these has been cleared for sale in the United States. The detection methodology, regulatory status, technical issues, and company circumstance surrounding each technology are examined. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. Assessment of three frequently used blood glucose monitoring devices in clinical routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zueger, Thomas; Schuler, Vanessa; Stettler, Christoph; Diem, Peter; Christ, Emanuel R

    2012-07-12

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose plays an important role in the management of diabetes and has been shown to improve metabolic control. The use of blood glucose meters in clinical practice requires sufficient reliability to allow adequate treatment. Direct comparison of different blood glucose meters in clinical practice, independent of the manufactures is scarce. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate three frequently used blood glucose meters in daily clinical practice. Capillary blood glucose was measured simultaneous using the following glucose meters: Contour® (Bayer Diabetes Care, Zürich, Switzerland), Accu-Chek® aviva (Roche Diagnostics, Rotkreuz, Switzerland), Free-Style® lite (Abbott Diabetes Care, Baar, Switzerland). The reference method consisted of the HemoCue® Glucose 201+ System (HemoCue® AB, Ängelholm, Sweden) with plasma conversion. The devices were assessed by comparison of the Mean Absolute Relative Differences (MARD), the Clarke Error Grid Analysis (EGA) and the compliance with the International Organization of Standardization criteria (ISO 15197:2003). Capillary blood samples were obtained from 150 patients. MARD was 10.1 ± 0.65%, 7.0 ± 0.62% and 7.8 ± 0.48% for Contour®, Accu-Chek® and Free-Style®, respectively. EGA showed 99.3% (Contour®), 98.7% (Accu-Chek®) and 100% (Free-Style®) of all measurements in zone A and B (clinically acceptable). The ISO criteria were fulfilled by Accu-Chek® (95.3%) and Free-Style® (96%), but not by Contour® (92%). In the present study the three glucose meters provided good agreement with the reference and reliable results in daily clinical routine. Overall, the Free-Style® and Accu-Chek® device slightly outperformed the Contour® device.

  7. Long-term blood glucose monitoring with implanted telemetry device in conscious and stress-free cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Sun, G; Qiao, W; Liu, Y; Qiao, J; Ye, W; Wang, H; Wang, X; Lindquist, R; Wang, Y; Xiao, Y-F

    2017-09-01

    Continuous blood glucose monitoring, especially long-term and remote, in diabetic patients or research is very challenging. Nonhuman primate (NHP) is an excellent model for metabolic research, because NHPs can naturally develop Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) similarly to humans. This study was to investigate blood glucose changes in conscious, moving-free cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during circadian, meal, stress and drug exposure. Blood glucose, body temperature and physical activities were continuously and simultaneously recorded by implanted HD-XG telemetry device for up to 10 weeks. Blood glucose circadian changes in normoglycemic monkeys significantly differed from that in diabetic animals. Postprandial glucose increase was more obvious after afternoon feeding. Moving a monkey from its housing cage to monkey chair increased blood glucose by 30% in both normoglycemic and diabetic monkeys. Such increase in blood glucose declined to the pre-procedure level in 30 min in normoglycemic animals and >2 h in diabetic monkeys. Oral gavage procedure alone caused hyperglycemia in both normoglycemic and diabetic monkeys. Intravenous injection with the stress hormones, angiotensin II (2 μg/kg) or norepinephrine (0.4 μg/kg), also increased blood glucose level by 30%. The glucose levels measured by the telemetry system correlated significantly well with glucometer readings during glucose tolerance tests (ivGTT or oGTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT), graded glucose infusion (GGI) and clamp. Our data demonstrate that the real-time telemetry method is reliable for monitoring blood glucose remotely and continuously in conscious, stress-free, and moving-free NHPs with the advantages highly valuable to diabetes research and drug discovery.

  8. [Blood glucose self monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascher, Thomas C; Stechemesser, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Self monitoring of blood glucose contributes to the integrated management of diabetes mellitus. It, thus, should be available for all patients with diabetes mellitus type-1 and type-2. Self monitoring of blood glucose improves patients safety, quality of life and glucose control. The current article represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association for the use of blood glucose self monitoring according to current scientific evidence.

  9. Design of a prospective clinical study on the agreement between the Continuous GlucoseMonitor, a novel device for CONTinuous ASSessment of blood GLUcose levels, and the RAPIDLab® 1265 blood gas analyser: The CONTASSGLU study

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann Johannes B; Lehmann Monika; Hofer Stefan; Hüsing Johannes; Alles Catharina; Werner Jens; Stiller Jürgen; Künnecke Wolfgang; Luntz Steffen; Motsch Johann; Weigand Markus A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although a device is needed to continuously measure blood glucose levels within an intensive care setting, and several large-scale prospective studies have shown that patients might benefit from intensive insulin, potassium, or glucose therapy during intensive care, no devices are currently available to continuously assess blood glucose levels in critically ill patients. We conceived the study described here to evaluate the clinical use of the Continuous Glucose Monitor (C...

  10. Nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Christiane; Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: A reliable method to detect biochemical nocturnal hypoglycemia is highly needed, especially in patients with recurrent severe hypoglycemia. We evaluated reliability of nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes at high risk of severe...

  11. Design of a prospective clinical study on the agreement between the Continuous GlucoseMonitor, a novel device for CONTinuous ASSessment of blood GLUcose levels, and the RAPIDLab® 1265 blood gas analyser: The CONTASSGLU study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Johannes B; Lehmann, Monika; Hofer, Stefan; Hüsing, Johannes; Alles, Catharina; Werner, Jens; Stiller, Jürgen; Künnecke, Wolfgang; Luntz, Steffen; Motsch, Johann; Weigand, Markus A

    2012-09-22

    Although a device is needed to continuously measure blood glucose levels within an intensive care setting, and several large-scale prospective studies have shown that patients might benefit from intensive insulin, potassium, or glucose therapy during intensive care, no devices are currently available to continuously assess blood glucose levels in critically ill patients. We conceived the study described here to evaluate the clinical use of the Continuous Glucose Monitor (CGM) performed via a central vein, and to determine the impact of phenomena, such as drift and shift, on the agreement between the CGM and a RAPIDLab® 1265 blood gas analyser (BGA). In the CONTinuous ASSessment of blood GLUcose (CONTASSGLU) study, up to 130 patients under intensive care will be fitted with the CGM, an ex vivo device that continuously measures blood glucose and lactate levels. Readings from the device taken 8 h after initial placement and calibration will be compared with values measured by a BGA. For this study, we chose the BGA as it is an established standard point-of-care device, instead of the devices used in certified central laboratories. Nevertheless, we will also independently compare the results from the point-of-care BGA with those determined by a central laboratory-based device. Blood samples will be collected from each patient from the same site in which the CGM will measure blood glucose. Consequently, each participant will serve as their own control, and no randomisation is necessary. The 95% limits of agreement and the corresponding confidence intervals will be calculated and compared with a prespecified clinically acceptable relative difference of 20%. Several attempts have been made to develop a device to continuously measure blood glucose levels within an intensive care setting or to use the devices that were originally designed for diabetes management, as several of these devices are already available. However, none of these devices were successful in

  12. Design of a prospective clinical study on the agreement between the Continuous GlucoseMonitor, a novel device for CONTinuous ASSessment of blood GLUcose levels, and the RAPIDLab® 1265 blood gas analyser: The CONTASSGLU study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Johannes B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a device is needed to continuously measure blood glucose levels within an intensive care setting, and several large-scale prospective studies have shown that patients might benefit from intensive insulin, potassium, or glucose therapy during intensive care, no devices are currently available to continuously assess blood glucose levels in critically ill patients. We conceived the study described here to evaluate the clinical use of the Continuous Glucose Monitor (CGM performed via a central vein, and to determine the impact of phenomena, such as drift and shift, on the agreement between the CGM and a RAPIDLab® 1265 blood gas analyser (BGA. Methods/design In the CONTinuous ASSessment of blood GLUcose (CONTASSGLU study, up to 130 patients under intensive care will be fitted with the CGM, an ex vivo device that continuously measures blood glucose and lactate levels. Readings from the device taken 8 h after initial placement and calibration will be compared with values measured by a BGA. For this study, we chose the BGA as it is an established standard point-of-care device, instead of the devices used in certified central laboratories. Nevertheless, we will also independently compare the results from the point-of-care BGA with those determined by a central laboratory-based device. Blood samples will be collected from each patient from the same site in which the CGM will measure blood glucose. Consequently, each participant will serve as their own control, and no randomisation is necessary. The 95% limits of agreement and the corresponding confidence intervals will be calculated and compared with a prespecified clinically acceptable relative difference of 20%. Discussion Several attempts have been made to develop a device to continuously measure blood glucose levels within an intensive care setting or to use the devices that were originally designed for diabetes management, as several of these devices are already

  13. Recent advances in noninvasive glucose monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So CF

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chi-Fuk So,1 Kup-Sze Choi,1 Thomas KS Wong,2 Joanne WY Chung2,31Centre for Integrative Digital Health, School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, 2Department of Nursing and Health Sciences, Tung Wah College, Hong Kong, 3Department of Health and Physical Education, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong KongAbstract: The race for the next generation of painless and reliable glucose monitoring for diabetes mellitus is on. As technology advances, both diagnostic techniques and equipment improve. This review describes the main technologies currently being explored for noninvasive glucose monitoring. The principle of each technology is mentioned; its advantages and limitations are then discussed. The general description and the corresponding results for each device are illustrated, as well as the current status of the device and the manufacturer; internet references for the devices are listed where appropriate. Ten technologies and eleven potential devices are included in this review. Near infrared spectroscopy has become a promising technology, among others, for blood glucose monitoring. Although some reviews have been published already, the rapid development of technologies and information makes constant updating mandatory. While advances have been made, the reliability and the calibration of noninvasive instruments could still be improved, and more studies carried out under different physiological conditions of metabolism, bodily fluid circulation, and blood components are needed.Keywords: noninvasive, glucose monitoring, diabetes mellitus, blood glucose measurement

  14. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Khadilkar, Kranti Shreesh; Bandgar, Tushar; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). It also focuses on t...

  15. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Kranti Shreesh; Bandgar, Tushar; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

    2013-12-01

    Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). It also focuses on the newer concepts of blood glucose monitoring and their incorporation in routine clinical management of diabetes mellitus.

  16. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Kranti Shreesh; Bandgar, Tushar; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Lila, Anurag; Shah, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). It also focuses on the newer concepts of blood glucose monitoring and their incorporation in routine clinical management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:24910827

  17. Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranti Shreesh Khadilkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose monitoring has evolved over the last century. The concept of adequate glycemic control and minimum glycemic variability requires an ideal, accurate and reliable glucose monitoring system. The search for an ideal blood glucose monitoring system still continues. This review explains the various blood glucose monitoring systems with special focus on the monitoring systems like self- monitored blood glucose (SMBG and continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS. It also focuses on the newer concepts of blood glucose monitoring and their incorporation in routine clinical management of diabetes mellitus.

  18. Challenges and perspectives in continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Enter, Benjamin Jasha; von Hauff, Elizabeth

    2018-04-24

    Diabetes is a global epidemic that threatens the health and well-being of hundreds of millions of people. The first step in patient treatment is to monitor glucose levels. Currently this is most commonly done using enzymatic strips. This approach suffers from several limitations, namely it requires a blood sample and is therefore invasive, the quality and the stability of the enzymatic strips vary widely, and the patient is burdened by performing the measurement themselves. This results in dangerous fluctuations in glucose levels often going undetected. There is currently intense research towards new approaches in glucose detection that would enable non-invasive continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). In this review, we explore the state-of-the-art in glucose detection technologies. In particular, we focus on the physical mechanisms behind different approaches, and how these influence and determine the accuracy and reliability of glucose detection. We begin by reviewing the basic physical and chemical properties of the glucose molecule. Although these play a central role in detection, especially the anomeric ratio, they are surprisingly often overlooked in the literature. We then review state-of-the art and emerging detection methods. Finally, we survey the current market for glucometers. Recent results show that past challenges in glucose detection are now being overcome, thereby enabling the development of smart wearable devices for non-invasive continuous glucose monitoring. These new directions in glucose detection have enormous potential to improve the quality of life of millions of diabetics, as well as offer insight into the development, treatment and even prevention of the disease.

  19. Accuracy of flash glucose monitoring and continuous glucose monitoring technologies: Implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjan, Ramzi A; Cummings, Michael H; Jennings, Peter; Leelarathna, Lalantha; Rayman, Gerry; Wilmot, Emma G

    2018-02-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring and flash glucose monitoring technologies measure glucose in the interstitial fluid and are increasingly used in diabetes care. Their accuracy, key to effective glycaemic management, is usually measured using the mean absolute relative difference of the interstitial fluid sensor compared to reference blood glucose readings. However, mean absolute relative difference is not standardised and has limitations. This review aims to provide a consensus opinion on assessing accuracy of interstitial fluid glucose sensing technologies. Mean absolute relative difference is influenced by glucose distribution and rate of change; hence, we express caution on the reliability of comparing mean absolute relative difference data from different study systems and conditions. We also review the pitfalls associated with mean absolute relative difference at different glucose levels and explore additional ways of assessing accuracy of interstitial fluid devices. Importantly, much data indicate that current practice of assessing accuracy of different systems based on individualised mean absolute relative difference results has limitations, which have potential clinical implications. Healthcare professionals must understand the factors that influence mean absolute relative difference as a metric for accuracy and look at additional assessments, such as consensus error grid analysis, when evaluating continuous glucose monitoring and flash glucose monitoring systems in diabetes care. This in turn will ensure that management decisions based on interstitial fluid sensor data are both effective and safe.

  20. Incore monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, Ichiro; Shirayama, Shin-pei; Nozaki, Shin-ichi.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an incore monitoring device wherein both radiation monitoring and acoustic monitoring are carried out simultaneously by one detector, whereby installation of the device and signal pick-up are facilitated. Incore conditions are accurately grasped. Constitution: When a neutron is irradiated in a state where a DC voltage is applied between the electrode and the vessel in the device, an ionization current is occured by (n.γ) reaction of the transformed substance as in an ionization chamber, Accordingly, a voltage drop occurs at both ends of the resistor of the radiation signal processing system, as a result of which a neutron flux can be detected. Further, when a sound is generated in the reactor, the monitoring device bottom wall which formed by a piezoelectric element detects the sound-waves. This output signal is picked up by the acoustic signal processing system to judge the generation of sound. (Aizawa, K.)

  1. Continuous glucose monitoring in acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Quintanilla, Karina Alejandra; Lavalle-González, Fernando Javier; Mancillas-Adame, Leonardo Guadalupe; Zapata-Garrido, Alfonso Javier; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Zacarías; Tamez-Pérez, Héctor Eloy

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To compare the efficacy of devices for continuous glucose monitoring and capillary glucose monitoring in hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndrome using the following parameters: time to achieve normoglycemia, period of time in normoglycemia, and episodes of hypoglycemia. We performed a pilot, non-randomized, unblinded clinical trial that included 16 patients with acute coronary artery syndrome, a capillary or venous blood glucose ≥ 140 mg/dl, and treatment with a continuous infusion of fast acting human insulin. These patients were randomized into 2 groups: a conventional group, in which capillary measurement and recording as well as insulin adjustment were made every 4h, and an intervention group, in which measurement and recording as well as insulin adjustment were made every hour with a subcutaneous continuous monitoring system. Student's t-test was applied for mean differences and the X(2) test for qualitative variables. We observed a statistically significant difference in the mean time for achieving normoglycemia, favoring the conventional group with a P = 0.02. Continuous monitoring systems are as useful as capillary monitoring for achieving normoglycemia. Copyright © 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. Movement monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Yoneda, Yasuaki; Hanatsumi, Masaharu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a device suitable to accurate recognition for the moving state of reactor core fuels as an object to be monitored in a nuclear power plant. Namely, the device of the present invention prepares each of scheduled paths for the movement of the object to be monitored and executed moving paths along with the movement based on the information of the movement obtained from scheduled information for the movement of the reactor core fuels as a object to be monitored and the actual movement of the object to be monitored. The results of the preparation are outputted. As an output mode, (1) the results of preparation for each of the paths for movement and the results of the monitoring obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are jointed and outputted, (2) images showing each of the paths for the movement are formed, and the formed images are displayed on a screen, and (3) each of the moving paths is prepared as an image, and the image is displayed together with the image of the regions before and after the movement of the object to be monitored. In addition, obtained images of each of the paths for the movement and the monitored images obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are joined and displayed. (I.S.)

  3. Accuracy and User Performance Evaluation of a New, Wireless-enabled Blood Glucose Monitoring System That Links to a Smart Mobile Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Timothy S; Wallace, Jane F; Pardo, Scott; Warchal-Windham, Mary Ellen; Harrison, Bern; Morin, Robert; Christiansen, Mark

    2017-07-01

    The new Contour ® Plus ONE blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) features an easy-to-use, wireless-enabled blood glucose meter that links to a smart mobile device via Bluetooth ® connectivity and can sync with the Contour ™ Diabetes app on a smartphone or tablet. The accuracy of the new BGMS was assessed in 2 studies according to ISO 15197:2013 criteria. In Study 1 (laboratory study), fingertip capillary blood samples from 100 subjects were tested in duplicate using 3 test strip lots. In Study 2 (clinical study), 134 subjects with type 1 or type 2 diabetes enrolled at 2 clinical sites. BGMS results and YSI analyzer (YSI) reference results were compared for fingertip blood obtained by untrained subjects' self-testing and for study staff-obtained fingertip, subject palm, and venous results. In Study 1, 99.0% (594/600) of combined results for all 3 test strip lots fulfilled ISO 15197:2013 Section 6.3 accuracy criteria. In Study 2, 99.2% (133/134) of subject-obtained capillary fingertip results, 99.2% (133/134) of study staff-obtained fingertip results, 99.2% (125/126) of subject-obtained palm results, and 100% (132/132) of study staff-obtained venous results met ISO 15197:2013 Section 8 accuracy criteria. Moreover, 95.5% (128/134) of subject-obtained fingertip self-test results were within ±10 mg/dl (±0.6 mmol/L) or ±10% of the YSI reference result. Questionnaire results showed that most subjects found the BGMS easy to use. The BGMS exceeded ISO 15197:2013 accuracy criteria both in the laboratory and in a clinical setting when used by untrained subjects with diabetes.

  4. Nuclear reactor monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihashi, Ishi; Honma, Hitoshi.

    1993-01-01

    The monitoring device of the present invention comprises a reactor core/reactor system data measuring and controlling device, a radioactivity concentration calculation device for activated coolants for calculating a radioactivity concentration of activated coolants in a main steam and reactor water by using an appropriate physical model, a radioactivity concentration correlation and comparison device for activated coolants for comparing correlationship with a radiation dose and an abnormality alarm device. Since radioactivity of activated primary coolants is monitored at each of positions in the reactor system and occurrence of leakage and the amount thereof from a primary circuit to a secondary circuit is monitored if the reactor has secondary circuit, integrity of the reactor system can be ensured and an abnormality can be detected rapidly. Further, radioactivity concentration of activated primary circuit coolants, represented by 16 N or 15 C, is always monitored at each of positions of PWR primary circuits. When a heat transfer pipe is ruptured in a steam generator, leakage of primary circuit coolants is detected rapidly, as well as the amount of the leakage can be informed. (N.H.)

  5. Equipment abnormality monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yasumasa

    1991-01-01

    When an operator hears sounds in a plantsite, the operator compares normal sounds of equipment which he previously heard and remembered with sounds he actually hears, to judge if they are normal or abnormal. According to the method, there is a worry that abnormal conditions can not be appropriately judged in a case where the number of objective equipments is increased and in a case that the sounds are changed gradually slightly. Then, the device of the present invention comprises a plurality of monitors for monitoring the operation sound of equipments, a recording/reproducing device for recording and reproducing the signals, a selection device for selecting the reproducing signals among the recorded signals, an acoustic device for converting the signals to sounds, a switching device for switching the signals to be transmitted to the acoustic device between to signals of the monitor and the recording/reproducing signals. The abnormality of the equipments can be determined easily by comparing the sounds representing the operation conditions of equipments for controlling the plant operation and the sounds recorded in their normal conditions. (N.H.)

  6. Monitor inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueshima, Yoshinobu.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention reliably conducts monitoring by radiation monitors in a nuclear power plant thereby contributing to save the number of radiation operators and reduction of radiation exposure. Namely, radiation monitors continuously measure a plurality of γ-ray levels. A branched simultaneously counting circuit receives these signals. The output of the branched simultaneously counting circuit is inputted to a differentiation means. The differentiation means calculates a variation coefficient for each of the radiation monitoring values, namely, equivalent dose rates, and records and monitors change with time of the equivalent dose rates. With such procedures, the results of the monitoring of γ-ray levels can be judged objectively corresponding to the increase of the equivalent dose rates. As a result, the number of radiation operators can be saves and radiation exposure of the radiation operators can be reduced. (I.S.)

  7. Plant monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Kunio.

    1991-01-01

    The monitoring device of the present invention is most suitable to early detection for equipment abnormality, or monitoring of state upon transient conditions such as startup and shutdown of an electric power plant, a large-scaled thermonuclear device and an accelerator plant. That is, in existent moitoring devices, acquired data are stored and the present operation states are monitored in comparison. A plant operation aquisition data reproduction section is disposed to the device. From the past operation conditions stored in the plant operation data aquisition reproducing section, the number of operation cycles that agrees with the present plant operation conditions is sought, to determine the agreed aquired data. Since these aquired data are time sequential data measured based on the standard time determined by the operation sequence, aquired data can be reproduced successively on every sample pitches. With such a constitution, aquired data under the same operation conditions as the present conditions are displayed together with the measured data. Accordingly, accurate monitoring can be conducted from the start-up to the shutdown of the plant. (I.S.)

  8. Reactor noise monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Hiroto.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a reactor noise monitoring device by detecting abnormal sounds in background noises. Vibration sounds detected by accelerometers are applied to a loose parts detector. The detector generates high alarm if there are sudden impact sounds in the background noises and applies output signals to an accumulation device. If there is slight impact sounds in the vicinity of any of the accelerometers, the accumulation device accumulates the abnormal sounds assumed to be generated from an identical site while synchronizing the waveforms for all of the channels. Then, the device outputs signals in which the background noises are cancelled, as detection signals. Therefore, S/N ratio can be improved and the abnormal sounds contained in the background noises can be detected, to thereby improve the accuracy for estimating the position where the abnormal sounds are generated. (I.S.)

  9. Reactor power monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Shigehiro.

    1990-01-01

    Among a plurality of power monitoring programs in a reactor power monitoring device, rapid response is required for a scram judging program for the power judging processing of scram signals. Therefore, the scram judging program is stored independently from other power monitoring programs, applied with a priority order, and executed in parallel with other programs, to output scram signals when the detected data exceeds a predetermined value. As a result, the capacity required for the scram judging program is reduced and the processing can be conducted in a short period of time. In addition, since high priority is applied to the scram judging program which is divided into a small capacity, it is executed at higher frequency than other programs when they are executed in parallel. That is, since the entire processings for the power monitoring program are repeated in a short cycle, the response speed of the scram signals required for high responsivity can be increased. (N.H.)

  10. Radiation monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshifumi.

    1993-01-01

    The device of the present invention concerns a reactor start-up region monitor of a nuclear power plant. In an existent start-up region monitor, bias voltage is limited, if the reactor moves to a power region, in order to prevent degradation of radiation detectors. Accordingly, since the power is lower than an actual reactor power, the reactor power can not be monitored. The device of the present invention comprises a memory means for previously storing a Plateau's characteristic of the radiation detectors and a correction processing means for obtaining a correction coefficient in accordance with the Plateau's characteristic to correct and calculate the reactor power when the bias voltage is limited. With such a constitution, when the reactor power exceeds a predetermined value and the bias voltage is limited, the correction coefficient can be obtained by the memory means and the correction processing means. Corrected reactor power can also be obtained from the start-up region monitor by the correction coefficient. As a result, monitoring of the reactor power can be continued while preventing degradation of the radiation detector even if the bias voltage is limited. (I.S.)

  11. Cost-effectiveness of G5 Mobile continuous glucose monitoring device compared to self-monitoring of blood glucose alone for people with type 1 diabetes from the Canadian societal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaugule, Shraddha; Graham, Claudia

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) compared to self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) alone in people with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) using multiple daily injections (MDI) from the Canadian societal perspective. The IMS CORE Diabetes Model (v.9.0) was used to assess the long-term (50 years) cost-effectiveness of real-time CGM (G5 Mobile CGM System; Dexcom, Inc., San Diego, CA) compared with SMBG alone for a cohort of adults with poorly-controlled T1DM. Treatment effects and baseline characteristics of patients were derived from the DIAMOND randomized controlled clinical trial; all other assumptions and costs were sourced from published research. The accuracy and clinical effectiveness of G5 Mobile CGM is the same as the G4 Platinum CGM used in the DIAMOND randomized clinical trial. Base case assumptions included (a) baseline HbA1c of 8.6%, (b) change in HbA1c of -1.0% for CGM users vs -0.4% for SMBG users, and (c) disutilities of -0.0142 for non-severe hypoglycemic events (NSHEs) and severe hypoglycemic events (SHEs) not requiring medical intervention, and -0.047 for SHEs requiring medical resources. Treatment costs and outcomes were discounted at 1.5% per year. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the base case G5 Mobile CGM vs SMBG was $33,789 CAD/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Sensitivity analyses showed that base case results were most sensitive to changes in percentage reduction in hypoglycemic events and disutilities associated with hypoglycemic events. The base case results were minimally impacted by changes in baseline HbA1c level, incorporation of indirect costs, changes in the discount rate, and baseline utility of patients. The results of this analysis demonstrate that G5 Mobile CGM is cost-effective within the population of adults with T1DM using MDI, assuming a Canadian willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000 CAD per QALY.

  12. Neutron flux monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Yasushi; Mitsubori, Minehisa; Ohashi, Kazunori.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a neutron flux monitoring device for preventing occurrence of erroneous reactor scram caused by the elevation of the indication of a start region monitor (SRM) due to a factor different from actual increase of neutron fluxes. Namely, judgement based on measured values obtained by a pulse counting method and a judgment based on measured values obtained by a Cambel method are combined. A logic of switching neutron flux measuring method to be used for monitoring, namely, switching to an intermediate region when both of the judgements are valid is adopted. Then, even if the indication value is elevated based on the Cambel method with no increase of the counter rate in a neutron source region, the switching to the intermediate region is not conducted. As a result, erroneous reactor scram such as 'shorter reactor period' can be avoided. (I.S.)

  13. Wearable Contact Lens Biosensors for Continuous Glucose Monitoring Using Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsherif, Mohamed; Hassan, Mohammed Umair; Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider

    2018-05-17

    Low-cost, robust, and reusable continuous glucose monitoring systems that can provide quantitative measurements at point-of-care settings is an unmet medical need. Optical glucose sensors require complex and time-consuming fabrication processes, and their readouts are not practical for quantitative analyses. Here, a wearable contact lens optical sensor was created for the continuous quantification of glucose at physiological conditions, simplifying the fabrication process and facilitating smartphone readouts. A photonic microstructure having a periodicity of 1.6 μm was printed on a glucose-selective hydrogel film functionalized with phenylboronic acid. Upon binding with glucose, the microstructure volume swelled, which modulated the periodicity constant. The resulting change in the Bragg diffraction modulated the space between zero- and first-order spots. A correlation was established between the periodicity constant and glucose concentration within 0-50 mM. The sensitivity of the sensor was 12 nm mM -1 , and the saturation response time was less than 30 min. The sensor was integrated with commercial contact lenses and utilized for continuous glucose monitoring using smartphone camera readouts. The reflected power of the first-order diffraction was measured via a smartphone application and correlated to the glucose concentrations. A short response time of 3 s and a saturation time of 4 min was achieved in the continuous monitoring mode. Glucose-sensitive photonic microstructures may have applications in point-of-care continuous monitoring devices and diagnostics at home settings.

  14. Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) or Blood Glucose Monitoring (BGM): Interactions and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Lutz

    2018-04-01

    At the 2017 10th annual International Conference on Advanced Technologies and Treatments for Diabetes (ATTD) in Paris, France, four speakers presented their perspectives on the roles of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and of blood glucose monitoring (BGM) in patient management within one symposium. These presentations included discussions of the differences in the accuracy of CGM and BGM, a clinical perspective on the physiological reasons behind differences in CGM and BGM values, and an overview of the impact of variations in device accuracy on patients with diabetes. Subsequently a short summary of these presentations is given, highlighting the value of good accuracy of BGM or CGM systems and the ongoing need for standardization. The important role of both BGM and CGM in patient management was a theme across all presentations.

  15. Reactor power monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogen, Ayumi; Ozawa, Michihiro.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To significantly improve the working efficiency of a nuclear reactor by reflecting the control rod history effect on thermal variants required for the monitoring of the reactor operation. Constitution: An incore power distribution calculation section reads the incore neutron fluxes detected by neutron detectors disposed in the reactor to calculate the incore power distribution. A burnup degree distribution calculation section calculates the burnup degree distribution in the reactor based on the thus calculated incore power distribution. A control rod history date store device supplied with the burnup degree distribution renews the stored control rod history data based on the present control rod pattern and the burnup degree distribution. Then, thermal variants of the nuclear reactor are calculated based on the thus renewed control rod history data. Since the control rod history effect is reflected on the thermal variants required for the monitoring of the reactor operation, the working efficiency of the nuclear reactor can be improved significantly. (Seki, T.)

  16. Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Newborn Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Felicity; Signal, Mathew; Harris, Deborah L.; Weston, Philip J.; Harding, Jane E.; Shaw, Geoffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal hypoglycemia is common and can cause serious brain injury. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) could improve hypoglycemia detection, while reducing blood glucose (BG) measurements. Calibration algorithms use BG measurements to convert sensor signals into CGM data. Thus, inaccuracies in calibration BG measurements directly affect CGM values and any metrics calculated from them. The aim was to quantify the effect of timing delays and calibration BG measurement errors on hypoglycemia metrics in newborn infants. Data from 155 babies were used. Two timing and 3 BG meter error models (Abbott Optium Xceed, Roche Accu-Chek Inform II, Nova Statstrip) were created using empirical data. Monte-Carlo methods were employed, and each simulation was run 1000 times. Each set of patient data in each simulation had randomly selected timing and/or measurement error added to BG measurements before CGM data were calibrated. The number of hypoglycemic events, duration of hypoglycemia, and hypoglycemic index were then calculated using the CGM data and compared to baseline values. Timing error alone had little effect on hypoglycemia metrics, but measurement error caused substantial variation. Abbott results underreported the number of hypoglycemic events by up to 8 and Roche overreported by up to 4 where the original number reported was 2. Nova results were closest to baseline. Similar trends were observed in the other hypoglycemia metrics. Errors in blood glucose concentration measurements used for calibration of CGM devices can have a clinically important impact on detection of hypoglycemia. If CGM devices are going to be used for assessing hypoglycemia it is important to understand of the impact of these errors on CGM data. PMID:24876618

  17. Raman Spectroscopy as a Promising Tool for Noninvasive Point-of-Care Glucose Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtes-Timmerman, M.J.; Bijlsma, S.; Fokkert, M.J.; Slingerland, R.; Veen, S.J.F. van

    2014-01-01

    Self-monitoring of glucose is important for managing diabetes. Noninvasive glucose monitors are not yet available, but patients would benefit highly from such a device. We present results that may lead to a novel, point-of-care noninvasive system to measure blood glucose based on Raman spectroscopy.

  18. Non Invasive Glucose Monitoring System Using Nanosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran C.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The most existing future technology is an outcome of the fields of computer science, electronics and Biology. Health inequalities have become the focus of a number of descriptive and analytical studies. One of the health related problem is diabetes. Diabetes at its serious stage leads to blindness. Monitoring glucose level in blood is one preventive measure to check diabetes. Increase in Glucose is a common risk factor which leads to hyperglycemia, Hypoglycemia, heart attack, stokes and aneurysms. A glucose monitoring system continuously measures and monitors the glucose level in a patient’s blood. Normal blood glucose level of human is 70-110 milligram/deciliter. The level is maintained by using the secretion of insulin inside the body. When the insulin level gets increased it leads to hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia when the level gets decreased. Hyperglycemia disease includes cataract,edema, hypertension, polyuria and polydipsia. Hypoglycemaia disease includes confusion, giddiness, unconsciousness, coma and death. The proposed system finds a new way for measuring the glucose level. The work uses Nanopellets which measure’s the glucose level, when the glucose level gets increased or decreased, it will be automatically get monitored and processed using microcontroller (MSP430G2553. The information is then send to the doctor through GSM.

  19. Plant monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Toru.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention comprises a data collecting section for periodically collecting processed data sent from plant equipments, a top node induction and processing section for an important plant function model for inducing the plant function to be noted particularly by an operator from important plant function models by using process data and a window screen selection section for selecting a window screen to be displayed based on the result of the evaluation for each of function nodes based on the processing described above and determining the layout and automatically forming the display screen. It is constituted so that the kind and the layout of the window under display are checked if they are the same as those one cycle before or not and, if they are different, the screen is automatically switched to a new screen display. Then, operator's psychological burdens such as selection of information and judgement for the operation upon occurrence of plant abnormality and accident can be mitigated, to provide a safe operation circumstance having reinforced monitoring of the function of the whole plant can be provided. (N.H.)

  20. Neutron flux monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Yoichiro.

    1995-01-01

    In a neutron flux monitoring device, there are disposed a neutron flux measuring means for outputting signals in accordance with the intensity of neutron fluxes, a calculation means for calculating a self power density spectrum at a frequency band suitable to an object to be measured based on the output of the neutron flux measuring means, an alarm set value generation means for outputting an alarm set value as a comparative reference, and an alarm judging means for comparing the alarm set value with the outputted value of the calculation means to judge requirement of generating an alarm and generate an alarm in accordance with the result of the judgement. Namely, the time-series of neutron flux signals is put to fourier transformation for a predetermined period of time by the calculation means, and from each of square sums for real number component and imaginary number component for each of the frequencies, a self power density spectrum in the frequency band suitable to the object to be measured is calculated. Then, when the set reference value is exceeded, an alarm is generated. This can reliably prevent generation of erroneous alarm due to neutron flux noises and can accurately generate an alarm at an appropriate time. (N.H.)

  1. Loose part monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention estimates a place where loose parts occur and structural components as the loose parts in a fluid flow channel of a reactor device, to provide information thereof to a plant operator. That is, the device of the present invention comprises (1) a plurality of detectors disposed to each of equipments constituting fluid channels, (2) an abnormal sound sensing device for sensing signals from the detectors, (3) an estimation section for estimating the place where the loose parts occur and the structural components thereof based on the signals sensed by the abnormal sound sensing section, (4) a memory section for storing data of the plant structure necessary for the estimation, and (5) a display section for displaying the result of the estimation. In such a device, the position where the loose parts collide against the plant structural component and the energy thereof are estimated. The dropping path of the loose parts is estimated from the estimation position. Parts to be loose parts in the path are listed up. The parts on the list is selected based on the estimated energy thereby enabling to determine the loose parts. (I.S.)

  2. Recommending blood glucose monitors, a pharmacy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Alan

    2007-03-01

    Selection of what blood glucose monitoring system to utilize has become an issue for physicians, diabetes educators, pharmacists, and patients. The field of competing makes and models of blood glucose monitoring systems has become crowded, with manufacturers touting improvements in accuracy, ease of use/alternate site options, stored results capacity, software evaluation tools, and/or price point. Personal interviews of 12 pharmacists from community and academic practice settings about monitor preference, as well as results from a national survey of pharmacist recommendations, were compared to actual wholesale sales data to estimate the impact of such recommendations on final monitor selection by the patient. Accu-Chek monitors were recommended 34.65% of the time and represented 28.58% of sales, with a success rate of 82.48% of being the monitor selected. OneTouch monitors had 27.72% of recommendations but represented 31.43% of sales, indicating possible patient brand loyalty or formulary preference for that product. FreeStyle(R) monitors came in third for pharmacist recommendations and were selected by the patient 61.68% of the time when recommended. The category of "other monitor" choices was selected 60.89% of the time by patients given those suggestions. Included in the "other monitor" category was the new disposable monitor marketed as the Sidekick. Based on sales data provided, the Sidekick made up 2.87% of "other monitor" category sales, representing 68% of the "other monitor" segment. While patients frequently follow pharmacist monitoring system suggestions, the ultimate deciding factor is most often the final out-of-pocket cost to the patient. As a result, cost of supplies often becomes the most important determining factor in final monitor selection at the patient level. If the patient cannot afford to perform the recommended daily testing intervals, all other determining factors and suggestions become moot.

  3. Internal pump monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Toshikazu.

    1996-01-01

    In the present invention, a thermometer is disposed at the upper end of an internal pump casing of a coolant recycling system in a BWR type reactor to detect leakage of reactor water thereby ensuring the improvement of reliability of the internal pump. Namely, a thermometer is disposed, which can detect temperature elevation occurred when water in the internal pump leaked from a reactor pressure vessel passes through the gap between a stretch tube and an upper end of the pump casing. Signals from the thermometer are transmitted to a signal processing device by an instrumentation cable. The signal processing device generates an alarm when the temperature signal exceeds a predetermined value and announces that leakage of reactor water occurs in the internal pump. Since the present invention can detect the leakage of the reactor water in the pump casing in an early stage, it can contribute to the improvement of the safety and reliability of the internal pump. (I.S.)

  4. A New, Wireless-enabled Blood Glucose Monitoring System That Links to a Smart Mobile Device: Accuracy and User Performance Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Mark; Greene, Carmine; Pardo, Scott; Warchal-Windham, Mary Ellen; Harrison, Bern; Morin, Robert; Bailey, Timothy S

    2017-05-01

    These studies investigated the accuracy of the new Contour ® Next ONE blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) that is designed to sync with the Contour™ Diabetes app on a smartphone or tablet. A laboratory study tested fingertip capillary blood samples from 100 subjects in duplicate using 3 test strip lots, based on ISO 15197:2013 Section 6.3 analytical accuracy standards. A clinical study assessed accuracy per ISO 15197:2013 Section 8 criteria. Subjects with (n = 333) or without (n = 43) diabetes and who had not used the BGMS previously were enrolled. Each subject performed a self-test using the BGMS, which was repeated by a site staff member. Alternate site tests and venipunctures were also performed for analysis. A questionnaire was provided to assess user feedback on ease of use. In the laboratory study, 100% (600/600) of combined results for all 3 test strip lots met ISO 15197:2013 Section 6.3 accuracy criteria. In the clinical study, among subjects with diabetes, 99.4% (327/329) of subject self-test results, 99.7% (331/332) of results obtained by study staff, 97.2% (309/318) of subject palm results, and 100% (330/330) of venous results met ISO 15197:2013 Section 8 accuracy criteria. Moreover, 97.6% (321/329) of subject self-test results were within ±10 mg/dl (±0.6 mmol/L) or ±10% of the YSI reference result. Questionnaire results indicated that most subjects considered the system easy to use. The BGMS exceeded ISO 15197:2013 accuracy criteria in the laboratory and in a clinical setting.

  5. Glucose monitoring technologies - complementary or competitive? Role of continuous glucose monitoring versus flash glucose monitoring versus self-monitoring of blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothydev Kesavadev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have numerous technologies that can help keep a close watch on an individual's glycaemic status and thereby assist in developing successful diabetes management strategies. For more than five decades, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG has remained as the gold standard tool to manage glycaemic status and has gained huge acceptance. Rigorous research further led to the development of more and more advanced technologies such as continuous glucose monitoring and flash glucose monitoring. These novel technologies are more promising in terms of revealing the complete glycaemic picture and even more user-friendly than the already established blood glucosemetres. However, they are yet to achieve remarkable accuracy and performance. There will also be a subgroup of patients who will be using these technologies only occasionally and thus will definitely require SMBG at other times. Again, with regard to the retrospective ones, glucose data can be obtained only once they are downloaded to the system and hence, real-time values will still have to be procured with the help of an SMBG. In future when the accuracy and performance of these newer technologies become equal to that of glucometres, the glucometres might vanish. Until then, all these technologies will definitely go hand-in-hand and supplement each other than competing each other. All the related literature were retrieved from various databases including 'PubMed' and 'Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews' using specific search terms that were relevant to the topics discussed this manuscript.

  6. Integrated control rod monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Katsuhiro

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a device in which an entire control rod driving time measuring device and a control rod position support device in a reactor building and a central control chamber are integrated systematically to save hardwares such as a signal input/output device and signal cables between boards. Namely, (1) functions of the entire control rod driving time measuring device for monitoring control rods which control the reactor power and a control rod position indication device are integrated into one identical system. Then, the entire devices can be made compact by the integration of the functions. (2) The functions of the entire control rod driving time measuring device and the control rod position indication device are integrated in a central operation board and a board in the site. Then, the place for the installation of them can be used in common in any of the cases. (3) The functions of the entire control rod driving time measuring device and the control rod position indication device are integrated to one identical system to save hardware to be used. Then, signal input/output devices and drift branching panel boards in the site and the central operation board can be saved, and cables for connecting both of the boards is no more necessary. (I.S.)

  7. [Design and implementation of real-time continuous glucose monitoring instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yonghong; Liu, Hongying; Tian, Senfu; Jia, Ziru; Wang, Zi; Pi, Xitian

    2017-12-01

    Real-time continuous glucose monitoring can help diabetics to control blood sugar levels within the normal range. However, in the process of practical monitoring, the output of real-time continuous glucose monitoring system is susceptible to glucose sensor and environment noise, which will influence the measurement accuracy of the system. Aiming at this problem, a dual-calibration algorithm for the moving-window double-layer filtering algorithm combined with real-time self-compensation calibration algorithm is proposed in this paper, which can realize the signal drift compensation for current data. And a real-time continuous glucose monitoring instrument based on this study was designed. This real-time continuous glucose monitoring instrument consisted of an adjustable excitation voltage module, a current-voltage converter module, a microprocessor and a wireless transceiver module. For portability, the size of the device was only 40 mm × 30 mm × 5 mm and its weight was only 30 g. In addition, a communication command code algorithm was designed to ensure the security and integrity of data transmission in this study. Results of experiments in vitro showed that current detection of the device worked effectively. A 5-hour monitoring of blood glucose level in vivo showed that the device could continuously monitor blood glucose in real time. The relative error of monitoring results of the designed device ranged from 2.22% to 7.17% when comparing to a portable blood meter.

  8. Continuous glucose monitoring systems for type 1 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendam, Miranda; Luijf, Yoeri M.; Hooft, Lotty; DeVries, J. Hans; Mudde, Aart H.; Scholten, Rob J. P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring of blood glucose is essential to optimise glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems measure interstitial fluid glucose levels to provide semi-continuous information about glucose levels, which identifies fluctuations that

  9. Reactor core monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Takanobu; Handa, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Katsumi; Narita, Hitoshi; Shimozaki, Takaaki

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention reliably and conveniently detects an event of rapid increase of a coolant void coefficient at a portion of a channel by flow channel clogging event in a PWR-type reactor. Namely, upon flow channel clogging event, the coolant void coefficient is increased, an effective density is lowered, and a coolant shielding effect is lowered. Therefore, fast neutron fluxes at the periphery of a pressure tube are increased. The increase of the fast neutron fluxes is detected by a fast neutron flux detector disposed in a guide tube of an existent neutron flux detector. Based on the result, increase of coolant void coefficient can be detected. When an average void coefficient reaches from 30% to 100%, for example, the fast neutron fluxes are increased by about twice at a neutron permeation distance of coolants of about 10cm, thereby enabling to perform effective detection. (I.S.)

  10. Power consumption monitoring using additional monitoring device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truşcă, M. R. C., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro; Albert, Ş., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro; Tudoran, C., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro; Soran, M. L., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro; Fărcaş, F., E-mail: radu.trusca@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Abrudean, M. [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    Today, emphasis is placed on reducing power consumption. Computers are large consumers; therefore it is important to know the total consumption of computing systems. Since their optimal functioning requires quite strict environmental conditions, without much variation in temperature and humidity, reducing energy consumption cannot be made without monitoring environmental parameters. Thus, the present work uses a multifunctional electric meter UPT 210 for power consumption monitoring. Two applications were developed: software which carries meter readings provided by electronic and programming facilitates remote device and a device for temperature monitoring and control. Following temperature variations that occur both in the cooling system, as well as the ambient, can reduce energy consumption. For this purpose, some air conditioning units or some computers are stopped in different time slots. These intervals were set so that the economy is high, but the work's Datacenter is not disturbed.

  11. Continuous Monitoring of Glucose for Type 1 Diabetes: A Health Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersluis, Stacey; Kabali, Conrad; Djalalov, Sandjar; Gajic-Veljanoski, Olga; Wells, David; Holubowich, Corinne

    2018-01-01

    interventions to usual care. However, the uncertainty around the ICERs was large. The net budget impact of publicly funding continuous glucose monitoring assuming a 20% annual increase in adoption of continuous glucose monitoring would range from $8.5 million in year 1 to $16.2 million in year 5. Patient engagement surrounding the topic of continuous glucose monitoring was robust. Patients perceived that these devices provided important social, emotional, and medical and safety benefits in managing type 1 diabetes, especially in children. Conclusions Continuous glucose monitoring was more effective than self-monitoring of blood glucose in managing type 1 diabetes for some outcomes, such as time spent in the target glucose range and time spent outside the target glucose range (moderate certainty in this evidence). We were less certain that continuous glucose monitoring would reduce the number of severe hypoglycemic events. Compared with self-monitoring of blood glucose, the costs of continuous glucose monitoring were higher, with only small increases in health benefits. Publicly funding continuous glucose monitoring for the type 1 diabetes population in Ontario would result in additional costs to the health system over the next 5 years. Adult patients and parents of children with type 1 diabetes reported very positive experiences with continuous glucose monitoring. The high ongoing cost of continuous glucose monitoring devices was seen as the greatest barrier to their widespread use. PMID:29541282

  12. Continuous Monitoring of Glucose for Type 1 Diabetes: A Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    . However, the uncertainty around the ICERs was large. The net budget impact of publicly funding continuous glucose monitoring assuming a 20% annual increase in adoption of continuous glucose monitoring would range from $8.5 million in year 1 to $16.2 million in year 5.Patient engagement surrounding the topic of continuous glucose monitoring was robust. Patients perceived that these devices provided important social, emotional, and medical and safety benefits in managing type 1 diabetes, especially in children. Continuous glucose monitoring was more effective than self-monitoring of blood glucose in managing type 1 diabetes for some outcomes, such as time spent in the target glucose range and time spent outside the target glucose range (moderate certainty in this evidence). We were less certain that continuous glucose monitoring would reduce the number of severe hypoglycemic events. Compared with self-monitoring of blood glucose, the costs of continuous glucose monitoring were higher, with only small increases in health benefits. Publicly funding continuous glucose monitoring for the type 1 diabetes population in Ontario would result in additional costs to the health system over the next 5 years. Adult patients and parents of children with type 1 diabetes reported very positive experiences with continuous glucose monitoring. The high ongoing cost of continuous glucose monitoring devices was seen as the greatest barrier to their widespread use.

  13. Survey of hydrogen monitoring devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.

    1981-01-01

    Presented are results of a survey of commercially available monitoring devices suitable for hydrogen detection in the secondary containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during the post postulated accident period. Available detectors were grouped into the following five classes: combustion, solid state, electrochemical, thermal conductivity, and absorption. The performance of most available sensors is likely to deteriorate when exposed to the postulated conditions which include moisture, which could be at high temperature, and radioactive noncondensibles. Of the commercial devices, those using metallic filament thermal conductivity detectors seem least susceptible to performance change. Absorption detectors are best suited for this monitoring task but the only available device is designed for pipeline corrosion assessment. Initiation of experimental study to assess apparent deficiencies of commercial detectors is recommended. Also recommended is an analytical/experimental effort to determine the optimum detector array for monitoring in the secondary containment vessels

  14. Continuous glucose monitoring, oral glucose tolerance, and insulin - glucose parameters in adolescents with simple obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Awwa, A; Soliman, A; Al-Ali, M; Yassin, M; De Sanctis, V

    2012-09-01

    In obese adolescents pancreatic beta-cells may not be able to cope with insulin resistance leading to hyperglycemia and type2 diabetes (T2DM To assess oral glucose tolerance, 72-h continuous blood glucose concentrations (CGM) and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) in 13 adolescents with simple obesity (BMI SDS=4 ± 1.06). OGTT performed in 13 obese adolescents (13.47 ± 3 years) revealed 3 cases (23%) with impaired fasting glucose (IFG: fasting glucose >5.6 mmol/L), 4 cases (30%) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT: 2h blood glucose >7.8 continuous glucose monitoring system ( CGMS), IFG was detected in 4 cases, the maximum serum blood glucose (BG : 2h or more after meal) was >7.8 and 11.1 mmol/L (diabetes) in one case (7.6%). Five cases had a minimum BG recorded of 2.6 and QUICKI values obese adolescents, CGMS is superior to OGTT and HbA1C in detecting glycemic abnormalities, which appears to be secondary to insulin resistance.

  15. Crosslinked basement membrane-based coatings enhance glucose sensor function and continuous glucose monitoring in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueh, Ulrike; Ludzinska, Izabela; Czajkowski, Caroline; Qiao, Yi; Kreutzer, Donald L

    2018-01-01

    Overcoming sensor-induced tissue reactions is an essential element of achieving successful continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in the management of diabetes, particularly when used in closed loop technology. Recently, we demonstrated that basement membrane (BM)-based glucose sensor coatings significantly reduced tissue reactions at sites of device implantation. However, the biocompatible BM-based biohydrogel sensor coating rapidly degraded over a less than a 3-week period, which effectively eliminated the protective sensor coating. In an effort to increase the stability and effectiveness of the BM coating, we evaluated the impact of crosslinking BM utilizing glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent, designated as X-Cultrex. Sensor performance (nonrecalibrated) was evaluated for the impact of these X-Cultrex coatings in vitro and in vivo. Sensor performance was assessed over a 28-day time period in a murine CGM model and expressed as mean absolute relative difference (MARD) values. Tissue reactivity of Cultrex-coated, X-Cultrex-coated, and uncoated glucose sensors was evaluated over a 28-day time period in vivo using standard histological techniques. These studies demonstrated that X-Cultrex-based sensor coatings had no effect on glucose sensor function in vitro. In vivo, glucose sensor performance was significantly enhanced following X-Cultrex coating throughout the 28-day study. Histological evaluations of X-Cultrex-treated sensors demonstrated significantly less tissue reactivity when compared to uncoated sensors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 7-16, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Blood glucose control and monitoring in the critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooijdonk, R.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with blood glucose control and blood glucose monitoring in intensive care unit (ICU) patients: two important aspects of care for and monitoring of critically ill patients. While the precise targets of blood glucose control in ICU patients remain a matter of debate, currently many,

  17. A comparative effectiveness analysis of three continuous glucose monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Edward R; El-Khatib, Firas H; Zheng, Hui; Nathan, David M; Russell, Steven J

    2013-02-01

    To compare three continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices in subjects with type 1 diabetes under closed-loop blood glucose (BG) control. Six subjects with type 1 diabetes (age 52 ± 14 years, diabetes duration 32 ± 14 years) each participated in two 51-h closed-loop BG control experiments in the hospital. Venous plasma glucose (PG) measurements (GlucoScout, International Biomedical) obtained every 15 min (2,360 values) were paired in time with corresponding CGM glucose (CGMG) measurements obtained from three CGM devices, the Navigator (Abbott Diabetes Care), the Seven Plus (DexCom), and the Guardian (Medtronic), worn simultaneously by each subject. Errors in paired PG-CGMG measurements and data reporting percentages were obtained for each CGM device. The Navigator had the best overall accuracy, with an aggregate mean absolute relative difference (MARD) of all paired points of 11.8 ± 11.1% and an average MARD across all 12 experiments of 11.8 ± 3.8%. The Seven Plus and Guardian produced aggregate MARDs of all paired points of 16.5 ± 17.8% and 20.3 ± 18.0%, respectively, and average MARDs across all 12 experiments of 16.5 ± 6.7% and 20.2 ± 6.8%, respectively. Data reporting percentages, a measure of reliability, were 76% for the Seven Plus and nearly 100% for the Navigator and Guardian. A comprehensive head-to-head-to-head comparison of three CGM devices for BG values from 36 to 563 mg/dL revealed marked differences in performance characteristics that include accuracy, precision, and reliability. The Navigator outperformed the other two in these areas.

  18. A history of continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) in self-monitoring of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczuk, David; Priefer, Ronny

    Self-monitoring of glucose for individuals afflicted with diabetes mellitus has allowed patients to take control of their disease and thus directly affect the outcomes related to it. It has been almost a century since the first test to monitor one's sugar was developed; that being a urine test. The most well-known and prominent medical device for monitor blood glucose for individuals with diabetes are the finger-prick devices. This itself is an approximately 50year old technology. More recently has been the introduction of continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) which entered the market place in the last year of the 20th century. As this technology has been further refined and improved, limitations associated with it have decreased. The scope of this review is to present a brief history of CGMs, both with the development of these medical devices and the challenges/limitations that they have shown. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The continuous glucose monitoring sensor in neonatal intensive care

    OpenAIRE

    Beardsall, K; Ogilvy-Stuart, A; Ahluwalia, J; Thompson, M; Dunger, D

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of continuous glucose monitoring in the very low birthweight baby requiring intensive care, as these infants are known to be at high risk of abnormalities of glucose control.

  20. Device for monitoring cell voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepke, Matthias [Garbsen, DE; Eisermann, Henning [Edermissen, DE

    2012-08-21

    A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

  1. Optical Structural Health Monitoring Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Benjamin D.; Markov, Vladimir; Earthman, James C.

    2010-01-01

    This non-destructive, optical fatigue detection and monitoring system relies on a small and unobtrusive light-scattering sensor that is installed on a component at the beginning of its life in order to periodically scan the component in situ. The method involves using a laser beam to scan the surface of the monitored component. The device scans a laser spot over a metal surface to which it is attached. As the laser beam scans the surface, disruptions in the surface cause increases in scattered light intensity. As the disruptions in the surface grow, they will cause the light to scatter more. Over time, the scattering intensities over the scanned line can be compared to detect changes in the metal surface to find cracks, crack precursors, or corrosion. This periodic monitoring of the surface can be used to indicate the degree of fatigue damage on a component and allow one to predict the remaining life and/or incipient mechanical failure of the monitored component. This wireless, compact device can operate for long periods under its own battery power and could one day use harvested power. The prototype device uses the popular open-source TinyOS operating system on an off-the-shelf Mica2 sensor mote, which allows wireless command and control through dynamically reconfigurable multi-node sensor networks. The small size and long life of this device could make it possible for the nodes to be installed and left in place over the course of years, and with wireless communication, data can be extracted from the nodes by operators without physical access to the devices. While a prototype has been demonstrated at the time of this reporting, further work is required in the system s development to take this technology into the field, especially to improve its power management and ruggedness. It should be possible to reduce the size and sensitivity as well. Establishment of better prognostic methods based on these data is also needed. The increase of surface roughness with

  2. Control rod withdrawal monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisuya, Mitsuo.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the power ramp even if a plurality of control rods are subjected to withdrawal operation at a time, by reducing the reactivity applied to the reactor. Constitution: The control rod withdrawal monitoring device is adapted to monitor and control the withdrawal of the control rods depending on the reactor power and the monitoring region thereof is divided into a control rod group monitoring region a transition region and a control group monitoring not interfere region. In a case if the distance between a plurality of control rods for which the withdrawal positions are selected is less than a limiting value, the coordinate for the control rods, distance between the control rods and that the control rod distance is shorter are displayed on a display panel, and the withdrawal for the control rods are blocked. Accordingly, even if a plurality of control rods are subjected successively to the withdrawal operation contrary to the control rod withdrawal sequence upon high power operation of the reactor, the power ramp can be prevented. (Kawakami, Y.)

  3. Clinical Use of Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, David; Choudhary, Pratik

    2017-05-01

    With the emphasis on intensive management of type 1 diabetes, data from studies support frequent monitoring of glucose levels to improve glycemic control and reduce glucose variability, which can be related to an increase in macro and microvascular complications. However, few perform capillary blood glucose that frequently. There are currently two available alternatives that this review will discuss, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and flash glucose monitoring. CGM has become an important diagnostic and therapeutic option in optimizing diabetes management. CGM systems are now more accurate, smaller, and easier to use compared to original models. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated that CGM can improve Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C) and reduce glucose variability in both continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and multiple daily injection users. When used in an automated "insulin-suspend" system, reduced frequency of hypoglycemia and shorter time spent in hypoglycemic range have been demonstrated. Despite the potential benefits CGM has to offer in clinical practice, concerns exist on the accuracy of these devices and patient compliance with therapy, which may prevent the true clinical benefit of CGM being achieved, as observed in RCTs. Flash glucose monitoring systems FreeStyle ® Libre™ (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) are as accurate as many CGM systems available and have the added benefit of being factory calibrated. Studies have shown that flash glucose monitoring systems are very well tolerated by patients and effectively reduce glucose variability, increasing time in range.

  4. Noninvasive glucose monitoring using saliva nano-biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people worldwide live with diabetes and several millions die from it each year. A noninvasive, painless method of glucose testing would highly improve compliance and glucose control while reducing complications and overall disease management costs. To provide accurate, low cost, and continuous glucose monitoring, we have developed a unique, disposable saliva nano-biosensor. More than eight clinical trials on real-time noninvasive salivary glucose monitoring were carried out on two healthy individuals (a 2–3 h-period for each trial, including both regular food and standard glucose beverage intake with more than 35 saliva samples obtained. Excellent clinical accuracy was revealed as compared to the UV Spectrophotometer. By measuring subjects’ salivary glucose and blood glucose in parallel, we found the two generated profiles share the same fluctuation trend but the correlation between them is individual dependent. There is a time lag between the peak glucose values from blood and from saliva. However, the correlation between the two glucose values at fasting is constant for each person enabling noninvasive diagnosis of diabetes through saliva instead of blood. Furthermore, a good correlation of glucose levels in saliva and in blood before and 2 h after glucose intake was observed. Glucose monitoring before and 2 h after meals is usually prescribed by doctors for diabetic patients. Thus, this disposable biosensor will be an alternative for real-time salivary glucose tracking at any time.

  5. Hydrogel-based electrochemical sensor for non-invasive and continuous glucose monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Habeen; Lee, Ji-Young; Kim, Dong-Chul; Koh, Younggook; Cha, Junhoe

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring blood glucose level of diabetic patients is crucial in diabetes care from life threating complications. Selfmonitoring blood glucose (SMBG) that involves finger prick to draw blood samples into the measurement system is a widely-used method of routine measurement of blood glucose levels to date. SMBG includes, however, unavoidable pain problems resulting from the repetitive measurements. We hereby present a hydrogel-based electrochemical (H-EC) sensor to monitor the glucose level, non-invasively. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized in the disc-type hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) based hydrogel and kept intact in the hydrogel. Fast electron transfer mediated by Prussian blue (PB, hexacyanoferrate) generated efficient signal amplifications to facilitate the detection of the extracted glucose from the interstitial fluid. The linear response and the selectivity against glucose of the H-EC sensor were validated by chronoamperometry. For the practical use, the outcomes from the correlation of the extracted glucose concentration and the blood glucose value by on-body extraction, as well as the validation of the hydrogel-based electrochemical (H-EC) device, were applied to the on-body glucose monitoring.

  6. Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Patients with Abnormal Glucose Tolerance during Pregnancy: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Tonoike

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy is associated with perinatal complications. We used continuous glucose monitoring (CGM in pregnant women with glucose intolerance to achieve better glycemic control and to evaluate the maternal glucose fluctuations. We also used CGM in women without glucose intolerance (the control cases. Furthermore, the standard deviation (SD and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE were calculated for each case. For the control cases, the glucose levels were tightly controlled within a very narrow range; however, the SD and MAGE values in pregnant women with glucose intolerance were relativity high, suggesting postprandial hyperglycemia. Our results demonstrate that pregnant women with glucose intolerance exhibited greater glucose fluctuations compared with the control cases. The use of CGM may help to improve our understanding of glycemic patterns and may have beneficial effects on perinatal glycemic control, such as the detection of postprandial hyperglycemia in pregnant women.

  7. Clinical assessment of the accuracy of blood glucose measurement devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Mitri, Michael; Musholt, Petra B; Sachsenheimer, Daniela; Borchert, Marcus; Yap, Andrew; Forst, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Blood glucose meters for patient self-measurement need to comply with the accuracy standards of the ISO 15197 guideline. We investigated the accuracy of the two new blood glucose meters BG*Star and iBG*Star (Sanofi-Aventis) in comparison to four other competitive devices (Accu-Chek Aviva, Roche Diagnostics; FreeStyle Freedom Lite, Abbott Medisense; Contour, Bayer; OneTouch Ultra 2, Lifescan) at different blood glucose ranges in a clinical setting with healthy subjects and patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. BGStar and iBGStar are employ dynamic electrochemistry, which is supposed to result in highly accurate results. The study was performed on 106 participants (53 female, 53 male, age (mean ± SD): 46 ± 16 years, type 1: 32 patients, type 2: 34 patients, and 40 healthy subjects). Two devices from each type and strips from two different production lots were used for glucose assessment (∼200 readings/meter). Spontaneous glucose assessments and glucose or insulin interventions under medical supervision were applied to perform measurements in the different glucose ranges in accordance with the ISO 15197 requirements. Sample values 400 mg/dL were prepared by laboratory manipulations. The YSI glucose analyzer (glucose oxidase method) served as the standard reference method which may be considered to be a limitation in light of glucose hexokinase-based meters. For all devices, there was a very close correlation between the glucose results compared to the YSI reference method results. The correlation coefficients were r = 0.995 for BGStar and r = 0.992 for iBGStar (Aviva: 0.995, Freedom Lite: 0.990, Contour: 0.993, Ultra 2: 0.990). Error-grid analysis according to Parkes and Clarke revealed both 100% of the readings to be within the clinically acceptable areas (Clarke: A + B with BG*Star (100 + 0), Aviva (97 + 3), and Contour (97 + 3); and 99.5% with iBG*Star (97.5 + 2), Freedom Lite (98 + 1.5), and Ultra 2 (97.5 + 2

  8. Wireless device monitoring methods, wireless device monitoring systems, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Steven H [Rigby, ID; Derr, Kurt W [Idaho Falls, ID; Rohde, Kenneth W [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-05-08

    Wireless device monitoring methods, wireless device monitoring systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, a wireless device monitoring method includes accessing device configuration information of a wireless device present at a secure area, wherein the device configuration information comprises information regarding a configuration of the wireless device, accessing stored information corresponding to the wireless device, wherein the stored information comprises information regarding the configuration of the wireless device, comparing the device configuration information with the stored information, and indicating the wireless device as one of authorized and unauthorized for presence at the secure area using the comparing.

