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  1. Association of curry consumption with blood lipids and glucose levels

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Youngjoo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Curcumin, an active ingredient in turmeric, is highly consumed in South Asia. However, curry that contains turmeric as its main spice might be the major source of curcumin in most other countries. Although curcumin consumption is not as high in these countries as South Asia, the regular consumption of curcumin may provide a significant health-beneficial effect. This study evaluated whether the moderate consumption of curry can affect blood glucose and lipid levels that b...

  2. Effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose level and lipid profile in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Khurshid, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cinnamon has been shown to potentiate the hypoglycaemic effect of insulin through up regulation of the glucose uptake in cultured adipocytes of rats. This study tried to find out the effect of Cinnamon alone or in combination with Insulin in diabetic albino rats. Methods: Thirty rats were divided into three groups, A and B. Group A were given cinnamon extract 200 mg/Kg body weight daily orally and group B rats were given cinnamon extract 400 mg/Kg body weight daily. After six weeks blood glucose and lipid profile levels were evaluated in all the groups. Results: Group of rats given 200 mg cinnamon extract showed significant decrease of blood glucose concentration but there was slight or no change in the level of lipid parameters including serum cholesterol, triglyceride and lipoproteins (HDL, LDL-chol). On the other hand group of rats given 400 mg extract of cinnamon showed a better but non significant change in level of lipid related parameter while blood glucose level was significantly decreased. Conclusion: The cinnamon at a dose of 400 mg showed same effects on blood glucose level but better effects on lipid profiles especially of serum cholesterol level of group of rats compared to 200 mg of cinnamon extract. Cinnamon may be recommended as hypoglycaemic herb but not as hypolipidaemic herb. (author)

  3. Ghrelin Alleviates MDMA-Induced Disturbance of Serum Glucose and Lipids Levels in the Rat

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    Ravieh Golchoobian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatotoxicity is one of the clinically adverse effects of ecstasy (3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA consumption. The detoxification tissue, liver, plays a central role in maintaining circulating levels of glucose and lipid. Hypoglycemia and hypotriglyceridemia have been reported due to ecstasy abuse. Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide secreted predominantly from the stomach. It has been demonstrated that ghrelin has hepatoprotective effects and is able to increase blood glucose concentration. In the current study, we explored the effect of hepatotoxic dose of MDMA and therapeutic use of exogenous ghrelin on the serum levels of glucose and lipids in four groups of rats. MDMA caused a severe and transient reduction in circulating levels of glucose and triglyceride and increased serum LDL. However, cholesterol and HDL levels remained unchanged. Meanwhile, altered hepatic architecture was observed with intracellular vacuolation that may indicate intracellular accumulation of lipid droplets. In addition, following ghrelin administration, the blood sugar levels improved and LDL levels returned to the baseline value, and ghrelin treatment did not improve triglycerides levels. These results showed that MDMA causes hypoglycemia, hypotriglyceridemia, and hyper LDL-cholesterolemia. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing ghrelin administration could improve hypoglycemia and normalize LDL levels induced by MDMA and partially restore hepatic architecture.

  4. Acute effects of feeding fructose, glucose and sucrose on blood lipid levels and systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, Faizan; Phang, Melinda; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L

    2014-12-16

    Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between fructose consumption and risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Mechanisms by which dietary fructose mediates metabolic changes are poorly understood. This study compared the effects of fructose, glucose and sucrose consumption on post-postprandial lipemia and low grade inflammation measured as hs-CRP. This was a randomized, single blinded, cross-over trial involving healthy subjects (n=14). After an overnight fast, participants were given one of 3 different isocaloric drinks, containing 50 g of either fructose or glucose or sucrose dissolved in water. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 30, 60 and 120 minutes post intervention for the analysis of blood lipids, glucose, insulin and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Glucose and sucrose supplementation initially resulted in a significant increase in glucose and insulin levels compared to fructose supplementation and returned to near baseline values within 2 hours. Change in plasma cholesterol, LDL and HDL-cholesterol (measured as area under curve, AUC) was significantly higher when participants consumed fructose compared with glucose or sucrose (PAUC for plasma triglyceride levels however remained unchanged regardless of the dietary intervention. Change in AUC for hs-CRP was also significantly higher in subjects consuming fructose compared with those consuming glucose (P<0.05), but not sucrose (P=0.07). This study demonstrates that fructose as a sole source of energy modulates plasma lipids and hsCRP levels in healthy individuals. The significance of increase in HDL-cholesterol with a concurrent increase in LDL-cholesterol and elevated hs-CRP levels remains to be delineated when considering health effects of feeding fructose-rich diets. ACTRN12614000431628.

  5. Exercise effects on fitness, lipids, glucose tolerance and insulin levels in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, R G; Davidson, P C; Albrink, M J; Krall, J M

    1981-07-01

    The effect of 3 different physical training programs on cardiorespiratory (cr) fitness, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, and scapular skinfold thickness was assessed in 64 healthy college men. Training sessions were held 4 times a week for 5 weeks. The cr fitness improved significantly and skinfold thickness decreased following the aerobic, the pulse workout (interval training), and the anaerobic training compared to the control group. Skinfold thickness, plasma insulin, and triglyceride concentrations were significantly intercorrelated before and after training. The exercise programs had no significant effect on plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, glucose tolerance, or insulin levels. Change in adipose mass was thus dissociated from change in plasma insulin and triglyceride concentrations. It was concluded that in young men plasma triglycerides, the lipid component mostly readily reduced by exercise, were too low to be reduced further by a physical training program.

  6. Effect of Consumption of Tribulus Terrestris on Serum Glucose and Lipid Levels in Diabetic Rats

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    M Roghani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of Tribulus terrestris (TT on serum glucose and lipid levels was investigated in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus in rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into control, TT-treated control, diabetic, glibenclamide-treated, and TT-treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was administered (60 mg/Kg. Meanwhile, TT-treated groups received TT mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 6.25% for 6 weeks. Serum glucose and lipid levels were determined before the study and at the 3rd and 4th week after the study. Results: Serum glucose was significantly lower in TT-treated diabetic rats at 3rd and 6th weeks as compared to untreated diabetics (p<0.01 and p<0.005, respectively. In addition, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol showed a significant reduction in TT-treated diabetic rats as compared to untreated diabetics (p<0.05. On the other hand, HDL-cholesterol level did not change significantly in TT-treated diabetic group as compared to untreated diabetic group. Conclusions: Oral administration of TT has a significant hypoglycemic effect and in long term leads to appropriate changes in serum LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, but does not affect HDL-cholesterol levels in diabetic rats.

  7. Pleiotropic effects of lipid genes on plasma glucose, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Naishi; van der Sijde, Marijke R; Bakker, Stephan J L; Dullaart, Robin P F; van der Harst, Pim; Gansevoort, Ron T; Elbers, Clara C; Wijmenga, Cisca; Snieder, Harold; Hofker, Marten H; Fu, Jingyuan

    Dyslipidemia is strongly associated with raised plasma glucose levels and insulin resistance (IR), and genome-wide association studies have identified 95 loci that explain a substantial proportion of the variance in blood lipids. However, the loci's effects on glucose-related traits are largely

  8. Serum glucose and lipid levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Aloe barbadensis Miller juice extract on serum glucose and lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 150mg/kg alloxan in 5% solution. Diabetes was confirmed 72 hours after alloxan injection, if fasting blood glucose (FBG) was equal to or greater ...

  9. Guar gum effects on food intake, blood serum lipids and glucose levels of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, A C; Sgarbieri, V C

    1998-01-01

    The effects of guar gum derived from the endosperm of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (75% soluble fiber, 7.6% insoluble fiber, 2.16% crude protein, 0.78% total lipids, 0.54% ash and 9.55% moisture) on food intake, levels of blood serum cholesterol, triacylglycerols, glucose and LDL and HDL-cholesterol were studied. The effects of guar gum on indices of protein absorption and utilization were also investigated. Diets containing 0%, 10% and 20% (w/w) guar gum or 10% and 20% cellulose powder (reference) were fed to normal rats for 60 days. The rats fed the guar gum diets showed significantly (p Guar gum decreased blood serum glucose only during the first month of the experiment, and no changes in the indices of protein absorption and utilization were found. The guar gum caused a 10% increase in the small intestine length and a 25% retardation in the intestinal transit. The results of this research suggested that guar gum could potentially be effective in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and obesity in humans.

  10. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type.

  11. Effect of aluminum chloride on blood glucose level and lipid profile in normal, diabetic and treated diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, Venugopala Rao; Eerike, Madhavi; Chary, R Prasanth; Arunachalam, Ruckmani; Yeddula, Venkata Ramana; Meti, Vinayak; Devi, T Sobita

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess evaluate the effects of aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) on blood glucose and lipid levels in normal, diabetic, and glibenclamide-treated diabetic rats. Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of six each. Group I was normal control, Groups II and III were given AlCl 3 50 and 100 mg/kg, and Group IV to VII were administered with streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Group IV was diabetic control, Group V in addition was given AlCl 3 50 mg/kg, Group VI glibenclamide (10 mg/kg), and Group VII glibenclamide and AlCl 3 (50 mg/kg) per-oral daily for 28 days. Blood glucose and lipid levels were estimated at base line, after diabetes was set in and on the last day of study. Histopathological changes in pancreas, liver, and kidney were studied. No significant change was observed in blood glucose and lipid levels in Group I. Group II and III showed a dose-dependent significant increase in blood glucose was observed. Group V had a reduction in blood glucose but not to the nondiabetic level. Group VI had significant reduction in blood sugar. In Group VII, treated with glibenclamide and AlCl 3 , there was no significant change in blood glucose reduction compared to Group VI. Lipid levels were reduced in groups treated with AlCl 3 and glibenclamide and not in other groups. Gross tissue damage was seen in pancreas in STZ group and in liver and kidney in AlCl 3 groups. AlCl 3 administration in Wistar rats caused in significant hyperglycemia in normal rats, hypoglycemia in diabetic rats, and did not influenced hypoglycemic effect of glibenclamide and in addition, resulted in reduction in lipid levels.

  12. Study of the Effect of Garlic on Serum Lipids and Blood Glucose Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    M Afkhami - Ardekani

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperlipidemia and diabetes are common risk factors for ischemic heart disease, which is the main cause of mortality in diabetic patients. Strict control of blood glucose and other risk factors in diabetics has led to prevention of complications. Garlic has received particular attention for control of blood glucose and decrease in blood lipid levels. At present, several studies have been carried out in order to prove advantages of garlic. Methods: In this study, effects of garsin (a derivative of garlic present in our country on serum lipids and blood glucose levels in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients was observed. Forty-five type 2 diabetics who had hyperlipidemia were selected. These patients were kept on treatment with 3 tablets of Garsin / day for 4 weeks. Serum lipids and blood glucose levels were measured prior to and at the end of treatment. Results: Relationship between sex and response to treatment in this study was meaningful, such that Gsarsin led to decrease in LDL-C and increase in HDL in females. Conclusion: Therefore, Garsin can be used as an adjunct to treatment in diabetes type 2 patients with hyperlipidemia.

  13. Red palm oil supplementation does not increase blood glucose or serum lipids levels in Wistar rats with different thyroid status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchová, H; Vokurková, M; Pavelka, S; Vaněčková, I; Tribulová, N; Soukup, T

    2018-01-05

    Red palm oil (RPO) is a rich natural source of antioxidant vitamins, namely carotenes, tocopherols and tocotrienols. However, it contains approximately 50 % saturated fatty acids the regular consumption of which could negatively modify lipid profile. The aim of our study was to test whether 7 weeks of RPO supplementation (1 g/kg body weight/day) would affect blood glucose and lipid metabolism in adult male Wistar rats with altered thyroid status. We induced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in rats by oral administration of either methimazole or mixture of thyroid hormones. Different thyroid status (EU - euthyroid, HY - hypothyroid and HT - hyperthyroid) was characterized by different serum thyroid hormones levels (total and free thyroxine and triiodothyronine), changes in the activity of a marker enzyme of thyroid status - liver mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and altered absolute and relative heart weights. Fasting blood glucose levels were higher in HT rats in comparison with EU and HY rats, but the changes caused by RPO supplementation were not significant. The achievement of the HY status significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol, as well as with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol: 2.43+/-0.15, 1.48+/-0.09, 0.89+/-0.08 mmol/l, compared to EU: 1.14+/-0.06, 0.77+/-0.06, 0.34+/-0.05 mmol/l and HT: 1.01+/-0.06, 0.69+/-0.04, 0.20+/-0.03 mmol/l, respectively. RPO supplementation did not increase significantly levels of blood lipids but tended to increase glutathione levels in the liver. In conclusion, RPO supplementation did not induce the presumed deterioration of glucose and lipid metabolism in rats with three well-characterized alterations in thyroid status.

  14. Quantitative assessment of the effects of beta-glucan consumption on serum lipid profile and glucose level in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X; Sun, X; Wang, M; Zhang, C; Cao, Y; Mo, G; Liang, J; Zhu, S

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that beta-glucan derived from oats or barley can reduce cardiovascular disease risk through reductions in serum lipids. However, the effects of beta-glucan on lipid changes in hypercholesterolemic patient groups are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify the effect of beta-glucan, a marker of water-soluble fiber, on various lipid parameters and glucose level in hypercholesterolemic subjects. We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify the relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of beta-glucan consumption in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for net changes in lipid concentrations by using fixed-effects or random-effects models according to heterogeneity. Publication bias, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analyses were also performed. Seventeen eligible RCTs with 916 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled result showed that beta-glucan consumption in hypercholesterolemic population significantly lowered the total cholesterol (TC) (MD, -0.26 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.33 to -0.18; P consumption significantly decreased TC and LDL-cholesterol concentrations but did not affect TG, HDL-cholesterol, and glucose concentrations in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaves extract on blood glucose and plasma lipid levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Xue Tong; Zhang, Hai Yan; Yao, Hui Yuan; Zhang, Hui

    2010-08-09

    To investigate the hypoglycemic effects of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaves (VBTL) extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. After administration of VBTL extract for 4 weeks, the body weight, organ weight, blood glucose (BG), insulin and plasma lipid levels of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were measured. Body weights of diabetic mice treated with VBTL extract were partly recovered. The BG levels of AEG (diabetic mice treated with VBTL aqueous extract) were reduced to 91.52 and 85.82% at week 2 and week 4, respectively (P0.05). The insulin levels of AEG and EEG were obviously higher (P<0.05) than those of MC (diabetic mice in model control group). Comparing with MC, AEG and EEG had significantly lower (P<0.05) TC or TG levels and similar HDL-cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol levels. In comparison with non-diabetic control mice, AEG had similar plasma lipid levels except higher LDL-cholesterol level, while EEG had higher TC, TG and LDL-cholesterol levels and lower HDL-cholesterol levels. Both aqueous and ethanolic extract of VBTL possess a potential hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Harmful effect of protein difficiency on lipids, glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in female albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mahdy, A.A.; El-Sherbiny, E.M.; Bayomi, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the harmful effect of protein deficient diet on some biochemical activities in serum of female rats. Protein malnutrition is a well known socioeconomic problem in different parts of the world. Many studies were investigated on the biological parameters following protein malnutrition in human and experimental animals. Forty albino female rats were divided into 3 groups. The first group (10 rats) fed 18% protein diet and served as normal control and the other two groups, each contains 15 rats, fed 5% protein for 21 and 45 days, respectively, and served as malnourished groups. The results showed significant decrease in total body weight, serum glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in the third group as well as decrease in the total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations that compared to normal control rats

  17. The effects of date consumption on serumic levels of glucose, lipids and lipoproteins in diabetic rats

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    B Amouoghli Tabrizi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is an important problem amongst human and animals. In veterinary medicine too, diabetes mellitus occurs in many animals particularly household pets. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of date consumption on serumic levels of glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, VLDL and HDL in rats suffering from experimental diabetes mellitus. Thirty male wistar rats with the age of 8 weeks and mean body weight of 200±20 gr were selected and divided into 5 groups so that there were 6 rats per group. The groups consisted of day one healthy control, final day healthy control, healthy treatment consuming date, diabetic treatment consuming date and diabetic control group. Diabetic treatment and control groups received 100 mg/kg of alloxan subcutaneously to create experimental diabetes. The two healthy control groups also received equal amounts of normal saline solution subcutaneously. The injections were repeated a week later in all groups. After observing the diabetes symptoms including polydipsia, polyuria, glucosuria and hyperglycemia in groups that were given alloxan, feeding of healthy and diabetic treatment groups with equal ratio of date and pellet was initiated. Final day healthy control group and diabetic control group were fed only with pellet. The groups were fed for 10 days following the start of diabetes symptoms. Blood samples were collected from all groups on day 10. Evaluation of the serumic levels of glucose, cholesterol and LDL revealed statistically significant increase in diabetic control group in comparison with the healthy control groups and also in healthy and  diabetic treatment groups consuming date as compared with diabetic control and healthy groups (p

  18. Dietary fructose and glucose differentially affect lipid and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Ernst J; Gleason, Joi A; Dansinger, Michael L

    2009-06-01

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first-pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these 2 monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial triglyceride (TG) levels and has little effect on serum glucose concentrations, whereas dietary glucose has the opposite effects. When dietary glucose and fructose have been directly compared at approximately 20-25% of energy over a 4- to 6-wk period, dietary fructose caused significant increases in fasting TG and LDL cholesterol concentrations, whereas dietary glucose did not, but dietary glucose did increase serum glucose and insulin concentrations in the postprandial state whereas dietary fructose did not. When fructose at 30-60 g ( approximately 4-12% of energy) was added to the diet in the free-living state, there were no significant effects on lipid or glucose biomarkers. Sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain approximately equal amounts of fructose and glucose and no metabolic differences between them have been noted. Controlled feeding studies at more physiologic dietary intakes of fructose and glucose need to be conducted. In our view, to decrease the current high prevalence of obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and diabetes, the focus should be on restricting the intake of excess energy, sucrose, HFCS, and animal and trans fats and increasing exercise and the intake of vegetables, vegetable oils, fish, fruit, whole grains, and fiber.

  19. Radiation and Heat Stress Impact on Plasma Levels of Thyroid Hormones, Lipid Fractions, Glucose and Liver Glycogen in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, K.I.; Abou-Safi, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Since Egypt is classified as a hot country, the present work has been directed to study the combined effect of heat stress and gamma radiation exposure on blood thyroid hormonal levels and some other parameters. Four groups of rats were served as: control, whole-body gamma irradiated (6Gy), exposed to ambient heat stress (38 C-40 C) and a group exposed to heat stress and irradiation. Four time intervals 1, 3, 5 and 7 days were determined for heat stress or exposure to heat followed by irradiation. Blood samples and liver specimens were taken at the end of each time interval in the third group and after one hour of irradiation in the second and fourth groups. To detect the radiation effects after the different periods of heat stress, plasma levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4), lipid fractions (triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol), glucose and liver glycogen content were determined. The results revealed that exposure to heat and ionizing radiation leads to a decrease in the levels of thyroid hormones, which was mostly pronounced in the T3 levels. Plasma glucose levels showed significant elevations in both, the heat-stressed group and the heat-treated then irradiated group. While, liver glycogen content exhibited similar elevations only during the 1st, 3 rd and 5 th days of heating followed by irradiation treatment as compared to the heat stressed group. Yet, it showed significant declines in comparison with both control and irradiated groups. Enormous increments in all determined plasma lipid fractions were induced by heat stress and / or gamma radiation

  20. Effect of repeated administration of cinnamon aqueous extract on body weight, glucose levels and lipid profile on over weight rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, F.; Akhtar, N.

    2012-01-01

    Plants are the source of both traditional and medicinal plant for curing and treatment of diseases in recent year. Plant extracts containing several active constituents which often work together synergistically. The study was designed to investigate the effect CNAE on lipid profile and glucose level in overweight albino wistar rats. Animal were divided into two group 1 receive CNAE and 2 receive equal volume of tap water. Extract were given daily once a day at the dose of 2ml/animal. After the 17 % of reduction of weight treatment were terminated and blood sample were collected for biochemical estimation. The result show significant decrease in body weight total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol and significant increase in high y density lipoprotein while non-significant effect were observed in electrolyte levels. The data of present research demonstrated that CNAE not only possess hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties as well as it could be used for reduction body weight. (author)

  1. Brain Glucose Metabolism Controls Hepatic Glucose and Lipid Production

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Tony K.T.

    2007-01-01

    Brain glucose-sensing mechanisms are implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and hypoglycemic-induced hormonal counter-regulation. This commentary discusses recent findings indicating that the brain senses glucose to regulate both hepatic glucose and lipid production.

  2. Blood lipid levels in relation to glucose status in European men and women without a prior history of diabetes: the DECODE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, L.; Qiao, Q.; Tuomilehto, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Dyslipidaemia is present not only in diabetic but also in prediabetic subjects. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between lipid and glucose levels in a large European population without a prior history of diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data from....... RESULTS: In subjects without a prior history of diabetes, positive relationships were shown between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and total cholesterol (TC) (beta=0.06 and 0.03, respectively for men and women, p

  3. The Effect of Trans-Chalcone on Amylase Activity, Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in Diabetic and Non Diabetic Rats

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    M Najafian

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Alpha amylase is the most important decomposing enzyme in starch. Digestion and absorption of starch in the intestine can be prevented and also the blood sugar levels can be controlled by restrain and control of alpha amylase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of trans-chalcone on amylase activity, blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic and non diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 1388 at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Sixty rats were randomly divided to ten equal groups: non diabetic control, diabetic control, four non diabetic experiments and four diabetic experiments. Control groups received grape seed oil and experimental groups received 2, 8,16 and 32 mg/kg of body weight in a period of 24 days with a gastric cannula. Blood sugar, every two days, serum insulin levels in days 0,12, and 24 and at the end of the experiment, lipoproteins and alpha amylase activity were measured.The data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance, ANOVA, followed by Turkey,s test with SPSS soft ware . Results: On average Chalcone reduced 25.5% of blood sugar in normal and diabetic rats. IT also decreased the serum insulin level. On average, chalcone decreased 34.9% of alpha amylase activity in normal and diabetic rats. Following disturbances in lipids metabolism caused by diabetes, this drug improved lipoproteins metabolism and reduced water, food and urine volume. Conclusion: This study shows that trans-Chalcone reduces blood sugar and body weight via inhibition of alpha amylas. Moreover, improvement of lipoprotein metabolism may happen via the inhibitory effect of this drug on hydroxyl methyl glutaryl -COA reductase and phosphodiesterase.

  4. Interaction between VEGF receptor-2 gene polymorphisms and dietary patterns on blood glucose and lipid levels in Chinese Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Roseline Wai Kuan; Shidoji, Yoshihiro; Hon, Wei Min; Masaki, Motofumi

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic diseases is increasing and gene-diet interaction studies are limited among the Malaysian population. This study was conducted to evaluate the association and interaction effects of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2(VEGFR2) gene polymorphisms and dietary patterns on anthropometric and biochemical risk factors of chronic diseases in 179 Chinese Malaysian adults. Genotyping of rs1870377 and rs2071559 was performed by real-time PCR using TaqMan probes. Dietary patterns were constructed from the food frequency questionnaire using factor analysis. Anthropometric measurements: body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure and biomarkers: blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and lipids were obtained. Two dietary patterns: 'Balanced diet' and 'Meat, rice and noodles diet' (MRND) were extracted. MRND was associated with higher BMI, blood pressure, blood glucose and lipids, while T alleles in both rs1870377 and rs2071559 were associated with higher blood lipids (p Malaysian adults. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

    2012-01-01

    Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000...

  6. Fetal rat metabonome alteration by prenatal caffeine ingestion probably due to the increased circulatory glucocorticoid level and altered peripheral glucose and lipid metabolic pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yansong [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Feng, Jianghua, E-mail: jianghua.feng@xmu.edu.cn [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Kou, Hao; Liang, Gai [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Chen, Liaobin [Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China)

    2012-07-15

    The aims of this study were to clarify the metabonome alteration in fetal rats after prenatal caffeine ingestion and to explore the underlying mechanism pertaining to the increased fetal circulatory glucocorticoid (GC). Pregnant Wistar rats were daily intragastrically administered with different doses of caffeine (0, 20, 60 and 180 mg/kg) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20. Metabonome of fetal plasma and amniotic fluid on GD20 were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics. Gene and protein expressions involved in the GC metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolic pathways in fetal liver and gastrocnemius were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Fetal plasma metabonome were significantly altered by caffeine, which presents as the elevated α- and β‐glucose, reduced multiple lipid contents, varied apolipoprotein contents and increased levels of a number of amino acids. The metabonome of amniotic fluids showed a similar change as that in fetal plasma. Furthermore, the expressions of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD-2) were decreased, while the level of blood GC and the expressions of 11β-HSD-1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were increased in fetal liver and gastrocnemius. Meanwhile, the expressions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor were decreased, while the expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, leptin receptors and AMP-activated protein kinase α2 were increased after caffeine treatment. Prenatal caffeine ingestion characteristically change the fetal metabonome, which is probably attributed to the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways induced by increased circulatory GC, activated GC metabolism and enhanced GR expression in peripheral metabolic tissues. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion altered the metabonome of IUGR fetal rats. ► Caffeine altered the glucose and lipid metabolic pathways of IUGR fetal rats. ► Prenatal caffeine

  7. Fetal rat metabonome alteration by prenatal caffeine ingestion probably due to the increased circulatory glucocorticoid level and altered peripheral glucose and lipid metabolic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yansong; Xu, Dan; Feng, Jianghua; Kou, Hao; Liang, Gai; Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Chen, Liaobin; Magdalou, Jacques; Wang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the metabonome alteration in fetal rats after prenatal caffeine ingestion and to explore the underlying mechanism pertaining to the increased fetal circulatory glucocorticoid (GC). Pregnant Wistar rats were daily intragastrically administered with different doses of caffeine (0, 20, 60 and 180 mg/kg) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20. Metabonome of fetal plasma and amniotic fluid on GD20 were analyzed by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics. Gene and protein expressions involved in the GC metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolic pathways in fetal liver and gastrocnemius were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Fetal plasma metabonome were significantly altered by caffeine, which presents as the elevated α- and β‐glucose, reduced multiple lipid contents, varied apolipoprotein contents and increased levels of a number of amino acids. The metabonome of amniotic fluids showed a similar change as that in fetal plasma. Furthermore, the expressions of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD-2) were decreased, while the level of blood GC and the expressions of 11β-HSD-1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were increased in fetal liver and gastrocnemius. Meanwhile, the expressions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor were decreased, while the expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, leptin receptors and AMP-activated protein kinase α2 were increased after caffeine treatment. Prenatal caffeine ingestion characteristically change the fetal metabonome, which is probably attributed to the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways induced by increased circulatory GC, activated GC metabolism and enhanced GR expression in peripheral metabolic tissues. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion altered the metabonome of IUGR fetal rats. ► Caffeine altered the glucose and lipid metabolic pathways of IUGR fetal rats. ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion

  8. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Glucose Control and Lipid Levels in Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Chen

    Full Text Available Many studies assessed the impact of marine omega-3 fatty acids on glycemic homeostasis and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM, but reported controversial results. Our goal was to systematically evaluate the effects of omega-3 on glucose control and lipid levels.Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Embase, the National Research Register, and SIGLE were searched to identify eligible randomized clinical trials (RCTs. Extracted data from RCTs were analyzed using STATA 11.0 statistical software with fixed or random effects model. Effect sizes were presented as weighted mean differences (WMD with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Chi-square test with significance level set at p < 0.1.20 RCT trials were included into this meta-analysis. Among patients with omega-3 supplementation, triglyceride (TG levels were significantly decreased by 0.24 mmol/L. No marked change in total cholesterol (TC, HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, postprandial plasma glucose, BMI or body weight was observed. High ratio of EPA/DHA contributed to a greater decreasing tendency in plasma insulin, HbAc1, TC, TG, and BMI measures, although no statistical significance was identified (except TG. FPG levels were increased by 0.42 mmol/L in Asians. No evidence of publication bias was observed in this meta-analysis.The ratio of EPA/DHA and early intervention with omega 3 fatty acids may affect their effects on glucose control and lipid levels, which may serve as a dietary reference for clinicians or nutritionists who manage diabetic patients.

  9. Dietary lipids do not contribute to the higher hepatic triglyceride levels of fructose- compared to glucose-fed mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, P.M.; Wright, A.J.; Veltien, A.A.; Asten, J.J.A. van; Tack, C.J.J.; Jones, J.G.; Heerschap, A.

    2014-01-01

    Fructose consumption has been associated with the surge in obesity and dyslipidemia. This may be mediated by the fructose effects on hepatic lipids and ATP levels. Fructose metabolism provides carbons for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and stimulates enterocyte secretion of apoB48. Thus, fructose-induced

  10. Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

    2012-04-01

    Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000 Chemistry System (Abbott Diagnostics, USA) for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL. Reference intervals were established by nonparametric methods between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls for cholesterol and triglycerides levels in all age groups (P glucose levels except at age 12 to 13 years. Saudi children have comparable serum cholesterol levels than their Western counterparts. This may reflect changing dietary habits and increasing affluence in Saudi Arabia. Increased lipid screening is anticipated, and these reference intervals will aid in the early assessment of cardiovascular and diabetes risk in Saudi pediatric populations.

  11. Plasma Periostin Levels Are Increased in Chinese Subjects with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes and Are Positively Correlated with Glucose and Lipid Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuanyuan; Qu, Hua; Wang, Hang; Wei, Huili; Wu, Jing; Duan, Yang; Liu, Dan; Deng, Huacong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relations among plasma periostin, glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and inflammation in Chinese patients with obesity (OB), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Plasma periostin levels in the T2DM group were significantly higher than the NGT group (P index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h postchallenge plasma glucose (2 h PG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TNF-α, and IL-6 (P < 0.05 or 0.001) and negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that TG, TNF-α, and HOMA-IR were independent related factors in influencing the levels of plasma periostin (P < 0.001). These results suggested that Chinese patients with obesity and T2DM had significantly higher plasma periostin levels. Plasma periostin levels were strongly associated with plasma TG, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance.

  12. HBK-14 and HBK-15 Do Not Influence Blood Pressure, Lipid Profile, Glucose Level, or Liver Enzymes Activity after Chronic Treatment in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytka, Karolina; Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Knutelska, Joanna; Jakubczyk, Magdalena; Waszkielewicz, Anna; Kotańska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Older and even new antidepressants cause adverse effects, such as orthostatic hypotension, hyper- or hypoglycemia, liver injury or lipid disorders. In our previous experiments we showed significant antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activities of dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 antagonists with α1-adrenolitic properties i.e. 1-[(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)ethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride (HBK-14) and 1-[(2-chloro-6-methylphenoxy)ethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride (HBK-15). Here, we evaluated the influence of chronic administration of HBK-14 and HBK-15 on blood pressure (non-invasive blood pressure measurement system for rodents), lipid profile (total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins-LDL, high density lipoproteins-HDL, triglycerides), glucose level, and liver enzymes activity (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase). We determined potential antihistaminic (isolated guinea pig ileum) and antioxidant properties (ferric reducing ability of plasma-FRAP, non-protein thiols-NPSH, stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl-DPPH) cytotoxicity. Our experiments revealed that HBK-14 and HBK-15 did not influence blood pressure, lipid profile, glucose level or liver enzymes activity in rats after 2-week treatment. We also showed that none of the compounds possessed antioxidant or cytotoxic properties at antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like doses. HBK-14 and HBK-15 very weakly blocked H1 receptors in guinea pig ileum. Positive results of our preliminary experiments on the safety of HBK-14 and HBK-15 encourage further studies concerning their effectiveness in the treatment of depression and/or anxiety disorders.

  13. HBK-14 and HBK-15 Do Not Influence Blood Pressure, Lipid Profile, Glucose Level, or Liver Enzymes Activity after Chronic Treatment in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pytka

    Full Text Available Older and even new antidepressants cause adverse effects, such as orthostatic hypotension, hyper- or hypoglycemia, liver injury or lipid disorders. In our previous experiments we showed significant antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activities of dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 antagonists with α1-adrenolitic properties i.e. 1-[(2,6-dimethylphenoxyethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenylpiperazine hydrochloride (HBK-14 and 1-[(2-chloro-6-methylphenoxyethoxyethyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenylpiperazine hydrochloride (HBK-15. Here, we evaluated the influence of chronic administration of HBK-14 and HBK-15 on blood pressure (non-invasive blood pressure measurement system for rodents, lipid profile (total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins-LDL, high density lipoproteins-HDL, triglycerides, glucose level, and liver enzymes activity (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase. We determined potential antihistaminic (isolated guinea pig ileum and antioxidant properties (ferric reducing ability of plasma-FRAP, non-protein thiols-NPSH, stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl-DPPH cytotoxicity. Our experiments revealed that HBK-14 and HBK-15 did not influence blood pressure, lipid profile, glucose level or liver enzymes activity in rats after 2-week treatment. We also showed that none of the compounds possessed antioxidant or cytotoxic properties at antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like doses. HBK-14 and HBK-15 very weakly blocked H1 receptors in guinea pig ileum. Positive results of our preliminary experiments on the safety of HBK-14 and HBK-15 encourage further studies concerning their effectiveness in the treatment of depression and/or anxiety disorders.

  14. Impact of the growth hormone receptor exon 3 deletion gene polymorphism on glucose metabolism, lipids, and insulin-like growth factor-I levels during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Munch-Andersen, Thor

    2009-01-01

    . PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 142 healthy Caucasian subjects (65 boys) aged 8.5-16.1 yr. Interventions: Standard 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests were preformed. GHR genotypes were determined by multiplex PCR. Main outcome measures were insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, serum lipids, and IGF......-I levels. RESULTS: Insulin secretion was higher in children and adolescents with a least one GHRd3 allele, even after adjustment for age, sex, pubertal stage, and insulin sensitivity (P = 0.018). Disposition index was higher in GHRd3-positive subjects (P = 0.026). In addition, the GHRd3 allele...... was associated with higher triglyceride (P = 0.028), but not IGF-I levels. CONCLUSION: The presence of at least one GHRd3 allele was associated with higher insulin secretion for a given degree of insulin sensitivity in healthy children and adolescents during puberty. In addition, the presence of the GHRd3 allele...

  15. Abnormal glucose tolerance and lipid abnormalities in Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glucose tolerance and lipid levels in a random sample of 103 Indian patients (96 males and 7 females) with coronary artery disease (CAD) aged between 20 and 55 years were compared with those in a healthy Indian control group matched as regards age and sex. Previous episodes of myocardial infarction were taken as ...

  16. Effects of combined dietary supplementation with fenofibrate and Schisandrae Fructus pulp on lipid and glucose levels and liver function in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu PL

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pei-Li Zhu,1 Si-Yuan Pan,1 Shu-Feng Zhou,2 Yi Zhang,1 Xiao-Yan Wang,1 Nan Sun,1 Zhu-Sheng Chu,1 Zhi-Ling Yu,3 Kam-Ming Ko41Department of Pharmacology, School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 4Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Currently, combined therapy using herbs and synthetic drugs has become a feasible therapeutic intervention against some diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of supplementation with fenofibrate (FF, a chemical drug used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia, and the aqueous extract of Schisandrae Fructus (SF, a Chinese herb pulp (AqSF-P or an SF-related synthetic analog, bicyclol (BY, on serum/hepatic lipid levels and liver status in normal and hypercholesterolemic (HCL mice.Methods: Male mice obtained from the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR were fed on a normal diet (ND or high cholesterol/bile salt (0.5%/0.15%, w/w diet (HCBD containing FF (0.03% or 0.1%, w/w with or without AqSF-P (0.3%-9.0%, based on crude herbal material, w/w or BY (0.025%, w/w for 10 days. Then serum lipid levels and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity, as well as hepatic triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, and glucose levels, were measured.Results: Oral supplementation with FF significantly reduced serum and hepatic TG, TC, and hepatic glucose levels (approximately 79% in mice fed with ND or HCBD. FF supplementation combined with AqSF-P or BY increased FF-induced reduction in hepatic TC and TG contents in ND-fed mice (up to 67% and in HCBD-fed mice (up to 54%, when compared with FF supplementation alone. Hepatic glucose-lowering effect of FF was

  17. Berberine Moderates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism through Multipathway Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Berberine is known to improve glucose and lipid metabolism disorders, but the mechanism is still under investigation. In this paper, we explored the effects of berberine on the weight, glucose levels, lipid metabolism, and serum insulin of KKAy mice and investigated its possible glucose and lipid-regulating mechanism. We randomly divided KKAy mice into two groups: berberine group (treated with 250 mg/kg/d berberine and control group. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, weight, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c, and fasting serum insulin were measured in both groups. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed. RT2 PCR array gene expression analysis was performed using skeletal muscle of KKAy mice. Our data demonstrated that berberine significantly decreased FBG, area under the curve (AUC, fasting serum insulin (FINS, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index, TC, and TG, compared with those of control group. RT2 profiler PCR array analysis showed that berberine upregulated the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4, mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14, MAPK8(c-jun N-terminal kinase, JNK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2, and hepatic nuclear factor 4α(HNF4α, whereas it downregulated the expression of PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (CEBP, PPARγ coactivator 1α(PGC 1α, and resistin. These results suggest that berberine moderates glucose and lipid metabolism through a multipathway mechanism that includes AMP-activated protein kinase-(AMPK- p38 MAPK-GLUT4, JNK pathway, and PPARα pathway.

  18. CREBH Regulates Systemic Glucose and Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimi Nakagawa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP-responsive element-binding protein H (CREBH, encoded by CREB3L3 is a membrane-bound transcriptional factor that primarily localizes in the liver and small intestine. CREBH governs triglyceride metabolism in the liver, which mediates the changes in gene expression governing fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, and apolipoproteins related to lipoprotein lipase (LPL activation. CREBH in the small intestine reduces cholesterol transporter gene Npc1l1 and suppresses cholesterol absorption from diet. A deficiency of CREBH in mice leads to severe hypertriglyceridemia, fatty liver, and atherosclerosis. CREBH, in synergy with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, has a crucial role in upregulating Fgf21 expression, which is implicated in metabolic homeostasis including glucose and lipid metabolism. CREBH binds to and functions as a co-activator for both PPARα and liver X receptor alpha (LXRα in regulating gene expression of lipid metabolism. Therefore, CREBH has a crucial role in glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver and small intestine.

  19. Effect of exogenous leptin on serum levels of lipids, glucose, renal and hepatic variables in both genders of obese and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Hayatdavoudi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Leptin exerts various effects on appetite and body weight. Disruption of the obesitygene is precedent to fatness. Insulin or glucose elevates leptin, but streptozotocin reduces it. However, controversial data exist for the effects of leptin on diabetes and leptin level in each gender. Leptin can damage the kidney function but little evidence exists for its hepatic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the probable sex-dependent differences in blood sugar levels, lipid profile, and renal and hepatic biochemical factors in the obesity and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after leptin administration. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats of both sexes were randomly divided into two groups, namely obese and diabetic rats. Each group was further divided into male and female subgroups. Extra fat and carbohydrate was added to the diet to induce obesity. Furthermore, streptozotocin (55 mg/kg, IP was injected to induce diabetes. The treatment groups received leptin (0.1 mg/kg SC for 10 days, and then, blood samples were taken from the orbital sinus for laboratory evaluations. Results: Leptin resulted in a significant weight loss in both sexes (P

  20. Effect of Ramadan fasting on glucose level, lipid profile, HbA1c and uric acid among medical students in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nazeer; Rasheed, Abdur; Ahmed, Hassaan; Aslam, Faiza; Kanwal, Fatima

    2017-06-14

    To assess the effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile, uric acid, HbA1c, body mass index, body adiposity index and visceral adiposity index among fasting medical students, 35 students were recorded before, during and after Ramadan (August) 2011, for their blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, questionnaire response and blood sample. A blood sample was taken at each visit for glucose, lipid profile and HbA1c. Total physical activity, weight-to-height ratio, body adiposity index and visceral adiposity index were calculated for insulin sensitivity. Changes in anthropometric measurements were not statistically significant. However, physical activities increased significantly after Ramadan. Changes in blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, HbA1c, uric acid and triglyceride were not statistically significant. Mean high density lipoprotein decreased significantly in Ramadan, while low density lipoprotein increased significantly.

  1. Why control blood glucose levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, A A

    1976-03-01

    The controversy as to the relationship between the degree of control of diabetes and the progression of the complications of the disease has not been solved. However, in this review, various studies suggesting a relationship between the metabolic abnormality and the diabetic complications are examined. The disadvantages of the uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can be divided into two major categories-short-term and long-term. The short-term disadvantages of controlled diabetes mellitus include the following: (1) ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma; (2) intracellular dehydration; (3) electrolyte imbalance; (4) decreased phagocytosis; (5) immunologic and lymphocyte activity; (6) impairment of wound healing; and (7) abnormality of lipids. The long-term disadvantages of uncontrolled diabetes melitus include the following: (1) nephropathy; (2) neuropathy; (3) retinopathy; (4) cataract formation; (5) effect on perinatal mortality; (6) complications of vascular disease; and (7) the evaluation of various clinical studies suggesting the relationship of elevated blood glucose levels and complications of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that until the question of control can absolutely be resolved, the recommendation is that the blood glucose levels should be controlled as close to the normal as possible.

  2. Effect of inulin-type fructans on blood lipid profile and glucose level: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Prabhakar, M; Ju, J; Long, H; Zhou, H-W

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess the effects of inulin-type fructans (ITF) on human blood lipids and glucose homeostasis associated with metabolic abnormalities, including dyslipidemia, overweight or obesity, and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) before January 2016. Human trials that investigated the effects of ITF supplementation on the lipid profile, fasting glucose and insulin were included using Review Manager 5.3. Twenty RCTs with 607 adult participants were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. In the overall analysis, the supplementation of ITF reduced only the low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) (mean difference (MD): -0.15; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.29, -0.02; P=0.03) without affecting the other endpoints. Within the T2DM subgroup analysis, ITF supplementation was positively associated with a decreased fasting insulin concentration (MD: -4.01; 95% CI: -5.92, -2.09; Pglucose tendency was identified only in the T2DM subgroup (MD: -0.42; 95% CI: -0.90, 0.06; P=0.09). There was a potential publication bias, and few trials were available for the T2DM subgroup analysis. In summary, the use of ITF may have benefits for LDL-c reduction across all study populations, whereas HDL-c improvement and glucose control were demonstrated only in the T2DM subgroup. Thus, additional, well-powered, long-term, randomized clinical trials are required for a definitive conclusion. Overall, ITF supplementation may provide a novel direction for improving the lipid profile and glucose metabolism.

  3. Effect of dietary levels of lipid and carbohydrate on growth performance, body composition, nitrogen excretion and plasma glucose levels in rainbow trout reared at 8 or 18 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauge, C; Corraze, G; Médale, F

    1995-01-01

    Trout reared at 8 or 18 degrees C were fed twice a day almost to satiation with 1 of 3 experimental diets. The diets were formulated to contain the same levels of protein (43%, dry matter (DM) basis) and digestible energy (around 15 kJ/g DM), but different carbohydrate/lipid ratios 30:7 to 23:14). Time-course studies of nitrogen excretion and glycaemia were also carried out. After 12 weeks of feeding, growth, protein retention and body composition were not influenced by the dietary treatment in trout reared at 8 degrees C. At 18 degrees C, the protein retention was not affected by dietary treatment, but the weight gain tended to be higher in trout fed the diet with the lowest carbohydrate/lipid ratio. This result was due to higher body lipid deposition in these trout. Nitrogen excretion was not influenced by dietary treatment, but was higher at 18 degrees C than at 8 degrees C because of a higher feed intake. Glycaemia increased with dietary level of digestible carbohydrate and the highest plasma glucose level was attained later at 8 degrees C in comparison to 18 degrees C.

  4. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events.......Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events....

  5. Human Milk and Donkey Milk, Compared to Cow Milk, Reduce Inflammatory Mediators and Modulate Glucose and Lipid Metabolism, Acting on Mitochondrial Function and Oleylethanolamide Levels in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchese, Giovanna; Cavaliere, Gina; De Filippo, Chiara; Aceto, Serena; Prisco, Marina; Chun, Jong Tai; Penna, Eduardo; Negri, Rossella; Muredda, Laura; Demurtas, Andrea; Banni, Sebastiano; Berni-Canani, Roberto; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Calignano, Antonio; Meli, Rosaria; Greco, Luigi; Crispino, Marianna; Mollica, Maria P

    2018-01-01

    Scope: Milk from various species differs in nutrient composition. In particular, human milk (HM) and donkey milk (DM) are characterized by a relative high level of triacylglycerol enriched in palmitic acid in sn-2 position. These dietary fats seem to exert beneficial nutritional properties through N-acylethanolamine tissue modulation. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of cow milk (CM), DM, and HM on inflammation and glucose and lipid metabolism, focusing on mitochondrial function, efficiency, and dynamics in skeletal muscle, which is the major determinant of resting metabolic rate. Moreover, we also evaluated the levels of endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines in liver and skeletal muscle, since tissue fatty acid profiles can be modulated by nutrient intervention. Procedures: To this aim, rats were fed with CM, DM, or HM for 4 weeks. Then, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance were analyzed. Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated in serum and skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle was also processed to estimate mitochondrial function, efficiency, and dynamics, oxidative stress, and antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme activities. Fatty acid profiles, endocannabinoids, and N-acylethanolamine congeners were determined in liver and skeletal muscle tissue. Results: We demonstrated that DM or HM administration reducing inflammation status, improves glucose disposal and insulin resistance and reduces lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle. Moreover, HM or DM administration increases redox status, and mitochondrial uncoupling, affecting mitochondrial dynamics in the skeletal muscle. Interestingly, HM and DM supplementation increase liver and muscle levels of the N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA), a key regulator of lipid metabolism and inflammation. Conclusions: HM and DM have a healthy nutritional effect, acting on inflammatory factors and glucose and lipid metabolism. This beneficial effect is associated to a modulation of mitochondrial function

  6. Human Milk and Donkey Milk, Compared to Cow Milk, Reduce Inflammatory Mediators and Modulate Glucose and Lipid Metabolism, Acting on Mitochondrial Function and Oleylethanolamide Levels in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Trinchese

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Scope: Milk from various species differs in nutrient composition. In particular, human milk (HM and donkey milk (DM are characterized by a relative high level of triacylglycerol enriched in palmitic acid in sn-2 position. These dietary fats seem to exert beneficial nutritional properties through N-acylethanolamine tissue modulation. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of cow milk (CM, DM, and HM on inflammation and glucose and lipid metabolism, focusing on mitochondrial function, efficiency, and dynamics in skeletal muscle, which is the major determinant of resting metabolic rate. Moreover, we also evaluated the levels of endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines in liver and skeletal muscle, since tissue fatty acid profiles can be modulated by nutrient intervention.Procedures: To this aim, rats were fed with CM, DM, or HM for 4 weeks. Then, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance were analyzed. Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated in serum and skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle was also processed to estimate mitochondrial function, efficiency, and dynamics, oxidative stress, and antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme activities. Fatty acid profiles, endocannabinoids, and N-acylethanolamine congeners were determined in liver and skeletal muscle tissue.Results: We demonstrated that DM or HM administration reducing inflammation status, improves glucose disposal and insulin resistance and reduces lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle. Moreover, HM or DM administration increases redox status, and mitochondrial uncoupling, affecting mitochondrial dynamics in the skeletal muscle. Interestingly, HM and DM supplementation increase liver and muscle levels of the N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA, a key regulator of lipid metabolism and inflammation.Conclusions: HM and DM have a healthy nutritional effect, acting on inflammatory factors and glucose and lipid metabolism. This beneficial effect is associated to a modulation of

  7. Effect of ezetimibe on lipid and glucose metabolism after a fat and glucose load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramitsu, Shinya; Miyagishima, Kenji; Ishii, Junichi; Matsui, Shigeru; Naruse, Hiroyuki; Shiino, Kenji; Kitagawa, Fumihiko; Ozaki, Yukio

    2012-11-01

    The clinical benefit of ezetimibe, an intestinal cholesterol transporter inhibitor, for treatment of postprandial hyperlipidemia was assessed in subjects who ingested a high-fat and high-glucose test meal to mimic westernized diet. We enrolled 20 male volunteers who had at least one of the following: waist circumference ≥ 85 cm, body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2), or triglycerides (TG) from 150 to 400mg/dL. After 4 weeks of treatment with ezetimibe (10mg/day), the subjects ingested a high-fat and high-glucose meal. Then changes in serum lipid and glucose levels were monitored after 0, 2, 4, and 6h, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for the change in each parameter. At 4 and 6h postprandially, TG levels were decreased (pAUC for TG was also decreased (pAUC for apo-B48 was also significantly decreased (pBlood glucose and insulin levels at 2h postprandially were significantly decreased by ezetimibe (pAUCs for blood glucose and insulin were also significantly decreased (pglucose metabolism, this drug is likely to be beneficial for dyslipidemia in patients with postprandial metabolic abnormalities. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of two dose regimens of growth hormone (GH) with different target IGF-1 levels on glucose metabolism, lipid profile, cardiovascular function and anthropometric parameters in gh-deficient adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, Maria Claudia Peixoto; Soares, Débora Vieira; Spina, Luciana Diniz Carneiro; Brasil, Rosane Resende de Lima Oliveira; Lobo, Priscila Marise; Michmacher, Eduardo; Vaisman, Mario; Boguszewski, Cesar Luiz; Conceição, Flávia Lúcia

    2012-01-01

    To compare the effects of two regimens of GH therapy with different target IGF-1 levels on anthropometric parameters, glucose metabolism, lipid profile and cardiac function in adults with GH deficiency (GHD). Retrospective analysis of 14 GHD adults from Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who were treated with a GH regimen aimed at maintaining serum IGF-1 levels between the median and upper reference limit (high dose group - HDGH) and 18 GHD adults from Federal University Hospital, Curitiba, Brazil, who received a fixed GH dose of 0.2mg/day in the first year of treatment, followed by titration to maintain serum IGF-1 levels between the median and lower reference limit (low dose group - LDGH). All patients were followed for 2 years with analysis of anthropometric parameters, serum levels of IGF-1, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, and transthoracic echocardiography. Changes on weight, BMI and waist circumference were similar between the two groups. Insulin levels increased and HOMA-IR worsened in the LDGH group at 1year and improved thereafter. Total cholesterol and triglycerides did not change with therapy. LDL cholesterol reduced in both groups, while HDL-cholesterol significantly increased only in the HDGH group (p=0.007 vs LDGH). No significant variations on echocardiographic parameters were observed. The HDGH and LDGH regimens resulted in similar changes on anthropometric, echocardiographic, glucose and lipid parameters in GHD adults, except for increase in HDL cholesterol that was only observed in the HDGH regimen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic treatment of (R)-α-lipoic acid reduces blood glucose and lipid levels in high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin-induced metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelani, Hardik; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Nammi, Srinivas

    2017-06-01

    (R)- α -lipoic acid ( ALA ), an essential cofactor in mitochondrial respiration and a potential antioxidant, possesses a wide array of metabolic benefits including anti-obesity, glucose lowering, insulin-sensitizing, and lipid-lowering effects. In this study, the curative effects of ALA (100 mg/kg) on a spectrum of conditions related to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes ( T2D ) were investigated in a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rat model of metabolic syndrome and T2D . The marked rise in the levels of glucose, triglycerides, total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and VLDL-cholesterol in the blood of HFD-fed and low-dose STZ-injected rats were significantly reduced by ALA treatment. Furthermore, ALA treatment significantly increased the serum HDL-cholesterol levels and tended to inhibit diabetes-induced weight reduction. Mathematical computational analysis revealed that ALA also significantly improved insulin sensitivity and reduced the risk of atherosclerotic lesions and coronary atherogenesis. This study provides scientific evidence to substantiate the use of ALA to mitigate the glucose and lipid abnormality in metabolic syndrome and T2D .

  10. Effect of vigorous physical activity on blood lipid and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyoung-Jeong; Lee, Han-Joon

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate how the participation of vigorous physical activities in the health examination contributes to blood lipid and blood glucose. A total of 56,810 workers from the Ulsan University Hospital in Ulsan, Subjects were tested for health checkups from February to November in 2016. The subject is those who does not have medical history, current ailments, and medication histories, and selected those who conducted the study of subjects tested to research. And this study did not consider their drinking and smoking. The final selected population was 11,557 and categorized as a vigorous physical activity of the health survey items. In this study, the group participated by the vigorous physical activity activities, group 1 (n= 70) had more than 6 days of vigorous physical activity, group 2 (n= 2,960) is 3 to 5 days of vigorous physical activity, the group 3 (n= 7,389) is 1 to 2 days of vigorous physical activity. The group 4 (n= 1,138) were classified as those who did not perform vigorous physical activity. To achieve the purpose of the study, the questionnaire examined blood lipid and blood glucose, using questions related to physical activity related to health examination in the Ulsan University Hospital. We obtained the mean and standard deviation for each group and conducted the one-way analysis of variance as an independent variable. Post hoc is least significant difference test and significant level is 0.05. Vigorous physical activity more than 3 days of participation had a positive affect high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride. But participation in vigorous physical activity did not affect blood glucose.

  11. The lipid accumulation product as a useful index for identifying abnormal glucose regulation in young Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J-Y; Sung, Y-A; Lee, H J

    2013-04-01

    The lipid accumulation product, a combination of waist circumference and triglycerides concentration, has been suggested as a better marker for abnormal glucose regulation than BMI. We aimed to compare the lipid accumulation product and BMI as useful markers for abnormal glucose regulation in young Korean women. The lipid accumulation product was calculated using the formula [waist circumference (cm) - 58] × triglycerides (mmol/l). Glucose tolerance status was determined using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in 2810 Korean women aged 18-39 years from the general population. The prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation was 6.8% (isolated impaired fasting glucose 1.8%, isolated impaired glucose tolerance 4.0%; impaired fasting glucose + impaired glucose tolerance 0.4% and diabetes mellitus 0.6%). According to the quintile distributions of the lipid accumulation product and BMI, women with a lipid accumulation product quintile greater than their BMI quintile exhibited significantly greater areas under the curve and higher levels of 2-h post-load glucose, insulin, homeostasis model analysis of insulin resistance and lipid profiles than did women with a BMI quintile greater than their lipid accumulation product quintile. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the lipid accumulation product exhibited a higher odds ratio for abnormal glucose regulation than did BMI after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, previous history of gestational diabetes and family history of diabetes (odds ratios 3.5 and 2.6 of the highest vs. the lowest quintiles of lipid accumulation product and BMI, respectively). The lipid accumulation product could be useful for identifying the young Korean women with abnormal glucose regulation. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  12. Upper intestinal lipids regulate energy and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Grace W C; Kokorovic, Andrea; Lam, Tony K T

    2009-09-01

    Upon the entry of nutrients into the small intestine, nutrient sensing mechanisms are activated to allow the body to adapt appropriately to the incoming nutrients. To date, mounting evidence points to the existence of an upper intestinal lipid-induced gut-brain neuronal axis to regulate energy homeostasis. Moreover, a recent discovery has also revealed an upper intestinal lipid-induced gut-brain-liver neuronal axis involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In this mini-review, we will focus on the mechanisms underlying the activation of these respective neuronal axes by upper intestinal lipids.

  13. Relationships between obesity, lipids and fasting glucose in the menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netjasov, Aleksandra Simoncig; Vujović, Svetlana; Ivović, Miomira; Tancić-Gajić, Milina; Marina, Ljiljana; Barać, Marija

    2013-01-01

    Menopause leads to the development of central adiposity, a more atherogenic lipid profile and increased incidence of metabolic syndrome independent of age and other factors. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between anthropometric characteristics, sex hormones, lipids and fasting glucose in menopausal women. The study included 87 menopausal women, who where divided into groups according to two criteria: BMI > or = 26.7 kg/m2 and BMI > or = 25 kg/m2. Anthropometric characteristics and blood pressure were measured. Blood was taken at 08.00 h for fasting glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, apolipoprotein A, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Significant differences between groups were found for weight, BMI, waist, hips circumference, waist/hip ratio (WHR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Lp(a), FSH, LH, PRL (for systolic blood pressure p fasting glucose (p obese and overweight women with BMI > or = 26.7 kg/m2 significant negative correlations were found for FSH and glucose, SHBG and LDL, SHBG and total cholesterol, SHBG and glucose, BMI and HDL, WC and HDL. In obese and overweight women with BMI > or = 25 kg/m2 significant negative correlations were found for BMI and HDL, waist circumference (WC) and HDL, WHR and HDL, FSH and glucose, SHBG and glucose; significant positive correlations were between BMI and glucose, WC and glucose and WHR with triglycerides. Gaining weight and decreased SHBG are related to dyslipidemia and increased fasting glucose confirming increased incidence of metabolic abnormalities in the menopause.

  14. Changes in blood glucose and plasma lipids during gestation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten female Chinchilla rabbits with mean weight (1.9±0.1kg) were randomly assigned into two groups comprising of five each, to evaluate the changes in blood glucose and lipid profile during pregnancy. Control Group A was mated without prior synchronization, while rabbits in group B were synchronized with 0.15mg/kg ...

  15. Gut microbiota may have influence on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Tvede, Michael

    2013-01-01

    and that prebiotics, antibiotics or faecal transplantation can alter glucose and lipid metabolism. This paper summarizes the latest research regarding the association between gut microbiota, diabetes and obesity and some of the mechanisms by which gut bacteria may influence host metabolism....

  16. Dietary Fructose and Glucose Differentially Affect Lipid and Glucose Homeostasis1–3

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Ernst J.; Gleason, Joi A.; Dansinger, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first-pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these 2 monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial triglyceride (TG) levels and has little effect on serum glucose concentrations, whereas dietary glucose has the opposite effects. When dietary glucose and fructose have been directly compared at ∼20–25% ...

  17. Blood Glucose Levels and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Weyand, David

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between varying blood glucose levels and problem behavior during daily scheduled activities was examined. The effects that varying blood glucose levels had on problem behavior during daily scheduled activities were examined. Prior research has shown that differing blood glucose levels can affect behavior and mood. Results of this…

  18. Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on the Serum Glucose and Lipids of Women with Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Nasrin Babadai; Jokar, Azam; Soveid, Mahmood; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering folkloric use of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) in diabetes and proven anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of T. terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydro alcoholic extract of T. terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Ninety-eight diabetic women were randomly allocated to receive the T. terrestris (1000 mg/day) or placebo for three months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile. Results: T. terrestris showed a significant blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic women compared to placebo (Pterrestris group was significantly reduced compared with placebo, while no significant effect was observed in the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels. Conclusion: This study showed preliminary promising hypoglycemic effect of T. terrestris in diabetic women. PMID:27840471

  19. Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on the Serum Glucose and Lipids of Women with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Nasrin Babadai; Jokar, Azam; Soveid, Mahmood; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah

    2016-05-01

    Considering folkloric use of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) in diabetes and proven anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of T. terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydro alcoholic extract of T. terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with diabetes mellitus. Ninety-eight diabetic women were randomly allocated to receive the T. terrestris (1000 mg/day) or placebo for three months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile. T. terrestris showed a significant blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic women compared to placebo (Pterrestris group was significantly reduced compared with placebo, while no significant effect was observed in the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels. This study showed preliminary promising hypoglycemic effect of T. terrestris in diabetic women.

  20. ( Myrciaria jaboticaba ) peel on blood glucose and cholesterol levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Berg) peel was lyophilized and the proximate composition, total anthocyanins and polyphenolic content were determined. The effect of the freeze-dried jaboticaba peels (FJP) in the plasmatic levels of glucose, lipid fractions, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in Wistar adult male rats was ...

  1. Plasma kinetics of an LDL-like nanoemulsion and lipid transfer to HDL in subjects with glucose intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina P Bertato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Glucose intolerance is frequently associated with an altered plasma lipid profile and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Nonetheless, lipid metabolism is scarcely studied in normolipidemic glucose-intolerant patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether important lipid metabolic parameters, such as the kinetics of LDL free and esterified cholesterol and the transfer of lipids to HDL, are altered in glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids. METHODS: Fourteen glucose-intolerant patients and 15 control patients were studied; none of the patients had cardiovascular disease manifestations, and they were paired for age, sex, race and co-morbidities. A nanoemulsion resembling a LDL lipid composition (LDE labeled with 14C-cholesteryl ester and ³H-free cholesterol was intravenously injected, and blood samples were collected over a 24-h period to determine the fractional clearance rate of the labels by compartmental analysis. The transfer of free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids from the LDE to HDL was measured by the incubation of the LDE with plasma and radioactivity counting of the supernatant after chemical precipitation of non-HDL fractions. RESULTS: The levels of LDL, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, apo A1 and apo B were equal in both groups. The 14C-esterified cholesterol fractional clearance rate was not different between glucose-intolerant and control patients, but the ³H-free-cholesterol fractional clearance rate was greater in glucose-intolerant patients than in control patients. The lipid transfer to HDL was equal in both groups. CONCLUSION: In these glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids, a faster removal of LDE free cholesterol was the only lipid metabolic alteration detected in our study. This finding suggests that the dissociation of free cholesterol from lipoprotein particles occurs in normolipidemic glucose intolerance and may participate in

  2. Cocoa and Whey Protein Differentially Affect Markers of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism and Satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Caroline L; Foegeding, E Allen; Harris, G Keith

    2016-03-01

    Food formulation with bioactive ingredients is a potential strategy to promote satiety and weight management. Whey proteins are high in leucine and are shown to decrease hunger ratings and increase satiety hormone levels; cocoa polyphenolics moderate glucose levels and slow digestion. This study examined the effects of cocoa and whey proteins on lipid and glucose metabolism and satiety in vitro and in a clinical trial. In vitro, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with 0.5-100 μg/mL cocoa polyphenolic extract (CPE) and/or 1-15 mM leucine (Leu) and assayed for lipid accumulation and leptin production. In vivo, a 6-week clinical trial consisted of nine panelists (age: 22.6 ± 1.7; BMI: 22.3 ± 2.1) consuming chocolate-protein beverages once per week, including placebo, whey protein isolate (WPI), low polyphenolic cocoa (LP), high polyphenolic cocoa (HP), LP-WPI, and HP-WPI. Measurements included blood glucose and adiponectin levels, and hunger ratings at baseline and 0.5-4.0 h following beverage consumption. At levels of 50 and 100 μg/mL, CPE significantly inhibited preadipocyte lipid accumulation by 35% and 50%, respectively, and by 22% and 36% when combined with 15 mM Leu. Leu treatment increased adipocyte leptin production by 26-37%. In the clinical trial, all beverages significantly moderated blood glucose levels 30 min postconsumption. WPI beverages elicited lowest peak glucose levels and HP levels were significantly lower than LP. The WPI and HP beverage treatments significantly increased adiponectin levels, but elicited no significant changes in hunger ratings. These trends suggest that combinations of WPI and cocoa polyphenols may improve markers of metabolic syndrome and satiety.