  9. Valve packing leakage monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezekoye, L.I.

    1985-01-01

    A device for monitoring leakage of fluid across a seal in a component connected to a pressurized fluid system including a housing having a chamber with an inlet for receiving fluid leaking across the seal and an outlet. A positioning means is connected to an orifice plug so as to move the plug for permitting the fluid to be discharged through the orifice at the same rate at which it enters the first chamber and means for detecting the movement of the plug is provided to produce and output signal corresponding to the distance moved by the plug and thereby indicate flow rate. The positioning means compromise a piston attached to the plug by a hollow tube and springs, which at low flow rates locate the piston. When flow increases sufficiently pressure increases and urges the piston upwards. A magnetic portion of tube actuates a succession of proximity switches to indicate flow rate. (author)

  10. Process monitoring by display devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggerdinger, C.; Schattner, R.

    1984-01-01

    The use of extensive automation, regulating, protection and limiting devices and the application of ergonomic principles (e.g. the increased use of mimic diagrams) has led to plant being capable of continued operation. German nuclear power stations are in top position worldwide as regards safety and availability. However, there is already a requirement to overcome the unmanageable state due to the large number and miniaturization of elements by renewed efforts. An attempt at this made with conventional technology is represented by a mimic board, which was provided in a powerstation just being set to work. Such mimic boards give the opportunity of monitoring the most important parameters at a glance but there are limits to their use due to the large space required. The use of VDU screens represents a possibility of solving this problem. (orig./DG) [de

  11. Continuous Glucose Monitoring: A Review of Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodbard, David

    2016-02-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) provides information unattainable by intermittent capillary blood glucose, including instantaneous real-time display of glucose level and rate of change of glucose, alerts and alarms for actual or impending hypo- and hyperglycemia, "24/7" coverage, and the ability to characterize glycemic variability. Progressively more accurate and precise, reasonably unobtrusive, small, comfortable, user-friendly devices connect to the Internet to share information and are sine qua non for a closed-loop artificial pancreas. CGM can inform, educate, motivate, and alert people with diabetes. CGM is medically indicated for patients with frequent, severe, or nocturnal hypoglycemia, especially in the presence of hypoglycemia unawareness. Surprisingly, despite tremendous advances, utilization of CGM has remained fairly limited to date. Barriers to use have included the following: (1) lack of Food and Drug Administration approval, to date, for insulin dosing ("nonadjuvant use") in the United States and for use in hospital and intensive care unit settings; (2) cost and variable reimbursement; (3) need for recalibrations; (4) periodic replacement of sensors; (5) day-to-day variability in glycemic patterns, which can limit the predictability of findings based on retrospective, masked "professional" use; (6) time, implicit costs, and inconvenience for uploading of data for retrospective analysis; (7) lack of fair and reasonable reimbursement for physician time; (8) inexperience and lack of training of physicians and other healthcare professionals regarding interpretation of CGM results; (9) lack of standardization of software methods for analysis of CGM data; and (10) need for professional medical organizations to develop and disseminate additional clinical practice guidelines regarding the role of CGM. Ongoing advances in technology and clinical research have addressed several of these barriers. Use of CGM in conjunction with an insulin pump with

  12. Quantifying temporal glucose variability in diabetes via continuous glucose monitoring: mathematical methods and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovatchev, Boris P; Clarke, William L; Breton, Marc; Brayman, Kenneth; McCall, Anthony

    2005-12-01

    Continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) collect detailed blood glucose (BG) time series, which carry significant information about the dynamics of BG fluctuations. In contrast, the methods for analysis of CGM data remain those developed for infrequent BG self-monitoring. As a result, important information about the temporal structure of the data is lost during the translation of raw sensor readings into clinically interpretable statistics and images. The following mathematical methods are introduced into the field of CGM data interpretation: (1) analysis of BG rate of change; (2) risk analysis using previously reported Low/High BG Indices and Poincare (lag) plot of risk associated with temporal BG variability; and (3) spatial aggregation of the process of BG fluctuations and its Markov chain visualization. The clinical application of these methods is illustrated by analysis of data of a patient with Type 1 diabetes mellitus who underwent islet transplantation and with data from clinical trials. Normative data [12,025 reference (YSI device, Yellow Springs Instruments, Yellow Springs, OH) BG determinations] in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus who underwent insulin and glucose challenges suggest that the 90%, 95%, and 99% confidence intervals of BG rate of change that could be maximally sustained over 15-30 min are [-2,2], [-3,3], and [-4,4] mg/dL/min, respectively. BG dynamics and risk parameters clearly differentiated the stages of transplantation and the effects of medication. Aspects of treatment were clearly visualized by graphs of BG rate of change and Low/High BG Indices, by a Poincare plot of risk for rapid BG fluctuations, and by a plot of the aggregated Markov process. Advanced analysis and visualization of CGM data allow for evaluation of dynamical characteristics of diabetes and reveal clinical information that is inaccessible via standard statistics, which do not take into account the temporal structure of the data. The use of such methods improves the

  13. Monitoring device for withdrawing control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashigawa, Yuichi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the sensitivity and the responsivity to an equivalent extent to those in the case where local power range monitors are densely arranged near each of the control rods, with no actual but pseudo increase of the number of local power range monitors. Constitution: The monitor arrangement is patterned by utilizing the symmetricity of the reactor core and stored in a monitor designating device. The symmetricity of control rods to be selected and withdrawn by an operator is judged by a control rod symmetry monitoring device, while the symmetricity of the withdrawn control rods is judged by a control rod withdrawal state monitoring device. Then, only when both of the devices judge the symmetricity, the control rods are subjected to gang driving by the control rod drive mechanisms. In this way, monitoring at a high sensitivity and responsivity is enabled with no increase for the number of monitors. (Yoshino, Y.)

  14. Toward CMOS image sensor based glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Kim, Sanghyo

    2012-09-07

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor is a powerful tool for biosensing applications. In this present study, CMOS image sensor has been exploited for detecting glucose levels by simple photon count variation with high sensitivity. Various concentrations of glucose (100 mg dL(-1) to 1000 mg dL(-1)) were added onto a simple poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chip and the oxidation of glucose was catalyzed with the aid of an enzymatic reaction. Oxidized glucose produces a brown color with the help of chromogen during enzymatic reaction and the color density varies with the glucose concentration. Photons pass through the PDMS chip with varying color density and hit the sensor surface. Photon count was recognized by CMOS image sensor depending on the color density with respect to the glucose concentration and it was converted into digital form. By correlating the obtained digital results with glucose concentration it is possible to measure a wide range of blood glucose levels with great linearity based on CMOS image sensor and therefore this technique will promote a convenient point-of-care diagnosis.

  15. Remote Monitoring of Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Christopher C; Deyell, Marc W

    2018-01-08

    Over the past decade, technological advancements have transformed the delivery of care for arrhythmia patients. From early transtelephonic monitoring to new devices capable of wireless and cellular transmission, remote monitoring has revolutionized device care. In this article, we review the current evolution and evidence for remote monitoring in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices. From passive transmission of device diagnostics, to active transmission of patient- and device-triggered alerts, remote monitoring can shorten the time to diagnosis and treatment. Studies have shown that remote monitoring can reduce hospitalization and emergency room visits, and improve survival. Remote monitoring can also reduce the health care costs, while providing increased access to patients living in rural or marginalized communities. Unfortunately, as many as two-thirds of patients with remote monitoring-capable devices do not use, or are not offered, this feature. Current guidelines recommend remote monitoring and interrogation, combined with annual in-person evaluation in all cardiac device patients. Remote monitoring should be considered in all eligible device patients and should be considered standard of care. Copyright © 2018 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Oral glucose tolerance test and continuous glucose monitoring to assess diabetes development in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente León, María; Bilbao Gassó, Laura; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Campos Martorrell, Ariadna; Gartner Tizzano, Silvia; Yeste Fernández, Diego; Carrascosa Lezcano, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) undergo a slow and progressive process toward diabetes. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is recommended to diagnose impaired glucose levels in these patients. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) measures glucose profiles under real-life conditions. To compare OGTT and CGM results in CF patients. Paired OGTT and 6-day CGM profiles (146.2±9.1h/patient) were performed in 30 CF patients aged 10-18 years. According to OGTT, 14 patients had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 14 abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT), and two cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD). In 27 patients (13 NGT, 13 AGT, 1 CFRD), CGM showed glucose values ranging from 140 to 200mg/dL during similar monitoring times (2%-14% with NGT, 1%-16.9% with AGT, and 3% with CFRD). Glucose peak levels ≥200mg/dL were seen in seven patients (3 NGT, 3 AGT, 1 CFRD). According to CGM, two patients had all glucose values under 140mg/dL (1 NGT, 1 AGT). Seventeen patients had glucose levels ranging from 140 to 200mg/dL (10 NGT, 6 AGT, 1 CFRD). Ten patients (3 NGT, 7 AGT) had glucose values ≥200mg/dL for ≤1% of the monitoring time and one (CFRD) for >1% of the monitoring time. OGTT results did not agree with those of the CGM. CGM allows for diagnosis of glucose changes not detected by OGTT. Such changes may contribute to optimize pre-diabetes management in CF patients. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-monitoring of blood glucose measurements and glycaemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Intensive diabetes management requires intensive insulin treatment and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) measurements to obtain immediate information on the status of the blood glucose level and to obtain data for pattern analysis on which meal planning, insulin and lifestyle adjustments can be ...

  18. A new device for monitoring moorings

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Namboothiri, E.G.; Krishnakumar, V.

    A new device - Mooring Monitoring Unit (MMU), which consists of an inwater unit and a deck unit has been designed to monitor mooring in situ. This device helps tracing underwater moorings, once its marker buoy is removed either by accident or theft...

  19. Implantable Glucose BioFuel Cells for Medical Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinquin, P; Martin, D K; Cosnier, S; Belgacem, N; Cosnier, M L; Dal Molin, R

    2013-01-01

    An Implantable BioFuel Cell (IBFC) is a device that produces power only from the chemicals that are naturally occurring inside the body. We have been working on two approaches to creating an IBFC. The first approach is to use chemicals such as glucose and oxygen to provide the fuel for an enzymatic IBFC. The second approach is to use electrolytes such as sodium to provide the fuel for a biomimetic IBFC

  20. Continuous glucose monitoring systems for type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendam, Miranda; Luijf, Yoeri M; Hooft, Lotty; Devries, J Hans; Mudde, Aart H; Scholten, Rob J P M

    2012-01-18

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose is essential to optimise glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems measure interstitial fluid glucose levels to provide semi-continuous information about glucose levels, which identifies fluctuations that would not have been identified with conventional self-monitoring. Two types of CGM systems can be defined: retrospective systems and real-time systems. Real-time systems continuously provide the actual glucose concentration on a display. Currently, the use of CGM is not common practice and its reimbursement status is a point of debate in many countries. To assess the effects of CGM systems compared to conventional self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL for the identification of studies. Last search date was June 8, 2011. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing retrospective or real-time CGM with conventional self-monitoring of blood glucose levels or with another type of CGM system in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Primary outcomes were glycaemic control, e.g. level of glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and health-related quality of life. Secondary outcomes were adverse events and complications, CGM derived glycaemic control, death and costs. Two authors independently selected the studies, assessed the risk of bias and performed data-extraction. Although there was clinical and methodological heterogeneity between studies an exploratory meta-analysis was performed on those outcomes the authors felt could be pooled without losing clinical merit. The search identified 1366 references. Twenty-two RCTs meeting the inclusion criteria of this review were identified. The results of the meta-analyses (across all age groups) indicate benefit of CGM for patients starting on CGM sensor augmented insulin pump therapy compared to patients using multiple daily injections of

  1. Evaluation of a Novel Glucose Area Under the Curve (AUC) Monitoring System: Comparison with the AUC by Continuous Glucose Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Morino, Katsutaro; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Sato, Toshiyuki; Okada, Seiki; Kikkawa, Yasuo; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Hiromu; Kashiwagi, Atsunori

    2016-08-01

    Management of postprandial hyperglycemia is a key aspect in diabetes treatment. We developed a novel system to measure glucose area under the curve (AUC) using minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET) for simple monitoring of postprandial glucose excursions. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between our system and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) by comparing glucose AUC obtained using MIET with that obtained using CGM for a long duration. Twenty diabetic inpatients wearing a CGM system were enrolled. For MIET measurement, a plastic microneedle array was applied to the skin as pretreatment, and hydrogels were placed on the pretreated area to collect interstitial fluid. Hydrogels were replaced every 2 or 4 hours and AUC was predicted on the basis of glucose and sodium ion levels. AUC predicted by MIET correlated well with that measured by CGM (r=0.93). Good performances of both consecutive 2- and 4-hour measurements were observed (measurement error: 11.7%±10.2% for 2 hours and 11.1%±7.9% for 4 hours), indicating the possibility of repetitive measurements up to 8 hours. The influence of neither glucose fluctuation nor average glucose level over the measurement accuracy was observed through 8 hours. Our system showed good relationship with AUC values from CGM up to 8 hours, indicating that single pretreatment can cover a large portion of glucose excursion in a day. These results indicated possibility of our system to contribute to convenient monitoring of glucose excursions for a long duration.

  2. Accuracy evaluation of five blood glucose monitoring systems obtained from the pharmacy: a European multicenter study with 453 subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tack, C.J.; Pohlmeier, H.; Behnke, T.; Schmid, V.; Grenningloh, M.; Forst, T.; Pfutzner, A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the performance of five recently introduced blood glucose (BG) monitoring (BGM) devices under daily routine conditions in comparison with the YSI (Yellow Springs, OH) 2300 Stat Plus glucose analyzer. METHODS: Five hundred one diabetes

  3. Relationship between fluctuations in glucose levels measured by continuous glucose monitoring and vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torimoto Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluctuations in blood glucose level cause endothelial dysfunction and play a critical role in onset and/or progression of atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that fluctuation in blood glucose levels correlate with vascular endothelial dysfunction and that this relationship can be assessed using common bedside medical devices. Methods Fluctuations in blood glucose levels were measured over 24 hours by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM on admission day 2 in 57 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The reactive hyperemia index (RHI, an index of vascular endothelial function, was measured using peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT on admission day 3. Results The natural logarithmic-scaled RHI (L_RHI correlated with SD (r=−0.504; PPP=0.001 and percentage of time ≥200 mg/dl (r=−0.292; P=0.028. In 12 patients with hypoglycemia, L_RHI also correlated with the percentage of time at hypoglycemia (r=−0.589; P=0.044. L_RHI did not correlate with HbA1c or fasting plasma glucose levels. Furthermore, L_RHI did not correlate with LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels or with systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Finally, multivariate analysis identified MAGE as the only significant determinant of L_RHI. Conclusions Fluctuations in blood glucose levels play a significant role in vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Trial registration UMIN000007581

  4. Optical coherence tomography for glucose monitoring in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Hafeez; Hussain, Fayyaz; Ikram, Masroor

    2015-08-01

    In this review, we have discussed the potential application of the emerging imaging modality, i.e., optical coherence tomography (OCT) for glucose monitoring in biological tissues. OCT provides monitoring of glucose diffusion in different fibrous tissues like in sclera by determining the permeability rate with acceptable accuracy both in type 1 and in type 2 diabetes. The maximum precision of glucose measurement in Intralipid suspensions, for example, with the OCT technique yields the accuracy up to 4.4 mM for 10 % Intralipid and 2.2 mM for 3 % Intralipid.

  5. Continuous tissue glucose monitoring correlates with measurement of intermittent capillary glucose in patients with distributive shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, D; Martínez, Ó; Blancas Gómez-Casero, R; Martín Parra, C; López Matamala, B; Estébanez, B; Chana, M

    2015-10-01

    Intermittent glycemic measurements in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) can result in episodes of severe hypoglycemia or in a poor control of glycemia range. We designed a study to assess accuracy and reliability of continuous monitoring of tissue glucose for patients with distributive shock. Consecutive patients admitted to the ICU with a diagnosis of distributive shock and the need of insulin infusion for glycemic control were included in the study. These patients were implanted a Continuous Glucose Control Monitoring System (CGMS) with the sensor inserted subcutaneously into the abdominal wall. CGMS values were recorded every 5min. Capillary glucose (CG) was monitored for adjusting insulin perfusion according to the ICU protocol. Correlation between both methods was assessed. A total of 11,673 CGMS and 348 CG values were recorded. In five patients, CGMS failed to detect tissue glucose. A glucose value <3.33mmol/l (<60mg/dl) was observed in 3.6% of CGMS and in 0.29% CG values. 295 pairs of measurements were included in the statistical analysis for correlation assessment. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.706. The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.71 (p<0.0001, 95% CI 0.65-0.76). The mean of differences between both measurement methods was 0.22mmol/l (3.98mg/dl) (95% CI 0.66-7.31). When the Continuous Glucose Control Monitoring System (CGMS) is able to obtain data (75% of the patients), there is correlation between the values obtained by this method and capillary blood glucose in patients with distributive shock. CGMS can detect more episodes of glycemic excursions outside the normal range than intermittent capillary glucose monitoring. Variables that may impair glucose metabolism and peripheral soft tissues perfusion could impair CGMS measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  6. Glucose metabolism disorder in obese children assessed by continuous glucose monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chao-Chun; Liang, Li; Hong, Fang; Zhao, Zheng-Yan

    2008-02-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) can measure glucose levels at 5-minute intervals over a few days, and may be used to detect hypoglycemia, guide insulin therapy, and control glucose levels. This study was undertaken to assess the glucose metabolism disorder by CGMS in obese children. Eighty-four obese children were studied. Interstitial fluid (ISF) glucose levels were measured by CGMS for 24 hours covering the time for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) and hypoglycemia were assessed by CGMS. Five children failed to complete CGMS test. The glucose levels in ISF measured by CGMS were highly correlated with those in capillary samples (r=0.775, Pobese children who finished the CGMS, 2 children had IFG, 2 had IGT, 3 had IFG + IGT, and 2 had T2DM. Nocturnal hypoglycemia was noted during the overnight fasting in 11 children (13.92%). Our data suggest that glucose metabolism disorder including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia is very common in obese children. Further studies are required to improve the precision of the CGMS in children.

  7. A four lumen screwing device for multiparametric brain monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, T H; Langemann, H; Gratzl, O; Mendelowitsch, A

    2000-01-01

    We describe multiparametric monitoring in severe head trauma using a new screwing device. Our aim was to create a screw which would make the implantation of the probes and thus multiparametric monitoring easier. The new screw allows us to implant 3 probes (microdialysis, Paratrend and an intracranial pressure device) through one burr hole. The screw has four channels, the fourth being for ventricular drainage. We monitored 13 patients with severe head trauma (GCS = 3-8) for up to 7 days. Brain tissue pO2, pCO2, pH, and temperature were measured on-line with the Paratrend 7 machine. The microdialytic parameters glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glutamate were determined semi on-line with a CMA 600 enzymatic analyser. There were no complications in any of the patients that could be ascribed to the screw.

  8. Design of wearable health monitoring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devara, Kresna; Ramadhanty, Savira; Abuzairi, Tomy

    2018-02-01

    Wearable smart health monitoring devices have attracted considerable attention in both research community and industry. Some of the causes are the increasing healthcare costs, along with the growing technology. To address this demand, in this paper, design and evaluation of wearable health monitoring device integrated with smartphone were presented. This device was designed for patients in need of constant health monitoring. The performance of the proposed design has been tested by conducting measurement once in 2 minutes for 10 minutes to obtain heart rate and body temperature data. The comparation between data measured by the proposed device and that measured by the reference device yields only an average error of 1.45% for heart rate and 1.04% for body temperature.

  9. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) on glucose control in diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Poolsup, Nalinee; Suksomboon, Naeti; Kyaw, Aye Mon

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that necessitates continuing treatment and patient self-care education. Monitoring of blood glucose to near normal level without hypoglycemia becomes a challenge in the management of diabetes. Although self monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) can provide daily monitoring of blood glucose level and help to adjust therapy, it cannot detect hypoglycemic unawareness and nocturnal hypoglycemia which occurred mostly in T1DM pediatrics. Continuous glucose monito...

  10. Monitoring device for reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakagami, Masaharu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the freedom for the power control due to control rod operation and flow rate control, as well as prevent fuel failures by the provision of a power distribution forecasting device for forecasting the changes in the reactor core power distribution and a device for calculating the fuel performance index and judging to display the calculated values. Constitution: The results for the calculation of the reactor core power distribution from a process computer that processes each of measuring signals of a nuclear power plant are used as inputs to a fuel power history calculator to constitute the power history up to the present time for each of the fuels. The date are inputted to a fuel performance index calculator to calculate the fuel performance index at present time for each of the fuels. Changes in the power distribution are forecast in a forecasting device for reactor power distribution relative to the changes in the control variables of a control variable memory unit and the date are inputted to a fuel power history calculator to forecast the power changes for each of the fuels. The amount of the power changes is inputted to a fuel performance index calculator and a fuel performance indicating and judging device judges and displays if they exceed a predetermined value. (Seki, T.)

  11. Glucose Monitoring System Based on Osmotic Pressure Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra LEAL

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and development of a prototype sensor unit for implementation in a long-term glucose monitoring system suitable for estimating glucose levels in people suffering from diabetes mellitus. The system utilizes osmotic pressure as the sensing mechanism and consists of a sensor prototype that is integrated together with a pre-amplifier and data acquisition unit for both data recording and processing. The sensor prototype is based on an embedded silicon absolute pressure transducer and a semipermeable nanoporous membrane that is enclosed in the sensor housing. The glucose monitoring system facilitates the integration of a low power microcontroller that is combined with a wireless inductive powered communication link. Experimental verification have proven that the system is capable of tracking osmotic pressure changes using albumin as a model compound, and thereby show a proof of concept for novel long term tracking of blood glucose from remote sensor nodes.

  12. Microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Alex L [Albuquerque, NM; Manginell, Ronald P [Albuquerque, NM; Moorman, Matthew W [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-05-04

    A microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device comprises a microfabricated gas chromatography column in combination with a catalytic microcalorimeter. The microcalorimeter can comprise a reference thermal conductivity sensor to provide diagnostics and surety. Using microfabrication techniques, the device can be manufactured in production quantities at a low per-unit cost. The microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device enables continuous calorimetric determination of the heating value of natural gas with a 1 minute analysis time and 1.5 minute cycle time using air as a carrier gas. This device has applications in remote natural gas mining stations, pipeline switching and metering stations, turbine generators, and other industrial user sites. For gas pipelines, the device can improve gas quality during transfer and blending, and provide accurate financial accounting. For industrial end users, the device can provide continuous feedback of physical gas properties to improve combustion efficiency during use.

  13. Tattoo-based noninvasive glucose monitoring: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandodkar, Amay J; Jia, Wenzhao; Yardımcı, Ceren; Wang, Xuan; Ramirez, Julian; Wang, Joseph

    2015-01-06

    We present a proof-of-concept demonstration of an all-printed temporary tattoo-based glucose sensor for noninvasive glycemic monitoring. The sensor represents the first example of an easy-to-wear flexible tattoo-based epidermal diagnostic device combining reverse iontophoretic extraction of interstitial glucose and an enzyme-based amperometric biosensor. In-vitro studies reveal the tattoo sensor's linear response toward physiologically relevant glucose levels with negligible interferences from common coexisting electroactive species. The iontophoretic-biosensing tattoo platform is reduced to practice by applying the device on human subjects and monitoring variations in glycemic levels due to food consumption. Correlation of the sensor response with that of a commercial glucose meter underscores the promise of the tattoo sensor to detect glucose levels in a noninvasive fashion. Control on-body experiments demonstrate the importance of the reverse iontophoresis operation and validate the sensor specificity. This preliminary investigation indicates that the tattoo-based iontophoresis-sensor platform holds considerable promise for efficient diabetes management and can be extended toward noninvasive monitoring of other physiologically relevant analytes present in the interstitial fluid.

  14. Zinc oxide nano-rods based glucose biosensor devices fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, H. A.; Salama, A. A.; El Saeid, A. A.; Willander, M.; Nur, O.; Battisha, I. K.

    2018-06-01

    ZnO is distinguished multifunctional material that has wide applications in biochemical sensor devices. For extracellular measurements, Zinc oxide nano-rods will be deposited on conducting plastic substrate with annealing temperature 150 °C (ZNRP150) and silver wire with annealing temperature 250 °C (ZNRW250), for the extracellular glucose concentration determination with functionalized ZNR-coated biosensors. It was performed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) over the range from 1 μM to 10 mM and on human blood plasma. The prepared samples crystal structure and surface morphologies were characterized by XRD and field emission scanning electron microscope FESEM respectively.

  15. Monitoring Device Safety in Interventional Cardiology

    OpenAIRE

    Matheny, Michael E.; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Resnic, Frederic S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: A variety of postmarketing surveillance strategies to monitor the safety of medical devices have been supported by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but there are few systems to automate surveillance. Our objective was to develop a system to perform real-time monitoring of safety data using a variety of process control techniques.

  16. Monitoring device for glass melting furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Noboru; Asano, Naoki; Higuchi, Tatsuo; Koyama, Mayumi; Hanado, Shinji.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention can monitor, from a remote place, a liquid surface in a glass melting furnace for use in a solidification treatment, for example, of high level radioactive wastes. Namely, a vertical sleeve is disposed penetrating a ceiling wall of a melting vessel. A reflection mirror is disposed above the vertical sleeve and flex an optical axis. A monitoring means is disposed on the optical axis of the reflecting mirror at a spaced position. The monitoring means may have an optical telescopic means, a monitoring camera by way of a half mirror and an illumination means. The reflection mirror may be made of a metal. The monitoring device thus constituted suffer from no effects of high temperature and high radiation dose rate, thereby enabling to easily monitor the liquid surface in the melting furnace. (I.S.)

  17. Leakage monitoring device and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji; Fujimori, Haruo.

    1995-01-01

    In a water leakage monitor for a steam generator, output signals from an acoustic sensor disposed in the vicinity of a region to be monitored is subjected to phasing calculation (beam forming calculation) to determine the distribution of a sound source intensity distribution. A peak is retrieved based on the distribution of the sound source intensity distribution. A correction coefficient depending on the position of the peak is multiplied to the sound source intensity. The presence or absence of leakage is determined based on the degree of the sound source intensity after the completion of correction. Namely, a relative value of sound source intensity for each of the portions in the region to be monitored is determined, and the point of the greatest sound source intensity is assumed as a leaking point, to determine the position of the leakage. An absolute value of the sound source intensity at the leaking point is determined by such a constitution that a correction coefficient depending on the position is multiplied to the intensity of the position of the peak in the distribution of the sound intensity. A threshold value for the determination of the presence or absence of the leakage can be set if a relation between an amount of the leakage previously determined experimentally and the intensity of the sound source. Then, a countermeasure can easily be taken after the detection of the leakage and a restoring operation can be carried out rapidly after the occurrence of leakage while avoiding unnecessary shutdown. (N.H.)

  18. Evaluation of a Novel Glucose Area Under the Curve (AUC Monitoring System: Comparison with the AUC by Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ugi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundManagement of postprandial hyperglycemia is a key aspect in diabetes treatment. We developed a novel system to measure glucose area under the curve (AUC using minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET for simple monitoring of postprandial glucose excursions. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between our system and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM by comparing glucose AUC obtained using MIET with that obtained using CGM for a long duration.MethodsTwenty diabetic inpatients wearing a CGM system were enrolled. For MIET measurement, a plastic microneedle array was applied to the skin as pretreatment, and hydrogels were placed on the pretreated area to collect interstitial fluid. Hydrogels were replaced every 2 or 4 hours and AUC was predicted on the basis of glucose and sodium ion levels.ResultsAUC predicted by MIET correlated well with that measured by CGM (r=0.93. Good performances of both consecutive 2- and 4-hour measurements were observed (measurement error: 11.7%±10.2% for 2 hours and 11.1%±7.9% for 4 hours, indicating the possibility of repetitive measurements up to 8 hours. The influence of neither glucose fluctuation nor average glucose level over the measurement accuracy was observed through 8 hours.ConclusionOur system showed good relationship with AUC values from CGM up to 8 hours, indicating that single pretreatment can cover a large portion of glucose excursion in a day. These results indicated possibility of our system to contribute to convenient monitoring of glucose excursions for a long duration.

  19. A technology roadmap of smart biosensors from conventional glucose monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Pravin; Sahu, Pratiksha; Gaud, Ram

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this review article is to focus on technology roadmap of smart biosensors from a conventional glucose monitoring system. The estimation of glucose with commercially available devices involves analysis of blood samples that are obtained by pricking finger or extracting blood from the forearm. Since pain and discomfort are associated with invasive methods, the non-invasive measurement techniques have been investigated. The non-invasive methods show advantages like non-exposure to sharp objects such as needles and syringes, due to which there is an increase in testing frequency, improved control of glucose concentration and absence of pain and biohazard materials. This review study is aimed to describe recent invasive techniques and major noninvasive techniques, viz. biosensors, optical techniques and sensor-embedded contact lenses for glucose estimation.

  20. Automated integration of continuous glucose monitor data in the electronic health record using consumer technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajiv B; Goren, Nira D; Stark, David E; Wall, Dennis P; Longhurst, Christopher A

    2016-05-01

    The diabetes healthcare provider plays a key role in interpreting blood glucose trends, but few institutions have successfully integrated patient home glucose data in the electronic health record (EHR). Published implementations to date have required custom interfaces, which limit wide-scale replication. We piloted automated integration of continuous glucose monitor data in the EHR using widely available consumer technology for 10 pediatric patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. Establishment of a passive data communication bridge via a patient's/parent's smartphone enabled automated integration and analytics of patient device data within the EHR between scheduled clinic visits. It is feasible to utilize available consumer technology to assess and triage home diabetes device data within the EHR, and to engage patients/parents and improve healthcare provider workflow. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  1. PROFESSIONAL FLASH CONTINUOUS GLUCOSE MONITORING WITH AMBULATORY GLUCOSE PROFILE REPORTING TO SUPPLEMENT A1C: RATIONALE AND PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Irl B; Verderese, Carol A

    2017-11-01

    Recent consensus statements strongly advocate downloading and interpreting continuous glucose data for diabetes management in patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes. Supplementing periodic glycated hemoglobin (A1C) testing with intermittent continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) using a standardized report form known as the ambulatory glucose profile (AGP) is an evolving standard of care. The rationale for this approach and its implementation with a recently approved novel monitoring technology are explored. Search of the medical literature, professional guidelines, and real-world evidence guided this introduction of an integrative practice framework that uses AGP in conjunction with intermittent flash continuous glucose monitoring (FCGM) as a supplement to A1C testing. The combination of intermittent continuous glucose pattern analysis, standardized glucose metrics, and a readily interpretable data report has the potential to practically extend the recognized benefits of CGM to more patients and clarify the relationship between A1C and average glucose levels in individual cases. Novel FCGM technologies portend greater use of continuous forms of glucose monitoring and wider adoption of AGP report analysis. Additional formal and empirical evidence is needed to more fully characterize best practice. A1C = glycated hemoglobin; AGP = ambulatory glucose profile; CGM = continuous glucose monitoring; FCGM = flash continuous glucose monitoring; IQR = interquartile range; SMBG = self-monitoring of blood glucose.

  2. Glucose-monitoring neurons in the mediodorsal prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Bernadett; Szabó, István; Papp, Szilárd; Takács, Gábor; Szalay, Csaba; Karádi, Zoltán

    2012-03-20

    The mediodorsal prefrontal cortex (mdPFC), a key structure of the limbic neural circuitry, plays important roles in the central regulation of feeding. As an integrant part of the forebrain dopamine (DA) system, it performs complex roles via interconnections with various brain areas where glucose-monitoring (GM) neurons have been identified. The main goal of the present experiments was to examine whether similar GM neurons exist in the mediodorsal prefrontal cortex. To search for such chemosensory cells here, and to estimate their involvement in the DA circuitry, extracellular single neuron activity of the mediodorsal prefrontal cortex of anesthetized Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats was recorded by means of tungsten wire multibarreled glass microelectrodes during microelectrophoretic administration of d-glucose and DA. One fourth of the neurons tested changed in firing rate in response to glucose, thus, proved to be elements of the forebrain GM neural network. DA responsive neurons in the mdPFC were found to represent similar proportion of all cells; the glucose-excited units were shown to display excitatory whereas the glucose-inhibited neurons were demonstrated to exert mainly inhibitory responses to dopamine. The glucose-monitoring neurons of the mdPFC and their distinct DA sensitivity are suggested to be of particular significance in adaptive processes of the central feeding control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nanosensors and nanomaterials for monitoring glucose in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Kevin J; Clark, Heather A

    2010-12-01

    Worldwide, diabetes is a rapidly growing problem that is managed at the individual level by monitoring and controlling blood glucose levels to minimize the negative effects of the disease. Because of limitations in diagnostic methods, significant research efforts are focused on developing improved methods to measure glucose. Nanotechnology has impacted these efforts by increasing the surface area of sensors, improving the catalytic properties of electrodes and providing nanoscale sensors. Here, we discuss developments in the past several years on both nanosensors that directly measure glucose and nanomaterials that improve glucose sensor function. Finally, we discuss challenges that must be overcome to apply these developments in the clinic. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Wide range neutron monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okido, Fumiyasu; Arita, Setsuo; Ishii, Kazuhiko; Matsumiya, Shoichi; Furusato, Ken-ichiro; Nishida, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention has a function of reliably switching measuring values between a pulse method and a Cambel method even if noise level and saturated level are fluctuated. That is, a proportional range judging means always monitors neutron flux measuring values in a start-up region and neutron flux measuring values in an intermediate power region, so that the proportional range is detected depending on whether the difference or a variation coefficient of both of the measured values is constant or not. A switching value determining means determines a switching value by the result of judgement of the proportional range judging means. A selection/output means selects and outputs measuring signals at a neutron flux level in the start-up region or the intermediate power region by the output of the switching value determining means. With such procedures, since the measuring value is switched after confirming that arrival at the proportional range where the difference or a variation coefficient of the measured value between the pulse processing method and the measured value by the Cambel method is constant, an accurate neutron flux level containing neither noise level nor saturated level can be outputted. (I.S.)

  5. Monitoring device for reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Tetsuo; Saito, Koichi; Furukawa, Hideyasu.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor container made of reinforced concretes is monitored for the temperature at each of portions upon placing concretes under construction of a plant, upon pressure-proof test and during plant operation. That is, optical fibers are uniformly laid spirally throughout the inside of the concretes. Pulses are injected from one end of the optical fibers, and the temperature at a reflection point can be measured by measuring specific rays (Raman scattering rays) among lights reflected after a predetermined period of time. According to the present invention, measurement for an optional position within a range where one fiber cable is laid can be conducted. Accordingly, it is possible to conduct temperature control upon concrete placing and apply temperature compensation for the measurement for stresses of the concretes and the reinforcing steels upon container pressure-proof. Further, during plant operation, if the temperature of the concretes rises due to thermal conduction of the temperature in the container, integrity of the concretes can be ensured by a countermeasures such as air conditioning. (I.S.)

  6. Predictors of Daily Blood Glucose Monitoring in Appalachian Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffle, Holly; Ware, Lezlee J.; Ruhil, Anirudh V. S.; Hamel-Lambert, Jane; Denham, Sharon A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine factors contributing to successful diabetes self-management in Appalachia, as evidenced by daily blood glucose monitoring. Methods: A telephone survey (N = 3841) was conducted to assess health status and health care access. The current investigation is limited to the subset of this sample who report having diabetes (N =…

  7. Travelling type monitoring and inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takao; Maruki, Hideaki.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention sufficiently ensures video output images even if lenses of a television camera of a monitoring means are degraded to reduce the quantity of transmission light. That is, a light amount control mechanism capable of controlling the quantity of illumination light irradiated from an illumination device at an output level of a sensor of an inspection device main body. A test chart for measuring a luminance which is an output level of the sensor is disposed. During plant operation, the lenses of the television camera undergo influences of radioactivity and are degraded to reduce the quantity of transmission light on every periodical monitoring and inspection using a travelling type monitoring inspection device. In this case, the test chart disposed near the equipment to be monitored and inspected is caught by the television camera to measure a sensor output luminance. Then, the light amount control mechanism of the illumination device is controlled so as to provide a luminance which has been set at an initial stage of the plant inspection. With such procedures, video data of the objective equipment to be monitored and inspected can be obtained at a constant luminance during inspection. (I.S.)

  8. A fine pointed glucose oxidase immobilized electrode for low-invasive amperometric glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Koinkar, Pankaj; Fuchiwaki, Yusuke; Yasuzawa, Mikito

    2016-12-15

    A low invasive type glucose sensor, which has a sensing region at the tip of a fine pointed electrode, was developed for continuous glucose monitoring. Platinum-iridium alloy electrode with a surface area of 0.045mm(2) was settled at the middle of pointed PEEK (Polyetheretherketone) tubing and was employed as sensing electrode. Electrodeposition of glucose oxidase in the presence of surfactant, Triton X-100, was performed for high-density enzyme immobilization followed by the electropolymerization of o-phenylenediamine for the formation of functional entrapping and permselective polymer membrane. Ag/AgCl film was coated on the surface of PEEK tubing as reference electrode. Amperometric responses of the prepared sensors to glucose were measured at a potential of 0.60V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The prepared electrode showed the sensitivity of 2.55μA/cm(2) mM with high linearity of 0.9986, within the glucose concentration range up to 21mM. The detection limit (S/N=3) was determined to be 0.11mM. The glucose sensor properties were evaluated in phosphate buffer solution and in vivo monitoring by the implantation of the sensors in rabbit, while conventional needle type sensors as a reference were used. The results showed that change in output current of the proposed sensor fluctuated similar with one in output current of the conventional needle type sensors, which was also in similar accordance with actual blood sugar level measured by commercially glucose meter. One-point calibration method was used to calibrate the sensor output current. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Fully Implantable, NFC Enabled, Continuous Interstitial Glucose Monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Anabtawi, Nijad; Freeman, Sabrina; Ferzli, Rony

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an integrated system-on-chip (SoC) that forms the core of a long-term, fully implantable, battery assisted, passive continuous glucose monitor. It integrates an amperometric glucose sensor interface, a near field communication (NFC) wireless front-end and a fully digital switched mode power management unit for supply regulation and on board battery charging. It uses 13.56 MHz (ISM) band to harvest energy and backscatter data to an NFC reader. System was implemented in 14nm ...

  10. Accuracy of a Flash Glucose Monitoring System in Diabetic Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Corradini, S.; Pilosio, B.; Dondi, F.; Linari, G.; Testa, S.; Brugnoli, F.; Gianella, P.; Pietra, M.; Fracassi, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background A novel flash glucose monitoring system (FGMS) (FreeStyle Libre, Abbott, UK) was recently developed for humans. It continuously measures the interstitial glucose (IG) concentrations for 14 days. Objectives To assess the clinical and analytical accuracy of the FGMS in diabetic dogs. Animals Ten client?owned diabetic dogs on insulin treatment. Methods Prospective and observational study. The FGMS was placed on the neck for up to 14 days. During the 1st?2nd, 6?7th, and 13?14th days fr...

  11. A Fully Implantable, NFC Enabled, Continuous Interstitial Glucose Monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anabtawi, Nijad; Freeman, Sabrina; Ferzli, Rony

    2016-02-01

    This work presents an integrated system-on-chip (SoC) that forms the core of a long-term, fully implantable, battery assisted, passive continuous glucose monitor. It integrates an amperometric glucose sensor interface, a near field communication (NFC) wireless front-end and a fully digital switched mode power management unit for supply regulation and on board battery charging. It uses 13.56 MHz (ISM) band to harvest energy and backscatter data to an NFC reader. System was implemented in 14nm CMOS technology and validated with post layout simulations.

  12. Monitoring Human Activity through Portable Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sebestyen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring human activity may be useful for medical supervision and for prophylactic purposes. Mobile devices like intelligent phones or watches have multiple sensors and wireless communication capabilities which can be used for this purpose. This paper presents some integrated solutions for determining and continuous monitoring of a person’s state. Aspects taken into consideration are: activity detection and recognition based on acceleration sensors, wireless communication protocols for data acquisition, web monitoring, alerts generation and statistical processing of multiple sensorial data. As practical implementations two case studies are presented, one using an intelligent phone and another using a mixed signal processor integrated in a watch.

  13. Monitoring and life-support devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noback, C.R.; Murphy, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    The radiographic and physical principles involved in interpreting films, and some of the altered anatomy and pathology that may be seen on such films, are discussed. This chapter considers the radiographic appearances of monitoring and life-support devices. Appropriate positioning and function are shown, as are some of the complications associated with their placement and/or function

  14. Continuous Glucose Monitoring in the Cardiac ICU: Current Use and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimgeour, Laura A; Potz, Brittany A; Sellke, Frank W; Abid, M Ruhul

    2017-11-01

    Perioperative glucose control is highly important, particularly for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Variable glucose levels before, during and after cardiac surgery lead to increased post-operative complications and patient mortality. [1] Current methods for intensive monitoring and treating hyperglycemia in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) usually involve hourly glucose monitoring and continuous intravenous insulin infusions. With the advent of more accurate subcutaneous glucose monitoring systems, the role of improved glucose control with newer systems deserves consideration for widespread adoption.

  15. Clinical use of continuous glucose monitoring in adults with type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Slattery, David; Choudhary, Pratik

    2017-01-01

    With the emphasis on intensive management of type 1 diabetes, data from studies support frequent monitoring of glucose levels to improve glycemic control and reduce glucose variability, which can be related to an increase in macro and microvascular complications. However, few perform capillary blood glucose that frequently. There are currently two available alternatives that this review will discuss, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and flash glucose monitoring. CGM has become an important...

  16. A label-free fiber-optic Turbidity Affinity Sensor (TAS) for continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt-Ballerstadt, Ralph; Evans, Colton; Pillai, Arun P; Gowda, Ashok

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we describe the concept of a novel implantable fiber-optic Turbidity Affinity Sensor (TAS) and report on the findings of its in-vitro performance for continuous glucose monitoring. The sensing mechanism of the TAS is based on glucose-specific changes in light scattering (turbidity) of a hydrogel suspension consisting of small particles made of crosslinked dextran (Sephadex G100), and a glucose- and mannose-specific binding protein - Concanavalin A (ConA). The binding of ConA to Sephadex particles results in a significant turbidity increase that is much greater than the turbidity contribution by the individual components. The turbidity of the TAS was measured by determining the intensity of light passing through the suspension enclosed within a small semi-permeable hollow fiber (OD: 220 μm, membrane thickness: 20 μm, molecular weight cut-off: 10 kDa) using fiber optics. The intensity of measured light of the TAS was proportional to the glucose concentration over the concentration range from 50mg/dL to 400mg/dL in PBS and whole blood at 37°C (R>0.96). The response time was approximately 4 min. The stability of the glucose response of the TAS decreased only slightly (by 20%) over an 8-day study period at 37°C. In conclusion, this study demonstrated proof-of-concept of the TAS for interstitial glucose monitoring. Due to the large signal amplitude of the turbidity change, and the lack of need for wavelength-specific emission and excitation filters, a very small, robust and compact TAS device with an extremely short optical pathlength could be feasibly designed and implemented for in-vivo glucose monitoring in people with diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Practical implementation, education and interpretation guidelines for continuous glucose monitoring: A French position statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borot, S; Benhamou, P Y; Atlan, C; Bismuth, E; Bonnemaison, E; Catargi, B; Charpentier, G; Farret, A; Filhol, N; Franc, S; Gouet, D; Guerci, B; Guilhem, I; Guillot, C; Jeandidier, N; Joubert, M; Melki, V; Merlen, E; Penfornis, A; Picard, S; Renard, E; Reznik, Y; Riveline, J P; Rudoni, S; Schaepelynck, P; Sola-Gazagnes, A; Tubiana-Rufi, N; Verier-Mine, O; Hanaire, H

    2018-02-01

    The use by diabetes patients of real-time continuous interstitial glucose monitoring (CGM) or the FreeStyle Libre ® (FSL) flash glucose monitoring (FGM) system is becoming widespread and has changed diabetic practice. The working group bringing together a number of French experts has proposed the present practical consensus. Training of professionals and patient education are crucial for the success of CGM. Also, institutional recommendations must pay particular attention to the indications for and reimbursement of CGM devices in populations at risk of hypoglycaemia. The rules of good practice for CGM are the precursors of those that need to be enacted, given the oncoming emergence of artificial pancreas devices. It is necessary to have software combining user-friendliness, multiplatform usage and average glucose profile (AGP) presentation, while integrating glucose and insulin data as well as events. Expression of CGM data must strive for standardization that facilitates patient phenotyping and their follow-up, while integrating indicators of variability. The introduction of CGM involves a transformation of treatment support, rendering it longer and more complex as it also includes specific educational and technical dimensions. This complexity must be taken into account in discussions of organization of diabetes care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Accuracy of a Flash Glucose Monitoring System in Diabetic Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, S; Pilosio, B; Dondi, F; Linari, G; Testa, S; Brugnoli, F; Gianella, P; Pietra, M; Fracassi, F

    2016-07-01

    A novel flash glucose monitoring system (FGMS) (FreeStyle Libre, Abbott, UK) was recently developed for humans. It continuously measures the interstitial glucose (IG) concentrations for 14 days. To assess the clinical and analytical accuracy of the FGMS in diabetic dogs. Ten client-owned diabetic dogs on insulin treatment. Prospective and observational study. The FGMS was placed on the neck for up to 14 days. During the 1st-2nd, 6-7th, and 13-14th days from application, the IG measurements were compared with the plasma (EDTA) glucose (PG) concentrations analyzed by a reference hexokinase based method. The application and the use of the FGMS were apparently painless, easy, and well tolerated by all dogs. Mild erythema at the site of the application was found in 5/10 dogs at the end of the wearing period. A good correlation between IG and PG concentrations (rho = 0.94; P blood glucose concentrations. Mean ± standard deviation difference from the reference method was 2.3 ± 46.8 mg/dL. The FGMS is easy to use and is accurate for IG glucose measurement in diabetic dogs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Noninvasive Monitoring of Blood Glucose with Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rishikesh; Paidi, Santosh Kumar; Valdez, Tulio A; Zhang, Chi; Spegazzini, Nicolas; Dasari, Ramachandra Rao; Barman, Ishan

    2017-02-21

    not only addressed the physiological lag between the actual blood glucose and the measured interstitial fluid glucose values but also offered a powerful tool for predictive measurements of hypoglycemia. This framework has recently been extended to provide longitudinal tracking of glucose concentration without necessitating extensive a priori concentration information. These findings are advanced by the results of recent glucose tolerance studies in human subjects, which also hint at the need for designing nonlinear calibration models that can account for subject-to-subject variations in skin heterogeneity and hematocrit levels. Together, the emerging evidence underscores the promise of a blood withdrawal-free optical platform-featuring a combination of high-throughput Raman spectroscopic instrumentation and data analysis of subtle variations in spectral expression-for diabetes screening in the clinic and, ultimately, for personalized monitoring.

  20. Monitoring device for the reactor power distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Hitoshi; Tsuiki, Makoto

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable accurate monitoring for the power distribution in a short time, as well as independent detection for in-core neutron flux detectors in abnormal operation due to failures or like other causes to thereby surely provide reliable substitute values. Constitution: Counted values are inputted from a reactor core present status data detector by a power distribution calculation device to calculate the in-core neutron flux density and the power distribution based on previously stored physical models. While on the other hand, counted value from the in-core neutron detectors and the neutron flux distribution and the power distribution calculated from the power distribution calculation device are inputted from a BCF calculation device to compensate the counting errors incorporated in the counted value from the in-core neutron flux detectors and the calculation errors incorporated in the power distribution calculated in the power distribution calculation device respectively and thereby calculate the power distribution in the reactor core. Further, necessary data are inputted to the power distribution calculation device by an input/output device and the results calculated in the BCF calculation device are displayed. (Aizawa, K.)

  1. A 3D paper-based enzymatic fuel cell for self-powered, low-cost glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Christopher; Fraiwan, Arwa; Choi, Seokheun

    2016-05-15

    In this work, we demonstrate a novel low-cost, self-powered paper-based biosensor for glucose monitoring. The device operating mechanism is based on a glucose/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell using an electrochemical energy conversion as a transducing element for glucose monitoring. The self-powered glucose biosensor features (i) a 3D origami paper-based structure for easy system integration onto paper, (ii) an air-cathode on paper for low-cost production and easy operation, and (iii) a screen printed chitosan/glucose oxidase anode for stable current generation as an analytical signal for glucose monitoring. The sensor showed a linear range of output current at 1-5mM glucose (R(2)=0.996) with a sensitivity of 0.02 µA mM(-1). The advantages offered by such a device, including a low cost, lack of external power sources/sophisticated external transducers, and the capacity to rapidly generate reliable results, are well suited for the clinical and social settings of the developing world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Accuracy of subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring in critically ill adults: improved sensor performance with enhanced calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarathna, Lalantha; English, Shane W; Thabit, Hood; Caldwell, Karen; Allen, Janet M; Kumareswaran, Kavita; Wilinska, Malgorzata E; Nodale, Marianna; Haidar, Ahmad; Evans, Mark L; Burnstein, Rowan; Hovorka, Roman

    2014-02-01

    Accurate real-time continuous glucose measurements may improve glucose control in the critical care unit. We evaluated the accuracy of the FreeStyle(®) Navigator(®) (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device in critically ill adults using two methods of calibration. In a randomized trial, paired CGM and reference glucose (hourly arterial blood glucose [ABG]) were collected over a 48-h period from 24 adults with critical illness (mean±SD age, 60±14 years; mean±SD body mass index, 29.6±9.3 kg/m(2); mean±SD Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score, 12±4 [range, 6-19]) and hyperglycemia. In 12 subjects, the CGM device was calibrated at variable intervals of 1-6 h using ABG. In the other 12 subjects, the sensor was calibrated according to the manufacturer's instructions (1, 2, 10, and 24 h) using arterial blood and the built-in point-of-care glucometer. In total, 1,060 CGM-ABG pairs were analyzed over the glucose range from 4.3 to 18.8 mmol/L. Using enhanced calibration median (interquartile range) every 169 (122-213) min, the absolute relative deviation was lower (7.0% [3.5, 13.0] vs. 12.8% [6.3, 21.8], P<0.001), and the percentage of points in the Clarke error grid Zone A was higher (87.8% vs. 70.2%). Accuracy of the Navigator CGM device during critical illness was comparable to that observed in non-critical care settings. Further significant improvements in accuracy may be obtained by frequent calibrations with ABG measurements.

  3. Monitoring of Vital Signs with Flexible and Wearable Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Yasser; Ostfeld, Aminy E; Lochner, Claire M; Pierre, Adrien; Arias, Ana C

    2016-06-01

    Advances in wireless technologies, low-power electronics, the internet of things, and in the domain of connected health are driving innovations in wearable medical devices at a tremendous pace. Wearable sensor systems composed of flexible and stretchable materials have the potential to better interface to the human skin, whereas silicon-based electronics are extremely efficient in sensor data processing and transmission. Therefore, flexible and stretchable sensors combined with low-power silicon-based electronics are a viable and efficient approach for medical monitoring. Flexible medical devices designed for monitoring human vital signs, such as body temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, blood pressure, pulse oxygenation, and blood glucose have applications in both fitness monitoring and medical diagnostics. As a review of the latest development in flexible and wearable human vitals sensors, the essential components required for vitals sensors are outlined and discussed here, including the reported sensor systems, sensing mechanisms, sensor fabrication, power, and data processing requirements. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Professional flash continuous glucose monitoring as a supplement to A1C in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Irl B

    2017-11-01

    Decreasing glycated hemoglobin (A1C) is the primary goal of current diabetes management due to intervention studies in type 1 and type 2 diabetes associating levels <7.0% (53 mmol/mol) with lower complication risk. Strategic self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is also recommended to achieve greater time in range, with fewer extremes of hypo- or hyperglycemia. Unlike A1C, SMBG can distinguish among fasting, prandial, and postprandial hyperglycemia; uncover glycemic variability, including potentially dangerous hypoglycemia; and provide feedback to patients about the effects of behavior and medication on glycemic control. However, it has the drawback of capturing only static glucose readings and users are often dependent on time-pressed clinicians to interpret numerous data points. A novel flash continuous glucose monitoring (FCGM) device used for a single 2-week period with a readily interpretable data report know as the ambulatory glucose profile (AGP) has the potential to overcome limitations of conventional technologies, with less cost and greater convenience. This review summarizes the rationale for using intermittent FCGM as a supplement to A1C in primary care, and provides a stepwise approach to interpreting the AGP visual display for efficient individualized therapy.

  5. Radiation area monitor device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vencelj, Matjaz; Stowe, Ashley C.; Petrovic, Toni; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Kosicek, Andrej

    2018-01-30

    A radiation area monitor device/method, utilizing: a radiation sensor; a rotating radiation shield disposed about the radiation sensor, wherein the rotating radiation shield defines one or more ports that are transparent to radiation; and a processor operable for analyzing and storing a radiation fingerprint acquired by the radiation sensor as the rotating radiation shield is rotated about the radiation sensor. Optionally, the radiation sensor includes a gamma and/or neutron radiation sensor. The device/method selectively operates in: a first supervised mode during which a baseline radiation fingerprint is acquired by the radiation sensor as the rotating radiation shield is rotated about the radiation sensor; and a second unsupervised mode during which a subsequent radiation fingerprint is acquired by the radiation sensor as the rotating radiation shield is rotated about the radiation sensor, wherein the subsequent radiation fingerprint is compared to the baseline radiation fingerprint and, if a predetermined difference threshold is exceeded, an alert is issued.

  6. Evaluation of Postprandial Glucose Excursion Using a Novel Minimally Invasive Glucose Area-Under-the-Curve Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Kuranuki, Sachi; Sato, Toshiyuki; Okada, Seiki; Hosoya, Samiko; Seko, Akinobu; Sugihara, Kaya; Nakamura, Teiji

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop a minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET) to monitor postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC) without blood sampling, we evaluated the accuracy of glucose AUC measured by MIET and compared with that by blood sampling after food intake. Methods: Interstitial fluid glucose AUC (IG-AUC) following consumption of 6 different types of foods was measured by MIET. MIET consisted of stamping microneedle arrays, placing hydrogel patches on the are...

  7. Continuous glucose monitoring for patients with diabetes: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of continuous glucose monitoring combined with self-monitoring of blood glucose compared with self-monitoring of blood glucose alone in the management of diabetes. CONDITION AND TARGET POPULATION Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that interferes with the body's ability to produce or effectively use insulin. In 2005, an estimated 816,000 Ontarians had diabetes representing 8.8% of the province's population. Type 1 or juvenile onset diabetes is a life-long disorder that commonly manifests in children and adolescents. It represents about 10% of the total diabetes population and involves immune-mediated destruction of insulin producing cells in the pancreas. The loss of these cells necessitates insulin therapy. Type 2 or "adult-onset" diabetes represents about 90% of the total diabetes population and is marked by a resistance to insulin or insufficient insulin secretion. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases with age, obesity and lack of physical activity. Approximately 30% of patients with type 2 diabetes eventually require insulin therapy. Continuous glucose monitors (CGM) measure glucose levels in the interstitial fluid surrounding skin cells. These measurements supplement conventional self monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) by monitoring the glucose fluctuations continuously over a stipulated period of time, thereby identifying fluctuations that would not be identified with SMBG alone. To use a CGM, a sensor is inserted under the skin to measure glucose in the interstitial fluid. The sensor is wired to a transmitter. The device requires calibration using a capillary blood glucose measurement. Each sensor continuously measures glucose every 5-10 seconds averaging these values every 5 minutes and storing this data in the monitors memory. Depending on the device used, the algorithm in the device can measure glucose over a 3 or 6 day period using one sensor. After the 3 or 6 day period, a new

  8. Monitoring device for local power peaking coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihashi, Ishi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To determine and monitor the local power peaking coefficients by a method not depending on the combination of fuel types. Constitution: Representative values for the local power distribution can be obtained by determining corresponding burn-up degrees based on the burn-up degree of each of fuel assembly segments obtained in a power distribution monitor and by the interpolation and extrapolation of void coefficients. The typical values are multiplied with compensation coefficients for the control rod effect and coefficients for compensating the effect of adjacent fuel assemblies in a calculation device to obtain typical values for the present local power distribution compensated with all of the effects. Further, the calculation device compares them with typical values of the present local power distribution to obtain an aimed local power peaking coefficient as the maximum value thereof. According to the present invention, since the local power peaking coefficients can be determined not depending on the combination of the kind of fuels, if the combination of fuel assemblies is increased upon fuel change, the amount of operation therefor is not increased. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Accuracy evaluation of a new real-time continuous glucose monitoring algorithm in hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmoudi, Zeinab; Jensen, Morten Hasselstrøm; Johansen, Mette Dencker

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a new continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) calibration algorithm and to compare it with the Guardian(®) REAL-Time (RT) (Medtronic Diabetes, Northridge, CA) calibration algorithm in hypoglycemia. SUBJECTS...... AND METHODS: CGM data were obtained from 10 type 1 diabetes patients undergoing insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Data were obtained in two separate sessions using the Guardian RT CGM device. Data from the same CGM sensor were calibrated by two different algorithms: the Guardian RT algorithm and a new calibration...... algorithm. The accuracy of the two algorithms was compared using four performance metrics. RESULTS: The median (mean) of absolute relative deviation in the whole range of plasma glucose was 20.2% (32.1%) for the Guardian RT calibration and 17.4% (25.9%) for the new calibration algorithm. The mean (SD...

  10. Plant operation monitoring method and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Tsugio; Matsuki, Tsutomu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and a device for monitoring the operation of a nuclear power plant during operation, which improves the safety and reliability of operation without increasing an operator's burden. Namely, a chief in charge orally instruct an operation to an operator upon the operation of a plant constituent equipment. The operator points the equipment and calls the name. Actual operation instruction for the equipment is inputted after confirmation by oral response. The voices of theses series of operation instruction/point-calling/response confirmation are taken into a voice recognition processing device. The processing device discriminates each of the person who calls, and discriminates the content of the calls and objective equipments to be operated. Then, the series of procedures and contents of the operation for the equipments previously disposed in the data base are compared with the order of inputted calls, discriminated contents and the objective equipments to be operated. If they are not agreed with each other, the operation instruction is blocked even if actual operation instructions are inputted. (I.S.)

  11. Twenty-four-hour variations in blood glucose level in Japanese type 2 diabetes patients based on continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajime, Maiko; Okada, Yosuke; Mori, Hiroko; Otsuka, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Mayuko; Miyazaki, Megumi; Kuno, Fumi; Sugai, Kei; Sonoda, Satomi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Kurozumi, Akira; Narisawa, Manabu; Torimoto, Keiichi; Arao, Tadashi; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2018-01-01

    High fluctuations in blood glucose are associated with various complications. The correlation between glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level and fluctuations in blood glucose level has not been studied in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. In the present study, blood glucose profile stratified by HbA1c level was evaluated by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in Japanese type 2 diabetes patients. Our retrospective study included 294 patients with type 2 diabetes who were divided by HbA1c level into five groups (≥6.0 to level and CGM data was analyzed. The primary end-point was the difference in blood glucose fluctuations among the HbA1c groups. The mean blood glucose level increased significantly with increasing HbA1c (P trend  levels of maximum blood glucose, minimum blood glucose, each preprandial blood glucose, each postprandial maximum blood glucose, range of increase in postprandial glucose from pre-meal to after breakfast, the area under the blood concentration-time curve >180 mg/dL and percentage of the area under the blood concentration-time curve >180 mg/dL were higher with higher HbA1c. Mean glucose level and pre-breakfast blood glucose level were significant and independent determinants of HbA1c. In Japanese patients treated for type 2 diabetes, the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions did not correlate with HbA1c, making it difficult to assess blood glucose fluctuations using HbA1c. Parameters other than HbA1c are required to evaluate fluctuations in blood glucose level in patients receiving treatment for type 2 diabetes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Comparison of accuracy and safety of the SEVEN and the Navigator continuous glucose monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Satish K; Smith, James; Beatson, Christie; Lopez-Baca, Benita; Voelmle, Mary; Gottlieb, Peter A

    2009-02-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy and safety of two continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems, the SEVEN (DexCom, San Diego, CA) and the Navigator (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA), with the YSI laboratory measurements of blood glucose (blood glucose meter manufactured by YSI, Yellow Springs, OH), when worn concurrently in adults with type 1 diabetes. Fourteen subjects with type 1 diabetes, 33 +/- 6 (mean +/- SD) years old, were enrolled in this study. All subjects wore both sensors concurrently over three consecutive 5-day CGM sessions (15-day wear). On Days 5, 10, and 15, subjects participated in an 8-h in-clinic session where measurements from the CGM systems were collected and compared with YSI measurements every 15 min. At the end of Day 5 and 10 in-clinic sessions, the sensors were removed, and new sensors were inserted for the following CGM session despite the SEVEN system's recommended use for up to 7 days. The mean absolute relative difference (ARD) for the two CGM devices versus YSI was not different: 16.8% and 16.1% for SEVEN and Navigator, respectively (P = 0.38). In the hypoglycemic region (YSI value blood glucose (SMBG) values. Thirteen additional Navigator replacement devices were issued compared to two for the SEVEN. A total of three versus 14 skin reactions were reported with the SEVEN and Navigator insertion area, respectively. Glucose measurements with the SEVEN and Navigator were found to be similar compared with YSI and SMBG measurements, with the exception of the hypoglycemic range where the SEVEN performed better. However, the Navigator caused more skin area reactions.

  13. Calibration device for wide range monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodoku, Masaya; Sato, Toshifumi.

    1989-01-01

    The calibration device for a wide range monitor according to the present invention can continuously calibrate the entire counting regions of a wide range monitor. The wide range monitor detect the reactor power in the neutron source region by means of a pulse counting method and detects the reactor power in the intermediate region by means of a cambell method. A calibration signal outputting means is disposed for continuously outputting, as such calibration signals, pulse number varying signals in which the number of pulses per unit time varies depending on the reactor power in the neutron source region to be simulated and amplitude square means varying signal in which the mean square value of amplitude varies depending on the reactor power in the intermediate region to be simulated. By using both of the calibration signals, calibration can be conducted for the nuclear reactor power in the neutron source region and the intermediate region even if the calibration is made over two regions, further, calibration for the period present over the two region can be conducted easily as well. (I.S.)