  3. Effects of intermittent fasting on glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Rona; Johnston, Kelly L; Collins, Adam L; Robertson, M Denise

    2017-08-01

    Two intermittent fasting variants, intermittent energy restriction (IER) and time-restricted feeding (TRF), have received considerable interest as strategies for weight-management and/or improving metabolic health. With these strategies, the pattern of energy restriction and/or timing of food intake are altered so that individuals undergo frequently repeated periods of fasting. This review provides a commentary on the rodent and human literature, specifically focusing on the effects of IER and TRF on glucose and lipid metabolism. For IER, there is a growing evidence demonstrating its benefits on glucose and lipid homeostasis in the short-to-medium term; however, more long-term safety studies are required. Whilst the metabolic benefits of TRF appear quite profound in rodents, findings from the few human studies have been mixed. There is some suggestion that the metabolic changes elicited by these approaches can occur in the absence of energy restriction, and in the context of IER, may be distinct from those observed following similar weight-loss achieved via modest continuous energy restriction. Mechanistically, the frequently repeated prolonged fasting intervals may favour preferential reduction of ectopic fat, beneficially modulate aspects of adipose tissue physiology/morphology, and may also impinge on circadian clock regulation. However, mechanistic evidence is largely limited to findings from rodent studies, thus necessitating focused human studies, which also incorporate more dynamic assessments of glucose and lipid metabolism. Ultimately, much remains to be learned about intermittent fasting (in its various forms); however, the findings to date serve to highlight promising avenues for future research.

  4. Regulation of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism by Phosphatidylcholine Transfer Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye Won; Wei, Jie; Cohen, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP, a.k.a. StARD2) binds phosphatidylcholines and catalyzes their intermembrane transfer and exchange in vitro. The structure of PC-TP comprises a hydrophobic pocket and a well-defined head-group binding site, and its gene expression is regulated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α. Recent studies have revealed key regulatory roles for PC-TP in lipid and glucose metabolism. Notably, Pctp−/− mice are sensitized to insulin action and exhibit more efficient brown fat-mediated thermogenesis. PC-TP appears to limit access of fatty acids to mitochondria by stimulating the activity of thioesterase superfamily member 2, a newly characterized long-chain fatty acyl-CoA thioesterase. Because PC-TP discriminates among phosphatidylcholines within lipid bilayers, it may function as a sensor that links metabolic regulation to membrane composition. PMID:20338778

  5. Gut microbiota may have influence on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk; Nielsen, Morten Frost; Tvede, Michael

    2013-01-01

    and that prebiotics, antibiotics or faecal transplantation can alter glucose and lipid metabolism. This paper summarizes the latest research regarding the association between gut microbiota, diabetes and obesity and some of the mechanisms by which gut bacteria may influence host metabolism.......New gene sequencing-based techniques and the large worldwide sequencing capacity have introduced a new era within the field of gut microbiota. Animal and human studies have shown that obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with changes in the composition of the gut microbiota...

  6. Gut microbiota may have influence on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk; Nielsen, Morten Frost; Tvede, Michael

    2013-01-01

    New gene sequencing-based techniques and the large worldwide sequencing capacity have introduced a new era within the field of gut microbiota. Animal and human studies have shown that obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with changes in the composition of the gut microbiota...... and that prebiotics, antibiotics or faecal transplantation can alter glucose and lipid metabolism. This paper summarizes the latest research regarding the association between gut microbiota, diabetes and obesity and some of the mechanisms by which gut bacteria may influence host metabolism....

  7. Arrhythmia causes lipid accumulation and reduced glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Matthias; Schleider, Gregor; Kohlhaas, Michael; Adrian, Lucas; Adam, Oliver; Tian, Qinghai; Kaestner, Lars; Lipp, Peter; Lehrke, Michael; Maack, Christoph; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is characterized by irregular contractions of atrial cardiomyocytes and increased energy demand. The aim of this study was to characterize the influence of arrhythmia on glucose and fatty acid (FA) metabolism in cardiomyocytes, mice and human left atrial myocardium. Compared to regular pacing, irregular (pseudo-random variation at the same number of contractions/min) pacing of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes induced shorter action potential durations and effective refractory periods and increased diastolic [Ca(2+)]c. This was associated with the activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Membrane expression of fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) and (14)C-palmitic acid uptake were augmented while membrane expression of glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT-4) as well as (3)H-glucose uptake were reduced. Inhibition of AMPK and CaMKII prevented these arrhythmia-induced metabolic changes. Similar alterations of FA metabolism were observed in a transgenic mouse model (RacET) for spontaneous AF. Consistent with these findings samples of left atrial myocardium of patients with AF compared to matched samples of patients with sinus rhythm showed up-regulation of CaMKII and AMPK and increased membrane expression of FAT/CD36, resulting in lipid accumulation. These changes of FA metabolism were accompanied by decreased membrane expression of GLUT-4, increased glycogen content and increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein bax. Irregular pacing of cardiomyocytes increases diastolic [Ca(2+)]c and activation of CaMKII and AMPK resulting in lipid accumulation, reduced glucose uptake and increased glycogen synthesis. These metabolic changes are accompanied by an activation of pro-apoptotic signalling pathways.

  8. The effects of sertraline on blood lipids, glucose, insulin and HBA1C levels: A prospective clinical trial on depressive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kesim

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Sertraline-treated patients have to be followed up for blood insulin and triglyceride levels. In addition, their treatment plan needs to be adjusted as necessary to prevent possible metabolic changes.

  9. Trace glucose and lipid metabolism in high androgen and high-fat diet induced polycystic ovary syndrome rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai Hua-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and dyslipidemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of different metabolic pathways in the development of diabetes mellitus in high-androgen female mice fed with a high-fat diet. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: the control group(C, n = 10; the andronate-treated group (Andronate, n = 10 (treated with andronate, 1 mg/100 g body weight/day for 8 weeks; and the andronate-treated and high-fat diet group (Andronate+HFD, n = 10. The rate of glucose appearance (Ra of glucose, gluconeogenesis (GNG, and the rate of glycerol appearance (Ra of glycerol were assessed with a stable isotope tracer. The serum sex hormone levels, insulin levels, glucose concentration, and the lipid profile were also measured. Results Compared with control group, both andronate-treated groups exhibited obesity with higher insulin concentrations (P P Conclusions Andronate with HFD rat model showed ovarian and metabolic features of PCOS, significant increase in glucose Ra, GNG, and lipid profiles, as well as normal blood glucose levels. Therefore, aberrant IR, increased glucose Ra, GNG, and lipid metabolism may represent the early-stage of glucose and lipid kinetics disorder, thereby might be used as potential early-stage treatment targets for PCOS.

  10. Correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fildzah Rahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a syndrome in metabolism of carbohydrates which indicated by the increased level of blood glucose and also may increase salivary glucose levels. Oral ulcer has been frequently recognized in diabetic patients, which can be due to increased glucose in oral fluids and immune dysfunction. This study aimed to determine the correlation of blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels with oral ulcer in diabetic patients. Analytic observational study was carried out through the determination of blood glucose levels just by way of strip using a glucometer and salivary glucose levels with the method "GOD-PAP test enzymatic colorimetric". Oral ulcer was determined in presenting ulcer on 30 patients with DM. The results showed r = 0.228, which is higher salivary glucose levels followed by high levels of blood glucose, and intraoral examination of oral ulcer found in the whole sample and the most location commonly found in buccal mucosa and lingual. It was concluded that there is a correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels, and glucose levels affect the occurrence of oral ulcer in patients with DM

  11. [Effect of autogenic training on glucose regulation and lipid status in non-insulin dependent diabetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić, N; Secen, S

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the benefits of autogenic training in patients with type 2 diabetes and 40 diabetics treated with oral antidiabetic agents were assigned to receive autogenic training. Treatment effects on GHb levels, glycemia, lipids and lipid peroxidases were evaluated after 12 weeks. Subjects demonstrated significant improvements of GHb level (8.94 +/- 2.21% vs. 7.9 +/- 2.395) (p autogenic training (1.21 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.36 +/- 1.42) (p training (6.63 +/- 1.66 mmol/l vs. 6.10 +/- 1.12 mmol/l) (p Autogenic training in selected patients, especially those who are most responsive to stress would provide benefits for glucosE control and lipid metabolism that are not always achieved by conventional treatment.

  12. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rabbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated (n = 10) groups. After diabetes induction, the animals were investigated for daily glucose measurements for 35 days. Serum lipid profile and haemoglobin A1c (HbA(1c)) were assayed at the baseline (before induction of diabetes) and at 35-day follow-up. The glycaemia levels in the rats treated with opium were similar to the levels measured in the control rats (544.8 +/- 62.2 mg/dl v. 524.6 +/- 50.0 mg/dl, P = 0.434). In addition, there was no difference between the opium-treated rats and control rats in HbA(1c) (6.5 +/- 0.5% v. 6.6 +/- 0.2%, P = 0.714). Compared to the control rats, the serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride and lipoprotein (a) in the test animals were similar. Opium use has no significant effect on glucose metabolism and serum lipid profile in rats with induced diabetes.

  13. The Effect of Hippocampal Cognitive Impairment and XIAP on Glucose and Lipids Metabolism in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunbo Xia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To investigate the effect of cognitive impairment and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP on glucolipid metabolism. Materials and Methods: β-amyloid (Aβ 1-42 was injected into the hippocampus of rats to establish a cognitive impairment model. Trans-activator of transcription (TAT-XIAP fusion protein (the TAT-XIAP group, PBS (the model group, or XIAP antisense oligonucleotides (the ASODN group was injected into the lateral ventricles of the rats to increase and decrease the activity of XIAP in the hippocampus. To determine the level of blood glucose and lipids, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK expression of liver and hipppocamual neuronal apoptosis. Results: The levels of FPG, TG, TC and LDL were significantly higher in the TAT-XIAP group, the model group and the ASODN group than in the blank group (P Conclusion: Cognitive impairment and hippocampal neuron apoptosis can cause glucose and lipids metabolic abnormalities, possibly by regulating gastrointestinal motility and AMPK expression in the liver. The changes in the function of XIAP, which is an anti-apoptotic protein in the hippocampus, may affect the metabolism of glucose and lipids.

  14. The association between estimated average glucose levels and fasting plasma glucose levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giray Bozkaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The level of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, also known as glycated hemoglobin, determines how well a patient's blood glucose level has been controlled over the previous 8-12 weeks. HbA1c levels help patients and doctors understand whether a particular diabetes treatment is working and whether adjustments need to be made to the treatment. Because the HbA1c level is a marker of blood glucose for the previous 120 days, average blood glucose levels can be estimated using HbA1c levels. Our aim in the present study was to investigate the relationship between estimated average glucose levels, as calculated by HbA1c levels, and fasting plasma glucose levels. METHODS: The fasting plasma glucose levels of 3891 diabetic patient samples (1497 male, 2394 female were obtained from the laboratory information system used for HbA1c testing by the Department of Internal Medicine at the Izmir Bozyaka Training and Research Hospital in Turkey. These samples were selected from patient samples that had hemoglobin levels between 12 and 16 g/dL. The estimated glucose levels were calculated using the following formula: 28.7 x HbA1c - 46.7. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined using hexokinase and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC methods, respectively. RESULTS: A strong positive correlation between fasting plasma glucose levels and estimated average blood glucose levels (r=0.757, p<0.05 was observed. The difference was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Reporting the estimated average glucose level together with the HbA1c level is believed to assist patients and doctors determine the effectiveness of blood glucose control measures.

  15. [Lipid and glucose profile in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular accidents in Dakar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousmane, Cisse; Lemine, Dadah Samy Mohamed; Fatoumata, Ba; Makhtar, Ba El Hadji; Soda, Diop Marieme; Side, Diagne Ngor; Dieynaba, Sow Adjaratou; Modji, Basse Anna; Kamadore, Touré; Moustapha, Ndiaye; Gallo, Diop Amadou; Mansour, Ndiaye Mouhamadou

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is defined as the rapid development of localized or global clinical signs of neurological dysfunction with no apparent cause other than that of vascular origin. A variety of risk factors have been identified and associated with the occurrence of Ischemic CVA, including glucose and lipid metabolism disturbances. We conducted a retrospective study at the Clinic of Neurology, Fann. Our study focused on medical records of patients with ICVA confirmed by imaging, hospitalized from January 1 to December 31 2010. All patients underwent complete lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL; LDL level was calculated using Friedwald formula), kidney function tests and fasting blood sugar test were performed within 48 hours of admission. Data were analysed using univariate technique and then using bivariate technique tanks to SPSS 16.0 software. We collected 235 files. We here report a case series of patients between ages 10-99 years, with an average age of 67,06 years. Males were 42,55%, sex-ratio was 0,74 in favour of women. 26% of cases had impaired fasting glucose levels during the acute phase of ICVA. The lipid profile showed an increase in total cholesterol level in 52.34% of patients. Low levels of HDL cholesterol were found in 34.47% of patients. Hypertriglyceridemia was only observed in 3% of patients. LDL levels were high in 12,76% of patients. Atherogenicity index was high in 25,53% of patients. Disturbances of blood glucose and lipid profile are often associated with ICVA and should be taken into account to ensure better secondary prevention.

  16. Tesaglitazar, a dual PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonist, ameliorates glucose and lipid intolerance in obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Nicholas D; Thalén, Pia; Hultstrand, Therese; Jacinto, Severina; Camejo, Germán; Wallin, Boel; Ljung, Bengt

    2005-10-01

    Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, high circulating levels of free fatty acids (FFA), and postprandial hyperlipidemia are associated with the metabolic syndrome, which has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We studied the metabolic responses to an oral glucose/triglyceride (TG) (1.7/2.0 g/kg lean body mass) load in three groups of conscious 7-h fasted Zucker rats: lean healthy controls, obese insulin-resistant/dyslipidemic controls, and obese rats treated with the dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha/gamma agonist, tesaglitazar, 3 mumol.kg(-1).day(-1) for 4 wk. Untreated obese Zucker rats displayed marked insulin resistance, as well as glucose and lipid intolerance in response to the glucose/TG load. The 2-h postload area under the curve values were greater for glucose (+19%), insulin (+849%), FFA (+53%), and TG (+413%) compared with untreated lean controls. Treatment with tesaglitazar lowered fasting plasma glucose, improved glucose tolerance, substantially reduced fasting and postload insulin levels, and markedly lowered fasting TG and improved lipid tolerance. Fasting FFA were not affected, but postprandial FFA suppression was restored to levels seen in lean controls. Mechanisms of tesaglitazar-induced lowering of plasma TG were studied separately using the Triton WR1339 method. In anesthetized, 5-h fasted, obese Zucker rats, tesaglitazar reduced hepatic TG secretion by 47%, increased plasma TG clearance by 490%, and reduced very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) apolipoprotein CIII content by 86%, compared with obese controls. In conclusion, the glucose/lipid tolerance test in obese Zucker rats appears to be a useful model of the metabolic syndrome that can be used to evaluate therapeutic effects on impaired postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism. The present work demonstrates that tesaglitazar ameliorates these abnormalities and enhances insulin sensitivity in this animal model.

  17. Raised concentrations of lipid peroxidation products (LPO in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof C. Lewandowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Lipid peroxidation (LPO results from oxidative damage to membrane lipids. Whereas LPO rises in normal pregnancy, the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM on this process has not been clearly defined. materials and method. Fasting blood concentrations of malondialdehyde+4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA+4-HDA, as LPO index, TNFa soluble receptors (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2, and soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, were measured in 51 women at 28 weeks of gestation. The women were divided according to the results of 50.0 g glucose challenge test (GCT and 75.0 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT: Controls (n=20, normal responses to both GCT and OGTT; Intermediate Group (IG (n=15, abnormal GCT but normal OGTT; GDM group (n=16, abnormal both GCT and OGTT. results. Glucose concentrations in women diagnosed with GDM were within the range of impaired glucose tolerance. There were no significant differences in concentrations of either TNF a soluble receptors R1 and R2, or sICAM-1 or sVCAM-1. LPO concentrations [MDA+4-HDA (nmol/mg protein] were significantly higher in women with GDM than in the other two groups [64.1±24.3 (mean±SD, 39.3±23.1, 47.0±18.1, for GDM, IG and Controls, respectively; p<0.05]. In multivariate analysis, the only significant independent correlation was between LPO level and glucose at 120 minutes of OGTT (rs=0.42; p=0.009. conclusions. Oxidative damage to membrane lipids is increased in GDM and might result directly from hyperglycaemia. Physiological significance of this phenomenon remains to be elucidated.

  18. Genetic architecture of circulating lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirkan, Ayşe; Amin, Najaf; Isaacs, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC) are important heritable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of circulating lipid...... the ENGAGE Consortium GWAS on serum lipids, were applied to predict lipid levels in an independent population-based study, the Rotterdam Study-II (RS-II). We additionally tested for evidence of a shared genetic basis for different lipid phenotypes. Finally, the polygenic score approach was used to identify...... an alternative genome-wide significance threshold before pathway analysis and those results were compared with those based on the classical genome-wide significance threshold. Our study provides evidence suggesting that many loci influencing circulating lipid levels remain undiscovered. Cross-prediction models...

  19. Correlation of Salivary Glucose Level with Blood Glucose Level in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arati S. Panchbhai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is alarming rise in number of people with diabetes mellitus over these years. If glucose in saliva is linked to glucose in blood it can be used to detect diabetes mellitus at an early stage. The present study is undertaken with the aim to assess the correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in people with diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods: For investigations, 2 sets of samples of people with diabetes and the age and sex matched non-diabetic subjects were recruited. The salivary glucose was analyzed in unstimulated whole saliva samples using glucose oxidase method. Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was applied to assess the correlation between salivary glucose level and blood glucose level. Results: The significant (P < 0.05 positive correlation of salivary glucose level and fasting blood glucose level was observed in people with uncontrolled diabetes in both the sets of samples.Conclusions: Although study suggests some potential for saliva as a marker in monitoring of diabetes mellitus, there are many aspects that need clarification before we reach to a conclusion.

  20. Effect of Andrographolide‭ Extract on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Rats with Secondary Iron Overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    َArash Mehri Pirayvatlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Iron overload is involved in the pathophysiology of many diseases including diabetes. In fact, the excess iron by creating free radicals makes damage to pancreas and leads to insulin resistance and diabetes. Andrographolide extract has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. This study has surveyed the effects of andrographolide on blood glucose and lipid profile in rats with secondary iron overload. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: the healthy control group, secondary iron overload group, secondary iron overload groups treated with a dose of 3.5 and 7 mg/kg of andrographolide extract, and andrographolide groups treated with a dose of 3.5 and 7 mg/kg of extract. Iron and extract were injected for 6 and 12 days, respectively. Blood samples were taken for measurement of blood glucose and lipid profiles. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test. Results: The pathological results of samples from liver of animals receiving iron showed that the iron was deposited in the liver tissues. Iron injection significantly increased blood glucose levels compared to healthy control group (p<0.05. In the iron overload group, andrographolide extract with a dose of 3.5 mg/kg or 7 mg/kg significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05. Iron injections did not increase the serum triglyceride and cholesterollevels. Injections of andrographolide extract with a dose of 3.5 mg/kg and 7 mg/kg, significantly decreased the cholesterol levels compared to iron receiving group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the andrographolide with different doses may be effective in the treatment of diabetes by reducing serum glucose and cholesterol levels.

  1. Association between blood glucose level derived using the oral glucose tolerance test and glycated hemoglobin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Joo; Kim, Young Geon; Park, Jin Soo; Ahn, Young Hwan; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-05-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is widely used as a marker of glycemic control. Translation of the HbA1c level to an average blood glucose level is useful because the latter figure is easily understood by patients. We studied the association between blood glucose levels revealed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c levels in a Korean population. A total of 1,000 subjects aged 30 to 64 years from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort were included. Fasting glucose levels, post-load glucose levels at 30, 60, and 120 minutes into the OGTT, and HbA1c levels were measured. Linear regression of HbA1c with mean blood glucose levels derived using the OGTT revealed a significant correlation between these measures (predicted mean glucose [mg/dL] = 49.4 × HbA1c [%] - 149.6; R (2) = 0.54, p Glucose (ADAG) study and Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort. Discrepancies between our results and those of the ADAG study and DCCT cohort may be attributable to differences in the test methods used and the extent of insulin secretion. More studies are needed to evaluate the association between HbA1c and self monitoring blood glucose levels.

  2. Effect of Miglitol, an α-Glucosidase Inhibitor, on Postprandial Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    KANEKO Yukiyo; KUBOKI Koji; HIROI Naoki; WATANABE Takehiko; NISHIMURA Chiaki; YOSHINO Gen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The effects of miglitol on postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism were investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with diet alone. Subjects and Methods: A meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed in 26 diabetic patients before and 2 weeks after 150 mg/day miglitol treatment, with the second MTT performed in patients after they had taken a dose of 50 mg miglitol. Results: Miglitol treatment decreased postprandial blood glucose and serum insulin levels 30...

  3. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 + 0.7% and 8.8 + 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 + 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 + 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 + 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  4. Overexpression of SIRT1 in mouse forebrain impairs lipid/glucose metabolism and motor function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Wu

    Full Text Available SIRT1 plays crucial roles in glucose and lipid metabolism, and has various functions in different tissues including brain. The brain-specific SIRT1 knockout mice display defects in somatotropic signaling, memory and synaptic plasticity. And the female mice without SIRT1 in POMC neuron are more sensitive to diet-induced obesity. Here we created transgenic mice overexpressing SIRT1 in striatum and hippocampus under the control of CaMKIIα promoter. These mice, especially females, exhibited increased fat accumulation accompanied by significant upregulation of adipogenic genes in white adipose tissue. Glucose tolerance of the mice was also impaired with decreased Glut4 mRNA levels in muscle. Moreover, the SIRT1 overexpressing mice showed decreased energy expenditure, and concomitantly mitochondria-related genes were decreased in muscle. In addition, these mice showed unusual spontaneous physical activity pattern, decreased activity in open field and rotarod performance. Further studies demonstrated that SIRT1 deacetylated IRS-2, and upregulated phosphorylation level of IRS-2 and ERK1/2 in striatum. Meanwhile, the neurotransmitter signaling in striatum and the expression of endocrine hormones in hypothalamus and serum T3, T4 levels were altered. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that SIRT1 in forebrain regulates lipid/glucose metabolism and motor function.

  5. Lipid and glucose metabolism of broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 oocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLC Freitas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipid and glucose metabolism of 76 ten-day-old Cobb male broilers, experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, was studied for 30 days. Birds were distributed in 2 groups: one infected with 1x10(6 E. acervulina sporulated oocysts, and the other inoculated with distilled water. Pathological e biochemical liver changes were assessed, as well as plasma glucose concentrations and total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, fatty-acid, and triglyceride levels in the serum. The infected broilers presented hypoglycemia associated with a reduction in liver glycogen. In addition, these birds developed fatty liver, and there were changes in all lipid classes in the serum. Lipid and glucose metabolism was dramatically changed in broilers experimentally infected with 1x10(6 E. acervulina oocysts.

  6. Correlation of Salivary Glucose Level with Blood Glucose Level in Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Arati S. Panchbhai

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives There is alarming rise in number of people with diabetes mellitus over these years. If glucose in saliva is linked to glucose in blood it can be used to detect diabetes mellitus at an early stage. The present study is undertaken with the aim to assess the correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in people with diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods For investigations, 2 sets of samples of people with diabetes and the age and sex matched non-diabetic ...

  7. Glucose and lipid profile of obese dogs fed with different starchy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Lorenção Feitosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Among the health disorders caused by obesity in dogs stand out hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Glycemic responses are directly related to the amount and type of starch. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of different sources of starch on glycemic and lipid levels in obese dogs. These dogs were distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial 3x2x2 (three sources starchy - corn (60%, sorghum (60% and corn: sorghum (30:30%, two breeds - Beagle and Dachshund and males and females. After 28 days of experiment, dogs fed with corn had higher amounts of glucose (93.79A mg dL-1 (P0.05. Thus, dogs that consumed corn had a higher glycemic peak in a shorter time compared with dogs that ingested sorghum. Furthermore, the dogs fed with diet containing sorghum showed lower levels of fructosamine that dogs that ingested corn diet (P<0.05 demonstrating that the diet containing sorghum maintained blood glucose over a longer time period that reduces the fluctuation of glucose in dogs. At 56 and 112 days of the experiment, a positive correlation between glucose levels and body weight (P<0.05 was also observed. At 28, 56, 84 and 112 days, Beagle dogs showed higher serum concentrations of total cholesterol compared with Dachshund dogs (P<0.05. It was concluded that the starchy source and breed can interfere with metabolic rates of obese dogs.

  8. Effects of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure control on recovery of patients with gastric cancer complicated with metabolic syndrome after radical gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Zhou, Pingping; Hua, Qingli; Jin, Changming; Guo, Chunling; Song, Bing

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure control on recovery of patients with gastric cancer complicated with metabolic syndrome (MS) after radical gastrectomy. A total of 150 patients with gastric cancer, who were treated in Daqing Longnan Hospital from November, 2015 to May, 2017, were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into the MS group (80 cases) and non-MS group (70 cases). Patients in the MS group were given corresponding drugs to control blood pressure, blood lipids and blood glucose, while patients in the non-MS group were not treated with those drugs. Patients in the MS group were divided into the normal and abnormal groups according to the levels of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure. Moreover, occurrences of complications were compared between the normal and abnormal groups. Before surgery, blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure in the MS group were significantly higher than those in the non-MS group (pblood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure of the MS group decreased significantly compared to those before operation (pblood glucose, 2 h postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, total triglycerides (TGs), LDL, mean blood pressure and BMI (pblood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure in patients with gastric cancer complicated with MS after radical gastrectomy can reduce the incidence of postoperative complications and promote postoperative recovery.

  9. Effects of Zinc Supplementation on the Anthropometric Measurements, Lipid Profiles and Fasting Blood Glucose in the Healthy Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepide Mahluji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on anthropometric measures, improving lipid profile biomarkers, and fasting blood glucose level in obese people. Methods: This randomized, double- blind clinical trial was carried out on 60 obese participants in the 18-45 age range for one month. The participants were randomly divided into the intervention group, who received 30 mg/d zinc gluconate, and the placebo group who received 30mg/d starch. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI, weight and waist circumference were recorded before and at the end of study. Lipid profile biomarkers and fasting blood glucose were determined using enzymatic procedure. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA test was run to compare the post-treatment values of the two groups, and t-test was conducted to compare within group changes. Results: Serum zinc concentration was increased significantly in intervention group (p=0.024. BMI and body weight was significantly decreased (p=0.030 and p=0.020, respectively. Lipid profile biomarkers and fating blood glucose did not change significantly but triglyceride level was significantly decreased (p=0.006 in the intervention group. Conclusion: The obtained results indicate that zinc supplementation improves BMI, body weight, and triglyceride concentration without considerable effects on lipid profile and glucose level. Zinc can be suggested as a suitable supplementation therapy for obese people, but more studies are needed to verify the results.

  10. Body mass index and serum lipid levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Javier Navarrete Mejía

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the association between the body mass index (BMI and serum lipid levels in adult people. Material and Methods: Observational, transversal and retrospective study. Non experimental investigation design. The population was conformed for people treated in private health centers in Metropolitan Lima. The evaluations of the BMI and the laboratorial tests to know the seric concentration of lipids were taken between October 2014 and October 2015. It was determined the association between the BMI and the seric lipid levels using the Chi2 test. People with comorbidity that could modify the seric levels of lipids were excluded. Results: 39.7% of people studied were male and 60.3% were female. The average age was 34.2 years old. 40.7% (1227/3016 of population were obese and overweight. The results show a higher level of obesity or overweight in male people over female (54.6% and 33% respectively. 19.7% (594/3016 of the tested people presented high triglycerides seric levels. 27.9% (841/3016 presented high cholesterol levels and 38.8% (1146/3016 presented low cHDL levels. The cLDL levels and cVLDL levels were similar in both groups (male and female. Conclusions: The investigation determined the significant statistical association between the BMI and triglycerides (p < 0.05, cholesterol (p < 0.05 and cHDL (p < 0.05.

  11. Roles of Chlorogenic Acid on Regulating Glucose and Lipids Metabolism: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengxi Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular glucose and lipid metabolic homeostasis is vital for maintaining basic life activities of a cell or an organism. Glucose and lipid metabolic disorders are closely related with the occurrence and progression of diabetes, obesity, hepatic steatosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Chlorogenic acid (CGA, one of the most abundant polyphenol compounds in the human diet, is a group of phenolic secondary metabolites produced by certain plant species and is an important component of coffee. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that CGA exerts many biological properties, including antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic activities. Recently, the roles and applications of CGA, particularly in relation to glucose and lipid metabolism, have been highlighted. This review addresses current studies investigating the roles of CGA in glucose and lipid metabolism.

  12. Effect of Camel Milk's Supplementation on Serum Glucose Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Camel Milk, Serum glucose, Lipid profile, Diabetes. INTRODUCTION. Diabetes is ... all products of Randox Laboratories, Switzerland. Fresh camel milk samples .... Abbott, R.D., Wilson, P.W., Kannel, W.B. and. Castelli, W.P. (1988).

  13. Daidzin decreases blood glucose and lipid in streptozotocin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hyperglycemic mice and improved oral glucose tolerance. The serum and ... Inhibition of α-glucosidase and stimulation of glucose consumption by muscles may account for ..... induced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and fibrinolysis ...

  14. Blood glucose level reconstruction as a function of transcapillary glucose transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutny, Tomas

    2014-10-01

    A diabetic patient occasionally undergoes a detailed monitoring of their glucose levels. Over the course of a few days, a monitoring system provides a detailed track of their interstitial fluid glucose levels measured in their subcutaneous tissue. A discrepancy in the blood and interstitial fluid glucose levels is unimportant because the blood glucose levels are not measured continuously. Approximately five blood glucose level samples are taken per day, and the interstitial fluid glucose level is usually measured every 5min. An increased frequency of blood glucose level sampling would cause discomfort for the patient; thus, there is a need for methods to estimate blood glucose levels from the glucose levels measured in subcutaneous tissue. The Steil-Rebrin model is widely used to describe the relationship between blood and interstitial fluid glucose dynamics. However, we measured glucose level patterns for which the Steil-Rebrin model does not hold. Therefore, we based our research on a different model that relates present blood and interstitial fluid glucose levels to future interstitial fluid glucose levels. Using this model, we derived an improved model for calculating blood glucose levels. In the experiments conducted, this model outperformed the Steil-Rebrin model while introducing no additional requirements for glucose sample collection. In subcutaneous tissue, 26.71% of the calculated blood glucose levels had absolute values of relative differences from smoothed measured blood glucose levels less than or equal to 5% using the Steil-Rebrin model. However, the same difference interval was encountered in 63.01% of the calculated blood glucose levels using the proposed model. In addition, 79.45% of the levels calculated with the Steil-Rebrin model compared with 95.21% of the levels calculated with the proposed model had 20% difference intervals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Shigetomo; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Maejima, Yuko; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-08-09

    Adiponectin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, acting against metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggest that adiponectin acts on the brain including hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), where proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons play key roles in feeding regulation. Several studies have examined intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of adiponectin and reported opposite effects, increase or decrease of food intake. These reports used different nutritional states. The present study aimed to clarify whether adiponectin exerts distinct effects on food intake and ARC POMC neurons depending on the glucose concentration. Adiponectin was ICV injected with or without glucose for feeding experiments and administered to ARC slices with high or low glucose for patch clamp experiments. We found that adiponectin at high glucose inhibited POMC neurons and increased food intake while at low glucose it exerted opposite effects. The results demonstrate that glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding.

  16. Correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shreya; Nayak, Meghanand T; Sunitha, J D; Dawar, Geetanshu; Sinha, Nidhi; Rallan, Neelakshi Singh

    2017-01-01

    Saliva is a unique fluid, which is important for normal functioning of the oral cavity. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of absolute or relative insulin deficiency characterized by insufficient secretion of insulin by pancreatic beta-cells. The diagnosis of diabetes through blood is difficult in children, older adults, debilitated and chronically ill patients, so diagnosis by analysis of saliva can be potentially valuable as collection of saliva is noninvasive, easier and technically insensitive, unlike blood. The aim of the study was to correlate blood glucose level (BGL) and salivary glucose level (SGL) in DM patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 120 patients, who were categorized as 40 controlled diabetics, 40 uncontrolled diabetics and 40 healthy, age- and sex-matched individuals constituted the controls. The blood and unstimulated saliva samples were collected from the patients at the different intervals for fasting, random and postprandial levels. These samples were then subjected for analysis of glucose in blood and saliva using glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent in HITACHI 902 (R) Automatic analyzer, and the results were recorded. The mean SGLs were higher in uncontrolled and controlled diabetic groups than in nondiabetic group. A highly statistically significant correlation was found between fasting saliva glucose and fasting blood glucose in all the groups. With increase in BGL, increase in SGL was observed in patients with diabetes suggesting that SGL can be used for monitoring glycemic level in DM.

  17. Work related stress and blood glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancini, A; Ricci, S; Tomei, F; Sacco, C; Pacchiarotti, A; Nardone, N; Ricci, P; Suppi, A; De Cesare, D P; Anzelmo, V; Giubilati, R; Pimpinella, B; Rosati, M V; Tomei, G

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate work-related subjective stress in a group of workers on a major Italian company in the field of healthcare through the administration of a valid "questionnaire-tool indicator" (HSE Indicator Tool), and to analyze any correlation between stress levels taken from questionnaire scores and blood glucose values. We studied a final sample consisting of 241 subjects with different tasks. The HSE questionnaire - made up of 35 items (divided into 7 organizational dimensions) with 5 possible answers - has been distributed to all the subjects in occasion of the health surveillance examinations provided by law. The questionnaire was then analyzed using its specific software to process the results related to the 7 dimensions. These results were compared using the Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression with the blood glucose values obtained from each subject. From the analysis of the data the following areas resulted critical, in other words linked to an intermediate (yellow area) or high (red area) condition of stress: sustain from managers, sustain from colleagues, quality of relationships and professional changes. A significant positive correlation (p work stress can be statistically associated with increased levels of blood glucose.

  18. Interrelationship of growth hormone, glucose and lipid metabolism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After an overnight fast (10-12 hours), blood was taken from the subjects into heparinised tubes, centrifuged at 5,000rpm for 5 minutes and the plasma separated. Fasting plasma glucose (FBS)was determined by glucose oxidase method,, total cholesterol ,LDL, HDL and, Triglyceride were determined by enzymatic methods.

  19. High passage MIN6 cells have impaired insulin secretion with impaired glucose and lipid oxidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Cheng

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by the inability of beta-cells to secrete enough insulin to maintain glucose homeostasis. MIN6 cells secrete insulin in response to glucose and other secretagogues, but high passage (HP MIN6 cells lose their ability to secrete insulin in response to glucose. We hypothesized that metabolism of glucose and lipids were defective in HP MIN6 cells causing impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS. HP MIN6 cells had no first phase and impaired second phase GSIS indicative of global functional impairment. This was coupled with a markedly reduced ATP content at basal and glucose stimulated states. Glucose uptake and oxidation were higher at basal glucose but ATP content failed to increase with glucose. HP MIN6 cells had decreased basal lipid oxidation. This was accompanied by reduced expressions of Glut1, Gck, Pfk, Srebp1c, Ucp2, Sirt3, Nampt. MIN6 cells represent an important model of beta cells which, as passage numbers increased lost first phase but retained partial second phase GSIS, similar to patients early in type 2 diabetes onset. We believe a number of gene expression changes occurred to produce this defect, with emphasis on Sirt3 and Nampt, two genes that have been implicated in maintenance of glucose homeostasis.

  20. Total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels and measures of glucose and lipid metabolism following pioglitazone treatment in a randomized placebo-controlled study in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Frystyk, Jan; Højlund, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    and controls and examined possible mechanisms for increased insulin sensitivity during pioglitazone treatment. STUDY SUBJECTS: Thirty PCOS patients randomized to pioglitazone, 30 mg/day, or placebo for 16 weeks and 14 weight-matched healthy females were studied. DESIGN: Total and HMW adiponectin levels were...... measured, and euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamps and indirect calorimetry were performed. Delta-values denoted changes during pioglitazone treatment (16 weeks--basal). RESULTS: Pretreatment adiponectin levels were decreased in PCOS patients vs. controls (P ...OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggested that the effect of adiponectin on insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism is mediated primarily by the high molecular weight (HMW) form of adiponectin. In the present study we evaluated total and HMW adiponectin in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients...

  1. Effect of brewer’s yeast supplementation on serum glucose and lipids in type II diabetic patients with dislipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Sh. Ravanshad; H. Khosvani Borujeni; M. Soveid; B. Zeighami

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose : Chromium deficiency leads to impaired glucose and lipid metabolism. Chromium supplementation in type II diabetic patients improves glucose and lipid profiles. Organic chromium, such as found in brewer’s yeast, is much better absorbed than inorganic chromium. In this study, the effect of chromium supplementation in the form of brewer’s yeast on glucose and lipid profile of diabetic patients were evaluated.Materials and methods : In a clinical trial study (before and af...

  2. The effects of aqueous extract of water cress on the glucose and lipid plasma in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahrokhi, N.; Hadad, K.

    2009-01-01

    For treating diabetic patients, different nutrients are being used in some areas of Kennan province, Nasturtium offsinallis (NF) is one of them. In current research work, effects of NF on plasma lipid and glucose levels have been assessed in diabetic rats. In this study, 60 male rats were used. All rats randomly divided into six groups, consisting of one intact non-diabetic group, and remaining 5 groups were injected subcutaneousloy of 55 mg/kg of streptozotocin to make them experimentally diabetic. Three groups of diabetic animals were eaten orally (via gavage) of low (25 mg/kg), and high (75 mg/kg) doses of aqueous extract of NF in a volume of 1.5 ml for short period (4 weeks)and long period (8-weeks) respectively. One group of diabetic animals was given 2-4U of NPH insulin intraperitoneally (IP). The last remaining group of five diabetics was given nothing at the end of each Experiment in all groups' blood glucose and lipid levels were measured. There was significant reduction of plasma glucose in treatment groups compared to diabetic group. The greatest decrease(9 6%) was observed by the high dose long term group for NF extract) that was significantly greater than the insulin group (49%) (p<0.001). There wasn't any change in diabetic animals' total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of plasma. Both low and high doses of extracts increased LDL-cholesterol levels in diabetic animals (p<0.00 I). In diabetic animals, plasma H DL- cholesterol levels (33+-2.2) decreased by long term dose of extract. Both doses decreased plasma glucose in diabetic animal, whereas, it have not effect on plasma lipids or have negative effect, there fore this research suggested that NF extract is useful for control of blood glucose. (author)

  3. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. The Effects of Capparis Spinosa Hydroalcoholic Extract on Blood Glucose and Lipids Serum in Diabetic and Normal Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Negahdarizadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders in the world which affects glucose metabolism in the body. Diabetes mellitus is due to lack of insulin secretion and/or failure in insulin action. Researches conducted in the last few decades on plants have reported anti-diabetic properties for some herbs and their traditional use for diabetes treatment. Capparis spinosa is one of these herbs which are used as an anti-diabetic treatment in tribal medicine. The objective of the present study was to examine the anti-diabetic effects of Capparis spinosa on blood glucose and serum lipids in streptozotocin induced diabetes in male rats. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study conducted at Yasouj University of Medical Sciences in 2010, five groups of animals were selected. Three groups out of five were administered with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to become diabetic. Group I were fed normal diet. Group II of animals received 20 mg/kg/day Capparis spinosa extract. Group III received no treatment (diabetic control and animals of groups IV and V were treated with capparis spinosa fruit extract 20 and 30 mg/kg body weight respectively for three weeks. Blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and body weight were measured in all animals. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software using one-way ANOVA. Results: Treatment with the 30 mg/kg/body weight of capparis spinosa fruit extract showed a significant decrease in blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and a significant increase in HDL level. In addition, administration of 20 mg/kg/body weight of capparis spinosa extract decreased blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic rats. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the oral administration of capparis spinosa extract at the dose of 30 mg/kg/body weight has glucose and lipids lowering activity in diabetic rats.

  5. Ex vivo changes in blood glucose levels seldom change blood glucose control algorithm recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groene, L.; Harmsen, R. E.; Binnekade, J. M.; Spronk, P. E.; Schultz, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Hyperglycemia and glycemic variabilities are associated with adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. Blood glucose control with insulin mandates an adequate and precise assessment of blood glucose levels. Blood glucose levels, however, can change ex vivo after sampling. The aim of

  6. Sesame and flaxseed oil: nutritional quality and effects on serum lipids and glucose in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the nutritional value of sesame and flaxseed oils and their effects on the lipid and glucose profile of rats fed diets containing different fat combinations. Fatty acid composition, refractive index, and iodine and saponification values were analyzed to characterize the oils. In the biological assay, Wistar rats were fed different diets, whose fat composition consisted of varying combinations of flaxseed oil, sesame oil, and animal fat. The primary constituents of the sesame oil were oleic (28.6%, linoleic (28.4%, and lauric acid (14.6%; for the flaxseed oil they were alpha-linolenic (39.90%, oleic (17.97% and linoleic acid (12.25%. The iodine and saponification values of the oils were within the reference range. Rats fed flaxseed oil-based diets had the lowest serum cholesterol values, whereas rats fed diets with flaxseed oil + sesame oil + animal fat had the highest glucose levels. HDL levels decreased significantly with flaxseed oil. Sesame and flaxseed oils are sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, and the flaxseed oil-based diet had a hypocholesterolemic effect, whereas sesame oil showed oxidative stability since it contains high levels of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids.

  7. Insulin resistance and lipid profile during an oral glucose tolerance test in women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zx; Wu, Y; Zhu, Xy; Fang, Q; Chen, Dq

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare changes in insulin levels during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) during pregnancy and those with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Overall, 105 pregnant women between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation, 50 with NGT and 55 with GDM according to NDDG standard, were enrolled into the study. The levels of fasting blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) and the insulin levels, blood glucose levels at 1, 2 and 3 hours post oral glucose administration during an OGTT (5.8, 10.6, 9.2 and 8.1 mmol/L, respectively) were measured. Then, insulin resistance (IR) index was calculated. There was no significant difference in fasting, 3-h insulin levels and 3-h blood glucose levels between those with NGT and those with GDM (P > 0.05). However, 1-h and 2-h insulin levels, fasting and 1-h and 2-h blood glucose levels in women with GDM were significantly higher than those in the NGT group (P < 0.05). Fasting TC and TG levels in the GDM group were significantly higher than those with NGT (P = 0.031 and P = 0.025, respectively). Correlation analysis showed that TG and TC levels were positively correlated with homoeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) (r = 0.67 and r = 0.78, respectively; P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that insulin sensitivity in women with GDM was significantly lower than that observed in those with NGT. Reducing IR and blood lipids in women with GDM could potentially improve maternal and foetal outcomes.

  8. Associations of Body Composition Measurements with Serum Lipid, Glucose and Insulin Profile: A Chinese Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunxiao; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Zhou, Bin; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To quantitate and compare the associations of various body composition measurements with serum metabolites and to what degree genetic or environmental factors affect obesity-metabolite relation. Methods Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean body mass (LBM), percent body fat (PBF), fasting serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, insulin and lifestyle factors were assessed in 903 twins from Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from fasting serum glucose and insulin. Linear regression models and bivariate structural equation models were used to examine the relation of various body composition measurements with serum metabolite levels and genetic/environmental influences on these associations, respectively. Results At individual level, adiposity measurements (BMI, WC and PBF) showed significant associations with serum metabolite concentrations in both sexes and the associations still existed in male twins when using within-MZ twin pair comparison analyses. Associations of BMI with TG, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly stronger in male twins compared to female twins (BMI-by-sex interaction p = 0.043, 0.020 and 0.019, respectively). Comparison of various adiposity measurements with levels of serum metabolites revealed that WC explained the largest fraction of variance in serum LDL-C, TG, TC and glucose concentrations while BMI performed best in explaining variance in serum HDL-C, insulin and HOMA-IR levels. Of these phenotypic correlations, 64–81% were attributed to genetic factors, whereas 19–36% were attributed to unique environmental factors. Conclusions We observed different associations between adiposity and serum metabolite profile and demonstrated that WC and BMI explained the largest fraction of variance in serum lipid profile and insulin

  9. Effect of chromium chloride supplementation on glucose tolerance and serum lipids including high-density lipoprotein of adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riales, R; Albrink, M J

    1981-12-01

    Chromium deficiency may cause insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and hyperlipidemia, recovered by chromium supplementation. The effect of chromium supplementation on serum lipids and glucose tolerance was tested in a double-blind 12-wk study of 23 healthy adult men aged 31 to 60 yr. Either 200 micrograms trivalent chromium in 5 ml water (Cr) or 5 ml plain water (W) was ingested daily 5 days each week. Half the subjects volunteered for glucose tolerance tests with insulin levels. At 12 wk high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in the Cr group from 35 to 39 mg/dl (p less than 0.05) but did not change in the water group (34 mg/dl). The largest increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreases in insulin and glucose were found in those subjects having normal glucose levels together with elevated insulin levels at base-line. The data are thus consistent with the hypothesis that Cr supplementation raises high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improves insulin sensitivity in those with evidence of insulin resistance but normal glucose tolerance.

  10. A dual role of lipasin (betatrophin) in lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis: consensus and controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ren; Abou-Samra, Abdul B

    2014-09-13

    Metabolic syndrome includes glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia, both of which are strong risk factors for developing diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Recently, multiple groups independently studied a previously uncharacterized gene, officially named C19orf80 (human) and Gm6484 (mouse), but more commonly known as RIFL, Angptl8, betatrophin and lipasin. Both exciting and conflicting results have been obtained, and significant controversy is ongoing. Accumulating evidence from genome wide association studies and mouse genetic studies convincingly shows that lipasin is involved in lipid regulation. However, the mechanism of action, the identity of transcription factors mediating its nutritional regulation, circulating levels, and relationship among lipasin, Angptl3 and Angptl4, remain elusive. Betatrophin represents a promising drug target for replenishing β-cell mass, but current results have not been conclusive regarding its potency and specificity. Here, we summarize the consensus and controversy regarding functions of lipasin/betatrophin based on currently available evidence.

  11. Glucose Tolerance, Lipids, and GLP-1 Secretion in JCR:LA-cp Rats Fed a High Protein Fiber Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Raylene A.; Russell, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Background We have shown that individually, dietary fiber and protein increase secretion of the anorexigenic and insulinotropic hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Objective Our objective was to combine, in one diet, high levels of fiber and protein to maximize GLP-1 secretion, improve glucose tolerance, and reduce weight gain. Methods and Procedures Lean (+/?) and obese (cp/cp) male James C Russell corpulent (JCR:LA-cp) rats lacking a functional leptin receptor were fed one of four experimental diets (control, high protein (HP), high fiber (HF, prebiotic fiber inulin), or combination (CB)) for 3 weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed to evaluate plasma GLP-1, insulin and glucose. Plasma lipids and intestinal proglucagon mRNA expression were determined. Results Energy intake was lower with the HF diet in lean and obese rats. Weight gain did not differ between diets. Higher colonic proglucagon mRNA in lean rats fed a CB diet was associated with higher GLP-1 secretion during OGTT. The HP diet significantly reduced plasma glucose area under the curve (AUC) during OGTT in obese rats, which reflected both an increased GLP-1 AUC and higher fasting insulin. Diets containing inulin resulted in the lowest plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. Discussion Overall, combining HP with HF in the diet increased GLP-1 secretion in response to oral glucose, but did not improve glucose tolerance or lipid profiles more than the HF diet alone did. We also suggest that glycemic and insulinemic response to prebiotics differ among rat models and future research work should examine their role in improving glucose tolerance in diet-induced vs. genetic obesity with overt hyperleptinemia. PMID:18223610

  12. Relationship between blood glucose levels and muscle strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between blood glucose levels and muscle strength in rural South African ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... left handgrip and fasting blood glucose after adjusting for age, gender and family history of ...

  13. Glucose-induced lipid deposition in goose primary hepatocytes is dependent on the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chunchun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously we showed that fatty liver formation in overfed geese was accompanied by PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway activation and changes in plasma glucose concentrations. Here, we show that glucose acts in goose hepatocellular lipid metabolism through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. We observed that glucose increased lipogenesis, decreased fatty acid oxidation and increased very low density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG assembly and secretion. Co-treatment with glucose and inhibitors of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway (LY294002, rapamycin, NVP-BEZ235 decreased the levels of factors involved in lipogenesis and increased the levels of factors involved in fatty acid oxidation and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion. These findings show that inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway decreased glucose-induced lipogenesis, inhibited the downregulation of fatty acid oxidation by glucose and increased the upregulation of VLDL-TG assembly and secretion by glucose. The results presented herein provide further support for the role of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in lipid metabolism as we showed that in goose primary hepatocytes, glucose acts through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR-dependent pathway to stimulate lipid deposition by increasing lipogenesis and decreasing fatty acid oxidation and VLDL-TG assembly and secretion.

  14. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum spores intervention on glucose and lipid metabolism gene expression profiles in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhou, Zhongkai; Ren, Xiaochong; Wang, Yuyang; Yang, Rui; Luo, Jinhua; Strappe, Padraig

    2015-05-22

    The fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for many years. However, to the date, there is no detailed study for describing the effect of G. lucidum spores on oxidative stress, blood glucose level and lipid compositions in animal models of type 2 diabetic rats, in particular the effect on the gene expression profiles associated with glucose and lipid metabolisms. G. lucidum spores powder (GLSP) with a shell-broken rate >99.9 % was used. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8/group). Group 1: Normal control, normal rats with ordinary feed; Group 2: Model control, diabetic rats with ordinary feed without intervention; Group 3: GLSP, diabetic rats with ordinary feed, an intervention group utilizing GLSP of 1 g per day by oral gavages for 4 consecutive weeks. Type 2 diabetic rats were obtained by streptozocin (STZ) injection. The changes in the levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in blood samples were analyzed after GLSP intervention. Meanwhile, gene expressions associated with the possible molecular mechanism of GLSP regulation were also investigated using a quantitative RT-PCR. The reduction of blood glucose level occurred within the first 2 weeks of GLSP intervention and the lipid synthesis in the diabetic rats of GLSP group was significantly decreased at 4 weeks compared to the model control group. Furthermore, it was also found that GLSP intervention greatly attenuated the level of oxidative stress in the diabetic rats. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed up-regulation of lipid metabolism related genes (Acox1, ACC, Insig-1 and Insig-2) and glycogen synthesis related genes (GS2 and GYG1) in GLSP group compared to model control group. Additionally, there were no significant changes in the expression of other genes, such as SREBP-1, Acly, Fas, Fads1, Gpam, Dgat1, PEPCK and G6PC1. This study might indicate that GLSP consumption could provide a

  15. Evaluation of lipid and glucose metabolism and cortisol and thyroid hormone levels in obese appropriate for gestational age (AGA) born and non-obese small for gestational age (SGA) born prepubertal Slovak children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blusková, Zuzana; Koštálová, Ludmila; Celec, Peter; Vitáriušová, Eva; Pribilincová, Zuzana; Maršálková, Marianna; Šemberová, Jana; Kyselová, Tatiana; Hlavatá, Anna; Kovács, László

    2014-07-01

    Obesity is the major determinant of metabolic syndrome. Being born small for gestational age (SGA) may be co-responsible. We aimed at evaluating the association between 1. obesity and 2. being born SGA and the presence of endocrine-metabolic abnormalities in prepubertal Slovak children. The study included 98 children, aged 3-10.9 years: 36 AGA-born obese children (OB), 31 SGA-born children (SGA) and 31 appropriate for gestational age born non-obese children (AGA). Fasting serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, fT4, TSH, cortisol and insulin were determined. HOMA-IR was calculated. Personal data about birth weight and length and family history were collected. Actual anthropometric measurement was done. In every group, high prevalence of positive family history of metabolic disorder was found. In comparison with AGA children, OB children were taller (plevels and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (pcortisol levels (p=0.069) was noted. SGA-born children were shorter (plevels (plevels (p=0.085) and increased fT4 levels (pobese children and twice more metabolic abnormalities were present in SGA-born children in comparison with AGA-born children. SGA-born children are more prone to developing endocrine-metabolic abnormalities than non-obese children born AGA, but they are at less risk than obese AGA-born children. We should provide specialized care for obese children already in prepubertal age and pay attention to SGA-born children.

  16. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rahbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background: This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Material and methods: To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated

  17. Chromium supplementation alters both glucose and lipid metabolism in feedlot cattle during the receiving period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossbred steers (n = 20; 235 +/- 4 kg) were fed 53 days during a receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brandChromium Propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would alter the glucose or lipid metabolism of newly received cattle. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0...

  18. Chromium supplementation alters the glucose and lipid metabolism of feedlot cattle during the receiving period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossbreed steers (n = 20; 235 ± 4 kg) were fed 53 d during a receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brand Chromium Propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would alter the glucose or lipid metabolism of newly received cattle. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0 (C...

  19. Co-ordination of hepatic and adipose tissue lipid metabolism after oral glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Simonsen, L; Wiggins, D

    1999-01-01

    The integration of lipid metabolism in the splanchnic bed and in subcutaneous adipose tissue before and after ingestion of a 75 g glucose load was studied by Fick's principle in seven healthy subjects. Six additional subjects were studied during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Release of non...

  20. Effect of Camel Milk's Supplementation on Serum Glucose Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cases of diabetes are on the rise in almost every population and epidemiological studies suggest that without proper prevention and control measures, prevalence of the disease will continue to increase globally. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of camel milk supplementation on serum glucose, lipid ...

  1. A randomised study on the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose tolerance, lipids and body composition in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikøren, Linn A; Nygård, Ottar K; Lied, Einar; Rostrup, Espen; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2013-02-28

    The popularity of high-protein diets for weight reduction is immense. However, the potential benefits from altering the source of dietary protein rather than the amount is scarcely investigated. In the present study, we examined the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose and lipid metabolism in overweight adults. A total of thirty-four overweight adults were randomised to 8 weeks' supplementation with fish protein or placebo tablets (controls). The intake of fish protein supplement was 3 g/d for the first 4 weeks and 6 g/d for the last 4 weeks. In this study, 8 weeks of fish protein supplementation resulted in lower values of fasting glucose (Pfish protein supplementation compared to controls. Glucose-AUC was decreased after 8 weeks with fish protein supplement compared to baseline (Pfish protein may have beneficial effects on blood levels of glucose and LDL-cholesterol as well as glucose tolerance and body composition in overweight adults. The long-term effects of fish protein supplementation is of interest in the context of using more fish as a protein source in the diet, and the effects of inclusion of fish in the diet of individuals with low glucose tolerance should be evaluated.

  2. Further studies of the influence of apolipoprotein B alleles on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J.; Poulsen, P.; Vaag, A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of five genetic polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein B gene on parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism was assessed in 564 Danish mono- and dizygotic twins. Genotypes in apolipoprotein B T71I (ApaLI RFLP), A591V (AluI RFLP), L2712P (MvaI RFLP), R3611Q (MspI RFLP), and E4154K (Eco...... on the insulin-to-glucose ratio (p = 0.04), and E4154K (EcoRI RFLP) influenced HOMAbeta (p = 0.04). Significant interactions were observed between genotype in T71I (ApaLI RFLP), A591V (AluI RFLP), R3611Q (MspI RFLP), and E4154K (EcoRI RFLP) and glucose tolerance on lipid-related parameters (0.03

  3. Alpha2delta-1 in SF1+ Neurons of the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Is an Essential Regulator of Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Felsted

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The central mechanisms controlling glucose and lipid homeostasis are inadequately understood. We show that α2δ-1 is an essential regulator of glucose and lipid balance, acting in steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1 neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH. These effects are body weight independent and involve regulation of SF1+ neuronal activity and sympathetic output to metabolic tissues. Accordingly, mice with α2δ-1 deletion in SF1 neurons exhibit glucose intolerance, altered lipolysis, and decreased cholesterol content in adipose tissue despite normal energy balance regulation. Profound reductions in the firing rate of SF1 neurons, decreased sympathetic output, and elevated circulating levels of serotonin are associated with these alterations. Normal calcium currents but reduced excitatory postsynaptic currents in mutant SF1 neurons implicate α2δ-1 in the promotion of excitatory synaptogenesis separate from its canonical role as a calcium channel subunit. Collectively, these findings identify an essential mechanism that regulates VMH neuronal activity and glycemic and lipid control and may be a target for tackling metabolic disease. : Felsted et al. show a required role of the calcium channel subunit and thrombospondin receptor α2δ-1 in regulating glucose and lipid homeostasis in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH. These effects are caused by regulation of SF1+ neuronal activity in the VMH through non-canonical mechanisms and concomitant influences on sympathetic output. Keywords: diabetes, VMH, hypothalamus, glucose, norepinephrine, serotonin, excitability, lipid, SF1

  4. Glucose tolerance and lipid profile in longterm exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and the effects of restoration of euthyroidism, a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemstra, K. A.; Smit, J. W. A.; Eustatia-Rutten, C. F. A.; Heijboer, A. C.; Frölich, M.; Romijn, J. A.; Corssmit, E. P. M.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of prolonged subclinical hyperthyroidism on glucose and lipid metabolism is unclear. Therefore, we evaluated glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) on TSH suppressive thyroxine therapy as a model for subclinical hyperthyroidism and

  5. Effect of Guava in Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakavi, R; Mangaraj, Manaswini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The fruit of Psidium guajava (P.guajava) is known to contain free sugars yet the fruit juice showed hypoglycaemic effect. Hypoglycaemic activity of guava leaves has been well documented but not for guava fruit. Aim So we aimed to evaluate the effect of ripe guava (with peel and without peel) fruit supplementation on blood glucose and lipid profile in healthy human subjects. Materials and Methods Randomized Controlled study undertaken in: 1) Baseline; 2) 6 weeks supplementation phase. Forty five healthy MBBS students were included and randomly enrolled into Group A, Group B and Group C. In Baseline phase: Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and serum lipid profile was done in all 3 groups. Group A were supplemented with 400g of ripe guava with peel and group B without peel, for 6 weeks. Rest 15 treated as control i.e., Group C. Result Supplementation of ripe guava fruit with peel reduced BMI as well as blood pressure (pguava pulp supplementation was not significant. Serum Total cholesterol, Triglycerides and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDLc) levels decreased significantly (pguava pulp without peel may have a favourable effect on lipid levels and blood sugar as well. Conclusion Guava fruit without peel is more effective in lowering blood sugar as well as serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDLc. It increases HDLc levels also. PMID:27790420

  6. A meta-analysis of efficacy of Morus alba Linn. to improve blood glucose and lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phimarn, Wiraphol; Wichaiyo, Kittisak; Silpsavikul, Khuntawan; Sungthong, Bunleu; Saramunee, Kritsanee

    2017-06-01

    The previous studies have reported the Morus alba may improve blood glucose and lipid profile. The evidence from these studies is not consistent. This meta-analysis was to evaluate efficacy of products derived from M. alba on blood glucose and lipid levels. Literature was reviewed via international database (PubMed, PubMed Central, ScienceDirect, and SciSearch) and Thai databases. Thirteen RCTs with high quality, assessed by Jadad score, were included. M. alba expressed a significant reduction in postprandial glucose (PPG) at 30 min (MD -1.04, 95 % CI -1.36, -0.73), 60 min (MD -0.87, 95 % CI -1.27, -0.48) and 90 min (MD -0.55, 95 % CI -0.87, -0.22). The difference was not found in the levels of other glycaemic (FBS, HbA1C, or HOMA-IR) and lipidaemic (TC, TG, LDL, or HDL) markers. Serious adverse effects were found neither in the control nor in the group received M. alba. Products derived from M. alba can effectively contribute to the reduction in PPG levels, but large-scale RCTs would be informative.

  7. Olfactory stimulation modulates the blood glucose level in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Tadataka; Tanaka, Susumu; Bakhshishayan, Sanam; Kogo, Mikihiko; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    In both humans and animals, chemosensory stimuli, including odors and tastes, induce a variety of physiologic and mental responses related to energy homeostasis, such as glucose kinetics. The present study examined the importance of olfactory function in glucose kinetics following ingestion behavior in a simplified experimental scenario. We applied a conventional glucose tolerance test to rats with and without olfactory function and analyzed subsequent blood glucose (BG) curves in detail. The loss of olfactory input due to experimental damage to the olfactory mucosa induced a marked decrease in the area under the BG curve. Exposure to grapefruit odor and its main component, limonene, both of which activate the sympathetic nerves, before glucose loading also greatly depressed the BG curve. Pre-loading exposure to lavender odor, a parasympathetic activator, stabilized the BG level. These results suggest that olfactory function is important for proper glucose kinetics after glucose intake and that certain fragrances could be utilized as tools for controlling BG levels.