  14. Correlation of continuous glucose monitoring profiles with pregnancy outcomes in nondiabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Joyce F; Kogut, Elizabeth A; Lee, Henry C; Mannan, Jana L; Navabi, Kasra; Taslimi, M Mark; El-Sayed, Yasser Y

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether hyperglycemic excursions detected by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) correlate with birth weight percentile and other pregnancy outcomes, and whether CGM correlates better with these outcomes than a single glucose value from a 1-hour glucose challenge test (GCT). This was a prospective observational study of 55 pregnant patients without preexisting diabetes, who wore a CGM device for up to 7 days, between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation. The area under the curve (AUC) of hyperglycemic excursions above various thresholds (110, 120, 130, 140, and 180 mg/dL) was calculated. These AUC values, and results from a standard 50-g GCT, were correlated with our primary outcome of birth weight percentile, and secondary outcomes of unplanned operative delivery, pregnancy complications, delivery complications, fetal complications, and neonatal complications. A consistent correlation was seen between all AUC thresholds and birth weight percentile (r = 0.29, p AUC-110, -120, -130, and -140; r = 0.25, p = 0.07 for AUC-180). This correlation was stronger than that of 1-hour oral GCT (r = -0.02, p = 0.88). There was no association between AUC values and other outcomes. Among nondiabetic pregnant patients, hyperglycemic excursions detected by CGM show a stronger correlation to birth weight percentile than blood glucose values obtained 1-hour after a 50-g oral GCT. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Device-Centric Monitoring for Mobile Device Management

    OpenAIRE

    Chircop, Luke; Colombo, Christian; Pace, Gordon J.

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquity of computing devices has led to an increased need to ensure not only that the applications deployed on them are correct with respect to their specifications, but also that the devices are used in an appropriate manner, especially in situations where the device is provided by a party other than the actual user. Much work which has been done on runtime verification for mobile devices and operating systems is mostly application-centric, resulting in global, device-centri...

  16. Clinical assessment of blood glucose homeostasis in horses: comparison of a continuous glucose monitoring system with a combined intravenous glucose and insulin test protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P J; Wiedmeyer, C E; LaCarrubba, A; Messer, N T; Dingfelder, H A; Cogswell, A M; Amorim, J R R; Ganjam, V K

    2011-01-01

    The combined glucose-insulin test (CGIT) is helpful for evaluating insulin sensitivity. A continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) reports changes in interstitial glucose concentrations as they occur in the blood. Use of the CGMS minimizes animal contact and may be useful when performing a CGIT. Results obtained using a CGMS are useful for the evaluation of glucose responses during the evaluation of insulin sensitivity in equids. Seven mature, obese ponies. Ponies were equipped with CGMS for determination of interstitial glucose concentrations. Glucose (150 mg/kg, i.v.) and insulin (0.1 U/kg, i.v.) were administered and blood glucose concentrations determined at (minutes after time zero) 1, 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 with a hand-held glucometer. Blood chemistry results were compared with simultaneously obtained results using CGMS. Concordance coefficients determined for comparison of blood glucose concentrations determined by a hand-held glucometer and those determined by CGMS after the zero time point were 0.623, 0.764, 0.834, 0.854, and 0.818 (for delays of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively). Interstitial glucose concentrations obtained by the CGMS compared favorably to blood glucose concentrations. CGMS may be useful for assessment of glucose dynamics in the CGIT. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Skin-like biosensor system via electrochemical channels for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yihao; Lu, Siyuan; Zhang, Shasha; Li, Yan; Qu, Zhe; Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Wang, Xinyan; Feng, Xue

    2017-12-01

    Currently, noninvasive glucose monitoring is not widely appreciated because of its uncertain measurement accuracy, weak blood glucose correlation, and inability to detect hyperglycemia/hypoglycemia during sleep. We present a strategy to design and fabricate a skin-like biosensor system for noninvasive, in situ, and highly accurate intravascular blood glucose monitoring. The system integrates an ultrathin skin-like biosensor with paper battery-powered electrochemical twin channels (ETCs). The designed subcutaneous ETCs drive intravascular blood glucose out of the vessel and transport it to the skin surface. The ultrathin (~3 μm) nanostructured biosensor, with high sensitivity (130.4 μA/mM), fully absorbs and measures the glucose, owing to its extreme conformability. We conducted in vivo human clinical trials. The noninvasive measurement results for intravascular blood glucose showed a high correlation (>0.9) with clinically measured blood glucose levels. The system opens up new prospects for clinical-grade noninvasive continuous glucose monitoring.

  18. Temperature monitoring device and thermocouple assembly therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Noel P.; Bauer, Frank I.; Bengel, Thomas G.; Kothmann, Richard E.; Mavretish, Robert S.; Miller, Phillip E.; Nath, Raymond J.; Salton, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    A temperature monitoring device for measuring the temperature at a surface of a body, composed of: at least one first thermocouple and a second thermocouple; support members supporting the thermocouples for placing the first thermocouple in contact with the body surface and for maintaining the second thermocouple at a defined spacing from the body surface; and a calculating circuit connected to the thermocouples for receiving individual signals each representative of the temperature reading produced by a respective one of the first and second thermocouples and for producing a corrected temperature signal having a value which represents the temperature of the body surface and is a function of the difference between the temperature reading produced by the first thermocouple and a selected fraction of the temperature reading provided by the second thermocouple.

  19. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring shows high accuracy within 6 hours after sensor calibration: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Yue

    Full Text Available Accurate and timely glucose monitoring is essential in intensive care units. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS has been advocated for many years to improve glycemic management in critically ill patients. In order to determine the effect of calibration time on the accuracy of CGMS, real-time subcutaneous CGMS was used in 18 critically ill patients. CGMS sensor was calibrated with blood glucose measurements by blood gas/glucose analyzer every 12 hours. Venous blood was sampled every 2 to 4 hours, and glucose concentration was measured by standard central laboratory device (CLD and by blood gas/glucose analyzer. With CLD measurement as reference, relative absolute difference (mean±SD in CGMS and blood gas/glucose analyzer were 14.4%±12.2% and 6.5%±6.2%, respectively. The percentage of matched points in Clarke error grid zone A was 74.8% in CGMS, and 98.4% in blood gas/glucose analyzer. The relative absolute difference of CGMS obtained within 6 hours after sensor calibration (8.8%±7.2% was significantly less than that between 6 to 12 hours after calibration (20.1%±13.5%, p<0.0001. The percentage of matched points in Clarke error grid zone A was also significantly higher in data sets within 6 hours after calibration (92.4% versus 57.1%, p<0.0001. In conclusion, real-time subcutaneous CGMS is accurate in glucose monitoring in critically ill patients. CGMS sensor should be calibrated less than 6 hours, no matter what time interval recommended by manufacturer.

  20. Differential effects of vildagliptin and glimepiride on glucose fluctuations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus assessed using continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y L; Foteinos, G; Neelakantham, S; Mattapalli, D; Kulmatycki, K; Forst, T; Taylor, A

    2013-12-01

    To assess whether there is a difference in the effects of vildagliptin and glimepiride on glucose fluctuation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). This was an open-label, randomized cross-over study conducted in T2DM patients. A total of 24 patients (age: 58.3 ± 5.56 years, baseline HbA1c: 7.6 ± 0.50%) who were on stable metformin monotherapy (500-3000 mg) were enrolled, and all completed the study. Each patient received two 5-day treatments (vildagliptin 50 mg b.i.d. or glimepiride 2 mg q.d.) in a cross-over manner. Various biomarkers and blood glucose concentrations were measured following breakfast. The 24-h glucose profiles were also measured using the CGM device at baseline and after 5 days of treatment, and fluctuations in glucose levels were estimated from CGM data. Both vildagliptin and glimepiride reduced postprandial glucose levels, based on both CGM data (15% vs. 16%) and measured plasma glucose (13% vs.17%). Vildagliptin showed lower glucose fluctuations than glimepiride as measured by mean amplitude of glycaemic excursions (MAGE, p = 0.1076), standard deviation (s.d., p = 0.1346) of blood glucose rate of change, but did not reach statistical significance attributed to the small sample size. MAGE was reduced by ∼20% with vildagliptin versus glimepiride. Vildagliptin led to statistically significant lowering of the rate of change in the median curve (RCMC) and interquartile range (IQR) of glucose. Treatment with vildagliptin significantly increased the levels of active glucagon-like peptide-1 by 2.36-fold (p ≤ 0.0001) and suppressed glucagon by 8% (p = 0.01), whereas glimepiride significantly increased the levels of insulin and C-peptide by 21% (p = 0.012) and 12% (p = 0.003), respectively. Vildagliptin treatment was associated with less fluctuation of glucose levels than glimepiride treatment as assessed by 24-h CGM device, suggesting vildagliptin may

  1. The UZPI ash content monitoring device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, E.P.; Bezverkhii, E.A.; Mozhaev, L.G.

    1987-07-01

    This paper describes the results of industrial trials (in coal preparation plants) to establish the accuracy of the UZPI device which determines coal ash content using X-ray detection. It is designed to monitor ash content in the 4-40% range in coal with a grain size of 0-100 mm and a coal layer thickness of 50-150 mm (depending on the ash content and grain size). The ash frequently contains oxides, and although variations in magnesium, aluminium, silicon and sulfur oxides have virtually no effect on accuracy of the UZPI, changes in the levels of calcium oxides and particularly iron oxides have a considerable influence on measurement accuracy (caused by changes in their gamma ray scattering cross section values and atomic numbers). The overall sensitivity to ash content in coal varies from 1.6 to 2.4% abs./% while that to iron oxides in ash is 0.4% abs./%. Concludes that this device is suitable for use in coal preparation plants on thin layers of coal, but its efficiency is affected by external influences, e.g. fluctuations in conveyor loading.

  2. Rapid, low cost prototyping of transdermal devices for personal healthcare monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Sharma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The next generation of devices for personal healthcare monitoring will comprise molecular sensors to monitor analytes of interest in the skin compartment. Transdermal devices based on microneedles offer an excellent opportunity to explore the dynamics of molecular markers in the interstitial fluid, however good acceptability of these next generation devices will require several technical problems associated with current commercially available wearable sensors to be overcome. These particularly include reliability, comfort and cost. An essential pre-requisite for transdermal molecular sensing devices is that they can be fabricated using scalable technologies which are cost effective.We present here a minimally invasive microneedle array as a continuous monitoring platform technology. Method for scalable fabrication of these structures is presented. The microneedle arrays were characterised mechanically and were shown to penetrate human skin under moderate thumb pressure. They were then functionalised and evaluated as glucose, lactate and theophylline biosensors. The results suggest that this technology can be employed in the measurement of metabolites, therapeutic drugs and biomarkers and could have an important role to play in the management of chronic diseases. Keywords: Microneedles, Minimally invasive sensors, Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM, Continuous lactate monitoring (CLM, Interstitial therapeutic drug monitoring (iTDM

  3. Evaluation of commercial self-monitoring devices for clinical purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Søren; Hansen, John; Nielsen, Olav Wendelboe

    2017-01-01

    Commercial self-monitoring devices are becoming increasingly popular, and over the last decade, the use of self-monitoring technology has spread widely in both consumer and medical markets. The purpose of this study was to evaluate five commercially available self-monitoring devices for further...

  4. Device-Centric Monitoring for Mobile Device Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Chircop

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquity of computing devices has led to an increased need to ensure not only that the applications deployed on them are correct with respect to their specifications, but also that the devices are used in an appropriate manner, especially in situations where the device is provided by a party other than the actual user. Much work which has been done on runtime verification for mobile devices and operating systems is mostly application-centric, resulting in global, device-centric properties (e.g. the user may not send more than 100 messages per day across all applications being difficult or impossible to verify. In this paper we present a device-centric approach to runtime verify the device behaviour against a device policy with the different applications acting as independent components contributing to the overall behaviour of the device. We also present an implementation for Android devices, and evaluate it on a number of device-centric policies, reporting the empirical results obtained.

  5. Evaluation of postprandial glucose excursion using a novel minimally invasive glucose area-under-the-curve monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranuki, Sachi; Sato, Toshiyuki; Okada, Seiki; Hosoya, Samiko; Seko, Akinobu; Sugihara, Kaya; Nakamura, Teiji

    2013-01-01

    To develop a minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET) to monitor postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC) without blood sampling, we evaluated the accuracy of glucose AUC measured by MIET and compared with that by blood sampling after food intake. Interstitial fluid glucose AUC (IG-AUC) following consumption of 6 different types of foods was measured by MIET. MIET consisted of stamping microneedle arrays, placing hydrogel patches on the areas, and calculating IG-AUC based on glucose levels in the hydrogels. Glycemic index (GI) was determined using IG-AUC and reference AUC measured by blood sampling. IG-AUC strongly correlated with reference AUC (R = 0.91), and GI determined using IG-AUC showed good correlation with that determined by reference AUC (R = 0.88). IG-AUC obtained by MIET can accurately predict the postprandial glucose excursion without blood sampling. In addition, feasibility of GI measurement by MIET was confirmed.

  6. Clinical results from a noninvasive blood glucose monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Thomas B.; Ruchti, Timothy L.; Lorenz, Alex D.; Monfre, Stephen L.; Makarewicz, M. R.; Mattu, Mutua; Hazen, Kevin

    2002-05-01

    Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring has long been proposed as a means for advancing the management of diabetes through increased measurement and control. The use of a near-infrared, NIR, spectroscopy based methodology for noninvasive monitoring has been pursued by a number of groups. The accuracy of the NIR measurement technology is limited by challenges related to the instrumentation, the heterogeneity and time-variant nature of skin tissue, and the complexity of the calibration methodology. In this work, we discuss results from a clinical study that targeted the evaluation of individual calibrations for each subject based on a series of controlled calibration visits. While the customization of the calibrations to individuals was intended to reduce model complexity, the extensive requirements for each individual set of calibration data were difficult to achieve and required several days of measurement. Through the careful selection of a small subset of data from all samples collected on the 138 study participants in a previous study, we have developed a methodology for applying a single standard calibration to multiple persons. The standard calibrations have been applied to a plurality of individuals and shown to be persistent over periods greater than 24 weeks.

  7. Precision and costs of techniques for self-monitoring of serum glucose levels.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiasson, J. L.; Morrisset, R.; Hamet, P.

    1984-01-01

    The poor correlation between serum and urine glucose measurements has led to the development of new techniques for monitoring the blood glucose level in diabetic patients. Either a nurse or the patient can perform these tests, which involve spreading a single drop of blood onto a reagent strip. A colour change that is proportional to the serum glucose level can be read visually or with a reflectance meter. Evaluated against simultaneous serum glucose levels determined by the hospital biochemi...

  8. Autoregressive Modeling of Drift and Random Error to Characterize a Continuous Intravascular Glucose Monitoring Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tony; Dickson, Jennifer L; Geoffrey Chase, J

    2018-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices have been effective in managing diabetes and offer potential benefits for use in the intensive care unit (ICU). Use of CGM devices in the ICU has been limited, primarily due to the higher point accuracy errors over currently used traditional intermittent blood glucose (BG) measures. General models of CGM errors, including drift and random errors, are lacking, but would enable better design of protocols to utilize these devices. This article presents an autoregressive (AR) based modeling method that separately characterizes the drift and random noise of the GlySure CGM sensor (GlySure Limited, Oxfordshire, UK). Clinical sensor data (n = 33) and reference measurements were used to generate 2 AR models to describe sensor drift and noise. These models were used to generate 100 Monte Carlo simulations based on reference blood glucose measurements. These were then compared to the original CGM clinical data using mean absolute relative difference (MARD) and a Trend Compass. The point accuracy MARD was very similar between simulated and clinical data (9.6% vs 9.9%). A Trend Compass was used to assess trend accuracy, and found simulated and clinical sensor profiles were similar (simulated trend index 11.4° vs clinical trend index 10.9°). The model and method accurately represents cohort sensor behavior over patients, providing a general modeling approach to any such sensor by separately characterizing each type of error that can arise in the data. Overall, it enables better protocol design based on accurate expected CGM sensor behavior, as well as enabling the analysis of what level of each type of sensor error would be necessary to obtain desired glycemic control safety and performance with a given protocol.

  9. Continuous glucose monitoring microsensor with a nanoscale conducting matrix and redox mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesantez, Daniel

    The major limiting factor in kidney clinical transplantation is the shortage of transplantable organs. The current inability to distinguish viability from non-viability on a prospective basis represents a major obstacle in any attempt to expand organ donor criteria. Consequently, a way to measure and monitor a relevant analyte to assess kidney viability is needed. For the first time, the initial development and characterization of a metabolic microsensor to assess kidney viability is presented. The rate of glucose consumption appears to serve as an indicator of kidney metabolism that may distinguish reversible from irreversible kidney damage. The proposed MetaSense (Metabolic Sensor) microdevice would replace periodic laboratory diagnosis tests with a continuous monitor that provides real-time data on organ viability. Amperometry, a technique that correlates an electrical signal with analyte concentration, is used as a method to detect glucose concentrations. A novel two-electrode electrochemical sensing cell design is presented. It uses a modified metallic working electrode (WE) and a bare metallic reference electrode (RE) that acts as a pseudo-reference/counter electrode as well. The proposed microsensor has the potential to be used as a minimally invasive sensor for its reduced number of probes and very small dimensions achieved by micromachining and lithography. In order to improve selectivity of the microdevice, two electron transfer mechanisms or generations were explored. A first generation microsensor uses molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor in the enzymatic reaction and oxidizes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to get the electrical signal. The microsensor's modified WE with conductive polymer polypyrrole (PPy) and corresponding enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized into its matrix, constitutes the electrochemical detection mechanism. Photoluminescence spectroscopic analysis confirmed and quantified enzyme immobilized concentrations within the matrix. In

  10. Reliable glucose monitoring by ex-vivo blood microdialysis and infrared spectrometry for patients in critical care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlsing, Thorsten; Delbeck, Sven; Budde, Janpeter; Ihrig, Dieter; Leonhardt, Steffen; Heise, H. Michael

    2017-02-01

    Blood glucose monitoring has been realised by biosensors in combination with micro-dialysis, using either subcutaneously or intravascularly implanted catheters. Another alternative is ex-vivo micro-dialysis of continuously sampled heparinized whole blood available from the patient even under critical care conditions. However, most devices suffer from inaccuracies due to variable recovery rates. Infrared spectrometry has been suggested for analyte quantification, since besides glucose other clinically relevant analytes can be simultaneously determined that are, e.g., important for intensive care patients. Perfusates with acetate and mannitol have been investigated as recovery markers (internal standards). In contrast to the previously used acetate, an almost linear dependency between mannitol loss and glucose recovery was observed for micro-dialysis of glucose spiked aqueous albumin solutions or porcine heparinized whole blood when testing flat membranes within a custom-made micro-dialysator. By this, a straightforward compensation of any dialysis recovery rate variation during patient monitoring is possible. The combination of microdialysis with infrared spectrometry provides a calibration-free assay for accurate continuous glucose monitoring, as reference spectra of dialysate components can be a-priori allocated.

  11. Skin-like biosensor system via electrochemical channels for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yihao; Lu, Siyuan; Zhang, Shasha; Li, Yan; Qu, Zhe; Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Wang, Xinyan; Feng, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Currently, noninvasive glucose monitoring is not widely appreciated because of its uncertain measurement accuracy, weak blood glucose correlation, and inability to detect hyperglycemia/hypoglycemia during sleep. We present a strategy to design and fabricate a skin-like biosensor system for noninvasive, in situ, and highly accurate intravascular blood glucose monitoring. The system integrates an ultrathin skin-like biosensor with paper battery–powered electrochemical twin channels (ETCs). The ...

  12. Glucose monitoring as a guide to diabetes management. Critical subject review.

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, B.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To encourage a balanced approach to blood glucose monitoring in diabetes by a critical review of the history, power and cost of glucose testing. DATA SOURCES: The Cambridge Data Base was searched and was supplemented by a random review of other relevant sources, including textbooks, company pamphlets, and laboratory manuals. STUDY SELECTION: Keywords used were "glucosuria diagnosis," "blood glucose self-monitoring," "glycosylated hemoglobin," and "fructosamine" for the 10-year period...

  13. A Model of Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose Measurement Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettoretti, Martina; Facchinetti, Andrea; Sparacino, Giovanni; Cobelli, Claudio

    2017-07-01

    A reliable model of the probability density function (PDF) of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) measurement error would be important for several applications in diabetes, like testing in silico insulin therapies. In the literature, the PDF of SMBG error is usually described by a Gaussian function, whose symmetry and simplicity are unable to properly describe the variability of experimental data. Here, we propose a new methodology to derive more realistic models of SMBG error PDF. The blood glucose range is divided into zones where error (absolute or relative) presents a constant standard deviation (SD). In each zone, a suitable PDF model is fitted by maximum-likelihood to experimental data. Model validation is performed by goodness-of-fit tests. The method is tested on two databases collected by the One Touch Ultra 2 (OTU2; Lifescan Inc, Milpitas, CA) and the Bayer Contour Next USB (BCN; Bayer HealthCare LLC, Diabetes Care, Whippany, NJ). In both cases, skew-normal and exponential models are used to describe the distribution of errors and outliers, respectively. Two zones were identified: zone 1 with constant SD absolute error; zone 2 with constant SD relative error. Goodness-of-fit tests confirmed that identified PDF models are valid and superior to Gaussian models used so far in the literature. The proposed methodology allows to derive realistic models of SMBG error PDF. These models can be used in several investigations of present interest in the scientific community, for example, to perform in silico clinical trials to compare SMBG-based with nonadjunctive CGM-based insulin treatments.

  14. The accuracy of self monitoring blood glucose meter systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many patients were referred to Kololo polyclinic laboratory to have their blood glucose checked because the values obtained on the patients' glucose meter systems did not tally with familiar clinical signs and symptoms. This prompted an experimental set up to check glucose meter systems using a larger number of patients.

  15. Blood Glucose Monitoring Before and After Type 1 Diabetes Clinic Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Kimberly A; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Wang, Yuxia; Wright, Nancy; Deeb, Larry C

    2017-12-23

    To determine patterns of blood glucose monitoring in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) before and after routine T1D clinic visits. Blood glucose monitoring data were downloaded at four consecutive routine clinic visits from children and adolescents aged 5-18 years. Linear mixed models were used to analyze patterns of blood glucose monitoring in patients who had at least 28 days of data stored in their blood glucose monitors. In general, the frequency of blood glucose monitoring decreased across visits, and younger children engaged in more frequent blood glucose monitoring. Blood glucose monitoring increased before the T1D clinic visits in younger children, but not in adolescents. It declined after the visit regardless of age. Members of the T1D care team need to consider that a T1D clinic visit may prompt an increase in blood glucose monitoring when making treatment changes and recommendations. Tailored interventions are needed to maintain that higher level of adherence across time. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. [Wireless device for monitoring the patients with chronic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorap, R; Zaharia, D; Corciovă, C; Ungureanu, Monica; Lupu, R; Stan, A

    2008-01-01

    Remote monitoring of chronic diseases can improve health outcomes and potentially lower health care costs. The high number of the patients, suffering of chronically diseases, who wish to stay at home rather then in a hospital increasing the need of homecare monitoring and have lead to a high demand of wearable medical devices. Also, extended patient monitoring during normal activity has become a very important target. In this paper are presented the design of the wireless monitoring devices based on ultra low power circuits, high storage memory flash, bluetooth communication and the firmware for the management of the monitoring device. The monitoring device is built using an ultra low power microcontroller (MSP430 from Texas Instruments) that offers the advantage of high integration of some circuits. The custom made electronic boards used for biosignal acquisition are also included modules for storage device (SD/MMC card) with FAT32 file system and Bluetooth device for short-range communication used for data transmission between monitoring device and PC or PDA. The work was focused on design and implementation of an ultra low power wearable device able to acquire patient vital parameters, causing minimal discomfort and allowing high mobility. The proposed wireless device could be used as a warning system for monitoring during normal activity.

  17. Equipment abnormality monitoring method and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Asakura, Yamato; Uemura, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shunsuke; Oyamada, Osamu; Oyobe, Koji.

    1994-01-01

    In the present invention, it is judged whether the operation state of equipments used in a plant are normal or not by using learning performances. That is, a plurality of monitoring parameters are measured for an equipment. Previously determined monitoring parameters are extracted. A leaning mode or a monitoring mode is selected. In the leaning mode, based on the values of previously determined monitoring parameters, values of other monitoring parameters during normal states are learned. In the monitoring mode, based on the values of the previously determined monitoring parameters, typical values of other leaned monitoring parameters are outputted. The typical values of other normal monitoring parameters after learning and the values of other parameters at the present time are compared. If the values of the other parameters at the present time are out of normal range, it is judged as abnormal, and the result is alarmed and displayed. (I.S.)

  18. Detection of hypoglycemia with continuous interstitial and traditional blood glucose monitoring using the FreeStyle Navigator Continuous Glucose Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarraugh, Geoffrey; Bergenstal, Richard

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the analysis was to compare detection of hypoglycemic episodes (glucose 15 min) with the FreeStyle Navigator Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (FSN-CGM) (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) alarms to detection with traditional finger stick testing at an average frequency of eight tests per day. The performance of FSN-CGM alarms was evaluated in a clinic setting using 58 subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) monitoring interstitial glucose concentration over a 5-day period compared to reference YSI measurements (instrument manufactured by YSI, Yellow Springs, OH) at 15-min intervals. Finger stick glucose testing was evaluated in the home environment with 91 subjects with TIDM monitoring with the blood glucose meter integrated into the FreeStyle Navigator (FSN-BG) over a 20-day period. The reference was FSN-CGM with results masked from the subjects. Blood glucose values glucose was <= 85 mg/dL 77.2% of the time. In the home environment, the average FSN-BG testing frequency was 7.9 tests per day. Hypoglycemia was verified within +/- 30 min by FSN-BG measurements <= 85 mg/dL at a rate of 27.5%. Even with a high rate of FSN-BG testing, hypoglycemia detected by FSN-CGM was verified by patients with T1DM very infrequently. A high rate of hypoglycemia detection with a moderate rate of unnecessary alarms can be attained using FSN-CGM.

  19. Is Continuous Glucose Monitoring Underappreciated in the UK?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Christopher G; Holloway, Melissa; Truesdell, Jeffrey; C Walker, Tomas

    2017-08-01

    Information about continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) use in the UK is limited. We conducted an online survey of a representative sample of current CGM users in England, Scotland and Wales to address this deficit. The 29-item online survey was conducted between 29 December 2016 and 25 January 2017. Persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and caregivers of T1D children/adolescents were recruited from mailing lists, using Nielsen and Harris Polling databases. 315 patients and caregivers responded to the survey - 170 adult patients and 145 caregivers. Among respondents, 144 received full funding for CGM use, 72 received partial funding and 83 received no funding. Most reported improvements in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (67.0%), fewer hypoglycaemia episodes (70.2%), improved hypoglycaemia awareness (77.5%) and better diabetes management (92.4%). Self-funders reported significantly higher CGM use (76.1%) than those who were fully funded (58.9%) and/or partially funded (65.9%), p=0.0008. Fewer than 50% of all respondents reported receiving guidance in interpreting CGM data from their diabetes care team; 30.1% of self-funders reported receiving no CGM support from their diabetes team compared with fully funded (2.8%) and partially funded (1.4%) respondents, p<0.0001. Patients with T1D and their caregivers are realising benefits from CGM use but are largely unsupported by the UK healthcare system.

  20. Usage monitoring of electrical devices in a smart home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Saba; Chan, Adrian D C; Goubran, Rafik A

    2011-01-01

    Profiling the usage of electrical devices within a smart home can be used as a method for determining an occupant's activities of daily living. A nonintrusive load monitoring system monitors the electrical consumption at a single electrical source (e.g., main electric utility service entry) and the operating schedules of individual devices are determined by disaggregating the composite electrical consumption waveforms. An electrical device's load signature plays a key role in nonintrusive load monitoring systems. A load signature is the unique electrical behaviour of an individual device when it is in operation. This paper proposes a feature-based model, using the real power and reactive power as features for describing the load signatures of individual devices. Experimental results for single device recognition for 7 devices show that the proposed approach can achieve 100% classification accuracy with discriminant analysis using Mahalanobis distances.

  1. A comparative effectiveness analysis of three continuous glucose monitors: the Navigator, G4 Platinum, and Enlite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Edward R; McKeon, Katherine; El-Khatib, Firas H; Zheng, Hui; Nathan, David M; Russell, Steven J

    2014-07-01

    The effectiveness and safety of continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) is dependent on their accuracy and reliability. The objective of this study was to compare 3 CGMs in adult and pediatric subjects with type 1 diabetes under closed-loop blood-glucose (BG) control. Twenty-four subjects (12 adults) with type 1 diabetes each participated in one 48-hour closed-loop BG control experiment. Venous plasma glucose (PG) measurements obtained every 15 minutes (4657 values) were paired in time with corresponding CGM glucose (CGMG) measurements obtained from 3 CGMs (FreeStyle Navigator, Abbott Diabetes Care; G4 Platinum, Dexcom; Enlite, Medtronic) worn simultaneously by each subject. The Navigator and G4 Platinum (G4) had the best overall accuracy, with an aggregate mean absolute relative difference (MARD) of all paired points of 12.3 ± 12.1% and 10.8 ± 9.9%, respectively. Both had lower MARDs of all paired points than Enlite (17.9 ± 15.8%, P 50%) were less common with the G4 (0.5%) than with the Enlite (4.3%, P = .0001) while the number of very large errors with the Navigator (1.4%) was intermediate between the G4 and Enlite (P = .1 and P = .06, respectively). The average MARD for experiments in adolescent subjects were lower than in adult subjects for the Navigator and G4, while there was no difference for Enlite. All 3 devices had similar reliability. A comprehensive head-to-head-to-head comparison of 3 CGMs revealed marked differences in both accuracy and precision. The Navigator and G4 were found to outperform the Enlite in these areas. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  2. Continuous glucose monitoring in newborn infants: how do errors in calibration measurements affect detected hypoglycemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Felicity; Signal, Mathew; Harris, Deborah L; Weston, Philip J; Harding, Jane E; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2014-05-01

    Neonatal hypoglycemia is common and can cause serious brain injury. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) could improve hypoglycemia detection, while reducing blood glucose (BG) measurements. Calibration algorithms use BG measurements to convert sensor signals into CGM data. Thus, inaccuracies in calibration BG measurements directly affect CGM values and any metrics calculated from them. The aim was to quantify the effect of timing delays and calibration BG measurement errors on hypoglycemia metrics in newborn infants. Data from 155 babies were used. Two timing and 3 BG meter error models (Abbott Optium Xceed, Roche Accu-Chek Inform II, Nova Statstrip) were created using empirical data. Monte-Carlo methods were employed, and each simulation was run 1000 times. Each set of patient data in each simulation had randomly selected timing and/or measurement error added to BG measurements before CGM data were calibrated. The number of hypoglycemic events, duration of hypoglycemia, and hypoglycemic index were then calculated using the CGM data and compared to baseline values. Timing error alone had little effect on hypoglycemia metrics, but measurement error caused substantial variation. Abbott results underreported the number of hypoglycemic events by up to 8 and Roche overreported by up to 4 where the original number reported was 2. Nova results were closest to baseline. Similar trends were observed in the other hypoglycemia metrics. Errors in blood glucose concentration measurements used for calibration of CGM devices can have a clinically important impact on detection of hypoglycemia. If CGM devices are going to be used for assessing hypoglycemia it is important to understand of the impact of these errors on CGM data. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  3. The experiences of diabetics on self-monitoring of blood glucose: a qualitative metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Mei; Chang Yeh, Mei

    2015-03-01

    To interpret, describe and analyse the results of various qualitative studies and comprehensively elucidate the self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences of diabetic patients, and to make recommendations based on these findings for clinical practices. Patients exhibited both positive and negative perceptions towards the self-monitoring of blood glucose. Numerous recent qualitative studies have explored the self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences of diabetic patients; however, no integrated results have been provided. Qualitative metasynthesis. A systematic literature search of English and Chinese databases was undertaken, covering the period between January 2004 and April 2014. The following databases were searched: CINAHL, PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Airiti library and PsycInfo. Seven studies were assessed in the final analysis; the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument was used to evaluate these studies. The self-monitoring experiences of patients with diabetes were divided into five themes: perceived disease severity, effects on daily life, lifestyle adjustments after becoming aware of blood glucose levels, determining the meaning of self-monitoring, and the differences between diabetic patients who use and do not use insulin. Individual differences in blood glucose self-monitoring vary widely among diabetic patients. These differences result from personal cognition and feelings concerning blood glucose monitoring. Insights into and discussions regarding the self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences of diabetic patients enable health care professionals to understand the factors that influence the intentions of patients to perform self-monitoring of blood glucose and facilitate establishing customised self-monitoring of blood glucose treatment plans. Health care professionals must adopt flexible and individualised criteria to determine patient cognitive misconceptions, understand negative emotional reactions and

  4. First Clinical Experience with Retrospective Flash Glucose Monitoring (FGM) Analysis in South Africa: Characterizing Glycemic Control with Ambulatory Glucose Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distiller, Larry A; Cranston, Iain; Mazze, Roger

    2016-11-01

    In 2014, an innovative blinded continuous glucose monitoring system was introduced with automated ambulatory glucose profile (AGP) reporting. The clinical use and interpretation of this new technology has not previously been described. Therefore we wanted to understand its use in characterizing key factors related to glycemic control: glucose exposure, variability, and stability, and risk of hypoglycemia in clinical practice. Clinicians representing affiliated diabetes centers throughout South Africa were trained and subsequently were given flash glucose monitoring readers and 2-week glucose sensors to use at their discretion. After patient use, sensor data were collected and uploaded for AGP reporting. Complete data (sensor AGP with corresponding clinical information) were obtained for 50 patients with type 1 (70%) and type 2 diabetes (30%), irrespective of therapy. Aggregated analysis of AGP data comparing patients with type 1 versus type 2 diabetes, revealed that despite similar HbA1c values between both groups (8.4 ± 2 vs 8.6 ± 1.7%, respectively), those with type 2 diabetes had lower mean glucose levels (9.2 ± 3 vs 10.3 mmol/l [166 ± 54 vs 185 mg/dl]) and lower indices of glucose variability (3.0 ± 1.5 vs 5.0 ± 1.9 mmol/l [54 ± 27 vs 90 ± 34.2 mg/dl]). This highlights key areas for future focus. Using AGP, the characteristics of glucose exposure, variability, stability, and hypoglycemia risk and occurrence were obtained within a short time and with minimal provider and patient input. In a survey at the time of the follow-up visit, clinicians indicated that aggregated AGP data analysis provided important new clinical information and insights. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  5. Continuous Glucose Monitoring: Current Use in Diabetes Management and Possible Future Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettoretti, Martina; Cappon, Giacomo; Acciaroli, Giada; Facchinetti, Andrea; Sparacino, Giovanni

    2018-05-01

    The recent announcement of the production of new low-cost continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors, the approval of marketed CGM sensors for making treatment decisions, and new reimbursement criteria have the potential to revolutionize CGM use. After briefly summarizing current CGM applications, we discuss how, in our opinion, these changes are expected to extend CGM utilization beyond diabetes patients, for example, to subjects with prediabetes or even healthy individuals. We also elaborate on how the integration of CGM data with other relevant information, for example, health records and other medical device/wearable sensor data, will contribute to creating a digital data ecosystem that will improve our understanding of the etiology and complications of diabetes and will facilitate the development of data analytics for personalized diabetes management and prevention.

  6. Venous, Arterialized-Venous, or Capillary Glucose Reference Measurements for the Accuracy Assessment of a Continuous Glucose Monitoring System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kropff, Jort; van Steen, Sigrid C.; deGraaff, Peter; Chan, Man W.; van Amstel, Rombout B. E.; DeVries, J. Hans

    2017-01-01

    Background: Different reference methods are used for the accuracy assessment of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems. The effect of using venous, arterialized-venous, or capillary reference measurements on CGM accuracy is unclear. Methods: We evaluated 21 individuals with type 1 diabetes

  7. Glucose control in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Studies using a continuous glucose monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssen, Anneloes

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with neonatal morbidity. It is commonly agreed that the morbidity decreases when diabetic control is tightened. The most common methods for the determination of diabetic control are the self-monitoring of blood glucose levels (SMBG) and

  8. Patient satisfaction and barriers to initiating real-time continuous glucose monitoring in early pregnancy in women with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, A L; Madsen, A B; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm

    2012-01-01

    of initial monitoring). Ten women (15%) did not wish to use continuous glucose monitoring again in pregnancy. Main causes behind early removal of continuous glucose monitoring were self-reported skin irritation, technical problems and continuous glucose monitoring inaccuracy. No differences were found......Aim: To evaluate self-reported satisfaction and barriers to initiating real-time continuous glucose monitoring in early pregnancy among women with pregestational diabetes. Methods: Fifty-four women with Type 1 diabetes and 14 women with Type 2 diabetes were offered continuous glucose monitoring...

  9. Barriers to blood glucose monitoring in a multiethnic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgibor, Janice C; Simmons, David

    2002-10-01

    We studied a multiethnic community to determine factors associated with blood glucose monitoring (BGM) and to determine the independent association between barriers to diabetes care and BGM. A total of 323 participants (35.6% European, 32.2% Maori, and 32.2% Pacific Islander) from the South Auckland Diabetes Project (free of major complications by self-report) completed a qualitative survey to determine barriers to diabetes care. Five barriers to diabetes care categories were generated including internal psychological (self efficacy/health beliefs), external psychological (psychosocial environment), internal physical (comorbidities/side effects of treatment), external physical (finance/access to care), and educational (knowledge of diabetes/services) barriers. Characteristics associated with BGM greater than or equal to twice weekly were female sex, HbA(1c) >8%, higher diabetes knowledge scores, and insulin use. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that those reporting external physical barriers (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.26-0.84), external psychological barriers (0.55, 0.30-1.0), and internal psychological barriers (0.56, 0.32-1.0) were less likely to perform BGM independent of ethnicity, insulin use, age, sex, diabetes knowledge, and glycemic control. Further multivariate analyses demonstrated that those reporting external physical barriers, particularly related to personal finance, were less likely to perform BGM. These data demonstrate that patient-reported barriers to diabetes care are associated with BGM, particularly in relation to financial, psychosocial, and self-efficacy issues. Understanding these barriers and overcoming them within the context of the patient's ethnic environment may lead to increased participation in self-care.

  10. Continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring by spectral image differencing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Liao, Ningfang; Cheng, Haobo; Liang, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the use of implantable enzyme electrode sensor is the main method for continuous blood glucose monitoring. But the effect of electrochemical reactions and the significant drift caused by bioelectricity in body will reduce the accuracy of the glucose measurements. So the enzyme-based glucose sensors need to be calibrated several times each day by the finger-prick blood corrections. This increases the patient's pain. In this paper, we proposed a method for continuous Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring by spectral image differencing method in the near infrared band. The method uses a high-precision CCD detector to switch the filter in a very short period of time, obtains the spectral images. And then by using the morphological method to obtain the spectral image differences, the dynamic change of blood sugar is reflected in the image difference data. Through the experiment proved that this method can be used to monitor blood glucose dynamically to a certain extent.

  11. Noradrenaline and acetylcholine responsiveness of glucose-monitoring and glucose-insensitive neurons in the mediodorsal prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Bernadett; Szabó, István; Csetényi, Bettina; Hormay, Edina; Papp, Szilárd; Keresztes, Dóra; Karádi, Zoltán

    2014-01-16

    The mediodorsal prefrontal cortex (mdPFC), as part of the forebrain glucose-monitoring (GM) system, plays important role in several regulatory processes to control the internal state of the organism and to initiate behavioral outputs accordingly. Little is known, however, about the neurochemical sensitivity of neurons located in this area. Substantial evidence indicates that the locus ceruleus - noradrenaline (NA) projection system and the nucleus basalis magnocellularis - cholinergic projection system regulate behavioral state and state dependent processing of sensory information, various cognitive functions already associated with the mdPFC. The main goal of the present study was to examine noradrenergic and cholinergic responsiveness of glucose-monitoring and glucose-insensitive (GIS) neurons in the mediodorsal prefrontal cortex. One fifth of the neurons tested changed in firing rate to microelectrophoretically applied NA. Responsiveness of the GM cells to this catecholamine proved to be significantly higher than that of the GIS units. Microiontophoretic application of acetylcholine (Ach) resulted in activity changes (predominantly facilitation) of more than 40% of the mdPFC neurons. Proportion of Ach sensitive units among the GM and the GIS neurons was found to be similar. The glucose-monitoring neurons of the mdPFC and their distinct NA and remarkable Ach sensitivity are suggested to be of particular significance in prefrontal control of adaptive behaviors. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. ONLINE MONITORING OF EXTRACELLULAR BRAIN GLUCOSE USING MICRODIALYSIS AND A NADPH-LINKED ENZYMATIC ASSAY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERKUIL, JHF; KORF, J

    A method to monitor extracellular glucose in freely moving rats, based on intracerebral microdialysis coupled to an enzyme reactor is described. The dialysate is continuously mixed with a solution containing the enzymes hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and the fluorescence of NADPH

  13. BAKNET - Communication network for radiation monitoring devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Y.; Wengrowicz, U.; Tirosh, D.; Barak, D.

    1997-01-01

    A system, based on a new concept of controlling and monitoring distributed radiation monitors, has been developed and approved at the NRCN. The system, named B AKNET Network , consists of a series of communication adapters connected to a main PC via an RS-485 communication network (see Fig. 1). The network's maximal length is 1200 meters and it enables connection of up to 128 adapters. The BAKNET adapters are designed to interface output signals of different types of stationary radiation monitors to a main PC. The BAKNET adapters' interface type includes: digital, analog, RS-232, and mixed output signals. This allows versatile interfacing of different stationary radiation monitors to the main computer. The connection to the main computer is via an RS-485 network, utilizing an identical communication protocol. The PC software, written in C ++ under MS-Windows, consists of two main programs. The first is the data collection program and the second is the Human Machine Interface (HMI). (authors)

  14. [CGM-Continuous Glucose Monitoring--Statement of the Austrian Diabetes Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz-Fuhrmann, Ingrid; Rami-Merhar, Birgit; Hofer, Sabine; Stadler, Marietta; Bischof, Martin; Zlamal-Fortunat, Sandra; Laimer, Markus; Weitgasser, Raimund; Prager, Rudolf

    2016-04-01

    This position statement represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association regarding the clinical diagnostic and therapeutic application, safety and benefits of continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring systems in patients with diabetes mellitus, based on current evidence.

  15. [CGM-continuous glucose monitoring - statement of the Austrian Diabetes Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz-Fuhrmann, Ingrid; Schober, Edith; Rami, Birgit; Stadler, Marietta; Bischof, Martin; Fortunat, Sandra; Laimer, Markus; Weitgasser, Raimund; Prager, Rudolf

    2012-12-01

    This position statement represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association regarding the clinical diagnostic and therapeutic application, safety and benefits of continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring systems in patients with diabetes mellitus, based on current evidence.

  16. Effects of self-monitoring of blood glucose on diabetes control in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods:This study assessed the effect on diabetes control in patients who received glucometers and education ... Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) helps patients make ..... unhealthy eating habits could possibly be related to the low.

  17. Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugurlan, Maria; Tuffner, Francis K; Chassin, David P.

    2016-09-13

    Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage device includes a reservoir configured to hold a thermal energy storage medium, a temperature control system configured to adjust a temperature of the thermal energy storage medium, and a state observation system configured to provide information regarding an energy state of the thermal energy storage device at a plurality of different moments in time.

  18. On-line monitoring of Glucose and penicillin by sequential injection analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, R.W.; Nielsen, Jens Bredal; Villadsen, John

    1996-01-01

    and a detector. The glucose analyzer is based on an enzymatic reaction using glucose oxidase, which converts glucose to glucono-lactone with formation of hydrogen peroxide and subsequent detection of H2O2 by a chemiluminescence reaction involving luminol. The penicillin analysis is based on formation......A sequential injection analysis (SIA) system has been developed for on-line monitoring of glucose and penicillin during cultivations of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. The SIA system consists of a peristaltic pump, an injection valve, two piston pumps, two multi-position valves...

  19. Device for contamination monitoring against radiation contamination of people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rische, U.W.; Gerlach, R.

    1986-01-01

    The monitor has detector devices at an angle to each other made as a rigid component which can be rotated around a vertical axis in the angle between the joined detector devices. A reset drive which can be tensioned is provided at the axis of rotation. If it is in its rest position, a platform is situated as floor plate with a foot detector between the vertical detector devices. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Evaluation of Postprandial Glucose Excursion Using a Novel Minimally Invasive Glucose Area-Under-the-Curve Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachi Kuranuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET to monitor postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC without blood sampling, we evaluated the accuracy of glucose AUC measured by MIET and compared with that by blood sampling after food intake. Methods: Interstitial fluid glucose AUC (IG-AUC following consumption of 6 different types of foods was measured by MIET. MIET consisted of stamping microneedle arrays, placing hydrogel patches on the areas, and calculating IG-AUC based on glucose levels in the hydrogels. Glycemic index (GI was determined using IG-AUC and reference AUC measured by blood sampling. Results: IG-AUC strongly correlated with reference AUC (R = 0.91, and GI determined using IG-AUC showed good correlation with that determined by reference AUC (R = 0.88. Conclusions: IG-AUC obtained by MIET can accurately predict the postprandial glucose excursion without blood sampling. In addition, feasibility of GI measurement by MIET was confirmed.

  1. Effects of simulated altitude on blood glucose meter performance: implications for in-flight blood glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olateju, Tolu; Begley, Joseph; Flanagan, Daniel; Kerr, David

    2012-07-01

    Most manufacturers of blood glucose monitoring equipment do not give advice regarding the use of their meters and strips onboard aircraft, and some airlines have blood glucose testing equipment in the aircraft cabin medical bag. Previous studies using older blood glucose meters (BGMs) have shown conflicting results on the performance of both glucose oxidase (GOX)- and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH)-based meters at high altitude. The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of four new-generation BGMs at sea level and at a simulated altitude equivalent to that used in the cabin of commercial aircrafts. Blood glucose measurements obtained by two GDH and two GOX BGMs at sea level and simulated altitude of 8000 feet in a hypobaric chamber were compared with measurements obtained using a YSI 2300 blood glucose analyzer as a reference method. Spiked venous blood samples of three different glucose levels were used. The accuracy of each meter was determined by calculating percentage error of each meter compared with the YSI reference and was also assessed against standard International Organization for Standardization (ISO) criteria. Clinical accuracy was evaluated using the consensus error grid method. The percentage (standard deviation) error for GDH meters at sea level and altitude was 13.36% (8.83%; for meter 1) and 12.97% (8.03%; for meter 2) with p = .784, and for GOX meters was 5.88% (7.35%; for meter 3) and 7.38% (6.20%; for meter 4) with p = .187. There was variation in the number of time individual meters met the standard ISO criteria ranging from 72-100%. Results from all four meters at both sea level and simulated altitude fell within zones A and B of the consensus error grid, using YSI as the reference. Overall, at simulated altitude, no differences were observed between the performance of GDH and GOX meters. Overestimation of blood glucose concentration was seen among individual meters evaluated, but none of the results obtained would have resulted in

  2. Analysis of Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Pregnant Women With Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, Graham R; Ellison, George T H; Secher, Anna L

    2015-01-01

    with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Functional data analysis (FDA) was applied to 1.68 million glucose measurements from 759 measurement episodes, obtained from two previously published randomized controlled trials of CGM in pregnant women with diabetes. A total of 117 women with type 1 diabetes (n = 89...... developed LGA. LGA was associated with lower mean glucose (7.0 vs. 7.1 mmol/L; P FDA showed that glucose was significantly lower midmorning (0900-1100 h) and early...... evening (1900-2130 h) in trimester 1, significantly higher early morning (0330-0630 h) and throughout the afternoon (1130-1700 h) in trimester 2, and significantly higher during the evening (2030-2330 h) in trimester 3 in women whose infants were LGA. CONCLUSIONS: FDA of CGM data identified specific times...

  3. Comparison of Glucose Area Under the Curve Measured Using Minimally Invasive Interstitial Fluid Extraction Technology with Continuous Glucose Monitoring System in Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Uemura, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is reported to be a useful technique, but difficult or inconvenient for some patients and institutions. We are developing a glucose area under the curve (AUC) monitoring system without blood sampling using a minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET). Here we evaluated the accuracy of interstitial fluid glucose (IG) AUC measured by MIET in patients with diabetes for an extended time interval and the potency of detecting h...

  4. Comparison of Glucose Area Under the Curve Measured Using Minimally Invasive Interstitial Fluid Extraction Technology with Continuous Glucose Monitoring System in Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mei Uemura; Yutaka Yano; Toshinari Suzuki; Taro Yasuma; Toshiyuki Sato; Aya Morimoto; Samiko Hosoya; Chihiro Suminaka; Hiromu Nakajima; Esteban C. Gabazza; Yoshiyuki Takei

    2017-01-01

    Background Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is reported to be a useful technique, but difficult or inconvenient for some patients and institutions. We are developing a glucose area under the curve (AUC) monitoring system without blood sampling using a minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET). Here we evaluated the accuracy of interstitial fluid glucose (IG) AUC measured by MIET in patients with diabetes for an extended time interval and the potency of detecting hy...

  5. Water level monitoring device in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Kiyohide; Otake, Tomohiro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To monitor the water level in a pressure vessel of BWR type nuclear reactors at high accuracy by improving the compensation functions. Constitution: In the conventional water level monitor in a nuclear reactor, if the pressure vessel is displaced by the change of the pressure in the reactor or the temperature of the reactor water, the relative level of the reference water head in a condensation vessel is changed to cause deviation between the actual water level and the indicated water level to reduce the monitoring accuracy. According to the invention, means for detecting the position of the reference water head and means for detection the position in the condensation vessel are disposed to the pressure vessel. Then, relative positional change between the condensation vessel and the reference water head is calculated based on detection sinals from both of the means. The water level is compensated and calculated by water level calculation means based on the relative positional change, water level signals from the level gage and the pressure signals from the pressure gage. As a result, if the pressure vessel is displaced due to the change of the temperature or pressure, it is possible to measure the reactor water level accurately thereby remakably improve the reliability for the water level control in the nuclear reactor. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Evaluation of Commercial Self-Monitoring Devices for Clinical Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Soren; Hansen, John; Nielsen, Olav W

    2017-01-01

    Commercial self-monitoring devices are becoming increasingly popular, and over the last decade, the use of self-monitoring technology has spread widely in both consumer and medical markets. The purpose of this study was to evaluate five commercially available self-monitoring devices for further...... activity trackers and compared to gyroscope readings. Two trackers were also tested on nine subjects by comparing pulse readings to Holter monitoring. RESULTS: The lowest average systematic error in the walking tests was -0.2%, recorded on the Garmin Vivofit 2 at 3.5 km/h; the highest error was the Fitbit...... the current functionality and limitations of the five self-tracking devices, and point towards a need for future research in this area....

  7. Electrocardiographic Patch Devices and Contemporary Wireless Cardiac Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eFung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac electrophysiologic derangements often coexist with disorders of the circulatory system. Capturing and diagnosing arrhythmias and conduction system disease may lead to a change in diagnosis, clinical management and patient outcomes. Standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG, Holter monitors and event recorders have served as useful diagnostic tools over the last few decades. However, their shortcomings are only recently being addressed by emerging technologies. With advances in device miniaturization and wireless technologies, and changing consumer expectations, wearable ‘on-body’ ECG patch devices have evolved to meet contemporary needs. These devices are unobtrusive and easy to use, leading to increased device wear time and diagnostic yield. While becoming the standard for detecting arrhythmias and conduction system disorders in the outpatient setting where continuous ECG monitoring in the short to medium term (days to weeks is indicated, these cardiac devices and related digital mobile health technologies are reshaping the clinician-patient interface with important implications for future healthcare delivery.

  8. Optically monitoring device in reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Kawamoto, Kikuo.

    1993-01-01

    In the device of the present invention, cable penetrations are necessary for transmission from a great number of electrical instrumentations disposed in a reactor container to the outside. Optical cables are passed through the cable penetrations to use optical signals for signal transmission. That is, pulses are injected from one end of the optical cable and a specific light (raman scattered light) among reflected lights, after elapse of a predetermined time, is measured. With such procedures, temperature at the reflection point can be measured. In this case, if emission and discrimination of the pulses are conducted in a time sharing fashion, the temperature is measured as an average value for the 1m length corresponding to the time determined by the limit. Accordingly, greater number of temperature measuring points than that in the prior art (there is a reactor which has about 170 points) are measured by a lesser number of cables (one at minimum). For instruments used for other than temperature, if the device is diagnosed by itself, by making the constitution intelligent and utilizing optical output, reliability for the measurement can be improved. (I.S.)

  9. Glucose monitoring as a guide to diabetes management. Critical subject review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, B

    1996-06-01

    To encourage a balanced approach to blood glucose monitoring in diabetes by a critical review of the history, power and cost of glucose testing. The Cambridge Data Base was searched and was supplemented by a random review of other relevant sources, including textbooks, company pamphlets, and laboratory manuals. Keywords used were "glucosuria diagnosis," "blood glucose self-monitoring," "glycosylated hemoglobin," and "fructosamine" for the 10-year period ending 1992, restricted to English language and human. About 200 titles were retrieved and reviewed according to the author's judgment of relevance. "Snapshot tests" (venous and capillary blood glucose) and "memory tests" (urine glucose, glycated hemoglobin fractions and fructosamine) must be employed according to individual patients treatment goals. Day-to-day metabolic guidance is facilitated by capillary blood glucose testing for patients receiving insulin and by urine glucose testing for others. Capillary blood glucose testing is mandatory in cases of hypoglycemia unawareness (inability to sense hypoglycemia because of neuropathy) but is not a substitute for a knowledge of clinical hypoglycemia self-care. Criteria by reason (clinical judgement and cost effectiveness) must be separated from criteria by emotion (preoccupation with technology and marketing). No randomized studies show that any of these tests consistently improve clinical outcome. Optimal metabolic control and cost savings can be expected from a rational selection of tests.

  10. Continuous glucose monitoring in subcutaneous tissue using factory-calibrated sensors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoss, Udo; Jeddi, Iman; Schulz, Mark; Budiman, Erwin; Bhogal, Claire; McGarraugh, Geoffrey

    2010-08-01

    Commercial continuous subcutaneous glucose monitors require in vivo calibration using capillary blood glucose tests. Feasibility of factory calibration, i.e., sensor batch characterization in vitro with no further need for in vivo calibration, requires a predictable and stable in vivo sensor sensitivity and limited inter- and intra-subject variation of the ratio of interstitial to blood glucose concentration. Twelve volunteers wore two FreeStyle Navigator (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) continuous glucose monitoring systems for 5 days in parallel for two consecutive sensor wears (four sensors per subject, 48 sensors total). Sensors from a prototype sensor lot with a low variability in glucose sensitivity were used for the study. Median sensor sensitivity values based on capillary blood glucose were calculated per sensor and compared for inter- and intra-subject variation. Mean absolute relative difference (MARD) calculation and error grid analysis were performed using a single calibration factor for all sensors to simulate factory calibration and compared to standard fingerstick calibration. Sensor sensitivity variation in vitro was 4.6%, which increased to 8.3% in vivo (P glucose monitoring is feasible with similar accuracy to standard fingerstick calibration. Additional data are required to confirm this result in subjects with diabetes.

  11. Monitoring device for local power peaking coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Ishi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To monitor the local power peaking coefficients obtained by the method not depending on the combination of fuel types. Method: A plurality of representative values for the local power distribution determined by the nuclear constant calculation for one fuel assembly are memorized regarding each of the burn-up degree and the void coefficient on every positions and fuel types in fuel rod assemblies. While on the other hand, the representative values for the local power distribution as described above are compensated by a compensation coefficient considering the effect of adjacent segments and a control rod compensation coefficient considering the effect due to the control rod insertion relative to the just-mentioned compensation coefficient. Then, the maximum value among them is selected to determine the local power peaking coefficient at each of the times and each of the segments, which is monitored. According to this system, the calculation and the working required for the fitting work depending on the combination of fuel types are no more required at all to facilitate the maintenance as well. (Horiuchi, T.)

  12. Salivary glucose in monitoring glycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Mak, Joon Wah

    2017-01-01

    Incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide. Monitoring glycaemia is essential for control of diabetes mellitus. Conventional blood-based measurement of glucose requires venepuncture or needle prick, which is not free from pain and risk of infection. The non-invasiveness, ease and low-cost in collection made saliva an attractive alternative sample. The objective of this review was to systematically review the evidence on the relationship between salivary glucose level and blood glucose level in monitoring glycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We searched studies which evaluate salivary glucose levels and serum glycaemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus in electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid and Google Scholar. We selected the eligible studies, following the inclusion criteria set for this review. Due to heterogeneity of studies, we conducted qualitative synthesis of studies. Ten observational studies were included in this review, including a total of 321 cases and 323 controls with ages between 3 and 61 years and the majority were males (62%). Two studies were done exclusively on children below 17 years old. The significant difference between salivary glucose levels in type 1 diabetes mellitus and controls were reported in 6 studies with 8 data sets. Five studies with 7 datasets reported the correlation coefficient between salivary glucose and blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Findings suggest that salivary glucose concentrations may be helpful in monitoring glycaemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the utility of using salivary glucose level to monitor glycaemia should be evaluated in future well designed, prospective studies with adequate number of participants with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Optical biosensor optimized for continuous in-line glucose monitoring in animal cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tric, Mircea; Lederle, Mario; Neuner, Lisa; Dolgowjasow, Igor; Wiedemann, Philipp; Wölfl, Stefan; Werner, Tobias

    2017-09-01

    Biosensors for continuous glucose monitoring in bioreactors could provide a valuable tool for optimizing culture conditions in biotechnological applications. We have developed an optical biosensor for long-term continuous glucose monitoring and demonstrated a tight glucose level control during cell culture in disposable bioreactors. The in-line sensor is based on a commercially available oxygen sensor that is coated with cross-linked glucose oxidase (GOD). The dynamic range of the sensor was tuned by a hydrophilic perforated diffusion membrane with an optimized permeability for glucose and oxygen. The biosensor was thoroughly characterized by experimental data and numerical simulations, which enabled insights into the internal concentration profile of the deactivating by-product hydrogen peroxide. The simulations were carried out with a one-dimensional biosensor model and revealed that, in addition to the internal hydrogen peroxide concentration, the turnover rate of the enzyme GOD plays a crucial role for biosensor stability. In the light of this finding, the glucose sensor was optimized to reach a long functional stability (>52 days) under continuous glucose monitoring conditions with a dynamic range of 0-20 mM and a response time of t 90  ≤ 10 min. In addition, we demonstrated that the sensor was sterilizable with beta and UV irradiation and only subjected to minor cross sensitivity to oxygen, when an oxygen reference sensor was applied. Graphical abstract Measuring setup of a glucose biosensor in a shake flask for continuous glucose monitoring in mammalian cell culture.

  14. Sensing interstitial glucose to nudge active lifestyles (SIGNAL): feasibility of combining novel self-monitoring technologies for persuasive behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Maxine E; Kingsnorth, Andrew P; Orme, Mark W; Sherar, Lauren B; Esliger, Dale W

    2017-10-08

    Increasing physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of developing diabetes, highlighting the role of preventive medicine approaches. Changing lifestyle behaviours is difficult and is often predicated on the assumption that individuals are willing to change their lifestyles today to reduce the risk of developing disease years or even decades later. The self-monitoring technologies tested in this study will present PA feedback in real time, parallel with acute physiological data. Presenting the immediate health benefits of being more physically active may help enact change by observing the immediate consequences of that behaviour. The present study aims to assess user engagement with the self-monitoring technologies in individuals at moderate-to-high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. 45 individuals with a moderate-to-high risk, aged ≥40 years old and using a compatible smartphone, will be invited to take part in a 7-week protocol. Following 1 week of baseline measurements, participants will be randomised into one of three groups: group 1- glucose feedback followed by biobehavioural feedback (glucose plus PA); group 2-PA feedback followed by biobehavioural feedback; group 3-biobehavioural feedback. A PA monitor and a flash glucose monitor will be deployed during the intervention. Participants will wear both devices throughout the intervention but blinded to feedback depending on group allocation. The primary outcome is the level of participant engagement and will be assessed by device use and smartphone usage. Feasibility will be assessed by the practicality of the technology and screening for diabetes risk. Semistructured interviews will be conducted to explore participant experiences using the technologies. ISRCTN17545949. Registered on 15/05/2017. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Parsimonious model for blood glucose level monitoring in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Ma, Yan Fen; Wen, Jing Xiao; DU, Yan Fang; Li, Chun Lin; Li, Guang Wei

    2014-07-01

    To establish the parsimonious model for blood glucose monitoring in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving oral hypoglycemic agent treatment. One hundred and fifty-nine adult Chinese type 2 diabetes patients were randomized to receive rapid-acting or sustained-release gliclazide therapy for 12 weeks. Their blood glucose levels were measured at 10 time points in a 24 h period before and after treatment, and the 24 h mean blood glucose levels were measured. Contribution of blood glucose levels to the mean blood glucose level and HbA1c was assessed by multiple regression analysis. The correlation coefficients of blood glucose level measured at 10 time points to the daily MBG were 0.58-0.74 and 0.59-0.79, respectively, before and after treatment (Pblood glucose levels measured at 6 of the 10 time points could explain 95% and 97% of the changes in MBG before and after treatment. The three blood glucose levels, which were measured at fasting, 2 h after breakfast and before dinner, of the 10 time points could explain 84% and 86% of the changes in MBG before and after treatment, but could only explain 36% and 26% of the changes in HbA1c before and after treatment, and they had a poorer correlation with the HbA1c than with the 24 h MBG. The blood glucose levels measured at fasting, 2 h after breakfast and before dinner truly reflected the change 24 h blood glucose level, suggesting that they are appropriate for the self-monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetes patients receiving oral anti-diabetes therapy. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  16. The performance of flash glucose monitoring in critically ill patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, Paolo; Eastwood, Glenn M; Lucchetta, Luca; Ekinci, Elif I; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Mårtensson, Johan

    2017-06-01

    Frequent glucose monitoring may improve glycaemic control in critically ill patients with diabetes. We aimed to assess the accuracy of a novel subcutaneous flash glucose monitor (FreeStyle Libre [Abbott Diabetes Care]) in these patients. We applied the FreeStyle Libre sensor to the upper arm of eight patients with diabetes in the intensive care unit and obtained hourly flash glucose measurements. Duplicate recordings were obtained to assess test-retest reliability. The reference glucose level was measured in arterial or capillary blood. We determined numerical accuracy using Bland- Altman methods, the mean absolute relative difference (MARD) and whether the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute Point of Care Testing (CLSI POCT) criteria were met. Clarke error grid (CEG) and surveillance error grid (SEG) analyses were used to determine clinical accuracy. We compared 484 duplicate flash glucose measurements and observed a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.97 and a coefficient of repeatability of 1.6 mmol/L. We studied 185 flash readings paired with arterial glucose levels, and 89 paired with capillary glucose levels. Using the arterial glucose level as the reference, we found a mean bias of 1.4 mmol/L (limits of agreement, -1.7 to 4.5 mmol/L). The MARD was 14% (95% CI, 12%-16%) and the proportion of measurements meeting ISO and CLSI POCT criteria was 64.3% and 56.8%, respectively. The proportions of values within a low-risk zone on CEG and SEG analyses were 97.8% and 99.5%, respectively. Using capillary glucose levels as the reference, we found that numerical and clinical accuracy were lower. The subcutaneous FreeStyle Libre blood glucose measurement system showed high test-retest reliability and acceptable accuracy when compared with arterial blood glucose measurement in critically ill patients with diabetes.