  8. Change in blood glucose level in rats after immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, R. D.; Baskakova, G. M.; Chepurnov, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on male white rats divided into four groups. In group one the blood glucose level was determined immediately after immobilization. In the other three groups, two hours following immobilization, the blood glucose level was determined every 20 minutes for 3 hours 40 minutes by the glucose oxidase method. Preliminary immobilization for 2 hours removed the increase in the blood glucose caused by the stress reaction. By the 2nd hour of immobilization in the presence of continuing stress, the blood glucose level stabilized and varied within 42 + or - 5.5 and 47 + or - 8.1 mg %. Within 2 hours after the immobilization, the differences in the blood glucose level of the rats from the control groups were statistically insignificant.

  9. The association between estimated average glucose levels and fasting plasma glucose levels in a rural tertiary care centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Reddy P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, also known as glycated hemoglobin, determines how well a patient’s blood glucose level has been controlled over the previous 8-12 weeks. HbA1c levels help patients and doctors understand whether a particular diabetes treatment is working and whether adjustments need to be made to the treatment. Because the HbA1c level is a marker of blood glucose for the previous 60- 90 days, average blood glucose levels can be estimated using HbA1c levels. Aim in the present study was to investigate the relationship between estimated average glucose levels, as calculated by HbA1c levels, and fasting plasma glucose levels. Methods: Type 2 diabetes patients attending medicine outpatient department of RL Jalappa hospital, Kolar between March 2010 and July 2012 were taken. The estimated glucose levels (mg/dl were calculated using the following formula: 28.7 x HbA1c-46.7. Glucose levels were determined using the hexokinase method. HbA1c levels were determined using an HPLC method. Correlation and independent t- test was the test of significance for quantitative data. Results: A strong positive correlation between fasting plasma glucose level and estimated average blood glucose levels (r=0.54, p=0.0001 was observed. The difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: Reporting the estimated average glucose level together with the HbA1c level is believed to assist patients and doctors determine the effectiveness of blood glucose control measures.

  10. Incorporation of glucose carbons into rat lung lipids after exposure to 0.6 ppm ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, D.J.; Rabinowitz, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Continuous exposure to low concentrations of ozone has previously been associated with proliferation of lung alveolar type II epithelial cells. In this study, 14 C incorporation into tissue lipids was determined in isolated rat lungs by perfusion with [U- 14 C]glucose, at a time of maximal hyperplasia brought about by 3 days continuous exposure to 0.6 ppm ozone. Ozone exposed lungs exhibited increased rates of glycolytic energy production, indicated by an 89% increase in 3 H 2 O generation on perfusion with [5-3H]glucose. Ozone exposure resulted in enhanced 14 C incorporations into glyceride-glycerol and fatty acid moieties of lung lipids of 95 and 180%, respectively, with a greater proportion of label being recovered in shorter chain fatty acids. Although increased labeling was observed in both neutral and phospholipids, the pattern of 14 C recovery suggested a relative increased glucose carbon incorporation into lung free fatty acids, phosphatidic acid, and such membrane associated lipids as phosphatidylinositol and those containing sphingosine. These results are consistent with the needs of a dividing cell population for enhanced energy production and synthesis of new lipids

  11. Lipid and carotenoid synthesis by Rhodosporidium diobovatum, grown on glucose versus glycerol, and its biodiesel properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirian, Nima; Mirzaie, Maryam; Cicek, Nazim; Levin, David B

    2018-04-01

    Relationships between lipid and carotenoid synthesis by Rhodosporidium diobovatum were investigated for cell cultures in nitrogen-limited medium (GMY) containing equimolar amounts of carbon of glucose or glycerol. The cultures were also supplemented with additional substrate at 120 h postinoculation (pi) and during a fed-batch experiment. Growth of R. diobovatum on glucose resulted in higher yields of triacyglycerides (TAGs) and carotenoid than when grown on glycerol, even though the cultures contained equimolar amounts of carbon. After the addition of fresh substrate at 120 h pi, total carotenoid concentrations were significantly different from the concentrations measured at 120 h pi in both glucose and glycerol cultures, with no concomitant increase in lipid concentrations, suggesting that carotenoid synthesis is linked to exponential-phase growth, while lipid synthesis is linked to stationary phase. We also compared the calculated properties of biodiesel that could be made with TAGs derived from R. diobovatum with properties of biodiesel made from TAGs of other oleaginous yeasts, microalgae, vegetable oils, and animal fats. This study shows that R. diobovatum can be an effective strain for production of neutral lipids containing high percentages of oleic acid, palmitic acid, and linoleic acid, as well as carotenoids.

  12. Response to glucose and lipid infusions in sepsis: a kinetic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, J.H.; Wolfe, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics and oxidation of glucose and free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism were assessed in control and Escherichia coli septicemic dogs by using primed, constant infusions of U- 14 C-glucose and 1,2, 13 C-palmitic acid. In the controls, the infusion of glucose suppressed endogenous glucose production completely, whereas, in the septic dogs, only a 30% suppression of glucose production occurred. The ability of the septic dogs to oxidize endogenous or exogenous glucose was decreased significantly. The basal rate of appearance of FFA was significantly higher in the septic dogs, but their ability to oxidize FFA was comparable to that of the control dogs; therefore, the basal rate of FFA oxidation was higher in the septic dogs. These studies indicate that septic dogs have a decreased capacity to oxidize glucose, but that they retain their ability to oxidize long-chain fatty acids. Because the rate of lipolysis was increased in sepsis, lipid was the predominate energy substrate in this septic model

  13. Effects of Rakkyofructan on Postprandial Glucose Level in Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    谷, 政八; 池田, 涼子; 谷, 洋子; 小林, 恭一; Tani, Masahachi; Ikeda, Ryouko; Tani, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Kyoichi

    2010-01-01

    The effect of Rakkyofructan on the glucose level in plasma after intake of high carbohydrate diet was investigated.The six healthy female volunteers consumed 50 g of carbohydrate meal (the glucose, the cooked white rice, the bread, or the cooked sweet potato) with or without Rakkyofructan.Blood specimen was collected of before and 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min after intake, and the glucose level in plasma was measured.The peak value (Cmax) and the area under curve (AUC) of blood glucose lev...

  14. Extra virgin olive oil improves post-prandial glycemic and lipid profile in patients with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Roberto; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Del Ben, Maria; Angelico, Francesco; Nocella, Cristina; Petruccioli, Andreina; Bartimoccia, Simona; Monticolo, Roberto; Cava, Edda; Violi, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) improves post-prandial glycaemia in healthy subjects but it has never been investigated if this can be detected in pre-diabetic patients. We investigated if EVOO affects post-prandial glucose and lipid profile in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Thirty IFG patients were randomly allocated to a meal containing or not 10 g of EVOO in a cross-over design. Before, 60 min and 120 min after lunch a blood sample was taken to measure glucose, insulin, Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1), dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP4) activity, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and Apo B-48. The meal containing EVOO was associated with a reduction of glucose (p = 0.009) and DPP4 activity (p < 0.001) and a significant increase of insulin (p < 0.001) and GLP-1 (p < 0.001) compared with the meal without EVOO. Furthermore, the meal containing EVOO showed a significant decrease of triglycerides (p = 0.002) and Apo B-48 (p = 0.002) compared with the meal without EVOO. Total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels did not significantly change between the two groups. This is the first study to show that in IFG patients EVOO improves post-prandial glucose and lipid profile with a mechanism probably related to incretin up-regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of Bauhinia forficata Link subsp. pruinosa tea on lipid peroxidation and non-protein SH groups in human erythrocytes exposed to high glucose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Andréia C F; Leal, Carina Q; Bianchini, Matheus C; Prado, Ianeli O; Mendez, Andreas S L; Puntel, Robson L; Folmer, Vanderlei; Soares, Félix A; Avila, Daiana S; Puntel, Gustavo O

    2013-06-21

    Bauhinia forficata (BF) has been traditionally used as tea in folk medicine of Brazil for treatment of Diabetes mellitus (DM). To evaluate the effects of BF leaf tea on markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant levels in an experimental model of hyperglycemia in human erythrocytes in vitro. Human erythrocytes were incubated with high glucose concentrations or glucose and BF tea for 24h and 48h. After incubation lipid peroxidation and non-protein SH levels were analyzed. Moreover, quantification of polyphenols and flavonoids, iron chelating property, scavenging of DPPH, and prevention of lipid peroxidation in isolated lipids were also assessed. A significant amount of polyphenols and flavonoids was observed. The main components found by LC-MS analysis were quercetin-3-O-(2-rhamnosyl) rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-(2-rhamnosyl) rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside. BF tea presents important antioxidant and chelating properties. Moreover, BF tea was effective to increase non-protein SH levels and reduce lipid peroxidation induced by high glucose concentrations in human erythrocytes. The antioxidant effects of BF tea could be related to the presence of different phenolic and flavonoids components. We believe that these components can be responsible to protect human erythrocytes exposed to high glucose concentrations against oxidative damage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of acute and chronic estrogen deficiency on glucose and lipid profile in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rabie P; Namjoo AR

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Ovariectomy is a standard experimental model of menopause in rodent to investigate postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects acute and chronic estrogen deficiency on lipid profile and glucose serum in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods: In this experimental study, Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight rats. The first group: sham-control, Second group: ovariectomized rats (for five weeks), Third group: Ova...

  17. Association Between Exercise and Blood Glucose Levels In Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryna Laili Putri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a chronic disease with high prevalence, associated with various debilitating complications and can decreases the quality of life in people with it. It is important for people with DM to doing exercise to control the stability of their blood glucose levels. The purpose of this study was to finding out the association between frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise with average blood glucose levels in people with DM. This was an observational study that used case control design. Data obtained from interview with 20 samples from case group and 20 samples from control group, that had been chosen with systematic random sampling technique. Dependent variable of this study was the average blood glucose levels and independents variables were frequency, duration, intensity, and the kind of exercise. This study used Chi Square test 3 × 2 contingency tables to finding out the association and risk of dependent variable with independent variables,. The results showed that exercise factors that associated to average blood glucose levels were duration of exercise (p = 0.022 and intensity of exercise (p = 0.021. The frequency of exercise does not associated to average blood glucose levels (p = 0.340. Diabetic patients who did not do any exercise have the risk of having uncontrolled blood glucose levels. The conclusion was duration and intensity of exercise related significantly to blood glucose levels. By doing exercise three times a week for 30 minutes or more can decreases the risk of uncontrolled blood glucose levels in people with DM. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, exercise, average blood glucose levels

  18. [Severely increased serum lipid levels in diabetic ketoacidosis - case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Hrafnkell; Sigvaldason, Kristinn; Kjartansson, Hilmar; Sigurjonsdottir, Helga Águsta

    2017-01-01

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia is a known, but uncommon complication of diabetic ketoacidosis. We discuss the case of a 23-year-old, previously healthy, woman who initially presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain. Grossly lipemic serum due to extremely high triglyceride (38.6 mmol/L) and cholesterol (23.2 mmol/L) levels were observed with a high blood glucose (23 mmol/L) and a low pH of 7.06 on a venous blood gas. She was treated successfully with fluids and insulin and had no sequale of pancreatitis or cerebral edema. Her triglycerides and cholesterol was normalized in three days and she was discharged home on insulin therapy after five days. Further history revealed a recent change in diet with no meat, fish or poultry consumption in the last 12 months and concomitantly an increase in carbohydrate intake which might have contributed to her extremely high serum lipid levels. This case demonstrates that clinicians should be mindful of the different presentations of diabetic ketoacidosis. Key words: diabetic ketoacidosis, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia, vegan diet, carbohydrate diet. Correspondence: Hrafnkell Stefansson, hrafnkell.stefans@gmail.com.

  19. Effects of xylitol on blood glucose, glucose tolerance, serum insulin and lipid profile in a type 2 diabetes model of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Indrajit, Mitesh

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the antidiabetic effects of xylitol in a type 2 diabetes rat model. Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: normal control (NC), diabetic control (DBC) and xylitol (XYL). Diabetes was induced only in the DBC and XYL animal groups by feeding them a 10% fructose solution for 2 weeks followed by an injection (i.p.) of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight). One week after the streptozotocin injection, the animals with a nonfasting blood glucose level of >300 mg/dl were considered to be diabetic. The XYL group was fed further with a 10% xylitol solution, whereas the NC and DBC groups were supplied with normal drinking water. After 5 weeks of intervention, food and fluid intake, body weight, blood glucose, serum fructosamine and most of the serum lipids were significantly decreased, and serum insulin concentration and glucose tolerance ability was significantly increased in the XYL group compared to the DBC group. Liver weight, liver glycogen and serum triglycerides were not influenced by feeding with xylitol. The data of this study suggest that xylitol can be used not only as a sugar substitute but also as a supplement to antidiabetic food and other food products. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Circulating Spexin Levels Negatively Correlate With Age, BMI, Fasting Glucose, and Triglycerides in Healthy Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yuan; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Ling; Zhong, Linda L D; Lam, Wai Ching; Fan, Bao-Min; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2018-05-01

    Spexin is a newly identified neuropeptide that is involved in satiety control, glucose, and lipids metabolism. It has also been related to human diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether spexin changes with age or not is still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between circulating spexin levels and age and to study their interaction effects on body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, and -lipids. This is a cross-sectional study, including 68 healthy adult women whose ages are in a wide range (minimum: 23; median: 38.5; maximum: 64). The serum spexin levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, and creatinine were measured by routine biochemical test. Shapiro-Wilk's test, Spearman and Pearson correlation analyses, χ 2 test, and two-way analysis of variance were used to interpret the data. Serum spexin levels are significantly correlated with age (Spearman r = -0.277, P = 0.022), BMI (Spearman r = -0.445, P glucose (Spearman r = -0.302, P = 0.014), and TG (Spearman r = -0.324, P = 0.008). Spexin levels independently predict the risk of high BMI and high fasting glucose. No interaction effects of spexin and age on BMI and fasting glucose were found. Circulating spexin levels decrease with age, suggesting a possible role of this peptide in aging-related functions and disorders. Further investigations are needed to expand the clinical significance of this finding.

  1. Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willer, C. J.; Schmidt, E. M.; Sengupta, S.

    2013-01-01

    Levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,577 individ...... of using genetic data from individuals of diverse ancestry and provide insights into the biological mechanisms regulating blood lipids to guide future genetic, biological and therapeutic research.......Levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188......,577 individuals using genome-wide and custom genotyping arrays. We identify and annotate 157 loci associated with lipid levels at P lipid levels in humans. Using dense genotyping in individuals of European, East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry...

  2. [Effect of FABP2 gene G54A polymorphism on lipid and glucose metabolism in simple obesity children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunpeng; Rao, Xiaojiao; Hao, Min; Hou, Lijuan; Zhu, Xiaobo; Chang, Xiaotong

    2016-01-01

    To explore the relationship between intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP2) gene G54A polymorphism and simple childhood obesity, the effect of mutant 54A FABP2 gene on serum lipids and glucose metabolism. The total of 83 subjects with overweight/obesity and 100 subjects with healthy/normal weight were involved in this study. The G54A FABP2 gene allele and genotype frequencies between control group and overweight/obesity group were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) -restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technology, and DNA sequences were confirmed by DNA sequencing. The automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Plasma insulin (Ins) was detected by radiation immune method, free fatty acids (FFA) was tested by ELISA method, insulin resistance index ( HOMA-IR ) was also calculated. The correlation between FABP2 G54A polymorphism and the development of children' obesity was analyzed. The relation between FABP2 G54A polymorphism and abnormal blood lipid and insulin resistance was assessed. The results of study on FABP2 gene polymorphism revealed as followed. In overweight/obese groups, the frequencies of GG, GA, AA genotypes was 33.7%, 49.4% and 16.9%, respectively. In control group, the frequencies of GG, GA, AA genotypes was 51. 0% , 40. 0% and 9. 0% , respectively. The differences between two groups was statistically significant (Χ2 = 6.27, P 0.05). The FABP2 gene G54A polymorphism is related to simple children obesity and lipid metabolism abnormality. The allele encoding in FABP2 gene may be a potential factor contributing to promoting lipid metabolism abnormality of and insulin resistance.

  3. Association between Blood Levels of Glucose and Urea and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    osman

    2017-08-05

    Aug 5, 2017 ... Normal blood glucose and urea levels in dairy cows vary within breeds, ..... prolapse, and postpartum uterine haemorrhage, the effect of metabolic stress, ... and the effect of efficiency of heat detection on the average days to.

  4. Lipid peroxidation and ascorbic acid levels in Nigeria children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to establish data on the roles of lipid peroxidation and ascorbic acid in the pathology of malaria in Nigeria children. We measured the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation and ascorbic acid in the plasma of 406 parasitaemic and 212 non-parasitaemic Nigerian children.

  5. Lipid profile and levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids especially omega-3 is projected to be way below the recommended intake in Kenya. Thus, there is need to find other sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). This study screened for the lipid profile and levels of omega-3 PUFAs in jackfruit and explored the variation in lipid ...

  6. Ghrelin administered spinally increases the blood glucose level in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-04-01

    Ghrelin is known as a regulator of the blood glucose homeostasis and food intake. In the present study, the possible roles of ghrelin located in the spinal cord in the regulation of the blood glucose level were investigated in ICR mice. We found that intrathecal (i.t.) injection with ghrelin (from 1 to 10 μg) caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. In addition, i.t. pretreatment with YIL781 (ghrelin receptor antagonist; from 0.1 to 5 μg) markedly attenuated ghrelin-induced hyperglycemic effect. The plasma insulin level was increased by ghrelin. The enhanced plasma insulin level by ghrelin was reduced by i.t. pretreatment with YIL781. However, i.t. pretreatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1; 5 μg) did not affect the ghrelin-induced hyperglycemia. Furthermore, i.t. administration with ghrelin also elevated the blood glucose level, but in an additive manner, in d-glucose-fed model. Our results suggest that the activation of ghrelin receptors located in the spinal cord plays important roles for the elevation of the blood glucose level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, T M; Varnhagen, C K; Parent, M B

    2001-05-01

    Arousal enhances memory in human participants and this enhancing effect is likely due to the release of peripheral epinephrine. As epinephrine does not readily enter the brain, one way that peripheral epinephrine may enhance memory is by increasing circulating blood glucose levels. The present study investigated the possibility that emotionally arousing color pictures would improve memory and elevate blood glucose levels in human participants. Blood glucose levels were measured before, 15 min, and 30 min after male university students viewed 60 emotionally arousing or relatively neutral pictures. Participants viewed each picture for 6 s and then had 10 s to rate the arousal (emotional intensity) and valence (pleasantness) of each picture. A free-recall memory test was given 30 min after the last picture was viewed. Although the emotionally arousing and neutral picture sets were given comparable valence ratings, participants who viewed the emotionally arousing pictures rated the pictures as being more arousing, recalled more pictures, and had higher blood glucose levels after viewing the pictures than did participants who viewed the neutral pictures. These findings indicate that emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance memory, and that this effect is not due to differences in the degree of pleasantness of the stimuli. These findings support the possibility that increases in circulating blood glucose levels in response to emotional arousal may be part of the biological mechanism that allows emotional arousal to enhance memory. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. Phytopharmacological evaluation of Byesukar for hypoglycaemic activity and its effect on lipid profile and hepatic enzymes of glucose metabolism in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruvayoorappan, C; Sudha, G

    2008-01-01

    Many anti-diabetic herbal preparations have been recommended in alternative systems of medicine for the treatment of diabetes. No systematic study has been done on the anti-diabetic efficacy of Byesukar, a polyherbal formulation to treat diabetes. The anti-diabetic efficacy of byesukar ethanol extract was evaluated in an animal model of diabetes induced by alloxan. Male Wistar rats were divided in to four groups. Group 1 was normal control group; group 2 and 3 received alloxan. After inducing experimental diabetes group 2 served as diabetic control; group 3 received byesukar (500 mg/kg body weight) orally for 30 consecutive days. Group 4 were normal rats which received byesukar extract alone. The effect of byesukar on glucose level in diabetic rats was studied and the level of glucose metabolizing enzymes (Hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose 1, 6-bisphosphatase) in the liver and kidney were estimated. The effect of byesukar on the serum and tissue lipid profile (Cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids) were also estimated in diabetic rats. Our results indicate that treatment with byesukar resulted in significant reduction of blood glucose, tissue glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose 1, 6- bisphosphatase activity. The decreased tissue hexokinase activity in diabetes state was found to be significantly increased by byesukar treatment. Also the byesukar treated diabetic rats showed a significant decrease in the tissue lipid profile compared to the diabetic rats. In conclusion the decreased blood glucose accompanied with decreased lipid profile and changes in the activities of the glucose metabolizing enzymes shows the antidiabetic effect of byesukar.

  9. Effects of MDMA on blood glucose levels and brain glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Montenegro, M.L.; Vaquero, J.J.; Garcia-Barreno, P.; Desco, M. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Laboratorio de Imagen, Medicina Experimental, Madrid (Spain); Arango, C. [Hospital General Gregorio Maranon, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Madrid (Spain); Ricaurte, G. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This study was designed to assess changes in glucose metabolism in rats administered single or repeated doses of MDMA. Two different experiments were performed: (1) A single-dose study with four groups receiving 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, saline or heat, and (2) a repeated-dose study with two groups receiving three doses, at intervals of 2 h, of 5 mg/kg or saline. Rats were imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner 1 h after single-dose administration or 7 days after repeated doses. Glucose metabolism was measured in 12 cerebral regions of interest. Rectal temperature and blood glucose were monitored. Peak body temperature was reached 1 h after MDMA administration. Blood glucose levels decreased significantly after MDMA administration. In the single-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism showed hyperactivation in cerebellum and hypo-activation in the hippocampus, amygdala and auditory cortex. In the repeated-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism did not show any significant change at day 7. These results are the first to indicate that MDMA has the potential to produce significant hypoglycaemia. In addition, they show that MDMA alters glucose metabolism in components of the motor, limbic and somatosensory systems acutely but not on a long-term basis. (orig.)

  10. Effects of MDMA on blood glucose levels and brain glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto-Montenegro, M.L.; Vaquero, J.J.; Garcia-Barreno, P.; Desco, M.; Arango, C.; Ricaurte, G.

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to assess changes in glucose metabolism in rats administered single or repeated doses of MDMA. Two different experiments were performed: (1) A single-dose study with four groups receiving 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, saline or heat, and (2) a repeated-dose study with two groups receiving three doses, at intervals of 2 h, of 5 mg/kg or saline. Rats were imaged using a dedicated small-animal PET scanner 1 h after single-dose administration or 7 days after repeated doses. Glucose metabolism was measured in 12 cerebral regions of interest. Rectal temperature and blood glucose were monitored. Peak body temperature was reached 1 h after MDMA administration. Blood glucose levels decreased significantly after MDMA administration. In the single-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism showed hyperactivation in cerebellum and hypo-activation in the hippocampus, amygdala and auditory cortex. In the repeated-dose experiment, brain glucose metabolism did not show any significant change at day 7. These results are the first to indicate that MDMA has the potential to produce significant hypoglycaemia. In addition, they show that MDMA alters glucose metabolism in components of the motor, limbic and somatosensory systems acutely but not on a long-term basis. (orig.)

  11. Diosmin, a Citrus Nutrient, Activates Imidazoline Receptors to Alleviate Blood Glucose and Lipids in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chen Hsu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Diosmin is a nutrient that is widely contained in citrus and that has been indicated to improve glucose metabolism in diabetic disorders. Recently, we demonstrated that diosmin induces β-endorphin to lower hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. However, the mechanisms of diosmin in opioid secretion were unclear. Therefore, we focused on the secretion of opioids from isolated adrenal glands induced by diosmin. The changes in the released β-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (BER were determined using ELISA. Diosmin increased the BER level in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect was markedly reduced in the absence of calcium ions. Activation of the imidazoline I-2 receptor (I-2R has been introduced to induce opioid secretion. Interestingly, we observed that diosmin activates CHO cells expressing I-R. Additionally, diosmin-increased BER was inhibited by the blockade of I-2R in isolated adrenal glands. Additionally, an antagonist of I-2R blocked diosmin-induced effects, including the reduction in hyperglycemia and the increase in plasma BER in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats. Repeated treatment of STZ-diabetic rats with diosmin for one week induced changes in hepatic glycogen, lipid levels, and the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK. Furthermore, an antagonist of I-2R blocked the diosmin-induced changes. Additionally, plasma lipids modified by diosmin were also reversed by the blockade of I-2R in STZ-diabetic rats. Taken together, we suggest that diosmin may activate I-2R to enhance the secretion of β-endorphin from adrenal glands and to influence metabolic homeostasis, resulting in alleviation of blood glucose and lipids in STZ-diabetic rats.

  12. The influence of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on weight loss, plasma ghrelin, insulin, glucose and lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hady Razak Hady

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of laparoscopic gastric banding and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on the concentration of ghrelin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, total and HDL-cholesterol, as well as AST and ALT levels in plasma in patients with obesity. The research includes 200 patients operated using LAGB (34 men average age 37.0 ± 12.6 years and 66 women average age 39.18 ± 12.17 years and LSG (48 men average age 47.93 ± 9.24 years and 52 women, 19 ± 9.33 years. The percentage of effective weight loss, effective BMI loss, concentration of ghrelin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ALT, AST and HOMA IR values was taken preoperatively and at 7th day, 1 month, 3 and 6 months after surgery. Both after LSG and after LAGB, statistically significant reduction in BMI, serum insulin, glucose and HOMA IR was noticed in comparison to the preoperative values. Post LAGB, patients showed an increase of ghrelin, while LSG proved ghrelin decreased. Correlations between glucose and BMI loss, and between insulin and BMI loss in both cases are more favorable in the LSG group. Lipid parameters, AST and ALT have undergone declines or  increases in the particular time points. Both techniques cause weight loss and this way lead to changes in the concentration of ghrelin, as well as to the improvement of insulin, glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides metabolism. They reduce metabolic syndrome and multiple comorbidities of obesity.

  13. Gemfibrozil not fenofibrate decreases systemic glucose level via PPARα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Danjun; Chu, Zanbo; Min, Luo; Zhen, Tan; Li, Pengxu; Han, Liyuan; Bu, Shizhong; yang, Julin; Gonzale, F J; Liu, Aiming

    2016-04-01

    Concurrence of high glucose or diabetes in patients with dyslipidemia is presenting major challenges for clinicians. Although sporadically reported, a rational basis for the use of fibrates for the treatment of dyslipidemia with concurrent metabolic syndrome has not been established. In this study, wild-type (WT) and Ppara-null (KO) mice were fed a serial gemfibrozil- and fenofibrate-containing diet under the same experimental conditions for 14 days. Glucose level in the blood, glycogen storage in the liver tissues, and the potential toxic responses were assayed. Genes involved in glucose metabolism were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Both the blood glucose level and the glycogen content in the liver were down-regulated by gemfibrozil but not by fenofibrate in WT mice, in a dose-dependent manner. This decrement did not occur in KO mice for either fibrate agent. Secondary regulation on the transcription of pyruvate kinase, and gluconolactonase were observed following gemfibrozil treatment, which was differential between WT mice and KO mice. Gemfibrozil, not fenofibrate, down-regulates systemic glucose level and glycogen storage in the liver dependent on PPARα, suggesting its potential value for treatment of dyslipidemia with concurrent diabetes or high glucose levels.

  14. Effects of coumestrol on lipid and glucose metabolism as a farnesoid X receptor ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Miki; Kanayama, Tomohiko; Yashiro, Takuya; Kondo, Hidehiko; Murase, Takatoshi; Hase, Tadashi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2008-01-01

    In the course of an effort to identify novel agonists of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), coumestrol was determined to be one such ligand. Reporter and in vitro coactivator interaction assays revealed that coumestrol bound and activated FXR. Treatment of Hep G2 cells with coumestrol stimulated the expression of FXR target genes, thereby regulating the expression of target genes of the liver X receptor and hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α. Through these actions, coumestrol is expected to exert beneficial effects on lipid and glucose metabolism

  15. Fasting plasma glucose levels and coronary artery calcification in subjects with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Young-Mi; Kang, Sung-Goo; Song, Sang-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Prediabetes is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). While the association of impaired glucose tolerance with CVD has been shown in many studies, the relationship between impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and CVD remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores of participants with normal fasting glucose versus those with IFG, according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, and to assess whether differences in CAC scores were independent of important confounders. Retrospective study. Health Promotion Center of the University Hospital (Gyeonggi-do, South Korea), during the period 2010-2014. Participants were enrolled from the general population who visited for a medical check-up. CAC was assessed in asymptomatic individuals by multidetector computed tomography. Anthropometric parameters and metabolic profiles were also recorded. Subjects were divided into four fasting glucose groups. Participants with a history of CVD or diabetes mellitus were excluded. Correlation between FPG and CAC scores, CAC score categories, and association between CAC score and FPG categories. Of 1112 participants, 346 (34.2%) had a CAC score > 0. FPG values in the IFG patients were positively but weakly correlated with CAC scores (r=0.099, P=.001). The incidence of CAC differed according to FPG level (P =110 mg/dL had a significantly higher risk of CAC than did subjects with normal fasting glucose (110.

  16. Effects of Cr methionine on glucose metabolism, plasma metabolites, meat lipid peroxidation, and tissue chromium in Mahabadi goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, A; Ganjkhanlou, M; Zali, A

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of chromium methionine (Cr-Met) on glucose metabolism, blood metabolites, meat lipid peroxidation, and tissue chromium (Cr) in Mahabadi goat kids. Thirty-two male kids (16.5 ± 2.8 kg BW, 4-5 months of age) were fed for 90 days in a completely randomized design with four treatments. Treatments were supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mg Cr as Cr-Met/animal/daily. Blood samples were collected via heparin tubes from the jugular vein on 0, 21, 42, 63, and 90 days of experiment. On day 70, an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was conducted. At the end of the feeding trial, the kids were slaughtered, and the liver, kidney, and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle samples were collected. Plasma glucose, insulin, and triglyceride concentrations were decreased by Cr supplementation (P glucose concentrations at 30 and 60 min after glucose infusion were lower in the kids fed 1.5 mg Cr diet than the kids fed control diet (P glucose clearance rate (K) and lower glucose half-life (T½; P Glucose area under the response curve (AUC) from 0 to 180 min after glucose infusion was decreased linearly (P glucose utilization and lipid oxidation of meat in fattening kid.

  17. Peri and Postparturient Concentrations of Lipid Lipoprotein Insulin and Glucose in Normal Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    BAŞOĞLU, Abdullah; SEVİNÇ, Mutlu; OK, Mahmut

    1998-01-01

    In order to provide uniqe insight into the metabolic disturbences seen after calving cholesterol, triglycerid, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, glucose and insulin levels in serum were studied before calving (group I), in aerly (group II) and late (group III) lactation in 24 normal cows. Serum lipoproteins were separeted into various density classes by repeated ultracentrifugation. The results indicate that there was a rise in glucose, trygl...

  18. Relationship between ABO Blood Groups and Lipid Profile Level in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... and Lipid Profile Level in Healthy Adult Residents in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria ... diseases (CVDs) and association of cardiovascular disease risk factors with the ABO ...

  19. Serum Calcium Level is Associated with Lipids in Young Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To examine the association of serum total calcium with lipids levels and blood pressure .... Demographic data were obtained with the help of structures questionnaires ..... chronic kidney disease: Evaluation, classification and stratification.

  20. Fasting Blood Glucose Levels in Different Haemoglobin Genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the different Hb genotypes (HBAA, HBAS, HBSC and HBSS) the following mean fasting blood glucose levels were obtained respectively: 71.9±8.Omg/dl 73.4±7.4mgldl, 94.7±6.Imgldl and 94.6±5.9mgldl. There was a significant difference between the mean fasting blood glucose concentrations of blood groups O,A,B and ...

  1. Genetic Variants Influencing Lipid Levels and Risk of Dyslipidemia ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... (LDL), high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol (HDL), and triglycerides (TG) in. 1900individualsby .... Body mass index (BMI) was calculated asweight (kg) divided by .... gender, BMI, glucose levels, blood pressure).Independent ...

  2. Long-term feeding of red algae (Gelidium amansii ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism in a high fructose diet-impaired glucose tolerance rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hshuan-Chen Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of Gelidium amansii (GA on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats with high fructose (HF diet (57.1% w/w. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HF diet to induce glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia. The experiment was divided into three groups: (1 control diet group (Con; (2 HF diet group (HF; and (3 HF with GA diet group (HF + 5% GA. The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 23 weeks. The results showed that GA significantly decreased retroperitoneal fat mass weight of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of GA caused a decrease in plasma glucose, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin. HF diet increased hepatic lipid content. However, intake of GA reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids including total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride contents. GA elevated the excretion of fecal lipids and bile acid in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, GA significantly decreased plasma TC, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein plus very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and TC/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in HF diet-fed rats. HF diet induced an in plasma glucose and an impaired glucose tolerance, but GA supplementation decreased homeostasis model assessment equation-insulin resistance and improved impairment of glucose tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation of GA can improve the impairment of glucose and lipid metabolism in an HF diet-fed rat model.

  3. Long-term feeding of red algae (Gelidium amansii) ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism in a high fructose diet-impaired glucose tolerance rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hshuan-Chen; Chang, Chun-Ju; Yang, Tsung-Han; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2017-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of Gelidium amansii (GA) on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats with high fructose (HF) diet (57.1% w/w). Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HF diet to induce glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia. The experiment was divided into three groups: (1) control diet group (Con); (2) HF diet group (HF); and (3) HF with GA diet group (HF + 5% GA). The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 23 weeks. The results showed that GA significantly decreased retroperitoneal fat mass weight of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of GA caused a decrease in plasma glucose, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin. HF diet increased hepatic lipid content. However, intake of GA reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids including total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride contents. GA elevated the excretion of fecal lipids and bile acid in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, GA significantly decreased plasma TC, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein plus very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and TC/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in HF diet-fed rats. HF diet induced an in plasma glucose and an impaired glucose tolerance, but GA supplementation decreased homeostasis model assessment equation-insulin resistance and improved impairment of glucose tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation of GA can improve the impairment of glucose and lipid metabolism in an HF diet-fed rat model. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effects of dietary carbohydrates on glucose and lipid metabolism in golden Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim-Karakas, S E; Vriend, H; Almario, R; Chow, L C; Goodman, M N

    1996-08-01

    Frequent coexistence of insulin resistance, central obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in the same individual suggests an underlying common pathogenesis. Insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia can be induced by carbohydrate feeding in rats. Golden Syrian hamsters are believed to be resistant to the metabolic effects of dietary carbohydrates. We investigated the effects of diets containing 60% fructose or sucrose on glucose and lipid metabolism in hamsters, both in the fasting state and during an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Fructose caused obesity (weight after treatment: 131 +/- 7 gm in the control group, 155 +/- 5 gm in the fructose group, 136 +/- 7 gm in sucrose group, p < 0.04). Fructose also reduced glucose disappearance rate (KG: 2.69% +/- 0.39% in the control group, 1.45% +/- 0.18% in the fructose group, p < 0.02). Sucrose caused a marginal decrease in glucose disappearance (KG: 1.93% +/- 0.21%, p = 0.08 vs the control group). Only fructose feeding increased fasting plasma nonesterified fatty acids (0.645 +/- 0.087 mEq/L in the control group, 1.035 +/- 0.083 mEq/L in the fructose group, 0.606 +/- 0.061 mEq/L in the sucrose group, p < 0.002), plasma triglycerides (84 +/- 6 mg/dl in the control group, 270 +/- 65 mg/dl in the fructose group, 94 +/- 16 mg/dl in the sucrose group, p < 0.0002), and liver triglycerides (1.88 +/- 0.38 mg/gm liver weight in the control group, 2.35 =/- 0.24 mg/gm in the fructose group, 1.41 +/- 0.13 mg/gm in the sucrose group, p < 0.04). Previous studies in the rat have suggested that dietary carbohydrates induce insulin resistance by increasing plasma nonesterified fatty acids and triglycerides, which are preferentially used by the muscles. The present report shows that sucrose also can cause some decrease in glucose disappearance in the hamster without causing hypertriglyceridemia or increasing plasma nonesterified fatty acids. Thus other mechanisms may also contribute to the insulin resistance in the hamster. These

  5. fasting blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    (HbA1c) levels of diabetes mellitus patients as an index of glycaemic control. It was a prospective case- finding study using laboratory and general practice records. ... range of glycosylated haemoglobins, and the cut-off values for some clinical .... quality of glycaemic control by glycated haemoglobin in out-patient diabetic ...

  6. Low circulating levels of IGF-1 in healthy adults are associated with reduced β-cell function, increased intramyocellular lipid, and enhanced fat utilization during fasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thankamony, Ajay; Capalbo, Donatella; Marcovecchio, M Loredana

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Low serum IGF-1 levels have been linked to increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes. However, the physiological role of IGF-1 in glucose metabolism is not well characterized. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to explore glucose and lipid metabolism associated with variations in serum...

  7. The optimal blood glucose level for critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shaoning; Ross, Paul; Tori, Kathleen

    2017-09-01

    Glycaemic control is recognized as one of the important aspects in managing critically ill patients. Both hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia independently increase the risk of patient mortality. Hence, the identification of optimal glycaemic control is of paramount importance in the management of critically ill patients. The aim of this literature review is to examine the current status of glycaemic control in critically ill adult patients. This literature review will focus on randomized controlled trials comparing intensive insulin therapy to conventional insulin therapy, with an objective to identify optimal blood glucose level targets for critically ill adult patients. A literature review was conducted to identify large randomized controlled trials for the optimal targeted blood glucose level for critically ill adult patients published since 2000. A total of eight studies fulfilled the selection criteria of this review. With current human and technology resources, the results of the studies support commencing glycaemic control once the blood glucose level of critically ill patients reaches 10 mmol/L and maintaining this level between 8 mmol/L and 10 mmol/L. This literature review provides a recommendation for targeting the optimal blood glucose level for critically ill patients within moderate blood glucose level target range (8-10 mmol/L). The need for uniformed glucometrics for unbiased reporting and further research for optimal blood glucose target is required, especially in light of new technological advancements in closed-loop insulin delivery and monitoring devices. This literature review has revealed a need to call for consensus in the measurement and reporting of glycaemic control using standardized glucometrics. © 2017 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  8. Control of lipid oxidation at the mitochondrial level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, Kent

    2009-01-01

    , but the mechanisms regulating fuel preferences remain unclear. During intense exercise, oxidation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) decreases, and the major control is likely to be at the mitochondrial level. Potential mitochondrial sites for control of lipid oxidation include transport of LCFAs into mitochondrial......-oxidation by redox state is thought to be an important mechanism for the slowing of lipid oxidation during intensive exercise....

  9. Umbilical cord blood glucose levels in full-term newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Karpova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was to determine the umbilical cord venous blood level of glucose in full-term newborns and its relationship to the mode of delivery. The investigation included 102 full-term newborn infants, including 33 and 69 babies born via cesar-ean and vaginal delivery, respectively. Umbilical cord serum glucose levels were determined by the glucose oxidase test using a Sap-phire-400 biochemical analyzer. In healthy full-term newborns, the mean umbilical cord blood glucose levels were 4,29±0,88 mmol/1 (minimum, 2,9 mmol/1 and maximum, 5,9 mmol/1. In the babies born via cesarean delivery, the umbilical cord blood concentration of glucose was ascertained to be significantly lower than in those born vaginally (3,84+0,71 mmol/1 versus 4,51+0,87 mmol/1; /><0,0001. Abdominal delivery can be apparently considered to be a risk factor for hypoglycemia in neonatal infants.

  10. Haematological Indices, Blood glucose levels and lipid profile of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    2015-11-11

    Nov 11, 2015 ... Short Communication. Imafidon et al. ... one of the most commonly used food colourant. A food additive is only approved for ... Post-marketing surveillance of its effects ... value permitted in alcoholic beverages, up to 100 mg/kg ...

  11. Assessing plasma glucose and lipid levels, body weight and acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... was evaluated in Swiss albino mice by feeding the animals with the graded doses of the extract between 1.0 ... disorder of carbohydrate and fat metabolism, which is ... cheap and safe blood sugar lowering oral hypoglycaemic.

  12. Correlation of body mass index Z-scores with glucose and lipid profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-de-Almeida, Carlos Alberto; Mello, Elza Daniel de

    To evaluate the prevalence of abnormalities in plasma lipid and glucose profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents, and to assess the presence of a correlation between body mass index Z-scores and indicators of comorbidities related to both profiles. This was a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted at two outpatient clinics. The study included all 417 comers for the first visit from 2008 to 2012, aged between 7 and 18 years, with BMI above the Z-score +1. Anthropometry and blood sampling were obtained. The prevalence of dyslipidemias, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance were evaluated, together with the correlations of these variables with the increase of Z-BMI. Dyslipidemia was observed in 43.4% of the boys and 66.1% of the girls, with no difference between genders. High glucose levels were detected in 6.2% of the individuals. Insulin resistance was present in 32.3% and 41.7% of the cases, with no statistical significance between boys and girls. Correlations between the Z-BMI were noted for triglycerides in the entire group and among girls; for HDL-c, only among girls; for glucose, a correlation was observed for the entire group, but not when stratified by gender. The indicators of insulin resistance were all correlated with Z-BMI, even when corrected for age. Overweight and obesity give origin to a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. BMI Z-scores showed a weak positive correlation with glucose and triglyceride, and negative with HDL-c. In turn, the strongest positive correlation was found with insulin resistance indicators. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Protective Effects of Ferulic Acid on High Glucose-Induced Protein Glycation, Lipid Peroxidation, and Membrane Ion Pump Activity in Human Erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerachat Sompong

    Full Text Available Ferulic acid (FA is the ubiquitous phytochemical phenolic derivative of cinnamic acid. Experimental studies in diabetic models demonstrate that FA possesses multiple mechanisms of action associated with anti-hyperglycemic activity. The mechanism by which FA prevents diabetes-associated vascular damages remains unknown. The aim of study was to investigate the protective effects of FA on protein glycation, lipid peroxidation, membrane ion pump activity, and phosphatidylserine exposure in high glucose-exposed human erythrocytes. Our results demonstrated that FA (10-100 μM significantly reduced the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c whereas 0.1-100 μM concentrations inhibited lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes exposed to 45 mM glucose. This was associated with increased glucose consumption. High glucose treatment also caused a significant reduction in Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the erythrocyte plasma membrane which could be reversed by FA. Furthermore, we found that FA (0.1-100 μM prevented high glucose-induced phosphatidylserine exposure. These findings provide insights into a novel mechanism of FA for the prevention of vascular dysfunction associated with diabetes.

  14. Twenty-four-hour variations in blood glucose level in Japanese type 2 diabetes patients based on continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajime, Maiko; Okada, Yosuke; Mori, Hiroko; Otsuka, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Mayuko; Miyazaki, Megumi; Kuno, Fumi; Sugai, Kei; Sonoda, Satomi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Kurozumi, Akira; Narisawa, Manabu; Torimoto, Keiichi; Arao, Tadashi; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2018-01-01

    High fluctuations in blood glucose are associated with various complications. The correlation between glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level and fluctuations in blood glucose level has not been studied in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. In the present study, blood glucose profile stratified by HbA1c level was evaluated by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in Japanese type 2 diabetes patients. Our retrospective study included 294 patients with type 2 diabetes who were divided by HbA1c level into five groups (≥6.0 to level and CGM data was analyzed. The primary end-point was the difference in blood glucose fluctuations among the HbA1c groups. The mean blood glucose level increased significantly with increasing HbA1c (P trend  levels of maximum blood glucose, minimum blood glucose, each preprandial blood glucose, each postprandial maximum blood glucose, range of increase in postprandial glucose from pre-meal to after breakfast, the area under the blood concentration-time curve >180 mg/dL and percentage of the area under the blood concentration-time curve >180 mg/dL were higher with higher HbA1c. Mean glucose level and pre-breakfast blood glucose level were significant and independent determinants of HbA1c. In Japanese patients treated for type 2 diabetes, the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions did not correlate with HbA1c, making it difficult to assess blood glucose fluctuations using HbA1c. Parameters other than HbA1c are required to evaluate fluctuations in blood glucose level in patients receiving treatment for type 2 diabetes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. The human hepatocyte cell lines IHH and HepaRG: models to study glucose, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanez, Carolina Huaman; Caron, Sandrine; Briand, Olivier; Dehondt, Hélène; Duplan, Isabelle; Kuipers, Folkert; Hennuyer, Nathalie; Clavey, Véronique; Staels, Bart

    2012-07-01

    Metabolic diseases reach epidemic proportions. A better knowledge of the associated alterations in the metabolic pathways in the liver is necessary. These studies need in vitro human cell models. Several human hepatoma models are used, but the response of many metabolic pathways to physiological stimuli is often lost. Here, we characterize two human hepatocyte cell lines, IHH and HepaRG, by analysing the expression and regulation of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. Our results show that the glycolysis pathway is activated by glucose and insulin in both lines. Gluconeogenesis gene expression is induced by forskolin in IHH cells and inhibited by insulin in both cell lines. The lipogenic pathway is regulated by insulin in IHH cells. Finally, both cell lines secrete apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, an effect promoted by increasing glucose concentrations. These two human cell lines are thus interesting models to study the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism.

  16. [A comparison of post-surgical plasma glucose levels in patients on fluids with different glucose concentrations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Carapeto, Isabel; López Castilla, José Domingo; Fresneda Gutiérrez, Reyes

    2017-11-11

    To compare plasma glucose levels and incidence of hyperglycaemia in the post-operative period after general surgery using fluids with different glucose. A randomised, open-label, non-blind, clinical trial was conducted on patients admitted to Paediatric Intensive Care Unit after elective surgery. The inclusion criteria were from 6 months to 14 years of age, with a weight greater than 6kg, onset glucose level >60mg/dL, and a signed informed consent, with no oral intake and maintenance intravenous fluid therapy using fluids with 3.3% or 5% glucose. Plasma glucose levels were measured before surgery, on admission, and 8, 24, and 48h, with the mean glucose levels and incidence of hyperglycaemia (glucose level >150mg/dL) in both groups being compared. A total of 60 patients received glucose/saline 1/3 (51mEq/L sodium and 33g/L glucose), and 70 glucose/saline 5/0.9% (154mEq/L sodium and 50g/L glucose). Mean glucose levels were higher in the group receiving glucose 5%, with no statistical difference. There was no significant difference in the incidence of hyperglycaemia; 8h: 26% in the 3.3% group vs. 21.3% in the 5% group (P=.63); 24h: 20% vs. 22.7% (P=.8); and 48h: 19% vs. 23.1% (P=.78). The use of fluids with 3.3% glucose in the post-operative period of general surgery maintains mean glucose levels in a similar range to that of patients receiving fluids with 5% glucose, with no difference in the incidence of hyperglycaemia. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  17. Effects of Low-Molecular-Weight Fucoidan and High Stability Fucoxanthin on Glucose Homeostasis, Lipid Metabolism, and Liver Function in a Mouse Model of Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ting Victor Lin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMF and fucoxanthin (Fx in terms of antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and hepatoprotective activities were investigated in a mouse model of type II diabetes. The intake of LMF, Fx, and LMF + Fx lowered the blood sugar and fasting blood sugar levels, and increased serum adiponectin levels. The significant decrease in urinary sugar was only observed in LMF + Fx supplementation. LMF and Fx had ameliorating effects on the hepatic tissue of db/db mice by increasing hepatic glycogen and antioxidative enzymes, and LMF was more effective than Fx at improving hepatic glucose metabolism. As for glucose and lipid metabolism in the adipose tissue, the expression of insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1, glucose transporter (GLUT, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, and uncoupling protein (UCP-1 mRNAs in the adipose tissue of diabetic mice was significantly upregulated by Fx and LMF + Fx, and levels of inflammatory adipocytokines, such as adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and interleukin-6 (IL-6, were significantly modulated only by LMF + Fx supplementation. The efficacy of LMF + Fx supplementation on the decrease in urinary sugar and on glucose and lipid metabolism in the white adipose tissue of db/db mice was better than that of Fx or LMF alone, indicating the occurrence of a synergistic effect of LMF and Fx.

  18. Glucose and Lipid Dysmetabolism in a Rat Model of Prediabetes Induced by a High-Sucrose Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgeiro, Ana; Cerqueira, Manuela G.; Varela-Rodríguez, Bárbara M.; Nunes, Sara; Neto, Paula; Pereira, Frederico C.; Reis, Flávio; Carvalho, Eugénia

    2017-01-01

    Glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity are key features of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but their molecular nature during the early stages of the disease remains to be elucidated. We aimed to characterize glucose and lipid metabolism in insulin-target organs (liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose tissue) in a rat model treated with a high-sucrose (HSu) diet. Two groups of 16-week-old male Wistar rats underwent a 9-week protocol: HSu diet (n = 10)—received 35% of sucrose in drinking water; Control (n = 12)—received vehicle (water). Body weight, food, and beverage consumption were monitored and glucose, insulin, and lipid profiles were measured. Serum and liver triglyceride concentrations, as well as the expression of genes and proteins involved in lipid biosynthesis were assessed. The insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis were also measured in freshly isolated adipocytes. Even in the absence of obesity, this rat model already presented the main features of prediabetes, with fasting normoglycemia but reduced glucose tolerance, postprandial hyperglycemia, compensatory hyperinsulinemia, as well as decreased insulin sensitivity (resistance) and hypertriglyceridemia. In addition, impaired hepatic function, including altered gluconeogenic and lipogenic pathways, as well as increased expression of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase 1 and fatty acid synthase in the liver, were observed, suggesting that liver glucose and lipid dysmetabolism may play a major role at this stage of the disease. PMID:28635632

  19. Secular trends in lipid-lowering treatment and lipid levels after a first acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Björck

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lena Björck1, Catharina Welin2, Annika Rosengren11Department of medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Göteborg, Sweden; 2Institute of Health and Care Sciences, the Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, SwedenBackground: The beneficial effects of statins were unequivocally demonstrated in the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S in 1994, leading to an increase in the use of lipid-lowering drugs. However, to what extent this translates into serum cholesterol levels in a real-life setting has not been systematically investigated.Objective: To estimate secular trends from 1994 to 2002 in blood lipid levels among unselected younger patients after a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI.Method: Descriptive single centre study using consecutive data collection in 781 patients (aged <65 years hospitalized with a first AMI during the period 1994–2002.Results: From 1994–2002, the use of lipid-lowering drugs increased from 10% to 94% for men and from 23% to 90% for women. In 1994, the mean serum cholesterol levels were 6.53 mmol/l in men and 6.32 mmol/l in women, decreasing to 4.31 mmol/l and 5.13 mmol/l in men and women, respectively, in 2002. Still, only 56% of the men and 35% of the women had total serum cholesterol levels <4.5 mmol/l in 2002.Conclusion: Despite a marked increase in lipid-lowering drug treatment in which there was an increase from about 10% in 1994 to more than 90% in 2002, current target levels of <4.5 mmol/l for serum cholesterol were not achieved in a significant proportion of post-AMI patients.Keywords: lipid levels, lipid-lowering medication, myocardial infarction, risk factors

  20. Examination of liver and muscle glycogen and blood glucose levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... changes in fish affect the conversion of liver glycogen into blood ... province, altitude 1248 m and surface area of 86 km2, 20 km in length 4.5 km in width ... alcohol (95% pure) were added, followed by boiling for a further 15 min. ..... water temperature on the blood glucose level of chub (Leuciscus cephalus ...

  1. Modulation of memory with septal injections of morphine and glucose: effects on extracellular glucose levels in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNay, Ewan C; Canal, Clinton E; Sherwin, Robert S; Gold, Paul E

    2006-02-28

    The concentration of glucose in the extracellular fluid (ECF) of the hippocampus decreases substantially during memory testing on a hippocampus-dependent memory task. Administration of exogenous glucose, which enhances task performance, prevents this decrease, suggesting a relationship between hippocampal glucose availability and memory performance. In the present experiment, spontaneous alternation performance and task-related changes in hippocampal ECF glucose were assessed in rats after intraseptal administration of morphine, which impairs memory on a spontaneous alternation task, and after co-administration of intraseptal glucose, which attenuates that impairment. Consistent with previous findings, spontaneous alternation testing resulted in a decrease in hippocampal ECF glucose levels in control rats. However, rats that received intraseptal morphine prior to testing showed memory impairments and an absence of the task-related decrease in hippocampal ECF glucose levels. Intraseptal co-administration of glucose with morphine attenuated the memory impairment, and ECF glucose levels in the hippocampus decreased in a manner comparable to that seen in control rats. These data suggest that fluctuations in hippocampal ECF glucose levels may be a marker of mnemonic processing and support the view that decreases in extracellular glucose during memory testing reflect increased glucose demand during memory processing.

  2. Quantitative influence of risk factors on blood glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Songjing; Luo, Senlin; Pan, Limin; Zhang, Tiemei; Han, Longfei; Zhao, Haixiu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantitatively analyze the influence of risk factors on the blood glucose level, and to provide theory basis for understanding the characteristics of blood glucose change and confirming the intervention index for type 2 diabetes. The quantitative method is proposed to analyze the influence of risk factors on blood glucose using back propagation (BP) neural network. Ten risk factors are screened first. Then the cohort is divided into nine groups by gender and age. According to the minimum error principle, nine BP models are trained respectively. The quantitative values of the influence of different risk factors on the blood glucose change can be obtained by sensitivity calculation. The experiment results indicate that weight is the leading cause of blood glucose change (0.2449). The second factors are cholesterol, age and triglyceride. The total ratio of these four factors reaches to 77% of the nine screened risk factors. And the sensitivity sequences can provide judgment method for individual intervention. This method can be applied to risk factors quantitative analysis of other diseases and potentially used for clinical practitioners to identify high risk populations for type 2 diabetes as well as other disease.

  3. Blood lipid levels in a rural male population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, A; Stiernström, E L; Holmberg, S

    2001-06-01

    Farmers have a low risk for cardiovascular disease, which may be related to a favourable blood lipid profile. In order to study the blood lipid levels and evaluate the effect of other cardiovascular risk factors on the blood lipid profile, this cross-sectional study was made. A total of 1013 farmers and 769 non-farming rural men in nine different Swedish counties were examined, interviewed, and replied to questionnaires. The inter-relationships between different risk factors were analysed using a multivariate linear regression model. The farmers had a significantly more favourable blood lipid profile than the non-farmers although the total cholesterol levels were almost the same for the two groups. In the total study population there were significant positive relationships between total cholesterol level and body mass index (BMI), diastolic blood pressure and smoking. The high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level was positively related to physical workload and alcohol consumption, and negatively related to BMI, waist/hip ratio and smoking. Triglyceride levels showed a positive relationship to BMI, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Differences between farmers and other rural males were seen, especially with respect to the effect of physical activity and psychosocial factors. Among the farmers, a negative correlation between the Karasek-Theorell authority over work index and total cholesterol, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/HDL ratio and triglyceride levels was observed. This study indicated that diet is of minor significance for the blood lipid profile, whereas factors such as physical activity, body weight and the waist/hip ratio, smoking, alcohol consumption, and perhaps psychosocial working conditions are major independent factors affecting the blood lipid profile most prominently among farmers, but also among non-farming rural men.

  4. Sensing the fuels: glucose and lipid signaling in the CNS controlling energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sabine D; Könner, A Christine; Brüning, Jens C

    2010-10-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is capable of gathering information on the body's nutritional state and it implements appropriate behavioral and metabolic responses to changes in fuel availability. This feedback signaling of peripheral tissues ensures the maintenance of energy homeostasis. The hypothalamus is a primary site of convergence and integration for these nutrient-related feedback signals, which include central and peripheral neuronal inputs as well as hormonal signals. Increasing evidence indicates that glucose and lipids are detected by specialized fuel-sensing neurons that are integrated in these hypothalamic neuronal circuits. The purpose of this review is to outline the current understanding of fuel-sensing mechanisms in the hypothalamus, to integrate the recent findings in this field, and to address the potential role of dysregulation in these pathways in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  5. Applying decision tree for identification of a low risk population for type 2 diabetes. Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezankhani, Azra; Pournik, Omid; Shahrabi, Jamal; Khalili, Davood; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to create a prediction model using data mining approach to identify low risk individuals for incidence of type 2 diabetes, using the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) database. For a 6647 population without diabetes, aged ≥20 years, followed for 12 years, a prediction model was developed using classification by the decision tree technique. Seven hundred and twenty-nine (11%) diabetes cases occurred during the follow-up. Predictor variables were selected from demographic characteristics, smoking status, medical and drug history and laboratory measures. We developed the predictive models by decision tree using 60 input variables and one output variable. The overall classification accuracy was 90.5%, with 31.1% sensitivity, 97.9% specificity; and for the subjects without diabetes, precision and f-measure were 92% and 0.95, respectively. The identified variables included fasting plasma glucose, body mass index, triglycerides, mean arterial blood pressure, family history of diabetes, educational level and job status. In conclusion, decision tree analysis, using routine demographic, clinical, anthropometric and laboratory measurements, created a simple tool to predict individuals at low risk for type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Impact of opium consumption on blood glucose, serum lipids and blood pressure, and related mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Najafipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisisin our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (77 articles. Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms, but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  7. CD36 expression and lipid metabolism following an oral glucose challenge in South Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jeetesh V; Banerjee, Amitava; Montoro-Garcia, Silvia; Shantsila, Eduard; Alam, Mushfique; Flinders, Paul; Houlton, Kathleen Al; Hughes, Elizabeth A; Lip, Gregory Yh; Gill, Paramjit S

    2015-07-10

    To investigate lipid metabolism and the relationship with monocyte expression of the fatty acid translocase CD36 in South Asians. An observational study of South Asians whom as an ethnic group have - a higher risk of developing diabetes. The susceptibility to diabetes is coupled with an earlier and more rapid progression of micro-, and macro-vascular complications. Twenty-nine healthy South Asian participants [mean age 34.6 (8.9) years, 76.2% male, mean body-mass index 25.0 (5.2) kg/m(2)] were recruited from an urban residential area of central Birmingham (United Kingdom). The main outcomes measured were post prandial (30 min) and post absorptive (120 min) changes from fasting (0 min) in circulating lipoproteins, lipds and hormones, and monocyte expression of CD36 post injection of a 75 g oral glucose challenge. The inducements of variations of monocyte CD36 expression were analysed. Our results showed evident changes in monocyte CD36 expression following the glucose challenge (P challenge (P lifestyle exposures have a role in moderating the expression of CD36.

  8. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption. PMID:27790151

  9. The Impact of Opium Consumption on Blood Glucose, Serum Lipids and Blood Pressure, and Related Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Beik, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisis in our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (78 articles). Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms), but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  10. Alpha2delta-1 in SF1+ Neurons of the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Is an Essential Regulator of Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsted, Jennifer A; Chien, Cheng-Hao; Wang, Dongqing; Panessiti, Micaella; Ameroso, Dominique; Greenberg, Andrew; Feng, Guoping; Kong, Dong; Rios, Maribel

    2017-12-05

    The central mechanisms controlling glucose and lipid homeostasis are inadequately understood. We show that α2δ-1 is an essential regulator of glucose and lipid balance, acting in steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1) neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). These effects are body weight independent and involve regulation of SF1 + neuronal activity and sympathetic output to metabolic tissues. Accordingly, mice with α2δ-1 deletion in SF1 neurons exhibit glucose intolerance, altered lipolysis, and decreased cholesterol content in adipose tissue despite normal energy balance regulation. Profound reductions in the firing rate of SF1 neurons, decreased sympathetic output, and elevated circulating levels of serotonin are associated with these alterations. Normal calcium currents but reduced excitatory postsynaptic currents in mutant SF1 neurons implicate α2δ-1 in the promotion of excitatory synaptogenesis separate from its canonical role as a calcium channel subunit. Collectively, these findings identify an essential mechanism that regulates VMH neuronal activity and glycemic and lipid control and may be a target for tackling metabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary fiber and lipid peroxidation: effect of dietary fiber on levels of lipids and lipid peroxides in high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, B S; Manoj, G; Leelamma, S; Menon, V P

    1991-06-01

    Effect of feeding coconut and blackgram fiber isolated as neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on the levels of lipids and lipid peroxides was studied in rats given a high fat diet. Concentration of cholesterol, free falty acid and phospholipids showed significant decrease in the serum, liver aorta and intestine of coconut and blackgram fiber groups. Concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes was significantly decreased in liver and intestine of both fiber groups, while hydroperoxides showed significant increase in liver and heart of both the fiber groups. SOD and catalase activity was found to be increased in liver, intestine, heart proximal colon and distal colon of both the fiber groups. Serum ceruloplasmin levels showed a slight increase in animals fed coconut and blackgram fiber groups. Glutathione levels in liver, intestine proximal colon, distal colon and heart also showed a significant decrease in the animals of both the fiber groups.

  12. Effects on lipid and glucose metabolism of diets with different types of fat and sugar in male fatty Zucker rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waard, de H.

    1978-01-01

    The nutritional problem with regard to fat and sugar consumption in relation to lipid and glucose metabolism, and the ultimate goal of the study are generally outlined in Chapter 1. The obese Zucker rat was chosen as being likely a suitable animal model for a study like this. Chapter 2 is

  13. Socioeconomic inequalities in lipid and glucose metabolism in early childhood in a population-based cohort: the ABCD-Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G.; van Eijsden, M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease are pervasive, yet much remains to be understood about how they originate. The objective of this study was to explore the relations of socioeconomic status to lipid and glucose metabolism as indicators of cardiovascular health in

  14. Effect of leptin level upon lipid metabolism in climacteric women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Lijing; Yan Ruming; Sun Enhua

    2005-01-01

    To observe the relationship between leptin and obesity of climacteric women with their lipid metabolism, 110 cases of climacteric women were chosen as observation group, consisting of 69 cases obese subgroup and 45 cases non-obese group, and 60 cases of normal reproduction- age women were arranged as control group. Blood levels of leptin, INS, LDL-C, TG, HDL-C, apoA1, apoB, LH, FSH, E-2, T, and P were detected and BMI was calculated. The results showed that blood levels of leptin and INS of obese subgroup were significantly higher than those of non-obese sub-group and control group(P<0.01), and that LDL-C(5.01 mmol/L), TG(2.21mmal/L) and apoB(0.89g/L) levels in obese subgroup were significantly higher than those of control group. Furthermore, an important observation was that in climacteric women group, blood leptin level was positively and significantly correlated with insulin, BMI and several atherogenic blood lipid parameters, including LDL-C, TG and apoB. Thus, a preliminary conclusion might be reached as that the high climacteric level of leptin is associated with abnormal lipid metabolism related to atherogenity, and so leptin and lipid metabolism as a whole should be paid more attention in climateric women, especially those with obesity. (authors)

  15. Effects of agave nectar versus sucrose on weight gain, adiposity, blood glucose, insulin, and lipid responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Shirin; Holloway, Brittany; Nemoseck, Tricia; Cole, Sarah; Petrisko, Yumi; Hong, Mee Young; Kern, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Agave nectar is a fructose-rich liquid sweetener derived from a plant, and is often promoted as a low glycemic alternative to refined sugar. However, little scientific research has been conducted in animals or humans to determine its metabolic and/or health effects. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of agave nectar versus sucrose on weight gain, adiposity, fasting plasma blood glucose, insulin, and lipid levels. Eighteen (n=18) male ICR mice (33.8±1.6 g) were divided into two groups (n=6 for agave nectar and n=12 for sucrose) and provided free access to one of two diets of equal energy densities differing only in a portion of the carbohydrate provided. Diets contained 20% carbohydrate (by weight of total diet) from either raw agave nectar or sucrose. Epididymal fat pads were excised, and blood was collected after 34 days. Weight gain (4.3±2.2 vs. 8.4±3.4 g), fat pad weights (0.95±0.54 vs. 1.75±0.66 g), plasma glucose (77.8±12.2 vs. 111.0±27.9 mg/dL), and insulin (0.61±0.29 vs. 1.46±0.81 ng/mL) were significantly lower (P≤.05) for agave nectar-fed mice compared to sucrose-fed mice respectively. No statistically significant differences in total cholesterol or triglycerides were detected. These results suggest that in comparison to sucrose, agave nectar may have a positive influence on weight gain and glucose control. However, more research with a larger sample of animals and/or with human subjects is warranted.

  16. Fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, R K; Nessa, A; Hossain, M A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a condition in which the body fat stores are increased to an extent which impairs health and leads to serious health consequences. The amount of body fat is difficult to measure directly, and is usually determined from an indirect measure - the body mass index (BMI). Increased BMI in obese persons is directly associated with an increase in metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. This Analytical cross sectional study was undertaken to assess the relation between obesity and glycemic control of body by measuring fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. This study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from 1st July 2011 to 30th June 2012 on 120 equally divided male and female persons within the age range of 25 to 55 years. Age more than 55 years and less than 25 years and diagnosed case of Hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, polycystic ovary, Antipsychotic drug user and regular steroid users were excluded. Non probability purposive type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study subjects. Measurement of body mass index was done as per procedure. Fasting serum glucose was estimated by glucose oxidase method and Glycosylated hemoglobin by Boronate Affinity method. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS (version 17.0). Data were expressed as Mean±SE and statistical significance of difference among the groups were calculated by unpaired student's 't' test and Pearson's correlation coefficient tests were done as applicable. The Mean±SE of fasting serum glucose was significant at 1% level (P value obese group of BMI. There was no significant difference of glycosylated hemoglobin level between control and study groups. But there was positive correlation within each group. Fasting serum glucose also showed a bit stronger positive correlation with BMI. Both obese male and female persons showed higher levels of fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. The observed positive

  17. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shing-Hwa Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on plasma glucose and lipids in rats fed a high-fructose (HF diet (63.1%. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were used as experimental animals. Rats were divided into three groups: (1 normal group (normal; (2 HF group; (3 chitosan + HF group (HF + C. The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was about 3.8 × 105 Dalton and degree of deacetylation was about 89.8% significantly decreased body weight, paraepididymal fat mass, and retroperitoneal fat mass weight, but elevated the lipolysis rate in retroperitoneal fats of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan causes a decrease in plasma insulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, Interleukin (IL-6, and leptin, and an increase in plasma adiponectin. The HF diet increased hepatic lipids. However, intake of chitosan reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids, including total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG contents. In addition, chitosan elevated the excretion of fecal lipids in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, chitosan significantly decreased plasma TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, the TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ratio, and increased the HDL-C/(LDL-C + VLDL-C ratio, but elevated the plasma TG and free fatty acids concentrations in HF diet-fed rats. Plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4 protein expression was not affected by the HF diet, but it was significantly increased in chitosan-supplemented, HF-diet-fed rats. The high-fructose diet induced an increase in plasma glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, but chitosan supplementation decreased plasma glucose and improved impairment of glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation with chitosan can improve the impairment

  18. Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willer, Cristen J.; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Sengupta, Sebanti; Peloso, Gina M.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; den Hertog, Heleen M.; Do, Ron; Donnelly, Louise A.; Ehret, Georg B.; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U.; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E.; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E.; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K.; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; van den Herik, Evita G.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F.; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S. F.; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E.; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L.; Groves, Christopher J.; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J. P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L.; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V. M.; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stancáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J.; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Pelt, L. Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S.; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Cooper, Richard S.; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B.; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B.; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G. Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I.; McKenzie, Colin A.; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Price, Jackie F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D.; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Whitfield, John B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Franks, Paul W.; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Rich, Stephen S.; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Kathiresan, Sekar; Mohlke, Karen L.; Ingelsson, Erik; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.

    2013-01-01

    Levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,577

  19. Net energy levels on the lipid profile of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Alexander da Silva Alencar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of net energy levels on the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle of swines. A total of 90 animals, with initial weight of 71.94±4.43kg, were used, and distributed in a randomized block design in five net energy levels (2,300, 2,425, 2,550, 2,675, and 2,800Kcal kg-1 feed, with nine replicates and two animals per experimental unit. Lipid profiles of adipose tissue and muscle were analyzed using gas chromatography. Increasing the levels of net energy using soybean oil, improved the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle, increased linearly (P<0.05 the concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and α-linolenic acid, reduced linearly (P<0.05 the monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids and omega 6: omega 3. In adipose tissue was observed linear reduction (P<0.05 of atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. In conclusion, increasing the level of net energy of the diet using soybean oil improved the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle.

  20. Serum paraoxonase activity and lipid hydroperoxide levels in adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Objectives: In this study, we aimed to investigate serum PON1 activity and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) levels in adult football players after three days ... oxidative stress after three days football tournament. In addition, physical activity for a ... polymorphism, gender, and exercise. Furthermore, it has been ...

  1. Rice (Oryza sativa japonica) Albumin Suppresses the Elevation of Blood Glucose and Plasma Insulin Levels after Oral Glucose Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Shigenobu; Ninomiya, Kazumi; Mogi, Takashi; Hase, Ayumu; Ando, Toshiki; Matsukaze, Narumi; Ogihara, Jun; Akao, Makoto; Kumagai, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Hitomi

    2016-06-22

    The suppressive effect of rice albumin (RA) of 16 kDa on elevation of blood glucose level after oral loading of starch or glucose and its possible mechanism were examined. RA suppressed the increase in blood glucose levels in both the oral starch tolerance test and the oral glucose tolerance test. The blood glucose concentrations 15 min after the oral administration of starch were 144 ± 6 mg/dL for control group and 127 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group, while those after the oral administration of glucose were 157 ± 7 mg/dL for control group and 137 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group. However, in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, no significant differences in blood glucose level were observed between RA and the control groups, indicating that RA suppresses the glucose absorption from the small intestine. However, RA did not inhibit the activity of mammalian α-amylase. RA was hydrolyzed to an indigestible high-molecular-weight peptide (HMP) of 14 kDa and low-molecular-weight peptides by pepsin and pancreatin. Furthermore, RA suppressed the glucose diffusion rate through a semipermeable membrane like dietary fibers in vitro. Therefore, the indigestible HMP may adsorb glucose and suppress its absorption from the small intestine.

  2. Effects of medium-chain fatty acids and oleic acid on blood lipids, lipoproteins, glucose, insulin, and lipid transfer protein activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Ehnholm, C.; Jauhiainen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Dietary medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are of nutritional interest because they are more easily absorbed from dietary medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) than are long-chain fatty acids from, for example, vegetable oils. It has generally been claimed that MCFAs do not increase plasma...... cholesterol, although this claim is poorly documented. Objective: We compared the effects of a diet rich in either MCFAs or oleic acid on fasting blood lipids, lipoproteins, glucose, insulin, and lipid transfer protein activities in healthy men. Design: In a study with a double-blind, randomized, crossover...... plasma total triacylglycerol (P = 0.0361), and higher plasma glucose (P = 0.033). Plasma HDL-cholesterol and insulin concentrations and activities of cholesterol ester transfer protein and phospholipid transfer protein did not differ significantly between the diets. Conclusions: Compared with fat high...

  3. Intracerebroventricular Kainic Acid-Induced Damage Affects Blood Glucose Level in d-glucose-fed Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chea-Ha; Hong, Jae-Seung

    2015-03-01

    We have previously reported that the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of kainic acid (KA) results in significant neuronal damage on the hippocampal CA3 region. In this study, we examined possible changes in the blood glucose level after i.c.v. pretreatment with KA. The blood glucose level was elevated at 30 min, began to decrease at 60 min and returned to normal at 120 min after D-glucose-feeding. We found that the blood glucose level in the KA-pretreated group was higher than in the saline-pretreated group. The up-regulation of the blood glucose level in the KA-pretreated group was still present even after 1~4 weeks. The plasma corticosterone and insulin levels were slightly higher in the KA-treated group. Corticosterone levels decreased whereas insulin levels were elevated when mice were fed with D-glucose. The i.c.v. pretreatment with KA for 24 hr caused a significant reversal of D-glucose-induced down-regulation of corticosterone level. However, the insulin level was enhanced in the KA-pretreated group compared to the vehicle-treated group when mice were fed with D-glucose. These results suggest that KA-induced alterations of the blood glucose level are related to cell death in the CA3 region whereas the up-regulation of blood glucose level in the KA-pretreated group appears to be due to a reversal of D-glucose feeding-induced down-regulation of corticosterone level.

  4. Body mass index, blood pressure, and glucose and lipid metabolism among permanent and fixed-term workers in the manufacturing industry: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Mariko; Minami, Masahide; Yano, Eiji

    2014-02-27

    Temporary employment, a precarious form of employment, is recognized as social determinant of poor health. However, evidence supporting precarious employment as a risk factor for health is mainly obtained from subjective data. Studies using objective clinical measurement data in the assessment of health status are limited. This study compared body mass index (BMI), lipid and glucose metabolism, and health-related lifestyle factors between permanent workers and fixed-term workers employed in the manufacturing industry. Data of 1,701 male manufacturing industry workers triglyceride levels were determined. For glucose metabolism, fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were measured. Multiple regression analysis adjusted for age and lifestyle factors was performed. BMI was significantly higher in permanent workers (22.9 kg/m2) compared with fixed-term workers (22.4 kg/m2). The leaner population (BMI triglyceride (β = 11.147), fasting blood glucose (β = 2.218), and HbA1c (β = 0.107) compared with permanent workers (all p glucose metabolism, even when adjusted for age and lifestyle variables, although BMI of fixed-term workers were lower than permanent workers. Precarious work might contribute to a deteriorating health status even among less overweight populations.

  5. Levels of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in thyroid neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, Orla

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: This study assessed the presence of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation in thyroid neoplasia. METHODS: Using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry, we assessed levels of DNA damage (8-oxo-dG) and lipid peroxidation (4-HNE) in 71 follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA), 45 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and 17 follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and matched normal thyroid tissue. RESULTS: Cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG and 4-HNE expression was significantly higher in FTA, FTC, and PTC tissue compared to matched normal tissue (all p values < .001). Similarly, elevated nuclear levels of 8-oxo-dG were seen in all in FTA, FTC, and PTC tissue compared to matched normal (p values < .07, < .001, < .001, respectively). In contrast, a higher level of 4-HNE expression was detected in normal thyroid tissue compared with matched tumor tissue (p < .001 for all groups). Comparing all 3 groups, 4-HNE levels were higher than 8-oxo-dG levels (p < .001 for all groups) except that cytoplasmic levels of 8-oxo-dG were higher than 4-HNE in all (p < .001). These results were independent of proliferation status. CONCLUSION: High levels of DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasia indicates this damage is an early event that may influence disease progression.

  6. Low circulating levels of IGF-1 in healthy adults are associated with reduced β-cell function, increased intramyocellular lipid, and enhanced fat utilization during fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thankamony, Ajay; Capalbo, Donatella; Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Sleigh, Alison; Jørgensen, Sine Wanda; Hill, Nathan R; Mooslehner, Katrin; Yeo, Giles S H; Bluck, Les; Juul, Anders; Vaag, Allan; Dunger, David B

    2014-06-01

    Low serum IGF-1 levels have been linked to increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes. However, the physiological role of IGF-1 in glucose metabolism is not well characterized. Our objective was to explore glucose and lipid metabolism associated with variations in serum IGF-1 levels. IGF-1 levels were measured in healthy, nonobese male volunteers aged 18 to 50 years from a biobank (n = 275) to select 24 subjects (age 34.8 ± 8.9 years), 12 each in the lowest (low-IGF) and highest (high-IGF) quartiles of age-specific IGF-1 SD scores. Evaluations were undertaken after a 24-hour fast and included glucose and glycerol turnover rates using tracers, iv glucose tolerance test to estimate peripheral insulin sensitivity (IS) and acute insulin and C-peptide responses (indices of insulin secretion), magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure intramyocellular lipids (IMCLs), calorimetry, and gene expression studies in a muscle biopsy. Acute insulin and C-peptide responses, IS, and glucose and glycerol rate of appearance (Ra) were evaluated. Fasting insulin and C-peptide levels and glucose Ra were reduced (all P IGF-1 levels could be an important marker of β-cell function and glucose as well as lipid metabolic responses during fasting.

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs-independent functions of fish oil on glucose and lipid metabolism in diet-induced obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakutsu Masaki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish oil is known to improve lifestyle-related diseases. These effects occur partly via activation of PPARs by the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids included abundantly in fish oil. We investigated fish oil functions on glucose and lipid metabolism that are both dependent on and independent of PPARs pathway. Methods Mice were fed a diet containing 30 en% beef tallow (B diet for twelve weeks to induce obesity. The mice were then divided into two groups which were fed either a B diet or a diet containing 30 en% fish oil (F diet. Each group was further divided into two groups which were administered PPARα and γ antagonists or vehicle once a day for three weeks. Results The F diet groups showed lower triglyceride levels in plasma and liver than the B diet groups, but PPARs antagonists did not affect the triglyceride levels in either diet groups. The F diet groups also showed improvement of glucose tolerance compared with the B diet groups. However, PPARs antagonists made glucose tolerance worse in the F diet group but improved it in the B diet group. Therefore, by the administration of antagonists, glucose tolerance was inversely regulated between the B and F diets, and hypolipidemic action in the plasma and liver of the F diet group was not affected. Conclusion These results suggest that fish oil decreases lipid levels in plasma and liver via PPARs pathway-independent mechanism, and that glucose tolerance is inversely regulated by PPARs antagonists under diets containing different oils.

  8. Effect of protein, carbohydrate, lipid, and selenium levels on the performance, carcass yield, and blood changes in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FH Hada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance, carcass and parts yield, and blood changes in broilers fed different protein, carbohydrate, and lipid levels. Birds were fed a commercial diet until seven days of age. On day 8, birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement (control diet, low protein diet, low carbohydrate diet or low lipid diet vs. supplementation of 0 or 0.3ppm organic selenium with four replicates of 15 birds each. Broilers fed low protein presented lower body weight, feed intake, and worse feed conversion ratio on day 42, as well as lower carcass and breast yields, higher leg and abdominal fat yields, higher triglyceride and lower uric acid blood levels. Broilers fed the low carbohydrate diets presented low glucose levels on days 14 and 42.Creatine-kinase (CK levels increased as birds aged. The livability of broilers fed the low protein diets improved and of those fed low carbohydrate diets worsened with dietary selenium addition on days 35 and 42. Selenium supplementation increased glucose levels in 42-d-old broilers. Changes in dietary protein caused more impact on broiler performance compared with carbohydrates and lipids. Changes in macronutrients caused metabolic changes in broilers. Selenium affected broiler livability as measured on days 35 and 42, and glucose blood levels.

  9. The influence of the polymorphism in apolipoprotein B codon 2488 on insulin and lipid levels in a Danish twin population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J; Poulsen, P; Vaag, A

    2002-01-01

    on parameters associated with the insulin resistance syndrome in Danish twins. METHODS: The effect of the polymorphism on lipid, glucose and insulin measures was studied in 548 same sex twins aged 55-74 years. RESULTS: The codon 2488 polymorphism influenced fasting triglyceride levels, as well as insulin......, as measured at 120 min in an oral glucose tolerance test. Subjects with the genotype T2488T had 14% higher triglyceride levels (P = 0.02) and 31% higher insulin levels (P = 0.004) than subjects with genotype C2488C. In twins discordant for genotype, the T-allele was associated with higher levels......AIMS: The apolipoprotein B codon 2488 polymorphism has been associated with the metabolism of lipoproteins in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. However, no data are available on the influence of the polymorphism on insulin or glucose metabolism. This study examines the impact of the polymorphism...

  10. Shikonin increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells and improves plasma glucose levels in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette I Öberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest in identifying compounds that can improve glucose homeostasis. Skeletal muscle, due to its large mass, is the principal organ for glucose disposal in the body and we have investigated here if shikonin, a naphthoquinone derived from the Chinese plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon, increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Shikonin increases glucose uptake in L6 skeletal muscle myotubes, but does not phosphorylate Akt, indicating that in skeletal muscle cells its effect is medaited via a pathway distinct from that used for insulin-stimulated uptake. Furthermore we find no evidence for the involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase in shikonin induced glucose uptake. Shikonin increases the intracellular levels of calcium in these cells and this increase is necessary for shikonin-mediated glucose uptake. Furthermore, we found that shikonin stimulated the translocation of GLUT4 from intracellular vesicles to the cell surface in L6 myoblasts. The beneficial effect of shikonin on glucose uptake was investigated in vivo by measuring plasma glucose levels and insulin sensitivity in spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Treatment with shikonin (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally once daily for 4 days significantly decreased plasma glucose levels. In an insulin sensitivity test (s.c. injection of 0.5 U/kg insulin, plasma glucose levels were significantly lower in the shikonin-treated rats. In conclusion, shikonin increases glucose uptake in muscle cells via an insulin-independent pathway dependent on calcium. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Shikonin increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells via an insulin-independent pathway dependent on calcium. The beneficial effects of shikonin on glucose metabolism, both in vitro and in vivo, show that the compound possesses properties that make it of considerable interest for developing novel treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Efficacy of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Tribulus terrestris on the Serum Glucose and Lipid Profile of Women With Diabetes Mellitus: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Nasrin Babadaei; Jokar, Azam; Soveid, Mahmood; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah

    2016-10-01

    Considering traditional use of Tribulus terrestris in diabetes and proven antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of T terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydroalcoholic extract of T terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ninety-eight women with diabetes mellitus type 2 were randomly allocated to receive the T terrestris (1000 mg/d) or placebo for 3 months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and lipid profile. Tribulus terrestris showed a significant blood glucose-lowering effect in diabetic women compared to placebo (P terrestris group was significantly reduced compared with placebo, while no significant effect was observed in the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels. The study showed preliminary promising hypoglycemic effect of T terrestris in women with diabetes mellitus type 2. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Lipid accumulation product and triglycerides/glucose index are useful predictors of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Katsiki, Niki; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Banach, Maciej

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the association of triglycerides/glucose index (TyG index), anthropometrically predicted visceral adipose tissue (apVAT), lipid accumulation product (LAP), visceral adiposity index (VAI) and triglycerides (TG):high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio with insulin resistance (IR) in adult Americans. This study was based on data from three NHANES cycles (2005 to 2010). The TyG index was calculated as ln [TG×fasting glucose/2]. VAI was calculated using gender-specific formulas: men [waist circumference (WC)/39.68+(1.88×body mass index (BMI)]×(TG/1.03)×(1.31/HDL-C); women: [WC/36.58+(1.89×BMI)]×(TG/0.81)×(1.52/HDL-C). LAP index was calculated as [WC-65]×[TG] in men, and [WC-58]×[TG] in women. Correlation and regression analyses accounted for the complex sampling of database. A total of 18,318 subjects was included in this analysis [mean age 47.6Years]; 48.7% (n=8918) men]. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) had a significant positive correlation with the TyG index (r=0.502), LAP (r=0.551), apVAT (r=0.454), TG:HDL-C ratio (r=0.441) and VAI (r=451) (pindex is a simple, cheap and accurate although not perfect, surrogate marker of HOMA-diagnosed IR among adult Americans. Moreover, it has higher predictability than other screening tools which traditionally applied. Among the markers, apVAT had the highest specificity and the TG:HDL-C ratio had the highest sensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prospective Study of Nut Consumption and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Hosseini, Shabnam; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-09-23

    This study aimed to assess the association of various types of nut per se, and total nut consumption with the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A 6.2 ± 0.7-year population-based prospective study was conducted among 1265 adults, aged 19-74 years, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. A 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to collect information on nut consumption. MetS was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement guidelines and 276 new cases of MetS were identified. Median ± interquartile range of nut consumption was 2.08 (0.88-5.68) servings/week. After adjusting for family history of diabetes, age, gender, smoking, physical activity, fasting serum glucose at baseline, serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) at baseline, energy intake, fiber, macronutrients, cholesterol intake, fruit, vegetables, dairy products and body mass index (BMI), a statistically significant decrease was observed in MetS in the third (≥5 servings/week) tertile of nuts (odds ratio: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.44-0.91, p trend: 0.03) compared with the lowest (≤1 serving/week). Walnut consumption showed a significant, inverse association with MetS risk; associations for other nut varieties were not significant. For each additional serving/week of walnuts consumed, incidence of MetS decreased by 3% (ORs: 0.97 CI: 0.93-0.99), after adjusting for confounding factors. Total nut consumption, especially walnuts, reduces the risk of MetS.

  14. In women with PCOS, waist circumference is a better surrogate of glucose and lipid metabolism than disease status per se.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazderska, Agnieszka; Kyaw Tun, Tommy; Phelan, Niamh; McGowan, Anne; Sherlock, Mark; Behan, LucyAnn; Boran, Gerard; Gibney, James

    2018-04-01

    Cardiometabolic abnormalities are recognized in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, over-emphasis on PCOS as a risk factor potentially results in over-investigation and treatment of some women with and under-recognition of cardiometabolic risk in obese women without PCOS. Our objective was to explore the association between waist circumference (WC) and indices of glucose and lipid metabolism in women with and without PCOS. (i) An exploratory cross-sectional study investigating association of potential cardiometabolic risk markers (PCOS status, anthropometric measures, hsCRP, HOMA-IR, SHBG, testosterone) with indices of glucose (frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test) and lipid metabolism (postprandial studies and lipoprotein particle size) in 61 women with (n = 29) and without (n = 32) PCOS; (ii) a cross-sectional study in 103 PCOS women and 102 BMI-matched controls to explore if between-group differences in indices of lipid and glucose metabolism persist after adjusting for WC. NIH criteria were used for PCOS diagnosis. Study 1: Univariate correlations and stepwise regression modelling identified waist circumference (WC), as a better surrogate than PCOS status, independently predicting multiple variables of glucose and lipid metabolism. Study 2: Fasting insulin and triglyceride, hsCRP and insulin resistance (according to HOMA-IR and SiM [Avignon index]) were greater, while fasting HDL was lower in women with PCOS compared to BMI-matched women without PCOS. None of these differences persisted when a subset of 80 women with PCOS was compared with 80 women without PCOS, pair-matched for WC. Some cardiometabolic abnormalities in PCOS are related to central obesity, and following adjustment for WC does not differ from normal subjects. Waist circumference measurement has potential to take precedence over PCOS status as part of the assessment of cardiometabolic risk in reproductive-age women. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Impact of gain-of-function mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) on glucose and lipid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foer, D; Zhu, M; Cardone, R L

    2017-01-01

    potentially represents a target for drug discovery in type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Studies in animal models suggest a physiologic link between LRP5 and glucose and lipid homeostasis; however, whether it plays a similar role in humans is unclear. As current literature links loss-of-function LRP5...... to impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, we hypothesized that individuals with an HBM-causing mutation in LRP5 would exhibit improved glucose and lipid homeostasis. Since studies in animal models have suggested that Wnt signaling augments insulin secretion, we also examined the effect of Wnt signaling...... on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion on human pancreatic islets. METHODS: This was a matched case-control study. We used several methods to assess glucose and lipid metabolism in 11 individuals with HBM-causing mutations in LRP5. Affected study participants were recruited from previously identified...

  16. No interactions between previously associated 2-hour glucose gene variants and physical activity or BMI on 2-hour glucose levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Robert A; Chu, Audrey Y; Grarup, Niels

    2012-01-01

    to determine 2-h glucose levels is unknown. We meta-analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) × BMI and SNP × physical activity (PA) interaction regression models for five SNPs previously associated with 2-h glucose levels from up to 22 studies comprising 54,884 individuals without diabetes. PA levels were......Gene-lifestyle interactions have been suggested to contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Glucose levels 2 h after a standard 75-g glucose challenge are used to diagnose diabetes and are associated with both genetic and lifestyle factors. However, whether these factors interact...... dichotomized, with individuals below the first quintile classified as inactive (20%) and the remainder as active (80%). BMI was considered a continuous trait. Inactive individuals had higher 2-h glucose levels than active individuals (ß = 0.22 mmol/L [95% CI 0.13-0.31], P = 1.63 × 10(-6)). All SNPs were...

  17. Glucose and Lipid Lowering Potentials of Heliotropium indicum L. Leaves in Alloxan-Induced Hyperglycaemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Bolaji IBRAHIM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic potentials of Heliotropium indicum L. leaf aqueous (HILA extract used for the management of diabetes by Traditional Medicinal Practitioners (TMPs in Nigeria was assessed. Alloxan (ALX-induced hyperglycaemic rats were orally administered with known folkloric dosage of 30 and 75 mg/kg b. wt. of HILA extract, once a day, for 14 days. Fasting blood glucose (FBG levels were monitored and pancreatic histology was examined. Net hepatic glycogen (GLY concentration and lipid profiles were also determined. Prior to treatment, ALX-induced hyperglycaemia (>250 mg/dL was established in rats. Oral administration of 30 and 75 mg/kg b. wt. HILA extract to diabetic rats for 14 days caused significant reduction in FBG to baseline values observed in non-diabetic conditions. Treatment with HILA extract also showed improvement in lipid abnormalities observed in hyperglycaemic condition, levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly reduced and HDL-cholesterol increased resulting in improved artherogenic index. Hepatic GLY concentration was significantly increased in diabetic rat treated with the extract. Histological examinations showed degenerated and sparse pancreatic islets β-cells in non-treated diabetic rat, whereas microscopy of treated rats showed mild to normal architecture with enriched β-cells. Preliminary phytochemical profiling of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids (2.54 mg/g, saponins (0.28 mg/g, phenols (0.04 mg/g and anthraquinones (0.01 mg/g. Results from this study revealed that the aqueous leaf extract of H. indicum possesses not only antihyperglycaemic, but also antidyslipidemic activities, that may prove to be of clinical importance in the management of diabetes and associated secondary complications.

  18. Plasma Glucose Level Is Predictive of Serum Ammonia Level After Retrograde Occlusion of Portosystemic Shunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Aibe, Yuki; Matsuda, Takashi; Iwamoto, Takuya; Takami, Taro; Sakaida, Isao

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate predictors of reduction in ammonia levels by occlusion of portosystemic shunts (PSS) in patients with cirrhosis. Forty-eight patients with cirrhosis (21 women, 27 men; mean age, 67.8 years) with PSS underwent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) at one institution between February 2008 and June 2014. The causes of cirrhosis were hepatitis B in one case, hepatitis C in 20 cases, alcohol in 15 cases, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in eight cases, and other conditions in four cases. The Child-Pugh classes were A in 24 cases, B in 23 cases, and C in one case. The indication for BRTO was gastric varices in 40 cases and hepatic encephalopathy in eight cases. Testing was conducted before and 1 month after the procedure. Statistical analyses were performed to identify predictors of a clinically significant decline in ammonia levels after BRTO. Occlusion of PSS resulted in a clinically significant decrease in ammonia levels accompanied by increased portal venous flow and improved Child-Pugh score. Univariate analyses showed that a reduction in ammonia levels due to BRTO was significantly related to lower plasma glucose levels, higher RBC counts, and higher hemoglobin concentration before the treatment. Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression identified preoperative plasma glucose level as the strongest independent predictor of a significant ammonia reduction in response to BRTO. In addition, although BRTO resulted in significantly declined ammonia levels in patients with normal glucose tolerance before the procedure, ammonia levels were not significantly decreased after shunt occlusion in patients with diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance before BRTO, according to 75-g oral glucose tolerance test results. Preoperative plasma glucose level is a useful predictor of clinically significant ammonia reduction resulting from occlusion of PSS in patients with cirrhosis. Even if PSS are present, control

  19. Daily consumption of banana marginally improves blood glucose and lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic subjects and increases serum adiponectin in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressey, Ratchada; Kumsaiyai, Warunee; Mangklabruks, Ampika

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we explored the effects of consumption of banana in thirty hypercholesterolemic and fifteen type 2 diabetic subjects. They were given a daily dose of 250 or 500 grams of banana for breakfast for 12 weeks. Fasting serum lipid, glucose and insulin levels were measured initially as well as every 4 weeks. Daily consumption of banana significantly lowered fasting blood glucose (from 99 ± 7.7 to 92 ± 6.9 and 102 ± 7.3 to 92 ± 5.7 mg x dL(-1) (p profile in diabetic patients were not statistically significant, but for plasma levels of adiponectin, there were significantly increased (from 37.5 ± 9.36 to 48.8 ± 7.38 ngnml1, p consumption of banana (@ 250 g/day) is harmless both in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic volunteers and marginally beneficial to the later.

  20. Serum lipid levels in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmir Jose de Lima

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Pre-eclampsia is a disorder that occurs only during pregnancy. Postpartum changes relating to lipid metabolism may contribute towards the endothelial lesions observed in preeclampsia. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the lipid profile among patients who present preeclampsia and correlate these parameters with 24-hour proteinuria. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study including 77 pregnant patients seen at Hospital Dório Silva. METHODS: This study involved 42 women with preeclampsia and 35 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy as controls. Blood samples were obtained from all the patients, and the serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDL, high-density lipoproteins (HDL and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL were determined. Cases and controls were matched for maternal age, gestational week and body mass index. RESULTS: The VLDL and triglyceride values from the women with preeclampsia were significantly higher than those of the healthy women. There was a positive correlation between increased proteinuria and higher VLDL and triglyceride levels in patients with preeclampsia. CONCLUSION: Among the patients with preeclampsia, higher VLDL and triglyceride levels were positively correlated with proteinuria. These observations indicate that the pregnant women who presented elevated lipid levels were more susceptible to cardiovascular disorders and, consequently, pre-eclampsia.

  1. [Lipid profile from low socioeconomic level preschool children. Valencia, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Liseti; Velásquez, Emma; Naddaf, Gloria; Páez, María

    2003-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a public health problem worldwide affecting adults and children as well. The aim of this study was to assess overweight, lipid profile and cardiovascular risk ratios in 390 preschool children from low socio-economic level from Valencia, Venezuela. Nutritional anthropometric evaluation measured by body dimensions, and serum determination of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular risk factors, were determined. 95% of the children were in relative and critical poverty. 14.3% of undernutrition and 20.8% of overweight was found. Lipid profile was in normal range, with no significant differences by sex, but higher values for HDL-cholesterol and risk ratios were found in children aged 1 to 3.99 years. Even though no differences were found by nutritional status, overweight children had higher values for lipids, except HDL-cholesterol. 6.3% of overweight children had cholesterol > or =170 mg/dL, 16.5% LDL-cholesterol > or =110 mg/dL, 40.5% triglycerides > or =75mg/dL and 100% HDL-cholesterol <45 mg/dL. Overweight and lipid profile alterations were present in an important group of the children, which increase their risk of obesity and chronic non-transmissible diseases. Nutritional and educational intervention should be addressed.

  2. Central serotonergic neurons activate and recruit thermogenic brown and beige fat and regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGlashon, Jacob M; Gorecki, Michelle C; Kozlowski, Amanda E

    2015-01-01

    Thermogenic brown and beige adipocytes convert chemical energy to heat by metabolizing glucose and lipids. Serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the CNS are essential for thermoregulation and accordingly may control metabolic activity of thermogenic fat. To test this, we generated mice in which the human...... adipose tissue (WAT). In parallel, blood glucose increased 3.5-fold, free fatty acids 13.4-fold, and triglycerides 6.5-fold. Similar BAT and beige fat defects occurred in Lmx1b(f/f)ePet1(Cre) mice in which 5-HT neurons fail to develop in utero. We conclude 5-HT neurons play a major role in regulating...

  3. Comparison of menarche age between two generations (tehran lipid and glucose study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainy, E.; Aziz, F.

    2007-01-01

    Menarcheal age is considered to be an indicator of puberty. There is a lack of information on menarcheal age in Tehranian girls, in comparison to that of their mothers. This cross-sectional study was aimed at comparing the age of menarches between two generations. The subjects were 812 (406 daughters and 406 mothers) chosen from among 15005 participants of the longitudinal Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Demographic information and the age of menarche were recorded in a questionnaire. We have considered a minimal of 25 years duration to be one generation. Distribution of the menarcheal age and linear regression were performed. The mean age of menarche in daughters and their mothers were 13.2+-1.4 and 13.6+-1.5 years, respectively. There was significant correlation between the mother and daughter menarcheal age (r=0.25, P<0.002). 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles for menarcheal ages in daughters and their mothers were 12.2, 13.1, 14.1 and 12.7, 13.5, 14.5 years respectively. Minimum and maximum ages of menarche were the same (10 and 18 years) in the two groups. We found a decrease in the average menarcheal age during 25 years (one generation) similar to the results of other studies. (author)

  4. Insulin sensitivity of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in animal models of hepatic steatosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefhorst, Aldo

    2006-01-01

    De lever is betrokken bij de regulatie van zowel het koolhydraat als het vet metabolisme. De lever slaat glucose op als glycogeen, scheidt glucose uit, kan glucose maken uit bijvoorbeeld melkzuur en aminozuren (‘gluconeogenese’), zet glucose om in vet (‘de novo lipogenese’), verbrandt vetzuren in de

  5. Chronic suppression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 in beta-cells impairs insulin secretion via inhibition of glucose rather than lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnebaum, Sarah M; Joseph, Jamie W; Ilkayeva, Olga; Burgess, Shawn C; Lu, Danhong; Becker, Thomas C; Sherry, A Dean; Newgard, Christopher B

    2008-05-23

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) currently is being investigated as a target for treatment of obesity-associated dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To investigate the effects of ACC1 inhibition on insulin secretion, three small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes targeting ACC1 (siACC1) were transfected into the INS-1-derived cell line, 832/13; the most efficacious duplex was also cloned into an adenovirus and used to transduce isolated rat islets. Delivery of the siACC1 duplexes decreased ACC1 mRNA by 60-80% in 832/13 cells and islets and enzyme activity by 46% compared with cells treated with a non-targeted siRNA. Delivery of siACC1 decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by 70% in 832/13 cells and by 33% in islets. Surprisingly, siACC1 treatment decreased glucose oxidation by 49%, and the ATP:ADP ratio by 52%, accompanied by clear decreases in pyruvate cycling activity and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Exposure of siACC1-treated cells to the pyruvate cycling substrate dimethylmalate restored GSIS to normal without recovery of the depressed ATP:ADP ratio. In siACC1-treated cells, glucokinase protein levels were decreased by 25%, which correlated with a 36% decrease in glycogen synthesis and a 33% decrease in glycolytic flux. Furthermore, acute addition of the ACC1 inhibitor 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA) to beta-cells suppressed [(14)C]glucose incorporation into lipids but had no effect on GSIS, whereas chronic TOFA administration suppressed GSIS and glucose metabolism. In sum, chronic, but not acute, suppression of ACC1 activity impairs GSIS via inhibition of glucose rather than lipid metabolism. These findings raise concerns about the use of ACC inhibitors for diabetes therapy.

  6. Chronic Suppression of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase 1 in β-Cells Impairs Insulin Secretion via Inhibition of Glucose Rather Than Lipid Metabolism*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnebaum, Sarah M.; Joseph, Jamie W.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Burgess, Shawn C.; Lu, Danhong; Becker, Thomas C.; Sherry, A. Dean; Newgard, Christopher B.

    2008-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) currently is being investigated as a target for treatment of obesity-associated dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To investigate the effects of ACC1 inhibition on insulin secretion, three small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes targeting ACC1 (siACC1) were transfected into the INS-1-derived cell line, 832/13; the most efficacious duplex was also cloned into an adenovirus and used to transduce isolated rat islets. Delivery of the siACC1 duplexes decreased ACC1 mRNA by 60–80% in 832/13 cells and islets and enzyme activity by 46% compared with cells treated with a non-targeted siRNA. Delivery of siACC1 decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by 70% in 832/13 cells and by 33% in islets. Surprisingly, siACC1 treatment decreased glucose oxidation by 49%, and the ATP:ADP ratio by 52%, accompanied by clear decreases in pyruvate cycling activity and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Exposure of siACC1-treated cells to the pyruvate cycling substrate dimethylmalate restored GSIS to normal without recovery of the depressed ATP:ADP ratio. In siACC1-treated cells, glucokinase protein levels were decreased by 25%, which correlated with a 36% decrease in glycogen synthesis and a 33% decrease in glycolytic flux. Furthermore, acute addition of the ACC1 inhibitor 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA) to β-cells suppressed [14C]glucose incorporation into lipids but had no effect on GSIS, whereas chronic TOFA administration suppressed GSIS and glucose metabolism. In sum, chronic, but not acute, suppression of ACC1 activity impairs GSIS via inhibition of glucose rather than lipid metabolism. These findings raise concerns about the use of ACC inhibitors for diabetes therapy. PMID:18381287

  7. The associations of a marine diet with plasma lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity among the inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Pedersen, H S; Mulvad, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the associations between the intake of fish and marine mammals and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, ie lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity, in a population whose average consumption of n-3 fatty acids is high compared with Western countries...... and not statistically significant. The pattern was similar within groups with low, medium and high consumption of marine food. CONCLUSIONS: There are statistically significant associations between the consumption of marine food and certain lipid fractions in the blood also in this population with a very high average...... intake of marine food. The observation that blood glucose is positively associated with marine diet in a population survey is new and should be repeated. There was good agreement between the results for the reported consumption of seal and those for the biomarkers. SPONSORSHIP: The study was financially...

  8. Biochanin A improves hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance by regulating the hepatic lipid and glucose metabolic pathways in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-Sook; Hur, Haeng Jeon; Kim, Soon-Hee; Park, Su-Jin; Hong, Moon Ju; Sung, Mi Jeong; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Myung-Sunny

    2016-09-01

    Natural compounds that regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) have been reported to have beneficial effects in obesity-mediated metabolic disorders. In this study, we demonstrated that biochanin A (BA), an agonist of PPAR-α, improved hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance by regulating hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism. C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal chow diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), and an HFD supplemented with 0.05% BA for 12 weeks. Histological and biochemical examinations indicated that BA prevented obesity-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice. BA stimulated the transcriptional activation of PPAR-α in vitro and increased the expression of PPAR-α and its regulatory proteins in the liver. CE-TOF/MS analyses indicated that BA administration promoted the recovery of metabolites involved in phosphatidylcholine synthesis, lipogenesis, and beta-oxidation in the livers of obese mice. BA also suppressed the levels of gluconeogenesis-related metabolites and the expression of the associated enzymes, glucose 6-phosphatase and pyruvate kinase. Taken together, these results showed that BA ameliorated metabolic disorders such as hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance by modulating lipid and glucose metabolism in diet-induced obesity. Thus, BA may be a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity-mediated hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. [Transmembrane transport behavior of in vitro HepG2 cells of ananas and its effect on lipids and glucose distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu-Nong; Chai, Yu-Shuang; Jiang, Jing-Fei; Wang, Xin-Pei; Yu, Xuan; Lei, Fan; Xing, Dong-Ming; Du, Li-Jun

    2014-08-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus) leaves contain mainly phenolic components with antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects. One of the principle components is p-coumaric acid. In this study, the transport behavior of p-coumaric acid, was observed after the administration of pineapple leaf phenols in vitro. Simultaneously, the effect of the phenols on glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides transportation and metabolism in HepG2 cells was also observed. The results showed that the phenols had good transport characteristics. 5 min after the administration, p-coumaric acid of the phenols could be detected, and the content of p-coumaric acid reached the peak concentration after 60 min of the administration. p-coumaric acid of phenols have time-and dose-dependent manner. While promoting glucose transporter (GLUT4) and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) expression, the phenols decreased intracellular lipid content. This reduction of intracellular lipid content was highly correlated with the promotion of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) expression, while the reduction of intracellular glucose levels was correlated with glycogen synthesis in the cells.

  10. Impact of age, gender and diabetes on serum lipid levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnan, M.; Shabbir, I.; Ali, Z.; Ali, S.F.; Rahat, T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:To see the effects of age, gender and diabetes on serum lipid levels. Study type, settings and duration:Cross sectional analytical study conducted at PMRC Research Centre, Fatima Jinnah Medical College,Lahore from Jun-Dec 2011. Materials and Methods: One hundred type 2 diabetes mellitus and equal numbers of gender matched healthy controls were randomly selected for the study. After an overnight fasting, blood specimens were drawn for lipid profile where total cholesterol,high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were measured by standard enzymatic endpoint methods and LDL-cholesterol by Friedweld's formula. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS-15. Results Odd ratios of age for total cholesterol (OR 1.198); high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.144); and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.576) revealed that subjects aged 45 years or more had greater risk of having deranged lipid levels. Female gender had higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p 0.000); and triglycerides (p 0.001). Odd ratios of men for total cholesterol (OR 0.775); high density lipoprotein cholesterol(OR 0.183); and low density lipoprotein Cholesterol (OR 0.683) illustrated that men were significantly less prone to dyslipidemia than women. Odd ratio of diabetes for high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.802) suggested that diabetics had 1.8 times more risk of having low high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions: Diabetic females over 45 years of age have significantly high chances of having disturbed or high lipid profile. Policy message:All persons in general and diabetics in particular over the age of 45 years should be screened for dyslipidemia and informed using behavior change communication to prevent disease complications. (author)

  11. Impact of age, gender and diabetes on serum lipid levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adnan, M.; Shabbir, I.; Ali, Z.; Ali, S. F.; Rahat, T. [Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2013-01-15

    Objectives:To see the effects of age, gender and diabetes on serum lipid levels. Study type, settings and duration:Cross sectional analytical study conducted at PMRC Research Centre, Fatima Jinnah Medical College,Lahore from Jun-Dec 2011. Materials and Methods: One hundred type 2 diabetes mellitus and equal numbers of gender matched healthy controls were randomly selected for the study. After an overnight fasting, blood specimens were drawn for lipid profile where total cholesterol,high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were measured by standard enzymatic endpoint methods and LDL-cholesterol by Friedweld's formula. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS-15. Results Odd ratios of age for total cholesterol (OR 1.198); high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.144); and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.576) revealed that subjects aged 45 years or more had greater risk of having deranged lipid levels. Female gender had higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p 0.000); and triglycerides (p 0.001). Odd ratios of men for total cholesterol (OR 0.775); high density lipoprotein cholesterol(OR 0.183); and low density lipoprotein Cholesterol (OR 0.683) illustrated that men were significantly less prone to dyslipidemia than women. Odd ratio of diabetes for high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.802) suggested that diabetics had 1.8 times more risk of having low high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions: Diabetic females over 45 years of age have significantly high chances of having disturbed or high lipid profile. Policy message:All persons in general and diabetics in particular over the age of 45 years should be screened for dyslipidemia and informed using behavior change communication to prevent disease complications. (author)

  12. The effect of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms on blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profiles following the supplementation of kale (Brassica oleracea acephala) juice in South Korean subclinical hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Hye-Jin; Kim, Tae-Seok; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) forms a multigene family of phase II detoxification enzymes which are involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. This study examines whether daily supplementation of kale juice can modulate blood pressure (BP), levels of lipid profiles, and blood glucose, and whether this modulation could be affected by the GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms. 84 subclinical hypertensive patients showing systolic BP over 130 mmHg or diastolic BP over 85 mmHg received 300 ml/day of kale juice for 6 weeks, and blood samples were collected on 0-week and 6-week in order to evaluate plasma lipid profiles (total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol) and blood glucose. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly decreased in all patients regardless of their GSTM1 or GSTT1 polymorphisms after kale juice supplementation. Blood glucose level was decreased only in the GSTM1-present genotype, and plasma lipid profiles showed no difference in both the GSTM1-null and GSTM1-present genotypes. In the case of GSTT1, on the other hand, plasma HDL-C was increased and LDL-C was decreased only in the GSTT1-present type, while blood glucose was decreased only in the GSTT1-null genotype. These findings suggest that the supplementation of kale juice affected blood pressure, lipid profiles, and blood glucose in subclinical hypertensive patients depending on their GST genetic polymorphisms, and the improvement of lipid profiles was mainly greater in the GSTT1-present genotype and the decrease of blood glucose was greater in the GSTM1-present or GSTT1-null genotypes.

  13. Effects of dietary traditional fermented soybean on reproductive hormones, lipids, and glucose among postmenopausal women in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapbamrer, Ratana; Visavarungroj, Nuwat; Suttajit, Maitree

    2013-01-01

    Isoflavone in soybean and its products have numerous beneficial health effects. A number of clinical studies have demonstrated that dietary soy isoflavone can relieve menopausal symptoms, lower risks of breast cancer, and lower cholesterol and glucose. Among the various effects of isoflavone, the role of cholesterol and glucose reduction seems to be well documented; however, other effects such as reproductive hormones were inconclusive and inconsistent. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of six-month dietary traditional fermented soybean intake on BMI, reproductive hormones, lipids, and glucose among postmenopausal women. Subjects were women with their last menstrual period occurring at least 12 months prior to selection by interview and health screening from Baan Tham Village, Phayao Province, Thailand. A total of 60 women were divided into 2 groups: experimental group (n=31) and reference group (n=29). The experimental group was permitted to continue their usual diet, and supplemented with fermented soybean for 6 months. The fermented soybean provided approximately 60 mg of isoflavone per day. The remarkable findings were that dietary fermented soybean had favorable effects on progesterone and cholesterol, but had no effects on estradiol, glucose, and triglycerides. Although estradiol and glucose in the experimental group did not change, a decrease of estradiol and an increase of glucose were found in the reference group. Our results, therefore, suggest that fermented soybean may have beneficial effects on reproductive hormones and cholesterol, and they would be warrant further detail investigations.

  14. Zero net flux estimates of septal extracellular glucose levels and the effects of glucose on septal extracellular GABA levels

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Rauw, Gail; Baker, Glen B.; Parent, Marise B.

    2009-01-01

    Although hippocampal infusions of glucose enhance memory, we have found repeatedly that septal glucose infusions impair memory when γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors are activated. For instance, hippocampal glucose infusions reverse the memory-impairing effects of co-infusions of the GABA agonist muscimol, whereas septal glucose infusions exacerbate memory deficits produced by muscimol. One potential explanation for these deleterious effects of glucose in the septum is that there are highe...

  15. Dietary fructose and risk of metabolic syndrome in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinpanah Farhad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that the excessive fructose intake may induce adverse metabolic effects. There is no direct evidence from epidemiological studies to clarify the association between usual amounts of fructose intake and the metabolic syndrome. Objective The aim this study was to determine the association of fructose intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components in Tehranian adults. Methods This cross-sectional population based study was conducted on 2537 subjects (45% men aged 19-70 y, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008. Dietary data were collected using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fructose intake was calculated by sum of natural fructose (NF in fruits and vegetables and added fructose (AF in commercial foods. MetS was defined according to the modified NCEP ATP III for Iranian adults. Results The mean ages of men and women were 40.5 ± 13.6 and 38.6 ± 12.8 years, respectively. Mean total dietary fructose intakes were 46.5 ± 24.5 (NF: 19.6 ± 10.7 and AF: 26.9 ± 13.9 and 37.3 ± 24.2 g/d (NF: 18.6 ± 10.5 and AF: 18.7 ± 13.6 in men and women, respectively. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of fructose intakes, men and women in the highest quartile, respectively, had 33% (95% CI, 1.15-1.47 and 20% (95% CI, 1.09-1.27 higher risk of the metabolic syndrome; 39% (CI, 1.16-1.63 and 20% (CI, 1.07-1.27 higher risk of abdominal obesity; 11% (CI, 1.02-1.17 and 9% (CI, 1.02-1.14 higher risk of hypertension; and 9% (CI, 1-1.15 and 9% (1.04-1.12 higher risk of impaired fasting glucose. Conclusion Higher consumption of dietary fructose may have adverse metabolic effects.

  16. Dietary fructose and risk of metabolic syndrome in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2011-07-12

    Studies have shown that the excessive fructose intake may induce adverse metabolic effects. There is no direct evidence from epidemiological studies to clarify the association between usual amounts of fructose intake and the metabolic syndrome. The aim this study was to determine the association of fructose intake and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in Tehranian adults. This cross-sectional population based study was conducted on 2537 subjects (45% men) aged 19-70 y, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008). Dietary data were collected using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fructose intake was calculated by sum of natural fructose (NF) in fruits and vegetables and added fructose (AF) in commercial foods. MetS was defined according to the modified NCEP ATP III for Iranian adults. The mean ages of men and women were 40.5 ± 13.6 and 38.6 ± 12.8 years, respectively. Mean total dietary fructose intakes were 46.5 ± 24.5 (NF: 19.6 ± 10.7 and AF: 26.9 ± 13.9) and 37.3 ± 24.2 g/d (NF: 18.6 ± 10.5 and AF: 18.7 ± 13.6) in men and women, respectively. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of fructose intakes, men and women in the highest quartile, respectively, had 33% (95% CI, 1.15-1.47) and 20% (95% CI, 1.09-1.27) higher risk of the metabolic syndrome; 39% (CI, 1.16-1.63) and 20% (CI, 1.07-1.27) higher risk of abdominal obesity; 11% (CI, 1.02-1.17) and 9% (CI, 1.02-1.14) higher risk of hypertension; and 9% (CI, 1-1.15) and 9% (1.04-1.12) higher risk of impaired fasting glucose. Higher consumption of dietary fructose may have adverse metabolic effects.

  17. Effect of glucose level on brain FDG-PET images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Young; Lee, Yong Ki; Ahn, Sung Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In addition to tumors, normal tissues, such as the brain and myocardium can intake {sup 18}F-FDG, and the amount of {sup 18}F-FDG intake by normal tissues can be altered by the surrounding environment. Therefore, a process is necessary during which the contrasts of the tumor and normal tissues can be enhanced. Thus, this study examines the effects of glucose levels on FDG PET images of brain tissues, which features high glucose activity at all times, in small animals. Micro PET scan was performed on fourteen mice after injecting {sup 18}F-FDG. The images were compared in relation to fasting. The findings showed that the mean SUV value w as 0 .84 higher in fasted mice than in non-fasted mice. During observation, the images from non-fasted mice showed high accumulation in organs other than the brain with increased surrounding noise. In addition, compared to the non-fasted mice, the fasted mice showed higher early intake and curve increase. The findings of this study suggest that fasting is important in assessing brain functions in brain PET using {sup 18}F-FDG. Additional studies to investigate whether caffeine levels and other preprocessing items have an impact on the acquired images would contribute to reducing radiation exposure in patients.

  18. Effect of glucose level on brain FDG-PET images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Young; Lee, Yong Ki; Ahn, Sung Min

    2017-01-01

    In addition to tumors, normal tissues, such as the brain and myocardium can intake 18 F-FDG, and the amount of 18 F-FDG intake by normal tissues can be altered by the surrounding environment. Therefore, a process is necessary during which the contrasts of the tumor and normal tissues can be enhanced. Thus, this study examines the effects of glucose levels on FDG PET images of brain tissues, which features high glucose activity at all times, in small animals. Micro PET scan was performed on fourteen mice after injecting 18 F-FDG. The images were compared in relation to fasting. The findings showed that the mean SUV value w as 0 .84 higher in fasted mice than in non-fasted mice. During observation, the images from non-fasted mice showed high accumulation in organs other than the brain with increased surrounding noise. In addition, compared to the non-fasted mice, the fasted mice showed higher early intake and curve increase. The findings of this study suggest that fasting is important in assessing brain functions in brain PET using 18 F-FDG. Additional studies to investigate whether caffeine levels and other preprocessing items have an impact on the acquired images would contribute to reducing radiation exposure in patients

  19. Natto and viscous vegetables in a Japanese-style breakfast improved insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi-Fukatsu, Akiko; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Naniwa-Kuroki, Yuko; Nishida, Yuka; Yamamoto, Hironori; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji

    2012-04-01

    We previously suggested that the consumption of natto and viscous vegetables as part of a Japanese-style meal based on white rice (WR) reduced postprandial glucose and insulin levels in healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to assess whether a single breakfast of natto and viscous vegetables or the same breakfast consumed for 2 weeks could improve glucose control, insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of eleven free-living subjects with IGT followed a randomised, crossover breakfast intervention for 2 weeks. The test meal included boiled WR with natto (viscous fermented soyabeans), Japanese yam and okra. The control meal included WR with non-viscous boiled soyabeans, potatoes and broccoli. Both meals contained comparable amounts of carbohydrate, fat, protein and fibre. The test meal reduced acute glucose and insulin responses compared to the control meal in the study participants. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using the composite insulin sensitivity index (CISI) after both the test and control meal periods. The test meal resulted in improvements in CISI compared to the baseline, whereas no significant changes were observed after the control meal period. Serum levels of both total and LDL-cholesterol were assessed before and after the test meal period and found to decrease significantly. There was also a tendency towards reduced serum malondialdehyde-modified LDL and N(ɛ)-carboxymethyllysine. No differences were observed in the measures of chronic glycaemic control. Thus, we conclude that a breakfast of natto and viscous vegetables consumed for 2 weeks improves insulin sensitivity, serum lipid and oxidative stress.

  20. Precision and costs of techniques for self-monitoring of serum glucose levels.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiasson, J. L.; Morrisset, R.; Hamet, P.

    1984-01-01

    The poor correlation between serum and urine glucose measurements has led to the development of new techniques for monitoring the blood glucose level in diabetic patients. Either a nurse or the patient can perform these tests, which involve spreading a single drop of blood onto a reagent strip. A colour change that is proportional to the serum glucose level can be read visually or with a reflectance meter. Evaluated against simultaneous serum glucose levels determined by the hospital biochemi...

  1. The association between inflammatory markers and obesity-related factors in Tehranian adults: Tehran lipid and glucose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faam, Bita; Zarkesh, Maryam; Daneshpour, Maryam Sadat; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2014-08-01

    Obesity considered being a low-grade inflammatory disease. The objective of this study was to examine the association between inflammatory markers (IM) including C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and homocystein (Hcy) and obesity-related factors (e.g. BMI, waist, hip) in adult participants of Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS). In this cross-sectional study, 352 individuals (132 men and 220 women), age ≥19 years, were randomly recruited from participants of TLGS population. The serum levels of hs-CRP, IL-6, Hcy were determined using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Variables were compared by sample t-test. Bivariate linear correlation was estimated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Linear regression analysis was applied to investigate the association between IMs and anthropometric and biochemical variables. The mean age of participants was 46.1±16.1 years. abdominal obesity was present in 199(56.5%) individuals. levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 increased in the abdominally obese group (1507±3.3 vs. 577.8±4.3 ng/ml P<0.001) (3.6±3.3 vs. 1.9±3.8 pg/ml P< 0.001), and in the same group, the best predictors for hs-CRP, IL-6 and Hcy were waist (WC), waist to height ratio (WHtR) and wrist respectively; hip and WHtR were the best predictors for Hcy and hs-CRP in the normal group. A linear augmentation in hs-CRP and IL-6 levels was observed in association with obesity categorizes. This study provides evidence that abdominally obese individuals had higher levels of IMs. Wrist, waist and WHtR were the best predictors for Hcy, hs-CRP and IL-6 respectively in this group.

  2. The effect of ghee (clarified butter) on serum lipid levels and microsomal lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hari; Zhang, Xiaoying; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2010-04-01

    Ghee, also known as clarified butter, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda as a therapeutic agent. In ancient India, ghee was the preferred cooking oil. In the last several decades, ghee has been implicated in the increased prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Asian Indians due to its content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and, in heated ghee, cholesterol oxidation products. Our previous research on Sprague-Dawley outbred rats, which serve as a model for the general population, showed no effect of 5 and 10% ghee-supplemented diets on serum cholesterol and triglycerides. However, in Fischer inbred rats, which serve as a model for genetic predisposition to diseases, results of our previous research showed an increase in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels when fed a 10% ghee-supplemented diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 10% dietary ghee on microsomal lipid peroxidation, as well as serum lipid levels in Fischer inbred rats to assess the effect of ghee on free radical mediated processes that are implicated in many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease. Results showed that 10% dietary ghee fed for 4 weeks did not have any significant effect on levels of serum total cholesterol, but did increase triglyceride levels in Fischer inbred rats. Ghee at a level of 10% in the diet did not increase liver microsomal lipid peroxidation or liver microsomal lipid peroxide levels. Animal studies have demonstrated many beneficial effects of ghee, including dose-dependent decreases in serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides; decreased liver total cholesterol, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters; and a lower level of nonenzymatic-induced lipid peroxidation in liver homogenate. Similar results were seen with heated (oxidized) ghee which contains cholesterol oxidation products. A preliminary clinical study showed that high doses of

  3. Gallic Acid Ameliorated Impaired Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis in High Fat Diet-Induced NAFLD Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jung; Huo, Teh-Ia; Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Qin, Xue-Mei; Hsieh, Ming-Tsuen; Pao, Li-Heng; Peng, Wen-Huang

    2014-01-01

    Gallic acid (GA), a naturally abundant plant phenolic compound in vegetables and fruits, has been shown to have potent anti-oxidative and anti-obesity activity. However, the effects of GA on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of GA administration on nutritional hepatosteatosis model by a more “holistic view” approach, namely 1H NMR-based metabolomics, in order to prove efficacy and to obtain information that might lead to a better understanding of the mode of action of GA. Male C57BL/6 mice were placed for 16 weeks on either a normal chow diet, a high fat diet (HFD, 60%), or a high fat diet supplemented with GA (50 and 100 mg/kg/day, orally). Liver histopathology and serum biochemical examinations indicated that the daily administration of GA protects against hepatic steatosis, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and insulin resistance among the HFD-induced NAFLD mice. In addition, partial least squares discriminant analysis scores plots demonstrated that the cluster of HFD fed mice is clearly separated from the normal group mice plots, indicating that the metabolic characteristics of these two groups are distinctively different. Specifically, the GA-treated mice are located closer to the normal group of mice, indicating that the HFD-induced disturbances to the metabolic profile were partially reversed by GA treatment. Our results show that the hepatoprotective effect of GA occurs in part through a reversing of the HFD caused disturbances to a range of metabolic pathways, including lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism (glycolysis and gluconeogenesis), amino acids metabolism, choline metabolism and gut-microbiota-associated metabolism. Taken together, this study suggested that a 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach is a useful platform for natural product functional evaluation. The selected metabolites are potentially useful as preventive action biomarkers and could also be used to help

  4. Leisure Time Physical Activity and Its Determinants among Adults in Tehran: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momenan, Amir Abbas; Delshad, Maryam; Mirmiran, Parvin; Ghanbarian, Arash; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess leisure time physical activity and its determinants among adults in Tehran. This cross-sectional study comprised adults (n = 7285), aged 20 years and older. The subjects were participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study between 2002 and 2004. Information on the number of days spent on different activities during a week and the time devoted to each activity on a typical day was recorded. In addition, each activity, weighted by its relative intensity, was referred to as a metabolic equivalent. The prevalence of inactivity was 69.8% (95% CI: 68.7-70.8) in the whole population and 30.2% (95% CI: 27.2-33.1%) of men and 30.3% (95% CI: 27.7-32.8%) of women were considered as active. Leisure time physical activity less than 30 min/week was scored in 1590 (50.6%) men and 1803 (43.5%) women. The most frequent leisure time physical activity performed by men (96.1%) and women (95.2%) was walking. A negative association was observed in men between leisure time physical activity and increased work hours, older age, more cigarette smoking and higher body mass index (69.8% were overweight and 75.3% were obese; P women. The prevalence of physical inactivity among adults in Tehran was high. Leisure time physical inactivity was more likely to be associated with older age, more cigarette smoking, more working hours, and higher body mass index. Public health efforts are needed to improve people's participation in physical activities in Iran.