  17. A monitoring device for pressurised-air-driven diaphragm-based artificial heart assist devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeben, F.P.; Hoeben, F.P.; de Mul, F.F.M.; Stokkink, J.S.D.; Stokkink, H.S.D.; Koelink, M.H.; Koelink, M.H.; Greve, Jan

    1992-01-01

    A non-invasive device has been developed to monitor the diaphragm position and the blood flow in artificial heart assist devices equipped with a pressurised-air-driven diaphragm. Light scattering from the diaphragm is used as a mechanism for measuring. Information about the position of several

  18. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, SMJ; Gholampour, M; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, G; Mortazavi, AR

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students), blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2) while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students), two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (|ΔC|) in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors. PMID:25505778

  19. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMJ Mortazavi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students, blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2 while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students, two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (ΔC in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P < 0.001, two-tailed test. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors.

  20. Continuous glucose monitoring system and new era of early diagnosis of diabetes in high risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM systems are an emerging technology that allows frequent glucose measurements to monitor glucose trends in real time. Their use as a diagnostic tool is still developing and appears to be promising. Combining intermittent glucose self-monitoring (SGM and CGM combines the benefits of both. Significant improvement in the treatment modalities that may prevent the progress of prediabetes to diabetes have been achieved recently and dictates screening of high risk patients for early diagnosis and management of glycemic abnormalities. The use of CGMS in the diagnosis of early dysglycemia (prediabetes especially in high risk patients appears to be an attractive approach. In this review we searched the literature to investigate the value of using CGMS as a diagnostic tool compared to other known tools, namely oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C in high risk groups. Those categories of patients include adolescents and adults with obesity especially those with family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO, gestational diabetes, cystic fibrosis, thalassemia major, acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and after renal transplantation. It appears that the ability of the CGMS for frequently monitoring (every 5 min glucose changes during real-life settings for 3 to 5 days stretches the chance to detect more glycemic abnormalities during basal and postprandial conditions compared to other short-timed methods.

  1. Is type 2 diabetes really resolved after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy? Glucose variability studied by continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoccia, D; Coccia, F; Guida, A; Rizzello, M; De Angelis, F; Silecchia, G; Leonetti, F

    2015-01-01

    The study was carried out on type 2 diabetic obese patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Patients underwent regular glycemic controls throughout 3 years and all patients were defined cured from diabetes according to conventional criteria defined as normalization of fasting glucose levels and glycated hemoglobin in absence of antidiabetic therapy. After 3 years of follow-up, Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) was performed in each patient to better clarify the remission of diabetes. In this study, we found that the diabetes resolution after LSG occurred in 40% of patients; in the other 60%, even if they showed a normal fasting glycemia and A1c, patients spent a lot of time in hyperglycemia. During the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), we found that 2 h postload glucose determinations revealed overt diabetes only in a small group of patients and might be insufficient to exclude the diagnosis of diabetes in the other patients who spent a lot of time in hyperglycemia, even if they showed a normal glycemia (<140 mg/dL) at 120 minutes OGTT. These interesting data could help clinicians to better individualize patients in which diabetes is not resolved and who could need more attention in order to prevent chronic complications of diabetes.

  2. Exploring a New Security Framework for Remote Patient Monitoring Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Ondiege

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Security has been an issue of contention in healthcare. The lack of familiarity and poor implementation of security in healthcare leave the patients’ data vulnerable to attackers. The main issue is assessing how we can provide security in an RPM infrastructure. The findings in literature show there is little empirical evidence on proper implementation of security. Therefore, there is an urgent need in addressing cybersecurity issues in medical devices. Through the review of relevant literature in remote patient monitoring and use of a Microsoft threat modelling tool, we identify and explore current vulnerabilities and threats in IEEE 11073 standard devices to propose a new security framework for remote patient monitoring devices. Additionally, current RPM devices have a limitation on the number of people who can share a single device, therefore, we propose the use of NFC for identification in Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM devices for multi-user environments where we have multiple people sharing a single device to reduce errors associated with incorrect user identification. We finally show how several techniques have been used to build the proposed framework.

  3. Portable devices for monitoring radon and its progeny in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huaiqin; Yao Wanyuan; Su Jingling; Liu Jinhua

    1990-01-01

    We have developed two kinds of portable monitoring devices to measure the concentration and potential energy concentration of radon and its progeny in air. The thermoluminescence material CaSO4 (Tm) is used as the detection element. One of the devices is called passive radon monitor. The lowest detectable limit for radon in air is about 1.5 Bq/m 3 , as a sampling time being one week. Good reliability and ease to operate are its main advantages. The second kind of device is called a working level monitor which consists of a miniature remembrane pump and an integrating sampling probe. The lowest detectable limit is about 0.00043 WL (9x10 -9 J/m 3 ) for a sampling time of 6 hours. It weighs only 0.35 kg, but maintenance is necessary sometimes. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  4. Monitoring device for the reactor pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, Akira.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To enable rapid and accurate operator's monitoring for the state of pipelines in a BWR type reactor. Constitution: Specific symbols are attached respectively to a fluid supply source constituting the pipelines of a nuclear reactor facility, a plurality of fluid passing points and equipments to be supplied with the fluid, and a symmetrical matrix comprising these symbols in rows and columns is constituted. Then, a matrix is prepared based on detection signals for the states of the liquid supply source, equipments to be supplied with fluid and pipeline equipments by rendering the matrix elements between the signals expressing the state capable of passing the fluid as 1 and the matrix elements between the signals expressing the state incapable of passing the fluid as 0 . The matrix thus prepared in a signal procession circuit and a matrix in a memory circuit previously storing the matrix expressing the normal state of the pipelines are compared to judge the state of the pipelines in a short time and with no misjudging. (Moriyama, K.)

  5. Application of optical coherence tomography for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring during hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2003-10-01

    Approximately 14 million people in the USA and more than 140 million people worldwide suffer from Diabetes Mellitus. The current glucose sensing technique involves a finger puncture several times a day to obtain a droplet of blood for chemical analysis. Recently we proposed to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) for continuous noninvasive blood glucose sensing through skin. In this paper we tested the OCT technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration in lip tissue of New Zealand rabbits and Yucatan micropigs during glucose clamping experiments. Obtained results show good agreement with results obtained in skin studies, good correlation of changes in the OCT signal slope measured at the depth of 250 to 500 μm with changes in blood glucose concentration, and higher stability of the OCT data points than that obtained from skin.

  6. Non-invasive blood glucose monitor based on spectroscopy using a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantu, Vishnu; Vempati, Jagannadh; Srivilliputhur, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Development of a novel method for non-invasive measurement of blood glucose concentration using smartphone is discussed. Our research work has three major contributions to society and science. First, we modified and extended the Beer-Lambert's law in physics to accommodate for multiple wavelengths. This extension can aid researchers who wish to perform optical spectroscopy. Second, we successfully developed a creative and non-invasive way for diabetic patients to measure glucose levels via a smartphone. Researchers and chemists can now use their smartphones to determine the absorbance and, therefore, concentration of a chemical. Third, we created an inexpensive way to perform optical spectroscopy by using a smartphone. Monitoring blood glucose using a smartphone application that simply uses equipment already available on smartphones will improve the lives of diabetic patients who can continuously check their blood glucose levels while avoiding the current inconvenient, unhygienic, and costly invasive glucose meters.

  7. Clinical implication of blood glucose monitoring in general dental offices: the Ehime Dental Diabetes Study

    OpenAIRE

    Harase, Tadahiro; Nishida, Wataru; Hamakawa, Tomohiro; Hino, Satoshi; Shigematsu, Kenji; Kobayashi, Satoru; Sako, Hirofumi; Ito, Shirou; Murakami, Hajime; Nishida, Kei; Inoue, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Masahito; Yoshizu, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Takata, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined whether general dentists can contribute to the detection of patients with undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes by monitoring blood glucose in dental clinics. Research design and methods A total of 716 patients who visited clinics for dental treatment were enrolled and classified into 3 groups (mild, moderate, and severe) according to Kornman's criteria for periodontitis. The correlations between the casual blood glucose level, presence or absence of the history of diabet...

  8. Continuous glucose monitoring in newborn infants: how do errors in calibration measurements affect detected hypoglycemia?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Felicity Louise; Signal, Mathew; Harris, Deborah L.; Weston, Philip J.; Harding, Jane E.; Shaw, Geoffrey M.; Chase, J. Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal hypoglycemia is common and can cause serious brain injury. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) could improve hypoglycemia detection, while reducing blood glucose (BG) measurements. Calibration algorithms use BG measurements to convert sensor signals into CGM data. Thus, inaccuracies in calibration BG measurements directly affect CGM values and any metrics calculated from them. The aim was to quantify the effect of timing delays and calibration BG measurement errors on hypoglycemia me...

  9. Numerical and clinical precision of continuous glucose monitoring in Colombian patients treated with insulin infusion pump with automated suspension in hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Ana M; Marín Sánchez, Alejandro; Muñoz, Oscar M; Colón Peña, Christian Alejandro

    2015-12-01

    Insulin pump therapy associated with continuous glucose monitoring has shown a positive clinical impact on diabetes control and reduction of hypoglycemia episodes. There are descriptions of the performance of this device in other populations, but its precision and accuracy in Colombia and Latin America are unknown, especially in the routine outpatient setting. Data from 33 type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients with sensor-augmented pump therapy with threshold suspend automation, MiniMed Paradigm® Veo™ (Medtronic, Northridge, California), managed at Hospital Universitario San Ignacio (Bogotá, Colombia) and receiving outpatient treatment, were analyzed. Simultaneous data from continuous glucose monitoring and capillary blood glucose were compared, and their precision and accuracy were calculating with different methods, including Clarke error grid. Analyses included 2,262 continuous glucose monitoring -reference paired glucose values. A mean absolute relative difference of 20.1% was found for all measurements, with a value higher than 23% for glucose levels ≤75mg/dL. Global compliance with the ISO criteria was 64.9%. It was higher for values >75mg/dl (68.3%, 1,308 of 1,916 readings), than for those ≤ 75mg/dl (49.4%, 171 of 346 readings). Clinical accuracy, as assessed by the Clarke error grid, showed that 91.77% of data were within the A and B zones (75.6% in hypoglycemia). A good numerical accuracy was found for continuous glucose monitoring in normo and hyperglycemia situations, with low precision in hypoglycemia. The clinical accuracy of the device was adequate, with no significant safety concerns for patients. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Transmission of hepatitis B virus among persons undergoing blood glucose monitoring in long-term-care facilities--Mississippi, North Carolina, and Los Angeles County, California, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-11

    Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is an important component of routine diabetes care. Capillary blood is typically sampled with the use of a fingerstick device and tested with a portable glucometer. Because of outbreaks of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections associated with glucose monitoring, CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have recommended since 1990 that fingerstick devices be restricted to individual use. This report describes three recent outbreaks of HBV infection among residents in long-term-care (LTC) facilities that were attributed to shared devices and other breaks in infection-control practices related to blood glucose monitoring. Findings from these investigations and previous reports suggest that recommendations concerning standard precautions and the reuse of fingerstick devices have not been adhered to or enforced consistently in LTC settings. The findings underscore the need for education, training, adherence to standard precautions, and specific infection-control recommendations targeting diabetes-care procedures in LTC settings.

  11. The Performance and Usability of a Factory-Calibrated Flash Glucose Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Timothy; Bode, Bruce W.; Christiansen, Mark P.; Klaff, Leslie J.; Alva, Shridhara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance and usability of the FreeStyle? Libre? Flash glucose monitoring system (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) for interstitial glucose results compared with capillary blood glucose results. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two study participants with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were enrolled by four U.S. clinical sites. A sensor was inserted on the back of each upper arm for up to 14 days. Three factory-only calibrated s...

  12. Optical coherence tomography for blood glucose monitoring in vitro through spatial and temporal approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Lucas Ramos; Yoshimura, Tania Mateus; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Zanardi de Freitas, Anderson

    2016-08-01

    As diabetes causes millions of deaths worldwide every year, new methods for blood glucose monitoring are in demand. Noninvasive approaches may increase patient adherence to treatment while reducing costs, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) may be a feasible alternative to current invasive diagnostics. This study presents two methods for blood sugar monitoring with OCT in vitro. The first, based on spatial statistics, exploits changes in the light total attenuation coefficient caused by different concentrations of glucose in the sample using a 930-nm commercial OCT system. The second, based on temporal analysis, calculates differences in the decorrelation time of the speckle pattern in the OCT signal due to blood viscosity variations with the addition of glucose with data acquired by a custom built Swept Source 1325-nm OCT system. Samples consisted of heparinized mouse blood, phosphate buffer saline, and glucose. Additionally, further samples were prepared by diluting mouse blood with isotonic saline solution to verify the effect of higher multiple scattering components on the ability of the methods to differentiate glucose levels. Our results suggest a direct relationship between glucose concentration and both decorrelation rate and attenuation coefficient, with our systems being able to detect changes of 65 mg/dL in glucose concentration.

  13. Impact of retrospective calibration algorithms on hypoglycemia detection in newborn infants using continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, Matthew; Le Compte, Aaron; Harris, Deborah L; Weston, Philip J; Harding, Jane E; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2012-10-01

    Neonatal hypoglycemia is common and may cause serious brain injury. Diagnosis is by blood glucose (BG) measurements, often taken several hours apart. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) could improve hypoglycemia detection, while reducing the number of BG measurements. Calibration algorithms convert sensor signals into CGM output. Thus, these algorithms directly affect measures used to quantify hypoglycemia. This study was designed to quantify the effects of recalibration and filtering of CGM data on measures of hypoglycemia (BG neonates. CGM data from 50 infants were recalibrated using an algorithm that explicitly recognized the high-accuracy BG measurements available in this study. CGM data were analyzed as (1) original CGM output, (2) recalibrated CGM output, (3) recalibrated CGM output with postcalibration median filtering, and (4) recalibrated CGM output with precalibration median filtering. Hypoglycemia was classified by number of episodes, duration, severity, and hypoglycemic index. Recalibration increased the number of hypoglycemic events (from 161 to 193), hypoglycemia duration (from 2.2% to 2.6%), and hypoglycemic index (from 4.9 to 7.1 μmol/L). Median filtering postrecalibration reduced hypoglycemic events from 193 to 131, with little change in duration (from 2.6% to 2.5%) and hypoglycemic index (from 7.1 to 6.9 μmol/L). Median filtering prerecalibration resulted in 146 hypoglycemic events, a total duration of hypoglycemia of 2.6%, and a hypoglycemic index of 6.8 μmol/L. Hypoglycemia metrics, especially counting events, are heavily dependent on CGM calibration BG error, and the calibration algorithm. CGM devices tended to read high at lower levels, so when high accuracy calibration measurements are available it may be more appropriate to recalibrate the data.

  14. An Integrated Glucose Sensor with an All-Solid-State Sodium Ion-Selective Electrode for a Minimally Invasive Glucose Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Kojima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system that uses a microneedle to permeate the skin surface and a small hydrogel to accumulate interstitial fluid glucose. The measurement of glucose and sodium ion levels in the hydrogel is required for estimating glucose levels in blood; therefore, we developed a small, enzyme-fixed glucose sensor with a high-selectivity, all-solid-state, sodium ion-selective electrode (ISE integrated into its design. The glucose sensor immobilized glucose oxidase showed a good correlation between the glucose levels in the hydrogels and the reference glucose levels (r > 0.99, and exhibited a good precision (coefficient of variation = 2.9%, 0.6 mg/dL. In the design of the sodium ISEs, we used the insertion material Na0.33MnO2 as the inner contact layer and DD16C5 exhibiting high Na+/K+ selectivity as the ionophore. The developed sodium ISE exhibited high selectivity (\\( \\log \\,k^{pot}_{Na,K} = -2.8\\ and good potential stability. The sodium ISE could measure 0.4 mM (10−3.4 M sodium ion levels in the hydrogels containing 268 mM (10−0.57 M KCl. The small integrated sensor (ϕ < 10 mm detected glucose and sodium ions in hydrogels simultaneously within 1 min, and it exhibited sufficient performance for use as a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system.

  15. The Relationship Between a Balanced Time Perspective and Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose Among People With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Harriet M; Webb, Thomas L; Martin, Jilly; Sirois, Fuschia M

    2018-05-10

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose helps people with type 1 diabetes to maintain glycemic control and reduce the risk of complications. However, adherence to blood glucose monitoring is often suboptimal. Like many health behaviors, self-monitoring of blood glucose involves exerting effort in the present to achieve future benefits. As such, the present research explored whether individual differences in time perspective-specifically, the extent to which people have a balanced time perspective-are associated with the frequency with which people with type 1 diabetes monitor their blood glucose and, thus, maintain glycemic control. Adults with type 1 diabetes completed measures of time perspective, feelings associated with monitoring, attitudes toward monitoring, and trait self-control. Objective data regarding the frequency with which participants monitored their blood glucose levels and their long-term glycemic control were extracted from their medical records. Hierarchical regression analyses and tests of indirect effects (N = 129) indicated that having a more balanced time perspective was associated with more frequent monitoring of blood glucose and, as a result, better glycemic control. Further analyses (N = 158) also indicated that there was an indirect relationship between balanced time perspective and monitoring of blood glucose via the feelings that participants associated with monitoring and their subsequent attitudes toward monitoring. These findings point to the importance and relevance of time perspective for understanding health-related behavior and may help to inform interventions designed to promote self-monitoring of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes.

  16. Optimization of a Liquid Crystal-based Sensory Platform for Monitoring Enzymatic Glucose Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yibin; Jang, Chang-Hyun [Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Managing glucose levels in human blood is extremely important for the treatment of diabetes. Here, an innovative sensory strategy has been developed to monitor the enzymatic activities of glucose and glucose oxidase by using confined liquid crystal (LC) birefringent droplet patterns. Acidic products released during the glucose oxidation process lead to a slight decrease in the pH of aqueous systems that can be monitored by pH-sensitive LC materials. Of the existing pH-sensitive LC materials, dodecanoic acid-doped 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl is inexpensive and easily adjusted to satisfy the 7.4 ± 0.05 pH requirement of human blood. Moreover, the orientational alignment of capillary-confined pH-responsive LCs can be disrupted at the aqueous/LC interface following a slight decrease in the critical pH of aqueous reaction systems, which results in an optical signal that can be observed with the naked eye by using polarizing optical microscopy. Based on the stable LC droplet patterns generated by the cylindrical confinement system, the functionalized LCs can selectively detect glucose at concentrations as low as 0.1 pM. This study further advances the previously reported LC-based glucose monitoring systems by reducing production costs and instituting a smarter LC sensory design. This improved system shows potential for the use in clinical bioassay applications.

  17. Determination of glucose and uric acid with bienzyme colorimetry on microfluidic paper-based analysis devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Jin; Wang, Fubin; Xiang, Xia; Luo, Ming; Ji, Xinghu; He, Zhike

    2012-05-15

    In this work, we first employ a drying method combining with the bienzyme colorimetric detection of glucose and uric acid on microfluidic paper-based analysis devices (μPADs). The channels of 3D μPADs are also designed by us to get better results. The color results are recorded by both Gel Documentation systems and a common camera. By using Gel Documentation systems, the limits of detection (LOD) of glucose and uric acid are 3.81 × 10(-5)M and 4.31 × 10(-5)M, respectively one order of magnitude lower than that of the reported methods on μPADs. By using a common camera, the limits of detection (LOD) of glucose and uric acid are 2.13 × 10(-4)M and 2.87 × 10(-4)M, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of detection conditions have been investigated and discussed comprehensively. Human serum samples are detected with satisfactory results, which are comparable with the clinical testing results. A low-cost, simple and rapid colorimetric method for the simultaneous detection of glucose and uric acid on the μPADs has been developed with enhanced sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid, Sensitive, and Reusable Detection of Glucose by a Robust Radiofrequency Integrated Passive Device Biosensor Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Young; Adhikari, Kishor Kumar; Dhakal, Rajendra; Chuluunbaatar, Zorigt; Wang, Cong; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Tremendous demands for sensitive and reliable label-free biosensors have stimulated intensive research into developing miniaturized radiofrequency resonators for a wide range of biomedical applications. Here, we report the development of a robust, reusable radiofrequency resonator based integrated passive device biosensor chip fabricated on a gallium arsenide substrate for the detection of glucose in water-glucose solutions and sera. As a result of the highly concentrated electromagnetic energy between the two divisions of an intertwined spiral inductor coupled with an interdigital capacitor, the proposed glucose biosensor chip exhibits linear detection ranges with high sensitivity at center frequency. This biosensor, which has a sensitivity of up to 199 MHz/mgmL−1 and a short response time of less than 2 sec, exhibited an ultralow detection limit of 0.033 μM and a reproducibility of 0.61% relative standard deviation. In addition, the quantities derived from the measured S-parameters, such as the propagation constant (γ), impedance (Z), resistance (R), inductance (L), conductance (G) and capacitance (C), enabled the effective multi-dimensional detection of glucose. PMID:25588958

  19. Accuracy evaluation of five blood glucose monitoring systems obtained from the pharmacy: a European multicenter study with 453 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Cornelius; Pohlmeier, Harald; Behnke, Thomas; Schmid, Volkmar; Grenningloh, Marco; Forst, Thomas; Pfützner, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    This multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the performance of five recently introduced blood glucose (BG) monitoring (BGM) devices under daily routine conditions in comparison with the YSI (Yellow Springs, OH) 2300 Stat Plus glucose analyzer. Five hundred one diabetes patients with experience in self-monitoring of BG were randomized to use three of five different BGM devices (FreeStyle Lite® [Abbott Diabetes Care Inc., Alameda, CA], FreeStyle Freedom Lite [Abbott Diabetes Care], OneTouch® UltraEasy® [LifeScan Inc., Milpitas, CA], Accu-Chek® Aviva [Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany], and Contour® [Bayer Vital GmbH, Leverkusen, Germany]) in a daily routine setting. All devices and strips were purchased from local regular distribution sources (pharmacies, four strip lots per device). The patients performed the finger prick and the glucose measurement on their own. In parallel, a healthcare professional performed the glucose assessment with the reference method (YSI 2300 Stat Plus). The primary objective was the comparison of the mean absolute relative differences (MARD). Secondary objectives were compliance with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) accuracy criteria under these routine conditions and Clarke and Parkes Error Grid analyses. MARD ranged from 4.9% (FreeStyle Lite) to 9.7% (OneTouch UltraEasy). The ISO 15197:2003 requirements were fulfilled by the FreeStyle Lite (98.8%), FreeStyle Freedom Lite (97.5%), and Accu-Chek Aviva (97.0%), but not by the Contour (92.4%) and OneTouch UltraEasy (91.1%). The number of values in Zone A of the Clarke Error Grid analysis was highest for the FreeStyle Lite (98.8%) and lowest for the OneTouch Ultra Easy (90.4%). FreeStyle Lite, FreeStyle Freedom Lite, and Accu-Chek Aviva performed very well in this study with devices and strips purchased through regular distribution channels, with the FreeStyle Lite achieving the lowest MARD in this investigation.

  20. The effect of an instant hand sanitizer on blood glucose monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John J; Ellison, John M; Glaeser, Danielle; Price, David

    2011-11-01

    People with diabetes mellitus are instructed to clean their skin prior to self-monitoring of blood glucose to remove any dirt or food residue that might affect the reading. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers have become popular when soap and water are not available. The aim of this study was to determine whether a hand sanitizer is compatible with glucose meter testing and effective for the removal of exogenous glucose. We enrolled 34 nonfasting subjects [14 male/20 female, mean ages 45 (standard deviation, 9.4)] years, 2 with diagnosed diabetes/32 without known diabetes]. Laboratory personnel prepared four separate fingers on one hand of each subject by (1) cleaning the second finger with soap and water and towel drying (i.e., control finger), (2) cleaning the third finger with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, (3) coating the fourth finger with cola and allowing it to air dry, and (4) coating the fifth finger with cola and then cleaning it with the instant hand sanitizer after the cola had dried. Finger sticks were performed on each prepared finger and blood glucose was measured. Several in vitro studies were also performed to investigate the effectiveness of the hand sanitizer for removal of exogenous glucose.z Mean blood glucose values from fingers cleaned with instant hand sanitizer did not differ significantly from the control finger (p = .07 and .08, respectively) and resulted in 100% accurate results. Blood glucose data from the fourth (cola-coated) finger were substantially higher on average compared with the other finger conditions, but glucose data from the fifth finger (cola-coated then cleaned with hand sanitizer) was similar to the control finger. The data from in vitro experiments showed that the hand sanitizer did not adversely affect glucose meter results, but when an exogenous glucose interference was present, the effectiveness of the hand sanitizer on glucose bias (range: 6% to 212%) depended on the surface area and degree of dilution. In our study

  1. Educational intervention together with an on-line quality control program achieve recommended analytical goals for bedside blood glucose monitoring in a 1200-bed university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Margalet, Víctor; Rodriguez-Oliva, Manuel; Sánchez-Pozo, Cristina; Fernández-Gallardo, María Francisca; Goberna, Raimundo

    2005-01-01

    Portable meters for blood glucose concentrations are used at the patients bedside, as well as by patients for self-monitoring of blood glucose. Even though most devices have important technological advances that decrease operator error, the analytical goals proposed for the performance of glucose meters have been recently changed by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) to reach nurses in a 1200-bed University Hospital to achieve recommended analytical goals, so that we could improve the quality of diabetes care. We used portable glucose meters connected on-line to the laboratory after an educational program for nurses with responsibilities in point-of-care testing. We evaluated the system by assessing total error of the glucometers using high- and low-level glucose control solutions. In a period of 6 months, we collected data from 5642 control samples obtained by 14 devices (Precision PCx) directly from the control program (QC manager). The average total error for the low-level glucose control (2.77 mmol/l) was 6.3% (range 5.5-7.6%), and even lower for the high-level glucose control (16.66 mmol/l), at 4.8% (range 4.1-6.5%). In conclusion, the performance of glucose meters used in our University Hospital with more than 1000 beds not only improved after the intervention, but the meters achieved the analytical goals of the suggested ADA/National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry criteria for total error (<7.9% in the range 2.77-16.66 mmol/l glucose) and optimal total error for high glucose concentrations of <5%, which will improve the quality of care of our patients.

  2. Reproducibility and reliability of hypoglycaemic episodes recorded with Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS) in daily life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høi-Hansen, T; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Thorsteinsson, B

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Continuous glucose monitoring may reveal episodes of unrecognized hypoglycaemia. We evaluated reproducibility and reliability of hypoglycaemic episodes recorded in daily life by the Medtronic MiniMed Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS). METHODS: Twenty-nine adult patients with Type 1...... data were recalibrated generating four different CGMS data sets [left-A (left side of abdomen, calibration set A), left-B, right-A and right-B]. Agreement between CGMS data sets was evaluated during hypoglycaemic events, comparing CGMS readings = 2.2 mmol/l with nadir values from corresponding CGMS...... data sets. CGMS readings were also compared with independent self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) values. RESULTS: With hypoglycaemia (CGMS readings = 2.2 mmol/l) in calibration set left-A, values below 3.5 mmol/l were present in 99% (95% CI: 95-100%) of samples in left-B, 91% (95% CI: 84...

  3. In vivo Microscopic Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Non-Invasive Glucose Monitoring Invulnerable to Skin Secretion Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Joo Yong; Ahn, Chang-Geun; Jeong, Eun-Ju; Kim, Bong Kyu

    2018-01-18

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy has been shown to be a promising tool for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring. However, the repeatability of such a method is susceptible to changes in skin condition, which is dependent on hand washing and drying due to the high absorption of infrared excitation light to the skin secretion products or water. In this paper, we present a method to meet the challenges of mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasive glucose monitoring. By obtaining the microscopic spatial information of skin during the spectroscopy measurement, the skin region where the infrared spectra is insensitive to skin condition can be locally selected, which enables reliable prediction of the blood glucose level from the photoacoustic spectroscopy signals. Our raster-scan imaging showed that the skin condition for in vivo spectroscopic glucose monitoring had significant inhomogeneities and large variability in the probing area where the signal was acquired. However, the selective localization of the probing led to a reduction in the effects of variability due to the skin secretion product. Looking forward, this technology has broader applications not only in continuous glucose monitoring for diabetic patient care, but in forensic science, the diagnosis of malfunctioning sweat pores, and the discrimination of tumors extracted via biopsy.

  4. Diabetes Technology-Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Therapy and Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Adults: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Anne L; Ahmann, Andrew J; Battelino, Tadej; Evert, Alison; Hirsch, Irl B; Murad, M Hassan; Winter, William E; Wolpert, Howard

    2016-11-01

    To formulate clinical practice guidelines for the use of continuous glucose monitoring and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in adults with diabetes. The participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed Task Force of seven experts, a methodologist, and a medical writer. The American Association for Clinical Chemistry, the American Association of Diabetes Educators, and the European Society of Endocrinology co-sponsored this guideline. The Task Force developed this evidence-based guideline using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. The Task Force commissioned one systematic review and used the best available evidence from other published systematic reviews and individual studies. One group meeting, several conference calls, and e-mail communications enabled consensus. Committees and members of the Endocrine Society, the American Association for Clinical Chemistry, the American Association of Diabetes Educators, and the European Society of Endocrinology reviewed and commented on preliminary drafts of these guidelines. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and continuous glucose monitoring have an important role in the treatment of diabetes. Data from randomized controlled trials are limited on the use of medical devices, but existing studies support the use of diabetes technology for a wide variety of indications. This guideline presents a review of the literature and practice recommendations for appropriate device use.

  5. Patient perspective on remote monitoring of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, H; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Mastenbroek, M H

    2014-01-01

    -implantation, other check-ups are performed remotely. Patients are asked to complete questionnaires at five time points during the 2-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: The REMOTE-CIED study will provide insight into the patient perspective on remote monitoring in ICD patients, which could help to support patient......BACKGROUND: Remote patient monitoring is a safe and effective alternative for the in-clinic follow-up of patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). However, evidence on the patient perspective on remote monitoring is scarce and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: The primary...

  6. Perceptions of Caribbean type 2 diabetes patients on self-monitoring of blood glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezenwaka, C. E.; Olukoga, A.; Onuoha, P.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The views of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients have not been considered in the debate on the role of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in the management of T2DM. Objective: To assess the views of T2DM patients on SMBG. Methods: Two previously trained research assistants used a struct......Context: The views of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients have not been considered in the debate on the role of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in the management of T2DM. Objective: To assess the views of T2DM patients on SMBG. Methods: Two previously trained research assistants used...

  7. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring systems in the classroom/school environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Kari; Drobny, Jessica; Aye, Tandy

    2013-05-01

    Children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) spend 4-7 h/day in school with very little supervision of their diabetes management. Therefore, families have become more dependent on technology, such as use of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM), to provide increased supervision of their diabetes management. We sought to assess the impact of RT-CGM use in the classroom/school environment. Children with T1D using RT-CGM, their parents, and teachers completed a questionnaire about RT-CGM in the classroom/school environment. The RT-CGM was tolerated well in the classroom/school environment. Seventy percent of parents, 75% of students, and 51% of teachers found RT-CGM useful in the classroom/school environment. The students found the device to be more disruptive than did their parents and teachers. However, all three groups agreed that RT-CGM increased their comfort with diabetes management at school. Our study suggests that RT-CGM is useful and not disruptive in the classroom/school environment. The development of education materials for teachers could further increase its acceptance in the classroom/school environment.

  8. Data-driven strategies for robust forecast of continuous glucose monitoring time-series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Samuele; Martini, Chiara; Malpassi, Davide; Cordera, Renzo; Maggi, Davide; Verri, Alessandro; Barla, Annalisa

    2017-07-01

    Over the past decade, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has proven to be a very resourceful tool for diabetes management. To date, CGM devices are employed for both retrospective and online applications. Their use allows to better describe the patients' pathology as well as to achieve a better control of patients' level of glycemia. The analysis of CGM sensor data makes possible to observe a wide range of metrics, such as the glycemic variability during the day or the amount of time spent below or above certain glycemic thresholds. However, due to the high variability of the glycemic signals among sensors and individuals, CGM data analysis is a non-trivial task. Standard signal filtering solutions fall short when an appropriate model personalization is not applied. State-of-the-art data-driven strategies for online CGM forecasting rely upon the use of recursive filters. Each time a new sample is collected, such models need to adjust their parameters in order to predict the next glycemic level. In this paper we aim at demonstrating that the problem of online CGM forecasting can be successfully tackled by personalized machine learning models, that do not need to recursively update their parameters.

  9. Venous, Arterialized-Venous, or Capillary Glucose Reference Measurements for the Accuracy Assessment of a Continuous Glucose Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropff, Jort; van Steen, Sigrid C; deGraaff, Peter; Chan, Man W; van Amstel, Rombout B E; DeVries, J Hans

    2017-11-01

    Different reference methods are used for the accuracy assessment of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems. The effect of using venous, arterialized-venous, or capillary reference measurements on CGM accuracy is unclear. We evaluated 21 individuals with type 1 diabetes using a capillary calibrated CGM system. Venous or arterialized-venous reference glucose samples were taken every 15 min at two separate visits and assessed per YSI 2300 STAT Plus. Arterialization was achieved by heated-hand technique. Capillary samples were collected hourly during the venous reference visit. The investigation sequence (venous or arterialized-venous) was randomized. Effectiveness of arterialization was measured by comparing free venous oxygen pressure (PO2) of both visit days. Primary endpoint was the median absolute relative difference (ARD). Median ARD using arterialized-venous reference samples was not different from venous samples (point estimated difference 0.52%, P = 0.181). When comparing the three reference methods, median ARD was also not different over the full glycemic range (venous 9.0% [n = 681], arterialized-venous 8.3% [n = 684], and capillary 8.1% [n = 205], P = 0.216), nor over the separate glucose ranges. Arterialization was successful (PO2 venous 5.4 kPa vs. arterialized-venous 8.9 kPa, P reference measurements did not significantly impact CGM accuracy. Venous reference seems preferable due to its ease of operation.

  10. Hematological clozapine monitoring with a point-of-care device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Thode, Dorrit; Stenager, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    for several reasons, perhaps most importantly because of the mandatory hematological monitoring. The Chempaq Express Blood Counter (Chempaq XBC) is a point-of-care device providing counts of white blood cells (WBC) and granulocytes based on a capillary blood sampling. A randomized cross-over trial design...

  11. Method and device for monitoring distortion in an optical network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A method and a device for monitoring of distortion in an optical network are provided, wherein at least one reference signal and at least one data signal are conveyed via an optical link and wherein a distortion of the at least one data signal is determined based on the at least one reference

  12. Measurement of glucose area under the curve using minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology: evaluation of glucose monitoring concepts without blood sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Toshiyuki; Okada, Seiki; Hagino, Kei; Asakura, Yoshihiro; Kikkawa, Yasuo; Kojima, Junko; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Maekawa, Yasunori; Isobe, Kazuki; Koike, Reona; Nakajima, Hiromu; Asano, Kaoru

    2011-12-01

    Monitoring postprandial hyperglycemia is crucial in treating diabetes, although its dynamics make accurate monitoring difficult. We developed a new technology for monitoring postprandial hyperglycemia using interstitial fluid (ISF) extraction technology without blood sampling. The glucose area under the curve (AUC) using this system was measured as accumulated ISF glucose (IG) with simultaneous calibration with sodium ions. The objective of this study was to evaluate this technological concept in healthy individuals. Minimally invasive ISF extraction technology (MIET) comprises two steps: pretreatment with microneedles and ISF accumulation over a specific time by contact with a solvent. The correlation between glucose and sodium ion levels using MIET was evaluated in 12 subjects with stable blood glucose (BG) levels during fasting. BG and IG time courses were evaluated in three subjects to confirm their relationship while BG was fluctuating. Furthermore, the accuracy of glucose AUC measurements by MIET was evaluated several hours after a meal in 30 subjects. A high correlation was observed between glucose and sodium ion levels when BG levels were stable (R=0.87), indicating that sodium ion is a good internal standard for calibration. The variation in IG and BG with MIET was similar, indicating that IG is an adequate substitute for BG. Finally, we showed a strong correlation (R=0.92) between IG-AUC and BG-AUC after a meal. These findings validate the adequacy of glucose AUC measurements using MIET. Monitoring glucose using MIET without blood sampling may be beneficial to patients with diabetes.

  13. High glycemic variability assessed by continuous glucose monitoring after surgical treatment of obesity by gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaire, Helene; Bertrand, Monelle; Guerci, Bruno; Anduze, Yves; Guillaume, Eric; Ritz, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    Obesity surgery elicits complex changes in glucose metabolism that are difficult to observe with discontinuous glucose measurements. We aimed to evaluate glucose variability after gastric bypass by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in a real-life setting. CGM was performed for 4.2 ± 1.3 days in three groups of 10 subjects each: patients who had undergone gastric bypass and who were referred for postprandial symptoms compatible with mild hypoglycemia, nonoperated diabetes controls, and healthy controls. The maximum interstitial glucose (IG), SD of IG values, and mean amplitude of glucose excursions (MAGE) were significantly higher in operated patients and in diabetes controls than in healthy controls. The time to the postprandial peak IG was significantly shorter in operated patients (42.8 ± 6.0 min) than in diabetes controls (82.2 ± 11.1 min, P = 0.0002), as were the rates of glucose increase to the peak (2.4 ± 1.6 vs. 1.2 ± 0.3 mg/mL/min; P = 0.041). True hypoglycemia (glucose fasting state and 2 h postmeal. Glucose variability is exaggerated after gastric bypass, combining unusually high and early hyperglycemic peaks and rapid IG decreases. This might account for postprandial symptoms mimicking hypoglycemia but often seen without true hypoglycemia. Early postprandial hyperglycemia might be underestimated if glucose measurements are done 2 h postmeal.

  14. Development of a nanowire based titanium needle probe sensor for glucose monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Devesh C.

    The need for continuous monitoring of various physiological functions such as blood glucose levels, neural functions and cholesterol levels has fostered the research and development of various schemes of biosensors to sense and help control the respective function. The needs of patients for sensors with minimal discomfort, longer life and better performance have necessitated the development towards smaller and more efficient sensors. In addition, the need for higher functionality from smaller sensors has led to the development of sensors with multiple electrodes, each electrode capable of sensing a different body function. Such multi-electrode sensors need to be fabricated using micro-fabrication processes in order to achieve precise control over the size, shape and placement of the electrodes. Multielectrode sensors fabricated using silicon and polymers have been demonstrated. One physiological function that attracts widespread interest is continuous glucose monitoring in our blood, since Diabetes affects millions of people all over the world. Significant deviations of blood glucose levels from the normal levels of 4-8 mM can cause fainting, coma and damage to the eyes, kidneys, nerves and blood vessels. For chronic patients, continuous monitoring of glucose levels is essential for accurate and timely treatment. A few continuous monitoring sensors are available in the market, but they have problems and cannot replace the strip type one-time glucose monitoring systems as yet. To address this need, large scale research efforts have been targeted towards continuous monitoring. The demand for higher accuracy and sensitivity has motivated researchers to evaluate the use of nanostructures in sensing. The large surface area-to-volume ratio of such structures could enable further miniaturization and push the detection limits, potentially enabling even single molecule detection. This research involved the development of a biocompatible titanium needle probe sensor for

  15. New Criteria for Assessing the Accuracy of Blood Glucose Monitors meeting, October 28, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John; Roberts, Ruth; Vigersky, Robert A; Schwartz, Frank

    2012-03-01

    Glucose meters (GMs) are routinely used for self-monitoring of blood glucose by patients and for point-of-care glucose monitoring by health care providers in outpatient and inpatient settings. Although widely assumed to be accurate, numerous reports of inaccuracies with resulting morbidity and mortality have been noted. Insulin dosing errors based on inaccurate GMs are most critical. On October 28, 2011, the Diabetes Technology Society invited 45 diabetes technology clinicians who were attending the 2011 Diabetes Technology Meeting to participate in a closed-door meeting entitled New Criteria for Assessing the Accuracy of Blood Glucose Monitors. This report reflects the opinions of most of the attendees of that meeting. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the public, and several medical societies are currently in dialogue to establish a new standard for GM accuracy. This update to the FDA standard is driven by improved meter accuracy, technological advances (pumps, bolus calculators, continuous glucose monitors, and insulin pens), reports of hospital and outpatient deaths, consumer complaints about inaccuracy, and research studies showing that several approved GMs failed to meet FDA or International Organization for Standardization standards in postapproval testing. These circumstances mandate a set of new GM standards that appropriately match the GMs' analytical accuracy to the clinical accuracy required for their intended use, as well as ensuring their ongoing accuracy following approval. The attendees of the New Criteria for Assessing the Accuracy of Blood Glucose Monitors meeting proposed a graduated standard and other methods to improve GM performance, which are discussed in this meeting report. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  16. Micro-Electromechanical Affinity Sensor for the Monitoring of Glucose in Bioprocess Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Theuer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An affinity-viscometry-based micro-sensor probe for continuous glucose monitoring was investigated with respect to its suitability for bioprocesses. The sensor operates with glucose and dextran competing as binding partner for concanavalin A, while the viscosity of the assay scales with glucose concentration. Changes in viscosity are determined with a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS in the measurement cavity of the sensor probe. The study aimed to elucidate the interactions between the assay and a typical phosphate buffered bacterial cultivation medium. It turned out that contact with the medium resulted in a significant long-lasting drift of the assay’s viscosity at zero glucose concentration. Adding glucose to the medium lowers the drift by a factor of eight. The cglc values measured off-line with the glucose sensor for monitoring of a bacterial cultivation were similar to the measurements with an enzymatic assay with a difference of less than ±0.15 g·L−1. We propose that lectin agglomeration, the electro-viscous effect, and constitutional changes of concanavalin A due to exchanges of the incorporated metal ions may account for the observed viscosity increase. The study has demonstrated the potential of the MEMS sensor to determine sensitive viscosity changes within very small sample volumes, which could be of interest for various biotechnological applications.

  17. Quality assessment of patients’ self-monitoring of blood glucose in community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjome RL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate diabetes patients’ self-monitoring of blood glucose using a community pharmacy-based quality assurance procedure, to investigate whether the procedure improved the quality of the patient performance of self monitoring of blood glucose, and to examine the opinions of the patients taking part in the study. Methods: The results of patient blood glucose measurements were compared to the results obtained with HemoCue Glucose 201+ by pharmacy employees in 16 Norwegian community pharmacies. Patient performance was monitored using an eight item checklist. Patients whose blood glucose measurements differed from pharmacy measurements by more than 20% were instructed in the correct use of their glucometer. The patients then re-measured their blood glucose. If the results were still outside the set limits, the control procedure was repeated with a new lot of glucometer strips, and then with a new glucometer. The patients returned for a follow-up visit after three months. Results: During the first visit, 5% of the 338 patients had measurements that deviated from pharmacy blood glucose values by more than 20% and user errors were observed for 50% of the patients. At the second visit, there was no significant change in the analytical quality of patient measurements, but the percentage of patients who made user errors had decreased to 29% (p < 0.001. Eighty-five percent of the patients reported that they used their blood glucose results to adjust medication, exercise or meals. Fifty-one percent of the patients reported a greater trust in their measurements after the second visit. Eighty percent of patients wished to have their measurements assessed yearly. Of these patients, 83% preferred to have the assessment done at the community pharmacy. Conclusion: A community pharmacy-based quality assessment procedure of patients’ self monitoring of blood glucose significantly reduced the number of user errors. The analytical quality of the

  18. Pseudohyperglycemia: Effects of Unwashed Hand after Fruit Peeling or Handling on Fingertips Blood Glucose Monitoring Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olamoyegun, M A; Oloyede, T; Adewoye, O G; Abdulkarim, S O; Adeleke, A A

    2016-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is an important component of management for diabetes mellitus (DM), especially in T1DM and T2DM patients who are on insulin therapy. Adequate blood glucose monitoring and prompt intervention are necessary to prevent blood glucose (BG) fluctuation and delay long-term diabetes complications. People with DM are advised to clean their hands before SMBG to remove any dirt or food residue that might affect the reading. The study tested the hypothesis that falsely elevated BG levels from fingertip occur after peeling or handling fruits in an unwashed hand. Fifty apparently healthy nondiabetes volunteers were enrolled. Capillary BG samples were collected from the fingertips after peeling or handling apple, orange, banana, watermelon, and pawpaw, followed by no hand washing for 1 h, cleaning the fingertip with alcohol swab once, five times, and washing hand thoroughly with tap water and drying. These samples were then analyzed with two different glucose meters. The mean BG values, measured from fingertip blood samples after peeling, and handling any of the fruits followed by no hand washing were significantly high, even after cleaning fingertip with a swab of alcohol once. However, there were no significant difference in BG levels measured after peeling and handling fruits followed by hand washing and the level of BG before peeling and handling fruits. Handling of peeled fruits with no hand washing with tap water is associated with overestimation of capillary BG (Pseudohyperglycemia) monitored with glucose meters.

  19. Towards a continuous glucose monitoring system using tunable quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Katharina; Müller, Niklas; Petrich, Wolfgang

    2018-02-01

    We present a reagent-free approach for long-term continuous glucose monitoring (cgm) of liquid samples using midinfrared absorption spectroscopy. This method could constitute an alternative to enzymatic glucose sensors in order to manage the widespread disease of Diabetes. In order to acquire spectra of the liquid specimen, we use a spectrally tunable external-cavity (EC-) quantum cascade laser (QCL) as radiation source in combination with a fiber-based in vitro sensor setup. Hereby we achieve a glucose sensitivity in pure glucose solutions of 3 mg/dL (RMSEP). Furthermore, the spectral tunability of the EC-QCL enables us to discriminate glucose from other molecules. We exemplify this by detecting glucose among other saccharides with an accuracy of 8 mg/dL (within other monosaccharides, RMSEVC) and 14 mg/dL (within other mono- and disaccharides, RMSECV). Moreover, we demonstrate a characterization of the significance of each wavenumber for an accurate prediction of glucose among other saccharides using an evolutionary algorithm. We show, that by picking 10 distinct wavenumbers we can achieve comparable accuracies to the use of a complete spectrum.

  20. Evaluation of two methods of rapid blood-glucose monitoring by unskilled personnel during surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, S; Adelhøj, B; Bigler, Dennis Richard

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of two rapid methods of blood-glucose monitoring without (Haemo-glucotest 1-44) and with a reflectance meter (Hypocount B) was compared using a laboratory method. The assessment was carried out by personnel with no previous experience in measuring blood glucose. Eighty-five percent...... of the 92 measurements obtained with the hypocount B were within +/- 20% of the laboratory glucose values. Using haemo-glucotest 1-44 strips, 74% of the readings were within +/- 20% of the reference laboratory values. For values below 5.5 mmol/l, there was a tendency for results to be too low, with 77......% of the readings below laboratory values -20%. All situations with severe hypoglycaemia were detected with both strips. The study also demonstrates the ineffectiveness of s.c. insulin regimens during surgery. Only 47% of the measured blood glucose values were within the range of 5.5-10 mmol/l and two of ten...

  1. Hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes patients treated with insulin: the advantages of continuous glucose monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Valer'evich Klimontov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims.  To determine the incidence and risk factors for hypoglycemia in elderly insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients by means of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM. Materials and Methods.  We observed seventy-six hospitalized patients with T2DM, aged 65 to 79 years. Treatment with basal insulin (n=36, premixed insulin (n=12 or basal-bolus insulin regimen (n=28 was followed by metformin (n=44, glimepiride (n=14 and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (n=14. 2-days CGM with retrospective data analysis was performed in all patients. During CGM, three fasting and three 2-h postprandial finger-prick glucose values were obtained daily with portable glucose meter. Results.  Hypoglycemia (identified as blood glucose

  2. Signal Processing Device (SPD) for networked radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmapurikar, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Sawhney, A.; Patil, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    A networked radiation and parameter monitoring system with three tier architecture is being developed. Signal Processing Device (SPD) is a second level sub-system node in the network. SPD is an embedded system which has multiple input channels and output communication interfaces. It acquires and processes data from first level parametric sensor devices, and sends to third level devices in response to request commands received from host. It also performs scheduled diagnostic operations and passes on the information to host. It supports inputs in the form of differential digital signals and analog voltage signals. SPD communicates with higher level devices over RS232/RS422/USB channels. The system has been designed with main requirements of minimal power consumption and harsh environment in radioactive plants. This paper discusses the hardware and software design details of SPD. (author)

  3. Self-Monitoring Using Continuous Glucose Monitors with Real-Time Feedback Improves Exercise Adherence in Individuals with Impaired Blood Glucose: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kaitlyn J; Little, Jonathan P; Jung, Mary E

    2016-03-01

    Exercise helps individuals with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes (T2D) manage their blood glucose (BG); however, exercise adherence in this population is dismal. In this pilot study we tested the efficacy of a self-monitoring group-based intervention using continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) at increasing exercise adherence in individuals with impaired BG. Thirteen participants with prediabetes or T2D were randomized to an 8-week standard care exercise program (CON condition) (n = 7) or self-monitoring exercise intervention (SM condition) (n = 6). Participants in the SM condition were taught how to self-monitor their exercise and BG, to goal set, and to use CGM to observe how exercise influences BG. We hypothesized that compared with the CON condition, using a real-time CGM would facilitate self-monitoring behavior, resulting in increased exercise adherence. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed significant Condition × Time interactions for self-monitoring (P goal setting (P = 0.01), and self-efficacy to self-monitor (P = 0.01), such that the SM condition showed greater increases in these outcomes immediately after the program and at the 1-month follow-up compared with the CON condition. The SM condition had higher program attendance rates (P = 0.03), and a greater proportion of participants reregistered for additional exercise programs (P = 0.048) compared with the CON condition. Participants in both conditions experienced improvements in health-related quality of life, waist circumference, and fitness (P values exercise behavior in individuals living with prediabetes or T2D.

  4. First Clinical Experience with Retrospective Flash Glucose Monitoring (FGM) Analysis in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distiller, Larry A.; Cranston, Iain; Mazze, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 2014, an innovative blinded continuous glucose monitoring system was introduced with automated ambulatory glucose profile (AGP) reporting. The clinical use and interpretation of this new technology has not previously been described. Therefore we wanted to understand its use in characterizing key factors related to glycemic control: glucose exposure, variability, and stability, and risk of hypoglycemia in clinical practice. Methods: Clinicians representing affiliated diabetes centers throughout South Africa were trained and subsequently were given flash glucose monitoring readers and 2-week glucose sensors to use at their discretion. After patient use, sensor data were collected and uploaded for AGP reporting. Results: Complete data (sensor AGP with corresponding clinical information) were obtained for 50 patients with type 1 (70%) and type 2 diabetes (30%), irrespective of therapy. Aggregated analysis of AGP data comparing patients with type 1 versus type 2 diabetes, revealed that despite similar HbA1c values between both groups (8.4 ± 2 vs 8.6 ± 1.7%, respectively), those with type 2 diabetes had lower mean glucose levels (9.2 ± 3 vs 10.3 mmol/l [166 ± 54 vs 185 mg/dl]) and lower indices of glucose variability (3.0 ± 1.5 vs 5.0 ± 1.9 mmol/l [54 ± 27 vs 90 ± 34.2 mg/dl]). This highlights key areas for future focus. Conclusions: Using AGP, the characteristics of glucose exposure, variability, stability, and hypoglycemia risk and occurrence were obtained within a short time and with minimal provider and patient input. In a survey at the time of the follow-up visit, clinicians indicated that aggregated AGP data analysis provided important new clinical information and insights. PMID:27154973

  5. Self-care among patients enrolled in a self-monitoring blood glucose program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Saraiva Veras

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study checks specific self-care activities of patients with diabetes mellitus enrolled in a self-monitoring blood glucose program from August to December 2012 in two Primary Health Care units in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample was composed of 74 female and male individuals, aged 18 years old or older. The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Questionnaire was used. It contains six dimensions: general diet, specific diet, physical activity, blood glucose monitoring, foot care, medication usage, plus three items about smoking. Eight out of the 15 self-care activities were within desirable levels, namely: healthy diet, not eating sweets, blood glucose testing and as frequently as recommended, drying between toes after washing feet, and taking medications (three items. The results enabled the identification of gaps in specific self-care activities among patients with diabetes mellitus.

  6. Portable blood extraction device integrated with biomedical monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumpuang, S.; Horade, M.; Fujioka, K.; Sugiyama, S.

    2006-01-01

    Painless and portable blood extraction device has been immersed in the world of miniaturization on bio-medical research particularly in manufacturing point-of-care systems. The fabrication of a blood extraction device integrated with an electrolyte-monitoring system is reported in this paper. The device has advantages in precise controlled dosage of blood extracted including the slightly damaged blood vessels and nervous system. The in-house blood diagnostic will become simple for the patients. Main components of the portable system are; the blood extraction device and electrolyte-monitoring system. The monitoring system consists of ISFET (Ion Selective Field Effect Transistor) for measuring the concentration level of minerals in blood. In this work, we measured the level of 3 ions; Na+, K+ and Cl-. The mentioned ions are frequently required the measurement since their concentration levels in the blood can indicate whether the kidney, pancreas, liver or heart is being malfunction. The fabrication of the whole system and experimentation on each ISM (Ion Sensitive Membrane) will be provided. Taking the advantages of LIGA technology, the 100 hollow microneedles fabricated by Synchrotron Radiation deep X-ray lithography through PCT (Plane-pattern to Cross-section Transfer) technique have been consisted in 5x5 mm2 area. The microneedle is 300 μm in base-diameter, 500 μm-pitch, 800 μm-height and 50 μm hole-diameter. The total size of the blood extraction device is 2x2x2 cm 3. The package is made from a plastic socket including slots for inserting microneedle array and ISFET connecting to an electrical circuit for the monitoring. Through the dimensional design for simply handling and selection of disposable material, the patients can self-evaluate the critical level of the body minerals in anywhere and anytime.

  7. Could Continuous Glucose Monitoring Facilitate Identifying Diabetes Patients with a Higher Risk of Hypoglycemia during Driving?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, J.; Doničová, V.; Brabec, Marek; Janíčková Žďárská, D.; Polák, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2013), s. 1644-1645 ISSN 1932-2968 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : continuous glucose monitoring * driving * hypoglycemia * insulin pump * prevention * type 1 diabetes mellitus Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3876343/

  8. Effect of self-monitoring of blood glucose on glycaemic outcome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder which leads to complications especially when not properly managed. The role of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in type 2 diabetic patients using oral hypoglycaemic agents has been a source of controversy. Objective: The objective was to study the ...

  9. Accuracy and reliability of continuous glucose monitoring systems: a head-to-head comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijf, Yoeri M.; Mader, Julia K.; Doll, Werner; Pieber, Thomas; Farret, Anne; Place, Jerome; Renard, Eric; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Filippi, Alessio; Avogaro, Angelo; Arnolds, Sabine; Benesch, Carsten; Heinemann, Lutz; DeVries, J. Hans

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the accuracy and reliability of three continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems. We studied the Animas® (West Chester, PA) Vibe™ with Dexcom® (San Diego, CA) G4™ version A sensor (G4A), the Abbott Diabetes Care (Alameda, CA) Freestyle® Navigator I (NAV), and the Medtronic

  10. Continuous glucose monitoring-enabled insulin-pump therapy in diabetic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Anna L; Schmidt, Signe; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    We describe the feasibility of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)-enabled insulin-pump therapy during pregnancy in a woman with type 1 diabetes, who was treated with CGM-enabled insulin-pump therapy in her third pregnancy. During her first pregnancy, the woman was treated with multiple daily inj...

  11. What do professionals recommend regarding the frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortensius, J.; Kleefstra, N.; Houweling, S. T.; van der Bijl, J. J.; Gans, R. O. B.; Bilo, H. J. G.

    Background: Patients' adherence to guidelines regarding self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is limited. However, there are no previous reports about the recommendations that are given in clinical practice concerning SMBG. The aim of this study was to investigate what healthcare providers

  12. Comparison of the clinical information provided by the FreeStyle Navigator continuous interstitial glucose monitor versus traditional blood glucose readings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarraugh, Geoffrey V; Clarke, William L; Kovatchev, Boris P

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of the analysis was to compare the clinical utility of data from traditional self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) to that of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). A clinical study of the clinical accuracy of the FreeStyle Navigator CGM System (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA), which includes SMBG capabilities, was conducted by comparison to the YSI blood glucose analyzer (YSI Inc., Yellow Springs, OH) using 58 subjects with type 1 diabetes. The Continuous Glucose-Error Grid Analysis (CG-EGA) was used as the analytical tool. Using CG-EGA, the "clinically accurate," "benign errors," and "clinical errors" were 86.8%, 8.7%, and 4.5% for SMBG and 92.7%, 3.7%, and 3.6% for CGM, respectively. If blood glucose is viewed as a process in time, SMBG would provide accurate information about this process 86.8% of the time, whereas CGM would provide accurate information about this process 92.7% of the time (P glucose values than CGM, control of blood glucose involves a system in flux, and CGM provides more detailed insight into the dynamics of that system. In the normal and elevated glucose ranges, the additional information about the direction and rate of glucose change provided by the FreeStyle Navigator CGM System increases the ability to make correct clinical decisions when compared to episodic SMBG tests.

  13. Commercial Smartphone-Based Devices and Smart Applications for Personalized Healthcare Monitoring and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Schneider, E Marion; Luong, John H T

    2014-08-18

    Smartphone-based devices and applications (SBDAs) with cost effectiveness and remote sensing are the most promising and effective means of delivering mobile healthcare (mHealthcare). Several SBDAs have been commercialized for the personalized monitoring and/or management of basic physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, weight, body analysis, pulse rate, electrocardiograph, blood glucose, blood glucose saturation, sleeping and physical activity. With advances in Bluetooth technology, software, cloud computing and remote sensing, SBDAs provide real-time on-site analysis and telemedicine opportunities in remote areas. This scenario is of utmost importance for developing countries, where the number of smartphone users is about 70% of 6.8 billion cell phone subscribers worldwide with limited access to basic healthcare service. The technology platform facilitates patient-doctor communication and the patients to effectively manage and keep track of their medical conditions. Besides tremendous healthcare cost savings, SBDAs are very critical for the monitoring and effective management of emerging epidemics and food contamination outbreaks. The next decade will witness pioneering advances and increasing applications of SBDAs in this exponentially growing field of mHealthcare. This article provides a critical review of commercial SBDAs that are being widely used for personalized healthcare monitoring and management.

  14. Commercial Smartphone-Based Devices and Smart Applications for Personalized Healthcare Monitoring and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Vashist

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Smartphone-based devices and applications (SBDAs with cost effectiveness and remote sensing are the most promising and effective means of delivering mobile healthcare (mHealthcare. Several SBDAs have been commercialized for the personalized monitoring and/or management of basic physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, weight, body analysis, pulse rate, electrocardiograph, blood glucose, blood glucose saturation, sleeping and physical activity. With advances in Bluetooth technology, software, cloud computing and remote sensing, SBDAs provide real-time on-site analysis and telemedicine opportunities in remote areas. This scenario is of utmost importance for developing countries, where the number of smartphone users is about 70% of 6.8 billion cell phone subscribers worldwide with limited access to basic healthcare service. The technology platform facilitates patient-doctor communication and the patients to effectively manage and keep track of their medical conditions. Besides tremendous healthcare cost savings, SBDAs are very critical for the monitoring and effective management of emerging epidemics and food contamination outbreaks. The next decade will witness pioneering advances and increasing applications of SBDAs in this exponentially growing field of mHealthcare. This article provides a critical review of commercial SBDAs that are being widely used for personalized healthcare monitoring and management.

  15. A spent fuel assemblies monitoring device by nondestructive analysis 'PYTHON'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.; Broeskamp, M.; Hahn, H.; Bignan, G.; Boisset, M.; Silie, P.

    1995-01-01

    The monitoring of spent fuel assemblies (16 x 16 UOX) in KWG-reactor pool with the use of non-destructive methods (total Gamma and neutron counting) allow the control of average burn-up and the extremity burn-up. The measurements allow a safety-criticality control before loading the fuel assemblies into the transport casks. A device called PYTHON has been tested and qualified in France. This paper presents a description of the industrial PYTHON device and the results of the measurements. (orig.)

  16. [Designing and implementation of a web-based quality monitoring system for plasma glucose measurement in multicenter population study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Wang, Limin; Pang, Richard; Mo, Nanxun; Hu, Yan; Deng, Qian; Hu, Zhaohui

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the designing and implementation of a web-based plasma glucose measurement quality monitoring system to assess the analytical quality of plasma glucose measurements in multicenter population study and provide evidence for the future studies. In the chronic non-communicable disease and related factor surveillance in China, a web based quality monitoring system for plasma glucose measurement was established to conduct evaluation on plasma glucose monitoring quality and effectiveness in 302 surveillance centers, including quality control data entry, transmission and feedback. The majority of the surveillance centers met the quality requirements and passed the evaluation of reproducibility and precision of plasma glucose measurement, only a few centers required intensive training and re-assessment. In order to ensure the completeness and reliability of plasma glucose measurement in the surveillance centers, the establishment of web-based plasma glucose measurement quality control system can facilitate the identification of the qualified surveillance centers and evaluation of plasma glucose measurement quality in different regions. Communication and training are important in ensuring plasma glucose measurement quality. It is necessary to further improve this web-based plasma glucose measurement quality monitoring system in the future to reduce the method specific plasma glucose measurement bias.