  5. RNA-Seq of Kaposi's sarcoma reveals alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    For Yue Tso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS. It is endemic in a number of sub-Saharan African countries with infection rate of >50%. The high prevalence of HIV-1 coupled with late presentation of advanced cancer staging make KS the leading cancer in the region with poor prognosis and high mortality. Disease markers and cellular functions associated with KS tumorigenesis remain ill-defined. Several studies have attempted to investigate changes of the gene profile with in vitro infection of monoculture models, which are not likely to reflect the cellular complexity of the in vivo lesion environment. Our approach is to characterize and compare the gene expression profile in KS lesions versus non-cancer tissues from the same individual. Such comparisons could identify pathways critical for KS formation and maintenance. This is the first study that utilized high throughput RNA-seq to characterize the viral and cellular transcriptome in tumor and non-cancer biopsies of African epidemic KS patients. These patients were treated anti-retroviral therapy with undetectable HIV-1 plasma viral load. We found remarkable variability in the viral transcriptome among these patients, with viral latency and immune modulation genes most abundantly expressed. The presence of KSHV also significantly affected the cellular transcriptome profile. Specifically, genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism disorder pathways were substantially affected. Moreover, infiltration of immune cells into the tumor did not prevent KS formation, suggesting some functional deficits of these cells. Lastly, we found only minimal overlaps between our in vivo cellular transcriptome dataset with those from in vitro studies, reflecting the limitation of in vitro models in representing tumor lesions. These findings could lead to the identification of diagnostic and therapeutic markers for KS, and will provide bases for further mechanistic

  6. Insulin sensitivity of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in animal models of hepatic steatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Grefhorst, Aldo

    2006-01-01

    De lever is betrokken bij de regulatie van zowel het koolhydraat als het vet metabolisme. De lever slaat glucose op als glycogeen, scheidt glucose uit, kan glucose maken uit bijvoorbeeld melkzuur en aminozuren (‘gluconeogenese’), zet glucose om in vet (‘de novo lipogenese’), verbrandt vetzuren in de beta-oxidatie (levert energie voor de gluconeogenese) en scheidt triglycerides uit in de circulatie in ‘very low density lipoprotein’ (VLDL) deeltjes. Insuline remt de glucoseproductie door de lev...

  7. Effects of an exopolysaccharide (kefiran) on lipids, blood pressure, blood glucose, and constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiroaki; Zhu, Xia; Omura, Kazunobu; Suzuki, Shiho; Kitamura, Shinichi

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens was reported to produce an exopolysaccharide named kefiran. In the present study, we developed a new medium, rice hydrolyzate (RH) medium, for the culture of L. kefiranofaciens. Structural analyses revealed that the exopolysaccharide produced by L. kefiranofaciens from RH medium was composed of a hexasaccharide repeating unit, and essentially identical to the kefiran reported in previous studies. A study on the effects of kefiran in animals demonstrated that kefiran significantly suppressed increase of blood pressure and reduced the serum cholesterol levels in SHRSP/Hos rats when subjects consumed excessive dietary cholesterol. Kefiran supplementation demonstrated the ability to significantly lower blood glucose in KKAy mice. In addition, the administration of kefiran in constipated SD rats caused an obvious improvement in the levels of fecal moisture and wet weights of feces. These results suggest that kefiran could be used as a functional food to prevent some commonly occurring diseases.

  8. May maternal lifestyle have an impact on neonatal glucose levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoirisch-Clapauch, Silvia; Porto, Maria Amelia S; Nardi, Antonio E

    2016-02-01

    Neonatal glucose levels correlate negatively with umbilical cord levels of C-peptide, a polypeptide secreted with insulin. In other words, neonatal hypoglycemia results from excessive insulin secretion from fetal/neonatal beta cells. Given that insulin causes fat to be stored rather than to be used for energy, one would expect that chronic hyperinsulinemia would result in large-for-gestational-age neonates. The finding that many small-for-gestational-age neonates have hypoglycemia suggests that the stimulus for insulin production occurs close to delivery. We postulated that a potent stimulation of maternal insulin production close to delivery would also provide a potent stimulus for fetal and neonatal insulin production, causing neonatal hypoglycemia. This study has evaluated 155 mothers with markers of excessive insulin production (such as acanthosis or grade III obesity), or with situations characterized by increased insulin requirements (such as an invasive bacterial infection or use of systemic corticosteroid within a week before delivery; or sedentariness or high-carbohydrate intake within 24h before delivery) and their 158 neonates who were screened for glycemic levels at 1, 2 and 4h after birth. The minimum glucose level was correlated to the maternal parameters, and to classical predictors of neonatal hypoglycemia, such as low-birth weight and preterm delivery. The only independent predictors were sedentariness and high-carbohydrate intake within 24h before delivery. The risk of neonatal hypoglycemia increased five-fold with sedentariness, 11-fold with high-carbohydrate intake, and 329-fold with both risk factors. The risk of neonatal hypoglycemia seems to be highly influenced by maternal lifestyle within 24h before delivery. Controlled randomized trials may help determine whether a controlled carbohydrate diet combined with regular physical activity close to delivery can prevent neonatal hypoglycemia and all its severe complications to the newborn

  9. Human myotubes from myoblast cultures undergoing senescence exhibit defects in glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehlin, Jan O; Just, Marlene; Rustan, Arild C

    2011-01-01

    Adult stem cells are known to have a finite replication potential. Muscle biopsy-derived human satellite cells (SCs) were grown at different passages and differentiated to human myotubes in culture to analyze the functional state of various carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways. As the prolif......Adult stem cells are known to have a finite replication potential. Muscle biopsy-derived human satellite cells (SCs) were grown at different passages and differentiated to human myotubes in culture to analyze the functional state of various carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways...... number and could be explained by reduced incorporation into diacyl- and triacylglycerols. The levels of long-chain acyl-CoA esters decreased with increased passage number. Late-passage, non-proliferating, myoblast cultures showed strong senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity indicating...... that the observed metabolic defects accompany the induction of a senescent state. The main function of SCs is regeneration and skeletal muscle-build up. Thus, the metabolic defects observed during aging of SC-derived myotubes could have a role in sarcopenia, the gradual age-related loss of muscle mass and strength....

  10. Prep1, A Homeodomain Transcription Factor Involved in Glucose and Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Oriente

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The three-amino acid loop extension (TALE homeodomain proteins are a family of transcription factor including the mammalian Pbx, MEIS and Prep proteins. TALE proteins can bind other transcription factors such as Pdx-1 and play an important role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. Experiments performed in mutant mice have shown that while the single Pbx1 or Pdx-1 knockout mice feature pancreatic islet malformations, impaired glucose tolerance and hypoinsulinemia, the trans-heterozygous Pbx1+/−Pdx1+/− mice develop age-dependent overt diabetes mellitus. In contrast, Prep1 plays a different role with respect to these proteins. Indeed, Prep1 hypomorphic mice, expressing low levels of protein, feature pancreatic islet hypoplasia accompanied by hypoinsulinemia similar to Pbx1 or Pdx1. Nevertheless, these animals show increased insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue accompanied by protection from streptozotocin-induced diabetes. In addition, Prep1 hypomorphic mice feature reduced triglyceride synthesis and do not develop steatohepatitis after a methionine and coline deficient diet. In this review we have underlined how important metabolic functions are controlled by TALE proteins, in particular by Prep1, leading to hypothesis that its suppression might represent beneficial effect in the care of metabolic diseases.

  11. Relationship between fluctuations in glucose levels measured by continuous glucose monitoring and vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Torimoto Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluctuations in blood glucose level cause endothelial dysfunction and play a critical role in onset and/or progression of atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that fluctuation in blood glucose levels correlate with vascular endothelial dysfunction and that this relationship can be assessed using common bedside medical devices. Methods Fluctuations in blood glucose levels were measured over 24 hours by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM on admission day 2 in 57 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The reactive hyperemia index (RHI, an index of vascular endothelial function, was measured using peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT on admission day 3. Results The natural logarithmic-scaled RHI (L_RHI correlated with SD (r=−0.504; PPP=0.001 and percentage of time ≥200 mg/dl (r=−0.292; P=0.028. In 12 patients with hypoglycemia, L_RHI also correlated with the percentage of time at hypoglycemia (r=−0.589; P=0.044. L_RHI did not correlate with HbA1c or fasting plasma glucose levels. Furthermore, L_RHI did not correlate with LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels or with systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Finally, multivariate analysis identified MAGE as the only significant determinant of L_RHI. Conclusions Fluctuations in blood glucose levels play a significant role in vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Trial registration UMIN000007581

  12. To Assess the Association between Glucose Metabolism and Ectopic Lipid Content in Different Clinical Classifications of PCOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbl, Christian S.; Ott, Johannes; Bozkurt, Latife; Feichtinger, Michael; Rehmann, Victoria; Cserjan, Anna; Heinisch, Maike; Steinbrecher, Helmut; JustKukurova, Ivica; Tuskova, Radka; Leutner, Michael; Vytiska-Binstorfer, Elisabeth; Kurz, Christine; Weghofer, Andrea; Tura, Andrea; Egarter, Christian; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Aims There are emerging data indicating an association between PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) and metabolic derangements with potential impact on its clinical presentation. This study aims to evaluate the pathophysiological processes beyond PCOS with particular focus on carbohydrate metabolism, ectopic lipids and their possible interaction. Differences between the two established classifications of the disease should be additionally evaluated. Methods A metabolic characterization was performed in 53 untreated PCOS patients as well as 20 controls including an extended oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, to assess insulin sensitivity, secretion and ß-cell function) in addition to a detailed examination of ectopic lipid content in muscle and liver by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results Women with PCOS classified by the original NIH 1990 definition showed a more adverse metabolic risk profile compared to women characterized by the additional Rotterdam 2003 phenotypes. Subtle metabolic derangements were observed in both subgroups, including altered shapes of OGTT curves, impaired insulin action and hyperinsulinemia due to increased secretion and attenuated hepatic extraction. No differences were observed for ectopic lipids between the groups. However, particularly hepatocellular lipid content was significantly related to clinical parameters of PCOS like whole body insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia and free androgen index. Conclusions Subtle alterations in carbohydrate metabolism are present in both PCOS classifications, but more profound in subjects meeting the NIH 1990 criteria. Females with PCOS and controls did not differ in ectopic lipids, however, liver fat was tightly related to hyperandrogenism and an adverse metabolic risk profile. PMID:27505055

  13. Serum levels of FGF-21 are increased in coronary heart disease patients and are independently associated with adverse lipid profile.

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    Zhuofeng Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21 is a metabolic regulator with multiple beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism in animal models. The relationship between plasma levels of FGF-21 and coronary heart disease (CHD in unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study aimed to investigate the correlation of serum FGF-21 levels and lipid metabolism in the patients with coronary heart disease. We performed a logistic regression analysis of the relation between serum levels of FGF-21 and CHD patients with and without diabetes and hypertension. This study was conducted in the Departments of Endocrinology and Cardiovascular Diseases at two University Hospitals. Participants consisted of one hundred and thirty-five patients who have been diagnosed to have CHD and sixty-one control subjects. Serum FGF-21 level and levels of fasting blood glucose; triglyceride; apolipoprotein B100; HOMA-IR; insulin; total cholesterol; HDL-cholesterol; LDL-cholesterol; and C-reactive protein were measured. We found that median serum FGF-21 levels were significantly higher in CHD than that of control subjects (P<0.0001. Serum FGF-21 levels in CHD patients with diabetes, hypertension, or both were higher than that of patients without these comorbidities. Serum FGF-21 levels correlated positively with triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, apolipoprotein B100, insulin and HOMA-IR but negatively with HDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 after adjusting for BMI, diabetes and hypertension. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that FGF-21 showed an independent association with triglyceride and apolipoprotein A1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: High levels of FGF-21 are associated with adverse lipid profiles in CHD patients. The paradoxical increase of serum FGF-21 in CHD patients may indicate a compensatory response or resistance to FGF-21.

  14. [A cohort study on the correlation between birth weight, simple obesity, blood lipids, blood glucose and blood pressure from childhood to adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Qi; Tan, Jing; Liu, Zhao-hui; Liu, Rong-kun; Yang, Zheng

    2007-11-01

    To determine the correlation between birth weight and simple obesity, blood lipids, blood glucose and blood pressure from childhood to adolescence. A vertical sectional survey on 193 children aged 7 - 11 years was performed in 1996. A questionnaire consisting of items on environmental factors and lifestyle, physical examination and biochemical assessment was conducted at baseline and the 9th year of follow-up. The incidence of obesity and over-weight in childhood in high (6.1%) and low birth-weight group (5.6%) was higher than that in normal birth-weight group (2.8%), but did not reach statistic significance; The levels of body mass index in adolescence in high and low birth-weight group were significantly higher than that in normal birth-weight group (P = 0.002 and 0.009, respectively), and the incidence of obesity and over-weight in adolescence was significantly higher in high (33.3%) and low birth-weight group (38.9%) than that in normal birth-weight group (16.2%, P = 0.025 and 0.020, respectively). There were no significant differences in the levels of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure between different birth weight groups (all, P > 0.05). Intrauterine growth is linked to physical growth during childhood and adolescence. Nutritional guidance in pregnant phase may help to control the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescent.

  15. Noninvasive measurement of blood glucose level using mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Kiriko; Kino, Saiko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2017-04-01

    For non-invasive measurement of blood glucose level, attenuated total reflection (ATR) absorption spectroscopy system using a QCL as a light source was developed. The results of measurement of glucose solutions showed that the system had a sensitivity that was enough for blood glucose measurement. In-vivo measurement using the proposed system based on QCL showed that there was a correlation between absorptions measured with human lips and blood glucose level.

  16. Effect of cholera toxin administered supraspinally or spinally on the blood glucose level in pain and d-glucose fed animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Choi, Seong-Soo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, the effect of intrathecal (i.t.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration with cholera toxin (CTX) on the blood glucose level was examined in ICR mice. The i.t. treatment with CTX alone for 24 h dose-dependently increased the blood glucose level. However, i.c.v. treatment with CTX for 24 h did not affect the blood glucose level. When mice were orally fed with D-glucose (2 g/kg), the blood glucose level reached to a maximum level at 30 min and almost returned to the control level at 120 min after D-glucose feeding. I.c.v. pretreatment with CTX increased the blood glucose level in a potentiative manner, whereas i.t. pretreatment with CTX increased the blood glucose level in an additive manner in a D-glucose fed group. In addition, the blood glucose level was increased in formalin-induced pain animal model. I.c.v. pretreatment with CTX enhanced the blood glucose level in a potentiative manner in formalin-induced pain animal model. On the other hand, i.t. pretreatment with CTX increased the blood glucose level in an additive manner in formalin-induced pain animal model. Our results suggest that CTX administered supraspinally or spinally differentially modulates the regulation of the blood glucose level in D-glucose fed model as well as in formalin-induced pain model.

  17. Effect of Probiotics on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis of 12 Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kecheng; Zeng, Linghai; He, Qian; Wang, Wei; Lei, Jiao; Zou, Xiulan

    2017-06-22

    BACKGROUND It has been unclear whether supplemental probiotics therapy improves clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetic patients. This meta-analysis aimed to summarize the effect of probiotics on glucose and lipid metabolism and C-reactive protein (CRP) from 12 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). MATERIAL AND METHODS An up-to-date search was performed for all relevant RCTs up to April 2016 from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and weighted mean difference (WMD) were calculated for a fixed-effect and random-effect meta-analysis to assess the impact of supplemental probiotics on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, and CRP level. RESULTS A total of 12 studies (684 patients) were entered into the final analysis. The effect of probiotics was significant on reducing HbA1c level (standardized mean difference [SMD], -0.38; confidence interval [CI], -0.62 to -0.14, P=0.002; I²=0%, P=0.72 for heterogeneity), fasting insulin level (SMD, -0.38; CI -0.59 to -0.18, P=0.0003; I²=0%, P=0.81 for heterogeneity), and HOMA-IR (SMD, -0.99; CI -1.52 to -0.47, P=0.0002; I²=86%, Pprobiotics on FPG, CRP, or lipid profile were either non-significant or highly heterogeneous. CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis demonstrated that probiotics supplementation was associated with significant improvement in HbA1c and fasting insulin in type 2 diabetes patients. More randomized placebo-controlled trials with large sample sizes are warranted to confirm our conclusions.

  18. Effect of Cucurbita ficifolia and Probiotic Yogurt Consumption on Blood Glucose, Lipid Profile, and Inflammatory Marker in Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Azade; Azizi-Soleiman, Fatemeh; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Control of blood sugar, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are key factors in diabetes management. Cucurbita ficifolia (pumpkin) is a vegetable which has been used traditionally as a remedy for diabetes in Iran. In addition, consumption of probiotics may have beneficial effects on people with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was an investigation of the effects of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt consumption alone or at the same time on blood glucose and serum lipids in diabetic patients. Methods: Eighty eligible participants randomly were assigned to four groups: 1 - green C. ficifolia (100 g); 2 - probiotic yogurt (150 g); 3 - C. ficifolia plus probiotic yogurt (100 g C. ficifolia plus 150 g yogurt); and 4 -control (dietary advice) for 8 weeks. Blood pressure, glycemic response, lipid profile, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Total cholesterol (TC) decreased significantly in yogurt and yogurt plus C. ficifolia groups (within groups P = 0.010, and P < 0.001, respectively). C. ficifolia plus yogurt consumption resulted in a decrease in triglyceride (TG) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (within groups P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). All interventions led to a significant decrease in blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), hsCRP, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level within groups. Blood pressure decreased significantly in Cucurbita group and yogurt group (within groups P < 0.001, and P = 0.001 for systolic blood pressure [SBP] and P < 0.001, and P = 0.004 for diastolic blood pressure [DBP], respectively). All variables changed between groups significantly except LDL-C level. Conclusions: Variables including TG, HDL-C, TC, fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, SBP, DBP, and hsCRP changed beneficially between groups. It seems that consumption of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt may help treatment of diabetic patients. PMID:26955460

  19. Socioeconomic inequalities in lipid and glucose metabolism in early childhood in a population-based cohort: the ABCD-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berg Gerrit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease are pervasive, yet much remains to be understood about how they originate. The objective of this study was to explore the relations of socioeconomic status to lipid and glucose metabolism as indicators of cardiovascular health in 5–6 year olds. Additionally to explore the explanatory role of maternal factors, birth outcome, and child factors. Methods In 1308 5–6 year old ethnic Dutch children from the ABCD cohort study, lipids (cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, glucose and C-peptide were measured after an overnight-fast. Results There were no differences in cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides between socioeconomic groups, as indicated by maternal education and income adequacy. However, children of low educated mothers had on average a higher glucose (β = 0.15; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.03 – 0.27, logC-peptide (β = 0.07; 95% CI 0.04 – 0.09, and calculated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (β = 0.15; 95% CI 0.08 – 0.22 compared to children of high educated mothers. Only childhood BMI partly explained these differences (models controlled for age, height, and sex. Conclusions The socioeconomic gradient in cardiovascular risk factors seems to emerge in early childhood. In absence of underlying mechanisms these empirical findings are relevant for public health care and further explanatory research.

  20. Central serotonergic neurons activate and recruit thermogenic brown and beige fat and regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlashon, Jacob M; Gorecki, Michelle C; Kozlowski, Amanda E; Thirnbeck, Caitlin K; Markan, Kathleen R; Leslie, Kirstie L; Kotas, Maya E; Potthoff, Matthew J; Richerson, George B; Gillum, Matthew P

    2015-05-05

    Thermogenic brown and beige adipocytes convert chemical energy to heat by metabolizing glucose and lipids. Serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the CNS are essential for thermoregulation and accordingly may control metabolic activity of thermogenic fat. To test this, we generated mice in which the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) was selectively expressed in central 5-HT neurons. Treatment with diphtheria toxin (DT) eliminated 5-HT neurons and caused loss of thermoregulation, brown adipose tissue (BAT) steatosis, and a >50% decrease in uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) expression in BAT and inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT). In parallel, blood glucose increased 3.5-fold, free fatty acids 13.4-fold, and triglycerides 6.5-fold. Similar BAT and beige fat defects occurred in Lmx1b(f/f)ePet1(Cre) mice in which 5-HT neurons fail to develop in utero. We conclude 5-HT neurons play a major role in regulating glucose and lipid homeostasis, in part through recruitment and metabolic activation of brown and beige adipocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mother-daughter correlation of central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Zahra; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Barzin, Maryam; Safarkhani, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mother-daughter correlation for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors. The authors used metabolic and anthropometric data from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, enrolling 1041 mother-daughter pairs for the current study. Three age strata were defined: 3 to 9 years for childhood (146 mother-daughter pairs), 10 to 17 years for adolescence (395 mother-daughter pairs), and 18 to 25 years for early adulthood (500 mother-daughter pairs). Familial associations for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors were assessed. The prevalence of central obesity was 44.7% in mothers and 11.2% in daughters (6.2% in the 3-9, 19.2% in the 10-17, and 6.4% in the 18-25 years groups). Mothers with central obesity were more likely than nonobese mothers to have daughters with central obesity (10.5% and 1.7%, respectively; P = .0001). Central obesity indices among daughters were positively correlated with those of their mothers in all 3 age strata. Correlations for other noncommunicable disease risk factors were analyzed before and after adjusting the risk factor levels for mothers' and daughters' waist circumferences (WCs) within each group to determine whether risk factor correlations were, in part, a result of the central obesity correlations. After the non-communicable disease risk factor levels of participants were adjusted for their WCs, the mother-daughter correlations remained significant. The consistent association of central obesity between mothers and daughters may indicate the key role that could be played by the mother in the primary prevention of central obesity, particularly in high-risk families. © 2012 APJPH.

  2. Association between iron level, glucose impairment and increased DNA damage during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein, Salam; Rachidi, Samar; Shami, Nadine; Sharara, Iman; Cheikh-Ali, Khawla; Gauchez, Anne-Sophie; Moulis, Jean-Marc; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc; Salameh, Pascale; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    Elevated circulating ferritin has been reported to increase the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). When high ferritin translates into high iron stores, iron excess is also a condition leading to free radical damage. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress (OS) induced by iron status and GDM risk in non iron-supplemented pregnant women. This was a pilot observational study conducted on 93 non-anemic pregnant women. Iron status was assessed at the first trimester of gestation. Blood sampling was done at 24-28 weeks' gestation for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin and biological markers of oxidative damage tests. A significant increase in DNA damage was found in patients who developed GDM. Women with elevated DNA damage had a six-fold increased risk of developing GDM (Exp (B)=6.851, P=0.038; 95% CI [1.108-42.375]). The serum ferritin levels at first trimester were significantly correlated to lipid peroxidation (rho=0.24, p=0.012). The stratified analysis suggests that ferritin is a modifying factor for the correlation of oxidative stress (OS) and glucose intolerance. Moderate ferritin levels due to iron intake without iron-supplement, at early pregnancy is a modifying factor for the correlation of oxidative damage and glucose intolerance in pregnant women. Larger studies to evaluate the risk of food iron intake induced increased oxidative damage in offspring are warranted to propose nutrition advice regarding iron intake in women with a high risk of GDM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between chronic periodontitis and serum lipid levels

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    Pejčić Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Periodontitis is a local inflammatory process mediating destruction of periodontal tissues triggered by bacterial insult. However, this disease is also characterized by systemic inflammatory host responses that may contrbute, in part, to the recently reported increased risk for systemic diseases, including an altered lipid metabolism. On the other hand, many people in the world are affected by hyperlipidemia, which is a known risk faktor for atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between periodontal disease and blood lipid levels. Methods. A total of 50 patients with periodontitis included in this study had no documented history of recent acute coronary events. The healthy, non-periodontal subjects (comparison group comprised 25 subjects. All the patients were periodontology examined and completed a medical history. Dental plaque index, probing depth, gingival index bleeding on probing and clinical attechment levels were recorded. Blood samples were taken on admission for measurements of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, hight density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol. Results. The obtained results showed that mean levels of cholesterol (6.09 ± 1.61 mmol/L, triglycerdes (2.19+1.67mmol/l and LDL cholesterol (4.09 ± 1.40 mmol/L in individuals with periodontitis were higer, and levels od HDL (1.43 ± 0.51 mmol/L was lower than those of individuals without periodontitis (4.86 ± 1.37; 1.14 ± 0.71; 3.18 ± 0.64; 1.53 ± 0.32 mmol/L, respectively. Conclusion. This study confirms a significant relationship between periodontal disease, regardless its intensity, and blood lipid levels in the studied population. The results imply that periodontitis may be a risk factor and may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD. However, future prospective randomized studies have to determine whether

  4. Imbalanced Hemolymph Lipid Levels Affect Feeding Motivation in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

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    Takahiro Konuma

    Full Text Available Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets.

  5. Perfil lipídico e glicêmico de ratos treinados em exercício aeróbio ou anaeróbio e suplementados com maltodextrina Los lípidos y los niveles de glucosa de las ratas entrenadas en condiciones aeróbicas o anaeróbicas y se complementa con maltodextrina Lipids and glucose levels of trained rats in aerobic or anaerobic conditions and supplemented with maltodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Fernandes Leite

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar as alterações no perfil lipídico e glicêmico de ratos treinados, suplementados com maltodextrina. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: o protocolo de treinamento consistiu de 8 semanas de natação em padrão contínuo (60min.dia-1 ou intermitente (2 períodos de 30min, com intervalo de 10min, com sobrecargas correspondentes a 5% e 10% do peso corporal, respectivamente. Durante 37 dias os animais foram suplementados com uma dose diária de 0,48g.kg-1 de maltodextrina dissolvida em água ou receberam água pura. RESULTADOS: o exercício aeróbio ocasionou aumento significativo no nível glicêmico. Os exercícios e a maltodextrina não causaram alterações no perfil lipídico. CONCLUSÃO: o exercício aeróbio proporcionou elevação no nível glicêmico, não causando hipoglicemia.El objetivo fue comprobar los cambios en los lípidos y los niveles de glucosa de las ratas entrenadas complementados con maltodextrina. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El protocolo consistió en 8 semanas de patrón de natación continua (60min.dia-1 o intermitente (2 períodos de 30 min, con un intervalo de 10 min, con sobrecargas que corresponden al 5% y el 10% del peso corporal. Durante 37 días los animales fueron suplementados con una dosis diaria de 0,48 g.kg-1 maltodextrina disuelta en agua o agua pura. RESULTADOS: El ejercicio aeróbico provocó un aumento significativo en los niveles de glucosa en la sangre. Los ejercicios y la maltodextrina no causó cambios en el perfil lipídico. CONCLUSIONES: El ejercicio aeróbico dio lugar en los niveles de glucosa en la sangre, sin causar hipoglucemia.The objective was to verify changes in lipids and glucose levels of trained rats supplemented with maltodextrin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The training protocol consisted of 8 weeks of continuous swimming pattern (60min.dia-1 or intermittent (2 periods of 30 minutes, with an interval of 10 minutes, with overloads corresponding to 5% and 10% of body weight, respectively. For

  6. Serum aspirin esterase is strongly associated with glucose and lipids in healthy subjects: different association patterns in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Kotani Kazuhiko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspirin esterase (AE activity can account for part of aspirin pharmacokinetics in the circulation, possibly being associated with the impairment of aspirin effectiveness as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Aims The study was aimed at investigating the correlations of serum AE activity with cholinesterase (ChE and metabolic variables in healthy subjects in comparison to subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods In cardiovascular disease-free T2DM subjects and healthy controls, the AE activity levels and/or the correlation patterns between AE and the other variables were analyzed. Results Neither AE nor ChE activities were higher in the subjects with T2DM. Serum AE activity strongly correlated with ChE as well as glucose/lipids variables such as total cholesterol and triglyceride in healthy subjects, while the correlations between AE and glucose/lipids variables were not present in T2DM subjects. Conclusions These data may reflect the pathophysiological changes between healthy and T2DM subjects. Our data may thus provide the basis for future studies to unravel the mechanisms.

  7. Correlation between high blood IL-6 level, hyperglycemia, and glucose control in septic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masataka; Oda, Shigeto; Sadahiro, Tomohito; Watanabe, Eizo; Abe, Ryuzo; Nakada, Taka-Aki; Morita, Yasumasa; Hirasawa, Hiroyuki

    2012-12-12

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the blood IL-6 level, the blood glucose level, and glucose control in septic patients. This retrospective observational study in a general ICU of a university hospital included a total of 153 patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock who were admitted to the ICU between 2005 and 2010, stayed in the ICU for 7 days or longer, and did not receive steroid therapy prior to or after ICU admission. The severity of stress hyperglycemia, status of glucose control, and correlation between those two factors in these patients were investigated using the blood IL-6 level as an index of hypercytokinemia. A significant positive correlation between blood IL-6 level and blood glucose level on ICU admission was observed in the overall study population (n = 153; r = 0.24, P = 0.01), and was stronger in the nondiabetic subgroup (n = 112; r = 0.42, P glucose control (blood glucose level blood IL-6 level on ICU admission (P blood IL-6 level after ICU admission remained significantly higher and the 60-day survival rate was significantly lower in the failed glucose control group than in the successful glucose control group (P blood IL-6 level was correlated with hyperglycemia and with difficulties in glucose control in septic patients. These results suggest the possibility that hypercytokinemia might be involved in the development of hyperglycemia in sepsis, and thereby might affect the success of glucose control.

  8. Glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Suyama, Shigetomo; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Maejima, Yuko; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, acting against metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggest that adiponectin acts on the brain including hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), where proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons play key roles in feeding regulation. Several studies have examined intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of adiponectin and reported opposite effects, increase or decrease of food intake. These reports used different nutritional states...

  9. Effect of Urtica Dioica Decoction on Serum Glucose and Lipid Profile in Stereptozotocin Induced Diabetic Male Rats

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    Mohammad Reza Sahraki

    Full Text Available Background: Since Urtica dioica is a traditional treatment plant and is used for antihypertensive, antilipidemic and antidiabetic agents, this survey was carried out to evaluate the effect of Urtica dioica decoction on serum glucose and lipid profile in diabetic male rats induced by stereptozotocin (STZ. Materials and Methods: This experiment was performed on 30 Wistar-Albino male rats, weighing 200-250 g, which were divided in sham control (A, diabetic control (B and diabetic test groups (C randomly (N=10. Type I diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg. Test group received 0.40-0.60 ml of Urtica dioica decoction for a month by gavages, control group (B received the same volume of distill water. Group (A did not receive any agent during the experiment period. Finally, animals were anesthetized, sacrificed and blood samples were collected from the cervical vein. Then, serum glucose and lipid profiles were measured by ordinary methods. Data were analyzed by SPSS-11, using ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean±SD, and statistical difference was considered significant by p<0.05.Results: Results in the present study showed that fasting blood glucose (FBS, total cholesterol (TCho, triglyceride (TG, LDL, food and water intake were significantly decreased in group C compared with those of group B, but body weight gain was significantly increased compared with that of control group (B.Conclusion: These results indicated that Urtica dioica decoction caused decreased FBS and improved serum lipids in diabetic male rats. Some more studies have shown the same mechanism.

  10. E4orf1 improves lipid and glucose metabolism in hepatocytes: a template to improve steatosis & hyperglycemia.

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    Emily J Dhurandhar

    Full Text Available Hepatic steatosis often accompanies obesity and insulin resistance. The cornerstones of steatosis treatment include reducing body weight and dietary fat intake, which are marginally successful over the long term. Ad36, a human adenovirus, may offer a template to overcome these limitations. In vitro and in vivo studies collectively indicate that via its E4orf1 protein, Ad36 improves hyperglycemia, and attenuates hepatic steatosis, despite a high fat diet and without weight loss. Considering that hepatic insulin sensitivity, or the synthesis, oxidation, or export of fatty acid by hepatocytes are the key determinant of hepatic lipid storage, we determined the role of E4orf1 protein in modulating these physiological pathways. For this study, HepG2 cells, or mouse primary hepatocytes were transfected with E4orf1 or the null vector. Glucose output by hepatocytes was determined under gluconeogenic conditions (cAMP and dexamethasone, or glucagon exposure. Also, de-novo lipogenesis, palmitate oxidation, and lipid export as determined by apoB secretion were measured 48 h post transfection. Results show that compared to null vector transfected cells, E4orf1 significantly reduced glucose output in basal and gluconeogenic conditions. E4orf1 reduced de-novo lipogenesis by about 35%, increased complete fatty acid oxidation 2-fold (p<0.0001, and apoB secretion 1.5 fold(p<0.003. Response of key signaling molecules to E4orf1 transfection was in agreement with these findings. Thus, E4orf1 offers a valuable template to exogenously modulate hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Elucidating the underlying molecular mechanism may help develop therapeutic approaches for treating diabetes or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD.

  11. E4orf1 improves lipid and glucose metabolism in hepatocytes: a template to improve steatosis & hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhar, Emily J; Krishnapuram, Rashmi; Hegde, Vijay; Dubuisson, Olga; Tao, Rongya; Dong, X Charlie; Ye, Jianping; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis often accompanies obesity and insulin resistance. The cornerstones of steatosis treatment include reducing body weight and dietary fat intake, which are marginally successful over the long term. Ad36, a human adenovirus, may offer a template to overcome these limitations. In vitro and in vivo studies collectively indicate that via its E4orf1 protein, Ad36 improves hyperglycemia, and attenuates hepatic steatosis, despite a high fat diet and without weight loss. Considering that hepatic insulin sensitivity, or the synthesis, oxidation, or export of fatty acid by hepatocytes are the key determinant of hepatic lipid storage, we determined the role of E4orf1 protein in modulating these physiological pathways. For this study, HepG2 cells, or mouse primary hepatocytes were transfected with E4orf1 or the null vector. Glucose output by hepatocytes was determined under gluconeogenic conditions (cAMP and dexamethasone, or glucagon exposure). Also, de-novo lipogenesis, palmitate oxidation, and lipid export as determined by apoB secretion were measured 48 h post transfection. Results show that compared to null vector transfected cells, E4orf1 significantly reduced glucose output in basal and gluconeogenic conditions. E4orf1 reduced de-novo lipogenesis by about 35%, increased complete fatty acid oxidation 2-fold (pE4orf1 transfection was in agreement with these findings. Thus, E4orf1 offers a valuable template to exogenously modulate hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Elucidating the underlying molecular mechanism may help develop therapeutic approaches for treating diabetes or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD).

  12. Hepatocyte MyD88 affects bile acids, gut microbiota and metabolome contributing to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duparc, Thibaut; Plovier, Hubert; Marrachelli, Vannina G

    2017-01-01

    performed microarrays and quantitative PCRs in the liver. In addition, we investigated the gut microbiota composition, bile acid profile and both liver and plasma metabolome. We analysed the expression pattern of genes in the liver of obese humans developing non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). RESULTS...... proliferator activator receptor-α, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), liver X receptors and STAT3) and bile acid profiles involved in glucose, lipid metabolism and inflammation. In addition to these alterations, the genetic deletion of MyD88 in hepatocytes changes the gut microbiota composition and their metabolomes...

  13. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Iranian Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

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    Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMetabolic syndrome (MetS, a cluster of multiple metabolic abnormalities, is one of the major public health challenges worldwide. The current study was conducted to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption and MetS and its components in Iranian adults.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted among 5,852 men and women, aged 19 to 70 years, who participated in the fourth phase (2009 to 2011 of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Demographics, anthropometrics, biochemical measurements, and blood pressure (BP were assessed and MetS was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition. Frequency and quantity of SSB intakes including carbonated drinks and synthetic fruit juices were collected using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire.ResultsMean age of participants (43%, men was 40.6±12.9 years. Significant positive associations between SSBs and waist circumference, triglyceride level, systolic and diastolic BP in the third and fourth quartile of SSBs were observed, after adjustment for all potential confounding variables. The odds of MetS in the third and fourth quartiles compared to the first quartile category of SSBs was 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.45 and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.58, respectively (P for trend=0.03. The odds of MetS, abdominal obesity, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated BP had increasing trends across increasing of SSB consumption (P for trend <0.05.ConclusionHigher intake of SSBs was associated with the higher odds of MetS in adults. It is suggested that reducing consumption of SSBs could be a practical approach to prevent metabolic abnormalities.

  14. Serum Bile Acids Are Higher in Humans With Prior Gastric Bypass: Potential Contribution to Improved Glucose and Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Houten, Sander M.; Bianco, Antonio C.; Bernier, Raquel; Larsen, P. Reed; Holst, Jens J.; Badman, Michael K.; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Mun, Edward C.; Pihlajamaki, Jussi; Auwerx, Johan; Goldfine, Allison B.

    2015-01-01

    The multifactorial mechanisms promoting weight loss and improved metabolism following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GB) surgery remain incompletely understood. Recent rodent studies suggest that bile acids can mediate energy homeostasis by activating the G-protein coupled receptor TGR5 and the type 2 thyroid hormone deiodinase. Altered gastrointestinal anatomy following GB could affect enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids. We assessed whether circulating bile acid concentrations differ in patients who previously underwent GB, which might then contribute to improved metabolic homeostasis. We performed cross-sectional analysis of fasting serum bile acid composition and both fasting and post-meal metabolic variables, in three subject groups: (i) post-GB surgery (n = 9), (ii) without GB matched to preoperative BMI of the index cohort (n = 5), and (iii) without GB matched to current BMI of the index cohort (n = 10). Total serum bile acid concentrations were higher in GB (8.90 ± 4.84 µmol/l) than in both overweight (3.59 ± 1.95, P = 0.005, Ov) and severely obese (3.86 ± 1.51, P = 0.045, MOb). Bile acid subfractions taurochenodeoxycholic, taurodeoxycholic, glycocholic, glycochenodeoxycholic, and glycodeoxycholic acids were all significantly higher in GB compared to Ov (P fasting triglycerides (r = −0.40, P = 0.05), and positively correlated with adiponectin (r = −0.48, P < 0.02) and peak glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) (r = 0.58, P < 0.003). Total bile acids strongly correlated inversely with thyrotropic hormone (TSH) (r = −0.57, P = 0.004). Together, our data suggest that altered bile acid levels and composition may contribute to improved glucose and lipid metabolism in patients who have had GB. PMID:19360006

  15. A Study on the Correlation between Cord Blood Glucose Level and the Apgar Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kalyan; Saha, Ashis Ranjan

    2013-02-01

    The study of the biochemical parameters of cord blood acts as a mirror, which usually reflects the neonatal status. The widely used system for the evaluation of a neonate is the Apgar score. There is no comprehensive published data which has established the association between the cord blood glucose level and the Apgar score. Similarly, there is also no well accepted reference range of the cord blood glucose level. The main objectives of the present study was to ascertain any adverse effects of an abnormal cord blood glucose level on the neonatal status and to find out a standard reference level of glucose in cord blood. The cord blood glucose estimation was done by using the glucose oxidase peroxidase method and the statistical analysis was performed by using the SPSS, version 16 software. In the present study, the cord blood glucose level was found to have no correlation with the Apgar scores which were calculated at both one minute and five minutes after birth. It was also found that for the foetus to be free from any obvious complication, the cord blood glucose level had to be around 87 mg/dl. The fluctuations in the maternal glucose levels are weakly associated with the glucose level in the cord blood.

  16. Colors of fruits and vegetables and 3-year changes of cardiometabolic risk factors in adults: Tehran lipid and glucose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, P; Bahadoran, Z; Moslehi, N; Bastan, S; Azizi, F

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to investigate the associations of colors of fruit and vegetable (FV) subgroups, with 3-year changes of cardiometabolic risk factors. This longitudinal study was conducted in the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, between 2006-2008 and 2009-2011, on 1272 adults. Total intake of FV and their subgroups have been assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline (2006-2008) and again at the second examination (2009-2011). Demographics, anthropometrics and biochemical measures were evaluated at baseline and 3 years later. The associations of anthropometric and lipid profile changes with FV subgroups were estimated. The mean age of men and women at baseline was 39.8±12.7 and 37.3±12.1 years, respectively. Mean total intake of FV, red/purple, yellow, green, orange and white FV was 706±337, 185±95, 141±91, 152±77, 141±87 and 22±18 g/day, respectively. In men, 3-year changes of weight (β=-0.13, P=0.01) and waist circumference (β=-0.14, P=0.01) were related to intake of red/purple FV; the yellow group was inversely associated with 3-year changes of total cholesterol (β=-0.09, P=0.03) and High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β=-0.11, P=0.03). Consumption of green and white FV was inversely related to abdominal fat gain, and atherogenic lipid parameters in men (Pfasting serum glucose and total cholesterol (P<0.05); yellow FV was also related to 3-year weight gain (β=-0.11, P=0.01). Various colors of FV subgroups had different effects on cardiometabolic risk factors; higher intake of red/purple FV may be related to lower weight and abdominal fat gain, and yellow, green and white FV may be related to lipid parameters.

  17. Overexpression of Rad in muscle worsens diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and lowers plasma triglyceride level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilany, Jacob; Bilan, Philip J.; Kapur, Sonia; Caldwell, James S.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Marette, Andre; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2006-03-01

    Rad is a low molecular weight GTPase that is overexpressed in skeletal muscle of some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity. Overexpression of Rad in adipocytes and muscle cells in culture results in diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To further elucidate the potential role of Rad in vivo, we have generated transgenic (tg) mice that overexpress Rad in muscle using the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter-enhancer. Rad tg mice have a 6- to 12-fold increase in Rad expression in muscle as compared to wild-type littermates. Rad tg mice grow normally and have normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, but have reduced plasma triglyceride levels. On a high-fat diet, Rad tg mice develop more severe glucose intolerance than the wild-type mice; this is due to increased insulin resistance in muscle, as exemplified by a rightward shift in the dose-response curve for insulin stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake. There is also a unexpected further reduction of the plasma triglyceride levels that is associated with increased levels of lipoprotein lipase in the Rad tg mice. These results demonstrate a potential synergistic interaction between increased expression of Rad and high-fat diet in creation of insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism present in type 2 diabetes. diabetes mellitus | glucose transport | RGK GTPase | transgenic mouse

  18. Liver X receptor antagonist reduces lipid formation and increases glucose metabolism in myotubes from lean, obese and type 2 diabetic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kase, E T; Thoresen, G H; Westerlund, S

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Liver X receptors (LXRs) play important roles in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate effects of the endogenous LXR agonist 22-R-hydroxycholesterol (22-R-HC) and its stereoisomer 22-S-hydroxycholesterol (22-S-HC), in comparison...... with the synthetic agonist T0901317 on lipid and glucose metabolism in human skeletal muscle cells (myotubes). METHODS: Myotubes established from lean and obese control volunteers and from obese type 2 diabetic volunteers were treated with LXR ligands for 4 days. Lipid and glucose metabolisms were studied...... with labelled precursors, and gene expression was analysed using real-time PCR. RESULTS: Treatment with T0901317 increased lipogenesis (de novo lipid synthesis) and lipid accumulation in myotubes, this increase being more pronounced in myotubes from type 2 diabetic volunteers than from lean volunteers...

  19. Effect of blood glucose level on acute stress response of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Danli; Wu, Yubo; Huang, Di; Ren, Xing; Wang, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Stress has a considerable impact on welfare and productivity of fish, and blood glucose level of fish may be a factor modulating stress response. This study evaluated the effect of blood glucose level and handling on acute stress response of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Fish were intraperitoneally injected with glucose at 0, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg g -1 body mass (BM) and then were exposed to handling for 5 min. Glucose injection resulted in increase of plasma glucose level and liver glycogen content and decrease of plasma lactate level. Handling resulted in increase of plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, and lactate and plasma lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and decrease of liver glycogen content. At 1 h post-stress, the plasma cortisol level was lower in the stressed fish injected with glucose at 0.5 mg g -1 BM than the stressed fish injected with glucose at 0, 0.2, and 1.0 mg g -1 BM. No significant differences were found in the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) in the liver between the stressed and unstressed fish, regardless of the dose of glucose injection. At 1 h post-stress, the liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity was higher in the fish without glucose injection than in the fish injected with glucose. This study reveals that blood glucose level can affect stress response of grass carp by modulating cortisol release and glucose homeostasis through glycogen metabolism and gluconeogenesis in the liver.

  20. Dietary phytochemical index and subsequent changes of lipid profile: A 3-year follow-up in Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study in Iran

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    Mahdieh Golzarand

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High intakes of phytochemical-rich foods have beneficial effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease (CVD. In this study, we assessed the association between the dietary phytochemical index (PI and changes in lipid profile after 3-year follow-up among Iranian adults. METHODS: This longitudinal study was conducted in 1983 subjects, aged 19-70 years, selected among participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Dietary data were collected by using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 168 food items at baseline. PI was calculated based on daily energy derived from [(phytochemical-rich foods kcal/total daily energy intake kcal × 100]. Lipid profile was measured at baseline and after 3 years and changes in serum lipid profiles were assessed during 3-year follow-up. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 40.4 ± 13.0 years; participants in the highest PI quartile category were more likely to be older. After 3 years of follow-up, total cholesterol was significantly lower in the highest quartile compared with lower quartile of PI in men (181 ± 3 vs. 189 ± 3, P for trend <0.05. There were significant inverse association between dietary PI and 3 years changes of total cholesterol [β: −5.6, 95% confidence interval (CI = −9.3, −1.8], triglycerides (β = −13.7, 95% CI = −24.6, −2.8, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (β = −6.2, 95% CI = −10.8, −1.5, in highest quartile of PI in men. Lipid profiles showed no significant changes over the study period in women. CONCLUSION: Higher dietary PI is associated with 3 years improvement of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-HDL-C. Higher consumption of phytochemical-rich foods is recommended to prevent CVD.   Keywords: Phytochemical, Triglyceride, Cholesterol, Fruit and vegetables, Whole Grains 

  1. Effect of Global ATGL Knockout on Murine Fasting Glucose Kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, M.; Nunes, P.; Mendes, V.M.; Manadas, B.; Heerschap, A.; Jones, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Mice deficient in adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL(-/-)) present elevated ectopic lipid levels but are paradoxically glucose-tolerant. Measurement of endogenous glucose production (EGP) and Cori cycle activity provide insights into the maintenance of glycemic control in these animals. These

  2. Effects of Sesame Oil on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Type II Diabetic Patients Referring to The Yazd Diabetes Research Center.

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    F Hoseini

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type II Diabetes is one of the most prevalent endocrine diseases in the world that results from a combination of insulin resistance and ß-cell failure. Regarding importance of nutritional factors in management of diabetes, this study was designed to explore the effect of sesame oil on blood glucose and lipid profile in type II diabetic patients at Yazd Diabetes Research Center in 2007. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted on 25 patients with type II diabetes mellitus (age: 51.5±6.28y; BMI:27.3±3kg/m2; disease duration:7.08±5.03y; Fasting blood glucose level: 181±51.9mg/dl. Subjects received 30 g/day sesame oil for 6 weeks. Sesame oil was supplied to the patients, who were instructed to use it in place of other cooking oils for 42 days. Plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, lipid profiles [Total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and triglycerides (TG] were measured at baseline and after 45 days of sesame oil substitution. 24 hours dietary recalls were obtained at the start , middle and end of study. Data was analyzed using analysis of variance with repeated measures and paired t-test. Results: Following 42 days intake of sesame oil, there were significant decrease in FBS (181±51.93 vs 154±39.65 mg/dl, HbA1c (9.64 ± 2 vs 8.4 ± 1.74 percent, TC (226.68 ± 31.4 vs 199.8 ± 37.87 mg/dl, LDL-c (123.9 ± 34.56 vs 95.53 ± 32.54 mg/dl compared to pre-treatment values. (P <0.05 . Blood TG level decreased after intake of sesame oil but this difference was not significant (P=0.2.Also, the changes of HDL-c levels were not significant (P=0.1. Conclusion: Sesame oil consumption results in considerable decrease in blood sugar, HbA1c and blood lipid levels (TC and LDL-C in type II diabetics.

  3. Blood Glucose Levels in Diabetic Patients Following Corticosteroid Injections into the Subacromial Space of the Shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, Alexander W; Syed, Usman Ali M; Nicholson, Thema; Getz, Charles L; Namdari, Surena; Beredjiklian, Pedro K; Abboud, Joseph A

    2017-09-01

    Corticosteroid injections are used to treat a variety of orthopedic conditions with the goal of decreasing pain and inflammation. Administration of systemic or local corticosteroids risks temporarily increasing blood glucose levels, especially diabetic patients. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of corticosteroid injections on blood glucose levels in diabetic patients with shoulder pathology. Diabetic patients who regularly monitored their blood glucose levels and were indicated for a subacromial corticosteroid injection were included in this prospective investigation. The typical normal morning fasting glucose and most recent hemoglobin A1c level was recorded for each patient. After injection, patients were contacted daily to confirm their fasting morning glucose level for 10 days post-injection. Seventeen consecutive patients were enrolled. Patients with hemoglobin A1c of patients' glucose levels returned to near baseline levels around post-injection day 8, while poorly controlled patients levels remained elevated. Similarly, insulin-dependent diabetic patients had an average increase in fasting glucose level of 99 mg/dL versus 50 mg/dL in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients ( P patients with well-controlled diabetes experience smaller elevations and faster return to baseline glucose levels than patients with poor control. Insulin dependent diabetics experienced similar findings as patients with poor control. Future studies are needed to evaluate dosing to optimize the risks of blood glucose elevation while maintaining therapeutic benefit.

  4. Effect of meal frequency on glucose and insulin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, E; Kechribari, I; Mitrou, P; Trakakis, E; Vassiliadi, D; Georgousopoulou, E; Zampelas, A; Kontogianni, M D; Dimitriadis, G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two-meal patterns (three vs six meals per day) on glucose and insulin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In a randomised, crossover, 24-week study, 40 women with PCOS, aged 27±6 years, body mass index 27±6 kg/m(2), followed a weight maintenance diet (% carbohydrates:protein:fat, 40:25:35), consumed either as a three- or a six-meal pattern, with each intervention lasting for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, diet compliance and subjective hunger, satiety and desire to eat were assessed biweekly. All women underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with 75 g glucose for measurement of plasma glucose and insulin at the beginning and end of each intervention. HaemoglobinA1c (HbA1c), blood lipids and hepatic enzymes were measured at the beginning and end of each intervention. Body weight remained stable throughout the study. Six meals decreased significantly fasting insulin (P=0.014) and post-OGTT insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index, P=0.039) vs three meals. After incorporation of individual changes over time, with adjustment for potential confounders, the only variable that remained significant was the Matsuda index, which was then used in multivariate analysis and general linear models. Six meals improved post-OGTT insulin sensitivity independently of age and body weight vs three meals (P=0.012). No significant differences were found between six and three meals for glucose, HbA1c, blood lipids, hepatic enzymes, subjective desire to eat and satiety. Six meals had a more favourable effect on post-OGTT insulin sensitivity in women with PCOS compared with isocaloric three meals.

  5. Assessment risk of osteoporosis in Chinese people: relationship among body mass index, serum lipid profiles, blood glucose, and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui RT

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rongtao Cui,1 Lin Zhou,2 Zuohong Li,2 Qing Li,2 Zhiming Qi,2 Junyong Zhang3 1Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Surgical Research, Duisburg-Essen University Hospital, Essen, Germany; 2Department of Orthopedics, Dalian Central Hospital, Dalian, 3Department of Gastroenterology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship among age, sex, body mass index (BMI, serum lipid profiles, blood glucose (BG, and bone mineral density (BMD, making an assessment of the risk of osteoporosis.Materials and methods: A total of 1,035 male and 3,953 female healthy volunteers (aged 41–95 years were recruited by an open invitation. The basic information, including age, sex, height, weight, waistline, hipline, menstrual cycle, and medical history, were collected by a questionnaire survey and physical examination. Serum lipid profiles, BG, postprandial blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin were obtained after 12 hours fasting. BMD in lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning.Results: The age-adjusted BMD in females was significantly lower than in males. With aging, greater differences of BMD distribution exist in elderly females than in males (P<0.001, and the fastigium of bone mass loss was in the age range from 51 to 55 in females and from 61 to 65 years in males. After adjustment for sex, there were significant differences in BMD among BMI-stratified groups in both males and females. The subjects with a BMI of <18.5 had a higher incidence of osteoporosis than BMI ≥18.5 in both sexes. BMD in type 2 diabetes mellitus with a BG of >7.0 mmol/L was lower than in people with BG of ≤7.0 mmol/L (P<0.001. People with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of ≥1.56 mmol/L had a greater prevalence of osteoporosis compared with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤1.55 mmol/L. Logistic regression with odds ratios showed that

  6. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Serum Glucose and Lipid Profile Among Algerian Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiboura Ghania

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: We designed this study to assess the effect of Ramadan fasting on serum lipid profile among type 2 diabetic patients. Material and Methods: The study was carried out in July 2014 (Ramadan 1421. The total duration of fasting was 17 hours a day. The investigation involved 80 patients. The mean age of the patients was 56± 8 years. The dietary survey lasting three days was recorded. The anthropometric and the biochemical parameters were measured in all subjects before (T1 and during (T2 the fasting month of Ramadan and results were compared using student t-test. Results: There was a significant decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c levels during T2 (0.35±0,08 g/L compared to T1 (0.38±0,11 g/L. Apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1 decreased significantly during fasting compared to pre-fasting days while apo B increased during T2 (p˂0.05. The dietary fat consumption increased during Ramadan; especially for the saturated one (p<0.05. Conclusion: The present study suggests that fasting month of Ramadan could be beneficial for some patients with type 2 diabetes who are well controlled and balanced. However, some of them may be at risk of cardiovascular complications in which dyslipidemia can be the leading cause.

  7. Resistance of Gram-positive bacteria to nisin is not determined by Lipid II levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, NE; Smid, EJ; Kok, J; de Kruijff, B; Kuipers, OP; Breukink, E; Kramer, Naomi E.; Smid, Eddy J.

    2004-01-01

    Lipid II is essential for nisin-mediated pore formation at nano-molar concentrations. We tested whether nisin resistance could result from different Lipid II levels, by comparing the maximal Lipid II pool in Micrococcus flavus (sensitive) and Listeria monocytogenes (relatively insensitive) and their

  8. Elevated 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired glucose tolerance are associated with whole blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maria Adelaide; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that glucose levels ≥155 mg/dl at 1-h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may predict development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). Studies showed a link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether blood viscosity is associated with dysglycemic conditions such as NGT 1 h-high, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unsettled. 1723 non-diabetic adults underwent biochemical evaluation and OGTT. A validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins was employed to estimate whole blood viscosity. Subjects were categorized into NGT with 1 h glucose h-low), NGT-1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT. Hematocrit and blood viscosity values appeared significantly higher in individuals with NGT 1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT as compared to NGT 1 h-low subjects. Blood viscosity was significantly correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting, 1- and 2-h post-challenge insulin levels, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein and insulin sensitivity. Of the four glycemic parameters, 1-h post-challenge glucose showed the strongest correlation with blood viscosity (β = 0.158, P h post-challenge plasma glucose. They also suggest that a subgroup of NGT individuals with 1-h post-challenge plasma >155 mg/dl have increased blood viscosity comparable to that observed in subjects with IFG and/or IGT.

  9. Bifidogenic effect of grain larvae extract on serum lipid, glucose and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-07-19

    Jul 19, 2015 ... sity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes as a result of rapid aging and a ... crobial activity, immunity, and blood lipid metabolism and increase ..... Higgins DA 1975 Physical and chemical properties of fowl immu- noglobulins.

  10. Blood Glucose Levels Following Intra-Articular Steroid Injections in Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, M N; Malik, R A; Charalambous, Charalambos Panayiotou

    2016-03-22

    Parenterally administered steroids have been shown to affect the metabolism of glucose and to cause abnormal blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. These abnormal blood glucose levels in diabetic patients raise concerns that intra-articular steroid injections also may affect blood glucose levels. We performed a systematic review of studies examining the effect of intra-articular steroid injections on blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. A literature search of the PubMed, EMBASE, AMED, and CINAHL databases using all relevant keywords and phrases revealed 532 manuscripts. After the application of inclusion criteria, seven studies with a total of seventy-two patients were analyzed. All studies showed a rise in blood glucose levels following intra-articular steroid injection. Four of the seven studies showed a substantial increase in blood glucose. Peak values reached as high as 500 mg/dL. The peak increase in blood glucose did not occur immediately following intra-articular steroid injection, and in some cases it took several days to occur. In many patients, post-injection hyperglycemia occurred within twenty-four to seventy-two hours. Intra-articular steroid injections may cause hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus, and patients should be warned of this complication. Diabetic patients should be advised to regularly monitor their blood glucose levels for up to a week after injection and should seek medical advice if safe thresholds are breached. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  11. Effects of dietary lipid levels on growth, body composition and antioxidants of clamworm (Perinereis aibuhitensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Lv

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of dietary lipid levels on growth performance, body composition and antioxidant parameters of clamworm (Perinereis aibuhitensis, 1050 clamworms were fed diets with seven lipid levels (2.37%, 4.35%, 6.29%, 8.41%, 10.31%, 12.29% and 14.33%, named L2.37, L4.35, L6.29, L8.41, L10.31, L12.29 and L14.33, respectively for 10 weeks. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 50 clamworms. The results showed that the growth performance and protein efficiency ratio were significantly affected by the lipid levels. Clamworms fed L8.41 diet exhibited higher growth performance than others and the maximum specific growth rate can be possibly obtained when the diets were supplemented with 7.54% lipid level. The dietary lipid levels had significant influences on the whole body crude protein, crude lipid, moisture contents and ash profile of P. aibuhitensis. The eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were also enhanced with increasing dietary lipid levels in whole body analyses. The contents of malonaldehyde (MDA and lipid peroxidation (LPO in clamworms increased significantly with increasing dietary lipid levels. Meanwhile, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and total autioxidative capacity (T-AOC tended to strengthen with dietary lipid levels increasing from 2.37% to 10.31% (except the GPX with 12.29% dietary lipid levels, and weaken with dietary lipid levels increasing from 10.31% to 14.33%. These results demonstrated that a proper dietary lipid level of 7.54%–10.31% could maintain solid growth performance and antioxidant capacity of juvenile P. aibuhitensis.

  12. Dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids modify phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity and lipid synthesis from glucose in adipose tissue of rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Lisiane G; Rieger, Débora K; Hansen, Fernanda; Silveira, Simone L; Martins, Tiago L; Lulhier, Francisco; da Silva, Roselis S; Souza, Diogo O; Perry, Marcos L S; de Assis, Adriano M

    2013-12-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) have hypolipidemic effects and modulate intermediary metabolism to prevent or reverse insulin resistance in a way that is not completely elucidated. Here, effects of these fatty acids on the lipid profile, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity, lipid synthesis from glucose in epididymal adipose tissue (Ep-AT) and liver were investigated. Male rats were fed a high-sucrose diet (SU diet), containing either sunflower oil or a mixture of sunflower and fish oil (SU-FO diet), and the control group was fed a standard diet. After 13 weeks, liver, adipose tissue and blood were harvested and analysed. The dietary n-3 LCPUFAs prevented sucrose-induced increase in adiposity and serum free fat acids, serum and hepatic triacylglycerol and insulin levels. Furthermore, these n-3 LCPUFAs decreased lipid synthesis from glucose and increased PEPCK activity in the Ep-AT of rats fed the SU-FO diet compared to those fed the SU diet, besides reducing lipid synthesis from glucose in hepatic tissue. Thus, the inclusion of n-3 LCPUFAs in the diet may be beneficial for the prevention or attenuation of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, and for reducing the risk of related chronic diseases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Depletion of norepinephrine of the central nervous system Down-regulates the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Sharma, Naveen; Suh, Hong-Won

    2016-05-04

    DSP-4[N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride] is a neurotoxin that depletes norepinephrine. The catecholaminergic system has been implicated in the regulation of blood glucose level. In the present study, the effect of DSP-4 administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) on blood glucose level was examined in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress mice models. Mice were pretreated once i.c.v. or i.t. with DSP-4 (10-40μg) for 3days, and d-glucose (2g/kg) was fed orally. Blood glucose level was measured 0 (prior to glucose feeding or restraint stress), 30, 60, and 120min after d-glucose feeding or restraint stress. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated blood glucose level in the d-glucose-fed model. Plasma corticosterone level was downregulated in the d-glucose-fed model, whereas plasma insulin level increased in the d-glucose-fed group. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reversed the downregulation of plasma corticosterone induced by feeding d-glucose. In addition, the d-glucose-induced increase in plasma insulin was attenuated by the DSP-4 pretreatment. Furthermore, i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reduced restraint stress-induced increases in blood glucose levels. Restraint stress increased plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. The i.c.v. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated restraint stress-induced plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. Our results suggest that depleting norepinephrine at the supraspinal and spinal levels appears to be responsible for downregulating blood glucose levels in both d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Cholera Toxin Administered Supraspinally or Spinally on the Blood Glucose Level in Pain and D-Glucose Fed Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Choi, Seong-Soo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of intrathecal (i.t.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration with cholera toxin (CTX) on the blood glucose level was examined in ICR mice. The i.t. treatment with CTX alone for 24 h dose-dependently increased the blood glucose level. However, i.c.v. treatment with CTX for 24 h did not affect the blood glucose level. When mice were orally fed with D-glucose (2 g/kg), the blood glucose level reached to a maximum level at 30 min and almost returned to...

  15. Decreased serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in patients with Chuvash polycythemia: a role for HIF in glucose metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Donald A.; Abuelgasim, Khadega A.; Nouraie, Mehdi; Salomon-Andonie, Juan; Niu, Xiaomei; Miasnikova, Galina; Polyakova, Lydia A.; Sergueeva, Adelina; Okhotin, Daniel J.; Cherqaoui, Rabia; Okhotin, David; Cox, James E.; Swierczek, Sabina; Song, Jihyun; Simon, M.Celeste; Huang, Jingyu; Simcox, Judith A.; Yoon, Donghoon; Prchal, Josef T.; Gordeuk, Victor R.

    2012-01-01

    In Chuvash polycythemia, a homozygous 598C>T mutation in the von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL) leads to an R200W substitution in VHL protein, impaired degradation of α-subunits of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 and HIF-2, and augmented hypoxic responses during normoxia. Chronic hypoxia of high altitude is associated with decreased serum glucose and insulin concentrations. Other investigators reported that HIF-1 promotes cellular glucose uptake by increased expression of GLUT1 and increased glycolysis by increased expression of enzymes such as PDK. On the other hand, inactivation of Vhl in murine liver leads to hypoglycemia associated with a HIF-2-related decrease in the expression of the gluconeogenic enzymes genes Pepck, G6pc, and Glut2. We therefore hypothesized that glucose concentrations are decreased in individuals with Chuvash polycythemia. We found that 88 Chuvash VHLR200W homozygotes had lower random glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels than 52 Chuvash subjects with wildtype VHL alleles. Serum metabolomics revealed higher glycerol and citrate levels in the VHLR200W homozygotes. We expanded these observations in VHLR200W homozygote mice and found that they had lower fasting glucose values and lower glucose excursions than wild-type control mice but no change in fasting insulin concentrations. Hepatic expression of Glut2 and G6pc but not Pdk2 was decreased and skeletal muscle expression of Glut1, Pdk1 and Pdk4 was increased. These results suggest that both decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased skeletal uptake and glycolysis contribute to the decreased glucose concentrations. Further study is needed to determine whether pharmacologically manipulating HIF expression might be beneficial for treatment of diabetic patients. PMID:23015148

  16. Lack of effect of dietary fiber on serum lipids, glucose, and insulin in healthy young men fed high starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, I H; Albrink, M J

    1982-07-01

    Eight healthy young men were fed a 72% carbohydrate high starch diet either high or low in dietary fiber for 4 days in a double cross-over design. Both groups showed a slight transient increase in plasma triglyceride level and a decrease in total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. There were few differences in glucose and insulin levels after glucose and meal tolerance tests after each diet. Fasting triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were inversely related at base-line; insulin response to oral glucose was inversely related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at the end of the study. We conclude that a high carbohydrate high starch diet, whether high or low in fiber, caused little increase in triglycerides, with little difference between the high and low fiber diets. Dietary fiber did not influence the fall in plasma cholesterol or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations over and above that seen after the low fiber diet.

  17. Genistein improves spatial learning and memory in male rats with elevated glucose level during memory consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Kohara, Yumi; Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Kuwahara, Rika; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction due to higher blood glucose level has been reported previously. Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen that we hypothesized might lead to improved memory, despite elevated blood glucose levels at the time of memory consolidation. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared the effects of orally administered GEN on the central nervous system in normal versus glucose-loaded adult male rats. A battery of behavioral assessments was carried out. In the MAZE test, which measured s...

  18. String Bean Juice Decreases Blood Glucose Level Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Harmayetty, Harmayetty; Krisnana, Ilya; Anisa, Faida

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is deficiency of insulin and caused by decreases of insulin receptor or bad quality of insulin. As a result, insulin hormone does not work effectively in blood glucose regulation. String bean juice contains thiamin and fiber may regulate blood glucose level. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of string bean juice to decrease blood glucose level of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: This study employed a quasy-experimental pre-po...

  19. Extended-release niacin/laropiprant significantly improves lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus irrespective of baseline glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bays HE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Harold E Bays,1 Eliot A Brinton,2 Joseph Triscari,3 Erluo Chen,3 Darbie Maccubbin,3 Alexandra A MacLean,3 Kendra L Gibson,3 Rae Ann Ruck,3 Amy O Johnson-Levonas,3 Edward A O’Neill,3 Yale B Mitchel3 1Louisville Metabolic & Atherosclerosis Research Center (L-MARC, Louisville, KY, USA; 2Utah Foundation for Biomedical Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3Merck & Co, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA Background: The degree of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM may alter lipid levels and may alter the efficacy of lipid-modifying agents. Objective: Evaluate the lipid-modifying efficacy of extended-release niacin/laropiprant (ERN/LRPT in subgroups of patients with T2DM with better or poorer glycemic control. Methods: Post hoc analysis of clinical trial data from patients with T2DM who were randomized 4:3 to double-blind ERN/LRPT or placebo (n=796, examining the lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT in patients with glycosylated hemoglobin or fasting plasma glucose levels above and below median baseline levels. Results: At Week 12 of treatment, ERN/LRPT significantly improved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein (a, compared with placebo, with equal efficacy in patients above or below median baseline glycemic control. Compared with placebo, over 36 weeks of treatment more patients treated with ERN/LRPT had worsening of their diabetes and required intensification of antihyperglycemic medication, irrespective of baseline glycemic control. Incidences of other adverse experiences were generally low in all treatment groups. Conclusion: The lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT are independent of the degree of baseline glycemic control in patients with T2DM (NCT00485758. Keywords: lipid-modifying agents, hyperglycemia, LDL, HDL, triglycerides

  20. Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Glucose Homeostasis, Lipid Profiles, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Kashan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemi, Zatollah; Samimi, Mansooreh; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    To our knowledge, no reports are available indicating the effects of Ramadan fasting on metabolic parameters, inflammatory factors and oxidative stress in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of Ramadan fasting on metabolic status among women with PCOS. This cross-sectional study was conducted on twenty seven PCOS patients who had fasted for a mean period of 16.5 hours a day during the 29 days of the month of Ramadan in Kashan, Iran. Fasting blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study and after 29 days of the study to quantify related variables. To identify within-group differences (before and after Ramadan), paired-samples t-tests were used. Plasma nitric oxide (NO) levels in PCOS women after Ramadan fasting were significantly higher compared to the baseline values (70.63 ± 15.78 vs. 59.94 ± 13.87 μmol/L, P = 0.003). Post-Ramadan levels of plasma glutathione (GSH) increased significantly in comparison with pre-Ramadan (974.95 ± 414.20 vs. 746.96 ± 205.93 μmol/L, P = 0.011). In addition, a trend toward a significant effect of Ramadan fasting on reducing serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations (2001.07 ± 1686.08 vs. 2962.72 ± 2845.21 ng/mL, P = 0.072) was seen. We did not observe any significant effect of Ramadan fasting on glucose hemostasis parameters, lipid profiles or total antioxidant capacity (TAC). In conclusion, Ramadan fasting in women with PCOS for 4 weeks had beneficial effects on NO and GSH levels, but did not affect glucose hemostasis parameters, lipid profiles or TAC.

  1. Effects of furfural and acetic acid on growth and lipid production from glucose and xylose by Rhodotorula glutinis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guochang; French, William Todd; Hernandez, Rafael; Alley, Earl; Paraschivescu, Maria [Dave C. Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, Mississippi State University, P.O. Box 9595, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Microbial conversion of lignocellulosic sugars to triacylglycerols (a biodiesel or renewable diesel feedstock) was investigated using the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis (ATCC 15125). In the shake flask experiments, R. glutinis was first grown in a nitrogen-rich medium utilizing an artificial acid hydrolysate of lignocellulosic biomass switchgrass as the sole carbon and energy source. Once the culture had reached the stationary phase, the cells were harvested and transferred to a fresh nitrogen-free media containing artificial acid hydrolysate sugars for lipid accumulation. Analysis of the data collected showed that the yeast were able to grow in the medium containing artificial acid hydrolysate sugars as the carbon and energy source. The net specific Growth rate(s) indicated that the presence of acetic acid and furfural in the artificial acid hydrolysate inhibited the growth of R. glutinis on glucose, but not the growth on xylose. The lipid accumulated in the cells, determined by gravimetrical method, increased from initial 4.3%-39.0% of dry cell mass weight. The major fatty acids of the accumulated lipids were palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and {gamma}-linoleic acid. These results indicate that it is feasible to convert the sugars in acid hydrolysate of lignocellulosic biomass to triacylglycerols using R. glutinis. (author)

  2. The Aqueous Extract of Gynura divaricata (L. DC. Improves Glucose and Lipid Metabolism and Ameliorates Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinnan Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia caused by impaired insulin secretion and resistance of the peripheral tissues. A major pathogenesis of T2DM is obesity-associated insulin resistance. Gynura divaricata (L. DC. (GD is a natural plant and has been reported to have numerous health-promoting effects on both animals and humans. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of GD improving glucose and lipid metabolism in an obesity animal model induced by high-fat and high-sugar diet in combination with low dose of streptozocin and an insulin-resistant HepG2 cell model induced by dexamethasone. The study showed that the water extract of GD (GD extract A could significantly reduce fasting serum glucose, reverse dyslipidemia and pancreatic damage, and regulate the body weight of mice. We also found that GD extract A had low toxicity in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, GD extract A may increase glucose consumption in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, markedly inhibit NF-κB activation, and decrease the impairment in signaling molecules of insulin pathway, such as IRS-1, AKT, and GLUT1. Overall, the results indicate that GD extract A is a promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of T2DM.

  3. Concomitant Intake of Quercetin with a Grain-Based Diet Acutely Lowers Postprandial Plasma Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Wein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment goals of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2 include glycemic control and reduction of nonglycemic risk factors, for example, dyslipidemia. Quercetin, a plant-derived polyphenol, often discussed for possible antidiabetic effects, was investigated for acute postprandial glucose- and lipid-lowering effects in healthy growing pigs. Male pigs (n = 16, body weight = BW 25–30 kg were fed flavonoid-poor grain-based meals without (GBM or with quercetin (GBMQ. In a first experiment, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, and triacylglycerols were analyzed in 8 pigs receiving 500 g of either GBM or GBMQ (10 mg/kg BW in a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected before, and up to 5 h every 30 min, as well as 6 and 8 h after the feeding. In the second experiment, 2 h after ingestions of 1000 g of either GBM or GBMQ (50 mg/kg BW animals were sacrificed; gastric content was collected and analyzed for dry matter content. Quercetin ingestion reduced postprandial glucose, NEFA, and TG concentration, but two hours after ingestion of the meal no effect on gastric emptying was observed. Our results point to inhibitory effects of quercetin on nutrient absorption, which appear not to be attributable to delayed gastric emptying.

  4. Insulin resistance and glucose levels in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, S.H.; Fazal, N.; Yasir, M.; Asif, N.; Rafi, T.

    2017-01-01

    To compare insulin resistance and glycemic indicators among subjects with euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism. Study Design: Comparative cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology and Medicine, PNS Hafeez, Islamabad, in collaboration with the Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from December 2015 to September 2016. Methodology: Subjects referred for executive screening of apparently healthy population (without any known history of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease or other chronic ailments), were included. Subjects were grouped as euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism. Results: Median (IQR) insulin resistance indices including fasting insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance in subjects with group-1 (n=176, 87%, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone: 0.5 - 3.5 mIU/L) and group-2 (n=26, 13%, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone: 3.51 - 15 mIU/L) were 7.6 (6.70) vs. 11.4 (13.72, p=0.040) and 1.77 (1.79) vs. 2.8 (3.07, p=0.071). The median differences for fasting plasma glucose were 5.0 (1.0) in group-1 vs. 5.0 (1.47) for Group-2 [p=0.618], and glycated hemoglobin was 5.60 (1.1) vs. 5.60 (1.7, p=0.824). Homeostasis Model Assessment for beta sensitivity index in paradox showed slightly higher values for group-2 [median (IQR) 86.67 (92.94)] than group-1 [111.6 (189.64, p= 0.040)]. Conclusion: Measures of insulin resistance including Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance and fasting insulin levels were significantly different between subjects with euthyroidism and having subclinical hypothyroidism. (author)

  5. Blood gas sample spiking with total parenteral nutrition, lipid emulsion, and concentrated dextrose solutions as a model for predicting sample contamination based on glucose result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Aguirre, Jose C; Smeets, Steven W; Wockenfus, Amy M; Karon, Brad S

    2018-05-01

    Evaluate the effects of blood gas sample contamination with total parenteral nutrition (TPN)/lipid emulsion and dextrose 50% (D50) solutions on blood gas and electrolyte measurement; and determine whether glucose concentration can predict blood gas sample contamination with TPN/lipid emulsion or D50. Residual lithium heparin arterial blood gas samples were spiked with TPN/lipid emulsion (0 to 15%) and D50 solutions (0 to 2.5%). Blood gas (pH, pCO2, pO2), electrolytes (Na+, K+ ionized calcium) and hemoglobin were measured with a Radiometer ABL90. Glucose concentration was measured in separated plasma by Roche Cobas c501. Chart review of neonatal blood gas results with glucose >300 mg/dL (>16.65 mmol/L) over a seven month period was performed to determine whether repeat (within 4 h) blood gas results suggested pre-analytical errors in blood gas results. Results were used to determine whether a glucose threshold could predict contamination resulting in blood gas and electrolyte results with greater than laboratory-defined allowable error. Samples spiked with 5% or more TPN/lipid emulsion solution or 1% D50 showed glucose concentration >500 mg/dL (>27.75 mmol/L) and produced blood gas (pH, pO 2 , pCO 2 ) results with greater than laboratory-defined allowable error. TPN/lipid emulsion, but not D50, produced greater than allowable error in electrolyte (Na + ,K + ,Ca ++ ,Hb) results at these concentrations. Based on chart review of 144 neonatal blood gas results with glucose >250 mg/dL received over seven months, four of ten neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients with glucose results >500 mg/dL and repeat blood gas results within 4 h had results highly suggestive of pre-analytical error. Only 3 of 36 NICU patients with glucose results 300-500 mg/dL and repeat blood gas results within 4 h had clear pre-analytical errors in blood gas results. Glucose concentration can be used as an indicator of significant blood sample contamination with either TPN/lipid

  6. An artificial pancreas provided a novel model of blood glucose level variability in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekage, Masaya; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Takezaki, Yuka; Tamura, Takahiko; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects on prognosis of blood glucose level variability have gained increasing attention, it is unclear whether blood glucose level variability itself or the manifestation of pathological conditions that worsen prognosis. Then, previous reports have not been published on variability models of perioperative blood glucose levels. The aim of this study is to establish a novel variability model of blood glucose concentration using an artificial pancreas. We maintained six healthy, male beagles. After anesthesia induction, a 20-G venous catheter was inserted in the right femoral vein and an artificial pancreas (STG-22, Nikkiso Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was connected for continuous blood glucose monitoring and glucose management. After achieving muscle relaxation, total pancreatectomy was performed. After 1 h of stabilization, automatic blood glucose control was initiated using the artificial pancreas. Blood glucose level varied for 8 h, alternating between the target blood glucose values of 170 and 70 mg/dL. Eight hours later, the experiment was concluded. Total pancreatectomy was performed for 62 ± 13 min. Blood glucose swings were achieved 9.8 ± 2.3 times. The average blood glucose level was 128.1 ± 5.1 mg/dL with an SD of 44.6 ± 3.9 mg/dL. The potassium levels after stabilization and at the end of the experiment were 3.5 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that an artificial pancreas contributed to the establishment of a novel variability model of blood glucose levels in beagles.

  7. Parsimonious model for blood glucose level monitoring in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Ma, Yan Fen; Wen, Jing Xiao; DU, Yan Fang; Li, Chun Lin; Li, Guang Wei

    2014-07-01

    To establish the parsimonious model for blood glucose monitoring in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving oral hypoglycemic agent treatment. One hundred and fifty-nine adult Chinese type 2 diabetes patients were randomized to receive rapid-acting or sustained-release gliclazide therapy for 12 weeks. Their blood glucose levels were measured at 10 time points in a 24 h period before and after treatment, and the 24 h mean blood glucose levels were measured. Contribution of blood glucose levels to the mean blood glucose level and HbA1c was assessed by multiple regression analysis. The correlation coefficients of blood glucose level measured at 10 time points to the daily MBG were 0.58-0.74 and 0.59-0.79, respectively, before and after treatment (Pblood glucose levels measured at 6 of the 10 time points could explain 95% and 97% of the changes in MBG before and after treatment. The three blood glucose levels, which were measured at fasting, 2 h after breakfast and before dinner, of the 10 time points could explain 84% and 86% of the changes in MBG before and after treatment, but could only explain 36% and 26% of the changes in HbA1c before and after treatment, and they had a poorer correlation with the HbA1c than with the 24 h MBG. The blood glucose levels measured at fasting, 2 h after breakfast and before dinner truly reflected the change 24 h blood glucose level, suggesting that they are appropriate for the self-monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetes patients receiving oral anti-diabetes therapy. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  8. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Levels Are Related with Surrogates of Disturbed Lipid Metabolism among Older Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urho M Kujala

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims/hypothesis Existing studies suggest that decreased branched-chain amino acid (BCAA catabolism and thus elevated levels in blood are associated with metabolic disturbances. Based on such information we have developed a hypothesis how BCAA degradation mechanistically connects to tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, intramyocellular lipid storage and oxidation thus allowing more efficient mitochondrial energy production from lipids as well as providing better metabolic health. We analyzed whether data from aged Finnish men are in line with our mechanistic hypothesis linking BCAA catabolism and metabolic disturbances. Methods Older Finnish men enriched with individuals having been athletes in young adulthood (n=593; mean age 72.6 ± 5.9 years responded to questionnaires, participated in a clinical examination including assessment of body composition with bioimpedance and gave fasting blood samples for various analytes as well as participated in a 2 hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Metabolomics measurements from serum included BCAAs (isoleucine, leucine and valine.Results Out of the 593 participants 59 had previously known type 2 diabetes, further 67 had screen-detected type 2 diabetes, 127 IGT and 125 IFG while 214 had normal glucose regulation. There were group differences in all of the BCAA concentrations (p≤0.005 for all BCAAs, such that those with normal glucose tolerance had the lowest and those with diabetes mellitus had the highest BCAA concentrations. All BCAA levels correlated positively with body fat percentage (r=.29 - .34, p<.0001 for all. Expected associations with high BCAA concentrations and unfavorable metabolic profile indicators from metabolomics analysis were found. Except for glucose concentrations, the associations were stronger with isoleucine and leucine than with valine. Conclusions/interpretation The findings provided further support for our hypothesis by strengthening the idea that the efficiency of BCAA catabolism

  9. Chronic Hyperinsulinaemic Hypoglycaemia in Rats Is Accompanied by Increased Body Weight, Hyperleptinaemia, and Decreased Neuronal Glucose Transporter Levels in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi F. H. Jensen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain is vulnerable to hypoglycaemia due to a continuous need of energy substrates to meet its high metabolic demands. Studies have shown that severe acute insulin-induced hypoglycaemia results in oxidative stress in the rat brain, when neuroglycopenia cannot be evaded despite increased levels of cerebral glucose transporters. Compensatory measures in the brain during chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia are less well understood. The present study investigated how the brain of nondiabetic rats copes with chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia for up to eight weeks. Brain level of different substrate transporters and redox homeostasis was evaluated. Hyperinsulinaemia for 8 weeks consistently lowered blood glucose levels by 30–50% (4–6 mM versus 7–9 mM in controls. The animals had increased food consumption, body weights, and hyperleptinaemia. During infusion, protein levels of the brain neuronal glucose transporter were decreased, whereas levels of lipid peroxidation products were unchanged. Discontinued infusion was followed by transient systemic hyperglycaemia and decreased food consumption and body weight. After 4 weeks, plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products were increased, possibly as a consequence of hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. The present data suggests that chronic moderate hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia causes increased body weight and hyperleptinaemia. This is accompanied by decreased neuronal glucose transporter levels, which may be leptin-induced.

  10. Chronic Hyperinsulinaemic Hypoglycaemia in Rats Is Accompanied by Increased Body Weight, Hyperleptinaemia, and Decreased Neuronal Glucose Transporter Levels in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Vivi F H; Mølck, Anne-Marie; Chapman, Melissa; Alifrangis, Lene; Andersen, Lene; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Bøgh, Ingrid B

    2017-01-01

    The brain is vulnerable to hypoglycaemia due to a continuous need of energy substrates to meet its high metabolic demands. Studies have shown that severe acute insulin-induced hypoglycaemia results in oxidative stress in the rat brain, when neuroglycopenia cannot be evaded despite increased levels of cerebral glucose transporters. Compensatory measures in the brain during chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia are less well understood. The present study investigated how the brain of nondiabetic rats copes with chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia for up to eight weeks. Brain level of different substrate transporters and redox homeostasis was evaluated. Hyperinsulinaemia for 8 weeks consistently lowered blood glucose levels by 30-50% (4-6 mM versus 7-9 mM in controls). The animals had increased food consumption, body weights, and hyperleptinaemia. During infusion, protein levels of the brain neuronal glucose transporter were decreased, whereas levels of lipid peroxidation products were unchanged. Discontinued infusion was followed by transient systemic hyperglycaemia and decreased food consumption and body weight. After 4 weeks, plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products were increased, possibly as a consequence of hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. The present data suggests that chronic moderate hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia causes increased body weight and hyperleptinaemia. This is accompanied by decreased neuronal glucose transporter levels, which may be leptin-induced.

  11. Incorporation of U-/sup 14/C-glucose into the lipids U-/sup 14/C and sugars of Culex pipiens fatigans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggal, Rita Nanda; Subrahmanyam, D

    1983-11-01

    The role of U-/sup 14/C-glucose as a lipogenic precursor was examined in larvae and adults of C. pipiens fatigans. The pattern of incorporation of the radiocarbon was also examined in the sugars of these insects. It was found that on feeding of larvae and adults with /sup 14/C-glucose, the phospholipid fraction of the insects was associated with more than 70 per cent of the total lipid radiolabel. However, the percentage distribution of the phospholipid label in the different phospholipid fractions of the larvae and adults was different. Among the neutral lipids, a low but significant label in cholesterol was of considerable interest. The /sup 14/C-glucose was also converted to trehalose in both larvae and adults. However, the two stages differed in the utilization of glucose and trehalose. 5 figures, 16 refs.

  12. Adiposity indicators lipid accumulation product and triglyceride-glucose index as alternate criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic obesity in adult

    OpenAIRE

    Mariya Tabassum; Md. Matiur Rahman; Miliva Mozaffor

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic obesity refers to the state of having metabolic syndrome irrespective of one’s BMI. This study was aimed to elucidate the lipid accumulation product and triglyceride-glucose index as simple and alternate criteria for the detecting metabolic obesity in adult. The study was conducted in 200 adult (age range: 19-45 years). According to lipid accumulation product and Triglyceride-glucose index, the prevalence of metabolic obesity was 54.0% and 53.5% respectively. With a cutoff value of ...

  13. The modulatory role of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone administered spinally in the regulation of blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-08-01

    Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is known as a regulator of the blood glucose homeostasis and food intake. In the present study, the possible roles of α-MSH located in the spinal cord in the regulation of the blood glucose level were investigated in d-glucose-fed and immobilization stress (IMO) mouse models. We found in the present study that intrathecal (i.t.) injection with α-MSH alone did not affect the blood glucose level. However, i.t. administration with α-MSH reduced the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed model. The plasma insulin level was increased in d-glucose-fed model and was further increased by α-MSH, whereas α-MSH did not affect plasma corticosterone level in d-glucose-fed model. In addition, i.t. administration with glucagon alone enhanced blood glucose level and, i.t. injection with glucagon also increased the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed model. In contrasted to results observed in d-glucose-fed model, i.t. treatment with α-MSH caused enhancement of the blood glucose level in IMO model. The plasma insulin level was increased in IMO model. The increased plasma insulin level by IMO was reduced by i.t. treatment with α-MSH, whereas i.t. pretreatment with α-MSH did not affect plasma corticosterone level in IMO model. Taken together, although spinally located α-MSH itself does not alter the blood glucose level, our results suggest that the activation of α-MSH system located in the spinal cord play important modulatory roles for the reduction of the blood glucose level in d-glucose fed model whereas α-MSH is responsible for the up-regulation of the blood glucose level in IMO model. The enhancement of insulin release may be responsible for modulatory action of α-MSH in down-regulation of the blood glucose in d-glucose fed model whereas reduction of insulin release may be responsible for modulatory action of α-MSH in up-regulation of the blood glucose in IMO model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of milk and milk constituents on postprandial lipid and glucose metabolism in overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meijl, Leonie E C; Mensink, Ronald P

    2013-08-28

    Studies have suggested that two major milk constituents, casein and Ca, favourably affect postprandial responses. However, effects of milk on postprandial metabolism are unknown. We therefore investigated effects of using milk with a fat-containing meal on lipid and glucose responses in overweight men. To identify the constituent responsible for possible effects, we also studied responses to Ca and protein. A total of sixteen men (BMI .27 kg/m2) participated in four postprandial tests. They consumed a breakfast (44 g of fat) plus a drink: a control drink, low-fat milk or a protein and Ca drink (500 ml). Blood samples were taken before the meals and at regular time points during 6 h thereafter. Compared with control, the incremental AUC (iAUC) for serum TAG was increased by 44% after the protein meal (P¼0·015). Although the iAUC were not different (P¼0·051), peak glucose concentrations were reduced by 24% after protein intake, as compared with control (P¼0·021). The decrease of 18% after milk intake did not reach statistical significance. Compared with the milk meal, the iAUC for insulin was 52% lower after the control meal (P¼0·035) and 51% after the protein meal (P¼0·005). The present results indicate that the intake of milk with a fat-containing meal enhances postprandial TAG and insulin responses and may blunt glucose increases. The protein fraction of milk seems to be the main determinant for the effects on TAG and glucose. Ca did not change any of the postprandial responses.

  15. Relationship of adiponectin level with lipid profile in type-2 diabetic men with coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, S.; Jan, M.R.; Shah, J.; Khan, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebro-vascular disease is a commonest long term complication of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The study was done to determine concentration of serum adiponectin and lipid profile in type-2 diabetic men with coronary heart disease (CHD) in the region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), and to find possible relationship between them. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study comprising of randomly selected thirty six healthy adult males and thirty six type-2 diabetic males with coronary heart disease. Their fasting blood samples were analysed for serum adiponectin, fasting blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and lipid profile which included total cholesterol (T-C), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The relationship of adiponectin with other variables in type-2 diabetic men with coronary heart disease was determined with Pearson correlations coefficient (r). Results: Type-2 diabetic males with coronary heart disease when compared to healthy males showed significantly low levels of serum adiponectin (p=<0.001) and HDL-C (p=<0.001) and significantly high level of FBG (p=<0.001), HbA1c (p=<0.001), TC (p=<0.05), TG (p=<0.05) and LDL-C (p=<0.05). Serum adiponectin level showed a significant negative correlation with FBG (r = -0.332; p= 0.04), HbA1c (r = -0.818; p=<0.01) and TG (r = -0.640; p=<0.01) in type-2 diabetic men with coronary heart disease. Adiponectin showed a significant positive association with HDL-C in controls (r = 0.948; p=<0.01) and patients of type-2 diabetes with CHD (r = 0.650; p=<0.01). Conclusion: Serum adiponectin concentration is markedly decreased in patients of type-2 diabetes with coronary heart disease. Hypoadiponectinemia is related with deranged lipid profile, i.e., high TG and low HDL-C levels in type-2 diabetic men with CHD. Moreover, adiponectin is associated positively with HDL-C and negatively with HbA1c and TG levels in the studied population. (author)

  16. Effect of tofacitinib on lipid levels and lipid-related parameters in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Robert; Armstrong, Ehrin J; Hansen, Peter R; Thiers, Bruce; Lan, Shuping; Tallman, Anna M; Kaur, Mandeep; Tatulych, Svitlana

    Psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory disease associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk and altered lipid metabolism. Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of tofacitinib on traditional and nontraditional lipid parameters and CV risk markers in patients with psoriasis from a phase III study, OPT Pivotal 1. Patients with psoriasis were randomized to tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily (BID) or placebo BID. Serum samples were collected at baseline, week 4, and week 16. Analyses included serum cholesterol levels, triglycerides, lipoproteins, lipid particles, lipid-related parameters/CV risk markers, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function analyses. At week 16, small concurrent increases in mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were observed with tofacitinib; total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio did not change. There was no significant change in the number of small dense LDL particles, which are considered to be more atherogenic than large particles, and oxidized LDL did not increase. Paraoxonase 1 activity, linked to HDL antioxidant capacity, increased, and HDL-associated serum amyloid A, which reduces the anti-atherogenic potential of HDL, decreased. HDL capacity to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages did not change. Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity, which is associated with reverse cholesterol transport, increased. Markers of systemic inflammation, serum amyloid A and C-reactive protein, decreased with tofacitinib. While small increases in lipid levels are observed with tofacitinib treatment in patients with psoriasis, effects on selected lipid-related parameters and other circulating CV risk biomarkers are not suggestive of an increased CV risk [NCT01276639]. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of vitamins a and or E as antioxidants against serum glucose, liver glycogen and lipid discrepancy induced by gamma radiation during the estrus cycle of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Safi, H.M.; Hussein, A.H.; El-Sayed, N.M.

    1999-01-01

    This work is directed to study the role of vitamins A and E treatment solely. or in combination against gamma-radiation effects during pro-estrus stage stage on serum glucose, liver content of glycogen, total and lipid fractions (triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-and LDL- cholesterol) in serum measured during the estrus stage of the rat estrus cycle. Animals were divided into six groups: untreated control, injected with sesame oil as a vehicle for vitamins injection (i.p.) whole body gamma-irradiated (6 GY), injected with vitamin A Two hours before irradiation, irradiated then injected after one hour with vitamin E, and injected with vitamins A and E pre- and post irradiation. The results demonstrated that irradiation induced significant elevations in the levels of all the measured parameters except in HDL-cholesterol. BOth vitamins ameliorated the recorded elevations during the estrus stage. The combined treatment with vitamins A and E reflected a potent harmony between protective roles of these two antioxidants pre- and post irradiation respectively, that normalized the levels of the measured parameters. The authors suggest that vitamins A and E treatment could enhance and reinforce the natural endogenous defences (steroids, particulary E 2 ) in the body against gamma irradiation and/or other environmental pollutants causing lipid peroxidation, especially during the period of ovulation. Moreover, it is worthy to consider this treatment as a hypolipidemic agent for patients with obesity, atherosclerosis and coronary artery diseases

  18. Targeting Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism to Improve Glucose Metabolism in Cardiometabolic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan W.E. Jocken

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease prevalence on the rise, there is a growing need for improved strategies to prevent or treat obesity and insulin resistance, both of which are major risk factors for these chronic diseases. Impairments in adipose tissue lipid metabolism seem to play a critical role in these disorders. In the classical picture of intracellular lipid breakdown, cytosolic lipolysis was proposed as the sole mechanism for triacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipocytes. Recent evidence suggests involvement of several hormones, membrane receptors, and intracellular signalling cascades, which has added complexity to the regulation of cytosolic lipolysis. Interestingly, a specific form of autophagy, called lipophagy, has been implicated as alternative lipolytic pathway. Defective regulation of cytosolic lipolysis and lipophagy might have substantial effects on lipid metabolism, thereby contributing to adipose tissue dysfunction, insulin resistance, and related cardiometabolic (cMet diseases. This review will discuss recent advances in our understanding of classical lipolysis and lipophagy in adipocyte lipid metabolism under normal and pathological conditions. Furthermore, the question of whether modulation of adipocyte lipolysis and lipophagy might be a potential therapeutic target to combat cMet disorders will be addressed.

  19. Does Ramadan fasting alter body weight and blood lipids and fasting blood glucose in a healthy population? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul, Seval; Savaş, Esen; Öztürk, Zeynel Abidin; Karadağ, Gülendam

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of self-controlled cohort studies comparing body weights, blood levels of lipids and fasting blood glucose levels before and after Ramadan taking into account gender differences. Several databases were searched up to June 2012 for studies showing an effect of Ramadan fasting in healthy subjects, yielding 30 articles. The primary finding of this meta-analysis was that after Ramadan fasting, low-density lipoprotein (SMD = -1.67, 95 % CI = -2.48 to -0.86) and fasting blood glucose levels (SMD = -1.10, 95 % CI = -1.62 to -0.58) were decreased in both sex groups and also in the entire group compared to levels prior to Ramadan. In addition, in the female subgroup, body weight (SMD = -0.04, 95 % CI = -0.20, 0.12), total cholesterol (SMD = 0.05, 95 % CI = -0.51 to 0.60), and triglyceride levels (SMD = 0.03, 95 % CI = -0.31, 0.36) remained unchanged, while HDL levels (SMD = 0.86, 95 % CI = 0.11 to 1.61, p = 0.03) were increased. In males, Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss (SMD = -0.24, 95 % CI = -0.36, -0.12, p = 0.001). Also, a substantial reduction in total cholesterol (SMD = -0.44, 95 % CI = -0.77 to -0.11) and LDL levels (SMD = -2.22, 95 % CI = -3.47 to -0.96) and a small decrease in triglyceride levels (SMD = -0.35, 95 % CI = -0.67 to -0.02) were observed in males. In conclusion, by looking at this data, it is evident that Ramadan fasting can effectively change body weight and some biochemical parameters in healthy subjects especially in males compared to pre-Ramadan period.

  20. A meal replacement regimen improves blood glucose levels in prediabetic healthy individuals with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Daniel; Kookhan, Sadaf; Schaffner, Denise; Deibert, Peter; Berg, Aloys

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 6-wk intervention with either lifestyle intervention (increased physical activity and a low-calorie diet) or a meal replacement regimen on glycemic control in patients who are prediabetic and have impaired fasting glucose. Forty-two overweight or obese men and women (age 54 ± 8 y; weight 95.1 ± 11.9 kg; body mass index [BMI] 32.8 ± 2.89 kg/m(2)) were included in this randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients in the lifestyle group (LS; n = 14) received dietary counseling sessions (fat-restricted low-calorie diet) and instructions on how to increase physical activity. Patients in the meal replacement group (MR; n = 28) were instructed to replace two daily meals with a low-calorie, high soy-protein drink with a low glycemic index. Both interventions resulted in a significant decrease in body weight and BMI, although the reduction was more pronounced (P meal replacement is an effective intervention for rapid improvement of elevated fasting glucose and increased insulin concentrations, these being important biomarkers of the prediabetic state. The 6-wk intervention has shown that the effect of meal replacement on fasting blood glucose was comparable to the effect of lifestyle intervention. The alterations in BMI, insulin, and HOMA-IR were significantly more pronounced following the meal replacement regimen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effects of Blood Glucose Levels on Cognitive Performance: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss the research literature on the effects of blood glucose levels on executive and non-executive functions in humans. The review begins with a brief description of blood glucose, how it has been studied, previous syntheses of prior studies, and basic results regarding the role of blood glucose on cognitive functioning. The following sections describe work that investigated the effect of blood glucose on both non-executive and executive functions (e.g., sensory processing, psychomotor functioning, attention, vigilance, memory, language and communication, judgement and decision-making, and complex task performance). Within each section, summaries of the findings and challenges to the literature are included. Measurement conversions of blood glucose levels, blood glucose values, and associated symptoms are depicted. References to the types of tests used to investigate blood glucose and cognitive performance are provided. For more detailed descriptions of references within (and in addition to) this paper, an annotated bibliography is also provided. Several moderator variables including individual differences and contextual variables related to the effects of blood glucose levels on performance (e.g., age, gender, time of day, familiarity with the task and symptom awareness, expectancy effects, dose dependent effects, time dependent effects, task specific effects, rising and falling blood glucose levels, and speed and/or accuracy trade-offs) are addressed later in the paper. Some suggestions for future experimental methodologies are also made.

  2. Serum galectin-1 levels are positively correlated with body fat and negatively with fasting glucose in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Sezer; Paketçi, Ahu; Küme, Tuncay; Tuhan, Hale; Gürsoy Çalan, Özlem; Demir, Korcan; Böber, Ece; Abacı, Ayhan

    2017-09-01

    Galectin-1, a recently identified peptide, is primarily released from the adipose tissue. Although galectin-1 was shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect, its specific function is not clearly understood. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of serum galectin-1 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters in childhood obesity. A total of 45 obese children (mean age: 12.1±3.1years) and 35 normal-weight children (mean age: 11.8±2.2years) were enrolled. Clinical [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), percentage of body fat and blood pressure] and biochemical [glucose, insulin, lipids, galectin-1, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and leptin levels] parameters were assessed. Serum galectin-1, hsCRP and leptin levels were significantly higher in obese children than those in normal-weight children (12.4 vs 10.2ng/mL, pobese children, galectin-1 levels correlated negatively with fasting glucose (r=-0.346, p=0.020) and positively with fat mass (r=0.326, p=0.026) and WC standard deviation score (SDS) (r=0.451, p=0.002). The multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that serum galectin-1 levels were significantly associated with fasting glucose and WC SDS. This study showed that obese children had significantly higher galectin-1 levels in proportion to fat mass in obese cases than those in healthy children, which may be interpreted as a compensatory increase in an attempt to improve glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of dietary lipid levels on body compositions, digestive ability and antioxidant parameters of common carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinhui; Fan, Ze; Chen, Chunxiu; Li, Jinghui; Cheng, Zhenyan; Li, Yang; Qiao, Xiuting

    2017-11-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of dietary lipid level on body composition, and digestive ability of common carp with initial average weight (36.12 ± 1.18)g. Five experimental diets with increasing lipid levels of 2.1%, 4.0%, 5.8%, 7.6%, 9.4% were fed to triplicate groups of fish for 9 weeks. The results showed that lipid content of whole body and muscle increased in parallel with the increase of dietary lipid levels. Protein content of muscle decreased with the increase of dietary lipid levels, and the lowest muscle protein content was observed in fish fed 9.4% lipid diet. Lipaseactivity was significantly affected by dietary lipid levels in hepatopancreas andintestine (P fish fed at 5.8% lipid level group was significantly higher than others inhepatopancreas (P 0.05). The results suggested that the most excellentdigestive ability and antioxidant parameters were obtained at 7.6% lipid level group.

  4. Serum Lipid Levels in Patients with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Fukusima, Mitsuo; Taniguchi, Ataru; Teramukai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate some risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in feeding and eating disorders, the degree of lipid abnormalities was investigated in a large Japanese cohort of different groups of feeding and eating disorders, according to the Japan Atherosclerosis Society Guidelines for the Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases 2012 (JAS Guidelines 2012). Methods Participants in the current study included 732 women divided into four groups of feeding and eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, restricting type (AN-R); anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; bulimia nervosa (BN); and binge-eating disorder (BED). We measured the serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride in these participants. Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol levels were also calculated. Results The concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were widely distributed in all groups. When the LDL cholesterol risk was defined as ≥120 mg/dL and the non-HDL cholesterol risk as ≥150 mg/dL, according to the JAS Guidelines 2012, the proportion of LDL cholesterol risk ranged from 29.6% (BN) to 38.6% (AN-R), and the proportion of non-HDL cholesterol risk ranged from 17.8% (BN) to 30.1% (BED). Conclusion The present findings suggest the existence of LDL cholesterol risk and non-HDL cholesterol risk in all groups of eating disorders. Given the chronicity of this condition, the development of elevated concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol at an early age may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Effect of intrapleural oxytocin injection on blood glucose level in rat (rattus norvegicous).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezhkam, Y; Dezhkam, N

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Oxytocin on energy metabolism is still question. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exogenous oxytocin injection in different dose and timetable on blood glucose level in rat. In this study 16 adult female rats were divided into 2 groups (Treatment 1(T1) and Treatment 2(T2)). T1 with 8 adult female rats received 0.2 IU/Kg oxytocin via intrapleural (IP) and blood glucose level was tested at 0th, 20th, 40th and 60th min after injection by collecting the blood from jugular vein. In T2 eight female rats received 0.4 IU/kg oxytocin via IP taking blood glucose measure at the same minutes as T1. The experiment tested in three replicates. Blood glucose meter (Model: 3TMSO1G) was used with glucose smart blood glucose monitoring system to the measurement of blood glucose level in rats. Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS (SAS, version 9) PDIFF was used to compare least square means among treatments adjusting by tukey test. There were hypoglycemic tendency in the changes of the blood glucose level in both T1 and T2, 20th min after injection (88.79 ± 3.28, 68.58 ± 3.63, respectively), while in the remaining subjects (4th and 60th min) blood glucose level increased (115.54 ± 4, 79.7 ± 2.09 and 136.33 ± 5.8, 123.54 ± 0.9, respectively). These results showed that blood glucose level in T1 significantly higher than T2 (p blood glucose level very fast.

  6. Investigation of the effect of glucose syrup and brown sugar as low-cost substrate for lipid production by Mortierella alpine CBS 754.68

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saed Montazeri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arachidonic acid is an important essential fatty acid in human nutrition. The filamentous fungus Mortierella alpina has been identified as a promising producer of arachidonic acid. Mortierella alpine can accumulate up to 40% (w/w lipid, of which up to 40% can be arachidonic acid. Materials and methods: Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68 was cultivated in low cost substrate such as glucose syrup, brown sugar and starch for lipid and arachidonic acid production. The reduced sugar, total lipids and content of ARA were determined by dinitrosalicylic acid method, soxhlet and Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS respectively. Results: The carbon sources were applied at 70 g/l and nitrogen source (soybean powder at 10 g/lit. The results showed that lipid in dry biomass in glucose syrup, starch and brown sugar media were obtained 32, 25 and 13 % w/w respectively. The arachidonic acid contents of lipid in the glucose syrup, starch and brown sugar media were 41, 33 and 31 % w/w respectively. Discussion and conclusion: Lipid fatty acid compositions are affected by the growth of microorganism. Cell membrane fatty acids such as stearic acid and oleic acid increased substantially concomitant with increases in the amount of biomass. Biomass and oil production efficiency fell due to inappropriate brown sugar medium.

  7. The relation among steroid hormone levels, lipid profile and menopausal symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Cihan; Cengiz, Hüseyin; Yeşil, Ali; Ekin, Murat; Yaşar, Levent

    2017-12-01

    Many postmenopausal women experience hot flashes, night sweats, non-specific emotional and psychological distresses. Our aim was to investigate the relation among steroid hormone levels, lipid profile and menopausal symptom severity using the menopause rating scale (MRS). A cross-sectional study was performed at our outpatient clinic with natural postmenopausal women. A total of 444 women were included in this study. The basic characteristics of the study population, such as age, gravidity, parity, time to menopause onset and body mass index (BMI) were recorded. Venous blood samples were collected from subjects after overnight fasting. The levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), fasting plasma glucose, C-reactive protein, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, estradiol (E2), progesterone, testosterone and dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate (DHEA-S) were analyzed. The MRS questionnaire validated for the Turkish population was used to assess the menopausal symptoms. There was a statistically significant difference between mild and severe total symptom scores for TG, and elevated TG levels were observed in the severe group (p = 0.04). Elevated testosterone levels were observed with severe psychological symptom and total symptom scores. There were significant differences in progesterone level in psychological, urogenital, and total scores and lower levels were seen in severe symptom groups. There was a significant negative correlation between urogenital symptom scores and progesterone levels (p symptom and total menopausal symptom scores. A decrease in progesterone levels was related to high psychological, urogenital and total menopausal symptom scores. Elevated TG levels were also related to the total severe symptom scores.

  8. Dietary exposure to shiitake mushroom confers reductions in serum glucose, lipids, leptin and antioxidant capacity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we showed that dietary intake of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) decreased serum levels of polar lipids in rats. This study evaluated the effects of lifelong consumption of shiitake on body composition and serum cholesterol-related- and anti-oxidant indices in rats. Rat dams and th...

  9. Effect of physical training on glucose transporter protein and mRNA levels in rat adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Andersen, P H; Vinten, J

    1993-01-01

    Physical training increases insulin-stimulated glucose transport and the number of glucose transporters in adipocytes measured by cytochalasin B binding. In the present study we used immunoblotting to measure the abundance of two glucose transporters (GLUT-4, GLUT-1) in white adipocytes from....../or intrinsic activity). GLUT-1 protein and mRNA levels/adipocyte volume did not change with age or training....

  10. Effect of skim milk and dahi (yogurt) on blood glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in rats fed with high fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Hariom; Jain, Shalini; Sinha, P R

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of skim milk and the fermented milk product named dahi (yogurt) on plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid levels as well as on liver glycogen and lipid contents in rats fed with high fructose diet has been investigated. Rats were fed with high fructose diet (21%) supplemented with skim milk, dahi (10 g/day each), or no milk product (control group) for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of high fructose diet administration, the plasma glucose became significantly higher in control animals (246 mg/dL), whereas it was lower in skim milk (178 mg/dL)- and dahi (143 mg/dL)-fed rats. The glucose tolerance became impaired at the third week of feeding of high fructose diet in control animals, whereas in skim milk- and dahi-fed animals achievement of glucose intolerance was delayed until the fourth and fifth week, respectively. Blood glycosylated hemoglobin and plasma insulin were significantly lower in skim milk (10% and 34%, respectively)- and dahi (17%, and 48%, respectively)-fed animals than those of the control group. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and very-low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and blood free fatty acids were significantly lower in skim milk (13%, 14%, 14%, 19%, and 14%, respectively)- and dahi (22%, 33%, 30%, 33%, and 29%, respectively)-fed animals as compared with control animals. Moreover, the total cholesterol, triglyceride, and glycogen contents in liver tissues were also lower in skim milk (55%, 50%, and 36%, respectively)- and dahi (64%, 27%, and 4%, respectively)-fed animals as compared with control animals. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in plasma was higher in skim milk (14%)- and dahi (29%)-fed animals as compared with control animals. These results indicate that skim milk and its fermented milk product, dahi, delay the progression of fructose-induced diabetes and dyslipidemia in rats and that these may be useful as antidiabetic food supplements that can be

  11. The modulatory role of spinally located histamine receptors in the regulation of the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-02-01

    The possible roles of spinal histamine receptors in the regulation of the blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were intrathecally (i.t.) treated with histamine 1 (H1) receptor agonist (2-pyridylethylamine) or antagonist (cetirizine), histamine 2 (H2) receptor agonist (dimaprit) or antagonist (ranitidine), histamine 3 (H3) receptor agonist (α-methylhistamine) or antagonist (carcinine) and histamine 4 (H4) receptor agonist (VUF 8430) or antagonist (JNJ 7777120), and the blood glucose level was measured at 30, 60 and 120 min after i.t. administration. The i.t. injection with α-methylhistamine, but not carcinine slightly caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. In addition, histamine H1, H2, and H4 receptor agonists and antagonists did not affect the blood glucose level. In D-glucose-fed model, i.t. pretreatment with cetirizine enhanced the blood glucose level, whereas 2-pyridylethylamine did not affect. The i.t. pretreatment with dimaprit, but not ranitidine, enhanced the blood glucose level in D-glucose-fed model. In addition, α-methylhistamine, but not carcinine, slightly but significantly enhanced the blood glucose level D-glucose-fed model. Finally, i.t. pretreatment with JNJ 7777120, but not VUF 8430, slightly but significantly increased the blood glucose level. Although histamine receptors themselves located at the spinal cord do not exert any effect on the regulation of the blood glucose level, our results suggest that the activation of spinal histamine H2 receptors and the blockade of spinal histamine H1 or H3 receptors may play modulatory roles for up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively, of the blood glucose level in D-glucose fed model.

  12. Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Rhus coriaria seed on glucose and insulin related biomarkers, lipid profile, and hepatic enzymes in nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced type II diabetic male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Heidari, Hamid; Junghani, Majid Salehizade; Absari, Reza; Khoogar, Mehdi; Ghaedi, Ehsan

    2017-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes often leads to dislipidemia and abnormal activity of hepatic enzymes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties of Rhus coriaria ( R. coriaria ) seed extrac on nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic mice. In this experimental study, 56 male Naval Medical Research Institute mice (30-35 g) were randomly separated into seven groups: control, diabetic group, diabetic mice treated with glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg, as standard antidiabetic drug) or R. coriaria seed extract in doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg, and control groups received these two doses of extract orally for 28 days. Induction of diabetes was done by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide and streptozotocin. Ultimately, body weight of mice, blood levels of glucose, insulin, hepatic enzymes, leptin, and lipid profile were assayed. After induction of type 2 diabetes, level of glucose, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase increased and level of insulin and high density lipoprotein decreased remarkably. Administration of both doses of extract decreased level of glucose and cholesterol significantly in diabetic mice. LDL level decreased in treated group with dose of 300 mg/kg of the extract. Although usage of the extract improved level of other lipid profiles, insulin and hepatic enzymes, changes weren't significant. This study showed R. coriaria seeds administration has a favorable effect in controlling some blood parameters in type 2 diabetes. Therefore it may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes.

  13. Is the formula of Traub still up to date in antemortem blood glucose level estimation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiere, Cristian; Sporkert, Frank; Vaucher, Paul; Werner, Dominique; Bardy, Daniel; Rey, François; Lardi, Christelle; Brunel, Christophe; Augsburger, Marc; Mangin, Patrice

    2012-05-01

    According to the hypothesis of Traub, also known as the 'formula of Traub', postmortem values of glucose and lactate found in the cerebrospinal fluid or vitreous humor are considered indicators of antemortem blood glucose levels. However, because the lactate concentration increases in the vitreous and cerebrospinal fluid after death, some authors postulated that using the sum value to estimate antemortem blood glucose levels could lead to an overestimation of the cases of glucose metabolic disorders with fatal outcomes, such as diabetic ketoacidosis. The aim of our study, performed on 470 consecutive forensic cases, was to ascertain the advantages of the sum value to estimate antemortem blood glucose concentrations and, consequently, to rule out fatal diabetic ketoacidosis as the cause of death. Other biochemical parameters, such as blood 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, acetone, glycated haemoglobin and urine glucose levels, were also determined. In addition, postmortem native CT scan, autopsy, histology, neuropathology and toxicology were performed to confirm diabetic ketoacidosis as the cause of death. According to our results, the sum value does not add any further information for the estimation of antemortem blood glucose concentration. The vitreous glucose concentration appears to be the most reliable marker to estimate antemortem hyperglycaemia and, along with the determination of other biochemical markers (such as blood acetone and 3-beta-hydroxybutyrate, urine glucose and glycated haemoglobin), to confirm diabetic ketoacidosis as the cause of death.

  14. Effects of Satureja khuzestanica on Serum Glucose, Lipids and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Vosough-Ghanbari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Satureja khuzestanica is an endemic plant of Iran that is widely distributed in the Southern part of the country. It has antioxidant properties and thus it seems to be useful in diseases related to oxidative stress such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia. The present study investigates the effect of S. khuzestanica supplement in metabolic parameters of hyperlipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Twenty-one hyperlipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomized in a double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial to receive either S. khuzestanica (tablets contain 250 mg dried leaves or placebo once a day for 60 days. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and at the end of the study. Samples were analyzed for levels of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS as marker of lipid peroxidation and ferric reducing ability (total antioxidant power, TAP. Treatment of patients by S. khuzestanica for 60 days induced significant decrease in total cholesterol (P = 0.008 and LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.03 while increased HDL-cholesterol (P = 0.02 and TAP (P = 0.007 in comparison with the baseline values. S. khuzestanica did not alter blood glucose, triglyceride, creatinin and TBARS levels. In comparison with baseline values, no significant change was observed in blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, TBARS and TAP in placebo-treated group. Usage of S. khuzestanica as a supplement to drug regimen of diabetic type 2 patients with hyperlipidemia is recommended.

  15. Chromium and vanadium effects on glucose and lipid metabolism of guinea pigs and obese and diabetic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.C.

    1987-01-01

    Severe chromium deficiency in experimental animals may contribute to insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and elevated serum cholesterol concentration. Vanadium also has been reported to be a nutritionally important element for both chicks and rats, but its function and even its essentiality are still in question. Chromium absorption even from supplemented diets is poor, thus efforts were made to study the site of absorption of 51 Cr from CrCl 3 . 51 Cr was found to move very rapidly through the GI tract and appears to flow with dietary and secreted water. It was not absorbed from the stomach. In a study with guinea pigs, vanadate supplementation appeared to affect cholesterol fraction. Chromium supplementation lowered serum triacylglycerol concentrations at the end of an 18-week study. Since the previous study and others have indicated a role for chromium and vanadium in lipid carbohydrate metabolism, experiments were designed to compare effects of chromium and vanadium supplements on related parameters

  16. Effect of pertussis toxin pretreated centrally on blood glucose level induced by stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hong-Won; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Im, Hyun-Ju; Hong, Jae-Seung

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) administered centrally in a variety of stress-induced blood glucose level. Mice were exposed to stress after the pretreatment of PTX (0.05 or 0.1 µg) i.c.v. or i.t. once for 6 days. Blood glucose level was measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after stress stimulation. The blood glucose level was increased in all stress groups. The blood glucose level reached at maximum level after 30 min of stress stimulation and returned to a normal level after 2 h of stress stimulation in restraint stress, physical, and emotional stress groups. The blood glucose level induced by cold-water swimming stress was gradually increased up to 1 h and returned to the normal level. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatment with PTX, a Gi inhibitor, alone produced a hypoglycemia and almost abolished the elevation of the blood level induced by stress stimulation. The central pretreatment with PTX caused a reduction of plasma insulin level, whereas plasma corticosterone level was further up-regulated in all stress models. Our results suggest that the hyperglycemia produced by physical stress, emotional stress, restraint stress, and the cold-water swimming stress appear to be mediated by activation of centrally located PTX-sensitive G proteins. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX appears to due to the reduction of plasma insulin level. The reduction of blood glucose level by PTX was accompanied by the reduction of plasma insulin level. Plasma corticosterone level up-regulation by PTX in stress models may be due to a blood glucose homeostatic mechanism.

  17. A dual role of lipasin (betatrophin) in lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis: consensus and controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ren; Abou-Samra, Abdul B

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome includes glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia, both of which are strong risk factors for developing diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Recently, multiple groups independently studied a previously uncharacterized gene, officially named C19orf80 (human) and Gm6484 (mouse), but more commonly known as RIFL, Angptl8, betatrophin and lipasin. Both exciting and conflicting results have been obtained, and significant controversy is ongoing. Accumulating evidence ...

  18. Proteomics analysis of high lipid-producing strain Mucor circinelloides WJ11: an explanation for the mechanism of lipid accumulation at the proteomic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Zan, Xinyi; Zhao, Lina; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2016-02-11

    The oleaginous fungus, Mucor circinelloides, is attracting considerable interest as it produces oil rich in γ-linolenic acid. Nitrogen (N) deficiency is a common strategy to trigger the lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms. Although a simple pathway from N depletion in the medium to lipid accumulation has been elucidated at the enzymatic level, global changes at protein levels upon N depletion have not been investigated. In this study, we have systematically analyzed the changes at the levels of protein expression in M. circinelloides WJ11, a high lipid-producing strain (36 %, lipid/cell dry weight), during lipid accumulation. Proteomic analysis demonstrated that N depletion increased the expression of glutamine synthetase, involved in ammonia assimilation, for the supply of cellular nitrogen but decreased the metabolism of amino acids. Upon N deficiency, many proteins (e.g., fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, enolase, pyruvate kinase) involved in glycolytic pathway were up-regulated while proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (e.g., isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinyl-CoA ligase, succinate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase) were down-regulated, indicating this activity was retarded thereby leading to a greater flux of carbon into fatty acid biosynthesis. Moreover, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, transaldolase and transketolase, which participate in the pentose phosphate pathway, were up-regulated, leading to the increased production of NADPH, the reducing power for fatty acid biosynthesis. Furthermore, protein and nucleic acid metabolism were down-regulated and some proteins involved in energy metabolism, signal transduction, molecular chaperone and redox homeostasis were up-regulated upon N depletion, which may be the cellular response to the stress produced by the onset of N deficiency. N limitation increased those expressions of the proteins involved in ammonia assimilation but decreased that

  19. Relationships between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computer tomography, body composition, serum lipids, plasma glucose and cardiorespiratory functions in obese children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torigoe, Katsumi; Numata, Osamu; Sudo, Shouji; Matsunaga, Masamichi; Kyo, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Onozuka, Yutaka; Imai, Chihaya [Nagaoka Red Cross Hospital, Niigata (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Visceral abdominal fat to subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio (V/S ratio) is a predictor for cardiac disease, metabolic disease, and hypertension in obese adults. This study determined the histopathological value of V/S ratio in obese children using computed tomography (CT). The subjects were 37 boys and 26 girls with overweight by more than 20%, whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 years. Although the percentage of standard body weight (SBW), percentage of body fat (BF), and body mass index (BMI) were correlated with each other, there was no correlation between the V/S ratio and the three predictors. Thus, the V/S ratio is completely different from the other obesity predictors in children. The V/S ratio in children of 20% or more overweight of SBW was 0.28{+-}0.11. The V/S ratio of 0.4, used as an obesity predictor in adults, was not considered suitable in the case of children. Liver function, serum lipid levels, and serum glucose correlated with the percentage of SBW, BMI, and the percentage of BF, but not correlated with the V/S ratio. According to the V/S ratio, the patients were divided into the group of V/S ratio of less than 0.28 (group I, n=34) and the group of V/S ratio of 0.28 or more (group II, n=27). There was no significant difference in age, percentage of SBW, BMI, and percentage of BF. Triglyceride was significantly higher in group II than group I, but there was no significant difference in plasma glucose and other lipids, body composition, blood pressure or respiratory function. Of note, the V/S ratio of 0.4 or more was seen in only 9 of the 61 children (14.7%). These findings suggest that the V/S ratio for children is a predictor different from that in the case of adults. (N.K.).

  20. GLUCOSE AND TOTAL PROTEIN LEVEL IN LABORATORY RATS UNDER CONDITIONS OF SHORT-TERM FASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Suljević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Glucose level (UV enzymatic method and total protein level (Biuret method were measured in the blood samples of the rats exposed to short-term starvation. We found a statistically significant increase in the glucose level in experimental animals during starvation, which is also evident in males and females in the experimental group (p <0.05, while decrease in the total protein level was not statistically significant. During starvation, more significant weight loss was observed in females compared to males.Key words: glucose, total protein, serum, Rattus

  1. Effects of N-acetyl cysteine on lipid levels and on leukocyte and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Many of studies have shown that increased lipid levels play a significant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis after splenectomy. We investigated the effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on lipid parameters and leukocyte and platelet (PLT) levels following splenectomy. Materials and Methods: 32 Sprague.

  2. Correlation of body mass index Z-scores with glucose and lipid profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Nogueira-de-Almeida

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of abnormalities in plasma lipid and glucose profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents, and to assess the presence of a correlation between body mass index Z-scores and indicators of comorbidities related to both profiles. Methods: This was a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted at two outpatient clinics. The study included all 417 comers for the first visit from 2008 to 2012, aged between 7 and 18 years, with BMI above the Z-score +1. Anthropometry and blood sampling were obtained. The prevalence of dyslipidemias, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance were evaluated, together with the correlations of these variables with the increase of Z-BMI. Results: Dyslipidemia was observed in 43.4% of the boys and 66.1% of the girls, with no difference between genders. High glucose levels were detected in 6.2% of the individuals. Insulin resistance was present in 32.3% and 41.7% of the cases, with no statistical significance between boys and girls. Correlations between the Z-BMI were noted for triglycerides in the entire group and among girls; for HDL-c, only among girls; for glucose, a correlation was observed for the entire group, but not when stratified by gender. The indicators of insulin resistance were all correlated with Z-BMI, even when corrected for age. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity give origin to a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. BMI Z-scores showed a weak positive correlation with glucose and triglyceride, and negative with HDL-c. In turn, the strongest positive correlation was found with insulin resistance indicators. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de anormalidades nos perfis lipídico e glicêmico entre crianças e adolescentes com sobrepeso e obesidade e também verificar se existe correlação entre os escores-z de índice de massa corporal (z-IMC e indicadores de comorbidades ligados a esses perfis. Métodos: Estudo de corte transversal

  3. Hypoxia and oxidation levels of DNA and lipids in humans and animal experimental models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Risom, Lotte; Lundby, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this review was to evaluate the association between hypoxia and oxidative damage to DNA and lipids. Evaluation criteria encompassed specificity and validation status of the biomarkers, study design, strength of the association, dose-response relationship, biological plausibility......, analogous exposures, and effect modification by intervention. The collective interpretation indicates persuasive evidence from the studies in humans for an association between hypoxia and elevated levels of oxidative damage to DNA and lipids. The levels of oxidatively generated DNA lesions and lipid...... in subjects at high altitude. Most of the animal experimental models should be interpreted with caution because the assays for assessment of lipid peroxidation products have suboptimal validity....

  4. Defective glucose and lipid metabolism in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with lipodystrophy involve liver, muscle tissue and pancreatic beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Dela, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    .01. Disposition index (i.e. first-phase insulin response to intravenous glucose multiplied by incremental glucose disposal) was reduced by 46% (P = 0.05) in LIPO compared with the combined groups of NONLIPO and NAIVE, indicating an impaired adaptation of beta-cell function to insulin resistance in LIPO...... of glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism and beta-cell function in lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients. METHODS: [3-3H]glucose was applied during euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamps in association with indirect calorimetry in 43 normoglycaemic HIV-infected patients (18 lipodystrophic patients on HAART (LIPO......), 18 patients without lipodystrophy on HAART (NONLIPO) and seven patients who were naive to antiretroviral therapy (NAIVE) respectively). beta-cell function was evaluated by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Compared with NONLIPO and NAIVE separately, LIPO displayed markedly reduced ratio...

  5. Effects of exercise training and diet on lipid kinetics during free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in older obese humans with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Haus, Jacob M; Marchetti, Christine M

    2009-01-01

    Elevated free fatty acids (FFA) are implicated with insulin resistance at the cellular level. However, the contribution of whole body lipid kinetics to FFA-induced insulin resistance is not well understood, and the effect of exercise and diet on this metabolic defect is not known. We investigated...... the effect of 12 wk of exercise training with and without caloric restriction on FFA turnover and oxidation (FFA(ox)) during acute FFA-induced insulin resistance. Sixteen obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to either a hypocaloric (n = 8; -598 +/- 125 kcal/day, 66 +/- 1 yr, 32.......8 +/- 1.8 kg/m(2)) or a eucaloric (n = 8; 67 +/- 2 yr, 35.3 +/- 2.1 kg/m(2)) diet and aerobic exercise (1 h/day at 65% of maximal oxygen uptake) regimen. Lipid kinetics ([1-(14)C]palmitate) were assessed throughout a 7-h, 40 mU x m(-2) x min(-1) hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, during which insulin...

  6. Clinical usefulness of lipid ratios, visceral adiposity indicators, and the triglycerides and glucose index as risk markers of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tingting; Yuan, Gang; Zhang, Muxun; Zhou, Xinrong; Sun, Xingxing; Yu, Xuefeng

    2014-10-20

    To directly compare traditional lipid ratios (total cholesterol [TC]/high density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], non-HDL-C/HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]/HDL-C, and triglycerides [TG]/HDL-C), apolipoprotein B (apoB)/apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) ratio, visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid accumulation product (LAP), and the product of TG and fasting glucose (TyG) for strength and independence as risk factors for insulin resistance (IR). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 7629 Chinese adults using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009. For all lipid ratios (traditional lipid ratios and apoB/apoA-I), among both sexes, TG/HDL-C explained the most additional percentage of variation in HOMA-IR (2.9% in men, and 2.3% in women); for all variables of interest, the variability in HOMA-IR explained by VAI and TG/HDL-C were comparable; TyG had the most significant association with HOMA-IR, which explained 9.1% for men and 7.8% for women of the variability in HOMA-IR. Logistic regression analysis showed the similar patterns. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that, among both sexes, TG/HDL-C was a better discriminator of IR than apoB/apoA-I; the area under the ROC curve (AUC) for VAI (0.695 in men and 0.682 in women) was greater than that for TG/HDL-C (AUC 0.665 in men and 0.664 in women); TyG presented the greatest value of AUC (0.709 in men and 0.711 in women). The apoB/apoA-I performs no better than any of the traditional lipid ratios in correlating with IR. The TG/HDL-C, VAI and TyG are better markers for early identification of IR individuals.