  17. The use and efficacy of continuous glucose monitoring in type 1 diabetes treated with insulin pump therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battelino, T; Conget, I; Olsen, B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this multicentre, randomised, controlled crossover study was to determine the efficacy of adding continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to insulin pump therapy (CSII) in type 1 diabetes.......The aim of this multicentre, randomised, controlled crossover study was to determine the efficacy of adding continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to insulin pump therapy (CSII) in type 1 diabetes....

  18. Satisfaction Survey on Information Technology-Based Glucose Monitoring System Targeting Diabetes Mellitus in Private Local Clinics in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun-Sung Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPrivate local clinics in Korea have little experience with information technology (IT-based glucose monitoring (ITGM. Our aim is to examine user satisfaction and the possibility of using ITGM service practically.MethodsPatients sent their blood glucose levels to physicians in local clinics. The physicians reviewed the blood glucose values online and provided personal consultations through text messaging or phone calls. Thereafter, a satisfaction survey on the ITGM service, the modified Morisky scale, and patient assessment of chronic illness care were administered.ResultsOne hundred and seventy patients from seven private local clinics used the ITGM. Overall satisfaction, including that about the ITGM service, the device, and its usefulness, was rated higher than “mostly satisfied” (score 4.2±0.8 out of 5.0 and even higher among the elderly. Satisfaction was positively associated with age, especially in those older than 60 years. The main reason for intent for future use of the service was the time/place flexibility. Highly motivated patients tended to answer positively regarding information satisfaction (P=0.0377.ConclusionOur study is the first to investigate ITGM satisfaction in private local clinics. The feasibility of users utilizing ITGM should be clarified, and future clinical research on the service's clinical effects and cost-benefit analysis is needed.

  19. CONTINUOUS GLUCOSE MONITORING: A CONSENSUS CONFERENCE OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Vivian A; Grunberger, George; Anhalt, Henry; Bailey, Timothy S; Blevins, Thomas; Garg, Satish K; Handelsman, Yehuda; Hirsch, Irl B; Orzeck, Eric A; Roberts, Victor Lawrence; Tamborlane, William

    2016-08-01

    Barriers to continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) use continue to hamper adoption of this valuable technology for the management of diabetes. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology convened a public consensus conference February 20, 2016, to review available CGM data and propose strategies for expanding CGM access. Conference participants agreed that evidence supports the benefits of CGM in type 1 diabetes and that these benefits are likely to apply whenever intensive insulin therapy is used, regardless of diabetes type. CGM is likely to reduce healthcare resource utilization for acute and chronic complications, although real-world analyses are needed to confirm potential cost savings and quality of life improvements. Ongoing technological advances have improved CGM accuracy and usability, but more innovations in human factors, data delivery, reporting, and interpretation are needed to foster expanded use. The development of a standardized data report using similar metrics across all devices would facilitate clinician and patient understanding and utilization of CGM. Expanded CGM coverage by government and private payers is an urgent need. CGM improves glycemic control, reduces hypoglycemia, and may reduce overall costs of diabetes management. Expanding CGM coverage and utilization is likely to improve the health outcomes of people with diabetes. A1C = glycated hemoglobin AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ACE = American College of Endocrinology ASPIRE = Automation to Simulate Pancreatic Insulin Response CGM = continuous glucose monitoring HRQOL = health-related quality of life ICER = incremental cost-effectiveness ratio JDRF = Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation MARD = mean absolute relative difference MDI = multiple daily injections QALY = quality-adjusted life years RCT = randomized, controlled trial SAP = sensor-augmented pump SMBG = self-monitoring of blood glucose STAR = Sensor

  20. Efficacy of Additional Canagliflozin Administration to Type 2 Diabetes Patients Receiving Insulin Therapy: Examination of Diurnal Glycemic Patterns Using Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Mihoko; Nakatani, Yuki; Tanka, Seiichi; Aoki, Chie; Sagara, Masaaki; Yanagi, Kazunori; Suzuki, Kunihiro; Aso, Yoshimasa

    2017-08-01

    The efficacy of administering a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor during insulin therapy has not been established. In this study, we examined its effects based on diurnal glycemic patterns using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). The subjects were 15 patients who had received insulin therapy for 1 year or more. A CGM device was attached to all subjects for 1 week. The administration of canagliflozin at 100 mg was started 4 days after attachment. The mean glucose concentrations, standard deviation (SD), mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), mean of daily difference of blood glucose (MODD), and area under the curve (AUC) (≥180, glucose concentrations decreased from 161.1 to 139.1 mg/dL (P AUC of ≥180, i.e., the total area of blood glucose levels at or above 180 on the blood glucose curve of CGM, decreased from 339.1 to 113.6 mg/dL (P AUC of blood glucose levels below 70 on the blood glucose curve of CGM, slightly decreased from 1.6 to 0.3 mg/dL (P = 0.08). The total number of basal insulin units decreased from 128 to 76, and that of bolus insulin decreased from 266 to 154; the dose of insulin could be markedly decreased. In addition, the mean 8-OHdG level decreased from 11.4 to 10.8 ng/mg Cre (P blood glucose changes in type 2 diabetes using insulin. In addition, the results suggest its antioxidant actions. University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN no. 000019429).

  1. Multiple functional attributes of glucose-monitoring neurons in the medial orbitofrontal (ventrolateral prefrontal) cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, István; Hormay, Edina; Csetényi, Bettina; Nagy, Bernadett; Lénárd, László; Karádi, Zoltán

    2018-02-01

    Multiple functional attributes of glucose-monitoring neurons in the medial orbitofrontal (ventrolateral prefrontal) cortex. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 73(1) XXX-XXX, 2017.- Special chemosensory cells, the glucose-monitoring (GM) neurons, reportedly involved in the central feeding control, exist in the medial orbitofrontal (ventrolateral prefrontal) cortex (mVLPFC). Electrophysiological, metabolic and behavioral studies reveal complex functional attributes of these cells and raise their homeostatic significance. Single neuron recordings, by means of the multibarreled microelectrophoretic technique, elucidate differential sensitivities of limbic forebrain neurons in the rat and the rhesus monkey to glucose and other chemicals, whereas gustatory stimulations demonstrate their distinct taste responsiveness. Metabolic examinations provide evidence for alteration of blood glucose level in glucose tolerance test and elevation of plasma triglyceride concentration after destruction of the local GM cells by streptozotocin (STZ). In behavioral studies, STZ microinjection into the mVLPFC fails to interfere with the acquisition of saccharin conditioned taste avoidance, does cause, however, taste perception deficit in taste reactivity tests. Multiple functional attributes of GM neurons in the mVLPFC, within the frame of the hierarchically organized central GM neuronal network, appear to play important role in the maintenance of the homeostatic balance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cutting device for spent local power range monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shigeru; Tsuji, Teruaki.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent radioactive contamination of the reactor water and simplify the operation of transferring the spent local power range monitor to a pool and preparation of the space for storing the monitor in the pool by arranging it such that the monitor is cut in the reactor water and that its cut end is closed in the reactor water. Constitution: A device for clamping a spent local power range monitor disposed within the reactor core and for cutting the monitor such that the content will not be exposed are supported by support means such that they are spaced apart in the vertical direction, and the support means is suspended in the reactor water such that it is movable relative to the monitor. Thus, there is no need to mount the cutter in any separately provided support means, and there is no possibility of exposure of the content since the cut end of the monitor is closed by the outer frame. It is therefore possible to prevent contamination of the reactor water. (Horiuchi, T.)

  3. Investigating User Identification in Remote Patient Monitoring Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondiege, Brian; Clarke, Malcolm

    2017-09-13

    With the increase in the number of people having a chronic disease, there is an increase in households having more than a single person suffering from the same chronic illness. One problem of monitoring such patients in their own home is that current devices have a limitation in the number of people who can use a single device. This study investigates the use of Near Field Communication (NFC) for identification in a multi-user environment. A mixed-method qualitative and quantitative approach was adopted, including focus groups, observations and a field trial. Data were collected in three phases. In Phase 1, five focus groups were conducted with patients to determine their beliefs, concerns and issues with using identification in remote patient monitoring devices. In Phase 2, participants were given a blood pressure monitor modified to include an NFC reader to enable identification. The modified device was given to patients living as a couple in the same household and both suffering from hypertension. Both patients used the device for a period of two weeks to observe their acceptance of the technology and determine their experience of usage. A total of 40 (20 couples) patients participated in the trial. Non-adherence to the full monitoring regimen was low and was mainly due to usability issues or commitments taking them away from the home and thus unable to take readings. After the trial period participants were invited to discuss their experiences with the technology in a focus group discussion (Phase 3), a total of five focus groups were conducted. Focus group discussions with the patients revealed that most participants liked using the system and were not apprehensive towards Healthcare Information Technology (HIT). The participants also had suggestions for improvements that could be made to the modified blood pressure monitor (such as, rechargeable in place batteries, integrate the components, easier to use cuff, and increased sensitivity of the NFC reader) that

  4. Fluorescent blood glucose monitor by hemin-functionalized graphene quantum dots based sensing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yuezhen; Wang, Xiaoxun; Sun, Jian; Jiao, Shoufeng; Chen, Hongqi; Gao, Feng; Wang, Lun, E-mail: wanglun@mail.ahnu.edu.cn

    2014-01-31

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Hemin is assembled onto the surfaces of graphene quantum dots (GQDs). •With the aid of hemin, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} could quench the FL signal of GQDs obviously. •Based on this effect, a fluorescent platform is proposed for the sensing of glucose. •The proposed method provides a new pathway to explore practical application of GQDs. -- Abstract: In the present work, a highly sensitive and specific fluorescent biosensor for blood glucose monitoring is developed based on hemin-functionalized graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and glucose oxidase (GOx) system. The GQDs which are simply prepared by pyrolyzing citric acid exhibit strong fluorescence and good water-solubility. Due to the noncovalent assembly between hemin and GQDs, the addition of hemin can make hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) to destroy the passivated surface of GQDs, leading to significant fluorescence quenching of GQDs. Based on this effect, a novel fluorescent platform is proposed for the sensing of glucose. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range of glucose is from 9 to 300 μM, and the limit of detection is 0.1 μM. As unique properties of GQDs, the proposed biosensor is green, simple, cost-efficient, and it is successfully applied to the determination of glucose in human serum. In addition, the proposed method provides a new pathway to further design the biosensors based on the assembly of GQDs with hemin for detection of biomolecules.

  5. A contact lens with integrated telecommunication circuit and sensors for wireless and continuous tear glucose monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, H; Liao, Y; Lingley, A R; Afanasiev, A; Lähdesmäki, I; Otis, B P; Parviz, B A

    2012-01-01

    We present an integrated functional contact lens, composed of a differential glucose sensor module, metal interconnects, sensor read-out circuit, antenna and telecommunication circuit, to monitor tear glucose levels wirelessly, continuously and non-invasively. The electrochemical differential sensor module is based on immobilization of activated and de-activated glucose oxidase. We characterized the sensor on a model polymer eye and determined that it showed good repeatability, molecular interference rejection and linearity in the range of 0–2 mM glucose, covering normal tear glucose concentrations (0.1–0.6 mM). We also report the temperature, ageing and protein-fouling sensitivity of the sensor. We report the design and implementation of a low-power (3 µW) sensor read-out and telecommunication circuit to deliver wireless power and transmit data for the sensor module. Using this small chip (0.36 mm 2 ), we produced an integrated contact lens with sensors and demonstrated wireless operation of the system and glucose read-out over the distance of several centimeters. (paper)

  6. Remote Blood Glucose Monitoring in mHealth Scenarios: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Lanzola

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucose concentration in the blood stream is a critical vital parameter and an effective monitoring of this quantity is crucial for diabetes treatment and intensive care management. Effective bio-sensing technology and advanced signal processing are therefore of unquestioned importance for blood glucose monitoring. Nevertheless, collecting measurements only represents part of the process as another critical task involves delivering the collected measures to the treating specialists and caregivers. These include the clinical staff, the patient’s significant other, his/her family members, and many other actors helping with the patient treatment that may be located far away from him/her. In all of these cases, a remote monitoring system, in charge of delivering the relevant information to the right player, becomes an important part of the sensing architecture. In this paper, we review how the remote monitoring architectures have evolved over time, paralleling the progress in the Information and Communication Technologies, and describe our experiences with the design of telemedicine systems for blood glucose monitoring in three medical applications. The paper ends summarizing the lessons learned through the experiences of the authors and discussing the challenges arising from a large-scale integration of sensors and actuators.

  7. A signal processing application for evaluating self-monitoring blood glucose strategies in a software agent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanle; Paranjape, Raman

    2015-07-01

    We propose the signal processing technique of calculating a cross-correlation function and an average deviation between the continuous blood glucose and the interpolation of limited blood glucose samples to evaluate blood glucose monitoring frequency in a self-aware patient software agent model. The diabetic patient software agent model [1] is a 24-h circadian, self-aware, stochastic model of a diabetic patient's blood glucose levels in a software agent environment. The purpose of this work is to apply a signal processing technique to assist patients and physicians in understanding the extent of a patient's illness using a limited number of blood glucose samples. A second purpose of this work is to determine an appropriate blood glucose monitoring frequency in order to have a minimum number of samples taken that still provide a good understanding of the patient's blood glucose levels. For society in general, the monitoring cost of diabetes is an extremely important issue, and these costs can vary tremendously depending on monitoring approaches and monitoring frequencies. Due to the cost and discomfort associated with blood glucose monitoring, today, patients expect monitoring frequencies specific to their health profile. The proposed method quantitatively assesses various monitoring protocols (from 6 times per day to 1 time per week) in nine predefined categories of patient agents in terms of risk factors of health status and age. Simulation results show that sampling 6 times per day is excessive, and not necessary for understanding the dynamics of the continuous signal in the experiments. In addition, patient agents in certain conditions only need to sample their blood glucose 1 time per week to have a good understanding of the characteristics of their blood glucose. Finally, an evaluation scenario is developed to visualize this concept, in which appropriate monitoring frequencies are shown based on the particular conditions of patient agents. This base line can

  8. Accuracy evaluation of contour next compared with five blood glucose monitoring systems across a wide range of blood glucose concentrations occurring in a clinical research setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaff, Leslie J; Brazg, Ronald; Hughes, Kristen; Tideman, Ann M; Schachner, Holly C; Stenger, Patricia; Pardo, Scott; Dunne, Nancy; Parkes, Joan Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of Contour(®) Next (CN; Bayer HealthCare LLC, Diabetes Care, Whippany, NJ) compared with five blood glucose monitoring systems (BGMSs) across a wide range of clinically occurring blood glucose levels. Subjects (n=146) were ≥ 18 years and had type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Subjects' glucose levels were safely lowered or raised to provide a wide range of glucose values. Capillary blood samples were tested on six BGMSs and a YSI glucose analyzer (YSI Life Sciences, Inc., Yellow Springs, OH) as the reference. Extreme glucose values were achieved by glucose modification of the blood sample. System accuracy was assessed by mean absolute difference (MAD) and mean absolute relative difference (MARD) across several glucose ranges, with glucose range (Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc., Alameda, CA), 2.77 mg/dL; OneTouch(®) Ultra(®) 2 (LifeScan, Inc., Milpitas, CA), 10.20 mg/dL; OneTouch(®) Verio(®) Pro (LifeScan, Inc.), 4.53 mg/dL; and Truetrack(®) (Nipro Diagnostics, Inc., Fort Lauderdale, FL), 11.08 mg/dL. The lowest MAD in the low glucose range, from CN, was statistically significantly lower than those of the other BGMSs with the exception of the FSL. CN also had a statistically significantly lower MARD than all other BGMSs in the low glucose range. In the overall glucose range (21-496 mg/dL), CN yielded the lowest MAD and MARD values, which were statistically significantly lower in comparison with the other BGMSs. When compared with other BGMSs, CN demonstrated the lowest mean deviation from the reference value (by MAD and MARD) across multiple glucose ranges.

  9. Intracranial pressure monitoring in severe blunt head trauma: does the type of monitoring device matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiolfi, Alberto; Khor, Desmond; Cho, Jayun; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has become the standard of care in the management of severe head trauma. Intraventricular devices (IVDs) and intraparenchymal devices (IPDs) are the 2 most commonly used techniques for ICP monitoring. Despite the widespread use of these devices, very few studies have investigated the effect of device type on outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to compare outcomes between 2 types of ICP monitoring devices in patients with isolated severe blunt head trauma. METHODS This retrospective observational study was based on the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program database, which was searched for all patients with isolated severe blunt head injury who had an ICP monitor placed in the 2-year period from 2013 to 2014. Extracted variables included demographics, comorbidities, mechanisms of injury, head injury specifics (epidural, subdural, subarachnoid, intracranial hemorrhage, and diffuse axonal injury), Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score for each body area, Injury Severity Score (ISS), vital signs in the emergency department, and craniectomy. Outcomes included 30-day mortality, complications, number of ventilation days, intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay, and functional independence. RESULTS During the study period, 105,721 patients had isolated severe traumatic brain injury (head AIS score ≥ 3). Overall, an ICP monitoring device was placed in 2562 patients (2.4%): 1358 (53%) had an IVD and 1204 (47%) had an IPD. The severity of the head AIS score did not affect the type of ICP monitoring selected. There was no difference in the median ISS; ISS > 15; head AIS Score 3, 4, or 5; or the need for craniectomy between the 2 device groups. Unadjusted 30-day mortality was significantly higher in the group with IVDs (29% vs 25.5%, p = 0.046); however, stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that the type of ICP monitoring was not an independent risk factor for death

  10. Nanomaterials in glucose sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Burugapalli, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    The smartness of nano-materials is attributed to their nanoscale and subsequently unique physicochemical properties and their use in glucose sensing has been aimed at improving performance, reducing cost and miniaturizing the sensor and its associated instrumentation. So far, portable (handheld) glucose analysers were introduced for hospital wards, emergency rooms and physicians' offices; single-use strip systems achieved nanolitre sampling for painless and accurate home glucose monitoring; advanced continuous monitoring devices having 2 to 7 days operating life are in clinical and home use; and continued research efforts are being made to develop and introduce increasingly advanced glucose monitoring systems for health as well as food, biotechnology, cell and tissue culture industries. Nanomaterials have touched every aspect of biosensor design and this chapter reviews their role in the development of advanced technologies for glucose sensing, and especially for diabetes. Research shows that overall, nanomat...

  11. Hematocrit correction does not improve glucose monitor accuracy in the assessment of neonatal hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Sievenpiper, John L; de Souza, Russell J; Thomaz, Michele; Blatz, Susan; Grey, Vijaylaxmi; Fusch, Christoph; Balion, Cynthia

    2013-08-01

    The lack of accuracy of point of care (POC) glucose monitors has limited their use in the diagnosis of neonatal hypoglycemia. Hematocrit plays an important role in explaining discordant results. The objective of this study was to to assess the effect of hematocrit on the diagnostic performance of Abbott Precision Xceed Pro (PXP) and Nova StatStrip (StatStrip) monitors in neonates. All blood samples ordered for laboratory glucose measurement were analyzed using the PXP and StatStrip and compared with the laboratory analyzer (ABL 800 Blood Gas analyzer [ABL]). Acceptable error targets were ±15% for glucose monitoring and ±5% for diagnosis. A total of 307 samples from 176 neonates were analyzed. Overall, 90% of StatStrip and 75% of PXP values met the 15% error limit and 45% of StatStrip and 32% of PXP values met the 5% error limit. At glucose concentrations ≤4 mmol/L, 83% of StatStrip and 79% of PXP values met the 15% error limit, while 37% of StatStrip and 38% of PXP values met the 5% error limit. Hematocrit explained 7.4% of the difference between the PXP and ABL whereas it accounted for only 0.09% of the difference between the StatStrip and ABL. The ROC analysis showed the screening cut point with the best performance for identifying neonatal hypoglycemia was 3.2 mmol/L for StatStrip and 3.3 mmol/L for PXP. Despite a negligible hematocrit effect for the StatStrip, it did not achieve recommended error limits. The StatStrip and PXP glucose monitors remain suitable only for neonatal hypoglycemia screening with confirmation required from a laboratory analyzer.

  12. Method of inspecting the function of reactor noise monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Hirohito.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to inspect the function of a reactor noise monitoring device used for monitoring the operation abnormality in coolant circuits during reactor operation. Constitution: A cylinder incorporating a steel ball moved laterally by a pneumatic pressure is disposed to the main body of a reactor coolant circuit. A three-way solenoid valve disposed to a central control room outside to a radiation controlled area is connected with the cylinder by way of pneumatic pipeways. The three-way solenoid valve is operated for a certain period of time by a timer in the central control room to thereby impinge the steel ball in the cylinder against the main body of the coolant circuit and it is inspected as to whether the reactor noise monitoring system can detect the impinging energy or not. Accordingly, the remote control is possible from out of the radiation controlled area and the inspection work can be simplified. (Seki, T.)

  13. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus: arguments for an individualized approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauck, Michael A; El-Ouaghlidi, Andrea; Vardarli, Irfan

    2009-09-01

    The utility of glucose self-monitoring in different types and stages of diabetes is controversial, as there is only sparse relevant evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials. In this analysis, the authors aim to develop individualized recommendations based on clinical needs and the available literature. The PubMed database was searched for articles that appeared up to 30 September 2008 containing the terms "measurement," "control","monitoring," and "hypoglycemia"; the retrieved articles were supplemented by other articles that were cited in them. A directed search was also made for the recommendations of the German, European, American, and international diabetological societies. Conclusions were then drawn about the useful modalities and extent of glucose self-monitoring on the basis of the clinical features of the major types of diabetes and the main treatment strategies for them. With the exception of intensified treatment strategies (which rely on blood-sugar regulation with insulin), only a few evidence-based recommendations can be derived from randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses. Nonetheless, a strategy for self-monitoring according to the patient's individual needs can be derived from the characteristics of therapeutic regimens: depending on the type of diabetes from which the patient suffers, the predicted number of glucometer strips required for self-monitoring will vary from almost none to roughly 400 per month. The decision to use glucose self-monitoring, as well as the type and extent of self-monitoring that will be used, should be based on the individual patient's type of diabetes, treatment regimen, and clinical characteristics. Like any other type of therapeutic intervention, self-monitoring should have a well-documented, rational justification.

  14. Monitoring of Glucose in Beer Brewing by a Carbon Nanotubes Based Nylon Nanofibrous Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mason

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design, preparation, and characterization of a novel glucose electrochemical biosensor based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOX into a nylon nanofibrous membrane (NFM prepared by electrospinning and functionalized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT. A disc of such GOX/CNT/NFM membrane (40 μm in thickness was used for coating the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The resulting biosensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, with ferrocene methanol as mediator. The binding of GOX around the CNT/NFM greatly enhances the electron transfer, which results in a biosensor with a current five times higher than without CNT. The potential usefulness of the proposed biosensor was demonstrated with the analysis of glucose in commercial beverages and along the monitoring of the brewing process for making beer, from the mashing to the fermentation steps.

  15. Flash Glucose Monitoring: Differences Between Intermittently Scanned and Continuously Stored Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleus, Stefan; Kamecke, Ulrike; Link, Manuela; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2018-03-01

    The flash glucose monitoring system FreeStyle Libre (Abbott Diabetes Care Ltd., Witney, UK) measures interstitial glucose concentrations and continuously stores measurement values every 15 minutes. To obtain a current glucose reading, users have to scan the sensor with the reader. In a clinical trial, 5% of the scanned data showed relative differences of more than ±10% compared with continuously stored data points (median -0.5%). Such differences might impact results of studies using this system. It should be indicated whether scanned or continuously stored data were used for analyses. Health care professionals might have to differentiate between data reports from clinical software and the scanned data their patients are provided with. Additional information on these differences and their potential impact on therapeutic decisions would be helpful.

  16. The business of self-monitoring of blood glucose: a market profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mark D

    2009-09-01

    The market for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) approached $8.8 billion worldwide in 2008. Yet despite dramatic double-digit growth in sales of SMBG products since 1980, the business is now facing declining prices and slower dollar growth. Given that SMBG meters and test strips are viewed by consumers and insurers as essentially generic products, it will be extremely challenging for new market entrants to displace well-entrenched existing competitors without a truly innovative technology. Also, in the face of declining glucose test strip prices, market expansion can only occur through identification of more of the undiagnosed diabetes population and convincing existing diabetes patients to adopt glucose testing or to test more frequently. Ultimately, a combination of technology innovations, patient education, and economic incentives may be needed to significantly expand the SMBG market and build sustainable long-term dollar growth for SMBG vendors. 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Nanotechnology in glucose monitoring: advances and challenges in the last 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Viviana

    2013-09-15

    In the last decades, a wide multitude of research activity has been focused on the development of biosensors for glucose monitoring, devoted to overcome the challenges associated with smart analytical performances with commercial implications. Crucial issues still nowadays elude biosensors to enter the market, such as sensitivity, stability, miniaturisation, continuous and in situ monitoring in a complex matrix. A noteworthy tendency of biosensor technology is likely to push towards nanotechnology, which allows to reduce dimensions at the nanoscale, consenting the construction of arrays for high throughput analysis with the integration of microfluidics, and enhancing the performance of the biological components by using new nanomaterials. This review aims to highlight current trends in biosensors for glucose monitoring based on nanotechnology, reporting widespread representative examples of the recent approaches for nanobiosensors over the past 10 years. Progress in nanotechnology for the development of biosensing systems for blood glucose level monitoring will be discussed, in view of their design and construction on the bases of the new materials offered by nanotechnology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Can the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors be affected by the Received Signal Strength of 900 MHz GSM Mobile Phones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, J; Ghafaripour, F; Mortazavi, S A R; Mortazavi, S M J; Shojaei-Fard, M B

    2015-12-01

    People who use home blood glucose monitors may use their mobile phones in the close vicinity of medical devices. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Sixty non-diabetic volunteer individuals aged 21 - 28 years participated in this study. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose level by using a common blood glucose monitoring system. Each blood sample was analyzed twice, within ten minutes in presence and absence of electromagnetic fields generated by a common GSM mobile phone during ringing. Blood samples were divided into 3 groups of 20 samples each. Group 1: exposure to mobile phone radiation with weak signal strength. Group2: exposure to mobile phone radiation with strong signal strength. Group3: exposure to a switched-on mobile phone with no signal strength. The magnitude of the changes in the first, second and third group between glucose levels of two measurements (׀ΔC׀) were 7.4±3.9 mg/dl, 10.2±4.5 mg/dl, 8.7±8.4 mg/dl respectively. The difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 1st and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Furthermore, the difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 2nd and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Findings of this study showed that the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones cannot play a significant role in changing the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors.

  19. Can the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors be affected by the Received Signal Strength of 900 MHz GSM Mobile Phones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslami J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: People who use home blood glucose monitors may use their mobile phones in the close vicinity of medical devices. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Methods: Sixty non-diabetic volunteer individuals aged 21 - 28 years participated in this study. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose level by using a common blood glucose monitoring system. Each blood sample was analyzed twice, within ten minutes in presence and absence of electromagnetic fields generated by a common GSM mobile phone during ringing. Blood samples were divided into 3 groups of 20 samples each. Group 1: exposure to mobile phone radiation with weak signal strength. Group2: exposure to mobile phone radiation with strong signal strength. Group3: exposure to a switched–on mobile phone with no signal strength. Results: The magnitude of the changes in the first, second and third group between glucose levels of two measurements (׀ΔC׀ (were 7.4±3.9 mg/dl, 10.2±4.5 mg/ dl, 8.7±8.4 mg/dl respectively. The difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 1st and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Furthermore, the difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 2nd and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Findings of this study showed that the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones cannot play a significant role in changing the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors.

  20. Can the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors be affected by the Received Signal Strength of 900 MHz GSM Mobile Phones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, J.; Ghafaripour, F.; Mortazavi, S.A.R.; Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Shojaei-fard, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background People who use home blood glucose monitors may use their mobile phones in the close vicinity of medical devices. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Methods Sixty non-diabetic volunteer individuals aged 21 - 28 years participated in this study. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose level by using a common blood glucose monitoring system. Each blood sample was analyzed twice, within ten minutes in presence and absence of electromagnetic fields generated by a common GSM mobile phone during ringing. Blood samples were divided into 3 groups of 20 samples each. Group 1: exposure to mobile phone radiation with weak signal strength. Group2: exposure to mobile phone radiation with strong signal strength. Group3: exposure to a switched–on mobile phone with no signal strength. Results The magnitude of the changes in the first, second and third group between glucose levels of two measurements (׀ΔC׀) were 7.4±3.9 mg/dl, 10.2±4.5 mg/dl, 8.7±8.4 mg/dl respectively. The difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 1st and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Furthermore, the difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 2nd and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion Findings of this study showed that the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones cannot play a significant role in changing the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. PMID:26688798

  1. Simultaneous Monitoring of Glucose and Lactate by Self-powered Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Baingane

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A dual self-powered biosensing system integrated with energy amplification circuit is described, for simultaneously monitoring glucose and lactate. The self-powered biosensing system is based on the conventional enzymatic biofuel cell equipped with three 4 mm x 4 mm massively dense mesh network of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs bioelectrodes in parallel configuration. The bioelectrodes employed pyroquinoline quinone glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH as the biocatalyst for the glucose oxidation and D-Lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH as the biocatalyst for lactate oxidation. A common laccase modified-MWCNTs bioelectrode served as the cathode for the reduction of molecular oxygen. Two charge pump circuits were coupled with 0.1 mF capacitors functioning as transducers. The advantages of employing capacitors were coupled with the efficient energy amplification of the charge pump circuit to amplify the power output from each of the biofuel and charge/discharge the corresponding capacitor. Under operating conditions, the open circuit voltages and short circuit current densities for 180 mg/dL glucose and 25 mM lactate were 339.2 mV and 228.75 µA/cm2 and 370 mV and 66.17 µA/cm2, respectively. The responses for glucose and lactate were linear up to 630 mg/dL and 30 mM with sensitivities of 20.11 Hz/ mM cm-2 and 9.869 Hz/ mM cm-2, respectively. The potential of the described system was demonstrated to provide stable voltage and current output that was capable of driving the charge pump circuit integrated with the capacitor for simultaneously monitoring glucose and lactate. These results were in good agreement with those previously reported.

  2. Rechargeable membraneless glucose biobattery: Towards solid-state cathodes for implantable enzymatic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Alireza Ahmadian; Preite, Roberto; Milton, Ross D.; Hickey, David P.; Minteer, Shelley D.; Xu, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Enzymatic biobatteries can be implanted in living organisms to exploit the chemical energy stored in physiological fluids. Generally, commonly-used electron donors (such as sugars) are ubiquitous in physiological environments, while electron acceptors such as oxygen are limited due to many factors including solubility, temperature, and pressure. The wide range of solid-state cathodes, however, may replace the need for oxygen breathing electrodes and serve in enzymatic biobatteries for implantable devices. Here, we have fabricated a glucose biobattery suitable for in vivo applications employing a glucose oxidase (GOx) anode coupled to a solid-state Prussian Blue (PB) thin-film cathode. PB is a non-toxic material and its electrochemistry enables fast regeneration if used in a secondary cell. This novel biobattery can effectively operate in a membraneless architecture as PB can reduce the peroxide produced by some oxidase enzymes. The resulting biobattery delivers a maximum power and current density of 44 μW cm-2 and 0.9 mA cm-2 , respectively, which is ca. 37% and 180% higher than an equivalent enzymatic fuel cell equipped with a bilirubin oxidase cathode. Moreover, the biobattery demonstrated a stable performance over 20 cycles of charging and discharging periods with only ca. 3% loss of operating voltage.

  3. In vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of brain energy substrates with a multiplex amperometric enzyme-based biosensor device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, C A; de Vries, M G; Ngabi, W; Oomen, P E; Cremers, T I F H; Westerink, B H C

    2015-05-15

    Enzyme-based amperometric biosensors are widely used for monitoring key biomarkers. In experimental neuroscience there is a growing interest in in vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of metabolism-related biomarkers, like glucose, lactate and pyruvate. The use of multiplex biosensors will provide better understanding of brain energy metabolism and its role in neuropathologies such as diabetes, ischemia, and epilepsy. We have developed and characterized an implantable multiplex microbiosensor device (MBD) for simultaneous and continuous in vivo monitoring of glucose, lactate, and pyruvate. First, we developed and characterized amperometric microbiosensors for monitoring lactate and pyruvate. In vitro evaluation allowed us to choose the most suitable biosensors for incorporation into the MBD, along with glucose and background biosensors. Fully assembled MBDs were characterized in vitro. The calculated performance parameters (LOD, LR, LRS, IMAX and appKM) showed that the multiplex MBD was highly selective and sensitive (LRS≥100 nA/mM) for each analyte and within an adequate range for in vivo application. Finally, MBDs were implanted in the mPFC of anesthetized adult male Wistar rats for in vivo evaluation. Following an equilibration period, baseline brain levels of glucose (1.3±0.2 mM), lactate (1.5±0.4 mM) and pyruvate (0.3±0.1 mM) were established. Subsequently, the MBDs recorded the responses of the animals when submitted to hyperglycemic (40% glucose i.v.) and hypoglycemic (5 U/kg insulin i.v.) challenges. Afterwards, MBDs were recalibrated to convert electrochemical readings into accurate substrate concentrations and to assess biofouling. The presented MBD can monitor simultaneously multiple biomarkers in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of continuous glucose monitoring as an outcome measure in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Roy W; Calhoun, Peter; Kollman, Craig

    2012-10-01

    Although developed to be a management tool for individuals with diabetes, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) also has potential value for the assessment of outcomes in clinical studies. We evaluated using CGM as such an outcome measure. Data were analyzed from six previously completed inpatient studies in which both CGM (Freestyle Navigator™ [Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA] or Guardian(®) [Medtronic, Northridge, CA]) and reference glucose measurements were available. The analyses included 97 days of data from 93 participants with type 1 diabetes (age range, 5-57 years; mean, 18 ± 12 years). Mean glucose levels per day were similar for the CGM and reference measurements (median, 148 mg/dL vs. 143 mg/dL, respectively; P = 0.92), and the correlation of the two was high (r = 0.89). Similarly, most glycemia metrics showed no significant differences comparing CGM and reference values, except that the nadir glucose tended to be slightly lower and peak glucose slightly higher with reference measurements than CGM measurements (respective median, 59 mg/dL vs. 66 mg/dL [P = 0.05] and 262 mg/dL vs. 257 mg/dL [P = 0.003]) and glucose variability as measured with the coefficient of variation was slightly lower with CGM than reference measurements (respective median, 31% vs. 35%; Pblood glucose measurements. CGM inaccuracy and underestimation of the extremes of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia can be accounted for in a clinical trial's study design. Thus, in appropriate settings, CGM can be a very meaningful and feasible outcome measure for clinical trials.

  5. An In-Line Photonic Biosensor for Monitoring of Glucose Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala'aldeen Al-Halhouli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two PDMS photonic biosensor designs that can be used for continuous monitoring of glucose concentrations. The first design, the internally immobilized sensor, consists of a reactor chamber, micro-lenses and self-alignment structures for fiber optics positioning. This sensor design allows optical detection of glucose concentrations under continuous glucose flow conditions of 33 µL/h based on internal co-immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOX and horseradish peroxidase (HRP on the internal PDMS surface of the reactor chamber. For this design, two co-immobilization methods, the simple adsorption and the covalent binding (PEG methods were tested. Experiments showed successful results when using the covalent binding (PEG method, where glucose concentrations up to 5 mM with a coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.99 and a limit of detection of 0.26 mM are detectable. The second design is a modified version of the internally immobilized sensor, where a microbead chamber and a beads filling channel are integrated into the sensor. This modification enabled external co-immobilization of enzymes covalently onto functionalized silica microbeads and allows binding a huge amount of HRP and GOX enzymes on the microbeads surfaces which increases the interaction area between immobilized enzymes and the analyte. This has a positive effect on the amount and rate of chemical reactions taking place inside the chamber. The sensor was tested under continuous glucose flow conditions and was found to be able to detect glucose concentrations up to 10 mM with R2 of 0.98 and a limit of detection of 0.7 mM. Such results are very promising for the application in photonic LOC systems used for online analysis.

  6. Water sampling device for fuel rod failure monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oogami, Hideaki; Echigoya, Hironori; Matsuoka, Tesshi.

    1991-01-01

    The device of the present invention accurately samples coolants in a channel box as sampling water even if the upper end of the channel box of a fuel assembly is positioned at the same height or lower than the upper end of an upper lattice plate. An existent device comprises an outer cap, an inner cap, an air supply pipe and a water sampling tube. In addition, the device of the present invention comprises a sealing material disposed at the end of the outer cap for keeping liquid sealing with the upper lattice plate and a water level monitoring pipe extended to lower than the inner cap passing through the liquid sealing of the outer cap for sucking the atmosphere in the outer cap. Pressurized air is sent through the air supply pipe, to lower the water level of the coolants in the outer cap and the water level monitoring pipe sucks the pressurized air, by which the inside and the outside of the channel box are partitioned. Subsequently, if the sample water is sampled by a sampling tube, sampling water which enables accurate evaluation for radioactivity concentration in the fuel assembly can be obtained. (I.S.)

  7. Different methods and settings for glucose monitoring for gestational diabetes during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Puvaneswary; Shepherd, Emily; Dowswell, Therese; Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A

    2017-10-29

    Incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide. Blood glucose monitoring plays a crucial part in maintaining glycaemic control in women with GDM and is generally recommended by healthcare professionals. There are several different methods for monitoring blood glucose which can be carried out in different settings (e.g. at home versus in hospital). The objective of this review is to compare the effects of different methods and settings for glucose monitoring for women with GDM on maternal and fetal, neonatal, child and adult outcomes, and use and costs of health care. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (30 September 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-randomised controlled trials (qRCTs) comparing different methods (such as timings and frequencies) or settings, or both, for blood glucose monitoring for women with GDM. Two authors independently assessed study eligibility, risk of bias, and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy.We assessed the quality of the evidence for the main comparisons using GRADE, for:- primary outcomes for mothers: that is, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; caesarean section; type 2 diabetes; and- primary outcomes for children: that is, large-for-gestational age; perinatal mortality; death or serious morbidity composite; childhood/adulthood neurosensory disability;- secondary outcomes for mothers: that is, induction of labour; perineal trauma; postnatal depression; postnatal weight retention or return to pre-pregnancy weight; and- secondary outcomes for children: that is, neonatal hypoglycaemia; childhood/adulthood adiposity; childhood/adulthood type 2 diabetes. We included 11 RCTs (10 RCTs; one qRCT) that randomised 1272 women with GDM in upper-middle or high-income countries; we considered these to be at a moderate to high risk of bias. We assessed the RCTs under five comparisons. For outcomes assessed using

  8. HBA1C AND MEAN GLUCOSE DERIVED FROM SHORT-TERM CONTINUOUS GLUCOSE MONITORING ASSESSMENT DO NOT CORRELATE IN PATIENTS WITH HBA1C >8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Eijiro; Okada, Shuichi; Nakajima, Yasuyo; Bastie, Claire C; Vatish, Manu; Tagaya, Yuko; Osaki, Aya; Shimoda, Yoko; Shibusawa, Ryo; Saito, Tsugumichi; Okamura, Takashi; Ozawa, Atsushi; Yamada, Masanobu

    2017-01-01

    Optimum therapy for patients with diabetes depends on both acute and long-term changes in plasma glucose, generally assessed by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. However, the correlation between HbA1c and circulating glucose has not been fully determined. Therefore, we carefully examined this correlation when glucose levels were assessed by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Fifty-one patients (70% female, 30% male) were examined; among them were 28 with type 1 diabetes and 23 with type 2 diabetes. Clinically determined HbA1c levels were compared with blood glucose determined by CGM during a short time period. Changes in HbA1c levels up to 8.0% showed a clear and statistically strong correlation (R = 0.6713; PHbA1c and CGM-assessed glucose levels in our patient population when HbA1c was >8.0%. Short-term CGM appears to be a good clinical indicator of long-term glucose control (HbA1c levels); however, cautions should be taken while interpreting CGM data from patients with HbA1c levels >8.0%. Over- or underestimation of the actual mean glucose from CGM data could potentially increase the risks of inappropriate treatment. As such, our results indicate that a more accurate analysis of CGM data might be useful to adequately tailor clinical treatments. ADAG = A1c-Derived Average Glucose CGM = continuous glucose monitoring %CV = percent coefficient of variation HbA1c = glycated hemoglobin.

  9. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring during labour and delivery in women with Type 1 diabetes — observations from a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordua, S; Secher, A L; Ringholm, L

    2013-01-01

    To explore whether real-time continuous glucose monitoring during labour and delivery supplementary to hourly self-monitored plasma glucose in women with Type 1 diabetes reduces the prevalence of neonatal hypoglycaemia.......To explore whether real-time continuous glucose monitoring during labour and delivery supplementary to hourly self-monitored plasma glucose in women with Type 1 diabetes reduces the prevalence of neonatal hypoglycaemia....

  10. Monitoring critical facilities by using advanced RF devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Hanchung; Liu, Yung Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Shuler, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The ability to monitor critical environment parameters of nuclear plants at all times, particularly during and after a disruptive accident, is vital for the safety of plant personnel, rescue and recovery crews, and the surrounding communities. Conventional hard-wired assets that depend on supplied power may be decimated as a result of such events, as witnessed in the Japanese Fukushima nuclear power plant in March 2011. Self-powered monitoring devices operating on a wireless platform, on the other hand, may survive such calamity and remain functional. The devices would be pre-positioned at strategic locations, particularly where the dangerous build-up of contamination and radiation may preclude subsequent manned entrance and surveillance. Equipped with sensors for β-γ radiation, neutrons, hydrogen gas, temperature, humidity, pressure, and water level, as well as with criticality alarms and imaging equipment for heat, video, and other capabilities, these devices can provide vital surveillance information for assessing the extent of plant damage, mandating responses (e.g., evacuation before impending hydrogen explosion), and enabling overall safe and efficient recovery in a disaster. A radio frequency identification (RFID)-based system - called ARG-US - may be modified and adapted for this task. Developed by Argonne for DOE, ARG-US (meaning 'watchful guardian') has been used successfully to monitor and track sensitive nuclear materials packages at DOE sites. It utilizes sensors in the tags to continuously monitor the state of health of the packaging and promptly disseminates alarms to authorized users when any of the preset sensor thresholds is violated. By adding plant-specific monitoring sensors to the already strong sensor suite and adopting modular hardware, firmware, and software subsystems that are tailored for specific subsystems of a plant, a Remote Area Modular Monitoring (RAMM) system, built on a wireless sensor network (WSN) platform, is being

  11. Monitoring critical facilities by using advanced RF devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Hanchung; Liu, Yung Y.; Shuler, James

    2013-01-01

    The ability to monitor critical environment parameters of nuclear plants at all times, particularly during and after a disruptive accident, is vital for the safety of plant personnel, rescue and recovery crews, and the surrounding communities. Conventional hard-wired assets that depend on supplied power may be decimated as a result of such events, as witnessed in the Japanese Fukushima nuclear power plant in March 2011. Self-powered monitoring devices operating on a wireless platform, on the other hand, may survive such calamity and remain functional. The devices would be pre-positioned at strategic locations, particularly where the dangerous build-up of contamination and radiation may preclude subsequent manned entrance and surveillance. Equipped with sensors for β-γ radiation, neutrons, hydrogen gas, temperature, humidity, pressure, and water level, as well as with criticality alarms and imaging equipment for heat, video, and other capabilities, these devices can provide vital surveillance information for assessing the extent of plant damage, mandating responses (e.g., evacuation before impending hydrogen explosion), and enabling overall safe and efficient recovery in a disaster. A radio frequency identification (RFID)-based system - called ARG-US - may be modified and adapted for this task. Developed by Argonne for DOE, ARG-US (meaning 'watchful guardian') has been used successfully to monitor and track sensitive nuclear materials packages at DOE sites. It utilizes sensors in the tags to continuously monitor the state of health of the packaging and promptly disseminates alarms to authorized users when any of the preset sensor thresholds is violated. By adding plant-specific monitoring sensors to the already strong sensor suite and adopting modular hardware, firmware, and software subsystems that are tailored for specific subsystems of a plant, a Remote Area Modular Monitoring (RAMM) system, built on a wireless sensor network (WSN) platform, is being

  12. Investigation of the Influence of the As-Grown ZnO Nanorods and Applied Potentials on an Electrochemical Sensor for In-Vitro Glucose Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Marie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the as-grown zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs on the fabricated electrochemical sensor for in vitro glucose monitoring were investigated. A direct growth of ZnO NRs was performed on the Si/SiO2/Au electrode, using hydrothermal and sol-gel techniques at low temperatures. The structure, consisting of a Si/SiO2/Au/GOx/Nafion membrane, was considered as a baseline, and it was tested under several applied potential 0.1–0.8 V. The immobilized working electrode, with GOx and a nafion membrane, was characterized amperometrically using a source meter Keithely 2410, and an electrochemical impedance Gamry potentiostat. The sensor exhibited the following: a high sensitivity of ~0.468 mA/cm2 mM, a low detection limit in the order of 166.6 µM, and a fast and sharp response time of around 2 s. The highest sensitivity and the lowest limit of detection were obtained at 0.4 volt, after the growth of ZnO NRs. The highest net sensitivity was obtained after subtracting the sensitivity of the baseline, and it was in the order of 0.315 mA/cm2·mM. The device was tested with a range of glucose concentrations from 1–10 mM, showing a linear line from 3–8 mM, and the device was saturated after exceeding high concentrations of glucose. Such devices can be used for in vitro glucose monitoring, since glucose changes can be accurately detected.

  13. Device for monitoring electron-ion ring parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyutyunnikov, S.I.; Shalyapin, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    The invention is classified as the method of collective ion acceleration. The device for electron-ion ring parameters monitoring is described. The invention is aimed at increasing functional possibilities of the device at the expense of the enchance in the number of the ring controlled parameters. The device comprises three similar plane mirrors installed over accelerating tube circumference and a mirror manufactured in the form of prism and located in the tube centre, as well as the system of synchrotron radiation recording and processing. Two plane mirrors are installed at an angle of 45 deg to the vertical axis. The angle of the third plane mirror 3 α and that of prismatic mirror 2 α to the vertical axis depend on geometric parameters of the ring and accelerating tube and they are determined by the expression α=arc sin R K /2(R T -L), where R K - ring radius, R T - accelerating tube radius, L - the height of segment, formed by the mirror and inner surface of the accelerating tube. The device suggested permits to determine longitudinal dimensions of the ring, its velocity and the number of electrons and ions in the ring

  14. Use of real time continuous glucose monitoring and intravenous insulin in type 1 diabetic mothers to prevent respiratory distress and hypoglycaemia in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passaro Patrizia

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy in Type 1 diabetic patients is a precarious condition, both for mother and fetus with increased the risk of prematurity and, immediately after delivery with risk of respiratory distress syndrome and hypoglycaemia in newborns. A strict control and monitoring of diabetes throughout pregnancy is important in reducing the impact of the disease on the fetus and newborn. In recent years many new technologies have been introduced to ameliorate diabetes monitoring, where the last is the Real-time Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (RT-CGMS. Methods In the last three years, 72 h continuous glucose monitoring system (RT-CGMS (Medtronic, CA was performed in 18 pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes in two moments of pregnancy: during treatment with betamethasone to prevent respiratory distress and during delivery. In both cases insulin was administered intravenous and the dose was changed on the basis of glycaemia. Results The results present the use of this new technique during two topics moments of pregnancy of type 1 diabetes patients when is very important intensively to monitor diabetes and to obtain the well being of the fetus. No infant experimented hypoglycaemia or respiratory distress syndrome at the moment and in the first hours after the birth. Conclusion We wish to stress the importance reducing glycaemia during administration of betamethasone and during labor. It is conceivable that the scarce attention paid to monitoring glucose levels in diabetic mothers during labor in gynaecological world may be due to the difficulty in glucose monitoring with the devices until now available. Hopefully, our anecdotal account may prompt improvements with RT-CGMS, and may lead to a better approach to the problem, thereby changing the prognosis of infants born to diabetic mothers.

  15. Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis for an Antifalling Safety Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxiang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a constant need for the safe operation and reliability of antifalling safety device (AFSD of an elevator. This paper reports an experimental study on rotation speed and catching torque monitoring and fault diagnosis of an antifalling safety device in a construction elevator. Denoising the signal using wavelet transform is presented in this paper. Based on the denoising effects for several types of wavelets, the sym8 wavelet basis, which introduces the high order approximation and an adaptive threshold, is employed for denoising the signal. The experimental result shows a maximum data error reduction of 7.5% is obtained and SNRs (signal-to-noise ratio of rotation speed and catching torque are improved for 3.9% and 6.4%, respectively.

  16. Development of Cell Phone Application for Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring Based on ISO/IEEE 11073 and HL7 CCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Sang; Cho, Hune; Kim, Hwa Sun

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop and evaluate a cell phone application based on the standard protocol for personal health devices and the standard information model for personal health records to support effective blood glucose management and standardized service for patients with diabetes. An application was developed for Android 4.0.3. In addition, an IEEE 11073 Manager, Medical Device Encoding Rule, and Bluetooth Health Device Profile Connector were developed for standardized health communication with a glucometer, and a Continuity of Care Document (CCD) Composer and CCD Parser were developed for CCD document exchange. The developed application was evaluated by five healthcare professionals and 87 users through a questionnaire comprising the following variables: usage intention, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating condition, perceived risk, and voluntariness. As a result of the evaluation of usability, it was confirmed that the developed application is useful for blood glucose self-monitoring by diabetic patients. In particular, the healthcare professionals stated their own views that the application is useful to observe the trends in blood glucose change through the automatic function which records a blood glucose level measured using Bluetooth function, and the function which checks accumulated records of blood glucose levels. Also, a result of the evaluation of usage intention was 3.52 ± 0.42 out of 5 points. The application developed by our research team was confirmed by the verification of healthcare professionals that accurate feedback can be provided to healthcare professionals during the management of diabetic patients or education for glucose management.

  17. Continuous glucose monitoring and its relationship to hemoglobin A1c and oral glucose tolerance testing in obese and prediabetic youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christine L; Pyle, Laura; Newnes, Lindsey; Nadeau, Kristen J; Zeitler, Philip S; Kelsey, Megan M

    2015-03-01

    The optimal screening test for diabetes and prediabetes in obese youth is controversial. We examined whether glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) or the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a better predictor of free-living glycemia as measured by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). This was a cross-sectional study of youth 10-18 years old, body mass index (BMI) 85th percentile or greater, with diabetes risk factors. Participants (n = 118) with BMI 85th percentile or greater, not on medications for glucose management, were recruited from primary care and pediatric endocrinology clinics around Denver, Colorado. HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, and 2-hour glucose were collected and all participants wore a blinded CGM for 72 hours. CGM outcomes were determined and descriptive statistics calculated. Performance characteristics at current American Diabetes Association cutpoints were compared with CGM outcomes. CGM data were successfully collected on 98 obese youth. Those with prediabetes had significantly higher average glucose, area under the curve (AUC), peak glucose, and time greater than 120 and greater than 140 mg/dL (P obese youth, HbA1c and 2-hour glucose performed equally well at predicting free-living glycemia on CGM, suggesting that both are valid tests for dysglycemia screening.

  18. Translating glucose variability metrics into the clinic via Continuous Glucose Monitoring: a Graphical User Interface for Diabetes Evaluation (CGM-GUIDE©).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Renata A; Shi, Hang; Yuan, Lo-Hua; Brehm, William; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Nelson, Patrick W

    2011-12-01

    Several metrics of glucose variability have been proposed to date, but an integrated approach that provides a complete and consistent assessment of glycemic variation is missing. As a consequence, and because of the tedious coding necessary during quantification, most investigators and clinicians have not yet adopted the use of multiple glucose variability metrics to evaluate glycemic variation. We compiled the most extensively used statistical techniques and glucose variability metrics, with adjustable hyper- and hypoglycemic limits and metric parameters, to create a user-friendly Continuous Glucose Monitoring Graphical User Interface for Diabetes Evaluation (CGM-GUIDE©). In addition, we introduce and demonstrate a novel transition density profile that emphasizes the dynamics of transitions between defined glucose states. Our combined dashboard of numerical statistics and graphical plots support the task of providing an integrated approach to describing glycemic variability. We integrated existing metrics, such as SD, area under the curve, and mean amplitude of glycemic excursion, with novel metrics such as the slopes across critical transitions and the transition density profile to assess the severity and frequency of glucose transitions per day as they move between critical glycemic zones. By presenting the above-mentioned metrics and graphics in a concise aggregate format, CGM-GUIDE provides an easy to use tool to compare quantitative measures of glucose variability. This tool can be used by researchers and clinicians to develop new algorithms of insulin delivery for patients with diabetes and to better explore the link between glucose variability and chronic diabetes complications.

  19. Tritium contaminated surface monitoring with a solid - state device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Curuia, Marian; Enache, Adrian; Stefanescu, Ioan; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2004-01-01

    The low energy of betas makes tritium difficult to detect. However, there are several methods used in tritium detection, such as liquid scintillation and ionization chambers. Tritium on or near a surface can be also detected using proportional counters and, recently, solid state devices. The paper presents our results in the design and achievement of a surface tritium monitor using a PIN photodiode as a solid state charged particle detector to count betas emitted from the surface. That method allows continuous, real-time and non-destructively measuring of tritium. (authors)

  20. Improvement of a device for monitoring the contamination of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, Albert.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this invention is to make it possible to monitor the contamination of surfaces by a light weight portable device and enabling the alpha, beta and gamma radiation contamination to be detected. The detection probe which is connected by a single lead to the box is adapted, in each particular case, to the radiation mode emitted by the contaminated surfaces and the box is provided with a special leak-proof socket for connecting the probe and includes means for assessing the counting rate of the radiation given off, depending on the mode of the radiations emitted by the contaminated surfaces and the intensity of the count rate [fr

  1. Practical approaches for self-monitoring of blood glucose: an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Subhankar; Ji, Linong; Suwanwalaikorn, Sompongse; Yu, Neng-Chun; Tan, Eng Kiat

    2015-03-01

    Comprehensive glycemic control is necessary to improve outcomes and avoid complications in individuals with diabetes. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is a key enabler of glycemic assessment, providing real-time information that complements HbA1c monitoring and supports treatment optimization. However, SMBG is under-utilized by patients and physicians within the Asia-Pacific region, because of barriers such as the cost of monitoring supplies, lack of diabetes self-management skills, or concerns about the reliability of blood glucose readings. Practice recommendations in international and regional guidelines vary widely, and may not be detailed or specific enough to guide SMBG use effectively. This contributes to uncertainty among patients and physicians about how best to utilize this tool: when and how often to test, and what action(s) to take in response to high or low readings. In developing a practical SMBG regimen, the first step is to determine the recommended SMBG frequency and intensity needed to support the chosen treatment regimen. If there are practical obstacles to monitoring, such as affordability or access, physicians should identify the most important aspects of glycemic control to target for individual patients, and modify monitoring patterns accordingly. This consensus paper proposes a selection of structured, flexible SMBG patterns that can be tailored to the clinical, educational, behavioral, and financial requirements of individuals with diabetes.

  2. Device for remote control of monitoring of a conveyor line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shubin, N F; Rybak, Yu I

    1981-01-01

    The known device under mine conditions because of the decrease of resistance of the insulation of the current-carrying lines of the transfer line does not guarantee reliable protection from false triggering. The purpose of the invention is to improve the reliability of monitoring and control by improving interference-resistance of the device. This goal is achieved because the compensation block is equipped with a transistor, seven diodes, three stabilitrons and resistors united into two compensation circuits which are connected in parallel. The first of them is formed by two stabilitrons connected in series, where the cathode of one of them through a resistor and the counter-connected first diode is connected to a common lead and to the first pole of the block of monitoring and control. The anode of the other through the second counter-connected diode is connected to the second pole of the block of monitoring and control. The second compensation circuit is formed of a transistor, whose collector is connected to the common lead. The emitter is connected through the resistor to the cathode of the third diode whose anode is connected to the lead of the communications line and to the anodes of the fourth diode directly, and the fifth through the resistor, and with the cathode of the third stabilitron whose anode is connected to the transistor base and through the resistor to the common lead. The cathode of the fourth diode is connected to the common point of the first and second stabilitrons through the resistor, connected through the sixth diode, connected by cathode to the cathode of the fourth diode, parallel to the information block. The cathode of the fifth diode is connected to the anode of the second diode, and the second pole of the block of monitoring and control is connected to the communications lead through the seventh diode, connected counter to the fourth and fifth diodes.

  3. Accuracy of a real-time continuous glucose monitoring system in children with septic shock: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhudesai, Sumant; Kanjani, Amruta; Bhagat, Isha; Ravikumar, Karnam G.; Ramachandran, Bala

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this prospective, observational study was to determine the accuracy of a real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in children with septic shock. Subjects and Methods: Children aged 30 days to 18 years admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit with septic shock were included. A real-time CGMS sensor was used to obtain interstitial glucose readings. CGMS readings were compared statistically with simultaneous laboratory blood glucose (BG). Results: Nineteen chil...

  4. Characteristics of a multisensor system for non invasive glucose monitoring with external validation and prospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caduff, Andreas; Mueller, Martin; Megej, Alexander; Dewarrat, Francois; Suri, Roland E; Klisic, Jelena; Donath, Marc; Zakharov, Pavel; Schaub, Dominik; Stahel, Werner A; Talary, Mark S

    2011-05-15

    The Multisensor Glucose Monitoring System (MGMS) features non invasive sensors for dielectric characterisation of the skin and underlying tissue in a wide frequency range (1 kHz-100 MHz, 1 and 2 GHz) as well as optical characterisation. In this paper we describe the results of using an MGMS in a miniaturised housing with fully integrated sensors and battery. Six patients with Type I Diabetes Mellitus (age 44±16 y; BMI 24.1±1.3 kg/m(2), duration of diabetes 27±12 y; HbA1c 7.3±1.0%) wore a single Multisensor at the upper arm position and performed a total of 45 in-clinic study days with 7 study days per patient on average (min. 5 and max. 10). Glucose changes were induced either orally or by i.v. glucose administration and the blood glucose was measured routinely. Several prospective data evaluation routines were applied to evaluate the data. The results are shown using one of the restrictive data evaluation routines, where measurements from the first 22 study days were used to train a linear regression model. The global model was then prospectively applied to the data of the remaining 23 study days to allow for an external validation of glucose prediction. The model application yielded a Mean Absolute Relative Difference of 40.8%, a Mean Absolute Difference of 51.9 mg dL(-1), and a correlation of 0.84 on average per study day. The Clarke error grid analyses showed 89.0% in A+B, 4.5% in C, 4.6% in D and 1.9% in the E region. Prospective application of a global, purely statistical model, demonstrates that glucose variations can be tracked non invasively by the MGMS in most cases under these conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential photoacoustic spectroscopy with continuous wave lasers for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y.; Tajima, T.; Seyama, M.

    2018-02-01

    We propose a differential photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), wherein two wavelengths of light with the same absorbance are selected, and differential signal is linearized by one of the two signals for a non-invasive blood glucose monitoring. PAS has the possibility to overcome the strong optical scattering in tissue, but there are still remaining issues: the water background and instability due to the variation in acoustic resonance conditions. A change in sample solution temperature is one of the causes of the variation in acoustic resonance conditions. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the sensitivity against glucose concentration under the condition where the temperature of the sample water solution ranges 30 to 40 °C. The glucose concentration change is simulated by shifting the wavelength of irradiated laser light, which can effectively change optical absorption. The temperature also affects optical absorption and the acoustic resonance condition (acoustic velocity). A distributed-feedback (DFB) laser, tunable wavelength laser (TWL) and an acoustic sensor were used to obtain the differential PAS signal. The wavelength of the DFB laser was 1.382 μm, and that of TWL was switched from 1.600 to 1.610 μm to simulate the glucose concentration change. Optical absorption by glucose occurs at around 1.600 μm. The sensitivities against temperature are almost the same: 1.9 and 1.8 %/°C for 1.600 and 1.610 μm. That is, the glucose dependence across the whole temperature range remains constant. This implies that temperature correction is available.

  6. The Performance and Usability of a Factory-Calibrated Flash Glucose Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Timothy; Bode, Bruce W; Christiansen, Mark P; Klaff, Leslie J; Alva, Shridhara

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance and usability of the FreeStyle(®) Libre™ Flash glucose monitoring system (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) for interstitial glucose results compared with capillary blood glucose results. Seventy-two study participants with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were enrolled by four U.S. clinical sites. A sensor was inserted on the back of each upper arm for up to 14 days. Three factory-only calibrated sensor lots were used in the study. Sensor glucose measurements were compared with capillary blood glucose (BG) results (approximately eight per day) obtained using the BG meter built into the reader (BG reference) and with the YSI analyzer (Yellow Springs Instrument, Yellow Springs, OH) reference tests at three clinic visits (32 samples per visit). Sensor readings were masked to the participants. The accuracy of the results was demonstrated against capillary BG reference values, with 86.7% of sensor results within Consensus Error Grid Zone A. The percentage of readings within Consensus Error Grid Zone A on Days 2, 7, and 14 was 88.4%, 89.2%, and 85.2%, respectively. The overall mean absolute relative difference was 11.4%. The mean lag time between sensor and YSI reference values was 4.5±4.8 min. Sensor accuracy was not affected by factors such as body mass index, age, type of diabetes, clinical site, insulin administration, or hemoglobin A1c. Interstitial glucose measurements with the FreeStyle Libre system were found to be accurate compared with capillary BG reference values, with accuracy remaining stable over 14 days of wear and unaffected by patient characteristics.

  7. Clinical evaluation of a new intracranial pressure monitoring device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendel, R; Heidenreich, J; Schilling, A; Akhavan-Sigari, R; Kurth, R; Picht, T; Pietilä, T; Suess, O; Kern, C; Meisel, J; Brock, M

    2003-03-01

    Continuous monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) still plays a key role in the management of patients at risk from intracranial hypertension. Numerous ICP-measuring devices are available. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatibility of the recently developed Neurovent-P(REHAU AG+CO, REHAU, Germany) ICP monitoring device. In a prospective two-center study, a total of 98 patients with severe head injury, subarachnoid haemorrhage, intracerebral haemorrhage, and non-traumatic brain edema underwent intraparenchymal monitoring of ICP using the Neurovent-P. A control group comprising 50 patients underwent implantation of the Camino-OLM-110-4B ICP monitor. The zero drift of the probes was determined before and after the ICP recording period. Technical and medical complications were documented. The MRI compatibility of the Neurovent-P ICP probe was investigated by evaluating artifacts caused by the probe, probe function and temperature changes during MRI, and probe movement caused by the magnetic field. The mean zero drift was 0.2+/-0.41 mmHg (maximum 3 mmHg) for the Neurovent-P ICP probes and 0.4+/-0.57 mmHg (maximum 12 mmHg) for the Camino-OLM-110-4B ICP probes. No significant correlation was identified between the extent of zero drift following the removal of the probes and the length of monitoring. Intraparenchymal haemorrhage spatially related to the probe occurred in 1 out of 50 (2%) patients with a Camino-OLM-110-4B probe and in 1 out of 98 (1%) with a Neurovent-P. Damage of the probe due to kinking or overextension of the cable or glass fiber occurred in 4 of the 50 (8%) Camino-OLM-110-4B ICP probes and in 5 of the 98 (5%) Neurovent-P probes. On T2-weighted MR images, the Neurovent-P ICP probe induced only small artifacts with very good discrimination of the surrounding tissue. On T1-weighted MR images, there was a good imaging quality but artifact-related local disturbances

  8. CAS-3 H - a device for tritium monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbu, N.; Popescu, I. V.; Bucur, C.

    2001-01-01

    The equipment for tritium monitoring is designed to continuous sampling of tritium from working places in nuclear power plants (NPP) or from plants' surroundings. Its construction allows continuous function in free atmosphere during 8 hours, it is protected against environment factors by support beg, while its components are made from stainless steel or corrosion resistant materials. Inside and surroundings of NPP tritium can exist in different form. The most important tritium quantity (over 90%) are in form of tritiated water, and in form of free hydrogen (less than 10% in closed rooms inside NPP), as well as, in a very small quantity in form of chemical organic tritiated combinations (less than 1%). Tritium sampling from indoor following a mixing phase is considered a simply and fast method. Even this method isn't too precise it requires short time for determination. This is a big advantage because inside NPP the momentary evolution of tritium concentration must be known to be able to take adequate measures. Constructive data for this device are: - dimensions, length x width x height, 470 x 410 x 130 mm; - supply, 2,5 V c.c.; - maxim power consumed, 5 W/h - weight, max. 6 kg. Device main components are: - dry mini-pump with double membrane that ensures a nominal debit upper then necessary, of 12 l/h air at a depression of least 20 mm Hg; - electrical engine with supply tension of 2.5 V c.c., and revolution of 500 rev/min, that acts the pump. Engine power is about 5 W; - filter used as device's shield against particles from air; - revmeter type ROTROM-I.D-PTFE, for air debit measurement by mixing vessels, with measure scale between 4 and 27 Nl/h air; - two mixing vessels made of glass with active capacity of 100 ml; - 28 photoelectric cells placed over support beg, that ensures accumulator charging, thus allowing an increased autonomy in time for device function; - two accumulators type R20 with tension of 1.25 V and minimum intensity of 4 A; - support beg

  9. A Multi-Technique Reconfigurable Electrochemical Biosensor: Enabling Personal Health Monitoring in Mobile Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Alexander; Venkatesh, A G; Hall, Drew A

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the design and characterization of a reconfigurable, multi-technique electrochemical biosensor designed for direct integration into smartphone and wearable technologies to enable remote and accurate personal health monitoring. By repurposing components from one mode to the next, the biosensor's potentiostat is able reconfigure itself into three different measurements modes to perform amperometric, potentiometric, and impedance spectroscopic tests all with minimal redundant devices. A [Formula: see text] PCB prototype of the module was developed with discrete components and tested using Google's Project Ara modular smartphone. The amperometric mode has a ±1 nA to [Formula: see text] measurement range. When used to detect pH, the potentiometric mode achieves a resolution of < 0.08 pH units. In impedance measurement mode, the device can measure 50 Ω-10 [Formula: see text] and has been shown to have of phase error. This prototype was used to perform several point-of-care health tracking assays suitable for use with mobile devices: 1) Blood glucose tests were conducted and shown to cover the diagnostic range for Diabetic patients (  ∼  200 mg/dL). 2) Lactoferrin, a biomarker for urinary tract infections, was detected with a limit of detection of approximately 1 ng/mL. 3) pH tests of sweat were conducted to track dehydration during exercise. 4) EIS was used to determine the concentration of NeutrAvidin via a label-free assay.

  10. Continuous glucose monitoring--a study of the Enlite sensor during hypo- and hyperbaric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfsson, Peter; Örnhagen, Hans; Eriksson, Bengt M; Cooper, Ken; Jendle, Johan

    2012-06-01

    The performance and accuracy of the Enlite(™) (Medtronic, Inc., Northridge, CA) sensor may be affected by microbubble formation at the electrode surface during hypo- and hyperbaric conditions. The effects of acute pressure changes and of prewetting of sensors were investigated. On Day 1, 24 sensors were inserted on the right side of the abdomen and back in one healthy individual; 12 were prewetted with saline solution, and 12 were inserted dry. On Day 2, this procedure was repeated on the left side. All sensors were attached to an iPro continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) recorder. Hypobaric and hyperbaric tests were conducted in a pressure chamber, with each test lasting 105 min. Plasma glucose values were obtained at 5-min intervals with a HemoCue(®) (Ängelholm, Sweden) model 201 glucose analyzer for comparison with sensor glucose values. Ninety percent of the CGM systems operated during the tests. The mean absolute relative difference was lower during hyperbaric than hypobaric conditions (6.7% vs. 14.9%, Phypobaric but not during hyperbaric conditions. Clarke Error Grid Analysis showed that 100% of the values were found in the A+B region. No differences were found between prewetted and dry sensors. The Enlite sensor performed adequately during acute pressure changes and was more accurate during hyperbaric than hypobaric conditions. Prewetting the sensors did not improve accuracy. Further studies on type 1 diabetes subjects are needed under various pressure conditions.

  11. Unannounced Meals in the Artificial Pancreas: Detection Using Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charrise M. Ramkissoon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The artificial pancreas (AP system is designed to regulate blood glucose in subjects with type 1 diabetes using a continuous glucose monitor informed controller that adjusts insulin infusion via an insulin pump. However, current AP developments are mainly hybrid closed-loop systems that include feed-forward actions triggered by the announcement of meals or exercise. The first step to fully closing the loop in the AP requires removing meal announcement, which is currently the most effective way to alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia due to the delay in insulin action. Here, a novel approach to meal detection in the AP is presented using a sliding window and computing the normalized cross-covariance between measured glucose and the forward difference of a disturbance term, estimated from an augmented minimal model using an Unscented Kalman Filter. Three different tunings were applied to the same meal detection algorithm: (1 a high sensitivity tuning, (2 a trade-off tuning that has a high amount of meals detected and a low amount of false positives (FP, and (3 a low FP tuning. For the three tunings sensitivities 99 ± 2%, 93 ± 5%, and 47 ± 12% were achieved, respectively. A sensitivity analysis was also performed and found that higher carbohydrate quantities and faster rates of glucose appearance result in favorable meal detection outcomes.

  12. Glucose concentration in capillary blood of dairy cows obtained by a minimally invasive lancet technique and determined with three different hand-held devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, B; Drillich, M; Klein-Jöbstl, D; Kanz, P; Borchardt, S; Meyer, L; Schwendenwein, I; Iwersen, M

    2016-02-24

    Dairy cows have a massive demand for glucose at the onset of lactation. A poor adaption to this period leads to an excessive negative energy balance with an increased risk for ketosis and impaired animal health and production. Besides the measurement of ketones, analysing the glucose concentration in blood is reported as helpful instrument for diagnosis and differentiation of ketosis. Monitoring metabolic parameters requires multiple blood sampling. In other species, new blood sampling techniques have been introduced in which small amounts of blood are rapidly analysed using electronic hand-held devices. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of capillary blood for blood glucose measurement in dairy cows using the hand-held devices FreeStyle Precision (FSP, Abbott), GlucoMen LX Plus (GLX, A. Menarini) and the WellionVet GLUCO CALEA, (WGC, MED TRUST). In total, 240 capillary blood samples were obtained from dry and fresh lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Blood was collected from the skin of the exterior vulva by using a lancet. For method comparison, additional blood samples were taken from a coccygeal vessel and analyzed in a laboratory. Glucose concentrations measured by a standard laboratory method were defined as the criterion standard. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the glucose concentrations analyzed in capillary blood with the devices and the reference were 73% for the FSP, 81% for the GLX and 41% for the WGC. Bland-Altman plots showed biases of -18.8 mg/dL for the FSP, -11.2 mg/dL for the GLX and +20.82 mg/dL for the WGC. The optimized threshold determined by a Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis to detect hyperglycemia using the FSP was 43 mg/dL with a sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of 76 and 80%. Using the GLX and WGC optimized thresholds were 49 mg/dL (Se = 92%, Sp = 85%) and 95 mg/dL (Se = 39%, Sp = 92%). The results of this study demonstrate good performance characteristics for the GLX

  13. Value of self-monitoring blood glucose pattern analysis in improving diabetes outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Christopher G; Davidson, Jaime A

    2009-05-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is an important adjunct to hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) testing. This action can distinguish between fasting, preprandial, and postprandial hyperglycemia; detect glycemic excursions; identify and monitor resolution of hypoglycemia; and provide immediate feedback to patients about the effect of food choices, activity, and medication on glycemic control. Pattern analysis is a systematic approach to identifying glycemic patterns within SMBG data and then taking appropriate action based upon those results. The use of pattern analysis involves: (1) establishing pre- and postprandial glucose targets; (2) obtaining data on glucose levels, carbohydrate intake, medication administration (type, dosages, timing), activity levels and physical/emotional stress; (3) analyzing data to identify patterns of glycemic excursions, assessing any influential factors, and implementing appropriate action(s); and (4) performing ongoing SMBG to assess the impact of any therapeutic changes made. Computer-based and paper-based data collection and management tools can be developed to perform pattern analysis for identifying patterns in SMBG data. This approach to interpreting SMBG data facilitates rational therapeutic adjustments in response to this information. Pattern analysis of SMBG data can be of equal or greater value than measurement of HbA1c levels. 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  14. Fault and meal detection by redundant continuous glucose monitors and the unscented Kalman filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmoudi, Zeinab; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a method for detecting and compensating the anomalies of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors as well as detecting unannounced meals. Both features, sensor fault detection/correction and meal detection, are necessary to have a reliable artificial pan...... is corrupted by PISA. The fault isolator can detect 199 out of 200 unannounced meals. The average change in the glucose concentrations between the meals and the detection time points is 46.3 mg/dL.......The purpose of this study is to develop a method for detecting and compensating the anomalies of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors as well as detecting unannounced meals. Both features, sensor fault detection/correction and meal detection, are necessary to have a reliable artificial...... from the two fault detectors differentiates between a sensor fault and an unannounced meal appearing as an anomaly in the CGM data. If the fault isolator indicates a sensor fault, a method based on the covariance matching technique tunes the covariance of the measurement noise associated...

  15. Installation and sampling of vadose zone monitoring devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, S.M.; Strickland, D.J.; Pearson, R.

    1987-10-01

    A vadose zone monitoring system was installed in a sanitary landfill near the Y-12 facility on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge, Tennessee Reservation. The work was completed as part of the LLWDDD program to develop, design, and demonstrate new low level radioactive waste disposal monitoring methods. The objective of the project was to evaluate the performance of three types of vadose zone samplers within a similar hydrogeologic environment for use as early detection monitoring devices. The three different types of samplers included the Soil Moisture Equipment Corporation Pressure-Vacuum samplers (Models 1920 and 1940), and the BAT Piezometer (Model MK II) manufactured by BAT Envitech, Inc. All three samplers are designed to remove soil moisture from the vadose (unsaturated) zone. Five clusters of three holes each were drilled to maximum depths of 45 ft around part of the periphery of the landfill. Three samplers, one of each type, were installed at each cluster location. Water samples were obtained from 13 of the 15 samplers and submitted to Martin Marietta for analysis. All three samplers performed satisfactorily when considering ease of installation, required in-hole development, and ability to collect water samples from the vadose zone. Advantages and disadvantages of each sampler type are discussed in the main report

  16. Regulation E 69-14. Monitoring requirements for medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In the 'Regulations for the State Evaluation and Registration of Medical Equipment' force (Hereinafter Rules) set forth in Chapter VII, Articles 79 and 86, the monitoring activity as one of the programs necessary for evaluating the safety and effectiveness of medical monitoring equipment. In the years 2008 and 2011 were approved and implemented by the Center for State Control of Medical Equipment (CCEEM) Regulations and -1.1 ER and ER-1 that support and regulatory requirements 'Control and monitoring of pacemakers and implantable defibrillators' and 'Assessment, recording and control after market surgical silicone implants,' which are specific to these products and have provided a useful result for the performance of the activity. Given the number and diversity of high-risk medical devices as implantable or sustain human life that are brought into our National Health System (SNS), a regulation establishing control over the behavior becomes necessary safety and effectiveness of this equipment during use, which provide inputs to risk management. The objective of this regulation is to establish the regulatory requirements for tracking medical equipment introduced in the NHS. The provisions of this Regulation is aimed at health institutions, to CECMED as manufacturers, suppliers, distributors and importers of medical equipment.

  17. Effect of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Accuracy on Clinicians' Retrospective Decision Making in Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmoudi, Zeinab; Johansen, Mette Dencker; Nørgaard, Hanne Holdflod

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in clinical decision making in diabetes could be limited by the inaccuracy of CGM data when compared to plasma glucose measurements. The aim of the present study is to investigate the impact of CGM numerical accuracy on the precision...... of diabetes treatment adjustments. METHOD: CGM profiles with maximum 5-day duration from 12 patients with type 1 diabetes treated with a basal-bolus insulin regimen were processed by 2 CGM algorithms, with the accuracy of algorithm 2 being higher than the accuracy of algorithm 1, using the median absolute...... of the interclinician agreement and the intraclinician reproducibility of the decisions. The Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to assess the precision of the decisions. The study was based on retrospective and blind CGM data. RESULTS: For the interclinician agreement, in the first occasion, the kappa of algorithm 1...

  18. Comparison of three nonlinear filters for fault detection in continuous glucose monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Zeinab; Wendt, Sabrina Lyngbye; Boiroux, Dimitri; Hagdrup, Morten; Norgaard, Kirsten; Poulsen, Niels Kjolstad; Madsen, Henrik; Jorgensen, John Bagterp

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of three nonlinear filters in online drift detection of continuous glucose monitors. The nonlinear filters are the extended Kalman filter (EKF), the unscented Kalman filter (UKF), and the particle filter (PF). They are all based on a nonlinear model of the glucose-insulin dynamics in people with type 1 diabetes. Drift is modelled by a Gaussian random walk and is detected based on the statistical tests of the 90-min prediction residuals of the filters. The unscented Kalman filter had the highest average F score of 85.9%, and the smallest average detection delay of 84.1%, with the average detection sensitivity of 82.6%, and average specificity of 91.0%.

  19. Techniques of monitoring blood glucose during pregnancy for women with pre-existing diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Foong Ming; Ray, Amita; Buckley, Brian S; West, Helen M

    2017-06-11

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is recommended as a key component of the management plan for diabetes therapy during pregnancy. No existing systematic reviews consider the benefits/effectiveness of various techniques of blood glucose monitoring on maternal and infant outcomes among pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes. The effectiveness of the various monitoring techniques is unclear. To compare techniques of blood glucose monitoring and their impact on maternal and infant outcomes among pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 November 2016), searched reference lists of retrieved studies and contacted trial authors. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing techniques of blood glucose monitoring including SMBG, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) or clinic monitoring among pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus (type 1 or type 2). Trials investigating timing and frequency of monitoring were also included. RCTs using a cluster-randomised design were eligible for inclusion but none were identified. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. This review update includes at total of 10 trials (538) women (468 women with type 1 diabetes and 70 women with type 2 diabetes). The trials took place in Europe and the USA. Five of the 10 included studies were at moderate risk of bias, four studies were at low to moderate risk of bias, and one study was at high risk of bias. The trials are too small to show differences in important outcomes such as macrosomia, preterm birth, miscarriage or death of baby. Almost all the reported GRADE outcomes were assessed as being very low-quality evidence. This was due to design limitations in the studies, wide confidence intervals, small

  20. Accuracy and precision evaluation of seven self-monitoring blood glucose systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chih-Yi; Hsu, Cheng-Teng; Ho, Cheng-Shiao; Su, Ting-En; Wu, Ming-Hsun; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2011-05-01

    Self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) systems play a critical role in management of diabetes. SMBG systems should at least meet the minimal requirement of the World Health Organization's ISO 15197:2003. For tight glycemic control, a tighter accuracy requirement is needed. Seven SMBG systems were evaluated for accuracy and precision: Bionime Rightest(™) GM550 (Bionime Corp., Dali City, Taiwan), Accu-Chek(®) Performa (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN), OneTouch(®) Ultra(®)2 (LifeScan Inc., Milpitas, CA), MediSense(®) Optium(™) Xceed (Abbott Diabetes Care Inc., Alameda, CA), Medisafe (TERUMO Corp., Tokyo, Japan), Fora(®) TD4227 (Taidac Technology Corp., Wugu Township, Taiwan), and Ascensia Contour(®) (Bayer HealthCare LLC, Mishawaka, IN). The 107 participants (44 men and 63 women) were between 23 and 91 years old. The analytical results of seven SMBG systems were compared with those of plasma analyzed with the hexokinase method (Olympus AU640, Olympus America Inc., Center Valley, PA). The imprecision of the seven blood glucose meters ranged from 1.1% to 4.7%. Three of the seven blood glucose meters (42.9%) fulfilled the minimum accuracy criteria of ISO 15197:2003. The mean absolute relative error value for each blood glucose meter was calculated and ranged from 6.5% to 12.0%. More than 40% of evaluated SMBG systems meet the minimal accuracy criteria requirement of ISO 15197:2003. However, considering tighter criteria for accuracy of ±15%, only the Bionime Rightest GM550 meets this requirement. Because SMBG systems play a critical role in management of diabetes, manufacturers have to strive to improve accuracy and precision and to ensure the good quality of blood glucose meters and test strips.

  1. Monitoring of glucose levels in mouse blood with noninvasive optical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, H; Ikram, M; Ahmed, E

    2014-01-01

    We report the quantification/monitoring of glucose levels in a blood sample using optical diffuse reflectance (ODR) underlying variations in optical parameters with a white light source (at peak wavelength ∼600 nm and range 450–850 nm) and in blood in vivo using M-mode optical coherence tomography (OCT) in terms of the translational diffusion coefficient (D T ). In the ODR experiments, we have investigated two types of mono-dispersive particles, i.e. polystyrene microspheres (PMSs) with diameters of 1.4 μm (variable concentrations) and 2.6 μm (fixed concentration) in a water phantom by observing changes in the reduced scattering coefficient. We believe that these differences in optical properties will be helpful for the understanding and optimal use of laser applications in blood glucometry without piercing the skin. In the OCT experiments, this idea of glucose monitoring was applied on an in vivo normal mouse without injection of glucose intravenously to provide the threshold levels by envisioning/identifying a blood vessel by speckle variance (SV-OCT) using a dorsal skinfold mouse windows chamber model. We report an average value of translation decorrelation time τ T = 41.18 ± 1.92 ms and D T = 8.90 × 10 −14  m 2  s −1 underlying the dynamic light scattering (DLS). Our results have a potential application in the quantification of higher glucose levels in vivo administrated intravenously. (paper)

  2. [Usefulness of continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in monitoring glycaemic profile in small children with diabetes type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowińska-Olszewska, Barbara; Urban, Mirosława; Peczyńska, Jadwiga; Florys, Bozena; Kowalewski, Marek

    2005-01-01

    Improved methods of diabetes therapy result in a near normoglycaemic state in many patients. This leads however unfortunately to more frequent hypoglycaemic incidents. Particularly small children, whose nervous system is not fully mature, are at high risk of central nervous system damage in case of hypoglycaemia. A new method of detail monitoring of glycaemia provides CGMS system. The aim of the study was to compare the glycaemic profile, with high attention to hypoglycaemia in groups of young and older children with diabetes type 1, using CGMS and routine glucose meter. We studied 32 children with diabetes type 1. Children were divided into groups: group I--small children, n=17 (10 years of age), mean age--12 years, with disease duration--3 years, with HbA1c level--7,21%. Continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS), by MiniMed, was applied in outpatient or hospital conditions, after short training of patient and parents; together with routine glucose meter measurements, 4-8 times/24 hours. In 9 patients from small children group CGMS was repeated after 2 months. Hypoglycaemic incidents detected with CGMS were similar in both groups: 4,6 in I group vs. 4,2 in II group (ns). Hypoglycaemic incidents found with meter were lower in I group--1,6 vs. 2,3 in II group (ns). Mean hypoglycaemic time/24 hour was longer in small children group: 101 min vs. 74 min in group II (p<00,05). In I group we found higher number of hypoglycaemic incidents during the night compared to group II--1,7 vs. 0,8 (p<00,05) and longer duration of night hypoglycaemia: in I group--56 min vs. 32 min in group II (p<00,05). Repeated CGMS study in 9 children from I group revealed decreased mean time of hypoglycaemia/24 hours from 134 min/24 h to 90 min/24 h (p<00,05) and decreased time of night hypoglycaemia from 65 min to 40 min (p<00,05), with a comparable number of hypoglycaemic incidents. Hypoglycaemic incidents found with routine meter measurements in small children were 1,6 vs. 4,6 hypoglycaemia

  3. Cutting device for a local power range monitor tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shigeru; Tsuji, Teruaki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a combination of a lifting device for a local power range monitor (LPRM) tube, a cutter and a transfer machine to safely and securely cut the LPRM tube under water. Structure: An LPRM tube is gripped by an LPRM tube gripper, which is moved up and down by a chain drive, through a flexture corrector, and the tip of the LPRM tube is held and released from the LPRM tube gripper so as to be threaded into an LPRM tube cutter to grip it by a transfer gripper of an LPRM tube transfer machine, after which the LPRM tube cutter is operated under pressure water to cut the LPRM tube with a cutter edge so that a cut portion is closed. (Yoshino, Y.)

  4. NASDA technician test real-time radiation monitoring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A technician from the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) tests the real-time radiation monitoring device on SPACEHAB at Kennedy Space Center in preparation for the STS-89 mission, slated to be the first Shuttle launch of 1998. STS-89 will be the eighth of nine scheduled Mir dockings and will include a double module of SPACEHAB, used mainly as a large pressurized cargo container for science, logistical equipment and supplies to be exchanged between the orbiter Endeavour and the Russian Space Station Mir. The nine-day flight of STS-89 also is scheduled to include the transfer of the seventh American to live and work aboard the Russian orbiting outpost. Liftoff of Endeavour and its seven-member crew is targeted for Jan. 15, 1998, at 1:03 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  5. Intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring during liver transplantation: goals and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Peter; Frederiksen, H J; Secher, N H

    2010-01-01

    With the introduction of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) almost 40 years ago, changes in the cardiovascular system that manifest during the different phases of the operation combined, sometimes with massive hemorrhage in likely critically ill patients have been a challenge. Here hemodynamic...... monitoring of the patients during OLT is addressed with focus on maintaining the patients' central blood volume (CBV) and methods and devices that can serve that purpose are listed. It is considered that a stable CBV maintains cerebral blood flow and oxygenation and thereby the well-being of the patient......, while even a small reduction in blood pressure affects cerebral blood flow and oxygenation if it reflects a reduced CBV and thereby cardiac output. In that regard it is accepted that for the patient going through OLT cardiac output (~8 L/min-1) and also venous oxygen saturation (~85%) are larger than...

  6. COMPARISON OF THE RESULTS OF BLOOD GLUCOSE SELFMONITORING AND CONTINUOUS GLUCOSE MONITORING IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PREVIOUS DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Dreval'

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy is one of the indications for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM. The data on its efficiency in pregnant women are contradictory.Aim: To compare the results of blood glucose self-monitoring (SMBG and CGM in pregnant women with previous diabetes mellitus.Materials and methods: We performed a cross-sectional comparative study of glycemia in 18 pregnant women with previous type 1 (87.8% of patients and type 2 diabetes (22.2% of patients with various degrees of glycemic control. Their age was 27.7 ± 4.9 year. At study entry, the patients were at 17.2 ± 6.1 weeks of gestation. CGM and SMBG were performed in and by all patients for the duration of 5.4 ± 1.5 days. Depending on their HbA1c levels, all patients were divided into two groups: group 1 – 12 women with the HbA1c above the target (8.5 ± 1%, and group 2 – 6 women with the HbA1c levels within the target (5.6 ± 0.3%.Results: According to SMBG results, women from group 2 had above-the-target glycemia levels before breakfast, at 1 hour after breakfast and at bedtime: 6.2 ± 1.6, 8.7 ± 2.1, and 5.7 ± 1.9 mmol/L, respectively. According to CGM, patients from group 1 had higher postprandial glycemia than those from group 2 (8.0 ± 2.1 and 6.9 ± 1.8 mmol/L, respectively, p = 0.03. The analysis of glycemia during the day time revealed significant difference between the groups only at 1 hour after dinner (7.1 ± 1.4 mmol/L in group 1 and 5.8 ± 0.9 mmol/L in group 2, р = 0.041 and the difference was close to significant before lunch (6.0 ± 2.2 mmol/L in group 1 and 4.8 ± 1.0 mmol/L in group 2, р = 0.053. Comparison of SMBG and CGM results demonstrated significant difference only at one timepoint (at 1 hour after lunch and only in group 1: median glycemia was 7.4 [6.9; 8.1] mmol/L by SMBG and 6 [5.4; 6.6] mmol/L by CGM measurement (р = 0.001. Lower median values by CGM measurement could be explained by averaging of three successive measurements carried out in the

  7. Self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences of adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugasch, Lucie B; Ugarriza, Doris N

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the experiences of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) usage of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who are not using insulin. Nineteen adults were asked to describe their experiences with self-monitoring. Data were analyzed using the grounded theory method. The theory of "SMBG as a Cue in T2DM Self-Care" emerged from the data and is composed of four categories: (a) Engaging, (b) Checking, (c) Responding, and (d) Establishing a Pattern. Engaging marks the beginning. Frequent monitoring characterizes this stage. Checking involves evaluating and validating the blood glucose level. The most common item evaluated or validated was the effect of foods. Responding involves taking action or experiencing emotion. Actions taken centered on dietary changes. Emotions felt were dependent on the level and ranged from blame to happiness. Participants established a pattern and used SMBG regularly or sporadically. Frequency was based on obtaining "normal" patterns, the absence of symptoms, provider disinterest, and fingertip pain. Participants described many benefits and struggles when incorporating SMBG into their self-care. Information from this study could be used to develop effective guidelines for the use of SMBG in T2DM. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  8. Web-based telemedicine system is useful for monitoring glucose control in pregnant women with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carral, Florentino; Ayala, María del Carmen; Fernández, Juan Jesús; González, Carmen; Piñero, Antonia; García, Gloria; Cañavate, Concepción; Jiménez, Ana Isabel; García, Concepción

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a Web-based telemedicine system for monitoring glucose control in pregnant women with diabetes on healthcare visits, metabolic control, and pregnancy outcomes. A prospective, single-center, interventional study with two parallel groups was performed in Puerto Real University Hospital (Cadiz, Spain). Women were assigned to two different glucose monitoring groups: the control group (CG), which was managed only by follow-ups with the Gestational Diabetes Unit (GDU), and the telemedicine group (TMG), which was monitored by both more spaced GDU visits and a Web-based telemedicine system. The number of healthcare visits, degree of metabolic control, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were evaluated. One hundred four pregnant women with diabetes (77 with gestational diabetes, 16 with type 1 diabetes, and 11 with type 2 diabetes) were included in the TMG (n=40) or in the CG (n=64). There were no significant differences in mean glycated hemoglobin level during pregnancy or after delivery, despite a significantly lower number of visits to the GDU (3.2±2.3 vs. 5.9±2.3 visits; P3.0±1.7 visits; PWeb-based telemedicine system can be a useful tool facilitating the management of pregnant diabetes patients, as a complement to conventional outpatient clinic visits.

  9. Enhanced self-monitoring blood glucose in non-insulin requiring Type 2 diabetes: A qualitative study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Dana Elisabeth

    2018-03-31

    To contribute to both theoretical and practical understanding of the role of self-monitoring blood glucose for self-management by describing the experience of people with non-insulin requiring Type 2 diabetes in an enhanced structured self-monitoring blood glucose intervention. The complex context of self-monitoring blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes requires a deeper understanding of the clients' illness experience with structured self-monitoring of blood glucose. Clients' numeracy skills contribute to their response to blood glucose readings. Nurses' use of motivational interviewing to increase clients' regulatory self-efficacy is important to the theoretical perspective of the study. A qualitative descriptive study. A purposive sample of eleven adults recently (diabetes who had experienced a structured self-monitoring blood glucose intervention participated in this study. Audio recordings of semi-structured interviews and photos of logbooks were analyzed for themes using constant comparison and member checking. The illness experience states of Type 2 diabetes include 'Diagnosis', 'Behavior change', and 'Routine checking'. People check blood glucose to confirm their Type 2 diabetes diagnosis, to console their diabetes related fears, to create personal explanations of health behavior's impact on blood glucose, to activate behavior change and to congratulate their diabetes self-management efforts. These findings support the Transtheoretical model's stages of change and change processes. Blood glucose checking strengthens the relationships between theoretical concepts found in Diabetes Self-management Education-Support including: engagement, information sharing, and behavioral support. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Automatic ingestion monitor: a novel wearable device for monitoring of ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Juan M; Farooq, Muhammad; Sazonov, Edward

    2014-06-01

    Objective monitoring of food intake and ingestive behavior in a free-living environment remains an open problem that has significant implications in study and treatment of obesity and eating disorders. In this paper, a novel wearable sensor system (automatic ingestion monitor, AIM) is presented for objective monitoring of ingestive behavior in free living. The proposed device integrates three sensor modalities that wirelessly interface to a smartphone: a jaw motion sensor, a hand gesture sensor, and an accelerometer. A novel sensor fusion and pattern recognition method was developed for subject-independent food intake recognition. The device and the methodology were validated with data collected from 12 subjects wearing AIM during the course of 24 h in which both the daily activities and the food intake of the subjects were not restricted in any way. Results showed that the system was able to detect food intake with an average accuracy of 89.8%, which suggests that AIM can potentially be used as an instrument to monitor ingestive behavior in free-living individuals.

  11. Ambulatory stress monitoring with a wearable bluetooth electrocardiographic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungyoup; Yang, Youngmo; Lee, Jangyoung; Yang, Heebum; Park, Kyungnam; Lee, Suyeul; Lee, Inbum; Jang, Yongwon

    2010-01-01

    We tried to monitor stress by using a wearable one channel ECG device that can send ECG signals through Bluetooth wireless communication. Noxious physical and mental arithmetic stress was given three times repeatedly to healthy adults, and cortisol and catecholamines were measured serially from peripheral blood. At the same time, time domain and frequency domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) were calculated by taking precordial electrocardiogram. The intensity of correlation between subjective visual analogue scale (VAS) and catecholamine, cortisol, and HRV parameters according to stress was analyzed by using concordance correlation coefficients. The HRV triangular index and LF/HF ratio had high concordance correlation with the degree of stress in the physical stress model. In mental arithmetic stress model, the HRV triangular index and LF/HF ratio had weak concordance correlation with the degree of stress, and it had lower predictability than epinephrine. In both models, cortisol had some correlation with catecholamine, but it had little correlation with HRV parameters. HRV parameters using wearable one channel ECG device can be useful in predicting acute stress and also in many other areas.

  12. A respiratory monitoring device based on clavicular motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, D G; Aspinall, R; Patel, M K; Lang, P-O; Sinclair, A J

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory rate is one of the key vital signs yet unlike temperature, heart rate or blood pressure, there is no simple and low cost measurement device for medical use. Here we discuss the development of a respiratory sensor based upon clavicular motion and the findings of a pilot study comparing respiratory rate readings derived from clavicular and thoracic motion with an expiratory breath flow reference sensor. Simultaneously sampled data from resting volunteers (n = 8) was analysed to determine the location of individual breaths in the data set and from these, breath periods and frequency were calculated. Clavicular sensor waveforms were found to be more consistent and of greater amplitude than those from the thoracic device, demonstrating good alignment with the reference waveform. On comparing breath by breath periods a close agreement was observed with the reference, with mean clavicular respiratory rate R 2 values of 0.89 (lateral) and 0.98 (longitudinal-axis). This pilot study demonstrates the viability of clavicular respiratory sensing. The sensor is unobtrusive, unaffected by bioelectrical or electrode problems and easier to determine and more consistent than thoracic motion sensing. With relatively basic signal conditioning and processing requirements, it could provide an ideal platform for a low-cost respiratory monitor. (note)

  13. Model Identification using Continuous Glucose Monitoring Data for Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiroux, Dimitri; Hagdrup, Morten; Mahmoudi, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses model identification of continuous-discrete nonlinear models for people with type 1 diabetes using sampled data from a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). We compare five identification techniques: least squares, weighted least squares, Huber regression, maximum likelihood...... with extended Kalman filter and maximum likelihood with unscented Kalman filter. We perform the identification on a 24-hour simulation of a stochastic differential equation (SDE) version of the Medtronic Virtual Patient (MVP) model including process and output noise. We compare the fits with the actual CGM......, such as parameter tracking, population modeling and handling of outliers....

  14. Frequency and motives of blood glucose self-monitoring in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.V.; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U.; Heller, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Recommendations for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) from the DCCT have not been implemented with the same rigour as recommendations for intensifying insulin therapy. We assessed the frequency of and motives for SMBG and compared SMBG behaviour with clinical, behavioural......% of the patients and less than weekly by 24%. Sixty-seven percent reported to perform routine testing, while the remaining 33% only tested when hypo- or hyperglycaemia was suspected. Age, gender, and level of diabetes-related concern were associated with test pattern. Reported frequencies of mild and severe...

  15. Frequency and motives of blood glucose self-monitoring in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M V; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Heller, S R

    2009-01-01

    and demographic characteristics. METHODS: Cross-sectional Danish-British multicentre survey of 1076 consecutive patients with type 1 diabetes, who completed a detailed questionnaire on SMBG and related issues. The key variables were test frequency and motive. RESULTS: SMBG was performed daily by 39......AIMS: Recommendations for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) from the DCCT have not been implemented with the same rigour as recommendations for intensifying insulin therapy. We assessed the frequency of and motives for SMBG and compared SMBG behaviour with clinical, behavioural...

  16. Privacy and Security Issues Surrounding the Protection of Data Generated by Continuous Glucose Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Katherine E; Britton-Colonnese, Jennifer D

    2017-03-01

    Being able to track, analyze, and use data from continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) and through platforms and apps that communicate with CGMs helps achieve better outcomes and can advance the understanding of diabetes. The risks to patients' expectation of privacy are great, and their ability to control how their information is collected, stored, and used is virtually nonexistent. Patients' physical security is also at risk if adequate cybersecurity measures are not taken. Currently, data privacy and security protections are not robust enough to address the privacy and security risks and stymies the current and future benefits of CGM and the platforms and apps that communicate with them.

  17. Continuous glucose monitoring and HbA1c in the evaluation of glucose metabolism in children at high risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helminen, Olli; Pokka, Tytti; Tossavainen, Päivi; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta

    2016-10-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) parameters, self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG), HbA1c and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were studied during preclinical type 1 diabetes mellitus. Ten asymptomatic children with multiple (⩾2) islet autoantibodies (cases) and 10 age and sex-matched autoantibody-negative controls from the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Study were invited to 7-day CGM with Dexcom G4 Platinum Sensor. HbA1c and two daily SMBG values (morning and evening) were analyzed. Five-point OGTTs were performed and carbohydrate intake was assessed by food records. The matched pairs were compared with the paired sample t-test. The cases showed higher mean values and higher variation in glucose levels during CGM compared to the controls. The time spent ⩾7.8mmol/l was 5.8% in the cases compared to 0.4% in the controls (p=0.040). Postprandial CGM values were similar except after the dinner (6.6mmol/l in cases vs. 6.1mmol/l in controls; p=0.023). When analyzing the SMBG values higher mean level, higher evening levels, as well as higher variation were observed in the cases when compared to the controls. HbA1c was significantly higher in the cases [5.7% (39mmol/mol) vs. 5.3% (34mmol/mol); p=0.045]. No differences were observed in glucose or C-peptide levels during OGTT. Daily carbohydrate intake was slightly higher in the cases (254.2g vs. 217.7g; p=0.034). Glucose levels measured by CGM and SMBG are useful indicators of dysglycemia during preclinical type 1 diabetes mellitus. Increased evening glucose values seem to be common in children with preclinical type 1 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of Glucose Area Under the Curve Measured Using Minimally Invasive Interstitial Fluid Extraction Technology with Continuous Glucose Monitoring System in Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Mei; Yano, Yutaka; Suzuki, Toshinari; Yasuma, Taro; Sato, Toshiyuki; Morimoto, Aya; Hosoya, Samiko; Suminaka, Chihiro; Nakajima, Hiromu; Gabazza, Esteban C; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2017-08-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is reported to be a useful technique, but difficult or inconvenient for some patients and institutions. We are developing a glucose area under the curve (AUC) monitoring system without blood sampling using a minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET). Here we evaluated the accuracy of interstitial fluid glucose (IG) AUC measured by MIET in patients with diabetes for an extended time interval and the potency of detecting hyperglycemia using CGM data as a reference. Thirty-eight inpatients with diabetes undergoing CGM were enrolled. MIET comprised a pretreatment step using a plastic microneedle array and glucose accumulation step with a hydrogel patch, which was placed on two sites from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM or from 10:00 PM to 6:00 AM. IG AUC was calculated by accumulated glucose extracted by hydrogel patches using sodium ion as standard. A significant correlation was observed between the predicted AUC by MIET and CGM in daytime (r=0.76) and nighttime (r=0.82). The optimal cutoff for the IG AUC value of MIET to predict hyperglycemia over 200 mg/dL measured by CGM for 8 hours was 1,067.3 mg·hr/dL with 88.2% sensitivity and 81.5% specificity. We showed that 8-hour IG AUC levels using MIET were valuable in estimating the blood glucose AUC without blood sampling. The results also supported the concept of using this technique for evaluating glucose excursion and for screening hyperglycemia during 8 hours in patients with diabetes at any time of day. Copyright © 2017 Korean Diabetes Association

  19. Comparison of Glucose Area Under the Curve Measured Using Minimally Invasive Interstitial Fluid Extraction Technology with Continuous Glucose Monitoring System in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Uemura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundContinuous glucose monitoring (CGM is reported to be a useful technique, but difficult or inconvenient for some patients and institutions. We are developing a glucose area under the curve (AUC monitoring system without blood sampling using a minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET. Here we evaluated the accuracy of interstitial fluid glucose (IG AUC measured by MIET in patients with diabetes for an extended time interval and the potency of detecting hyperglycemia using CGM data as a reference.MethodsThirty-eight inpatients with diabetes undergoing CGM were enrolled. MIET comprised a pretreatment step using a plastic microneedle array and glucose accumulation step with a hydrogel patch, which was placed on two sites from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM or from 10:00 PM to 6:00 AM. IG AUC was calculated by accumulated glucose extracted by hydrogel patches using sodium ion as standard. ResultsA significant correlation was observed between the predicted AUC by MIET and CGM in daytime (r=0.76 and nighttime (r=0.82. The optimal cutoff for the IG AUC value of MIET to predict hyperglycemia over 200 mg/dL measured by CGM for 8 hours was 1,067.3 mg·hr/dL with 88.2% sensitivity and 81.5% specificity.ConclusionWe showed that 8-hour IG AUC levels using MIET were valuable in estimating the blood glucose AUC without blood sampling. The results also supported the concept of using this technique for evaluating glucose excursion and for screening hyperglycemia during 8 hours in patients with diabetes at any time of day.

  20. Internet-Based Device-Assisted Remote Monitoring of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pron, G; Ieraci, L; Kaulback, K

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) report was to conduct a systematic review of the available published evidence on the safety, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of Internet-based device-assisted remote monitoring systems (RMSs) for therapeutic cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) such as pacemakers (PMs), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. The MAS evidence-based review was performed to support public financing decisions. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major cause of fatalities in developed countries. In the United States almost half a million people die of SCD annually, resulting in more deaths than stroke, lung cancer, breast cancer, and AIDS combined. In Canada each year more than 40,000 people die from a cardiovascular related cause; approximately half of these deaths are attributable to SCD. Most cases of SCD occur in the general population typically in those without a known history of heart disease. Most SCDs are caused by cardiac arrhythmia, an abnormal heart rhythm caused by malfunctions of the heart’s electrical system. Up to half of patients with significant heart failure (HF) also have advanced conduction abnormalities. Cardiac arrhythmias are managed by a variety of drugs, ablative procedures, and therapeutic CIEDs. The range of CIEDs includes pacemakers (PMs), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. Bradycardia is the main indication for PMs and individuals at high risk for SCD are often treated by ICDs. Heart failure (HF) is also a significant health problem and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in those over 65 years of age. Patients with moderate to severe HF may also have cardiac arrhythmias, although the cause may be related more to heart pump or haemodynamic failure. The presence of HF, however

  1. Institutional blood glucose monitoring system for hospitalized patients: an integral component of the inpatient glucose control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, Mona; Landau, Zohar; Matas, Zipora; Wainstein, Julio

    2009-09-01

    The ability to measure patient blood glucose levels at bedside in hospitalized patients and to transmit those values to a central database enables and facilitates glucose control and follow-up and is an integral component in the care of the hospitalized diabetic patient. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of an institutional glucometer employed in the framework of the Program for the Treatment of the Hospitalized Diabetic Patient (PTHDP) at E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel. As part of the program to facilitate glucose control in hospitalized diabetic patients, an institutional glucometer was employed that permits uploading of data from stands located in each inpatient department and downloading of that data to a central hospital-wide database. Blood glucose values from hospitalized diabetic patients were collected from August 2007 to October 2008. The inpatient glucose control program was introduced gradually beginning January 2008. During the follow-up period, more than 150,000 blood glucose measures were taken. Mean glucose was 195.7 +/- 99.12 mg/dl during the follow-up period. Blood glucose values declined from 206 +/- 105 prior to PTHDP (August 2007-December 2007) to 186 +/- 92 after its inception (January 2008-October 2008). The decline was associated significantly with time (r = 0.11, p < 0.0001). The prevalence of blood glucose values lower than 60 mg/dl was 1.48% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36%] prior to vs 1.55% (95% CI 0.37%) following implementation of the PTHDP. Concomitantly, a significant increase in the proportion of blood glucose values between 80 and 200 mg/dl was observed, from 55.5% prior to program initiation vs 61.6% after program initiation (p < 0.0001). The present study was designed to observe changes in institution-wide glucose values following implementation of the PTHDP. Information was extracted from the glucometer system itself. Because the aforementioned study was not a clinical trial, we cannot rule out

  2. Glucose Fluctuations during Gestation: An Additional Tool for Monitoring Pregnancy Complicated by Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Dalfrà

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM gives a unique insight into magnitude and duration of daily glucose fluctuations. Limited data are available on glucose variability (GV in pregnancy. We aimed to assess GV in healthy pregnant women and cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus or gestational diabetes (GDM and its possible association with HbA1c. CGM was performed in 50 pregnant women (20 type 1, 20 GDM, and 10 healthy controls in all three trimesters of pregnancy. We calculated mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE, standard deviation (SD, interquartile range (IQR, and continuous overlapping net glycemic action (CONGA, as parameters of GV. The high blood glycemic index (HBGI and low blood glycemic index (LBGI were also measured as indicators of hyperhypoglycemic risk. Women with type 1 diabetes showed higher GV, with a 2-fold higher risk of hyperglycemic spikes during the day, than healthy pregnant women or GDM ones. GDM women had only slightly higher GV parameters than healthy controls. HbA1c did not correlate with GV indicators in type 1 diabetes or GDM pregnancies. We provided new evidence of the importance of certain GV indicators in pregnant women with GDM or type 1 diabetes and recommended the use of CGM specifically in these populations.

  3. Translating Glucose Variability Metrics into the Clinic via Continuous Glucose Monitoring: A Graphical User Interface for Diabetes Evaluation (CGM-GUIDE©)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Renata A.; Shi, Hang; Yuan, Lo-Hua; Brehm, William; Pop-Busui, Rodica

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Several metrics of glucose variability have been proposed to date, but an integrated approach that provides a complete and consistent assessment of glycemic variation is missing. As a consequence, and because of the tedious coding necessary during quantification, most investigators and clinicians have not yet adopted the use of multiple glucose variability metrics to evaluate glycemic variation. Methods We compiled the most extensively used statistical techniques and glucose variability metrics, with adjustable hyper- and hypoglycemic limits and metric parameters, to create a user-friendly Continuous Glucose Monitoring Graphical User Interface for Diabetes Evaluation (CGM-GUIDE©). In addition, we introduce and demonstrate a novel transition density profile that emphasizes the dynamics of transitions between defined glucose states. Results Our combined dashboard of numerical statistics and graphical plots support the task of providing an integrated approach to describing glycemic variability. We integrated existing metrics, such as SD, area under the curve, and mean amplitude of glycemic excursion, with novel metrics such as the slopes across critical transitions and the transition density profile to assess the severity and frequency of glucose transitions per day as they move between critical glycemic zones. Conclusions By presenting the above-mentioned metrics and graphics in a concise aggregate format, CGM-GUIDE provides an easy to use tool to compare quantitative measures of glucose variability. This tool can be used by researchers and clinicians to develop new algorithms of insulin delivery for patients with diabetes and to better explore the link between glucose variability and chronic diabetes complications. PMID:21932986

  4. Optoelectronic sensor device for monitoring ethanol concentration in winemaking applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Márquez, F.; Vázquez, J.; Úbeda, J.; Rodríguez-Rey, J.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    The supervision of key variables such as sugar, alcohol, released CO2 and microbiological evolution in fermenting grape must is of great importance in the winemaking industry. However, the fermentation kinetics is assessed by monitoring the evolution of the density as it varies during a fermentation, since density is an indicator of the total amount of sugars, ethanol and glycerol. Even so, supervising the fermentation process is an awkward and non-comprehensive task, especially in wine cellars where production rates are massive, and enologists usually measure the density of the extracted samples from each fermentation tank manually twice a day. This work aims at the design of a fast, low-cost, portable and reliable optoelectronic sensor for measuring ethanol concentration in fermenting grape must samples. Different sets of model solutions, which contain ethanol, fructose, glucose, glycerol dissolved in water and emulate the grape must composition at different stages of the fermentation, were prepared both for calibration and validation. The absorption characteristics of these model solutions were analyzed by a commercial spectrophotometer in the NIR region, in order to identify key wavelengths from which valuable information regarding the sample composition can be extracted. Finally, a customized optoelectronic prototype based on absorbance measurements at two wavelengths belonging to the NIR region was designed, fabricated and successfully tested. The system, whose optoelectronics is reduced after a thorough analysis to only two LED lamps and their corresponding paired photodiodes operating at 1.2 and 1.3 μm respectively, calculates the ethanol content by a multiple linear regression.

  5. Perspectives of patients with non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes on self-monitoring of blood glucose: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Mei; Hung, Li-Chen; Chen, Yang-Lin; Yeh, Mei Chang

    2018-04-01

    To explore experiences of self-monitoring of blood glucose among patients with non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is essential to diabetes care and facilitates glycaemic control. Patients' perspectives of self-monitoring of blood glucose have seldom been discussed in the literature, and engagement in self-monitoring of blood glucose is consistently low. The descriptive phenomenological method was used. Purposive sampling was conducted to recruit participants from the endocrinology departments of medical institutions in Taiwan based on the following criteria: (i) having a medical diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, (ii) not being treated with insulin, (iii) having engaged in self-monitoring of blood glucose at least once within the preceding 6 months, (iv) being at least 20 years old and (v) not having any major mental or cognitive disorders. Data were collected in outpatient consultation rooms, the participants' homes and other settings where the participants felt secure and comfortable. In-depth interviews were conducted to collect data from 16 patients with diabetes. The participants perceived that lifestyle affected blood glucose levels and did not know how to handle high or low blood glucose levels. Their willingness to continue self-monitoring of blood glucose depended on whether healthcare professionals checked or discussed their blood glucose levels with them. The patients' knowledge regarding blood glucose variation and healthcare professionals' attitudes affected the patients' self-monitoring of blood glucose behaviours. The empirical findings illustrated self-monitoring of blood glucose experiences and recommended that healthcare professionals' closely attend to patients' requirements and responses to diabetes and incorporate the self-monitoring of blood glucose into therapy plans. Healthcare professionals should reinforce patients' knowledge on appropriate responses to high and low blood glucose levels, intervene

  6. Evaluation of 12 blood glucose monitoring systems for self-testing: system accuracy and measurement reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckmann, Guido; Baumstark, Annette; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Link, Manuela; Haug, Cornelia

    2014-02-01

    Systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) have to provide accurate and reproducible blood glucose (BG) values in order to ensure adequate therapeutic decisions by people with diabetes. Twelve SMBG systems were compared in a standardized manner under controlled laboratory conditions: nine systems were available on the German market and were purchased from a local pharmacy, and three systems were obtained from the manufacturer (two systems were available on the U.S. market, and one system was not yet introduced to the German market). System accuracy was evaluated following DIN EN ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 15197:2003. In addition, measurement reproducibility was assessed following a modified TNO (Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research) procedure. Comparison measurements were performed with either the glucose oxidase method (YSI 2300 STAT Plus™ glucose analyzer; YSI Life Sciences, Yellow Springs, OH) or the hexokinase method (cobas(®) c111; Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) according to the manufacturer's measurement procedure. The 12 evaluated systems showed between 71.5% and 100% of the measurement results within the required system accuracy limits. Ten systems fulfilled with the evaluated test strip lot minimum accuracy requirements specified by DIN EN ISO 15197:2003. In addition, accuracy limits of the recently published revision ISO 15197:2013 were applied and showed between 54.5% and 100% of the systems' measurement results within the required accuracy limits. Regarding measurement reproducibility, each of the 12 tested systems met the applied performance criteria. In summary, 83% of the systems fulfilled with the evaluated test strip lot minimum system accuracy requirements of DIN EN ISO 15197:2003. Each of the tested systems showed acceptable measurement reproducibility. In order to ensure sufficient measurement quality of each distributed test strip lot, regular evaluations are required.

  7. Performance of two updated blood glucose monitoring systems: an evaluation following ISO 15197:2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleus, Stefan; Baumstark, Annette; Rittmeyer, Delia; Jendrike, Nina; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2016-05-01

    Objective For patients with diabetes, regular self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is essential to ensure adequate glycemic control. Therefore, accurate and reliable blood glucose measurements with SMBG systems are necessary. The international standard ISO 15197 describes requirements for SMBG systems, such as limits within which 95% of glucose results have to fall to reach acceptable system accuracy. The 2013 version of this standard sets higher demands, especially regarding system accuracy, than the currently still valid edition. ISO 15197 can be applied by manufacturers to receive a CE mark for their system. Research design and methods This study was an accuracy evaluation following ISO 15197:2013 section 6.3 of two recently updated SMBG systems (Contour * and Contour TS; Bayer Consumer Care AG, Basel, Switzerland) with an improved algorithm to investigate whether the systems fulfill the requirements of the new standard. For this purpose, capillary blood samples of approximately 100 participants were measured with three test strip lots of both systems and deviations from glucose values obtained with a hexokinase-based comparison method (Cobas Integra † 400 plus; Roche Instrument Center, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) were determined. Percentages of values within the acceptance criteria of ISO 15197:2013 were calculated. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02358408). Main outcome Both updated systems fulfilled the system accuracy requirements of ISO 15197:2013 as 98.5% to 100% of the results were within the stipulated limits. Furthermore, all results were within the clinically non-critical zones A and B of the consensus error grid for type 1 diabetes. Conclusions The technical improvement of the systems ensured compliance with ISO 15197 in the hands of healthcare professionals even in its more stringent 2013 version. Alternative presentation of system accuracy results in radar plots provides additional information with certain advantages. In addition

  8. Early Glucose Derangement Detected by Continuous Glucose Monitoring and Progression of Liver Fibrosis in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: An Independent Predictive Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiaffini, Riccardo; Liccardo, Daniela; Alisi, Anna; Benevento, Danila; Cappa, Marco; Cianfarani, Stefano; Nobili, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    Glucose derangement has been reported to increase oxidative stress, one of the most important factors underlying the progression of hepatic fibrosis in adults with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To date, careful evaluation of the glucose profile in pediatric NAFLD has not been performed. A total of 30 severely obese children (15 males; mean age 12.87 ± 2.19 years) with biopsy-proven NAFLD were enrolled in this study from September to December 2013. All patients underwent anthropometric and laboratory evaluation, including the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Our study reveals some differences between OGTT and CGM in detecting NAFLD children with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). OGTT showed 2 (6.67%) patients with IFG and 1 (3.34%) with IGT, while CGM showed 5 (16.67%) patients with IFG and 6 (20%) with IGT. The daily blood glucose profile positively correlated with the baseline blood glucose (r = 0.39, p = 0.04) and the homeostatic model assessment (r = 0.56, p = 0.05). A positive correlation between hyperglycemia and liver fibrosis was found (r = 0.65, p < 0.05). Mean glucose values (F3-F4 group: 163.2 ± 35.92 mg/dl vs. F1 group: 136.58 ± 46.83 mg/dl and F2 group: 154.12 ± 22.51 mg/dl) and the difference between the minimum and maximum blood glucose levels (F3-F4 group: 110.21 ± 25.26 mg/dl vs. F1 group: 91.67 ± 15.97 mg/dl and F2 group: 92 ± 15.48 mg/dl) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the F3-F4 group compared to the F1 and F2 groups. Glucose profile derangement as detected by CGM is associated with the severity of hepatic fibrosis in children with NAFLD. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Development of the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Beck, Stayce; Parkes, Joan Lee; Kovatchev, Boris; Vigersky, Robert A; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Burk, Robert D; Kowalski, Aaron; Little, Randie; Nichols, James; Petersen, Matt; Rawlings, Kelly; Sacks, David B; Sampson, Eric; Scott, Steve; Seley, Jane Jeffrie; Slingerland, Robbert; Vesper, Hubert W

    2016-05-01

    Inaccurate blood glucsoe monitoring systems (BGMSs) can lead to adverse health effects. The Diabetes Technology Society (DTS) Surveillance Program for cleared BGMSs is intended to protect people with diabetes from inaccurate, unreliable BGMS products that are currently on the market in the United States. The Surveillance Program will provide an independent assessment of the analytical performance of cleared BGMSs. The DTS BGMS Surveillance Program Steering Committee included experts in glucose monitoring, surveillance testing, and regulatory science. Over one year, the committee engaged in meetings and teleconferences aiming to describe how to conduct BGMS surveillance studies in a scientifically sound manner that is in compliance with good clinical practice and all relevant regulations. A clinical surveillance protocol was created that contains performance targets and analytical accuracy-testing studies with marketed BGMS products conducted by qualified clinical and laboratory sites. This protocol entitled "Protocol for the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Program" is attached as supplementary material. This program is needed because currently once a BGMS product has been cleared for use by the FDA, no systematic postmarket Surveillance Program exists that can monitor analytical performance and detect potential problems. This protocol will allow identification of inaccurate and unreliable BGMSs currently available on the US market. The DTS Surveillance Program will provide BGMS manufacturers a benchmark to understand the postmarket analytical performance of their products. Furthermore, patients, health care professionals, payers, and regulatory agencies will be able to use the results of the study to make informed decisions to, respectively, select, prescribe, finance, and regulate BGMSs on the market. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  10. Development of the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C.; Lias, Courtney; Beck, Stayce; Parkes, Joan Lee; Kovatchev, Boris; Vigersky, Robert A.; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Burk, Robert D.; Kowalski, Aaron; Little, Randie; Nichols, James; Petersen, Matt; Rawlings, Kelly; Sacks, David B.; Sampson, Eric; Scott, Steve; Seley, Jane Jeffrie; Slingerland, Robbert; Vesper, Hubert W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inaccurate blood glucsoe monitoring systems (BGMSs) can lead to adverse health effects. The Diabetes Technology Society (DTS) Surveillance Program for cleared BGMSs is intended to protect people with diabetes from inaccurate, unreliable BGMS products that are currently on the market in the United States. The Surveillance Program will provide an independent assessment of the analytical performance of cleared BGMSs. Methods: The DTS BGMS Surveillance Program Steering Committee included experts in glucose monitoring, surveillance testing, and regulatory science. Over one year, the committee engaged in meetings and teleconferences aiming to describe how to conduct BGMS surveillance studies in a scientifically sound manner that is in compliance with good clinical practice and all relevant regulations. Results: A clinical surveillance protocol was created that contains performance targets and analytical accuracy-testing studies with marketed BGMS products conducted by qualified clinical and laboratory sites. This protocol entitled “Protocol for the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Program” is attached as supplementary material. Conclusion: This program is needed because currently once a BGMS product has been cleared for use by the FDA, no systematic postmarket Surveillance Program exists that can monitor analytical performance and detect potential problems. This protocol will allow identification of inaccurate and unreliable BGMSs currently available on the US market. The DTS Surveillance Program will provide BGMS manufacturers a benchmark to understand the postmarket analytical performance of their products. Furthermore, patients, health care professionals, payers, and regulatory agencies will be able to use the results of the study to make informed decisions to, respectively, select, prescribe, finance, and regulate BGMSs on the market. PMID:26481642

  11. Assessing sensor accuracy for non-adjunct use of continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovatchev, Boris P; Patek, Stephen D; Ortiz, Edward Andrew; Breton, Marc D

    2015-03-01

    The level of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) accuracy needed for insulin dosing using sensor values (i.e., the level of accuracy permitting non-adjunct CGM use) is a topic of ongoing debate. Assessment of this level in clinical experiments is virtually impossible because the magnitude of CGM errors cannot be manipulated and related prospectively to clinical outcomes. A combination of archival data (parallel CGM, insulin pump, self-monitoring of blood glucose [SMBG] records, and meals for 56 pump users with type 1 diabetes) and in silico experiments was used to "replay" real-life treatment scenarios and relate sensor error to glycemic outcomes. Nominal blood glucose (BG) traces were extracted using a mathematical model, yielding 2,082 BG segments each initiated by insulin bolus and confirmed by SMBG. These segments were replayed at seven sensor accuracy levels (mean absolute relative differences [MARDs] of 3-22%) testing six scenarios: insulin dosing using sensor values, threshold, and predictive alarms, each without or with considering CGM trend arrows. In all six scenarios, the occurrence of hypoglycemia (frequency of BG levels ≤50 mg/dL and BG levels ≤39 mg/dL) increased with sensor error, displaying an abrupt slope change at MARD =10%. Similarly, hyperglycemia (frequency of BG levels ≥250 mg/dL and BG levels ≥400 mg/dL) increased and displayed an abrupt slope change at MARD=10%. When added to insulin dosing decisions, information from CGM trend arrows, threshold, and predictive alarms resulted in improvement in average glycemia by 1.86, 8.17, and 8.88 mg/dL, respectively. Using CGM for insulin dosing decisions is feasible below a certain level of sensor error, estimated in silico at MARD=10%. In our experiments, further accuracy improvement did not contribute substantively to better glycemic outcomes.

  12. A novel screen-printed microfluidic paper-based electrochemical device for detection of glucose and uric acid in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yong; Zhang, Chunsun

    2016-10-01

    A novel screen-printed microfluidic paper-based analytical device with all-carbon electrode-enabled electrochemical assay (SP-ACE-EC-μPAD) has been developed. The fabrication of these devices involved wax screen-printing, which was simple, low-cost and energy-efficient. The working, counter and reference electrodes were screen-printed using carbon ink on the patterned paper devices. Different wax screen-printing processes were examined and optimized, which led to an improved method with a shorter heating time (~5 s) and a lower heating temperature (75 °C). Different printing screens were examined, with a 300-mesh polyester screen yielding the highest quality wax screen-prints. The carbon electrodes were screen-printed on the μPADs and then examined using cyclic voltammetry. The analytical performance of the SP-ACE-EC-μPADs for the detection of glucose and uric acid in standard solutions was investigated. The results were reproducible, with a linear relationship [R(2) = 0.9987 (glucose) or 0.9997 (uric acid)] within the concentration range of interest, and with detection limits as low as 0.35 mM (glucose) and 0.08 mM (uric acid). To determine the clinical utility of the μPADs, chronoamperometry was used to analyze glucose and uric acid in real urine samples using the standard addition method. Our devices were able to detect the analytes of interest in complex real-world biological samples, and have the potential for use in a wide variety of applications.

  13. Invasiveness as a barrier to self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie; Malchoff, Carl; Abbott, Gina

    2005-08-01

    This study investigated the degree to which the invasive characteristic of glucose monitoring is a barrier to self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). A paper-and-pencil Measure of Invasiveness as a reason for Skipping SMBG (MISS) was created and administered to 339 people with diabetes. The correlations between MISS scores and actual SMBG frequency, percent adherence to SMBG recommendations, SMBG anxiety, SMBG burden, and knowledge of the importance of glycemic control for avoiding diabetes complications were each explored. On a scale of 0-28, the average MISS score was M = 4.3 (SD = 5.4, range 0-28). Fully 63% (nearly two-thirds) of respondents reported skipping SMBG because of the invasiveness of the procedure. MISS scores were negatively related to percent adherence to healthcare provider SMBG recommendations as measured by memory function of automated meters (Spearman's r= -0.47, P diabetes vascular complications. Invasiveness is a common and serious barrier to SMBG. These findings suggest that people with diabetes would perform SMBG more frequently and have improved quality of life with non-invasive SMBG.

  14. Peculiarities of the Continuous Glucose Monitoring Data Stream and Their Impact on Developing Closed-Loop Control Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Kovatchev, Boris; Clarke, William

    2008-01-01

    Therapeutic advances in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) are currently focused on developing a closed-loop control system using a continuous glucose monitor (CGM), subcutaneous insulin delivery, and a control algorithm. Because a CGM assesses blood glucose indirectly (and therefore often inaccurately), it limits the effectiveness of the controller. In order to improve the quality of CGM data, a series of analyses are suggested. These analyses evaluate and compensate for CGM errors, assess risks associa...