  7. Glucose levels and genetic variants across transcriptional pathways: interaction effects with BMI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Povel, C.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Imholz, S.; Blaak, E.E.; Boer, J.M.A.; Dollé, M.E.T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Much of the genetic variation in glucose levels remains to be discovered. Especially, research on gene–environment interactions is scarce. Overweight is one of the main risk factors for hyperglycemia. As transcriptional regulation is important for both weight maintenance and glucose

  8. Effect of Cucurbita ficifolia and Probiotic Yogurt Consumption on Blood Glucose, Lipid Profile, and Inflammatory Marker in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Azade; Azizi-Soleiman, Fatemeh; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Control of blood sugar, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are key factors in diabetes management. Cucurbita ficifolia (pumpkin) is a vegetable which has been used traditionally as a remedy for diabetes in Iran. In addition, consumption of probiotics may have beneficial effects on people with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was an investigation of the effects of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt consumption alone or at the same time on blood glucose and serum lipids in diabetic patients. Eighty eligible participants randomly were assigned to four groups: 1 - green C. ficifolia (100 g); 2 - probiotic yogurt (150 g); 3 - C. ficifolia plus probiotic yogurt (100 g C. ficifolia plus 150 g yogurt); and 4 -control (dietary advice) for 8 weeks. Blood pressure, glycemic response, lipid profile, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured before and after the intervention. Total cholesterol (TC) decreased significantly in yogurt and yogurt plus C. ficifolia groups (within groups P = 0.010, and P consumption resulted in a decrease in triglyceride (TG) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (within groups P consumption of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt may help treatment of diabetic patients.

  9. Prevalence of plasma lipid abnormalities and its association with glucose metabolism in Spain: the di@bet.es study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F; Real, Jose T; Masana, Luis; Catalá, Miguel; Vendrell, Joan; Vázquez, José Antonio; Valdés, Sergio; Urrutia, Inés; Soriguer, Federico; Serrano-Rios, Manuel; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Pascual-Manich, Gemma; Ortega, Emilio; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Menéndez, Edelmiro; Martínez-Larrad, Maria T; López-Alba, Alfonso; Gomis, Ramón; Goday, Albert; Girbés, Juan; Gaztambide, Sonia; Franch, Josep; Delgado, Elías; Castell, Conxa; Castaño, Luis; Casamitjana, Roser; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso; Bordiú, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is a significant contributor to the elevated CVD risk observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We assessed the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its association with glucose metabolism status in a representative sample of the adult population in Spain and the percentage of subjects at guideline-recommended LDL-C goals. The di@bet.es study is a national, cross-sectional population-based survey of 5728 adults. A total of 4776 subjects were studied. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed in 56.8% of subjects; only 13.2% of subjects were treated with lipid lowering drugs. Lipid abnormalities were found in 56.8% of Spanish adults: 23.3% with high LDL-C, 21.5% high TG, 35.8% high non-HDL-C, and 17.2% low HDL-C. Most normal subjects showed an LDL-C ≤ 3.36 mmol/l. Pre-diabetics presented similar proportion when considering a goal of 3.36 mmol/l, but only 35% of them reached an LDL-C goal ≤ 2.6 mmol/l. Finally, 45.3% of diabetics had an LDL-C ≤ 2.6 mmol/l, and only 11.3% achieved an LDL-C ≤ 1.8 mmol/l. Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of dyslipidemia in the adult Spanish population, and a low use of lipid-lowering drugs. Moreover, the number of subjects achieving their corresponding LDL-C goal is small, particularly in subjects at high cardiovascular risk, such as diabetics. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Type 2 Diabetic Rats on Diet Supplemented With Chromium Malate Show Improved Glycometabolism, Glycometabolism-Related Enzyme Levels and Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiwei; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Wang, Wei; Feng, Yun; Li, Fang; Zheng, Daheng; Wu, Huiyu; Jin, Dun; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Our results showed that fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, insulin resistance index and C-peptide level in the high dose group had a significant downward trend when compared with the model group, chromium picolinate group and chromium trichloride group. The hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, Glut4, phosphor-AMPKβ1 and Akt levels in the high dose group were significantly higher than those of the model, chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride groups. Chromium malate in a high dose group can significantly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol level while decreasing the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels when compared with chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. The serum chromium content in chromium malate and chromium picolinate group is significantly higher than that of the chromium trichloride group. The results indicated that the curative effects of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism changes are better than those of chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. Chromium malate contributes to glucose uptake and transport in order to improved glycometabolism and glycometabolism-related enzymes. PMID:25942313

  11. Diet, Alcohol Consumption and Serum Lipid Levels of Elderly Men ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: Elderly subjects attending quarterly medical lectures organized by a non-governmental organization at the Federal Medical Centre, Asaba were recruited. Information on diet, alcohol consumption and hypertension were obtained and serum lipids were determined using standard cholesterol / low density ...

  12. Tear film lipid layer: A molecular level view

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cwiklik, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1858, č. 10 (2016), s. 2421-2430 ISSN 0005-2736 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-14292S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : tear film * tear film lipid layer * molecular dynamics simulations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.498, year: 2016

  13. Hyperuricemia Is a Risk Factor for the Onset of Impaired Fasting Glucose in Men with a High Plasma Glucose Level: A Community-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Teruki; Kumagi, Teru; Furukawa, Shinya; Hirooka, Masashi; Kawasaki, Keitarou; Koizumi, Mitsuhito; Todo, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Shin; Abe, Masanori; Kitai, Kohichiro; Matsuura, Bunzo; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not clear whether elevated uric acid is a risk factor for the onset of impaired fasting glucose after stratifying by baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. We conducted a community-based retrospective longitudinal cohort study to clarify the relationship between uric acid levels and the onset of impaired fasting glucose, according to baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. Methods We enrolled 6,403 persons (3,194 men and 3,209 women), each of whom was 18–80 years old and had >2 annual check-ups during 2003–2010. After excluding persons who had fasting plasma glucose levels ≥6.11 mM and/or were currently taking anti-diabetic agents, the remaining 5,924 subjects were classified into quartiles according to baseline fasting plasma glucose levels. The onset of impaired fasting glucose was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥6.11 mM during the observation period. Results In the quartile groups, 0.9%, 2.1%, 3.4%, and 20.2% of the men developed impaired fasting glucose, respectively, and 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, and 5.6% of the women developed impaired fasting glucose, respectively (P trend fasting glucose in men with highest-quartile fasting plasma glucose levels (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.003; 95% confidence interval, 1.0001–1.005, P = 0.041). Conclusions Among men with high fasting plasma glucose, hyperuricemia may be independently associated with an elevated risk of developing impaired fasting glucose. PMID:25237894

  14. Changes in hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism-related parameters in domestic pigeon (Columba livia) during incubation and chick rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, X P; Xie, P; Bu, Z; Zou, X T

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism-related parameters of adult male and female White King pigeons (Columba livia) during incubation and chick rearing. At day 4 (I4), 10 (I10) and 17 (I17) of incubation and day 1 (R1), 7 (R7), 15 (R15) and 25 (R25) of chick rearing, livers were sampled from six pigeons for each sex. Glycogen and fat contents, activities of glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, HK; 6-phosphofructokinase, 6-PFK), and genes expressions of key enzymes involved in glycolysis (pyruvate kinase, PK; glucokinase, GK), gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase cytosolic, PCK1; fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, FBP1; glucose-6-phosphatase, G6Pase), fatty acid synthesis (fatty acid synthase, FAS; acetyl-CoA carboxylase, ACC) and fatty acid β-oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, CPT1; acyl-CoA 1, ACO) were measured. In male and female pigeon livers, glycogen content and HK activity dramatically increased after I17 and after R1, respectively; expressions of FBP1 and G6Pase genes were maximized at R15; activity of 6-PFK and expressions of PK and CPT1 genes were highest at R7; fat content and expressions of FAS and ACC genes steeply increased from I10 to R1. In females, hepatic expressions of GK and PCK1 genes were greatest at R7 and I17, respectively; however, in males, both of them were maximized at R15. Hepatic expression of ACO gene was significantly enhanced at R1 compared to I17 and R7 in males, whereas it was notably up-regulated at I17 and R7 in females. Furthermore, expressions of PCK1, GK, FAS and ACC genes were in significant relation to fat content in the livers of female pigeons, while fat content in male pigeons was highly correlated with expression of PCK1, ACC, CPT1 and ACO genes. In conclusion, regulations of glucose and lipid metabolic processes were enhanced in parent pigeon livers from terminal phases of incubation to mid phase of chick rearing with sexual effects. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. The Effect of Ramadan Fasting and Weight-Lifting Training on Plasma Volume, Glucose and Lipids Profile of Male Weight-Lifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Tayebi

    Full Text Available Objective(sThe purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting and weight-lifting training on plasma volume, glucose, and lipids profile of male weight-lifter.Materials and MethodsForty male weight-lifters were recruited and divided into 4 groups (n=10 each and as the following groups: control (C, fasting (F, training (T and fasting-training (F-T. The T and F-T groups performed weight-lifting technique trainings and hypertrophy body building (3 sessions/week, 90 min/session. All subjects were asked to complete a medical examination as well as a medical questionnaire to ensure that they were not taking any medication, were free of cardiac, respiratory, renal, and metabolic diseases, and were not using steroids. Blood samples were taken at 24 hr before and 24 hr after one month of fasting and weight-lifting exercise. The plasma volume, fasting blood sugar (FBS, lipid profiles, and lipoproteins were analyzed in blood samples. ResultsBody weight and plasma volume showed significant (P< 0.05 decrease and increase in the F group (P< 0.05 respectively. Also, a significant reduction was observed in F-T group body weight (P< 0.01. A significant increase was found in FBS level of F group (P< 0.05. The lipid profiles and lipoproteins didn’t change significantly in C, F, T and the F-T groups.ConclusionThe effect of Ramadan fasting on body weight and plasma volumes may be closely related to the nutritional diet or biochemical response to fasting.

  16. The effect of different levels of dietary restriction on glucose homeostasis and metabolic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyi, Stephanie; Jackson, Jordan; Garrett, Karla; Deepa, Sathyaseelan S; Unnikrishnan, Archana

    2018-02-17

    Over the past 50 years, dietary restriction (DR) has been shown to extend the life span of a wide variety of organisms. A hallmark feature of DR is improved glucose homeostasis resulting in increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity of animals ranging from rodents to humans. In this study, we demonstrate the early effects of varying levels of DR on glucose tolerance. Within 10 days of 40% DR, glucose tolerance was significantly improved and by 120 days; 10 and 20% DR also showed enhanced glucose tolerance. All three levels of DR showed reduced adiposity, increased expression of genes involved in fat turnover, and a reduction in the expression for markers of inflammation. Studies have shown that mice fed a DR diet retained metabolic memory in terms of improved glucose tolerance even after DR is discontinued. We show that 40% DR not only has an early effect on glucose tolerance but also maintained it after DR was discontinued for 2 months. Therefore, improvement in glucose tolerance is brought about by all three levels of DR but the metabolic memory is not dose responsive.

  17. Effects of blood glucose level on FDG uptake by liver: a FDG-PET/CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kazuo, E-mail: kkubota@cpost.plala.or.j [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshige; Murata, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Yukihiro, Masashi; Ito, Kimiteru; Morooka, Miyako; Minamimoto, Ryogo [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Hori, Ai [Department of Epidemiology and International Health, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    In FDG-PET for abdominal malignancy, the liver may be assumed as an internal standard for grading abnormal FDG uptake both in early images and in delayed images. However, physiological variables of FDG uptake by the liver, especially the effects of blood glucose level, have not yet been elucidated. Methods: FDG-PET studies of 70 patients examined at 50 to 70 min after injection (60{+-}10 min: early images) and of 68 patients examined at 80 to 100 min after injection (90{+-}10 min: delayed images) were analyzed for liver FDG uptake. Patients having lesions in the liver, spleen and pancreas; patients having bulk tumor in other areas; and patients early after chemotherapy or radiotherapy were excluded; also, patients with blood glucose level over 125 mg/dl were excluded. Results: Mean standardized uptake value (SUV) of the liver, blood glucose level and sex showed no significant differences between early images and delayed images. However, liver SUV in the delayed image showed a larger variation than that in the early image and showed significant correlation to blood glucose level. The partial correlation coefficient between liver SUV and blood glucose level in the delayed image with adjustment for sex and age was 0.73 (P<.0001). Multivariate regression coefficient (95% confidence interval) of blood glucose was 0.017 (0.013-0.021). Conclusion: Blood glucose level is an important factor affecting the normal liver FDG uptake in nondiabetic patients. In the case of higher glucose level, liver FDG uptake is elevated especially in the delayed image. This may be due to the fact that the liver is the key organ responsible for glucose metabolism through gluconeogenesis and glycogen storage.

  18. Serum Growth Hormone and Glucose Levels in Acute Exercise and in the Recovery Period in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Kučukalić-Selimović

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone exerts several metabolic effects, including effects on proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Among the many metabolic activities of GH, two contradictory actions were described: acute and early insulin-like activity and chronic and late anti-insulin like activity also called diabetogenic activity. A dramatic increase in plasma concentration of GH was found during endurance exercise, but its role during exercise is not well known. According to its metabolic effects a possible role of growth hormone may be in maintenance of glucose level during exercise. The aim of this study was to analyze dynamics of changes in GH and glucose levels during acute workload and in the recovery period, in a group of well trained athletes. All the subjects exercised for 30 minutes on cycle ergometer in sitting position (work intensity 50% of VO2 max, RPM 60/min. Serum GH concentrations were measured by IRMA (immunoradiometric assays method in blood samples obtained at rest and 6-min intervals during exercise, and 15-min intervals during recovery period. Serum glucose levels were determined by standard enzymatic method glucose oxidase (GOD PAP at the same intervals. There were no correlations between serum GH and glucose levels either during exercise or in the recovery period. There were no differences between glucose levels during exercise, so we can not exclude possible role of GH in glucose concentration maintenance.

  19. Higher glucose levels associated with lower memory and reduced hippocampal microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerti, Lucia; Witte, A Veronica; Winkler, Angela; Grittner, Ulrike; Rujescu, Dan; Flöel, Agnes

    2013-11-12

    For this cross-sectional study, we aimed to elucidate whether higher glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose levels exert a negative impact on memory performance and hippocampal volume and microstructure in a cohort of healthy, older, nondiabetic individuals without dementia. In 141 individuals (72 women, mean age 63.1 years ± 6.9 SD), memory was tested using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Peripheral levels of fasting HbA1c, glucose, and insulin and 3-tesla MRI scans were acquired to assess hippocampal volume and microstructure, as indicated by gray matter barrier density. Linear regression and simple mediation models were calculated to examine associations among memory, glucose metabolism, and hippocampal parameters. Lower HbA1c and glucose levels were significantly associated with better scores in delayed recall, learning ability, and memory consolidation. In multiple regression models, HbA1c remained strongly associated with memory performance. Moreover, mediation analyses indicated that beneficial effects of lower HbA1c on memory are in part mediated by hippocampal volume and microstructure. Our results indicate that even in the absence of manifest type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance, chronically higher blood glucose levels exert a negative influence on cognition, possibly mediated by structural changes in learning-relevant brain areas. Therefore, strategies aimed at lowering glucose levels even in the normal range may beneficially influence cognition in the older population, a hypothesis to be examined in future interventional trials.

  20. Using meta-differential evolution to enhance a calculation of a continuous blood glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutny, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    We developed a new model of glucose dynamics. The model calculates blood glucose level as a function of transcapillary glucose transport. In previous studies, we validated the model with animal experiments. We used analytical method to determine model parameters. In this study, we validate the model with subjects with type 1 diabetes. In addition, we combine the analytic method with meta-differential evolution. To validate the model with human patients, we obtained a data set of type 1 diabetes study that was coordinated by Jaeb Center for Health Research. We calculated a continuous blood glucose level from continuously measured interstitial fluid glucose level. We used 6 different scenarios to ensure robust validation of the calculation. Over 96% of calculated blood glucose levels fit A+B zones of the Clarke Error Grid. No data set required any correction of model parameters during the time course of measuring. We successfully verified the possibility of calculating a continuous blood glucose level of subjects with type 1 diabetes. This study signals a successful transition of our research from an animal experiment to a human patient. Researchers can test our model with their data on-line at https://diabetes.zcu.cz. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of dietary phospholipid level in cobia (Rachycentron canadum) larvae: growth, survival, plasma lipids and enzymes of lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, J; Liu, Y J; Tian, L X; Mai, K S; Yang, H J; Ye, C X; Zhu, Y

    2008-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary phospholipid (PL) levels in cobia (Rachycentron canadum) larvae with regard to growth, survival, plasma lipids and enzymes of lipid metabolism. Fish with an average weight of 0.4 g were fed diets containing four levels of PL (0, 20, 40 and 80 g kg(-1)dry matter: purity 97%) for 42 days. Final body weight (FBW), weight gain (WG) and survival ratio were highest in the 8% PL diet group and mortality was highest in PL-free diet group. We examined the activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) in liver, lecithin-cholesterolacyltransferase (LCAT) in plasma as well as plasma lipids and lipoprotein. LCAT activity showed a decrease of more than two-fold in PL-supplemented diet groups compared with the PL-free diet group. HL activity was highest in the 8% PL diet group and the other three groups showed no difference. LPL activity was significantly higher in the PL-supplemented diet groups than in the PL-free diet group. The dietary intervention significantly increased plasma phospholipids and total cholesterol (TC) levels, and the higher free cholesterol (FC) level contributed to the TC level. However, the fish fed PL exhibited a significantly decreased plasma triglyceride (TG) level. The lipoprotein fractions were also affected significantly by the PL. The PL-supplemented diet groups had significantly higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) compared with the PL-free diet group, but showed a marked decrease in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). The results suggested that PL could modify plasma lipoprotein metabolism and lipid profile, and that the optimal dietary PL level may well exceed 80 g kg(-1) for cobia larvae according to growth and survival.

  2. Long-term exposure to abnormal glucose levels alters drug metabolism pathways and insulin sensitivity in primary human hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Matthew D.; Ballinger, Kimberly R.; Khetani, Salman R.

    2016-06-01

    Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus has been linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can progress to inflammation, fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding how chronic hyperglycemia affects primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) can facilitate the development of therapeutics for these diseases. Conversely, elucidating the effects of hypoglycemia on PHHs may provide insights into how the liver adapts to fasting, adverse diabetes drug reactions, and cancer. In contrast to declining PHH monocultures, micropatterned co-cultures (MPCCs) of PHHs and 3T3-J2 murine embryonic fibroblasts maintain insulin-sensitive glucose metabolism for several weeks. Here, we exposed MPCCs to hypo-, normo- and hyperglycemic culture media for ~3 weeks. While albumin and urea secretion were not affected by glucose level, hypoglycemic MPCCs upregulated CYP3A4 enzyme activity as compared to other glycemic states. In contrast, hyperglycemic MPCCs displayed significant hepatic lipid accumulation in the presence of insulin, while also showing decreased sensitivity to insulin-mediated inhibition of glucose output relative to a normoglycemic control. In conclusion, we show for the first time that PHHs exposed to hypo- and hyperglycemia can remain highly functional, but display increased CYP3A4 activity and selective insulin resistance, respectively. In the future, MPCCs under glycemic states can aid in novel drug discovery and mechanistic investigations.

  3. Dietary Lipid Sources Influence Fatty Acid Composition in Tissue of Large Yellow Croaker (Larmichthys crocea by Regulating Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Catabolism at the Transcriptional Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Qiu

    Full Text Available An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid sources on growth performance, fatty acid composition, rate-limiting enzyme activities and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea. Five iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic experimental diets were formulated to contain different lipid sources, such as fish oil (FO, soybean oil (SO, linseed oil (LO, rapeseed oil (RO and peanut oil (PO, respectively. Triplicate groups of 50 fish (initial weight 13.77±0.07g were stocked in 15 floating net cages (1.5m×1.5m×2.0m. Fish fed the diets containing RO and LO had lower weight gain and specific growth rates than those fed the FO, SO and PO diets. Survival, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio, hepatosomatic index, viscerasomatic index and condition factor were not significantly affected by different dietary lipid sources. Fish fed the diet containing FO had higher lipid content in whole body compared with the other groups, whereas fish fed the SO diet had the lowest muscle lipid content. Fatty acid profiles of muscle and liver reflected the fatty acid composition of the diets. Plasma glucose, triglyceride, and the enzymatic activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were significantly influenced by different dietary lipid sources, while total protein, cholesterol, superoxide dismutase or malondialdehyde in plasma were not affected by the different dietary lipid sources. Fish fed the LO diet had lower adipose triglyceride lipase and fatty acid synthase activities in liver than those fed the diets containing FO and RO, while the LO diet resulted in the highest hepatic carnitine palmitoultransferase-1 activity. Hepatic gene relative expression of adipose triglyceride lipase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 in fish fed PO diet was significantly higher than all other groups, whereas fish fed the SO and LO diets had lower relative expression levels of

  4. [PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF CHANGES OF BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH THORACOABDOMINAL INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, E P; Ponomarev, S V; Shilyaeva, Ye V; Bel'skih, Ye A; Gritsan, A I

    2016-07-01

    Background Currently, one of the causes of high morbidity and mortality is injuries. Predict the outcome of injuries - it is an important task of the treating physician. Trauma is a stress factor so to predict the outcome, you can use markers of stress, the most accessible ofwhich is blood glucose. to reveal the dynamics of the relationship between blood glucose levels and the outlook for the life ofpatients with thoracoabdominal injuries. A retrospective analysis of medical records of hospitalized patients were divided into two groups, depending on the outlook for the life of (favorable or unfavorable), and each of the groups - into two subgroups according to the presence or absence of signs of intoxication at admission. The subgroups were calculated and compared the mean blood glucose levels at different hours of hospital treatment. It was found that the average blood glucose levels at various hours of hospital stay were significantly higher in patients with poor outcome. The most noticeable was the difference in the first days of hospital treatment. Signs of intoxication was associated with lower values of glucose and a tendency to hypoglycaemia. In addition, among patients with high blood glucose ( 8 mg / dL) was observed over deaths in the first day of hospital stay. High blood glucose levels ( 8,0 mmol / L) in the first day of hospital treatment is a predictor ofpoor outcome in patients with thoracoabdominal injuries.

  5. Enteral nutrition increases interstitial brain glucose levels in poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Mario; Schiefecker, Alois J; Beer, Ronny; Gaasch, Maxime; Rhomberg, Paul; Stover, John; Pfausler, Bettina; Thomé, Claudius; Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund

    2018-03-01

    Low brain tissue glucose levels after acute brain injury are associated with poor outcome. Whether enteral nutrition (EN) reliably increases cerebral glucose levels remains unclear. In this retrospective analysis of prospectively collected observational data, we investigate the effect of EN on brain metabolism in 17 poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients undergoing cerebral microdialysis (CMD) monitoring. CMD-values were obtained hourly. A nutritional intervention was defined as the clinical routine administration of EN without supplemental parenteral nutrition. Sixty-three interventions were analyzed. The mean amount of EN per intervention was 472.4 ± 10.7 kcal. CMD-glucose levels significantly increased from 1.59 ± 0.13 mmol/l at baseline to a maximum of 2.03 ± 0.2 mmol/l after 5 h (p  40) and the microdialysis probe location. The increase in CMD-glucose was directly dependent on the magnitude of increase of serum glucose levels (p = 0.007). No change in CMD-lactate, CMD-pyruvate, CMD-LPR, or CMD-glutamate (p > 0.4) was observed. Routine EN also increased CMD-glucose even if baseline concentrations were critically low ( < 0.7 mmol/l, neuroglucopenia; p < 0.001). These results may have treatment implications regarding glucose management of poor-grade aneurysmal SAH patients.

  6. comparative study of glucose homeostasis, lipids and lipoproteins, HDL functionality, and cardiometabolic parameters in modestly severely obese African Americans and White Americans with prediabetes: implications for the metabolic paradoxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Sara J; Osei, Kwame; Gaillard, Trudy

    2015-02-01

    To determine whether modestly severe obesity modifies glucose homeostasis, levels of cardiometabolic markers, and HDL function in African Americans (AAs) and white Americans (WAs) with prediabetes. We studied 145 subjects with prediabetes (N = 61 WAs, N = 84 AAs, mean age 46.5 ± 11.2 years, mean BMI 37.8 ± 6.3 kg/m(2)). We measured fasting levels of lipids, lipoproteins, and an inflammatory marker (C-reactive protein [CRP]); HDL functionality (i.e., levels of paraoxonase 1 [PON1]); and levels of oxidized LDL, adiponectin, and interleukin-6 (IL-6). We measured serum levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide during an oral glucose tolerance test. Values for insulin sensitivity index (Si), glucose effectiveness index (Sg), glucose effectiveness at zero insulin (GEZI), and acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) were derived using a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (using MINMOD software). Mean levels of fasting and incremental serum glucose, insulin, and C-peptide tended to be higher in WAs versus AAs. The mean Si was not different in WAs versus AAs (2.6 ± 2.3 vs. 2.9 ± 3.0 × 10(-4) × min(-1) [μU/mL](-1)). Mean values for AIRg and disposition index as well as Sg and GEZI were lower in WAs than AAs. WAs had higher serum triglyceride levels than AAs (116.1 ± 55.5 vs. 82.7 ± 44.2 mg/dL, P = 0.0002). Mean levels of apolipoprotein (apo) A1, HDL cholesterol, PON1, oxidized LDL, CRP, adiponectin, and IL-6 were not significantly different in obese AAs versus WAs with prediabetes. Modestly severe obesity attenuated the ethnic differences in Si, but not in Sg and triglyceride levels in WAs and AAs with prediabetes. Despite the lower Si and PON1 values, AAs preserved paradoxical relationships between the Si and HDL/apoA1/triglyceride ratios. We conclude that modestly severe obesity has differential effects on the pathogenic mechanisms underlying glucose homeostasis and atherogenesis in obese AAs and WAs with prediabetes. © 2015 by the American

  7. Quantify Glucose Level in Freshly Diabetic's Blood by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Chen, Xiaofeng; Ma, Shihua; Wu, Xiumei; Yang, Wenxing; Zhang, Weifeng; Li, Xiao

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate the capability of terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) to quantify glucose level in ex vivo freshly diabetic's blood. By investigating the THz spectra of different human blood, we find out THz absorption coefficients reflect a high sensitivity to the glucose level in blood. With a quantitative analysis of 70 patients, we demonstrate that the THz absorption coefficients and the blood glucose levels perform a linear relationship. A comparative experiment between THz measurement and glucometers is also conducted with another 20 blood samples, and the results confirm that the relative error is as less as 15%. Our ex vivo human blood study indicates that THz technique has great potential application to diagnose blood glucose level in clinical practice.

  8. Steroid injection for shoulder pain causes prolonged increased glucose level in type 1 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povlsen, Bo; Povlsen, Sebastian D

    2014-09-08

    Shoulder pain is very common in diabetic patients and often treated with steroid injections, with subsequent increases in blood glucose levels or the need for additional insulin being questioned. We report a case of significant and prolonged elevation of blood glucose levels and resultant insulin requirement in a type 1 diabetic man after a single 40 mg injection of triamcinolone for shoulder pain. Within 48 h, the shoulder pain as assessed by a visual analogue scale (0-10) was reduced to zero, but the elevated insulin requirements continued for 4 weeks after the injection. This finding suggests that steroid injections for shoulder pain in diabetics may not always be as safe as previously thought. We propose that medical practitioners advise their patients to monitor their glucose levels more carefully after such injections and that caution is exercised when considering administrating these injections to those who have poorly controlled blood glucose levels preinjection to avoid ketoacidosis. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Effect of blood glucose level on 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Haibo; Lin Xiangtong; Guan Yihui; Zhao Jun; Zuo Chuantao; Hua Fengchun; Tang Wenying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of blood glucose level on the image quality of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT imaging. Methods: Eighty patients referred to the authors' department for routine whole-body 18 F-FDG PET/CT check up were recruited into this study. The patients were classified into 9 groups according to their blood glucose level: normal group avg and SUV max ) of liver on different slices. SPSS 12.0 was used to analyse the data. Results: (1) There were significant differences among the 9 groups in image quality scores and image noises (all P avg and SUV max : 0.60 and 0.33, P<0.05). Conclusions: The higher the blood glucose level, the worse the image quality. When the blood glucose level is more than or equal to 12.0 mmol/L, the image quality will significantly degrade. (authors)

  10. [Disorders of lipid and glucose metabolism. Long-term adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landauer, N; Goebel, F D

    2002-04-09

    In addition to readily controllable short-term side effects, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) also has long-term side effects: lipodystrophy syndrome, hyperlipoproteinemia, insulin resistance, elevated glucose tolerance sometimes leading to diabetes mellitus and lactic acidosis. The pathogenesis remains uncertain although various hypotheses have been advanced. A number of approaches for the treatment of lipodystrophy are available, the effects of which, however, have not been confirmed by study results. Hyperlipoproteinemia probably means an increased cardiovascular risk, but a final pronouncement on this is not yet possible. Fibrates and statins are currently applied for treatment, but interactions with HAART medicaments have to be considered. HAART-induced diabetes mellitus presents clinically as type 2 diabetes, and is treated accordingly.

  11. Optimal blood glucose level control using dynamic programming based on minimal Bergman model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettian Anggita Sari, Maria; Hartono

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to simulate the glucose dynamic and the insulin kinetic of diabetic patient. The model used in this research is a non-linear Minimal Bergman model. Optimal control theory is then applied to formulate the problem in order to determine the optimal dose of insulin in the treatment of diabetes mellitus such that the glucose level is in the normal range for some specific time range. The optimization problem is solved using dynamic programming. The result shows that dynamic programming is quite reliable to represent the interaction between glucose and insulin levels in diabetes mellitus patient.

  12. Prunus mume leaf extract lowers blood glucose level in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Woo; Kwon, Jung Eun; Lee, Young-Jong; Jeong, Yong Joon; Kim, Inhye; Cho, Young Mi; Kim, Yong-Min; Kang, Se Chan

    2016-10-01

    Context Diabetes is a common metabolic disease with long-term complications. Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. (Rosaceae) fruits have shown to ameliorate glucose intolerance. However, the antidiabetic effects of P. mume leaves have not been investigated. Objective This study evaluated the effects of P. mume leaf 70% ethanol extract (PMLE) on alleviating diabetes in vivo and in vitro. Materials and methods PMLE was fractionated into n-hexane, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (BuOH) and water. Polyphenol and flavonoid contents in PMLE fractions were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the aluminium chloride colorimetric method, respectively. We evaluated α-glucosidase inhibition using a microplate reader at 400 nm. Adipocyte differentiation by lipid accumulation was measured using Nile Red staining. Male imprinting control region (ICR) mice were injected with streptozotocin (STZ, 100 mg/kg, i.p.). High-fat diets were provided for three weeks prior to PMLE treatments to induce type 2 diabetes. PMLE (0, 5, 25 or 50 mg/kg) was administrated for four weeks with high-fat diets. Results The EtOAc fraction of PMLE inhibited α-glucosidase activity (IC50 = 68.2 μg/mL) and contained 883.5 ± 14.9 mg/g of polyphenols and 820.1 ± 7.7 mg/g of flavonoids. The 50 mg/kg PMLE supplement reduced 40% of blood glucose level compared to obese/diabetes mice. Obese/diabetic mice treated with 50 mg/kg PMLE showed a lower level of triacylglycerol (320.7 ± 20.73 mg/dL) compared to obese/diabetes mice (494.9 ± 14.80 mg/dL). Conclusion The data demonstrate that P. mume leaves exert antidiabetic effects that may be attributable to high concentrations of polyphenols and flavonoids.

  13. LX4211 increases serum glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY levels by reducing sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1)-mediated absorption of intestinal glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, David R; Smith, Melinda; Greer, Jennifer; Harris, Angela; Zhao, Sharon; DaCosta, Christopher; Mseeh, Faika; Shadoan, Melanie K; Sands, Arthur; Zambrowicz, Brian; Ding, Zhi-Ming

    2013-05-01

    LX4211 [(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-(4-chloro-3-(4-ethoxybenzyl)phenyl)-6-(methylthio)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol], a dual sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and SGLT2 inhibitor, is thought to decrease both renal glucose reabsorption by inhibiting SGLT2 and intestinal glucose absorption by inhibiting SGLT1. In clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), LX4211 treatment improved glycemic control while increasing circulating levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY). To better understand how LX4211 increases GLP-1 and PYY levels, we challenged SGLT1 knockout (-/-) mice, SGLT2-/- mice, and LX4211-treated mice with oral glucose. LX4211-treated mice and SGLT1-/- mice had increased levels of plasma GLP-1, plasma PYY, and intestinal glucose during the 6 hours after a glucose-containing meal, as reflected by area under the curve (AUC) values, whereas SGLT2-/- mice showed no response. LX4211-treated mice and SGLT1-/- mice also had increased GLP-1 AUC values, decreased glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) AUC values, and decreased blood glucose excursions during the 6 hours after a challenge with oral glucose alone. However, GLP-1 and GIP levels were not increased in LX4211-treated mice and were decreased in SGLT1-/- mice, 5 minutes after oral glucose, consistent with studies linking decreased intestinal SGLT1 activity with reduced GLP-1 and GIP levels 5 minutes after oral glucose. These data suggest that LX4211 reduces intestinal glucose absorption by inhibiting SGLT1, resulting in net increases in GLP-1 and PYY release and decreases in GIP release and blood glucose excursions. The ability to inhibit both intestinal SGLT1 and renal SGLT2 provides LX4211 with a novel dual mechanism of action for improving glycemic control in patients with T2DM.

  14. Genetically elevated fetuin-A levels, fasting glucose levels, and risk of type 2 diabetes: the cardiovascular health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Majken K; Bartz, Traci M; Djoussé, Luc; Kizer, Jorge R; Zieman, Susan J; Rimm, Eric B; Siscovick, David S; Psaty, Bruce M; Ix, Joachim H; Mukamal, Kenneth J

    2013-10-01

    Fetuin-A levels are associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes, but it is unknown if the association is causal. We investigated common (>5%) genetic variants in the fetuin-A gene (AHSG) fetuin-A levels, fasting glucose, and risk of type 2 diabetes. Genetic variation, fetuin-A levels, and fasting glucose were assessed in 2,893 Caucasian and 542 African American community-living individuals 65 years of age or older in 1992-1993. Common AHSG variants (rs4917 and rs2248690) were strongly associated with fetuin-A concentrations (Pfasting glucose concentrations (1.9 mg/dL [95% CI, 1.2-2.7] higher per SD in Caucasians), but Mendelian randomization analyses using both SNPs as unbiased proxies for measured fetuin-A did not support an association between genetically predicted fetuin-A levels and fasting glucose (-0.3 mg/dL [95% CI, -1.9 to 1.3] lower per SD in Caucasians). The difference between the associations of fasting glucose with actual and genetically predicted fetuin-A level was statistically significant (P=0.001). Results among the smaller sample of African Americans trended in similar directions but were statistically insignificant. Common variants in the AHSG gene are strongly associated with plasma fetuin-A concentrations, but not with risk of type 2 diabetes or glucose concentrations, raising the possibility that the association between fetuin-A and type 2 diabetes may not be causal.

  15. Insulin Induces an Increase in Cytosolic Glucose Levels in 3T3-L1 Cells with Inhibited Glycogen Synthase Activation

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    Helena H. Chowdhury

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Glucose is an important source of energy for mammalian cells and enters the cytosol via glucose transporters. It has been thought for a long time that glucose entering the cytosol is swiftly phosphorylated in most cell types; hence the levels of free glucose are very low, beyond the detection level. However, the introduction of new fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based glucose nanosensors has made it possible to measure intracellular glucose more accurately. Here, we used the fluorescent indicator protein (FLIPglu-600µ to monitor cytosolic glucose dynamics in mouse 3T3-L1 cells in which glucose utilization for glycogen synthesis was inhibited. The results show that cells exhibit a low resting cytosolic glucose concentration. However, in cells with inhibited glycogen synthase activation, insulin induced a robust increase in cytosolic free glucose. The insulin-induced increase in cytosolic glucose in these cells is due to an imbalance between the glucose transported into the cytosol and the use of glucose in the cytosol. In untreated cells with sensitive glycogen synthase activation, insulin stimulation did not result in a change in the cytosolic glucose level. This is the first report of dynamic measurements of cytosolic glucose levels in cells devoid of the glycogen synthesis pathway.

  16. Plasma lipid levels in Alzheimer's disease patients treated by Donepezil hydrochloride: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adunsky, Abraham; Chesnin, Vladimir; Ravona, Ramit; Harats, Dror; Davidson, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Donepezil hydrochloride is a central acetylcholine esterase inhibitor that is widely used in Alzheimer disease (AD). We have recently observed some differences in lipid profile between occasional cases of Donepezil hydrochloride users (DU) and non-users (DNU). This prompted us to study the levels of plasma lipids in these two groups, cross-sectionally. The medical charts of patients with probable AD were screened for current use of Donepezil hydrochloride and lipids profile, along with other clinical and demographic data. A total number of 105 patients were identified and included in the final analysis. Patients were divided into two groups (DU and DNU). Plasma levels of lipids were recorded. Mann-Whitney or t-test for continuous variables and Fisher exact test for categorical variables were used to test for significant differences between the groups. Regression analysis was applied to identify independently the factors associated with lipid levels. Thirty-three patients were DU and 72 DNU. The two groups differed in terms of age, lipid levels and cognitive level. DU had statistically significant higher levels of triglycerides compared with those not using the drug (P=0.036), higher total cholesterol (Phydrochloride. Alternatively, this may indicate that the effect of the medication may involve lipid metabolism, rather than other proposed mechanisms.

  17. Effect of levulose containing sweets on blood and salivary glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Priya; K L, Girish Babu; Gona, Harsha

    2015-06-01

    It is common that many diabetic patients crave for sweets which are normally prohibited. To satisfy their desire to have sweets, alternative sweeteners have been introduced to provide sweetness to some items of their diabetic diet. To (1) assess the effect of sweets containing levulose on glucose levels in blood and saliva, and (2) compare it with effect of sweets containing sucrose on blood and saliva levels of glucose. The study consisted of 20 healthy participants, aged 17-20 years. Two sweet preparations of 36 g each were selected for the study. One preparation was sweetened with levulose (diabetic sweet; Group I) and the other with sucrose (regular sweet; Group II). Blood sugar and salivary glucose levels were estimated before and after the consumption of diabetic and regular sweets. The mean increase in salivary glucose level was lower in Group I than in Group II. Similarly, increase in blood glucose levels in Group I was lower and highly significant. In comparison with regular sweets, consumption of levulose containing sweet resulted in significantly lower blood and salivary glucose levels.

  18. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-12-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important.A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects.The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB).We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population.

  19. Are glucose levels, glucose variability and autonomic control influenced by inspiratory muscle exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Aso; Correa, Aps; Casali, Karina Rabello; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-01-20

    Physical exercise reduces glucose levels and glucose variability in patients with type 2 diabetes. Acute inspiratory muscle exercise has been shown to reduce these parameters in a small group of patients with type 2 diabetes, but these results have yet to be confirmed in a well-designed study. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of acute inspiratory muscle exercise on glucose levels, glucose variability, and cardiovascular autonomic function in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study will use a randomized clinical trial crossover design. A total of 14 subjects will be recruited and randomly allocated to two groups to perform acute inspiratory muscle loading at 2 % of maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax, placebo load) or 60 % of PImax (experimental load). Inspiratory muscle training could be a novel exercise modality to be used to decrease glucose levels and glucose variability. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02292810 .

  20. Decreased insulin clearance in individuals with elevated 1-h post-load plasma glucose levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adelaide Marini

    Full Text Available Reduced insulin clearance has been shown to predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Recently, it has been suggested that plasma glucose concentrations ≥ 8.6 mmol/l (155 mg/dl at 1 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT can identify individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes among those who have normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high. The aim of this study was to examine whether NGT 1 h-high have a decrease in insulin clearance, as compared with NGT individuals with 1-h post-load glucose <8.6 mmol/l (l (155 mg/dl, NGT 1 h-low. To this end, 438 non-diabetic White individuals were subjected to OGTT and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin clearance and insulin sensitivity. As compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals, NGT 1 h-high had significantly higher 1-h and 2-h post-load plasma glucose and 2-h insulin levels as well as higher fasting glucose and insulin levels. NGT 1 h-high exhibited also a significant decrease in both insulin sensitivity (P<0.0001 and insulin clearance (P = 0.006 after adjusting for age, gender, adiposity measures, and insulin sensitivity. The differences in insulin clearance remained significant after adjustment for fasting glucose (P = 0.02 in addition to gender, age, and BMI. In univariate analyses adjusted for gender and age, insulin clearance was inversely correlated with body weight, body mass index, waist, fat mass, 1-h and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting, 1-h and 2-h post-load insulin levels, and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In conclusion, our data show that NGT 1 h-high have a reduction in insulin clearance as compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals; this suggests that impaired insulin clearance may contribute to sustained fasting and post-meal hyperinsulinemia.

  1. The association between socio-demographic marginalization and plasma glucose levels at diagnosis of gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, L; Dasgupta, K; Ross, N A

    2014-12-01

    We examined the association between socio-demographic marginalization and plasma glucose levels at diagnosis of gestational diabetes in a multi-ethnic and socio-economically diverse patient group. Medical charts at a Toronto gestational diabetes clinic were reviewed for women with a recorded pregnancy between 1 March 2006 and 26 April 2011. One-hour 50-g glucose challenge test values and postal code data were abstracted. Postal codes were merged with 2006 Canadian census data to compute neighbourhood-level ethnic concentration (% recent immigrants, % visible minorities) and material deprivation (% low education, % low income, single-parent households). We compared women in the highest neighbourhood quintiles for both ethnic concentration and material deprivation with all other women to explore an association between marginalization and diagnostic glucose levels. Multivariate regression models of glucose challenge test values and insulin prescription were adjusted for age, prior gestational diabetes, parity and diabetes family history. Among 531 patients with complete glucose challenge test data (mean 11.94 mmol/l, sd 1.83), those in the most marginalized neighbourhoods had 0.43 mmol/l higher glucose challenge test values (95% CI 0.08-0.78) compared with the rest of the study population. Other factors associated with higher glucose challenge test values were prior gestational diabetes (0.59 mmol/l increment, 95% CI 0.19-0.99) and diabetes family history (0.32 mmol/l increment, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.66). Each additional 1 mmol/l glucose challenge test result was associated with an increased likelihood of being prescribed insulin (odds ratio 1.33, 95% CI 1.17-1.51). Women living in the most materially deprived and ethnically concentrated neighbourhoods have higher glucose levels at diagnosis of gestational diabetes. They may need close monitoring for timely initiation of insulin. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  2. Organization of lipids in the tear film: a molecular-level view.

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    Alicja Wizert

    Full Text Available Biophysical properties of the tear film lipid layer are studied at the molecular level employing coarse grain molecular dynamics (MD simulations with a realistic model of the human tear film. In this model, polar lipids are chosen to reflect the current knowledge on the lipidome of the tear film whereas typical Meibomian-origin lipids are included in the thick non-polar lipids subphase. Simulation conditions mimic those experienced by the real human tear film during blinks. Namely, thermodynamic equilibrium simulations at different lateral compressions are performed to model varying surface pressure, and the dynamics of the system during a blink is studied by non-equilibrium MD simulations. Polar lipids separate their non-polar counterparts from water by forming a monomolecular layer whereas the non-polar molecules establish a thick outermost lipid layer. Under lateral compression, the polar layer undulates and a sorting of polar lipids occurs. Moreover, formation of three-dimensional aggregates of polar lipids in both non-polar and water subphases is observed. We suggest that these three-dimensional structures are abundant under dynamic conditions caused by the action of eye lids and that they act as reservoirs of polar lipids, thus increasing stability of the tear film.

  3. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amir; Shai, Iris; Tekes-Manova, Dorit; Israeli, Eran; Pereg, David; Shochat, Tzippora; Kochba, Ilan; Rudich, Assaf

    2005-10-06

    The normal fasting plasma glucose level was recently defined as less than 100 mg per deciliter (5.55 mmol per liter). Whether higher fasting plasma glucose levels within this range independently predict type 2 diabetes in young adults is unclear. We obtained blood measurements, data from physical examinations, and medical and lifestyle information from men in the Israel Defense Forces who were 26 to 45 years of age. A total of 208 incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurred during 74,309 person-years of follow-up (from 1992 through 2004) among 13,163 subjects who had baseline fasting plasma glucose levels of less than 100 mg per deciliter. A multivariate model, adjusted for age, family history of diabetes, body-mass index, physical-activity level, smoking status, and serum triglyceride levels, revealed a progressively increased risk of type 2 diabetes in men with fasting plasma glucose levels of 87 mg per deciliter (4.83 mmol per liter) or more, as compared with those whose levels were in the bottom quintile (less than 81 mg per deciliter [4.5 mmol per liter], P for trend <0.001). In multivariate models, men with serum triglyceride levels of 150 mg per deciliter (1.69 mmol per liter) or more, combined with fasting plasma glucose levels of 91 to 99 mg per deciliter (5.05 to 5.50 mmol per liter), had a hazard ratio of 8.23 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.6 to 19.0) for diabetes, as compared with men with a combined triglyceride level of less than 150 mg per deciliter and fasting glucose levels of less than 86 mg per deciliter (4.77 mmol per liter). The joint effect of a body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 30 or more and a fasting plasma glucose level of 91 to 99 mg per deciliter resulted in a hazard ratio of 8.29 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.8 to 17.8), as compared with a body-mass index of less than 25 and a fasting plasma glucose level of less than 86 mg per deciliter. Higher fasting plasma glucose

  4. Prevention of non-communicable disease in a population in nutrition transition: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study phase II

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    Hedayati Mehdi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS is a long term integrated community-based program for prevention of non-communicable disorders (NCD by development of a healthy lifestyle and reduction of NCD risk factors. The study begun in 1999, is ongoing, to be continued for at least 20 years. A primary survey was done to collect baseline data in 15005 individuals, over 3 years of age, selected from cohorts of three medical heath centers. A questionnaire for past medical history and data was completed during interviews; blood pressure, pulse rate, and anthropometrical measurements and a limited physical examination were performed and lipid profiles, fasting blood sugar and 2-hours-postload-glucose challenge were measured. A DNA bank was also collected. For those subjects aged over 30 years, Rose questionnaire was completed and an electrocardiogram was taken. Data collected were directly stored in computers as database software- computer assisted system. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of lifestyle modification in preventing or postponing the development of NCD risk factors and outcomes in the TLGS population. Design and methods In phase II of the TLGS, lifestyle interventions were implemented in 5630 people and 9375 individuals served as controls. Primary, secondary and tertiary interventions were designed based on specific target groups including schoolchildren, housewives, and high-risk persons. Officials of various sectors such as health, education, municipality, police, media, traders and community leaders were actively engaged as decision makers and collaborators. Interventional strategies were based on lifestyle modifications in diet, smoking and physical activity through face-to-face education, leaflets & brochures, school program alterations, training volunteers as health team and treating patients with NCD risk factors. Collection of demographic, clinical and laboratory data will be

  5. Mediterranean diet and insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and blood pressure levels, in overweight and obese people; The Attica study

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    Zampelas Antonis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to investigate if overweight and obese adults "close" to Mediterranean diet present better insulin, lipids profile and better pressure levels, compared to individuals close to a more Westernized diet. Methods The ATTICA study is a population-based cohort that has randomly enrolled 3042 adult men and women, stratified by age – gender, from the greater area of Athens, during 2001–2002. Of them, in this work were have studied 1762 participants with excess body weight, meaning overweight (BMI: 25–29.9 kg/m2 and obese (BMI>30 kg/m2. 1064 were men and 698 women (20–89 years old. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was assessed through a diet-score that was based on a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured and also fasting glucose, insulin and blood lipids. Insulin sensitivity was also assessed by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA approach (glucose × insulin/22.5. Results Individuals with excess bodyweight in the highest tertile of diet score, were more insulin sensitive than those in the lowest tertile (11.4% lower HOMA, p = 0.06, had 13% lower levels of total cholesterol (p = 0.001 and 3 mmHg decrease of systolic blood pressure levels (p Conclusion Adherence to Mediterranean diet is modeslty associated with a better insulin sensitivity, lower levels of total cholesterol and lower levels of systolic blood pressure in overweight and obese subjects. This may suggest that compared to general population, the beneficial effect of this diet in cardiovascular system of excess body weight people is limited.

  6. Analysis of relationship between blood lipid metabolism levels and hs-CRP levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Fengjian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between blood lipid metabolism levels and hs-CRP levels in the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: The levels of plasma blood lipid (with biochemistry) and serum hs-CRP(with high-sensitive immuno turbidimetry) were determined in 96 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as well as 68 normal controls. Results: The plasma blood lipid levels in 96 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were significantly lower than those in 68 controls, plasma TC and LDL-C levels were not much difference (P>0.05), plasma HDL-C level was significantly difference (P<0.05), but TG and Lp (a) levels were very prominently difference (P<0.01). And the plasma hs-CRP level was significantly increased also (P<0.01). The close relationship was between blood lipid and hs-CRP levels. Conclusion: The study of relationship between blood lipid levels and hs-CRP levels in patients with COPD was helpful for understand the disease process as well as possible mechanisms. (authors)

  7. Waist circumference as a predictor for blood glucose levels in adults

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    Shinta L Hardiman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric indexes such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, hip ciucumference (HC, and waist–hip ratio (WHR, are all useful anthropometric measurements to provide important information on blood glucose concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine different anthropometric measurements, in particular BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, in their ability to predict the blood glucose levels in men and women 40 to 60. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 44 men and 127 women aged 40 to 50 who lived in Cipete Selatan subdistrict, South Jakarta. Blood glucose levels was assessed and anthropometric measurements comprising BMI, WC, HC, WHR were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the best predictor for blood glucose levels. The study showed that the prevalence of DM type 2 was 25.7% and the prevalence was higher in men (40.9% compared to women (23.5%. The significant predictive variables in the simple regression analysis were age and waist circumference. Multiple linear regression showed that after adjustment for age, WC was positively associated with blood glucose levels. Standardized a value was 0.172 (p=0.026. WC predict blood glucose levels, beyond that explained by traditional diabetic risk factors and BMI. These findings provide support for the recommendation that WC be a routine measure for identification of diabetes mellitus type 2 in men and women aged 40 to 60 years.

  8. EFFECT OF SAPPAN WOOD (Caesalpinnia sappan L EXTRACT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN WHITE RATS

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    Saefudin Saefudin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sappan wood or kayu secang (Caesalpinia sappan L. was reported of having medicinal properties, such as natural antioxidant, relieve vomiting of blood, and mix of ingredients for malaria drugs. The research was conducted to study the influence of ethanol extract from sappan wood on blood glucose level of white rats. The study of the blood glucose level in rats was carried out by using glucose tolerance method. It was measured by Refloluxs (Accutrend GC with Chloropropamide 50 mg/200 g BW (Body weight as positive control. The ethanol extracts were used in various concentrations 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/200 g BW per-oral and was observed every hour, beginning one hour before to 7 hours after the extract being administered. The results showed that treatment of ethanol extract of sappan wood by administer doses gave remarkable effect on the blood glucose level in white rat. It reduced the glucose level in the blood compared to the negative and positive control. Treatment of dose 30 mg/200 g BW gave similar effect to positive controls, while a dose of 50 mg/200 g BW gave lower blood glucose level (93 mg/dl than the positive controls.

  9. Blood glucose level prediction based on support vector regression using mobile platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymann, Maximilian P; Dorschky, Eva; Groh, Benjamin H; Martindale, Christine; Blank, Peter; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2016-08-01

    The correct treatment of diabetes is vital to a patient's health: Staying within defined blood glucose levels prevents dangerous short- and long-term effects on the body. Mobile devices informing patients about their future blood glucose levels could enable them to take counter-measures to prevent hypo or hyper periods. Previous work addressed this challenge by predicting the blood glucose levels using regression models. However, these approaches required a physiological model, representing the human body's response to insulin and glucose intake, or are not directly applicable to mobile platforms (smart phones, tablets). In this paper, we propose an algorithm for mobile platforms to predict blood glucose levels without the need for a physiological model. Using an online software simulator program, we trained a Support Vector Regression (SVR) model and exported the parameter settings to our mobile platform. The prediction accuracy of our mobile platform was evaluated with pre-recorded data of a type 1 diabetes patient. The blood glucose level was predicted with an error of 19 % compared to the true value. Considering the permitted error of commercially used devices of 15 %, our algorithm is the basis for further development of mobile prediction algorithms.

  10. The Effects of Moderate Whole Grain Consumption on Fasting Glucose and Lipids, Gastrointestinal Symptoms, and Microbiota

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    Danielle N. Cooper

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine if providing wheat, corn, and rice as whole (WG or refined grains (RG under free-living conditions will change parameters of health over a six-week intervention in healthy, habitual non-WG consumers. Measurements of body composition, fecal microbiota, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and triglycerides were made at baseline and post intervention. Subjects were given adequate servings of either WG or RG products based on their caloric need and asked to keep records of grain consumption, bowel movements, and GI symptoms weekly. After six weeks, subjects repeated baseline testing. Significant decreases in total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol were seen after the WG treatments but were not observed in the RG treatment. During Week 6, bowel movement frequency increased with increased WG consumption. No significant differences in microbiota were seen between baseline and post intervention, although, abundance of order Erysipelotrichales increased in RG subjects who ate more than 50% of the RG market basket products. Increasing consumption of WGs can alter parameters of health, but more research is needed to better elucidate the relationship between the amount consumed and the health-related outcome.

  11. Effects of flaxseed oil on anti-oxidative system and membrane deformation of human peripheral blood erythrocytes in high glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Fu, Juan; Yu, Miao; Huang, Qingde; Wang, Di; Xu, Jiqu; Deng, Qianchun; Yao, Ping; Huang, Fenghong; Liu, Liegang

    2012-07-08

    The erythrocyte membrane lesion is a serious diabetic complication. A number of studies suggested that n-3 fatty acid could reduce lipid peroxidation and elevate α- or γ-tocopherol contents in membrane of erythrocytes. However, evidence regarding the protective effects of flaxseed oil, a natural product rich in n-3 fatty acid, on lipid peroxidation, antioxidative capacity and membrane deformation of erythrocytes exposed to high glucose is limited. Human peripheral blood erythrocytes were isolated and treated with 50 mM glucose to mimic hyperglycemia in the absence or presence of three different doses of flaxseed oil (50, 100 or 200 μM) in the culture medium for 24 h. The malondialdehyde (MDA) and L-glutathione (GSH) were measured by HPLC and LC/MS respectively. The phospholipids symmetry and membrane fatty acid composition of human erythrocytes were detected by flow cytometry and gas chromatograph (GC). The morphology of human erythrocyte was illuminated by ultra scanning electron microscopy. Flaxseed oil attenuated hyperglycemia-induced increase of MDA and decrease of GSH in human erythrocytes. Human erythrocytes treated with flaxseed oil contained higher C22:5 and C22:6 than those in the 50 mM glucose control group, indicating that flaxseed oil could reduce lipid asymmetric distribution and membrane perturbation. The ultra scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometer have also indicated that flaxseed oil could protect the membrane of human erythrocytes from deformation at high glucose level. The flaxseed oil supplementation may prevent lipid peroxidation and membrane dysfunction of human erythrocytes in hyperglycemia.

  12. Quantitative detection of glucose level based on radiofrequency patch biosensor combined with volume-fixed structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Tian; Wang, Cong; Kim, Nam-Young

    2017-12-15

    A concept for characterizing a radiofrequency (RF) patch biosensor combined with volume-fixed structures is presented for timely monitoring of an individual's glucose levels based on frequency variation. Two types of patch biosensors-separately integrated with a backside slot (0.53μL) and a front-side tank (0.70μL) structure-were developed to achieve precise and efficient detection while excluding the effects of interference due to the liquidity, shape, and thickness of the tested glucose sample. A glucose test analyte at different concentrations (50-600mg/dL) was dropped into the volume-fixed structures. It fully interacted with the RF patch electromagnetic field, effectively and sensitively changing the resonance frequency and magnitude of the reflection coefficient. Measurement results based on the resonance frequency showed high sensitivity up to 1.13MHz and 1.97MHz per mg/dL, and low detection limits of 26.54mg/dL and 15.22mg/dL, for the two types of patch biosensors, respectively, as well as a short response time of less than 1s. Excellent reusability of the proposed biosensors was verified through three sets of measurements for each individual glucose sample. Regression analysis revealed a good linear correlation between glucose concentrations and the resonance frequency shift. Moreover, to facilitate a multi-parameter-sensitive detection of glucose, the magnitude of the reflection coefficient was also tested, and it showed a good linear correlation with the glucose concentration. Thus, the proposed approach can be adopted for distinguishing glucose solution levels, and it is a potential candidate for early-stage detection of glucose levels in diabetes patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Levels of bioactive lipids in cooking oils: olive oil is the richest source of oleoyl serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Heather B; Leishman, Emma

    2016-05-01

    Rates of osteoporosis are significantly lower in regions of the world where olive oil consumption is a dietary cornerstone. Olive oil may represent a source of oleoyl serine (OS), which showed efficacy in animal models of osteoporosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OS as well as structurally analogous N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol lipids are present in the following cooking oils: olive, walnut, canola, high heat canola, peanut, safflower, sesame, toasted sesame, grape seed, and smart balance omega. Methanolic lipid extracts from each of the cooking oils were partially purified on C-18 solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and 33 lipids were measured in each sample, including OS and bioactive analogs. Of the oils screened here, walnut oil had the highest number of lipids detected (22/33). Olive oil had the second highest number of lipids detected (20/33), whereas grape-seed and high-heat canola oil were tied for lowest number of detected lipids (6/33). OS was detected in 8 of the 10 oils tested and the levels were highest in olive oil, suggesting that there is something about the olive plant that enriches this lipid. Cooking oils contain varying levels of bioactive lipids from the N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol families. Olive oil is a dietary source of OS, which may contribute to lowered prevalence of osteoporosis in countries with high consumption of this oil.

  14. Theobromine does not affect postprandial lipid metabolism and duodenal gene expression, but has unfavorable effects on postprandial glucose and insulin responses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P; Boekschoten, Mark V; de Ridder, Rogier J J; Plat, Jogchum

    2018-04-01

    Chocolate consumption is associated with a decreased risk for CVD. Theobromine, a compound in cocoa, may explain these effects as it favorably affected fasting serum lipids. However, long-term effects of theobromine on postprandial metabolism as well as underlying mechanisms have never been studied. The objective was to evaluate the effects of 4-week theobromine consumption (500 mg/day) on fasting and postprandial lipid, lipoprotein and glucose metabolism, and duodenal gene expression. In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 44 healthy men and women, with low baseline HDL-C concentrations consumed 500 mg theobromine or placebo daily. After 4-weeks, fasting blood was sampled and subjects participated in a 4-h postprandial test. Blood was sampled frequently for analysis of lipid and glucose metabolism. In a subgroup of 10 men, 5 h after meal consumption duodenal biopsies were taken for microarray analysis. 4-weeks theobromine consumption lowered fasting LDL-C (-0.21 mmol/L; P = 0.006), and apoB100 (-0.04 g/L; P = 0.022), tended to increase HDL-C (0.03 mmol/L; P = 0.088) and increased hsCRP (1.2 mg/L; P = 0.017) concentrations. Fasting apoA-I, TAG, FFA, glucose and insulin concentrations were unchanged. In the postprandial phase, theobromine consumption increased glucose (P = 0.026), insulin (P = 0.011) and FFA (P = 0.003) concentrations, while lipids and (apo)lipoproteins were unchanged. In duodenal biopsies, microarray analysis showed no consistent changes in expression of genes, pathways or gene sets related to lipid, cholesterol or glucose metabolism. It is not likely that the potential beneficial effects of cocoa on CVD can be ascribed to theobromine. Although theobromine lowers serum LDL-C concentrations, it did not change fasting HDL-C, apoA-I, or postprandial lipid concentrations and duodenal gene expression, and unfavorably affected postprandial glucose and insulin responses. This trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov under

  15. Comparison of the effects of flaxseed oil and sunflower seed oil consumption on serum glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, and lipid peroxidation in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Atefeh; Nikaein, Farzad; Babajafari, Siavash; Faghih, Shiva; Yarmohammadi, Hassan

    Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) increases the risk of type II diabetes and morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Flaxseed oil (FO), as a functional food, is one of the major vegetal sources of essential omega-3 fatty acids. This study aimed to compare the effects of consumption of FO and sunflower seed oil (SO) on lipid peroxidation and other symptoms of MetSyn. This randomized controlled interventional trial was conducted on 60 volunteers aged 30 to 60 years who were diagnosed with MetSyn in Shiraz, Iran. The participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to SO (n = 30, receiving 25 mL/d SO) and FO (n = 30, receiving 25 ml/d FO) groups using block randomization. The diets were identical for all the participants. Blood pressure (BP), serum lipid, fasting blood sugar, and malondialdehyde were measured at baseline and at the end of week 7. The results showed no significant difference between the 2 groups regarding blood lipid levels and fasting blood sugar at the end of the study. However, significant reductions in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (5.6% in FO and 10.8% in SO), and triglyceride levels were seen within each group after treatment with FO and SO (P < .05). Nonetheless, between-group changes were significant (<0.05) for systolic BP (mean [±standard deviation {SD}] changes were -14.0 ± 22.41 in the FO group [P = .004] and 0.92 ± 8.70 in the SO group [P = .594]) and diastolic BP (mean [±SD] changes were -4.26 ± 7.44 in the FO group [P = .007] and 1.30 ± 6.91 in the SO group [P = .344]), but marginally significant (P = .053) for malondialdehyde level (mean [±SD] changes were -1.29 ± 1.48 in the FO group [P < .001] and -0.52 ± 1.34 in the SO group [P = .52]). A significant decrease in weight was also found in both groups. However, waist circumference decreased significantly only in the FO group at the end of the study (P < .05). Our results indicated

  16. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in the heart, brain and skeletal muscle of rats; the influence of time after injection, depressed lipid metabolism and glucose-insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasalicky, J.; Konopkova, M.; Melichar, F.