  15. Blood glucose monitoring during aerobic and anaerobic physical exercise using a new artificial pancreas system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirós, Carmen; Bertachi, Arthur; Giménez, Marga; Biagi, Lyvia; Viaplana, Judith; Viñals, Clara; Vehí, Josep; Conget, Ignacio; Bondia, Jorge

    To assess an artificial pancreas system during aerobic (AeE) and anaerobic exercise (AnE). A pilot clinical trial on five subjects with type 1 diabetes (4 males) aged 37±10.9 years, diabetes diagnosed 21.2±12.2 years before, insulin pump users, and with a mean HbA 1c level of 7.8±0.5%. Every subject did three AeE and three AnE sessions. Blood glucose levels were monitored by the artificial pancreas system during exercise and up to four hours later. Before the start of exercise, 23g of carbohydrates were administered orally. The mean glucose level was 124.0±25.1mg/dL in the AeE studies and 152.1±34.1mg/dL in the AnE studies. Percent times in the different glucose ranges of 70-180, >180 and 18.6% and 75.9±27.6%; 7.7±18.4% and 23.2±28.0%; and 2.5±6.3% and 1.0±3.6% during the AeE and AnE sessions, respectively. Only six rescues with carbohydrates (15g) were required during the studies (4 in AeE and 2 in AnE). Total insulin dose during the five hours of the study was 3.1±1.0IU in the AeE studies and 3.5±1.3IU in the AnE studies. Blood glucose response to AeE and AnE exercise is different. The evaluated artificial pancreas system appeared to achieve effective and safe blood glucose control during exercise and up to four hours later. However, new control strategies that minimize patient intervention should be designed. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Monitoring device for the thermal margin of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Tatsuo

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To extend the operation region and insure the stability thereby significantly improve the operation performance of a nuclear reactor by properly calculating a limited value for the minimum critical power ratio (OLMCPR) reflecting the actual reactor core state. Constitution: The device comprises a nuclear constant calculator, an abnormal transient analyzer and a transient critical power calculator. The abnormal transient analyzer performs analysis for the abnormal transient phenomena with a large variation amount of the minimum critical power ratio using the nuclear constants calculated by the nuclear constant calculator, to thereby determine transient changes such as the flow rate, power, pressure and entrance enthalpy of the reactor core. The transient critical power calculator determines the limited value for the minimum critical power ratio reflecting the state of the reactor core at the time to be monitored based on the thus determined transient change and display the same. Even if the value of MCPR determined by the process computer is smaller than the value for the designed OLMCPR, if it is greater than the displayed OLMCPR, procession such as power distribution control is unnecessary. (Nakamoto, H.)

  17. Self-monitoring of blood glucose versus self-monitoring of urine glucose in adults with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes receiving structured education: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallosso, H M; Bodicoat, D H; Campbell, M; Carey, M E; Davies, M J; Eborall, H C; Hadjiconstantinou, M; Khunti, K; Speight, J; Heller, S

    2015-03-01

    To compare the effectiveness and acceptability of self-monitoring of blood glucose with self-monitoring of urine glucose in adults with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes. We conducted a multi-site cluster randomized controlled trial with practice-level randomization. Participants attended a structured group education programme, which included a module on self-monitoring using blood glucose or urine glucose monitoring. HbA1c and other biomedical measures as well as psychosocial data were collected at 6, 12 and 18 months. A total of 292 participants with Type 2 diabetes were recruited from 75 practices. HbA1c levels were significantly lower at 18 months than at baseline in both the blood monitoring group [mean (se) -12 (2) mmol/mol; -1.1 (0.2) %] and the urine monitoring group [mean (se) -13 (2) mmol/mol; -1.2 (0.2)%], with no difference between groups [mean difference adjusted for cluster effect and baseline value = -1 mmol/mol (95% CI -3, 2); -0.1% (95% CI -0.3, 0.2)]. Similar improvements were observed for the other biomedical outcomes, with no differences between groups. Both groups showed improvements in total treatment satisfaction, generic well-being, and diabetes-specific well-being, and had a less threatening view of diabetes, with no differences between groups at 18 months. Approximately one in five participants in the urine monitoring arm switched to blood monitoring, while those in the blood monitoring arm rarely switched (18 vs 1% at 18 months; P self-monitoring. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  18. Development and Application of Devices for Remote Monitoring of Gamma-Ray Contamination at RECOM Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, O.P.; Stepanov, V.E.; Chesnokov, A.V.; Sudarkin, A.N.; Urutskoev, L.I.

    1999-01-01

    Devices for remote monitoring of gamma-ray contamination develop at RECOM Ltd. are described and typical examples of their application are show. The following devices are discussed: spectrum-sensitive collimated devices for mapping of radioactivity on contaminated surfaces- scanning collimated Gamma Locator, device for field Cs-137 contamination mapping-CORAD; devices for gamma-ray imaging computer-controlled High-Energy Radiation Visualizer (HERV) and Coded Mask Imager

  19. Mobile communication using a mobile phone with a glucometer for glucose control in Type 2 patients with diabetes: as effective as an Internet-based glucose monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Lee, Hye-Chung; Lim, Dong-Jun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Yoon, Kun-Ho

    2009-01-01

    A mobile phone with a glucometer integrated into the battery pack (the 'Diabetes Phone') was launched in Korea in 2003. We compared its effect on management of type 2 diabetes to the Internet-based glucose monitoring system (IBGMS), which had been studied previously. We conducted a randomized trial involving 69 patients for three months. Participants were assigned to an Internet group or a phone group. The phone group communicated with medical staff through the mobile phone only. Their glucose-monitoring data were automatically transferred to individual, web-based charts and they received medical recommendations by short message service. The Internet group used the IBGMS. There were no significant differences between the groups at baseline. After three months' intervention, HbA(1c) levels of both groups had decreased significantly, from 7.6% to 6.9% for the Internet group and from 8.3% to 7.1% for the phone group (P glucose control as the previously-studied Internet-based monitoring system and it was good for patient satisfaction and adherence.

  20. Cross-validity of a portable glucose capillary monitors in relation to enzymatic spectrophotometer methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alves Lima

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The glucose is an important substrate utilizaded during exercise. Accurate measurement of glucose is vital to obtain trustworthy results. The enzymatic spectrophotometer methods are generally considered the “goldstandard” laboratory procedure for measuring of glucose (GEnz, is time consuming, costly, and inappropriate for large scale field testing. Compact and portable glucose monitors (GAccu are quick and easy methods to assess glucose on large numbers of subjects. So, this study aimed to test the cross-validity of GAccu. The sample was composed of 107 men (aged= 35.4±10.7 years; stature= 168.4±6.9 cm; body mass= 73.4±11.2 kg; %fat= 20.9±8.3% – by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Blood for measuring fasting glucose was taken in basilar vein (Genz, Bioplus: Bio-2000 and in ring finger (GAccu: Accu-Chek© Advantage©, after a 12-hour overnight fast. GEnz was used as the criterion for cross-validity. Paired t-test shown differences (p RESUMO A glicose é um substrato importante utilizado durante o exercício físico. Medidas acuradas da glicose são fundamentais para a obtenção de resultados confiáveis. O método laboratorial de espectrofotometria enzimática geralmente é considerado o procedimento “padrão ouro” para medir a glicose (GEnz, o qual requer tempo, custo e é inapropriado para o uso em larga escala. Monitores portáteis de glicose (GAccu são rápidos e fáceis para medir a glicose em um grande número de sujeitos. Então, este estudo teve por objetivo testar a validade concorrente do GAccu. A amostra foi composta por 107 homens (idade= 35,4±10,7 anos; estatura= 168,4±6,9 cm; massa corporal= 73,4±11,2 kg; %gordura= 20,9±8,3% – por absortometria de raio-x de dupla energia. O sangue para mensurar a glicose em jejum foi tirado na veia basilar (Genz, Bioplus: Bio-2000 e no dedo anular (GAccu - Accu- Chek© Advantage©, depois de 12h de jejum noturno. O GEnz foi usado como critério para testar a validade

  1. Lived experience of blood glucose self-monitoring among pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus: a phenomenological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngwanichsetha, Sununta; Phumdoung, Sasitorn

    2017-10-01

    To explore and describe lived experience of blood glucose self-monitoring among pregnant Thai women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is an essential practice among pregnant women with diabetes to prevent complications in pregnancy and the newborn infant. Phenomenological research was employed to understand lived experiences in glycemic control. Thirty participants were approached and interviewed using a semistructured interview guides. Qualitative data were analysed following Colaizzi's method. The findings revealed three themes: being worried about diabetes and blood testing, trying to control it and being patient for the child. Their worry comprised three dimensions: (1) wondering about the impacts of diabetes on the child, (2) concern about maternal health and (3) being worried about doing blood test. Trying to control diabetes was composed of three dimensions: (1) learning to test blood glucose, (2) being afraid of elevated blood sugar and (3) being aware of what to eat. Being patient for the child was composed of three dimensions: (1) overcoming food desires, (2) tolerating the fingerprick pain and (3) satisfaction with the outcomes. Women with gestational diabetes experienced being worried and afraid regarding blood glucose self-monitoring; however, they could overcome and tolerate this with some difficulties. These findings can be used to guide nursing practice in assessment of perception and response towards blood glucose self-monitoring in order to improve achievement of a good glycaemic control among pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Performance evaluations of continuous glucose monitoring systems: precision absolute relative deviation is part of the assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermaier, Karin; Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Klötzer, Hans-Martin; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Eikmeier, Heino; del Re, Luigi

    2013-07-01

    Even though a Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute proposal exists on the design of studies and performance criteria for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems, it has not yet led to a consistent evaluation of different systems, as no consensus has been reached on the reference method to evaluate them or on acceptance levels. As a consequence, performance assessment of CGM systems tends to be inconclusive, and a comparison of the outcome of different studies is difficult. Published information and available data (as presented in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology by Freckmann and coauthors) are used to assess the suitability of several frequently used methods [International Organization for Standardization, continuous glucose error grid analysis, mean absolute relative deviation (MARD), precision absolute relative deviation (PARD)] when assessing performance of CGM systems in terms of accuracy and precision. The combined use of MARD and PARD seems to allow for better characterization of sensor performance. The use of different quantities for calibration and evaluation, e.g., capillary blood using a blood glucose (BG) meter versus venous blood using a laboratory measurement, introduces an additional error source. Using BG values measured in more or less large intervals as the only reference leads to a significant loss of information in comparison with the continuous sensor signal and possibly to an erroneous estimation of sensor performance during swings. Both can be improved using data from two identical CGM sensors worn by the same patient in parallel. Evaluation of CGM performance studies should follow an identical study design, including sufficient swings in glycemia. At least a part of the study participants should wear two identical CGM sensors in parallel. All data available should be used for evaluation, both by MARD and PARD, a good PARD value being a precondition to trust a good MARD value. Results should be analyzed and

  3. Blood glucose self-monitoring patterns in Mexican Americans: further lessons from the Starr County Border Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Heather E; Brown, Sharon A; García, Alexandra A; Winter, Mary; Brown, Adama; Hanis, Craig L

    2015-02-01

    The purpose was to describe patterns of home self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus enrolled in a diabetes self-management education protocol. Research questions were as follows: (1) What were the patterns and rates of home glucose self-monitoring over the 6-month course of the study? (2) What were the differences in monitoring rates between experimental and control groups? (3) What were the relationships between rates of monitoring and glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C), gender, and years with diabetes? We used a randomized (by group) repeated-measures pretest/posttest control group design. Glucometer data from an experimental group (diabetes self-management education plus nurse case management) and a comparison group (diabetes self-management education only) were analyzed. Data were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Overall average SMBG rates were low. Experimental and control group monitoring levels were not significantly different. More females than males never monitored glucose values, but more females than males checked at least one time per week. Those participants who checked their glucose levels more than once per week had diabetes for a longer period of time. Rates of monitoring were not strongly associated with A1C levels at 3 and 6 months, but at 6 months A1C levels were statistically significantly different based on whether or not individuals monitored their glucose levels (P=0.03, n=71). SMBG rates were low in this study despite SMBG education and access to free glucometers and test strips. The lower rates of SMBG may reflect the effects of unexpected environmental challenges, but exact causes remain unclear. Reasons for low rates of SMBG need to be explored further, especially in underserved communities.

  4. Assessment of Knowledge of Self Blood Glucose Monitoring and Extent of Self Titration of Anti-Diabetic Drugs among Diabetes Mellitus Patients - A Cross Sectional, Community Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, V; Thirunavukkarasu, J

    2016-03-01

    Self blood glucose monitoring is an important context of self care in the management of diabetes mellitus. All the guidelines must be followed while performing self blood glucose monitoring and tracking of values is essential to facilitate the physician while titrating the drugs and /or doses of anti diabetes medication. Self titration by patients following self monitoring must be discouraged. To assess the knowledge and practice of self blood glucose monitoring among diabetes patients and extent of self titration of anti diabetes medicines among diabetes patients based on self blood glucose monitoring. This pilot, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted using a validated questionnaire among adult male and female diabetes patients performing self blood glucose monitoring at home. Diabetes patients with complications and juvenile diabetes patients were excluded. Out of 153 patients surveyed, only 37 (24.1%) (20 males, 17 females) patients were aware and have been following self blood glucose monitoring appropriately. About 116 (75.8%) (64 males, 52 females) of patients were devoid of adequate knowledge and did not practice self blood glucose monitoring in a proper way. Ninety eight (64.05%) accepted that they self titrate their anti diabetic medicines based on self monitoring. Self monitoring of blood glucose should be encouraged and patients should be taught importance of following correct steps and tracking of self monitoring by physician or diabetes educator.

  5. Construction of bioartificial renal tubule assist device in vitro and its function of transporting sodium and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xinggang; Chen, Jianghua; He, Qiang; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Wei

    2009-08-01

    To explore a new way of constructing bioartificial renal tubule assist device (RAD) in vitro and its function of transporting sodium (Na(+)) and glucose and to evaluate the application of atomic force microscope in the RAD construction, rat renal tubular epithelial cell line NRK-52E was cultured in vitro, seeded onto the outer surfaces of hollow fibers in a bioreactor, and then cultured for two weeks to construct RAD. Bioreactor hollow fibers without NRK-52E cells were used as control. The morphologies of attached cells were observed with scanning electron microscope, and the junctions of cells and polysulfone membrane were observed with atomic force microscope. Transportation of Na(+) and glucose was measured. Oubaine and phlorizin were used to inhibit the transporting property. The results showed that NRK-52E cells and polysulfone membrane were closely linked, as observed under atomic force microscope. After exposure to oubaine and phlorizin, transporting rates of Na(+) and glucose were decreased significantly in the RAD group as compared with that in the control group (Pconstructed successfully in vitro, and it is able to selectively transport Na(+) and glucose.

  6. Limits to the Evaluation of the Accuracy of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems by Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrangl, Patrick; Reiterer, Florian; Heinemann, Lutz; Freckmann, Guido; Del Re, Luigi

    2018-05-18

    Systems for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) are evolving quickly, and the data obtained are expected to become the basis for clinical decisions for many patients with diabetes in the near future. However, this requires that their analytical accuracy is sufficient. This accuracy is usually determined with clinical studies by comparing the data obtained by the given CGM system with blood glucose (BG) point measurements made with a so-called reference method. The latter is assumed to indicate the correct value of the target quantity. Unfortunately, due to the nature of the clinical trials and the approach used, such a comparison is subject to several effects which may lead to misleading results. While some reasons for the differences between the values obtained with CGM and BG point measurements are relatively well-known (e.g., measurement in different body compartments), others related to the clinical study protocols are less visible, but also quite important. In this review, we present a general picture of the topic as well as tools which allow to correct or at least to estimate the uncertainty of measures of CGM system performance.

  7. Wireless connection of continuous glucose monitoring system to the electronic patient record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Alexandre; Gutierrez, Marco A.; Lage, Silvia G.; Rebelo, Marina S.; Granja, Luiz A. R.; Ramires, Jose A. F.

    2005-04-01

    The control of blood sugar level (BSL) at near-normal levels has been documented to reduce both acute and chronic complications of diabetes mellitus. Recent studies suggested, the reduction of mortality in a surgical intensive care unit (ICU), when the BSL are maintained at normal levels. Despite of the benefits appointed by these and others clinical studies, the strict BSL control in critically ill patients suffers from some difficulties: a) medical staff need to measure and control the patient"s BSL using blood sample at least every hour. This is a complex and time consuming task; b) the inaccuracy of standard capillary glucose monitoring (fingerstick) in hypotensive patients and, if frequently used to sample arterial or venous blood, may lead to excess phlebotomy; c) there is no validated procedure for continuously monitoring of BSL levels. This study used the MiniMed CGMS in ill patients at ICU to send, in real-time, BSL values to a Web-Based Electronic Patient Record. The BSL values are parsed and delivered through a wireless network as an HL7 message. The HL7 messages with BSL values are collected, stored into the Electronic Patient Record and presented into a bed-side monitor at the ICU together with other relevant patient information.

  8. Cost calculation for a flash glucose monitoring system for UK adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus receiving intensive insulin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmund, Richard; Weitgasser, Raimund; Blissett, Deirdre

    2018-04-01

    To estimate the costs associated with a flash glucose monitoring system as a replacement for routine self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using intensive insulin, from a UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective. The base-case cost calculation was created using the maximum frequency of glucose monitoring recommended by the 2015 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines (4-10 tests per day). Scenario analyses considered SMBG at the frequency observed in the IMPACT clinical trial (5.6 tests per day) and at the frequency of flash monitoring observed in a real-world analysis (16 tests per day). A further scenario included potential costs associated with severe hypoglycaemia. In the base case, the annual cost per patient using flash monitoring was £234 (19%) lower compared with routine SMBG (10 tests per day). In scenario analyses, the annual cost per patient of flash monitoring compared with 5.6 and 16 SMBG tests per day was £296 higher and £957 lower, respectively. The annual cost of severe hypoglycaemia for flash monitoring users was estimated to be £221 per patient, compared with £428 for routine SMBG users (based on 5.6 tests/day), corresponding to a reduction in costs of £207. The flash monitoring system has a modest impact on glucose monitoring costs for the UK NHS for patients with T1DM using intensive insulin. For people requiring frequent tests, flash monitoring may be cost saving, especially when taking into account potential reductions in the rate of severe hypoglycaemia. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hypoglycemic Exposure and Risk of Asymptomatic Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes assessed by Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marie Moth; Andersen, Henrik Ullits; Thorsteinsson, Birger

    2018-01-01

    : To explore the association between hypoglycemic exposure and proportion of asymptomatic hypoglycemia and relation to risk of severe hypoglycemia. Design: Prospective observational trial. Setting: Outpatient clinic. Patients: 153 unselected subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). Intervention: Six days...... of blinded continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and recording of hypoglycemia symptoms. Main Outcome Measure: Proportion of asymptomatic hypoglycemic events (≤70 mg/dl). Results: Patients were grouped by the number of hypoglycemic events during the recording period (group 1: 1 event, group 2: 2-3 events...... positively associated with risk of severe hypoglycemia (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.3 (95% CI 1.1-1.5); p=0.003). Group 4 consisted of patients characterized by classical risk factors of severe hypoglycemia (longer duration of diabetes, lower HbA1c and more frequent impaired awareness of hypoglycemia...

  10. Remote monitoring of cardiovascular implanted electronic devices: a paradigm shift for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Edmond M; Varma, Niraj

    2012-07-01

    Traditional follow-up of cardiac implantable electronic devices involves the intermittent download of largely nonactionable data. Remote monitoring represents a paradigm shift from episodic office-based follow-up to continuous monitoring of device performance and patient and disease state. This lessens device clinical burden and may also lead to cost savings, although data on economic impact are only beginning to emerge. Remote monitoring technology has the potential to improve the outcomes through earlier detection of arrhythmias and compromised device integrity, and possibly predict heart failure hospitalizations through integration of heart failure diagnostics and hemodynamic monitors. Remote monitoring platforms are also huge databases of patients and devices, offering unprecedented opportunities to investigate real-world outcomes. Here, the current status of the field is described and future directions are predicted.

  11. [2011 after-service customer satisfaction survey of monitoring devices in Shanghai area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Li, Bin; Qian, Jianguo; Cao, Shaoping; He, Dehua; Zheng, Yunxin

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Shanghai Medical Equipment Management Quality Control Center launched the fifth after-sale service satisfaction survey for medical devices in Shanghai area. There are 8 classes medical devices involving in the survey. This paper demonstrates the investigation results of monitoring devices which are from different manufacturers.

  12. Toward an agent-based patient-physician model for the adoption of continuous glucose monitoring technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verella, J Tipan; Patek, Stephen D

    2009-03-01

    Health care is a major component of the U.S. economy, and tremendous research and development efforts are directed toward new technologies in this arena. Unfortunately few tools exist for predicting outcomes associated with new medical products, including whether new technologies will find widespread use within the target population. Questions of technology adoption are rife within the diabetes technology community, and we particularly consider the long-term prognosis for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology. We present an approach to the design and analysis of an agent model that describes the process of CGM adoption among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), their physicians, and related stakeholders. We particularly focus on patient-physician interactions, with patients discovering CGM technology through word-of-mouth communication and through advertising, applying pressure to their physicians in the context of CGM device adoption, and physicians, concerned about liability, looking to peers for a general level of acceptance of the technology before recommending CGM to their patients. Repeated simulation trials of the agent-based model show that the adoption process reflects the heterogeneity of the adopting community. We also find that the effect of the interaction between patients and physicians is agents. Each physician, say colored by the nature of the environment as defined by the model parameters. We find that, by being able to represent the diverse perspectives of different types of stakeholders, agent-based models can offer useful insights into the adoption process. Models of this sort may eventually prove to be useful in helping physicians, other health care providers, patient advocacy groups, third party payers, and device manufacturers understand the impact of their decisions about new technologies. (c) 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  13. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is associated with problem-solving skills in hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zgibor, Janice; Matthews, Judith T; Charron-Prochownik, Denise; Sereika, Susan M; Siminerio, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and problem-solving skills in response to detected hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia among patients with type 2 diabetes. Data were obtained from the American Association of Diabetes Educators Outcome System, implemented in 8 diabetes self-management education programs in western Pennsylvania. SMBG was measured by asking patients how often they checked, missed checking, or checked blood glucose later than planned. Problem-solving skill was measured by asking how often they modified their behaviors after detecting high or low blood glucose. Most patients checked their blood glucose at least once per day. However, when blood glucose was high or low, many of them reported doing nothing, and only some of them resolved the problem. There were significant associations between self-monitoring of blood glucose and problem-solving skills for hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, education, and time since diagnosis. Patients reported poor problem-solving skills when detecting hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia via SMBG. Patients need to learn problem-solving skills along with SMBG training to achieve glycemic control.

  14. A microfabricated low cost enzyme-free glucose fuel cell for powering low-power implantable devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncescu, Vlad; Erickson, David

    In the past decade the scientific community has showed considerable interest in the development of implantable medical devices such as muscle stimulators, neuroprosthetic devices, and biosensors. Those devices have low power requirements and can potentially be operated through fuel cells using reactants present in the body such as glucose and oxygen instead of non-rechargeable lithium batteries. In this paper, we present a thin, enzyme-free fuel cell with high current density and good stability at a current density of 10 μA cm -2. A non-enzymatic approach is preferred because of higher long term stability. The fuel cell uses a stacked electrode design in order to achieve glucose and oxygen separation. An important characteristic of the fuel cell is that it has no membrane separating the electrodes, which results in low ohmic losses and small fuel cell volume. In addition, it uses a porous carbon paper support for the anodic catalyst layer which reduces the amount of platinum or other noble metal catalysts required for fabricating high surface area electrodes with good reactivity. The peak power output of the fuel cell is approximately 2 μW cm -2 and has a sustainable power density of 1.5 μW cm -2 at 10 μA cm -2. An analysis on the effects of electrode thickness and inter electrode gap on the maximum power output of the fuel cell is also performed.

  15. [Glucose-monitoring neurons of the medial ventrolateral prefrontal (orbitofrontal) cortex are involved in the maintenance of homeostasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, István; Hormay, Edina; Csetényi, Bettina; Nagy, Bernadett; Karádi, Zoltán

    2017-05-01

    The medial orbitofrontal cortex is involved in the regulation of feeding and metabolism. Little is known, however, about the role of local glucose-monitoring neurons in these processes, and our knowledge is also poor about characteristics of these cells. The functional significance of these chemosensory neurons was to be elucidated. Electrophysiology, by the multibarreled microelectrophoretic technique, and metabolic investigations, after streptozotocin induced selective destruction of the chemosensory neurons, were employed. Fifteen percent of the neurons responded to glucose, and these chemosensory cells displayed differential neurotransmitter and taste sensitivities. In acute glucose tolerance test, at the 30th and 60th minutes, blood glucose level in the streptozotocin-treated rats was significantly higher than that in the controls. The plasma triglyceride concentrations were also higher in the streptozotocin-treated group. Glucose-monitoring neurons of the medial orbitofrontal cortex integrate internal and external environmental signals, and monitor metabolic processes, thus, are indispensable to maintain the healthy homeostasis. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(18): 692-700.

  16. Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring May Detect Carotid Occlusion Intolerance during Carotid Artery Stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Ryo; Furuse, Motomasa; Yagi, Ryokichi; Ohmura, Tomohisa; Ohnishi, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Naokado; Nonoguchi, Naosuke; Kawabata, Shinji; Miyachi, Shigeru; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko

    2018-02-05

    The frequency of the occurrence of adverse events associated with carotid artery stenting (CAS) is usually low, but serious adverse events such as cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) may occur. Real-time monitoring is ideal for the early detection of adverse events during the surgical procedure. This study aimed to evaluate continuous blood glucose (BG) monitoring for the detection of adverse events during CAS. Forty patients undergoing scheduled CAS were prospectively enrolled. An artificial pancreas was used for continuous BG monitoring (once per minute), using venous blood extracted at a rate of 2 mL/hr during CAS. The primary endpoint was a correlation between BG change and adverse events. CAS was discontinued in 1 patient, and BG was not measured in 5 patients (12.5%) because of the inability to extract blood. Among 34 evaluable patients, no patient developed CHS, but 3 patients (9%) experienced carotid occlusion intolerance. During CAS, BG was significantly higher in patients with carotid occlusion intolerance (median: 5 mg/dL) than in patients without carotid occlusion intolerance (median: 0 mg/dL) (P = 0.0221). A cutoff BG value ≥4 mg/dL during CAS showed 50% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the detection of carotid occlusion intolerance. There was no significant correlation between BG change and other adverse events. BG elevation may help detect carotid occlusion intolerance although it is still unknown whether BG monitoring can detect CHS. Further studies should validate that a cutoff BG elevation value of ≥4 mg/dL during CAS indicates carotid occlusion intolerance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. In vivo glucose monitoring using dual-wavelength polarimetry to overcome corneal birefringence in the presence of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnstill, Casey W; Malik, Bilal H; Gresham, Vincent C; Coté, Gerard L

    2012-09-01

    Over the past 35 years considerable research has been performed toward the investigation of noninvasive and minimally invasive glucose monitoring techniques. Optical polarimetry is one noninvasive technique that has shown promise as a means to ascertain blood glucose levels through measuring the glucose concentrations in the anterior chamber of the eye. However, one of the key limitations to the use of optical polarimetry as a means to noninvasively measure glucose levels is the presence of sample noise caused by motion-induced time-varying corneal birefringence. In this article our group presents, for the first time, results that show dual-wavelength polarimetry can be used to accurately detect glucose concentrations in the presence of motion-induced birefringence in vivo using New Zealand White rabbits. In total, nine animal studies (three New Zealand White rabbits across three separate days) were conducted. Using the dual-wavelength optical polarimetric approach, in vivo, an overall mean average relative difference of 4.49% (11.66 mg/dL) was achieved with 100% Zone A+B hits on a Clarke error grid, including 100% falling in Zone A. The results indicate that dual-wavelength polarimetry can effectively be used to significantly reduce the noise due to time-varying corneal birefringence in vivo, allowing the accurate measurement of glucose concentration in the aqueous humor of the eye and correlating that with blood glucose.

  18. Development of gas-sampling device for 13N monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lihong; Gong Xueyu

    2003-01-01

    The 13 N monitoring system is used in the monitoring of the rate of leakage of the primary coolant circuit in nuclear power stations. The author introduces a gas-sampling device of the 13 Nmonitoring system. It is with a close-loop flow control system with intelligent control of Single Chip Micyoco (SCM), and has the ability to monitor and replace the filter paper automatically, to increase the automation of the device and stable operation in long time

  19. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes who are not using insulin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welschen, L. M.; Bloemendal, E.; Nijpels, G.; Dekker, J. M.; Heine, R. J.; Stalman, W. A.; Bouter, L. M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) has been found to be effective for patients with type 1 diabetes and for patients with type 2 diabetes using insulin. There is much debate on the effectiveness of SMBG as a tool in the self-management for patients with type 2 diabetes who are not

  20. Application of the Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter for Fault Detection in Continuous Glucose Monitors for Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmoudi, Zeinab; Boiroux, Dimitri; Hagdrup, Morten

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the online detection of faults and anomalies of a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). We simulated a type 1 diabetes patient using the Medtronic virtual patient model. The model is a system of stochastic differential equations and includes insulin pharmacokinetics...

  1. Evaluation of an open access software for calculating glucose variability parameters of a continuous glucose monitoring system applied at pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marics, Gábor; Lendvai, Zsófia; Lódi, Csaba; Koncz, Levente; Zakariás, Dávid; Schuster, György; Mikos, Borbála; Hermann, Csaba; Szabó, Attila J; Tóth-Heyn, Péter

    2015-04-24

    Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) has become an increasingly investigated tool, especially with regards to monitoring of diabetic and critical care patients. The continuous glucose data allows the calculation of several glucose variability parameters, however, without specific application the interpretation of the results is time-consuming, utilizing extreme efforts. Our aim was to create an open access software [Glycemic Variability Analyzer Program (GVAP)], readily available to calculate the most common parameters of the glucose variability and to test its usability. The GVAP was developed in MATLAB® 2010b environment. The calculated parameters were the following: average area above/below the target range (Avg. AUC-H/L); Percentage Spent Above/Below the Target Range (PATR/PBTR); Continuous Overall Net Glycemic Action (CONGA); Mean of Daily Differences (MODD); Mean Amplitude of Glycemic Excursions (MAGE). For verification purposes we selected 14 CGM curves of pediatric critical care patients. Medtronic® Guardian® Real-Time with Enlite® sensor was used. The reference values were obtained from Medtronic®(')s own software for Avg. AUC-H/L and PATR/PBTR, from GlyCulator for MODD and CONGA, and using manual calculation for MAGE. The Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were above 0.99 for all parameters. The initial execution took 30 minutes, for further analysis with the Windows® Standalone Application approximately 1 minute was needed. The GVAP is a reliable open access program for analyzing different glycemic variability parameters, hence it could be a useful tool for the study of glycemic control among critically ill patients.

  2. Use of a real time continuous glucose monitoring system as an educational tool for patients with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadhli, Eman; Osman, Eman; Basri, Taghreed

    2016-01-01

    Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are required to control their blood glucose shortly after GDM diagnosis to minimize adverse pregnancy outcomes. A real time-continuous glucose monitoring system (RT-CGMS) provides the patient with continuous information about the alterations in levels of the blood glucose. This visibility may empower the patient to modify her lifestyle and engage in therapeutic management. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single application of RT-CGMS to pregnant women shortly after GDM diagnosis is useful as an educational and motivational tool. This study was a prospective open label randomized controlled study conducted at Maternity and Children Hospital, Medina, Saudi Arabia. A total of 130 pregnant women with GDM were randomised to either blood glucose self-monitor alone (SMBG group) (n = 62) or in addition to SMBG, patients wore a Guardian(®) REAL-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (Medtronic MiniMed) once for 3-7 days, within 2 weeks of GDM diagnosis (RT-CGMS group) (n = 68). The primary outcomes were maternal glycemic control and pregnancy outcomes. Secondary outcomes were the changes in parameters of glucose variability, which includes mean sensor readings, standard deviation (SD) of blood glucose, and area under the curve for hyper and hypoglycaemia at the end of the RT-CGMS application. HbA1c, mean fasting and postprandial glucose levels were similar in both groups at the end of the pregnancy. Pregnancy outcomes were comparable. However, there was significant improvement in the parameters of glucose variability on the last day of sensor application; both mean glucose and the SD of mean glycaemia were reduced significantly; P = 0.016 and P = 0.034, respectively. The area under the curve for hyper and hypoglycaemia were improved, however, the results were not statistically significant. Although a single application of RT-CGMS shortly after GDM diagnosis is helpful as an educational tool, it

  3. Effects of self-monitoring of glucose in non-insulin treated patients with type 2 diabetes: design of the IN CONTROL-trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malanda, U.L.; Bot, S.D.M.; Kostense, P.J.; Snoek, F.J.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, M.G.A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    or = 7.0%, and not using insulin will be recruited and randomized into 3 groups; Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG), Self-monitoring of Urine Glucose (SMUG) and usual care (n = 200 per group). Participants are eligible if they have a known disease duration of over 1 year and have used SMBG or

  4. In vivo evaluation of glucose permeability of an immunoisolation device intended for islet transplantation: a novel application of the microdialysis technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael, E; Wernerson, A; Arner, P; Wu, G S; Tibell, A

    1999-01-01

    Immunoisolation devices consist of semipermeable membranes chosen to protect the islets from the immune system but still allow sufficient passage of nutrients, oxygen, and the therapeutic products, insulin. The exchange between the device and the microcirculation will influence the survival of the graft as well as the metabolic efficacy of the islet implant. Glucose is the important trigger factor for insulin secretion. In this study, we evaluate the in vivo glucose permeability of the Theracyte immunoisolation device at various times after implantation. Empty devices were implanted s.c. in rats. The glucose kinetics in the device was compared to that in the SC tissue during i.v. glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs), using the microdialysis technique. In rats studied on day 1, or 1, 2, and 4 weeks after implantation, the peak glucose levels (Cmax) were significantly lower, the times-to-peak (TTP) were significantly longer, and the areas under the curve during the first 40 min (AUC(0-40)) were significantly smaller in the device than in the SC fat. However, at 3 months all parameters improved and Cmax, TTP, and AUC(0-40) in the device did not differ significantly from those measured in the SC fat. Thus, during the first 4 weeks the device constitutes a significant diffusion barrier, but at 3 months the exchange between the lumen of devices and the blood stream improves. Our data indicate that implantation of the device several months before transplantation of the cellular graft would improve the exchange across the membrane during the early posttransplant period. This should have positive effects on graft survival and function. We also suggest that microdialysis is a useful tool for evaluating the in vivo performance of macroencapsulation devices.

  5. Development of a glucose-sensitive drug delivery device: Microencapsulated liposomes and poly(2-ethylacrylic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanokpanont, Sorada

    The current study is the development a self-regulated, glucose responsive drug delivery system, using dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) liposomes, a pH sensitive polymer, poly (2-ethylacrylic acid)(PEAA), and the feed back reaction of glucose with glucose oxidase enzyme (GO). The thesis investigates the use of PEAR and liposomes to work inside a microcapsule in response to the glucose level of the environment, by following the release of fluorescence probes, 8-aminonapthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid, disodium salt/p-xylene-bis-pyridimuim bromide (ANTS/DPX) and a model protein, myoglobin. The continuing studies of PEAR and liposome interaction indicated an evidence of the previous hypothesis of two-mode release at different pHs. Differential scanning calorimetric studies of DOPC and PEAA complexes revealed the possibility of polymer adsorption to the liposomes in the pH range 5.5--7.0 and insertion in the liposome bilayer at pH pH, PEAR concentration, presence of cholesterol in the liposomes, Ca 2+, and the concentration of sodium alginate. We have also shown possibilities of anchoring PEAR on to liposome by covalent conjugation although this led to inactivation of the polymer. It is also possible to entrap small molecular weight PEAA in liposomes. The evidence of the pH-induced protein release by the interaction of PEAA and liposomes was first demonstrated in this thesis. Kinetic parameters of GO were estimated to use as a basis for determination optimal concentration in the capsules. The pH reduction inside the capsule due to GO reaction showed positive results for the use of GO in a non-buffered system. The procedure of liquid-core alginate capsules was modified to facilitate the pH-responsive release of ANTS/DPX and myoglobin. The capsules responded to high blood glucose concentration by releasing myoglobin within 30 minutes. Although more studies are required to improve the response of the system to the normal blood glucose and to control the total protein

  6. A bendable and wearable cardiorespiratory monitoring device fusing two noncontact sensor principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Daniel; De Matteis, Dennis; Bartelt, Thorsten; Walter, Marian; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-05-01

    A mobile device is presented for monitoring both respiration and pulse. The device is developed as a bendable/flexible inlay that can be placed in a shirt pocket or the inside pocket of a jacket. To achieve optimum monitoring performance, the device combines two sensor principles, which work in a safe noncontact way through several layers of cotton or other textiles. One sensor, based on magnetic induction, is intended for respiratory monitoring, and the other is a reflective photoplethysmography sensor intended for pulse detection. Because each sensor signal has some dependence on both physiological parameters, fusing the sensor signals allows enhanced signal coverage.

  7. Wearable Device for Objective Sleep Monitoring, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has a critical requirement for a wearable device that can provide objective measures of sleep and activity for its crew during long duration spaceflight. In the...

  8. Nocturnal hypoglycemia identified by a continuous glucose monitoring system in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's Disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gesine; Hackemann, Annika; Reusch, Juergen; Badenhoop, Klaus

    2012-05-01

    Hypoglycemia can be a symptom in patients with Addison's disease. The common regimen of replacement therapy with oral glucocorticoids results in unphysiological low cortisol levels in the early morning, the time of highest insulin sensitivity. Therefore patients with Addison's disease are at risk for unrecognized and potentially severe nocturnal hypoglycemia also because of a disturbed counterregulatory function. Use of a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) could help to adjust hydrocortisone treatment and to avoid nocturnal hypoglycemia in these patients. Thirteen patients with Addison's disease were screened for hypoglycemia wearing a CGMS for 3-5 days. In one patient we identified a hypoglycemic episode at 3:45 a.m. with a blood glucose level of 46 mg/dL, clearly beneath the 95% tolerance interval of minimal glucose levels between 2 and 4 a.m. (53.84 mg/dL). After the hydrocortisone replacement scheme was changed, the minimum blood glucose level between 2 and 4 a.m. normalized to 87 mg/dL. Continuous glucose monitoring can detect nocturnal hypoglycemia in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency and hence prevent in these patients an impaired quality of life and even serious adverse effects.

  9. Industrial wireless monitoring with energy-harvesting devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brian Blake, M.; Das, Kallol; Zand, P.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    Vibration monitoring and analysis techniques are used increasingly for predictive maintenance. While traditional vibration monitoring relies on wired sensor networks, recent industrial technologies such as WirelessHART, ISA100.11a, and IEEE802.15.4e have brought a paradigm shift in the automation

  10. A novel insulin resistance index to monitor changes in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance: the ACT NOW study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Devjit; Cobb, Jeff E; Gall, Walter; Adam, Klaus-Peter; George, Tabitha; Schwenke, Dawn C; Banerji, MaryAnn; Bray, George A; Buchanan, Thomas A; Clement, Stephen C; Henry, Robert R; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ratner, Robert E; Stentz, Frankie B; Reaven, Peter D; Musi, Nicolas; Ferrannini, Ele; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to test the clinical utility of Quantose M(Q) to monitor changes in insulin sensitivity after pioglitazone therapy in prediabetic subjects. Quantose M(Q) is derived from fasting measurements of insulin, α-hydroxybutyrate, linoleoyl-glycerophosphocholine, and oleate, three nonglucose metabolites shown to correlate with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Participants were 428 of the total of 602 ACT NOW impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects randomized to pioglitazone (45 mg/d) or placebo and followed for 2.4 years. At baseline and study end, fasting plasma metabolites required for determination of Quantose, glycated hemoglobin, and oral glucose tolerance test with frequent plasma insulin and glucose measurements to calculate the Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity were obtained. Pioglitazone treatment lowered IGT conversion to diabetes (hazard ratio = 0.25; 95% confidence interval = 0.13-0.50; P < .0001). Although glycated hemoglobin did not track with insulin sensitivity, Quantose M(Q) increased in pioglitazone-treated subjects (by 1.45 [3.45] mg·min(-1)·kgwbm(-1)) (median [interquartile range]) (P < .001 vs placebo), as did the Matsuda index (by 3.05 [4.77] units; P < .0001). Quantose M(Q) correlated with the Matsuda index at baseline and change in the Matsuda index from baseline (rho, 0.85 and 0.79, respectively; P < .0001) and was progressively higher across closeout glucose tolerance status (diabetes, IGT, normal glucose tolerance). In logistic models including only anthropometric and fasting measurements, Quantose M(Q) outperformed both Matsuda and fasting insulin in predicting incident diabetes. In IGT subjects, Quantose M(Q) parallels changes in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance with pioglitazone therapy. Due to its strong correlation with improved insulin sensitivity and its ease of use, Quantose M(Q) may serve as a useful clinical test to identify and monitor therapy in insulin-resistant patients.

  11. First step toward near-infrared continuous glucose monitoring: in vivo evaluation of antibody coupled biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellynck, Karolien; Kodeck, Valérie; Van De Walle, Elke; Kersemans, Ken; De Vos, Filip; Declercq, Heidi; Dubruel, Peter; Vlaminck, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is crucial in diabetic care. Long-term CGM systems however require an accurate sensor as well as a suitable measuring environment. Since large intravenous sensors are not feasible, measuring inside the interstitial fluid is considered the best alternative. This option, unfortunately, has the drawback of a lag time with blood glucose values. A good strategy to circumvent this is to enhance tissue integration and enrich the peri-implant vasculature. Implants of different optically transparent biomaterials (poly(methyl-methacrylate) [PMMA] and poly(dimethylsiloxane) [PDMS]) – enabling glucose monitoring in the near-infrared (NIR) spectrum – were surface-treated and subsequently implanted in goats at various implantation sites for up to 3 months. The overall in vivo biocompatibility, tissue integration, and vascularization at close proximity of the surfaces of these materials were assessed. Histological screening showed similar tissue reactions independent of the implantation site. No significant inflammation reaction was observed. Tissue integration and vascularization correlated, to some extent, with the biomaterial composition. A modification strategy, in which a vascular endothelial-cadherin antibody was coupled to the biomaterials surface through a dopamine layer, showed significantly enhanced vascularization 3 months after subcutaneous implantation. Our results suggest that the developed strategy enables the creation of tissue interactive NIR transparent packaging materials, opening the possibility of continuous glucose monitoring. PMID:25304314

  12. Optimal insulin pump dosing and postprandial glycemia following a pizza meal using the continuous glucose monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan M; Quarry, Jill L; Caldwell-McMillan, Molly; Mauger, David T; Gabbay, Robert A

    2005-04-01

    We attempted to identify an optimal insulin pump meal bolus by comparing postprandial sensor glucose values following three methods of insulin pump meal bolusing for a consistent pizza meal. Twenty-four patients with type 1 diabetes participated in a study to compare postprandial glucose values following three meal bolus regimens for a consistent evening pizza meal. Each participant utilized the following insulin lispro regimens on consecutive evenings, and glucose values were tracked by the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS, Medtronic MiniMed, Northridge, CA): (a) single-wave bolus (100% of insulin given immediately); (b) 4-h dual-wave bolus (50% of insulin given immediately and 50% given over a 4-h period); and (c) 8-h dual-wave bolus (50% of insulin given immediately and 50% given over a 8-h period). Total insulin bolus amount was kept constant for each pizza meal. Divergence in blood glucose among the regimens was greatest at 8-12 h. The 8-h dual-wave bolus provided the best glycemic control and lowest mean glucose values (singlewave bolus, 133 mg/dL; 4-h dual-wave bolus, 145 mg/dL; 8-h dual-wave bolus, 104 mg/dL), leading to a difference in mean glucose of 29 mg/dL for the single-wave bolus versus the 8-h dual-wave bolus and 42 mg/dL for the 4-h dual-wave bolus versus the 8-h dual-wave bolus. The lower mean glucose in the 8-h dual-wave bolus was not associated with any increased incidence of hypoglycemia. Use of a dual-wave bolus extended over an 8-h period following a pizza meal provided significantly less postprandial hyperglycemia in the late postprandial period (8-12 h) with no increased risk of hypoglycemia.

  13. Professional continuous glucose monitoring for the identification of type 1 diabetes mellitus among subjects with insulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin-Chun; Huang, Yu-Yao; Li, Hung-Yuan; Liu, Shih-Wei; Hsieh, Sheng-Hwu; Lin, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    The identification of type 1 diabetes in diabetic subjects receiving insulin therapy is sometimes difficult. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether results of professional continuous glucose monitoring can improve the identification of type 1 diabetes.From 2007 to 2012, 119 adults receiving at least twice-daily insulin therapy and professional continuous glucose monitoring were recruited. Type 1 diabetes was diagnosed by endocrinologists according to American Diabetes Association standards, including a very low C-peptide level (diabetic ketoacidosis. Continuous glucose monitoring was applied for 3 days.Among 119 subjects, 86 were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Subjects with type 1 diabetes were younger (33.8 vs 52.3 years old, P 1), had lower body mass index (BMI, 21.95 vs 24.42, P = 0.003), lower serum creatinine (61.77  vs 84.65 μmol/L, P = 0.001), and higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (108.71 vs 76.48 mg/mL/min/1.73m2, P 1) than subjects with type 2 diabetes. Predictive scores for identification of type 1 diabetes were constructed, including age, BMI, average mean amplitude of glucose excursion in days 2 and 3, and the area under the curve of nocturnal hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic states. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.90. With the cutoff of 0.58, the sensitivity was 86.7% and the specificity was 80.8%. The good performance was validated by the leave-one-out method (sensitivity 83.3%, specificity 73.1%).Professional continuous glucose monitoring is a useful tool that improves identification of type 1 diabetes among diabetic patients receiving insulin therapy.

  14. Autonomous profiling device to monitor remote water bodies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhan, R.; Dabholkar, N.A.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Prabhudesai, S.P.

    implications to human health, and requires frequent and effective monitoring, particularly during summer months (March–May) when water consumption is highest. These water bodies are frequently located in remote areas away from human habitation, making...

  15. Microcirculation and its relation to continuous subcutaneous glucose sensor accuracy in cardiac surgery patients in the intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegelaar, Sarah E.; Barwari, Temo; Hermanides, Jeroen; van der Voort, Peter H. J.; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.; DeVries, J. Hans

    2013-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring could be helpful for glucose regulation in critically ill patients; however, its accuracy is uncertain and might be influenced by microcirculation. We investigated the microcirculation and its relation to the accuracy of 2 continuous glucose monitoring devices in

  16. Monitoring device of the interior of a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirayama, Shinpei; Fujii, Isao.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To incorporate a sound detecting piezo-electric element into a container receiving therein an electrode, which serves as an ionization chamber for detecting neutron flux, to detect both the neutron flux and sound by means of one device. Structure: When a DC power source is closed and a conversion material is reacted as a result of irradiation of neutron between the electrode and the container in a detecting station, an ionization current is flown and a voltage drop is appeared between both ends of a resistor in a system of processing radioactive rays signal to detect the neutron flux which is displayed by a display device, and when a sound is produced within a reactor, the bottom wall is deformed and as a result, a power is produced between the opposite sides of the piezoelectric element, said power being removed through a filter in a system of processing sound signals, which is displayed by another display device. (Yoshino, H.)

  17. Predicting Plasma Glucose From Interstitial Glucose Observations Using Bayesian Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alexander Hildenbrand; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Juhl, Rune

    2014-01-01

    One way of constructing a control algorithm for an artificial pancreas is to identify a model capable of predicting plasma glucose (PG) from interstitial glucose (IG) observations. Stochastic differential equations (SDEs) make it possible to account both for the unknown influence of the continuous...... glucose monitor (CGM) and for unknown physiological influences. Combined with prior knowledge about the measurement devices, this approach can be used to obtain a robust predictive model. A stochastic-differential-equation-based gray box (SDE-GB) model is formulated on the basis of an identifiable...

  18. A distributed design for monitoring, logging, and replaying device readings at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, M.

    1992-01-01

    As control of the Los Alamos Meson Physics linear accelerator and Proton Storage Ring moves to a more distributed system, it has been necessary to redesign the software which monitors, logs, and replays device readings throughout the facility. The new design allows devices to be monitored and their readings logged locally on a network of computers. Control of the monitoring and logging process is available throughout the network from user interfaces which communicate via remote procedure calls with server processes running on each node which monitors and records device readings. Similarly, the logged data can be replayed from anywhere on the network. Two major requirements influencing the final design were the need to reduce the load on the CPU of the control machines, and the need for much faster replay of the logged device readings. (author)

  19. A distributed design for monitoring, logging, and replaying device readings at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, M.

    1991-01-01

    As control of the Los Alamos Meson Physics linear accelerator and Proton Storage Ring moves to a more distributed system, it has been necessary to redesign the software which monitors, logs, and replays device readings throughout the facility. The new design allows devices to be monitored and their readings logged locally on a network of computers. Control of the monitoring and logging process is available throughout the network from user interfaces which communicate via remote procedure calls with server processes running on each node which monitors and records device readings. Similarly, the logged data can be replayed from anywhere on the network. Two major requirements influencing the final design were the need to reduce the load on the CPU of the control machines, and the need for much faster replay of the logged device readings. 1 ref., 2 figs

  20. Preliminary Finding from a New Device for Monitoring Performance and Environmental Factors in the Field

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lieberman, Harris

    2000-01-01

    .... This paper will introduce a new device, the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine vigilance monitor, which was developed for assessment of human performance in an automated, continuous manner in the field...

  1. 40 CFR Table 13 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Monitoring Requirements for Control Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recorder b Combustion temperature Continuous. Condenser Temperature monitoring device installed at condenser exit and equipped with continuous recorder b Condenser exit (product side) temperature Continuous... intervals no greater than 20 percent of the design carbon replacement interval, whichever is greater...

  2. A Real-Time Audio Tele-Presence Device for Remote Acoustic Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaudrey, Michael

    2003-01-01

    .... At the end of the Phase I effort, ATI delivered to ARL a fully functional wired binaural hearing device capable of accurately monitoring remote acoustic environments as far as 50 feet from the listener/operator...

  3. Automatic cross-sectioning and monitoring system locates defects in electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G.; Slaughter, B.

    1971-01-01

    System consists of motorized grinding and lapping apparatus, sample holder, and electronic control circuit. Low power microscope examines device to pinpoint location of circuit defect, and monitor displays output signal when defect is located exactly.

  4. Evaluation of subcutaneous glucose monitoring systems under routine environmental conditions in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberer, Felix; Hajnsek, Martin; Rumpler, Markus; Zenz, Sabine; Baumann, Petra M; Elsayed, Hesham; Puffing, Adelheid; Treiber, Gerlies; Pieber, Thomas R; Sourij, Harald; Mader, Julia K

    2017-07-01

    Continuous and flash glucose monitoring (GM) systems have been established in diabetes care. We compared the sensor performance of 3 commercially available GM systems. A total of 12 patients with type 1 diabetes were included in a single-centre, open-label study in which the sensor performance of the Abbott FreeStyle libre (Abbott), Dexcom G4 Platinum (Dexcom) and Medtronic MiniMed 640G (Medtronic) systems over 12 hours was compared during mimicked real-life conditions (meals, exercise, hypo- and hyperglycaemia). Sensor performance was determined by fulfilment of ISO 15197:2013 criteria, calculating mean absolute relative difference (MARD), and was also illustrated using Parkes error grid and Bland-Altman plots. Sensor performance during changes in metabolic variables (lactate, betahydroxybutyrate, glucagon, non-esterified-fatty-acids) was determined by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient testing. The systems fulfilled ISO 15197:2013 criteria by 73.2% (Abbott), 56.1% (Dexcom) and 52.0% (Medtronic). The MARDs ± standard deviation in the entire glycaemic range were 13.2% ± 10.9% (Abbott), 16.8% ± 12.3% (Dexcom) and 21.4% ± 17.6% (Medtronic), respectively. All sensors performed less accurately during hypoglycaemia and best during hyperglycaemia. We did not observe an influence of metabolic variables on sensor performance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Continuous glucose monitoring technology for personal use: an educational program that educates and supports the patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evert, Alison; Trence, Dace; Catton, Sarah; Huynh, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the development and implementation of an educational program for the initiation of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology for personal use, not 3-day CGMS diagnostic studies. The education program was designed to meet the needs of patients managing their diabetes with either diabetes medications or insulin pump therapy in an outpatient diabetes education center using a team-based approach. Observational research, complemented by literature review, was used to develop an educational program model and teaching strategies. Diabetes educators, endocrinologists, CGM manufacturer clinical specialists, and patients with diabetes were also interviewed for their clinical observations and experience. The program follows a progressive educational model. First, patients learn in-depth about real-time CGM technology by attending a group presensor class that provides detailed information about CGM. This presensor class facilitates self-selection among patients concerning their readiness to use real-time CGM. If the patient decides to proceed with real-time CGM use, CGM initiation is scheduled, using a clinic-centered protocol for both start-up and follow-up. Successful use of real-time CGM involves more than just patient enthusiasm or interest in a new technology. Channeling patient interest into a structured educational setting that includes the benefits and limitations of real-time CGM helps to manage patient expectations.

  6. A noninvasive monitoring device for anesthetics in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Power, Deborah M.; Fuentes, Juan; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2010-01-01

    A noninvasive device capable of recording both gill and lateral fin movements was assembled and used to analyze initial and post-treatment activity frequency (Hz) in fish exposed to anesthetics. Exposure of platy fish (Xiphosphorus maculatus) to saponins from quillaja bark (0.185 mM and 0.555 m...

  7. Monitoring mobility assistive device use in post-stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boissy, Patrice; Hester, Todd; Sherrill, Delsey

    2007-01-01

    Mobility assistive devices (MAD) such as canes can improve mobility and allow independence in the performance of mobility-related tasks. The use of MAD is often prescribed for stroke survivors. Despite their acknowledged qualities, MAD in real life conditions are typically underutilized, misused...

  8. Review of passive accumulation devices for monitoring organic micropollutants in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuer-Lauridsen, Frank

    2005-08-01

    Over the past 15 years passive sampling devices have been developed that accumulate organic micropollutants and allow detection at ambient sub ng/l concentrations. Most passive accumulation devices (PADs) are designed for 1-4 weeks field deployment, where uptake is governed by linear first order kinetics providing a time weighted average of the exposure concentration. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are the most comprehensively studied PADs, but other samplers may also be considered for aquatic monitoring purposes. The applicability of the PADs is reviewed with respect to commonly monitored aqueous matrices and compounds, the detection limits, and for use in quantitative monitoring related to requirements embedded in the EU Water Framework Directive, the US and EU Water Quality Criteria, and the Danish monitoring aquatic programme. The PADs may monitor >75% of the organic micropollutants of the programmes. Research is warranted regarding the uptake in PADs in low flow environments and for the development of samplers for polar organic compounds.

  9. 40 CFR 60.714 - Installation of monitoring devices and recordkeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to the manufacturer's specifications, prior to the initial performance tests in locations such that... in § 60.713(b)(2), (3), (4), (5), or (6) (which include control device efficiency determinations... gas streams would be monitored if the percent control device efficiency is used as the basis for...

  10. Microfluidic paper-based device for colorimetric determination of glucose based on a metal-organic framework acting as peroxidase mimetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gómez, Inmaculada; Salinas-Castillo, Alfonso; García, Amalia García; Álvarez-Bermejo, José Antonio; de Orbe-Payá, Ignacio; Rodríguez-Diéguez, Antonio; Capitán-Vallvey, Luis Fermín

    2017-12-13

    This work presents a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) for glucose determination using a supported metal-organic framework (MOF) acting as a peroxidase mimic. The catalytic action of glucose oxidase (GOx) on glucose causes the formation of H 2 O 2 , and the MOF causes the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by H 2 O 2 to form a blue-green product with an absorption peak at 650 nm in the detection zone. A digital camera and the iOS feature of a smartphone are used for the quantitation of glucose with the S coordinate of the HSV color space as the analytical parameter. Different factors such as the concentration of TMB, GOx and MOF, pH and buffer, sample volume, reaction time and reagent position in the μPAD were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the value for the S coordinate increases linearly up to 150 μmol·L -1 glucose concentrations, with a 2.5 μmol·L -1 detection limit. The μPAD remains stable for 21 days under conventional storage conditions. Such an enzyme mimetic-based assay to glucose determination using Fe-MIL-101 MOF implemented in a microfluidic paper-based device possesses advantages over enzyme-based assays in terms of costs, durability and stability compared to other existing glucose determination methods. The procedure was applied to the determination of glucose in (spiked) serum and urine. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of microfluidic paper-based analytical device using metal-organic framework as a peroxidase mimic for colorimetric glucose detection with digital camera or smartphone and iOS app readout.

  11. Monitoring device for the power distribution within a nuclear reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzawa, Tomio; Kumanomido, Hironori; Toyoshi, Isamu.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a monitoring device for the power distribution in the reactor core that calculates the power distribution based on the measurement by instruments disposed within the reactor core of BWR type reactors. Constitution: The power distribution monitoring device in a reactor core comprises a signal correcting device, a signal normalizing device and a power distribution calculating device, in which the power distribution calculating device is constituted with an average power calculating device for four fuel assemblies and an average power calculating device for fuel assemblies. Gamma-ray signals corrected by the signal correcting device and signals from neutron detectors are inputted to the signal normalizing device, both of which are calibrated to determine the axial gamma-ray signal distribution in the central water gap region with the four fuel assemblies being as the unit. The average power from the four fuel assemblies are inputted to the fuel assembly average power calculating device to allocate to each of the fuel assembly average power thereby attaining the purpose. Further, thermal restriction values are calculated thereby enabling to secure the fuel integrity. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. Impact of flash glucose monitoring on hypoglycaemia in adults with type 1 diabetes managed with multiple daily injection therapy: a pre-specified subgroup analysis of the IMPACT randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskarsson, Per; Antuna, Ramiro; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, Petronella; Krӧger, Jens; Weitgasser, Raimund; Bolinder, Jan

    2018-03-01

    staff were not masked to group allocation. The primary outcome was the change in time in hypoglycaemia (blood glucose tests performed per day reduced from 5.5 ± 2.0 (median 5.4) at baseline to 0.5 ± 1.0 (median 0.1). The baseline frequency of self-monitored blood glucose tests by control participants was maintained (from 5.6 ± 1.9 [median 5.2] to 5.5 ± 2.6 [median 5.1] per day). Treatment satisfaction and perception of hypo/hyperglycaemia were improved compared with control. No device-related hypoglycaemia or safety-related issues were reported. Nine serious adverse events were reported for eight participants (four in each group), none related to the device. Eight adverse events for six of the participants in the intervention group were also reported, which were related to sensor insertion/wear; four of these participants withdrew because of the adverse event. Use of flash glucose technology in type 1 diabetes controlled with MDI therapy significantly reduced time in hypoglycaemia without deterioration of HbA 1c , and improved treatment satisfaction. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02232698 FUNDING: Abbott Diabetes Care, Witney, UK.

  13. Water quality monitoring device for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Mitsushi.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention measures quality of feedwater after heated in a regenerative heat exchanger device of a coolant cleanup system in a BWR type reactor, to detect ions generated from organic materials decomposed at high temperature and specify the position where impurities are formed. Namely, in a power plant having a reactor coolant cleanup pipeline connected to a feedwater pipeline, a water quality measuring portion is disposed to the feedwater system at the downstream of the junction to the feedwater system pipeline. A water quality sample is taken to measure the water quality in a state where the feedwater heated by a feedwater heater and flowing to the reactor, and the cleanup coolants heated by the regenerative heat exchanger are mixed. Thus, the impurities formed at the down stream of the feedwater system pipeline, as well as the water quality including impurities decomposed in a high temperature state can be measured. (I.S.)

  14. Monitor and control device in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neda, Toshikatsu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate and ensure monitor and control, as well as improve the operation efficiency and save man power, by render the operation automatic utilizing a process computer and centralizing the monitor and control functions. Constitution: All of the operations from the start up to stop in a nuclear power plant are conducted by way of a monitor and control board. The process data for the nuclear power plant are read into the process computer and displayed on a CRT display. Controls are carried out respectively for the control rod on a control rod panel, for the feedwater rate on a feedwater control panel, for the recycling flow rate on a recycling control panel and for the turbine generator on a turbine control panel. When the operation is conducted by an automatic console, operation signals from the console are imputted into the process computer and the state of the power plant is monitored and automatic operation is carried out based on the operation signals and from signals from each of the panels. (Moriyama, K.)

  15. Exploring a new security framework for remote patient monitoring devices

    OpenAIRE

    Ondiege, Brian; Clarke, Macolm; Mapp, Glenford E.

    2017-01-01

    Security has been an issue of contention in healthcare. The lack of familiarity and poor implementation of security in healthcare leave the patients’ data vulnerable to attackers. The main issue is assessing how we can provide security in an RPM infrastructure. The findings in literature show there is little empirical evidence on proper implementation of security. Therefore, there is an urgent need in addressing cybersecurity issues in medical devices. Through the review of relevant literatur...

  16. Device development for radioecology monitoring in Azerbaijan Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayramov, Z.T.

    2002-01-01

    Last time in the territory of Azerbaijan Republic that's in the land and especially in Azerbaijan sector of Caspian Sea have observed the irreversible processes as result of anthropogenic influences to the environment. In the main these inclinations envelope following from signed oil contracts the boring works for prospecting and production, building works on the oil pipelines and increase of quantity of the wastes created by these kinds of an activity. But at the land these inclinations envelope the revealing of radioactive materials at not controlled sectors of military bases leave in inheritance by former Soviet Union. At the same time have observed sharp increase of the transit load transporting power on the 'Silk way' route restored within the frames of TRACEKA. And that, in its turn, demand the organization of corresponding control of these loads. For organization of above-mentioned works have proposed next devices and equipment: The device DRG-01Az designed for an exposure dose power measurements of gamma radiations. Air gamma spectrometer. Managed from scientific-research craft the gamma spectrometer for gamma removals of seabed. Stationary radiation post for continuous control of the transit trucks. Proposed devices have worked out by the group of Special Space Device Development Bureau of Azerbaijan National Aerospace Agency. It should be noted that this group had important achievements at the sphere of space device development still since 70-th years. So in 1981 within the frames of the Soviet-French combined experiment was make a multi-channel gamma spectrometer mounted on the aerostat flied on the large heights (30-40 km). In 1983 was work out an orbital device 'RS-17' located at the satellite 'Cosmos-1638'. In 1987 was make a gamma telescope 'Pulsar X-1' established on the orbital station 'Mir'. A telescope is working successfully till now. Above-mentioned devices establish on the basis of obtained achievements. For example, the constructional demands

  17. New Monitoring Technology to Objectively Assess Adherence to Prescribed Footwear and Assistive Devices During Ambulatory Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, Sicco A.; Waaijman, Roelof; Nollet, Frans

    2012-01-01

    Bus SA, Waaijman R, Nollet F. New monitoring technology to objectively assess adherence to prescribed footwear and assistive devices during ambulatory activity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012;93:2075-9. Objective: To assess the validity and feasibility of a new temperature-based adherence monitor to

  18. Design of a low-cost microcontroller-based lightning monitoring device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamau, G.M.; Kang'ethe, S.; Kamau, S.I.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    2015-01-01

    Lightning data is not only important for environment and weather monitoring but also for safety purposes. A device that monitors and keeps track of occurrences of lightning strikes has been developed. A communication interface is established between the sensors, data logging circuit and the

  19. Electronic device, system on chip and method for monitoring a data flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    An electronic device is provided which comprises a plurality of processing units (IP1-IP6), a network-based inter-connect (N) coupled to the processing units (IP1-IP6) and at least one monitoring unit (P1, P2) for monitoring a data flow of at least one first communication path between the processing

  20. Clinical value of Flash glucose monitoring in patients with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Fernandez, Jesus; Pazos-Couselo, Marcos; González-Rodriguez, Maria; Rozas, Pedro; Delgado, Manuel; Aguirre, Miguel; Garcia-Lopez, Jose Manuel

    2018-06-12

    To analyze the clinical impact of the Flash glucose monitoring system in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). A 24-week retrospective cohort study in CSII-treated T1DM patients exposed (1:1) to the Flash glucose monitoring system vs. self-monitoring of capillary blood glucose (SMBG). The primary outcome was the difference in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels between both groups at the end of the study. Thirty-six patients with a mean age of 38.2 years (range 22-55) and a mean T1DM duration of 20.9±7.8 years, treated with CSII for 7.1±5.4 years, were enrolled into the study. At the end of the study, mean HbA1c levels improved in patients in the Flash group (7.1±0.7 vs. 7.8±1.0, p=0.04). Only the Flash group showed a significant decrease in HbA1c levels of -0.4% (95% CI, -0.6, -0.2; p=0.004) during follow-up. Flash patients captured 93.9% of data through 17.8±9.9 scans daily. In fact, the Flash cohort showed a three-fold increase in daily self-monitoring of glucose, while daily frequency of SMBG decreased during the study (-1.8 tests/24h (95% CI -3, -0.7; p=0.01). No safety issues related to Flash use were recorded. The Flash glucose monitoring system is a novel approach to improve blood glucose control in CSII-treated T1DM patients. Randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the effectiveness of this system in CSII-treated T1DM patients. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Smart telemedicine support for continuous glucose monitoring: the embryo of a future global agent for diabetes care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigla, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Although current systems for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) are the result of progressive technological improvement, and although a beneficial effect on glucose control has been demonstrated, few patients are using them. Something similar has happened to telemedicine (TM); in spite of the long-term experience, which began in the early 1980s, no TM system has been widely adopted, and presential visits are still almost the only way diabetologists and patients communicate. The hypothesis developed in this article is that neither CGM nor TM will ever be routinely implemented separately, and their consideration as essential elements for standard diabetes care will one day come from their integration as parts of a telemedical monitoring platform. This platform, which should include artificial intelligence for giving decision support to patients and physicians, will represent the core of a more complex global agent for diabetes care, which will provide control algorithms and risk analysis among other essential functions. © 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  2. Design, Manufacturing and Experimental Validation of Optical Fiber Sensors Based Devices for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela CORICCIATI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of optical fiber sensors is a promising and rising technique used for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM, because permit to monitor continuously the strain and the temperature of the structure where they are applied. In the present paper three different types of smart devices, that are composite materials with an optical fiber sensor embedded inside them during the manufacturing process, are described: Smart Patch, Smart Rebar and Smart Textile, which are respectively a plate for local exterior intervention, a rod for shear and flexural interior reinforcement and a textile for an external whole application. In addition to the monitoring aim, the possible additional function of these devices could be the reinforcement of the structures where they are applied. In the present work, after technology manufacturing description, the experimental laboratory characterization of each device is discussed. At last, smart devices application on medium scale masonry walls and their validation by mechanical tests is described.

  3. Usefulness of continuous glucose monitoring for the diagnosis of hypoglycemia after a gastric bypass in a patient previously treated for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaire, Hélène; Dubet, Audrey; Chauveau, Marie-Emilie; Anduze, Yves; Fernandes, Martine; Melki, Vincent; Ritz, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is rare after a gastric bypass and can be taken for a dumping syndrome. There is no report in the literature of the contribution of continuous glucose monitoring to the diagnosis of hypoglycemia in these circumstances. The present case report shows that continuous glucose monitoring can be a useful tool for the diagnosis and the management of such episodes. Continuous glucose monitoring revealed hypoglycemic episodes in free living circumstances that were not present during 72-h fasting. These episodes followed wide hyperglycemic swings. No such episode resumed over 8 months after specific dietary advices and treatment by 50 mg TID of acarbose. Because hypoglycemia can be difficult to diagnose from dumping syndrome, continuous glucose monitoring is a very useful tool revealing the episodes in free living circumstances and can be used to monitor the treatment success.

  4. The impact of an electronic monitoring and reminder device on patient compliance with antihypertensive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Arne; Christrup, Lona Louring; Fabricius, Paul Erik

    2010-01-01

    . In the first half of the study, patients using the device reported 91% compliance versus 85% in the control group. This difference diminished after crossover (88 versus 86%). BP was not affected. Electronic monitoring data on compliance revealed taking, dosing and timing compliance between 45 and 52% in study...... to be effective in improving patient compliance to some extent, but the combined effect has not been documented. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of an electronic reminder and monitoring device on patient compliance and BP control. METHODS: All patients received medical treatment with telmisartan once daily...... and were randomized to either electronic compliance monitoring with a reminder and monitoring device or standard therapy for 6 months. Both groups were crossed over after 6 months. Intervention effectiveness was assessed using self-reported compliance and BP. RESULTS: Data from 398 patients were analysed...

  5. Glucose concentration in capillary blood of dairy cows obtained by a minimally invasive lancet technique and determined with three different hand-held devices

    OpenAIRE

    Mair, B.; Drillich, M.; Klein-J?bstl, D.; Kanz, P.; Borchardt, S.; Meyer, L.; Schwendenwein, I.; Iwersen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dairy cows have a massive demand for glucose at the onset of lactation. A poor adaption to this period leads to an excessive negative energy balance with an increased risk for ketosis and impaired animal health and production. Besides the measurement of ketones, analysing the glucose concentration in blood is reported as helpful instrument for diagnosis and differentiation of ketosis. Monitoring metabolic parameters requires multiple blood sampling. In other species, new blood samp...

  6. Devices for Self-Monitoring Sedentary Time or Physical Activity: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James P; Loveday, Adam; Pearson, Natalie; Edwardson, Charlotte; Yates, Thomas; Biddle, Stuart J H; Esliger, Dale W

    2016-05-04

    It is well documented that meeting the guideline levels (150 minutes per week) of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA) is protective against chronic disease. Conversely, emerging evidence indicates the deleterious effects of prolonged sitting. Therefore, there is a need to change both behaviors. Self-monitoring of behavior is one of the most robust behavior-change techniques available. The growing number of technologies in the consumer electronics sector provides a unique opportunity for individuals to self-monitor their behavior. The aim of this study is to review the characteristics and measurement properties of currently available self-monitoring devices for sedentary time and/or PA. To identify technologies, four scientific databases were systematically searched using key terms related to behavior, measurement, and population. Articles published through October 2015 were identified. To identify technologies from the consumer electronic sector, systematic searches of three Internet search engines were also performed through to October 1, 2015. The initial database searches identified 46 devices and the Internet search engines identified 100 devices yielding a total of 146 technologies. Of these, 64 were further removed because they were currently unavailable for purchase or there was no evidence that they were designed for, had been used in, or could readily be modified for self-monitoring purposes. The remaining 82 technologies were included in this review (73 devices self-monitored PA, 9 devices self-monitored sedentary time). Of the 82 devices included, this review identified no published articles in which these devices were used for the purpose of self-monitoring PA and/or sedentary behavior; however, a number of technologies were found via Internet searches that matched the criteria for self-monitoring and provided immediate feedback on PA (ActiGraph Link, Microsoft Band, and Garmin Vivofit) and sedentary time (activPAL VT, the Lumo Back, and Darma

  7. System Accuracy Evaluation of Four Systems for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Following ISO 15197 Using a Glucose Oxidase and a Hexokinase-Based Comparison Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Manuela; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Baumstark, Annette; Rittmeyer, Delia; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2015-04-14

    The standard ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 15197 is widely accepted for the accuracy evaluation of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Accuracy evaluation was performed for 4 SMBG systems (Accu-Chek Aviva, ContourXT, GlucoCheck XL, GlucoMen LX PLUS) with 3 test strip lots each. To investigate a possible impact of the comparison method on system accuracy data, 2 different established methods were used. The evaluation was performed in a standardized manner following test procedures described in ISO 15197:2003 (section 7.3). System accuracy was assessed by applying ISO 15197:2003 and in addition ISO 15197:2013 criteria (section 6.3.3). For each system, comparison measurements were performed with a glucose oxidase (YSI 2300 STAT Plus glucose analyzer) and a hexokinase (cobas c111) method. All 4 systems fulfilled the accuracy requirements of ISO 15197:2003 with the tested lots. More stringent accuracy criteria of ISO 15197:2013 were fulfilled by 3 systems (Accu-Chek Aviva, ContourXT, GlucoMen LX PLUS) when compared to the manufacturer's comparison method and by 2 systems (Accu-Chek Aviva, ContourXT) when compared to the alternative comparison method. All systems showed lot-to-lot variability to a certain degree; 2 systems (Accu-Chek Aviva, ContourXT), however, showed only minimal differences in relative bias between the 3 evaluated lots. In this study, all 4 systems complied with the evaluated test strip lots with accuracy criteria of ISO 15197:2003. Applying ISO 15197:2013 accuracy limits, differences in the accuracy of the tested systems were observed, also demonstrating that the applied comparison method/system and the lot-to-lot variability can have a decisive influence on accuracy data obtained for a SMBG system. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  8. Device for contamination monitoring against radiation contamination of people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rische, U.W.; Gerlach, R.

    1986-01-01

    The monitor has only two detector columns at an angle to one another and possibly divided in height, whose detectors are divided in the vertical direction in a middle range depending on a reference shape. The units formed by the subdivision equal the effect produced by the subdivision in approximation to the reference shape in evaluation. By including the detector columns divided into several detectors in height, a detector of about half the width is produced at a level above the threshold. Underarm boxes are provided at the outer edge of this detector, which are directed obliquely upwards. (orig./HP) [de

  9. 78 FR 28733 - Medical Devices; General Hospital and Personal Use Monitoring Devices; Classification of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... through intrabody communication to an external recorder which records the date and time of ingestion as... prior to marketing the device, which contains information about the ingestible event marker they intend... environment. Therefore, neither an environmental assessment nor an environmental impact statement is required...

  10. Validation of a new imaging device for telemedical ulcer monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Benjamin Schnack; Frøkjær, Johnny; Bisgaard Jørgensen, Line

    2015-01-01

    between the new portable camera and the iPhone images vs. clinical assessment as the 'gold standard'. The study included 36 foot ulcers. Four specialists rated the ulcers and filled out a questionnaire, which formed the basis of the evaluation. RESULTS: We found fair to very good intra-rater agreement...... for the new PID and iPhone, respectively. The gold standard was evaluated by assessing the ulcer twice by two different specialists. Kappa values were moderate to very good with respect to inter-rater agreement except for two variables. The agreement between standard and new equipment compared to the gold......PURPOSE: To clarify whether a new portable imaging device (PID) providing 3D images for telemedical use constitutes a more correct expression of the clinical situation compared to standard telemedical equipment in this case iPhone 4s. METHOD: We investigated intra- and interindividual variability...

  11. Monitoring device for the stability of a reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Mikio; Yamauchi, Koki.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To avoid unnecessary limitation on the operation conditions for maintaining the reactor stability. Constitution: The reactor stability is judged by taking notice of the axial power distribution of the reactor and monitoring the same online. Specifically, signals are received from a plurality of local power distribution detectors arranged axially in the reactor core to calculate the axial power distribution in computer. Further, a certain distance L is set from the lower end of the reactor core and the total value S1 for the power distribution in the region below the set value L and the total value S2 for the region above the set value L are determined based on the thus calculated power distribution, to thereby determine the ratio: R = S1/S2 between them. Separately, a certain value r is previously determined based on analysis or experiment such as the result of operation. Then, R and r are compared in a comparator and an alarm is generated, if R >r, with respect to the stability. Since monitoring is made based on the actual index, the applicable range of the operation region can be extended. (Ikeda, J.)

  12. Monitoring arterio-venous differences of glucose and lactate in the anesthetized rat with or without brain damage with ultrafiltration and biosensor technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegsma-Vogt, G; Venema, K; Postema, F; Korf, J

    2001-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of arterio-venous glucose and lactate differences may serve as a diagnostic tool to assess normal brain function and brain pathology. We describe a method and some results obtained with arterio-venous measurements of glucose and lactate in the blood of the

  13. Comparative analisis of the dynamics of glycemia using continuos glucose monitoring during on-pump or off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zelikovna Golukhova

    2016-01-01

    Given the lack of significant differences between the laboratory glucose rates, data from CGM System Gold and OneTouch Ultra demonstrated that continuous glucose monitoring can reliably assess the presence or absence of metabolic changes in the perioperative period and thus reduce the likelihood of complications.

  14. Perspectives of patients with type 1 or insulintreated type 2 diabetes on self-monitoring of blood glucose : a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortensius, Johanna; Kars, Marijke C.; Wierenga, Willem S.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Bilo, Henk J. G.; van der Bijl, Jaap J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), including self-regulation, is an important tool to achieve good glycemic control. However, many patients measure their glucose concentrations less often than is recommended. This study investigates patients' perspectives of SMBG and all relevant

  15. Factors associated to adherence to blood glucose self-monitoring in patients with diabetes treated with insulin. The dapa study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Florc, Mercè; Jansà Morató, Margarita; Galindo Rubio, Mercedes; Penalba Martínez, Maite

    2018-02-01

    To assess adherence to self-monitoring of blood glucose and the main factors associated with it, particularly those related to self-perception of glycemia, in patients with diabetes on insulin therapy. An epidemiological, observational, prospective, multicenter study conducted in standard clinical practice in primary care, outpatient centers, and hospitals from different Spanish regions. Sociodemographic, clinical and treatment data were collected. Patients were considered adherent to self-monitoring if they performed the minimum number of controls recommended by the Spanish Society of Diabetes (SED). Adherence was shown in 61.6% of patients. Factors associated to adherence included treatment with less than three insulin injections daily (OR 2.678; 95% CI 2.048- 3.5029; p <0.001), presence of peripheral vascular disease (OR 1.529; 95% CI 1.077 - 2.171; p=0.018), alcohol abstinence (OR 1.442; 95% CI 1.118 - 1.858; p=0.005), and collection of the glucose test strips from the pharmacy (OR 1.275; 95% CI 1.026 - 1.584; p=0.028). Adequate self-perception of glycemia was found in 21.4% of patients. Our results show a suboptimal adherence to the recommended protocol for blood glucose self-monitoring in patients with diabetes on insulin therapy. Independent variables associated to good adherence were treatment with less than three insulin injections dailyu, presence of peripheral vascular disease, alcohol abstinence, and collection of glucose test strips from the pharmacy. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Can validated wrist devices with position sensors replace arm devices for self-home blood pressure monitoring? A randomized crossover trial using ambulatory monitoring as reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, George S; Christodoulakis, George R; Nasothimiou, Efthimia G; Giovas, Periklis P; Kalogeropoulos, Petros G

    2008-07-01

    Electronic devices that measure blood pressure (BP) at the arm level are regarded as more accurate than wrist devices and are preferred for home BP (HBP) monitoring. Recently, wrist devices with position sensors have been successfully validated using established protocols. This study assessed whether HBP values measured with validated wrist devices are sufficiently reliable to be used for making patient-related decisions in clinical practice. This randomized crossover study compared HBP measurements taken using validated wrist devices (wrist-HBP, Omron R7 with position sensor) with those taken using arm devices (arm-HBP, Omron 705IT), and also with measurements of awake ambulatory BP (ABP, SpaceLabs), in 79 subjects (36 men and 43 women) with hypertension. The mean age of the study population was 56.7 +/- 11.8 years, and 33 of the subjects were not under treatment for hypertension. The average arm-HBP was higher than the average wrist-HBP (mean difference, systolic 5.2 +/- 9.1 mm Hg, P or =10 mm Hg difference between systolic wrist-HBP and arm-HBP and twelve subjects (15%) showed similar levels of disparity in diastolic HBP readings. Strong correlations were found between arm-HBP and wrist-HBP (r 0.74/0.74, systolic/diastolic, P arm-HBP (r 0.73/0.76) than with wrist-HBP (0.55/0.69). The wrist-arm HBP difference was associated with systolic ABP (r 0.34) and pulse pressure (r 0.29), but not with diastolic ABP, sex, age, arm circumference, and wrist circumference. There might be important differences in HBP measured using validated wrist devices with position sensor vs. arm devices, and these could impact decisions relating to the patient in clinical practice. Measurements taken using arm devices are more closely related to ABP values than those recorded by wrist devices. More research is needed before recommending the widespread use of wrist monitors in clinical practice. American Journal of Hypertension doi:10.1038/ajh.2008.176American Journal of Hypertension (2008

  17. Inspection frequency required to monitor measurement, recording, or surveillance devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaech, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A problem encountered recently is identical from a mathematical viewpoint to certain types of problems encountered in nuclear materials safeguards. The general form of the solution to the problem in question is therefore of interest in safeguards applications. The specific problem which prompted the investigation is stated as follows. An automatic recording instrument is used in atmospheric monitoring. It is subject to randomly occurring breakdown. The question is, what should be the time interval between the routine checks to provide a specified probability that the recording instrument is functioning properly for at least a given percentage of the time over a specified interval of time. The stated problem is solved in general terms. An application is then made to the specific problem that prompted the study. Applications to specific safeguards problems are left to the reader. 4 refs

  18. Physical Fault Injection and Monitoring Methods for Programmable Devices

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00510096; Ferencei, Jozef

    A method of detecting faults for evaluating the fault cross section of any field programmable gate array (FPGA) was developed and is described in the thesis. The incidence of single event effects in FPGAs was studied for different probe particles (proton, neutron, gamma) using this method. The existing accelerator infrastructure of the Nuclear Physics Institute in Rez was supplemented by more sensitive beam monitoring system to ensure that the tests are done under well defined beam conditions. The bit cross section of single event effects was measured for different types of configuration memories, clock signal phase and beam energies and intensities. The extended infrastructure served also for radiation testing of components which are planned to be used in the new Inner Tracking System (ITS) detector of the ALICE experiment and for selecting optimal fault mitigation techniques used for securing the design of the FPGA-based ITS readout unit against faults induced by ionizing radiation.

  19. A Novel Wireless Wearable Volatile Organic Compound (VOC Monitoring Device with Disposable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Deng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel portable wireless volatile organic compound (VOC monitoring device with disposable sensors is presented. The device is miniaturized, light, easy-to-use, and cost-effective. Different field tests have been carried out to identify the operational, analytical, and functional performance of the device and its sensors. The device was compared to a commercial photo-ionization detector, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and carbon monoxide detector. In addition, environmental operational conditions, such as barometric change, temperature change and wind conditions were also tested to evaluate the device performance. The multiple comparisons and tests indicate that the proposed VOC device is adequate to characterize personal exposure in many real-world scenarios and is applicable for personal daily use.

  20. Use of Low-Cost Acquisition Systems with an Embedded Linux Device for Volcanic Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moure, David; Torres, Pedro; Casas, Benito; Toma, Daniel; Blanco, María José; Del Río, Joaquín; Manuel, Antoni

    2015-08-19

    This paper describes the development of a low-cost multiparameter acquisition system for volcanic monitoring that is applicable to gravimetry and geodesy, as well as to the visual monitoring of volcanic activity. The acquisition system was developed using a System on a Chip (SoC) Broadcom BCM2835 Linux operating system (based on DebianTM) that allows for the construction of a complete monitoring system offering multiple possibilities for storage, data-processing, configuration, and the real-time monitoring of volcanic activity. This multiparametric acquisition system was developed with a software environment, as well as with different hardware modules designed for each parameter to be monitored. The device presented here has been used and validated under different scenarios for monitoring ocean tides, ground deformation, and gravity, as well as for monitoring with images the island of Tenerife and ground deformation on the island of El Hierro.

  1. Electronic adherence monitoring device performance and patient acceptability: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Amy Hai Yan; Stewart, Alistair William; Harrison, Jeff; Black, Peter Nigel; Mitchell, Edwin Arthur; Foster, Juliet Michelle

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the performance and patient acceptability of an inhaler electronic monitoring device in a real-world childhood asthma population. Children 6 to 15 years presenting with asthma to the hospital emergency department and prescribed inhaled corticosteroids were included. Participants were randomized to receive a device with reminder features enabled or disabled for use with their preventer. Device quality control tests were conducted. Questionnaires on device acceptability, utility and ergonomics were completed at six months. A total of 1306 quality control tests were conducted; 84% passed pre-issue and 87% return testing. The most common failure reason was actuation under-recording. Acceptability scores were high, with higher scores in the reminder than non-reminder group (median, 5 th -95 th percentile: 4.1, 3.1-5.0 versus 3.7, 2.3-4.8; p 90%) rated the device easy to use. Feedback was positive across five themes: device acceptability, ringtone acceptability, suggestions for improvement, effect on medication use, and effect on asthma control. This study investigates electronic monitoring device performance and acceptability in children using quantitative and qualitative measures. Results indicate satisfactory reliability, although failure rates of 13-16% indicate the importance of quality control. Favorable acceptability ratings support the use of these devices in children.

  2. A Novel Pseudo-PMOS Integrated ISFET Device for Water Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Whig

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a performance analysis of novel CMOS Integrated pseudo-PMOS ISFET (PP-ISFET having zero static power dissipation. The main focus is on simulation of power and performance analysis along with the comparison with existing devices, which is used for water quality monitoring. The conventional devices, generally used, consume high power and are not stable for long term monitoring. The conventional device has the drawbacks of low value of slew rate, high power consumption, and nonlinear characteristics, but in this novel design, due to zero static power, less load capacitance on input signals, faster switching, fewer transistors, and higher circuit density, the device exhibits a better slew rate and piecewise linear characteristics and is seen consuming low power of the order of 30 mW. The proposed circuit reduces total power consumption per cycle, increases the speed of operation, is fairly linear, and is simple to implement.

  3. Remote monitoring of implantable cardiac devices: current state and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeshan, Raj; Enriquez, Alan D; Freeman, James V

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated substantial benefits associated with remote monitoring of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs), and treatment guidelines have endorsed the use of remote monitoring. Familiarity with the features of remote monitoring systems and the data supporting its use are vital for physicians' care for patients with CEIDs. Remote monitoring remains underutilized, but its use is expanding including in new practice settings including emergency departments. Patient experience and outcomes are positive, with earlier detection of clinical events such as atrial fibrillation, reductions in inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks and potentially a decrease in mortality with frequent remote monitoring utilizaiton. Rates of hospitalization are reduced among remote monitoring users, and the replacement of outpatient follow-up visits with remote monitoring transmissions has been shown to be well tolerated. In addition, health resource utilization is lower and remote monitoring has been associated with considerable cost savings. A dose relationship exists between use of remote monitoring and patient outcomes, and those with early and high transmission rates have superior outcomes. Remote monitoring provides clinicians with the ability to provide comprehensive follow-up care for patients with CIEDs. Patient outcomes are improved, and resource utilization is decreased with appropriate use of remote monitoring. Future efforts must focus on improving the utilization and efficiency of remote monitoring.

  4. The "Haptic Finger"- a new device for monitoring skin condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mami; Lévêque, Jean Luc; Tagami, Hachiro; Kikuchi, Katsuko; Chonan, Seifi

    2003-05-01

    Touching the skin is of great importance for the Clinician for assessing roughness, softness, firmness, etc. This type of clinical assessment is very subjective and therefore non-reproducible from one Clinician to another one or even from time to time for the same Clinician. In order to objectively monitor skin texture, we developed a new sensor, placed directly on the Clinician's finger, which generate some electric signal when slid over the skin surface. The base of this Haptic Finger sensor is a thin stainless steel plate on which sponge rubber, PVDF foil, acetate film and gauze are layered. The signal generated by the sensor was filtered and digitally stored before processing. In a first in vitro experiment, the sensor was moved over different skin models (sponge rubber covered by silicon rubber) of varying hardness and roughness. These experiments allowed the definition of two parameters characterizing textures. The first parameter is variance of the signal processed using wavelet analysis, representing an index of roughness. The second parameter is dispersion of the power spectrum density in the frequency domain, corresponding to hardness. To validate these parameters, the Haptic Finger was used to scan skin surfaces of 30 people, 14 of whom displayed a skin disorder: xerosis (n = 5), atopic dermatitis (n = 7), and psoriasis (n = 2). The results obtained by means of the sensor were compared with subjective, clinical evaluations by a Clinician who scored both roughness and hardness of the skin. Good agreement was observed between clinical assessment of the skin and the two parameters generated using the Haptic Finger. Use of this sensor could prove extremely valuable in cosmetic research where skin surface texture (in terms of tactile properties) is difficult to measure.

  5. Upgrade of of monitoring devices for radiation information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Won Man; Kim, Jung Soo; Lee, Bong Jae; Jae Yoo Kyung

    1999-01-01

    The Radiation Monitoring System (RMS) in Hanaro of KAERI and NPPs of Korea, supplied by victoreen, sometimes has been stopped to use slow 486 PC (Personal computer) and not to be enough memory in main processing computer, IOCA and IOCB, for signal processing and storing. It is very difficult for operator to operate and maintain RMS, because of using an unfamiliar operating system, SCO Unix, of main computer. And also, ScanRad (TM) program for processing and storing radiation signal has Y2K problems and is able to lose and not to display measuring signals. Therefore it needs to upgrade the computer system in RMS. This study is upgrading the main computer, IOCA, in RMS of Hanaro to Pentium PC, and changing operating System to Window NT-based system. Therefore it needs to upgrade the computer system in RMS. This study is upgrading the main computer, IOCA, in RMS of Hanaro to Pentium PC, and changing Operating System to Window NT-based system. Therefore a performance of the computer system in RMS has been upgraded for operator to be useful. This study is going two steps. First, the main computer, IOCA a part of the whole computer system has been upgraded to Pentium PC, and changed to Window NT-based system. Second, all of the computer system in Hanaro RMS is going to be upgraded. This study has got the following results: a RS-232C serial communication program: between the upgraded IOCA and LCU (Local Control Unit) -- a serial communication test configurating two LCU serial --a parallel communication test configurating two LCU parallel: GUI program to present a radioactive information -- overview schematic display page -- detail display pages -- alarm and event pages -- trend pages and group trend pages.

  6. Upgrade of of monitoring devices for radiation information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Won Man; Kim, Jung Soo; Lee, Bong Jae; Jae Yoo Kyung

    1999-01-01

    The Radiation Monitoring System (RMS) in Hanaro of KAERI and NPPs of Korea, supplied by victoreen, sometimes has been stopped to use slow 486 PC (Personal computer) and not to be enough memory in main processing computer, IOCA and IOCB, for signal processing and storing. It is very difficult for operator to operate and maintain RMS, because of using an unfamiliar operating system, SCO Unix, of main computer. And also, ScanRad (TM) program for processing and storing radiation signal has Y2K problems and is able to lose and not to display measuring signals. Therefore it needs to upgrade the computer system in RMS. This study is upgrading the main computer, IOCA, in RMS of Hanaro to Pentium PC, and changing operating System to Window NT-based system. Therefore it needs to upgrade the computer system in RMS. This study is upgrading the main computer, IOCA, in RMS of Hanaro to Pentium PC, and changing Operating System to Window NT-based system. Therefore a performance of the computer system in RMS has been upgraded for operator to be useful. This study is going two steps. First, the main computer, IOCA a part of the whole computer system has been upgraded to Pentium PC, and changed to Window NT-based system. Second, all of the computer system in Hanaro RMS is going to be upgraded. This study has got the following results: a RS-232C serial communication program: between the upgraded IOCA and LCU (Local Control Unit) -- a serial communication test configurating two LCU serial --a parallel communication test configurating two LCU parallel: GUI program to present a radioactive information -- overview schematic display page -- detail display pages -- alarm and event pages -- trend pages and group trend pages

  7. An intelligent stand-alone ultrasonic device for monitoring local structural damage: implementation and preliminary experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsch, Alexander; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Wang, Yang; Jacobs, Laurence J

    2011-01-01

    Continuous structural health monitoring has the potential to significantly improve the safety management of aged, in-service civil structures. In particular, monitoring of local damage growth at hot-spot areas can help to prevent disastrous structural failures. Although ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) has proved to be effective in monitoring local damage growth, conventional equipment and devices are usually bulky and only suitable for scheduled human inspections. The objective of this research is to harness the latest developments in embedded hardware and wireless communication for developing a stand-alone, compact ultrasonic device. The device is directed at the continuous structural health monitoring of civil structures. Relying on battery power, the device possesses the functionalities of high-speed actuation, sensing, signal processing, and wireless communication. Integrated with contact ultrasonic transducers, the device can generate 1 MHz Rayleigh surface waves in a steel specimen and measure response waves. An envelope detection algorithm based on the Hilbert transform is presented for efficiently determining the peak values of the response signals, from which small surface cracks are successfully identified

  8. A programmable point-of-care device for external CSF drainage and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkins, Jeffrey R; Subbian, Vignesh; Beyette, Fred R

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype of a programmable cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) external drainage system that can accurately measure the dispensed fluid volume. It is based on using a miniature spectrophotometer to collect color data to inform drain rate and pressure monitoring. The prototype was machined with 1 μm dimensional accuracy. The current device can reliably monitor the total accumulated fluid volume, the drain rate, the programmed pressure, and the pressure read from the sensor. Device requirements, fabrication processes, and preliminary results with an experimental set-up are also presented.

  9. A portable ECG monitoring device with Bluetooth and Holter capabilities for telemedicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucani, Daniel; Cataldo, Giancarlos; Cruz, Julio; Villegas, Guillermo; Wong, Sara

    2006-01-01

    A prototype of a portable ECG-monitoring device has been developed for clinical and non-clinical environments as part of a telemedicine system to provide remote and continuous surveillance of patients. The device can acquire, store and/or transmit ECG signals to computer-based platforms or specially configured access points (AP) with Intranet/Internet capabilities in order to reach remote monitoring stations. Acquired data can be stored in a flash memory card in FAT16 format for later recovery, or transmitted via Bluetooth or USB to a local station or AP. This data acquisition module (DAM) operates in two modes: Holter and on-line transmission.

  10. Association of glycaemic variability evaluated by continuous glucose monitoring with diabetic peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-Ming; Zhao, Li-Hua; Zhang, Xiu-Lin; Cai, Hong-Li; Huang, Hai-Yan; Xu, Feng; Chen, Tong; Wang, Xue-Qin; Guo, Ai-Song; Li, Jian-An; Su, Jian-Bin

    2018-05-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), a common microvascular complication of diabetes, is linked to glycaemic derangements. Glycaemic variability, as a pattern of glycaemic derangements, is a key risk factor for diabetic complications. We investigated the association of glycaemic variability with DPN in a large-scale sample of type 2 diabetic patients. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 982 type 2 diabetic patients who were screened for DPN and monitored by a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system between February 2011 and January 2017. Multiple glycaemic variability parameters, including the mean amplitude of glycaemic excursions (MAGE), mean of daily differences (MODD), standard deviation of glucose (SD), and 24-h mean glucose (24-h MG), were calculated from glucose profiles obtained from CGM. Other possible risks for DPN were also examined. Of the recruited type 2 diabetic patients, 20.1% (n = 197) presented with DPN, and these patients also had a higher MAGE, MODD, SD, and 24-h MG than patients without DPN (p diabetic duration, HOMA-IR, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were found to be independent contributors to DPN, and the corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 4.57 (3.48-6.01), 1.10 (1.03-1.17), 1.24 (1.09-1.41), and 1.33 (1.15-1.53), respectively. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that the optimal MAGE cutoff value for predicting DPN was 4.60 mmol/L; the corresponding sensitivity was 64.47%, and the specificity was 75.54%. In addition to conventional risks including diabetic duration, HOMA-IR and HbA1c, increased glycaemic variability assessed by MAGE is a significant independent contributor to DPN in type 2 diabetic patients.

  11. Association between the extent of urinary albumin excretion and glycaemic variability indices measured by continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S-M; Kim, T-H; Oh, S; Baek, J; Joung, J Y; Park, S-M; Cho, Y Y; Sohn, S Y; Hur, K Y; Lee, M-S; Lee, M-K; Kim, J H

    2015-02-01

    The contribution of glycaemic variability to the microvascular complication of diabetes has not been established. We examined whether there is an independent association between indices of glycaemic variability in continuous glucose monitoring and extent of albuminuria. A total of 173 patients with Type 2 diabetes (without insulin therapy, n = 96; with insulin therapy, n = 77) who had unexplained large fluctuations in blood glucose values underwent three-day continuous glucose monitoring. We used a multinomial logistic regression model to determine whether the indices of glycaemic variability independently affected the odds of having a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio of 30-299 mg/g and ≥ 300 mg/g. Higher standard deviation (P = 0.002), mean of daily differences (P = 0.023) and mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (P = 0.043) significantly increased the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of ≥ 300 mg/g. In multivariable analysis, only higher standard deviation, but not mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion and mean of daily differences, independently increased the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of ≥ 300 mg/g (P = 0.025). Coefficient of variation (sd/mean) was not associated with the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of 30-299 or ≥ 300 mg/g. The independent association between standard deviation and the extent of albuminuria was lost when the measures were normalized by mean glucose level. At least in terms of relative measures of glycaemic variability, we failed to demonstrate an independent association between glycaemic variability and albuminuria extent in patients with inadequately controlled Type 2 diabetes. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  12. 76 FR 36539 - Scientific Information Request on Insulin Delivery and Glucose Monitoring Devices for Diabetes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes. The population for this review will include patients with type 1... following changes to the KQs: 1. We will not include pregnant women with gestational diabetes in the review... interest are summarized below in Table 1.) Do these effects differ by: a. Type 1 or type 2 diabetes status...

  13. Monitoring of biofilm formation on different material surfaces of medical devices using hyperspectral imaging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hyun; Kim, Moon S.; Hwang, Jeeseong

    2012-03-01

    Contamination of the inner surface of indwelling (implanted) medical devices by microbial biofilm is a serious problem. Some microbial bacteria such as Escherichia coli form biofilms that lead to potentially lifethreatening infections. Other types of medical devices such as bronchoscopes and duodenoscopes account for the highest number of reported endoscopic infections where microbial biofilm is one of the major causes for these infections. We applied a hyperspectral imaging method to detect biofilm contamination on the surface of several common materials used for medical devices. Such materials include stainless steel, titanium, and stainless-steeltitanium alloy. Potential uses of hyperspectral imaging technique to monitor biofilm attachment to different material surfaces are discussed.

  14. Accuracy of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Measurements in Normo-Glycemic Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akintola, Abimbola A; Noordam, Raymond; Jansen, Steffy W

    2015-01-01

    a 24-hour period. Validity of CGM-derived individual glucose measurements, calculated measures of glycemia over daytime (09:00h-23:00h) and nighttime (23:00h-09:00h), and calculated measures of glycemic variability (e.g. 24h standard deviation [SD]) were assessed by Pearson correlation coefficients......, mean absolute relative difference (MARD) and paired t-tests. RESULTS: The median correlation coefficient between CGM and venous glucose measurements per participant was 0.68 (interquartile range: 0.40-0.78), and the MARD was 17.6% (SD = 17%). Compared with venous sampling, the calculated measure...

  15. Distributed Smart Device for Monitoring, Control and Management of Electric Loads in Domotic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Perez-Vidal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a microdevice for monitoring, control and management of electric loads at home. The key idea is to compact the electronic design as much as possible in order to install it inside a Schuko socket. Moreover, the electronic Schuko socket (electronic microdevice + Schuko socket has the feature of communicating with a central unit and with other microdevices over the existing powerlines. Using the existing power lines, the proposed device can be installed in new buildings or in old ones. The main use of this device is to monitor, control and manage electric loads to save energy and prevent accidents produced by different kind of devices (e.g., iron used in domestic tasks. The developed smart device is based on a single phase multifunction energy meter manufactured by Analog Devices (ADE7753 to measure the consumption of electrical energy and thento transmit it using a serial interface. To provide current measurement information to the ADE7753, an ultra flat SMD open loop integrated circuit current transducer based on the Hall effect principle manufactured by Lem (FHS-40P/SP600 has been used. Moreover, each smart device has a PL-3120 smart transceiver manufactured by LonWorks to execute the user’s program, to communicate with the ADE7753 via serial interface and to transmit information to the central unit via powerline communication. Experimental results show the exactitude of the measurements made using the developed smart device.

  16. Distributed smart device for monitoring, control and management of electric loads in domotic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Ricardo; Badesa, Francisco J; García-Aracil, Nicolas; Perez-Vidal, Carlos; Sabater, Jose María

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a microdevice for monitoring, control and management of electric loads at home. The key idea is to compact the electronic design as much as possible in order to install it inside a Schuko socket. Moreover, the electronic Schuko socket (electronic microdevice + Schuko socket) has the feature of communicating with a central unit and with other microdevices over the existing powerlines. Using the existing power lines, the proposed device can be installed in new buildings or in old ones. The main use of this device is to monitor, control and manage electric loads to save energy and prevent accidents produced by different kind of devices (e.g., iron) used in domestic tasks. The developed smart device is based on a single phase multifunction energy meter manufactured by Analog Devices (ADE7753) to measure the consumption of electrical energy and then to transmit it using a serial interface. To provide current measurement information to the ADE7753, an ultra flat SMD open loop integrated circuit current transducer based on the Hall effect principle manufactured by Lem (FHS-40P/SP600) has been used. Moreover, each smart device has a PL-3120 smart transceiver manufactured by LonWorks to execute the user's program, to communicate with the ADE7753 via serial interface and to transmit information to the central unit via powerline communication. Experimental results show the exactitude of the measurements made using the developed smart device.

  17. Review of passive accumulation devices for monitoring organic micropollutants in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuer-Lauridsen, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 15 years passive sampling devices have been developed that accumulate organic micropollutants and allow detection at ambient sub ng/l concentrations. Most passive accumulation devices (PADs) are designed for 1-4 weeks field deployment, where uptake is governed by linear first order kinetics providing a time weighted average of the exposure concentration. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) are the most comprehensively studied PADs, but other samplers may also be considered for aquatic monitoring purposes. The applicability of the PADs is reviewed with respect to commonly monitored aqueous matrices and compounds, the detection limits, and for use in quantitative monitoring related to requirements embedded in the EU Water Framework Directive, the US and EU Water Quality Criteria, and the Danish monitoring aquatic programme. The PADs may monitor >75% of the organic micropollutants of the programmes. Research is warranted regarding the uptake in PADs in low flow environments and for the development of samplers for polar organic compounds. - Major developments in the passive sampling of organic contaminants in aquatic environments will support future monitoring, compliance and research

  18. Seventy two-hour glucose monitoring profiles in mild gestational diabetes mellitus: differences from healthy pregnancies and influence of diet counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiro, Marina Pimenta; Lauria, Márcio W; Naves, Gabriel Nino T; Miranda, Paulo Augusto C; Leite, Ricardo Barsaglini; Rajão, Kamilla Maria Araújo Brandão; de Aguiar, Regina Amélia Lopes Pessoa; Nogueira, Anelise Impeliziere; Ribeiro-Oliveira, Antônio

    2016-09-01

    To study glucose profiles of gestational diabetes (GDM) patients with 72 h of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) either before (GDM1) or after (GDM2) dietary counseling, comparing them with nondiabetic (NDM) controls. We performed CGM on 22 GDM patients; 11 before and 11 after dietary counseling and compared them to 11 healthy controls. Several physiological and clinical characteristics of the glucose profiles were compared across the groups, including comparisons for pooled 24-h measures and hourly median values, summary measures representing glucose exposure (area under the median curves) and variability (amplitude, standard deviation, interquartile range), and time points related to meals. Most women (81.8%) in the GDM groups had fasting glucose 0.05). Both GDM groups spent more time with glucose levels above 140mg/dL when compared with the NDM group. No differences among the groups were found for: pooled measurements and hourly comparisons, exposure, nocturnal, fasting, between lunch and dinner and before meals, as well as after lunch (P>0.05 for all). The main differences between the mild GDM1 group and healthy controls were related to glucose variability and excursions above 140mg/dL, while glucose exposure was similar. Glucose levels after breakfast and dinner also discerned the GDM1 group. Dietary counseling was able to keep glucose levels to those of healthy patients. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  19. Mobile devices for community-based REDD+ monitoring: a case study for Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Herold, Martin; Avitabile, Valerio; de Bruin, Sytze; Bartholomeus, Harm; Souza, Carlos M; Ribbe, Lars

    2012-12-20

    Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands properties with respect to reference data, adopting the current REDD+ requirements for implementing monitoring at national levels is a challenging task. Recently, the advancement in Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and mobile devices has enabled local communities to monitor their forest in a basic resource setting such as no or slow internet connection link, limited power supply, etc. Despite the potential, the use of mobile device system for community based monitoring (CBM) is still exceptional and faces implementation challenges. This paper presents an integrated data collection system based on mobile devices that streamlines the community-based forest monitoring data collection, transmission and visualization process. This paper also assesses the accuracy and reliability of CBM data and proposes a way to fit them into national REDD+ Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) scheme. The system performance is evaluated at Tra Bui commune, Quang Nam province, Central Vietnam, where forest carbon and change activities were tracked. The results show that the local community is able to provide data with accuracy comparable to expert measurements (index of agreement greater than 0.88), but against lower costs. Furthermore, the results confirm that communities are more effective to monitor small scale forest degradation due to subsistence fuel wood collection and selective logging, than high resolution remote sensing SPOT imagery.

  20. A low perfusion rate microreactor for the continous monitoring of enzyme characteristics: applications for glucose oxidase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Venema, K.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Korf, J.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes a versatile and robust microreactor for bioactive proteins physically immobilized on a polyether sulfone filter. The potential of the reactor is illustrated with glucose oxidase immobilized on a filter with a cut-off value of 30 kDa. A flow-injection system was used to deliver

  1. A low perfusion rate microreactor for continuous monitoring of enzyme characteristics : application to glucose oxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G. A.; Venema, K.; van Berkel, W. J. H.; Korf, J.

    This report describes a versatile and robust microreactor for bioactive proteins physically immobilized on a polyether sulfone filter. The potential of the reactor is illustrated with glucose oxidase immobilized on a filter with a cut-off value of 30 kDa. A flow-injection system was used to deliver

  2. Comparison of Three Nonlinear Filters for Fault Detection in Continuous Glucose Monitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmoudi, Zeinab; Wendt, Sabrina Lyngbye; Boiroux, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    model of the glucose-insulin dynamics in people with type 1 diabetes. Drift is modelled by a Gaussian random walk and is detected based on the statistical tests of the 90-min prediction residuals of the filters. The unscented Kalman filter had the highest average F score of 85.9%, and the smallest...

  3. Blood Glucose Monitoring as a Teaching Tool for Endocrinology: A New Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moats, Robert K., II

    2009-01-01

    The education of new allied health professionals and nurses in proper endocrine evaluation and care has become critical in recent years, especially considering the greatly increased prevalence of diabetes in adults and children. The evaluation of blood glucose levels in human volunteers over time is a powerful teaching tool for endocrinology that…

  4. Systematic review of economic evaluation studies and budget impact on ambulatory monitoring of capillary glucose in type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; Moya Garrido, María Natividad; Espín Balbino, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Realise a review of studies of economic evaluation about the ambulatory monitoring of capillary glucose (AMGC) in diabetic type II persons. A review of the literature was conducted, in MedLine, various websites, referenced paper and provided by expert's persons. Five studies concluded that the AMGC was a cost-effective strategic, of this papers use Kaiser Permanente data base, its make that these studies could be considered a solely one study. The rest of the papers did not find difference in the AMGC use. The use of AMGC has an uncertainty efficiency. More studies are needed. Copyright © 2013 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of continuous glucose monitoring on quality of life, treatment satisfaction, and use of medical care resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hommel, E; Olsen, B; Battelino, T

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the impact of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), treatment satisfaction (TS) medical resource use, and indirect costs in the SWITCH study. SWITCH was a multicentre, randomized, crossover study. Patients with type 1 diabetes (n = 153) using...... longer during the sensor-On arm. Regarding indirect costs, children with >70 % sensor usage missed fewer school days, compared with the sensor-Off arm (P = 0.0046) but there was no significant difference in the adults days of work off. The addition of CGM to CSII resulted in better metabolic control...

  6. In vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of brain energy substrates with a multiplex amperometric enzyme-based biosensor device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lima Braga Lopes Cordeiro, Carlos; de Vries, M.G.; Ngabi, W; Oomen, P.E.; Cremers, T.I.F.H.; Westerink, B.H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme-based amperometric biosensors are widely used for monitoring key biomarkers. In experimental neuroscience there is a growing interest in in vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of metabolism-related biomarkers, like glucose, lactate and pyruvate. The use of multiplex biosensors will

  7. Hydrothermal encapsulation of VO2(A) nanorods in amorphous carbon by carbonization of glucose for energy storage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiqi; Zhang, Yifu; Wang, Qiushi; Jiang, Hanmei; Liu, Yanyan; Lv, Tianming; Meng, Changgong

    2018-01-02

    In recent decades, tremendous attention has been paid to the development of new electrode materials with high capacitance to meet the requirements of electrode materials in supercapacitors. Among vanadium oxides, VO 2 (A) has recently received increasing attention due to its unique layered structure, phase transformation and applications in Li-ion batteries. However, few studies have focused on the electrochemical properties of VO 2 (A) as electrochemical capacitors. Herein, we develop a facile hydrothermal method to prepare VO 2 (A)@C core-shell structured composites by carbonization of glucose in the presence of V 2 O 5 nanowires. The electrochemical properties of the VO 2 (A)@C core-shell composites are investigated as a supercapacitor electrode material for the first time; the composites show excellent pseudocapacitive behavior and display a specific capacitance as high as 179 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 . A flexible asymmetric supercapacitor device is fabricated using VO 2 (A)@C composites and activated carbon and delivers an excellent capacitance of 0.5 F cm -2 at a scan rate of 5 mV s -1 . Replacing the aqueous electrolyte with a LiCl/PVA gel electrolyte can efficiently improve the cycling performance to 85% retention after 1600 cycles. The good electrochemical performance of the composites indicates their high potential as electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  8. Performance of a new test strip for freestyle blood glucose monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, John Paul; Brazg, Ronald; Bernstein, Robert M; Taylor, Elizabeth; Patel, Mona; Ward, Jeanne; Alva, Shridhara; Chen, Ting; Welsh, Zoë; Amor, Walter; Bhogal, Claire; Ng, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    a new strip, designed to enhance the ease of use and minimize interference of non-glucose sugars, has been developed to replace the current FreeStyle (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) blood glucose test strip. We evaluated the performance of this new strip. laboratory evaluation included precision, linearity, dynamic range, effects of operating temperature, humidity, altitude, hematocrit, interferents, and blood reapplication. System accuracy, lay user performance, and ease of use for finger capillary blood testing and accuracy for venous blood testing were evaluated at clinics. Lay users also compared the speed and ease of use between the new strip and the current FreeStyle strip. for glucose concentrations blood glucose results obtained by lay users fell within ± 5, 10, and 15 mg/dL, respectively, of the reference. For glucose concentrations ≥75 mg/dL, 68%, 95%, 99%, and 99% of the lay user results fell within  ±  5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, respectively, of the reference. Comparable accuracy was obtained in the venous blood study. Lay users found the new test strip easy to use and faster and easier to use than the current FreeStyle strip. The new strip maintained accuracy under various challenging conditions, including high concentrations of various interferents, sample reapplication up to 60 s, and extremes in hematocrit, altitude, and operating temperature and humidity. our results demonstrated excellent accuracy of the new FreeStyle test strip and validated the improvements in minimizing interference and enhancing ease of use.

  9. Use of passive sampling devices for monitoring and compliance checking of POP concentrations in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmann, R.; Booij, K.; Smedes, F.; Vrana, B.

    2012-01-01

    The state of the art of passive water sampling of (nonpolar) organic contaminants is presented. Its suitability for regulatory monitoring is discussed, with an emphasis on the information yielded by passive sampling devices (PSDs), their relevance and associated uncertainties. Almost all persistent

  10. Hematological clozapine monitoring with a point-of-care device: A randomized cross-over trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Thode, Dorrit; Stenager, Elsebeth

    for several reasons, perhaps most importantly because of the mandatory hematological monitoring. The Chempaq Express Blood Counter (Chempaq XBC) is a point-of-care device providing counts of white blood cells (WBC) and granulocytes based on a capillary blood sampling. A randomized cross-over trial design...

  11. A New Device to Automate the Monitoring of Critical Patients’ Urine Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Otero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine output (UO is usually measured manually each hour in acutely ill patients. This task consumes a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, in the literature there is evidence that more frequent (minute-by-minute UO measurement could impact clinical decision making and improve patient outcomes. However, it is not feasible to manually take minute-by-minute UO measurements. A device capable of automatically monitoring UO could save precious time of the healthcare staff and improve patient outcomes through a more precise and continuous monitoring of this parameter. This paper presents a device capable of automatically monitoring UO. It provides minute by minute measures and it can generate alarms that warn of deviations from therapeutic goals. It uses a capacitive sensor for the measurement of the UO collected within a rigid container. When the container is full, it automatically empties without requiring any internal or external power supply or any intervention by the nursing staff. In vitro tests have been conducted to verify the proper operation and accuracy in the measures of the device. These tests confirm the viability of the device to automate the monitoring of UO.

  12. Glycemic load, exercise, and monitoring blood glucose (GEM): A paradigm shift in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel J; Taylor, Ann G; Singh, Harsimran; Moncrief, Matthew; Diamond, Anne; Yancy, William S; Hegde, Shefali; McCall, Anthony L

    2016-01-01

    This preliminary RCT investigated whether an integrated lifestyle modification program that focuses on reducing postprandial blood glucose through replacing high with low glycemic load foods and increasing routine physical activities guided by systematic self-monitoring of blood glucose (GEM) could improve metabolic control of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, without compromising other physiological parameters. Forty-seven adults (mean age 55.3 years) who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus for less than 5 years (mean 2.1 years), had HbA1c ≥ 7% (mean 8.4%) and were not taking blood glucose lowering medications, were randomized to routine care or five 1-h instructional sessions of GEM. Assessments at baseline and 6 months included a physical exam, metabolic and lipid panels, and psychological questionnaires. The GEM intervention led to significant improvements in HbA1c (decreasing from 8.4 to 7.4% [69-57 mmol/mol] compared with 8.3 to 8.3% [68-68 mmol/mol] for routine care; Interaction ptype 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thumb-size ultrasonic-assisted spectroscopic imager for in-situ glucose monitoring as optional sensor of conventional dialyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogo, Kosuke; Mori, Keita; Qi, Wei; Hosono, Satsuki; Kawashima, Natsumi; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2016-03-01

    We proposed the ultrasonic-assisted spectroscopic imaging for the realization of blood-glucose-level monitoring during dialytic therapy. Optical scattering and absorption caused by blood cells deteriorate the detection accuracy of glucose dissolved in plasma. Ultrasonic standing waves can agglomerate blood cells at nodes. In contrast, around anti-node regions, the amount of transmitted light increases because relatively clear plasma appears due to decline the number of blood cells. Proposed method can disperse the transmitted light of plasma without time-consuming pretreatment such as centrifugation. To realize the thumb-size glucose sensor which can be easily attached to dialysis tubes, an ultrasonic standing wave generator and a spectroscopic imager are required to be small. Ultrasonic oscillators are ∅30[mm]. A drive circuit of oscillators, which now size is 41×55×45[mm], is expected to become small. The trial apparatus of proposed one-shot Fourier spectroscopic imager, whose size is 30×30×48[mm], also can be little-finger size in principal. In the experiment, we separated the suspension mixed water and micro spheres (Θ10[mm) into particles and liquid regions with the ultrasonic standing wave (frequency: 2[MHz]). Furthermore, the spectrum of transmitted light through the suspension could be obtained in visible light regions with a white LED.

  14. Development and Validation of a Novel Cuff-Less Blood Pressure Monitoring Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Watanabe, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ordinary cuff-based blood pressure–monitoring devices remain a technical limitation that disturbs activities of daily life. Here we report a novel system for the cuff-less blood pressure estimation (CLB that requires only 1 sensor for photoplethysmography. The present study is the first report to validate and assess the clinical application of the CLB in accordance with the latest wearable device standard (issued by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, standard 1708-2014. Our CLB is expected to offer a flexible and wearable device that permits blood pressure monitoring in more continuous and stress-free settings.

  15. "Periodic-table-style" paper device for monitoring heavy metals in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miaosi; Cao, Rong; Nilghaz, Azadeh; Guan, Liyun; Zhang, Xiwang; Shen, Wei

    2015-03-03

    If a paper-based analytical device (μ-PAD) could be made by printing indicators for detection of heavy metals in chemical symbols of the metals in a style of the periodic table of elements, it could be possible for such μ-PAD to report the presence and the safety level of heavy metal ions in water simultaneously and by text message. This device would be able to provide easy solutions to field-based monitoring of heavy metals in industrial wastewater discharges and in irrigating and drinking water. Text-reporting could promptly inform even nonprofessional users of the water quality. This work presents a proof of concept study of this idea. Cu(II), Ni(II), and Cr(VI) were chosen to demonstrate the feasibility, specificity, and reliability of paper-based text-reporting devices for monitoring heavy metals in water.

  16. MedMon: securing medical devices through wireless monitoring and anomaly detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Raghunathan, Anand; Jha, Niraj K

    2013-12-01

    Rapid advances in personal healthcare systems based on implantable and wearable medical devices promise to greatly improve the quality of diagnosis and treatment for a range of medical conditions. However, the increasing programmability and wireless connectivity of medical devices also open up opportunities for malicious attackers. Unfortunately, implantable/wearable medical devices come with extreme size and power constraints, and unique usage models, making it infeasible to simply borrow conventional security solutions such as cryptography. We propose a general framework for securing medical devices based on wireless channel monitoring and anomaly detection. Our proposal is based on a medical security monitor (MedMon) that snoops on all the radio-frequency wireless communications to/from medical devices and uses multi-layered anomaly detection to identify potentially malicious transactions. Upon detection of a malicious transaction, MedMon takes appropriate response actions, which could range from passive (notifying the user) to active (jamming the packets so that they do not reach the medical device). A key benefit of MedMon is that it is applicable to existing medical devices that are in use by patients, with no hardware or software modifications to them. Consequently, it also leads to zero power overheads on these devices. We demonstrate the feasibility of our proposal by developing a prototype implementation for an insulin delivery system using off-the-shelf components (USRP software-defined radio). We evaluate its effectiveness under several attack scenarios. Our results show that MedMon can detect virtually all naive attacks and a large fraction of more sophisticated attacks, suggesting that it is an effective approach to enhancing the security of medical devices.

  17. Continuous glucose monitoring for patients with type 1 diabetes and impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia (IN CONTROL): a randomised, open-label, crossover trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beers, Cornelis A. J.; DeVries, J. Hans; Kleijer, Susanne J.; Smits, Mark M.; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, Petronella H.; Kramer, Mark H. H.; Diamant, Michaela; Snoek, Frank J.; Serné, Erik H.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with type 1 diabetes who have impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia have a three to six times increased risk of severe hypoglycaemia. We aimed to assess whether continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) improves glycaemia and prevents severe hypoglycaemia compared with self-monitoring of blood

  18. Evaluation of OneTouch Verio, a new blood glucose self-monitoring system for patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Littman, Karin; Petersen, Eva R.B.; Pussinen, Christel

    2013-01-01

    (ADA) quality goals. Blood samples were collected and measured on the OneTouch Verio® by laboratory personnel and patients with diabetes (n = 91, randomized into groups receiving personal training or mail instructions for the OneTouch Verio® system). Results were compared to a validated routine method......, imprecision and bias were calculated. User-friendliness was evaluated with a questionnaire. Results. Quality specifications for blood glucose concentration monitoring systems according to ISO 15197 were fulfilled. The mean coefficients of variation (CV%) of repeatability was 3.4% when tested by laboratory...... personnel and within the goal of imprecision suggested by ADA. Mean CV% of repeatability for patient self-monitoring was 5.0% and 5.1% in the training- and the mail group, respectively. Total error was 6.4-10.0%. The OneTouch Verio® showed no hematocrit interference or variation between strip lots...

  19. Development of Chemically Amplified Optical Sensors for Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring Final Report CRADA No. TSB-1162-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Stephen M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Livermore, CA (United States); Mastrototaro, John J. [Minimed Technologies, Inc., Sylmar, CA (United States)

    2018-01-22

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects 14 million people in the U.S. and more than 110 million people worldwide. Each year in this country 27,000 diabetic patients become blind, 15,000 have kidney failure, and over 54,000 have peripheral limb amputations. In 1992, total healthcare costs in the U.S. for diabetes were more than $105 billion, approximately 15% of our healthcare budget. Conventional therapy for the most severe form of diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or Type I diabetes, is to administer one or two injections per day of various forms of insulin while monitoring blood glucose levels twice or three times daily with commercial glucometers that require blood samples. Near normal blood sugar levels (glycemic control) is difficult to achieve with conventional therapy. In the fall of 1993, the results of the 10-year $165 million Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) were published which showed that intensive insulin management would lead to dramatically fewer cases of retinopathy (which leads to blindness), nephropathy (which leads to kidney failure), and neuropathy (which can lead to limb amputations) [New England Journal of Medicine, Vo1239, No.14 977-986 (1993)]. If existing commercial insulin pumps could be combined with a continuous glucose sensor, a more physiological and fine-tuned therapy could be provided - in effect, an artificial biomechanical pancreas would be available. Existing research suggested that such a development would dramatically improve glucose control, thus greatly reducing morbidity and mortality from this disease. MiniMed Technologies in Sylmar, CA, identified a number of optically based sensor strategies as well as candidate chemical reactions that could be used to implement a minimally invasive opto-chemical glucose sensor. LLNL evaluated these sensor strategies and chemical reactions. These evaluations were the first steps leading to development of a sensor of considerable importance that could

  20. Successful microsurgical lip replantation: Monitoring venous congestion by blood glucose measurements in the replanted lip

    OpenAIRE

    Kazufumi Tachi; Masanori Mori; Reiko Tsukuura; Rintaro Hirai

    2018-01-01

    Replantation of an amputated lip using microvascular anastomosis is the best option for restoration of the defect. However, the amputated region often lacks veins with appropriate diameters for microvascular anastomoses and typically necessitates both postoperative exsanguination using medicinal leeches and a blood transfusion. We present a case of the successful replantation of an avulsed lip in which postoperative congestion was evaluated objectively by measuring blood glucose levels in the...

  1. Smart home design for electronic devices monitoring based wireless gateway network using cisco packet tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihombing, Oloan; Zendrato, Niskarto; Laia, Yonata; Nababan, Marlince; Sitanggang, Delima; Purba, Windania; Batubara, Diarmansyah; Aisyah, Siti; Indra, Evta; Siregar, Saut

    2018-04-01

    In the era of technological development today, the technology has become the need for the life of today's society. One is needed to create a smart home in turning on and off electronic devices via smartphone. So far in turning off and turning the home electronic device is done by pressing the switch or remote button, so in control of electronic device control less effective. The home smart design is done by simulation concept by testing system, network configuration, and wireless home gateway computer network equipment required by a smart home network on cisco packet tracer using Internet Thing (IoT) control. In testing the IoT home network wireless network gateway system, multiple electronic devices can be controlled and monitored via smartphone based on predefined configuration conditions. With the Smart Ho me can potentially increase energy efficiency, decrease energy usage costs, control electronics and change the role of residents.

  2. Personalized Remote Monitoring of the Atrial Fibrillation Patients with Electronic Implant Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce B. Laleci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices (CIED are gaining popularity in treating patients with heart disease. Remote monitoring through care management systems enables continuous surveillance of such patients by checking device functions and clinical events. These care management systems include decision support capabilities based on clinical guidelines. Data input to such systems are from different information sources including medical devices and Electronic Health Records (EHRs. Although evidence-based clinical guidelines provides numerous benefits such as standardized care, reduced costs, efficient and effective care management, they are currently underutilized in clinical practice due to interoperability problems among different healthcare data sources. In this paper, we introduce the iCARDEA care management system for atrial fibrillation patients with implant devices and describe how the iCARDEA care plan engine executes the clinical guidelines by seamlessly accessing the EHR systems and the CIED data through standard interfaces.

  3. Successful microsurgical lip replantation: Monitoring venous congestion by blood glucose measurements in the replanted lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazufumi Tachi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Replantation of an amputated lip using microvascular anastomosis is the best option for restoration of the defect. However, the amputated region often lacks veins with appropriate diameters for microvascular anastomoses and typically necessitates both postoperative exsanguination using medicinal leeches and a blood transfusion. We present a case of the successful replantation of an avulsed lip in which postoperative congestion was evaluated objectively by measuring blood glucose levels in the replanted region. The patient presented to our hospital with an upper lip avulsion that was caused by a dog bite. The lip was replanted by the microvascular anastomoses of one artery and two veins using interposed vein grafts. The replanted lip showed signs of congestion on postoperative day one; exsanguination using medicinal leeches was attempted, while blood glucose levels were measured every three hours. Critical congestion, which did not occur in this patient, was defined as a blood glucose level lower than 40 mg/dL. Lip replantation was successful without any complications in this patient.

  4. Time-Series Analysis of Continuously Monitored Blood Glucose: The Impacts of Geographic and Daily Lifestyle Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean T. Doherty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is known to be associated with environmental, behavioral, and lifestyle factors. However, the actual impacts of these factors on blood glucose (BG variation throughout the day have remained relatively unexplored. Continuous blood glucose monitors combined with human activity tracking technologies afford new opportunities for exploration in a naturalistic setting. Data from a study of 40 patients with diabetes is utilized in this paper, including continuously monitored BG, food/medicine intake, and patient activity/location tracked using global positioning systems over a 4-day period. Standard linear regression and more disaggreg