    2001-01-01

    To study the effect of lipid depressing drugs on 18 FDG myocardial concentration. The changes of 18 FDG uptake in myocardium, brain and skeletal muscle of rats were compared as influenced by acipimox, tyloxapol and glucose with insulin. 5.55 MBq of 18 FDG were administered to Wistar rats. Control rats were killed 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes following intravenous injection and the radioactivity concentration (cpm/g of tissue) in relation to injected cpm was determined in a well crystal adjusted to 511 KeV in order to check the time of maximal 18 FDG tissue uptake. The radioactivity in myocardium, skeletal muscle and brain in intact animals was compared with that of rats treated with tyloxapol (tritton WR 1339, 125 mg intravenously immediately before 18 FDG injection), acipimox (nicotinic acid derivative, 25 mg by stomach cannula 15 minutes before 18 FDG), or glucose with insulin (intravenous injection of 0.04 g and 0.04 UI immediately before 18 FDG). The animals were killed 45 minutes following 18 FDG injection. Tyloxapol and acipimox significantly elevated myocardial 18 FDG concentration (tyloxapol +37% and acipimox +48%), but the increase in 18 FDG concentration after glucose and insulin was slight and insignificant. The changes in skeletal muscle after lipid depressing agents were quite contrasting; the decrease in 18 FDG concentration was -74% after tyloxapol and -44% following acipimox administration. The accumulation of 18 FDG in brain was not influenced markedly by the drugs used or by glucose with insulin. The highest 18 FDG uptake in myocardium could be achieved by depressing the lipid metabolism and not by administration of glucose with insulin only. A marked increase in glucose accumulation in myocardium is not possible without previous shift from the utilisation of fatty acids. This finding is fully in agreement with present knowledge about energetic metabolism of myocardium. (author)

  17. Mediterranean diet reduces 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipids: one-year randomized, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech, Mónica; Roman, Pilar; Lapetra, José; García de la Corte, Francisco J; Sala-Vila, Aleix; de la Torre, Rafael; Corella, Dolores; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa-María; Toledo, Estefania; Estruch, Ramón; Coca, Antonio; Ros, Emilio

    2014-07-01

    The PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial showed that Mediterranean diets (MedDiets) supplemented with either extravirgin olive oil or nuts reduced cardiovascular events, particularly stroke, compared with a control, lower fat diet. The mechanisms of cardiovascular protection remain unclear. We evaluated the 1-year effects of supplemented MedDiets on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP), blood glucose, and lipids. Randomized, parallel-design, controlled trial was conducted in 2 PREDIMED sites. Diets were ad libitum, and no advice on increasing physical activity or reducing sodium intake was given. Participants were 235 subjects (56.5% women; mean age, 66.5 years) at high cardiovascular risk (85.4% with hypertension). Adjusted changes from baseline in mean systolic BP were -2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], -4.0 to -0.5) mm Hg and -2.6 (95% CI, -4.3 to -0.9) mm Hg in the MedDiets with olive oil and the MedDiets with nuts, respectively, and 1.7 (95% CI, -0.1 to 3.5) mm Hg in the control group (P<0.001). Respective changes in mean diastolic BP were -1.2 (95% CI, -2.2 to -0.2), -1.2 (95% CI, -2.2 to -0.2), and 0.7 (95% CI, -0.4 to 1.7) mm Hg (P=0.017). Daytime and nighttime BP followed similar patterns. Mean changes from baseline in fasting blood glucose were -6.1, -4.6, and 3.5 mg/dL (P=0.016) in the MedDiets with olive oil, MedDiets with nuts, and control diet, respectively; those of total cholesterol were -11.3, -13.6, and -4.4 mg/dL (P=0.043), respectively. In high-risk individuals, most with treated hypertension, MedDiets supplemented with extravirgin olive oil or nuts reduced 24-hour ambulatory BP, total cholesterol, and fasting glucose. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: ISRCTN35739639. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Rauwolfia serpentina improves altered glucose and lipid homeostasis in fructose-induced type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Muhammad Bilal; Qureshi, Shamim A

    2016-09-01

    Rauwolfia serpentina is well-reported in traditional medicines for the treatment of hypertensive and neurological disorders. However, its antidiabetic potential has been currently described in both alloxan-treated and normoglycemic mice. Present effort was carried out to investigate the effect of methanol root extract (MREt) of R.serpentina in fructose-induced type 2 diabetic mice. Experimental mice were grouped into normal control (distilled water 1ml/kg) and fructose-induced type 2 diabetic groups (10% fructose 1 ml/kg).The second group sub-divided into negative (0.05% DMSO 1ml/kg) control, positive (pioglitazone 15mg/kg) control and three test groups (MREt 10, 30 & 60 mg/kg). Each treatment was given orally for 14 days consecutively then mice were sacrificed in order to collect serum and liver samples to analyze physical, biochemical as well as hematological markers. MREt significantly improved percent body weight and glycemic change along with serum insulin, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL-c), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-c), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterols (HDL-c), total hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, hepatic glycogen, coronary risk and fasting insulin resistance indices while suppressed down the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase enzyme in test groups when compared with diabetic controls. The present findings conclude that MREt of R. serpentina can effectively betters the carbohydrate and lipid homeostasis by either inhibiting fructose absorption in intestine or decreasing insulin resistance in fructose-induced type 2 diabetic mice.

  19. A remedy against obesity? The role of lactoferrin in the metabolism of glucose and lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Artym

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia/type II diabetes and hypertension together constitute the so-called metabolic syndrome. Frequency of occurrence of these serious metabolic disturbances is associated with life style and is on the rise in prosperous industrialized countries. These diseases represent not only a serious health problem but also social and economic ones, and involve in prophylaxis and treatment various specialists (physicians, dieticians and psychologists. For about two decades research has been conducted on the possibility to apply milk-derived proteins in prevention and treatment of the above mentioned metabolic diseases. Lactoferrin (LF, a protein present in milk and excretory fluids of mammals, is one of the most intensively studied milk proteins for therapeutic application. Initial trials revealing an advantageous effect of LF on lipid metabolism and obesity enrolled only a few volunteers and were performed in Japan in 2003. Subsequent trials were conducted on animals as well as in clinics, and the positive results were supported by in vitro tests. After oral administration of LF, decreases of body weight, waist measurement, visceral fat tissue, plasma and liver fatty acid concentrations, triglycerides and cholesterol were registered. The mechanism of LF action may involve several processes, such as inhibition of adipogenesis, decrease of dietary triglyceride absorption, elevation of HDL cholesterol possessing anti-atherogenic properties, inhibition of accumulation of oxidized LDL cholesterol forms in macrophages and protection against formation of foam cells. LF also increases the susceptibility of cells to insulin action, including in conditions when the response to insulin is lowered (during inflammation. In addition, LF regulates activity of insulin-like growth factor (IGF. The data collected to date indicate that LF is a promising, completely nontoxic, natural remedy which (as for example a food supplement may be applied

  20. The disturbances of lipid metabolism regulation after the prenatal low-level irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogov, Yu.I.; Danil'chik, V.S.; Spivak, L.V.; Rubchenya, I.N.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the influence of low-level irradiation on lipid metabolism in rats after prenatal exposure. Pregnant rats were irradiated during the period of gestation with the whole final dose 0,5 Gy/rat. The blood lipid fractions were investigated in newborn rats and in 6-month age rats. In irradiated offspring the lipo synthesis processes exceeded lipolysis in comparison with that of the control. The negative consequences of embryo low-level irradiation in the lipid metabolism regulation are discussed in this report. (authors)

  1. Effect of somatostatin on nonesterified fatty acid levels modifies glucose homeostasis during fasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrick, G.K.; Frizzell, R.T.; Cherrington, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    In the 7-days fasted conscious dog, unlike the postabsorptive conscious dog, somatostatin infusion results in decreased levels of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and increased glucose utilization (R d ) even when insulin and glucagon levels are held constant. The aim of this study was to determine whether NEFA replacement in such animals would prevent the increase in R d . In each of three protocols there was an 80-min tracer equilibration period, a 40-min basal period, and a 3-h test period. During the test period in the first protocol saline was infused, in the second protocol somatostatin was infused along with intraportal replacement amounts of insulin and glucagon (hormone replacement), while in the third protocol somatostatin plus the pancreatic hormones were infused with concurrent heparin plus Intralipid infusion. Glucose turnover was assessed using [3- 3 H]glucose. The peripheral levels of insulin, glucagon, and glucose were similar and constant in all three protocols; however, during somatostatin infusion, exogenous glucose infusion was necessary to maintain euglycemia. The NEFA level was constant during saline infusion and decreased in the hormone replacement protocol. In the hormone replacement plus NEFA protocol, the NEFA level did not change during the first 90-min period and then increased during the second 90-min period. After a prolonged fast in the dog, (1) somatostatin directly or indirectly inhibits adipose tissue NEFA release and causes a decrease in the plasma NEFA level, and (2) this decrease in the NEFA level causes an increase in R d

  2. Bile Acid Sequestration Reduces Plasma Glucose Levels in db/db Mice by Increasing Its Metabolic Clearance Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, M.; Herrema, H.J.; Dijk, van Th.; Gerding, A.; Havinga, R.; Boer, T.; Müller, M.R.; Reijngoud, D.J.; Groen, A.K.; Kuipers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels.

  3. Fast food consumption in Iranian adults; dietary intake and cardiovascular risk factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Golzarand, Mahdieh; Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-06-01

    Although fast food consumption has drastically increased in Iran in recent years; there is a paucity of data in relation to the association between fast food consumption, dietary intake, and cardiovascular risk factors. This study aims to determine fast food consumption status among young and middle-aged Iranian adults, and to assess its impact on dietary intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on 1944 young and middle-aged adults (840 men and 1104 women), who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008). We collected dietary data by using a validated 168 item, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Total fast food consumption was calculated by summing up weekly consumption of the most commonly consumed fast foods in Iran. Mean consumption of fast food was 161g/week (95% CI: 147-175) for young adults and 108 g/week (95% CI: 101-115) for middle-aged adults. Mean dietary intakes of energy, fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, meat, and soft drinks increased significantly (P consumption decreased (P fast food in both age groups. In young adults, dietary energy density and protein intake increased significantly (P fast food tertiles (P fast food consumption and body mass index (BMI; β = 0.104; P consumption of fast foods is associated with poor dietary intake and some of the CVD risk factors in Iranian adults.

  4. Effects of different periods of paradoxical sleep deprivation and sleep recovery on lipid and glucose metabolism and appetite hormones in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brianza-Padilla, Malinalli; Bonilla-Jaime, Herlinda; Almanza-Pérez, Julio César; López-López, Ana Laura; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Vázquez-Palacios, Gonzalo

    2016-03-01

    Sleep has a fundamental role in the regulation of energy balance, and it is an essential and natural process whose precise impacts on health and disease have not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess the consequences of different periods of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and recovery from PSD on lipid profile, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results, and changes in insulin, corticosterone, ghrelin, and leptin concentrations. Three-month-old male Wistar rats weighing 250-350 g were submitted to 24, 96, or 192 h of PSD or 192 h of PSD with 480 h of recovery. The PSD was induced by the multiple platforms method. Subsequently, the animals were submitted to an OGTT. One day later, the animals were killed and the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, lipoproteins (low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein), insulin, ghrelin, leptin, and corticosterone in plasma were quantified. There was a progressive decrease in body weight with increasing duration of PSD. The PSD induced basal hypoglycemia over all time periods evaluated. Evaluation of areas under the curve revealed progressive hypoglycemia only after 96 and 192 h of PSD. There was an increase in corticosterone levels after 192 h of PSD. We conclude that PSD induces alterations in metabolism that are reversed after a recovery period of 20 days.

  5. Genistein improves spatial learning and memory in male rats with elevated glucose level during memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Yumi; Kawaguchi, Shinichiro; Kuwahara, Rika; Uchida, Yutaro; Oku, Yushi; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive dysfunction due to higher blood glucose level has been reported previously. Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen that we hypothesized might lead to improved memory, despite elevated blood glucose levels at the time of memory consolidation. To investigate this hypothesis, we compared the effects of orally administered GEN on the central nervous system in normal versus glucose-loaded adult male rats. A battery of behavioral assessments was carried out. In the MAZE test, which measured spatial learning and memory, the time of normal rats was shortened by GEN treatment compared to the vehicle group, but only in the early stages of testing. In the glucose-loaded group, GEN treatment improved performance as mazes were advanced. In the open-field test, GEN treatment delayed habituation to the new environment in normal rats, and increased the exploratory behaviors of glucose-loaded rats. There were no significant differences observed for emotionality or fear-motivated learning and memory. Together, these results indicate that GEN treatment improved spatial learning and memory only in the early stages of testing in the normal state, but improved spatial learning and memory when glucose levels increased during memory consolidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Change of blood glucose level and its possible mechanism in patients with cerebral stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weizhen; Zhang Yong; Zhang Zikang; Mo Congjian

    2003-01-01

    To study the mechanism of the change of blood glucose levels in patients with cerebral stroke, the levels of blood glucose, cortisol, glucogen, insulin, growth hormone, triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxine (T 4 ) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were dynamically measured in 90 patients with cerebral stroke. The circumstances of brain middle line movement, lateral ventricle oppression and entrance brain ventricle of burst hematoma of the patients were examines by CT scan. The total incidence of hyperglycemia in the patients was 42.22%. The blood glucose level was positively related to the cortisol and glucogen levels, and negatively related to the T 3 level. The changed level of blood glucose and its related hormones both returned to normal range in 10 days. Both the ACTH level and the rate of cerebral pathological change in hyperglycemia group were significantly higher than that in normoglycemia and control groups. The rate of cerebral pathological change in elevated ACTH level group was higher than that in normal ACTH level group. The mechanism of hyperglycemia in the patients with cerebral stroke might be related to the stimulation of the hypothalamus, which may induce the discharge of ACTH and glucagon releasing factor, and to that the level of cortisol and glucagon increased, the level of T 3 decreased

  7. Partitioning the variability of fasting plasma glucose levels in pedigrees. Genetic and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, M; Moll, P P; Kottke, B A; Weidman, W H

    1987-04-01

    Fasting plasma glucose measurements made in 1972-1977 on normoglycemic individuals in three-generation Caucasian pedigrees from Rochester, Minnesota were analyzed. The authors determined the contributions of polygenic loci and environmental factors to fasting plasma glucose variability in these pedigrees. To that end, fasting plasma glucose measurements were normalized by an inverse normal scores transformation and then regressed separately for males and females on measured concomitants including age, body mass index (weight/height2), season of measurement, sex hormone use, and diuretic use. The authors found that 27.7% of the variability in normalized fasting plasma glucose in these pedigrees is explained by these measured concomitants. Subsequent variance components analysis suggested that unmeasured polygenic loci and unmeasured shared environmental factors together account for at least an additional 36.7% of the variability in normalized fasting plasma glucose, with genes alone accounting for at least 27.3%. These results are consistent with the known familiality of diabetes, for which fasting plasma glucose level is an important predictor. Further, these familial factors provide an explanation for at least half the variability in normalized fasting plasma glucose which remains after regression on known concomitants.

  8. Lithium modulates the chronic stress-induced effect on blood glucose level of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Nataša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined gross changes in the mass of whole adrenal glands and that of the adrenal cortex, as well as the serum corticosterone and glucose level of mature male Wistar rats subjected to three different treatments: animals subjected to chronic restraint-stress, animals injected with lithium (Li and chronically stressed rats treated with Li. Under all three conditions we observed hypertrophy of whole adrenals, as well as the adrenal cortices. Chronic restraint stress, solely or in combination with Li treatment, significantly elevated the corticosterone level, but did not change the blood glucose level. Animals treated only with Li exhibited an elevated serum corticosterone level and blood glucose level. The aim of our study was to investigate the modulation of the chronic stress-induced effect on the blood glucose level by lithium, as a possible mechanism of avoiding the damage caused by chronic stress. Our results showed that lithium is an agent of choice which may help to reduce stress-elevated corticosterone and replenish exhausted glucose storages in an organism.

  9. Solutes transport characteristics in peritoneal dialysis: variations in glucose and insulin serum levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Dirceu R; Figueiredo, Ana E; Antonello, Ivan C; Poli de Figueiredo, Carlos E; d'Avila, Domingos O

    2008-01-01

    Differences in small solutes transport rate (SSTR) during peritoneal dialysis (PD) may affect water and solutes removal. Patients with high SSTR must rely on shorter dwell times and increased dialysate glucose concentrations to keep fluid balance. Glucose absorption during peritoneal dialysis (PD), besides affecting glucose and insulin metabolism, may induce weight gain. The study aimed at examining acute glucose and insulin serum level changes and other potential relationships in PD patients with diverse SSTR. This cross-sectional study used a modified peritoneal equilibration test (PET) that enrolled 34 prevalent PD patients. Zero, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240-minute glucose and insulin serum levels were measured. Insulin resistance index was assessed by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) formula. SSTR categories were classified by quartiles of the four-hour dialysate/serum creatinine ratio (D(4)/P(Cr)). Demographic and clinical variables were evaluated, and the body mass index (BMI) was estimated. Correlations among variables of interest and categories of SSTR were explored. Glucose serum levels were significantly different at 15, 30, and 60 minutes between high and low SSTR categories (p = 0.014, 0.009, and 0.022). Increased BMI (25.5 +/- 5.1) and insulin resistance [HOMA-IR = 2.60 (1.40-4.23)] were evidenced overall. Very strong to moderate correlations between insulin levels along the PET and HOMA-IR (r = 0.973, 0.834, 0.766, 0.728, 0.843, 0.857, 0.882) and BMI (r = 0.562, 0.459, 0.417, 0.370, 0.508, 0.514, 0.483) were disclosed. CONCLUSIONS; Early glucose serum levels were associated with SSTR during a PET. Overweight or obesity and insulin resistance were prevalent. An association between insulin serum levels and BMI was demonstrated.

  10. A comprehensive lipidomic screen of pancreatic β-cells using mass spectroscopy defines novel features of glucose-stimulated turnover of neutral lipids, sphingolipids and plasmalogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma L. Pearson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Glucose promotes lipid remodelling in pancreatic β-cells, and this is thought to contribute to the regulation of insulin secretion, but the metabolic pathways and potential signalling intermediates have not been fully elaborated. Methods: Using mass spectrometry (MS we quantified changes in approximately 300 lipid metabolites in MIN6 β-cells and isolated mouse islets following 1 h stimulation with glucose. Flux through sphingolipid pathways was also assessed in 3H-sphinganine-labelled cells using TLC. Results: Glucose specifically activates the conversion of triacylglycerol (TAG to diacylglycerol (DAG. This leads indirectly to the formation of 18:1 monoacylglycerol (MAG, via degradation of saturated/monounsaturated DAG species, such as 16:0_18:1 DAG, which are the most abundant, immediate products of glucose-stimulated TAG hydrolysis. However, 16:0-containing, di-saturated DAG species are a better direct marker of TAG hydrolysis since, unlike the 18:1-containing DAGs, they are predominately formed via this route. Using multiple reaction monitoring, we confirmed that in islets under basal conditions, 18:1 MAG is the most abundant species. We further demonstrated a novel site of glucose to enhance the conversion of ceramide to sphingomyelin (SM and galactosylceramide (GalCer. Flux and product:precursor analyses suggest regulation of the enzyme SM synthase, which would constitute a separate mechanism for localized generation of DAG in response to glucose. Phosphatidylcholine (PC plasmalogen (P species, specifically those containing 20:4, 22:5 and 22:6 side chains, were also diminished in the presence of glucose, whereas the more abundant phosphatidylethanolamine plasmalogens were unchanged. Conclusion: Our results highlight 18:1 MAG, GalCer, PC(P and DAG/SM as potential contributors to metabolic stimulus-secretion coupling. Author Video: Author Video Watch what authors say about their articles Keywords: Pancreatic β-cell, Insulin

  11. The Effect of Aspalathin on Levels of Sugar and Lipids in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic and Normal Rats

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    Mahmood Najafian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Flavonoids have been reported as mammalian alpha-amylase inhibitors, a property which could be useful in the management of postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetes and its related disorders. Objectives In the present study the inhibitory effect of aspalathin as a flavonoid on alpha amylase activity and levels of sugar and lipids in rats, has been investigated. Methods In this experimental study, type inhibition of aspalatin on amylase and in the part of in vivo, the effect of aspalathin orally doses 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight on sugar and lipids levels was tested in a streptozotocin-induced model of diabetes and normal rats. The data were analyzed by one-sample Kolmogrov-Smirnov, Levene and ANOVA tests through SPSS version 22. Results The results showed that aspalathin is a competitive inhibitor for alpha amylase with Ki = 37.0 μM. In both diabetic and normal groups in all doses nearly dose dependent manner reduced blood glucose levels and beneficial effect on dyslipidemia were observed in diabetic rats, as well as reduction of disturbing consequences of diabetes such as high urine volume and water intake. Aspalathin was observed to have a weight loss-inductive effect, alongside with a reduction in food intake. Conclusions It seems that, this compound could be proposed as an antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic agent in diabetes and potential therapeutic in obesity.

  12. Dietary soya protein improves intra-myocardial lipid deposition and altered glucose metabolism in a hypertensive, dyslipidaemic, insulin-resistant rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, María E; Creus, Agustina; Ferreira, María R; Chicco, Adriana; Lombardo, Yolanda B

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of replacing dietary casein by soya protein on the underlying mechanisms involved in the impaired metabolic fate of glucose and lipid metabolisms in the heart of dyslipidaemic rats chronically fed (8 months) a sucrose-rich (62·5 %) diet (SRD). To test this hypothesis, Wistar rats were fed an SRD for 4 months. From months 4 to 8, half the animals continued with the SRD and the other half were fed an SRD in which casein was substituted by soya. The control group received a diet with maize starch as the carbohydrate source. Compared with the SRD-fed group, the following results were obtained. First, soya protein significantly (Psoya protein significantly increased (Psoya protein upon the altered pathways of glucose and lipid metabolism in the heart muscle of this rat model.

  13. Changes in serum metabolic hormone levels after glucose infusion during lactation cycles in Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Chalmeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Negative energy balance can impair the metabolism of high producing dairy cows and supplying the glucose, as an energy source; can prevent the metabolic disorders in these animals. Hence, we hypothesized that bolus intravenous glucose administration may change the concentrations of metabolic hormones in order to prevent and control of metabolic dysfunctions of dairy cows. Twenty five multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided to 5 equal groups containing early, mid and late lactations, far-off and close-up dry periods. All cows were received dextrose 50% intravenously at 500 mg/kg, 10 mL/kg/h. Blood samples were collected from all animals prior to and 1, 2, 3 and 4 after dextrose 50% infusion and sera were separated to determine glucose, triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxine (T4, serum free T3 (fT3, free T4 (fT4, cortisol and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. The decreasing pattern of T3 concentration was detected in all studied animals following intravenous glucose infusion (P<0.05. The significant increasing pattern of T4 levels was seen in early and mid lactation cows after glucose administration (P<0.05. The significant decreasing pattern of IGF-1 was detected in mid and late lactations and far-off dry groups (P<0.05. There were no significant alterations in fT3, fT4 and cortisol concentrations following glucose infusion in all experimental groups. In conclusion, bolus intravenous glucose infusion could influence the metabolic hormones in high producing Holstein dairy cows. Alterations of metabolic hormones following bolus intravenous glucose administration indicated that glucose is an important direct controller of metabolic interactions and responses in dairy cows during different physiological states.

  14. Prophylactic Use of Haloperidol and Changes in Glucose Levels in Hospitalized Older Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, Kris; Knol, Wilma; Schrijver, Edmée J M; van Marum, Rob J; van Strien, Astrid M; Nanayakkara, Prabath W B

    2018-02-01

    Treatment with antipsychotic drugs has been associated with glucose dysregulation in older outpatients, especially in the early stage of therapy. The underlying mechanism is, however, unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in glucose levels during haloperidol use compared with the use of placebo among older hospitalized patients. This substudy was part of a larger multicenter, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial among hospitalized patients aged 70 years and older who had an increased risk of in-hospital delirium. Patients who were admitted to the Jeroen Bosch Hospital in 's-Hertogenbosch between June 2014 and February 2015 were invited to participate in the study. Participating patients were randomized for treatment and given 1 mg of haloperidol or a placebo twice daily for a maximum of 7 consecutive days (14 doses). Exclusion criteria for this substudy were the use of corticosteroids and changes in diabetes medication. Random blood samples to determine glucose levels were collected before day 1 and on day 6 of the study. Student independent sample t test was used to determine differences in glucose changes between both groups. Twenty-nine patients were included (haloperidol, n = 14; placebo, n = 15). The mean glucose level for placebo users was 139.3 mg/dL (SD, 50.1) on day 1 and 140.8 mg/dL (SD, 45.7) on day 6, and the mean glucose level for haloperidol users was 139.9 mg/dL (SD, 71.0) on day 1 and 150.2 mg/dL (SD, 39.1) on day 6. The difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.685). Short-term prophylactic use of haloperidol was not associated with changes in glucose levels in older hospitalized patients compared with those given a placebo in this small study.

  15. How Effective is Swedish Massage on Blood Glucose Level in Children with Diabetes Mellitus?

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    Firoozeh Sajedi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "nThis study was conducted to determine the effect of Swedish massage on blood glucose level in children with diabetes mellitus (DM. It was prospective randomized controlled trial study that conducted on 36 children, 6-12 years old with DM, recruited from a hospital in Qom City, Iran. The children were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Swedish massage was performed 15 minutes, 3 times a week, for 3 months in intervention group. The blood glucose levels were evaluated immediately after every session of massage in two groups. The mean ages of children in the intervention (n=18 and control (n=18 groups were 9.05 ± 1.55 and 9.83 ±2.03 years respectively. There was statistically no significant difference in blood glucose levels before intervention between two groups (P=0.586, but the blood glucose levels were lower significantly in intervention group in comparison with control group after intervention (P<0.0001. Addition of Swedish massage to daily routines; exercise, diet and medication regimens, is an effective intervention to reduce blood glucose level in diabetic children.

  16. Association of sleep duration with blood glucose level of Gujarati Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal C; Shaikh, Wasim A; Singh, S K

    2012-01-01

    Recently studies conducted in various parts of the world indicate short sleep duration as a novel risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes. However, ethnic differences exist in the etiopathogenesis of diseases, the current study was undertaken to study the effect of sleep duration on the blood glucose level of Gujarati Indian adolescents. A randomized, non-experimental, cross-sectional study was done on the voluntary participants n = 332 Gujarati adolescent boys and girls of age group 13-20 years studying at the schools and colleges in the Anand district. The participants were assessed for their sleep duration, body composition and blood glucose level. The sleep duration was reported by the subjects as the number of hours they slept on most of the nights in a week over the last one-year. The observations of the study were then analyzed after grouping them into: 1) Adequate sleep duration at night, ASDN (> or = 7 hrs) and 2) Inadequate sleep duration at night, ISDN (blood glucose level between the ASDN group and ISDN group in both boys and girls. However, gender difference exists in the body composition and blood glucose level. The current study indicates that inadequate sleep duration at night (blood glucose level of the Gujarati Indian adolescents of age group 13-20 years.

  17. Glycogen Supercompensation in the Rat Brain After Acute Hypoglycemia is Independent of Glucose Levels During Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, João M N; Morgenthaler, Florence D; Gruetter, Rolf

    2017-06-01

    Patients with diabetes display a progressive decay in the physiological counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia, resulting in hypoglycemia unawareness. The mechanism through which the brain adapts to hypoglycemia may involve brain glycogen. We tested the hypothesis that brain glycogen supercompensation following hypoglycemia depends on blood glucose levels during recovery. Conscious rats were submitted to hypoglycemia of 2 mmol/L for 90 min and allowed to recover at different glycemia, controlled by means of i.v. glucose infusion. Brain glycogen concentration was elevated above control levels after 24 h of recovery in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. This glycogen supercompensation was independent of blood glucose levels in the post-hypoglycemia period. In the absence of a preceding hypoglycemia insult, brain glycogen concentrations were unaltered after 24 h under hyperglycemia. In the hypothalamus, which controls peripheral glucose homeostasis, glycogen levels were unaltered. Overall, we conclude that post-hypoglycemia glycogen supercompensation occurs in several brain areas and its magnitude is independent of plasma glucose levels. By supporting brain metabolism during recurrent hypoglycemia periods, glycogen may have a role in the development of hypoglycemia unawareness.

  18. Dynapenic obesity as an associated factor to lipid and glucose metabolism disorders and metabolic syndrome in older adults - Findings from SABE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Tiago da Silva; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Carvalho, Lívia Pinheiro; Máximo, Roberta de Oliveira; Corona, Ligiana Pires; Brito, Tábatta Renata Pereira de; Nunes, Daniella Pires; Santos, Jair Licio Ferreira; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia

    2018-08-01

    There is little evidence showing that dynapenic obesity is associated with lipid and glucose metabolism disorders, high blood pressure, chronic disease and metabolic syndrome. Our aim was to analyze whether dynapenic abdominal obesity can be associated with lipid and glucose metabolism disorders, high blood pressure, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in older adults living in São Paulo. This cross-sectional study included 833 older adults who took part of the third wave of the Health, Well-being and Aging Study in 2010. Based on waist circumference (>88 cm women and >102 cm men) and handgrip strength (metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between dynapenia and abdominal obesity status and lipid and glucose metabolic profiles, blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. The fully adjusted models showed that D/AO individuals had higher prevalence of low HDL plasma concentrations (OR = 2.51, 95%CI: 1.40-4.48), hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 2.53, 95%CI: 1.43-4.47), hyperglycemia (OR = 2.05, 95%CI: 1.14-3.69), high glycated-haemoglobin concentrations (OR = 1.84, 95%CI: 1.03-3.30) and metabolic syndrome (OR = 12.39, 95%CI: 7.38-20.79) than ND/NAO. Dynapenic and D/AO individuals had higher prevalence of heart disease (OR = 2.05, 95%CI: 1.17-3.59 and OR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.06-3.48, respectively) than ND/NAO. D/AO was associated with high prevalence of lipid and glucose metabolism disorders and metabolic syndrome while dynapenia and D/AO were associated with high prevalence of heart disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed and 17-β Estradiol on Serum Apelin, Glucose, Lipids, and Insulin in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedinzade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Menopause, a natural phenomenon, is defined by the fall of ovarian hormones mainly estrogens causing major problems such as insulin resistance. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum is known to have some useful properties such as insulin sensitizing effect. Apelin is an adipokine, which has several roles such as regulation of insulin secretion. Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed and 17-β estradiol on serum Apelin along with glucose, lipids and insulin in ovariectomized rats. Materials and Methods Forty-nine adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided to seven groups: normal control, ovariectomized control, ovariectomized treated with ethanolic and hexanic extract of fenugreek seed (50 and 150 mg/kg/daily for each, and ovariectomized treated with 17-β estradiol (10 µg/kg/daily for 42 days. Serum Apelin, glucose, lipids and insulin were measured. Results Serum Apelin, glucose, lipids and insulin significantly increased in ovariectomized controls in comparison with normal controls (P < 0.05. Serum glucose, lipids and insulin in ovariectomized rats treated with fenugreek seed extract and 17-β estradiol were remarkably lower than ovariectomized controls (P < 0.05. Furthermore, 17-β estradiol caused a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in serum Apelin in ovariectomized rats. Conclusions It appears that fenugreek seed might be effective against hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in ovariectomized rats without impact on serum Apelin. Furthermore, 17-β estradiol could have similar effects along with possible inhibitory effects on serum Apelin. The complicated role of Apelin in menopause needs to be further explored.

  20. Effect of Glycerol and Glucose on the Enhancement of Biomass, Lipid and Soluble Carbohydrate Production by Chlorella vulgaris in Mixotrophic Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Yang; Yun-Tao Cao; Hao Song; Shao-Feng Hua; Chun-Gu Xia; Wei-Bao Kong

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel-derived glycerol is a promising substrate for mixotrophic cultivation of oleaginous microalgae, which can also reduce the cost of microalgal biodiesel. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of using glycerol and glucose as a complex carbon substrate to produce microalgal biomass and biochemical components, such as photosynthetic pigments, lipids, soluble carbohydrates and proteins by Chlorella vulgaris. The results show that C. vulgaris can utilize glycerol as ...

  1. Glucose and lipid metabolism in rats supplemented with glycyrrhizic acid exposed to short- or long- term stress and fed on a high-calorie diet

    OpenAIRE

    Yaw, Hui Ping

    2017-01-01

    Stress and consumption of high-calorie diet are well-recognized as the primary contributor to various metabolic diseases such as the metabolic syndrome. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), an active compound in the root extract of the licorice plant, Glycyrrhiza glabra has been shown to improve hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia in rats fed on a high- calorie diet. However, the effect of GA on glucose and lipid metabolism in rats under stress in combination with high- calorie diet has yet to be expl...

  2. Relationships between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computer tomography, body composition, serum lipids, plasma glucose and cardiorespiratory functions in obese children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torigoe, Katsumi; Numata, Osamu; Sudo, Shouji; Matsunaga, Masamichi; Kyo, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Onozuka, Yutaka; Imai, Chihaya

    1995-01-01

    Visceral abdominal fat to subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio (V/S ratio) is a predictor for cardiac disease, metabolic disease, and hypertension in obese adults. This study determined the histopathological value of V/S ratio in obese children using computed tomography (CT). The subjects were 37 boys and 26 girls with overweight by more than 20%, whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 years. Although the percentage of standard body weight (SBW), percentage of body fat (BF), and body mass index (BMI) were correlated with each other, there was no correlation between the V/S ratio and the three predictors. Thus, the V/S ratio is completely different from the other obesity predictors in children. The V/S ratio in children of 20% or more overweight of SBW was 0.28±0.11. The V/S ratio of 0.4, used as an obesity predictor in adults, was not considered suitable in the case of children. Liver function, serum lipid levels, and serum glucose correlated with the percentage of SBW, BMI, and the percentage of BF, but not correlated with the V/S ratio. According to the V/S ratio, the patients were divided into the group of V/S ratio of less than 0.28 (group I, n=34) and the group of V/S ratio of 0.28 or more (group II, n=27). There was no significant difference in age, percentage of SBW, BMI, and percentage of BF. Triglyceride was significantly higher in group II than group I, but there was no significant difference in plasma glucose and other lipids, body composition, blood pressure or respiratory function. Of note, the V/S ratio of 0.4 or more was seen in only 9 of the 61 children (14.7%). These findings suggest that the V/S ratio for children is a predictor different from that in the case of adults. (N.K.)

  3. [The value of fasting plasma glucose and lipid profiles between 7 and 15 gestational weeks in the prediction of gestational diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M; Li, G H

    2016-11-25

    Objective: To explore the value of using fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and lipid profiles between 7 and 15 gestational weeks to predict gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods: The medical records of 2 138 pregnant women who had prenatal care in Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital from August 2011 to February 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. According to results of the oral glucose tolerance tests, women were devided into the GDM group ( n =240) and the normal group ( n= 1 898). Maternal characteristics, FPG and lipid levels between 7 and 15 gestational weeks were compared between the two groups. Logistic regression analysis and receiver operator characteristics(ROC) curve were used in the analysis. Results: Potential markers for the prediction of GDM included total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) , low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios (LDL-C/HDL-C) , triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios (TG/HDL-C) and FPG. After adjustment of confounding factors, age ( OR= 1.046, 95% CI: 1.003-1.090), pre- pregnancy body mass index ( OR= 1.104, 95% CI: 1.049-1.161), gravidity>3 ( OR= 1.768, 95% CI: 1.071-2.920), FPG ( OR= 8.137, 95% CI: 5.412-12.236), TG ( OR= 1.460, 95% CI: 1.148-1.858) were independently associated with the risk of developing GDM. Equation, P GDM =1/{1+exp[-(-16.542+0.045×age+0.103×pre-pregnancy body mass index+0.551×gravidity>3+2.110×FPG+0.372×TG)]}, was constructed by the logistic regression analysis. Sensitivity (67.5%) and specificity (70.5%) were determined by the calculated risk score, with a cut-off value of 0.11 (area under the curve: 0.751, 95% CI: 0.718-0.783, P< 0.001). Conclusions: FPG and TG, together with clinical characteristics may have a better predictive value for the risk of GDM.

  4. Plasma Glucose Levels for Red Drum Sciaenops Ocellatus in a Florida Estuarine Fisheries Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtis, Carla M.; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Boggs, Ashley S P.; Reyier, Eric A.; Stolen, Eric D.; Yanong, Roy P.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant value of the southeastern United States' red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fishery, there is a lack of clinical blood chemistry data. This was the first study to assess plasma glucose values as an indicator of stress response to evaluate variation and the effect of reproductive activity for wild adult red drum in Florida. Red drum (n=126) were collected from NASA's Kennedy Space Center waters during three reproductive periods in 2011. Samples were obtained from the branchial vessels of the gill arch. Plasma glucose levels were significantly different among reproductive periods, with the highest mean values recorded during the spawning period, September- October (38.23 mg / dL +/- 10.0). The glucose range was 17 - 69 mg / dL. Glucose values were lower during all three periods than previous values recorded for cultured or captive red drum studies. This may indicate that fish from this population were under less stress than other populations previously sampled.

  5. Effects of different levels of coconut fiber on blood glucose, serum insulin and minerals in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindurani, J A; Rajamohan, T

    2000-01-01

    The effect of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from coconut kernel (Cocos nucifera L) in rats fed 5%, 15% and 30% level on the concentration of blood glucose, serum insulin and excretion of minerals was studied. Increase in the intake of fiber resulted in significant decrease in the level of blood glucose and serum insulin. Faecal excretion of Cu, Cr, Mn, Mg, Zn and Ca was found to increase in rats fed different levels of coconut fiber when compared to fiber free group. The result of the present investigation suggest that inclusion of coconut fiber in the diet results in significant hypoglycemic action.

  6. Effect of sulfonylureas administered centrally on the blood glucose level in immobilization stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Naveen; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Lim, Su-Min; Kim, Sung-Su; Jung, Jun-Sub; Hong, Jae-Seung; Suh, Hong-Won

    2015-05-01

    Sulfonylureas are widely used as an antidiabetic drug. In the present study, the effects of sulfonylurea administered supraspinally on immobilization stress-induced blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were once enforced into immobilization stress for 30 min and returned to the cage. The blood glucose level was measured 30, 60, and 120 min after immobilization stress initiation. We found that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection with 30 µg of glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride or tolazamide attenuated the increased blood glucose level induced by immobilization stress. Immobilization stress causes an elevation of the blood corticosterone and insulin levels. Sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. caused a further elevation of the blood corticosterone level when mice were forced into the stress. In addition, sulfonylureas pretreated i.c.v. alone caused an elevation of the plasma insulin level. Furthermore, immobilization stress-induced insulin level was reduced by i.c.v. pretreated sulfonylureas. Our results suggest that lowering effect of sulfonylureas administered supraspinally against immobilization stress-induced increase of the blood glucose level appears to be primarily mediated via elevation of the plasma insulin level.

  7. Effect of Glycerol and Glucose on the Enhancement of Biomass, Lipid and Soluble Carbohydrate Production by Chlorella vulgaris in Mixotrophic Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel-derived glycerol is a promising substrate for mixotrophic cultivation of oleaginous microalgae, which can also reduce the cost of microalgal biodiesel. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of using glycerol and glucose as a complex carbon substrate to produce microalgal biomass and biochemical components, such as photosynthetic pigments, lipids, soluble carbohydrates and proteins by Chlorella vulgaris. The results show that C. vulgaris can utilize glycerol as a sole carbon substrate, but its effect is inferior to that of the mixture of glycerol and glucose. The effect of glycerol and glucose could enhance the algal cell growth rate, biomass content and volumetric productivity, and overcome the lower biomass production on glycerol as the sole organic carbon source in mixotrophic culture medium. The utilization of complex organic carbon substrate can stimulate the biosynthesis of lipids and soluble carbohydrates as the raw materials for biodiesel and bioethanol production, and reduce the anabolism of photosynthetic pigments and proteins. This study provides a promising niche for reducing the overall cost of biodiesel and bioethanol production from microalgae as it investigates the by-products of algal biodiesel production and algal cell hydrolysis as possible raw materials (lipids and carbohydrates and organic carbon substrates (soluble carbohydrates and glycerol for mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae.

  8. Correlation of reversely increased level of plasma glucose during pregnancy to the pregnancy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ya SHEN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the correlation of the reversely increased results of 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT during pregnancy to the pregnancy outcome, so as to provide a reliable theoretical basis of the early intervention for the pregnant women with high plasma glucose. Methods The clinical data of 461 cases were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were chosen from the pregnant women undergoing routine antenatal examination in our hospital during 2014. According to the results of 75g OGTT, 226 patients were analyzed as the observation group, in whom the level of postprandial 2-hour plasma glucose was higher than that of postprandial 1-hour plasma glucose. Meanwhile 235 pregnant women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM were randomly selected as the control group. Results The levels of fasting plasma glucose and 1-hour postprandial plasma glucose were lower, but those of 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose was higher in observation group than in control group (P0.05 in the incidences of polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, fetal growth restriction (FGR, premature labor (PTL, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH, complicated with premature rupture of membrane (PROM, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD and non scar uterus cesarean section rate (CSR. Compared with the observation group, the rates of neonatal dysplasia and neonatal asphyxia and the newborn transfer rate were lower in the control group, of which the newborn transfer rate was statistically different (P<0.01. Conclusions There might be a delayed plasma glucose metabolism in the patients with reversely increased result of 75g OGTT during pregnancy, which may affect the long-term prognosis of the newborn. Therefore, more attention should be paid to such patients with reversely increased result of 75g OGTT. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.01.09

  9. Effects of oral and transdermal estrogen on IGF1, IGFBP3, IGFBP1, serum lipids, and glucose in patients with hypopituitarism during GH treatment: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isotton, Ana Lúcia; Wender, Maria Celeste Osorio; Casagrande, Alessandra; Rollin, Guilherme; Czepielewski, Mauro Antônio

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral estradiol and transdermal 17β-estradiol on serum concentrations of IGF1 and its binding proteins in women with hypopituitarism. Prospective, comparative study. Eleven patients with hypopituitarism were randomly allocated to receive 2 mg oral estradiol (n=6) or 50 μg/day of transdermal 17β-estradiol (n=5) for 3 months. The oral estrogen group showed a significant reduction in IGF1 levels (mean: 42.7%±41.4, P=0.046); no difference was observed in the transdermal estrogen group. There was a significant increase in IGFBP1 levels (mean: 170.2%±230.9, P=0.028) in the oral group, but not in the transdermal group. There was no significant difference within either group in terms of median IGFBP3 levels. In relation to lipid profiles, there was a significant increase in mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the oral group after 3 months of treatment, (27.8±9.3, P=0.003). We found no differences in the anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, heart rate, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, or the homeostasis model assessment index after treatment. Our preliminary data indicate that different estrogen administration routes can influence IGF1 and IGFBP1 levels. These findings in patients with hypopituitarism have an impact on their response to treatment with GH, since patients receiving oral estrogen require increased GH dosage. These results suggest that oral estrogens may reduce the beneficial effects of GH replacement on fat and protein metabolism, body composition, and quality of life.

  10. Plasma insulin levels are increased by sertraline in rats under oral glucose overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition and control of depression symptoms are important to increase patient compliance with treatment and to improve the quality of life of diabetic patients. Clinical studies indicate that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI are better antidepressants for diabetic patients than other drugs. However, preclinical trials have demonstrated that not all SSRI reduce plasma glucose levels. In fact, fluoxetine increases and sertraline decreases glycemia in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In the present study we evaluated plasma insulin levels during fasting and after glucose overload after treatment with sertraline. Adult male Wistar rats were fasted and treated with saline or 30 mg/kg sertraline and submitted or not to glucose overload (N = 10. Blood was collected and plasma insulin was measured. The mean insulin levels were: fasting group: 25.9 ± 3.86, sertraline + fasting group: 31.10 ± 2.48, overload group: 34.1 ± 3.40, and overload + sertraline group: 43.73 ± 5.14 µU/ml. Insulinemia was significantly increased in the overload + sertraline group. There were no differences between the other groups. No difference in glucose/insulin ratios could be detected between groups. The overload + sertraline group was the only one in which a significant number of individuals exceeded the upper confidence limit of insulin levels. This study demonstrates that sertraline increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without any change in peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  11. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels: influence of normal food intake on lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, A.; Freiberg, J.J.; Nordestgaard, Børge

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events. METHODS AND RESULTS: We cross-sectionally studied 33 391 individuals 20 to 95...... to HDL cholesterol, and ratio of apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 did not change in response to normal food intake. The maximum changes after normal food and fluid intake from fasting levels were -0.2 mmol/L for total cholesterol, -0.2 mmol/L for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, -0.1 mmol...... years of age from the Copenhagen General Population Study. We also studied 9319 individuals 20 to 93 years of age from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, 1166 of whom developed cardiovascular events during 14 years of follow-up. Compared with fasting levels, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein...

  12. Predictive performances of lipid accumulation product vs. adiposity measures for cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality, 8.6-year follow-up: Tehran lipid and glucose study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Fereidoun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The body mass index (BMI is the most commonly used marker for evaluating obesity related risks, however, central obesity measures have been proposed to be more informative. Lipid accumulation product (LAP is an alternative continuous index of lipid accumulation. We sought in this study to assess if LAP can outperform BMI, waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR, or waist-to-hip-ratio (WHpR in predicting incident cardiovascular disease (CVD or all-cause mortality. Results Among participants of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, 6,751 participants (2,964 men, aged ≥ 30 years, were followed for a median of 8.6 years. We observed 274 deaths (men: 168 and 447 CVD events (men: 257. Levels of common CVD risk factors significantly increased across LAP quartiles. Mortality rates did not differ by LAP quartiles. Among participants free of CVD at baseline [6331 (2,741 men], CVD incident rates per 1000 person increased in a stepwise fashion with increasing LAP quartile values in both men (from 6.9 to 17.0 and women (from 1.3 to 13.0, (Ps Among women, a 1-SD increment in log-LAP conferred a 41% increased risk for CVD (HR 1.41, 95% CIs 1.02-1.96. Among men, however, LAP was not observed to be independently associated with increased risk of CVD; except in a sub-group of men assigned to the lifestyle modification interventions, where, LAP predicted CVD risk. After adjustment with CVD risk factors LAP turned to be inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality (HR, men 0.74, 95% CIs 0.61-0.90; women, 0.94 95% CIs 0.74-1.20. Among women, magnitude of increased risk of CVD due to LAP was not different from those of anthropometric measures. Among men, however, WHpR was observed to be more strongly associated with increased risk of CVD than was LAP. Among neither men nor women were the predictive performances (discrimination, calibration, goodness-of-fit of the LAP better than those of different anthropometric measures were. Conclusions If LAP is to be

  13. Associations between Dietary Acid-Base Load and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adults: The Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahadoran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn this study we investigated the associations of dietary acid-base load, identified by potential renal acid load (PRAL and protein to potassium (Pro:K ratio, with cardiometabolic risk factors in Tehranian adults.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the fourth phase of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2009 to 2011 on 5,620 men and women aged 19 to 70 years. Dietary data were collected by a trained dietitian using a validated, 147-food item, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and dietary PRAL and Pro:K ratio were calculated. Multiple linear regression models with adjustment for potential confounding variables were used to evaluate the associations of dietary acid-base load with anthropometric measures, blood pressure, serum triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, serum creatinine, and fasting blood glucose.ResultsThe mean±SD age of the participants was 39.8±12.8 years and 54% of participants were women. Mean±SD PRAL was -22.0±29.1; mean PRAL was -15.6 in men and -26.8 in women. Dietary PRAL was associated with weight (β=0.098, P<0.001, waist circumference (β=0.062, P<0.01, serum triglycerides (β=0.143, P<0.01, HDL-C (β=-0.11, P<0.01, diastolic blood pressure (β=0.062, P<0.01, and serum creatinine (β=0.142, P<0.001. Pro:K ratio was associated with weight (β=0.055, P<0.001, waist circumference (β=0.04, P<0.01, serum HDL-C (β=-0.06, P<0.01, serum triglycerides (β=0.03, P<0.05, diastolic blood pressure (β=0.026, P<0.05, and serum creatinine (β=0.07, P<0.01.ConclusionA more acidic dietary acid-base load may be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders.

  14. The effect of nano-curcumin on HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profile in diabetic subjects: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Rahimi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus is defined as a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both or insulin resistance. Curcumin inhibits NF-κB signaling pathway. The aim of this study is evaluation of the effect of Nano-curcumin on HbA1C, fast blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Seventy type-2 diabetic patients (fasting blood glucose (FBG ≥ 126 mg/dL or 2-hr postprandial blood glucose ≥200 mg/dl randomly receivedeither Curcumin (as nano-micelle 80 mg/day or placebo for 3 months in a double blind randomized clinical trial. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1C, and lipids profile were checked before and after the intervention. Data analyses, including parametric and nonparametric tests were done using the SPSS 11.5 software. A p value < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. (RCT registration code: IRCT2013081114330N1 Results: Mean age, BMI, FBG, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, LDL, HDL, HbA1c , and  sex and had no significant difference at the baseline between the groups. In Nano-curcumin group, a significant decrease was found in HbA1C, FBG, TG, and BMI comparing results of each subject before and after the treatment (p

  15. A novel Alaska pollack-derived peptide, which increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells, lowers the blood glucose level in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayabe, Tatsuhiro; Mizushige, Takafumi; Ota, Wakana; Kawabata, Fuminori; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kanamoto, Ryuhei; Ohinata, Kousaku

    2015-08-01

    We found that the tryptic digest of Alaska pollack protein exhibits a glucose-lowering effect in KK-Ay mice, a type II diabetic model. We then searched for glucose-lowering peptides in the digest. Ala-Asn-Gly-Glu-Val-Ala-Gln-Trp-Arg (ANGEVAQWR) was identified from a peak of the HPLC fraction selected based on the glucose-lowering activity in an insulin resistance test using ddY mice. ANGEVAQWR (3 mg kg(-1)) decreased the blood glucose level after intraperitoneal administration. Among its fragment peptides, the C-terminal tripeptide, Gln-Trp-Arg (QWR, 1 mg kg(-1)), lowered the blood glucose level, suggesting that the C-terminal is critical for glucose-lowering activity. QWR also enhanced glucose uptake into C2C12, a mouse skeletal muscle cell line. QWR did not induce the phosphorylation of serine/threonine protein kinase B (Akt) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We also demonstrated that QWR lowered the blood glucose level in NSY and KK-Ay, type II diabetic models.

  16. Association between empirically derived dietary patterns with blood lipids, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure in adults - the India migration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridhar, Krithiga; Satija, Ambika; Dhillon, Preet K; Agrawal, Sutapa; Gupta, Ruby; Bowen, Liza; Kinra, Sanjay; Bharathi, A V; Prabhakaran, D; Srinath Reddy, K; Ebrahim, Shah

    2018-02-08

    Dietary patterns (DPs) in India are heterogenous. To date, data on association of indigenous DPs in India with risk factors of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular disease and diabetes), leading causes of premature death and disability, are limited. We aimed to evaluate the associations of empirically-derived DPs with blood lipids, fasting glucose and blood pressure levels in an adult Indian population recruited across four geographical regions of India. We used cross-sectional data from the Indian Migration Study (2005-2007). Study participants included urban migrants, their rural siblings and urban residents and their urban siblings from Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore (n = 7067, mean age 40.8 yrs). Information on diet (validated interviewer-administered, 184-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire), tobacco consumption, alcohol intake, physical activity, medical history, as well as anthropometric measurements were collected. Fasting-blood samples were collected for estimation of blood lipids and glucose. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify major DPs based on eigenvalue> 1 and component interpretability. Robust standard error multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the association of DPs (tertiles) with total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, fasting-blood glucose (FBG), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) levels. Three major DPs were identified: 'cereal-savoury' (cooked grains, rice/rice-based dishes, snacks, condiments, soups, nuts), 'fruit-vegetable-sweets-snacks' (Western cereals, vegetables, fruit, fruit juices, cooked milk products, snacks, sugars, sweets) and 'animal food' (red meat, poultry, fish/seafood, eggs) patterns. High intake of the 'animal food' pattern was positively associated with levels of TC (β = 0.10 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.17 mmol/L; p

  17. Lipid Peroxidation and Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Levels in Gastric Cancer at Pathologic Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, Sefa; Yücel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Kemik, Ahu Sarbay; Kemik, Ozgür

    2012-09-01

    High levels of TGF-β1 and enhanced TGF-β1 receptor signaling are related to the pathology of gastric cancer. This effect is caused by oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation products. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of TGF-β1 and lipid peroxidation products in gastric cancer patients and their correlation with pathologic stage. Lipid peroxidation products and TGF-β1 levels were studied in the serum samples of 50 gastric cancer patients and 18 control subjects. HNE-protein adducts and TGF-β1 levels were significantly higher in T2, T3 and T4 gastric cancers than in either the T1 stage or controls (p<0.001). Pathologic stage was correlated with TGF-β1 levels (r=0.702, p<0.05). These markers production may contribute to tumor angiogenesis and aid in the prognosis of the gastric cancer.

  18. Brain Levels of Prostaglandins, Endocannabinoids, and Related Lipids Are Affected by Mating Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordyn M. Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs are involved in the development and regulation of reproductive behaviors. Likewise, prostaglandins (PGs drive sexual differentiation and initiation of ovulation. Here, we use lipidomics strategies to test the hypotheses that mating immediately activates the biosynthesis and/or metabolism of eCBs and PGs and that specific mating strategies differentially regulate these lipids in the brain. Methods. Lipid extractions and tandem mass spectrometric analysis were performed on brains from proestrous rats that had experienced one of two mating strategies (paced or standard mating and two nonmated groups (chamber exposed and home cage controls. Levels of PGs (PGE2 and PGF2alpha, eCBs (AEA and 2-AG, N-arachidonoyl glycine, and 4 related lipids (4 N-acylethanolamides were measured in olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, thalamus, striatum, midbrain, cerebellum, and brainstem. Results. Overall, levels of these lipids were significantly lower among paced compared to standard mated rats with the most dramatic decreases observed in brainstem, hippocampus, midbrain, and striatum. However, chamber exposed rats had significantly higher levels of these lipids compared to home cage controls and paced mated wherein the hippocampus showed the largest increases. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that mating strategies and exposure to mating arenas influence lipid signaling in the brain.

  19. Comparison of sugar molecule decomposition through glucose and fructose: a high-level quantum chemical study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assary, R. S.; Curtiss, L. A. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( MSD); (Northwestern Univ.)

    2012-02-01

    Efficient chemical conversion of biomass is essential to produce sustainable energy and industrial chemicals. Industrial level conversion of glucose to useful chemicals, such as furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, and levulinic acid, is a major step in the biomass conversion but is difficult because of the formation of undesired products and side reactions. To understand the molecular level reaction mechanisms involved in the decomposition of glucose and fructose, we have carried out high-level quantum chemical calculations [Gaussian-4 (G4) theory]. Selective 1,2-dehydration, keto-enol tautomerization, isomerization, retro-aldol condensation, and hydride shifts of glucose and fructose molecules were investigated. Detailed kinetic and thermodynamic analyses indicate that, for acyclic glucose and fructose molecules, the dehydration and isomerization require larger activation barriers compared to the retro-aldol reaction at 298 K in neutral medium. The retro-aldol reaction results in the formation of C2 and C4 species from glucose and C3 species from fructose. The formation of the most stable C3 species, dihydroxyacetone from fructose, is thermodynamically downhill. The 1,3-hydride shift leads to the cleavage of the C-C bond in the acyclic species; however, the enthalpy of activation is significantly higher (50-55 kcal/mol) than that of the retro-aldol reaction (38 kcal/mol) mainly because of the sterically hindered distorted four-membered transition state compared to the hexa-membered transition state in the retro-aldol reaction. Both tautomerization and dehydration are catalyzed by a water molecule in aqueous medium; however, water has little effect on the retro-aldol reaction. Isomerization of glucose to fructose and glyceraldehyde to dihydroxyacetone proceeds through hydride shifts that require an activation enthalpy of about 40 kcal/mol at 298 K in water medium. This investigation maps out accurate energetics of the decomposition of glucose and fructose molecules

  20. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  1. Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Levels and Selected Trace Metals In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aim to determine the serum levels of trace metals and correlate same with serum levels of lipoproteins (an established marker of HBP) in newly diagnosed hypertensives (NDH) A total of 50 NDH subjects (24 males and 26 females) attending Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo ...

  2. Effects of ingested turmeric oleoresin on glucose and lipid metabolisms in obese diabetic mice: a DNA microarray study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Shinichi; Aoki, Fumiki; Tanaka, Hozumi; Kishida, Hideyuki; Nishiyama, Tozo; Okada, Shinji; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Abe, Keiko; Mae, Tatsumasa

    2006-11-29

    Turmeric, the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., has a wide range of effects on human health. Turmeric oleoresin, an extract of turmeric, is often used for flavoring and coloring. Curcuminoids and turmeric essential oil are both contained in turmeric oleoresin, and both of these fractions have hypoglycemic effects. In the present study, we comprehensively assessed the effect of turmeric oleoresin on hepatic gene expression in obese diabetic KK-Ay mice using DNA microarray analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Female KK-Ay mice aged 6 weeks (n = 6/group) were fed a high-fat diet containing turmeric oleoresin, curcuminoids, and essential oil for 5 weeks. The same diet without any of these fractions was used as a control diet. Ingestion of turmeric oleoresin and essential oil inhibited the development of increased blood glucose and abdominal fat mass, while curcuminoids only inhibited the increase in blood glucose. DNA microarray analysis indicated that turmeric oleoresin ingestion up-regulated the expression of genes related to glycolysis, beta-oxidation, and cholesterol metabolism in the liver of KK-Ay mice, while expression of gluconeogenesis-related genes was down-regulated. Real-time PCR analysis was conducted to assess the contribution of the curcuminoids and essential oil in turmeric oleoresin to the changes in expression of representative genes selected by DNA microarray analysis. This analysis suggested that curcuminoids regulated turmeric oleoresin ingestion-induced expression of glycolysis-related genes and also that curcuminoids and turmeric essential oil acted synergistically to regulate the peroxisomal beta-oxidation-related gene expression induced by turmeric oleoresin ingestion. These changes in gene expression were considered to be the mechanism by which the turmeric oleoresin affected the control of both blood glucose levels and abdominal adipose tissue masses. All of these results suggest that the use of whole turmeric

  3. Analytical model for real time, noninvasive estimation of blood glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhyapak, Anoop; Sidley, Matthew; Venkataraman, Jayanti

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an analytical model to estimate blood glucose level from measurements made non-invasively and in real time by an antenna strapped to a patient's wrist. Some promising success has been shown by the RIT ETA Lab research group that an antenna's resonant frequency can track, in real time, changes in glucose concentration. Based on an in-vitro study of blood samples of diabetic patients, the paper presents a modified Cole-Cole model that incorporates a factor to represent the change in glucose level. A calibration technique using the input impedance technique is discussed and the results show a good estimation as compared to the glucose meter readings. An alternate calibration methodology has been developed that is based on the shift in the antenna resonant frequency using an equivalent circuit model containing a shunt capacitor to represent the shift in resonant frequency with changing glucose levels. Work under progress is the optimization of the technique with a larger sample of patients.

  4. Clinical significance of determination of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Suqing; Li Yusheng; Wang Lin; Chu Kaiqiu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar contents in pregnant women with gestational glucose metabolism disturbances. Methods: Fasting and 3h after oral 50g glucose serum levels of leptin were measured with RIA in 36 pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances (gestational diabetes mellitus or gestational impaired glucose tolerance) and 34 controls. Also, fasting serum insulin levels (with CLIA) and blood sugar contents 1h after oral 50 glucose (with glucose oxidase method) were determined in all these subjects. Results: 1. Serum levels of leptin in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 14.9 ± 4.3 μg/L (vs controls 9.8 ± 1.7 μg/L, P<0.01). 2. The serum levels of insulin and 1 h post - 50g glucose blood sugar contents in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 12.9±4.3mU/L and 11.0±1.4mmol/L respectively, which were both significantly positively correlated with the serum leptin levels (r=0.835, r=0.758 respectively) (vs levels in controls: 8.45±3.0mU/L and 7.84±1.3mmol/L). Conclusion: Elevation of fasting serum levels of leptin was demonstrated in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances and the level of leptin was positively correlated with that of insulin and blood sugar. (authors)

  5. Steroid injection for shoulder pain causes prolonged increased glucose level in type 1 diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Povlsen, Bo; Povlsen, Sebastian D

    2014-01-01

    Shoulder pain is very common in diabetic patients and often treated with steroid injections, with subsequent increases in blood glucose levels or the need for additional insulin being questioned. We report a case of significant and prolonged elevation of blood glucose levels and resultant insulin requirement in a type 1 diabetic man after a single 40 mg injection of triamcinolone for shoulder pain. Within 48 h, the shoulder pain as assessed by a visual analogue scale (0–10) was reduced to zer...

  6. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. Methods A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. Results From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Conclusion Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  7. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. METHODS A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. RESULTS From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. CONCLUSION Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  8. Effect of GABA receptor agonists or antagonists injected spinally on the blood glucose level in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Suh, Hong-Won

    2013-05-01

    The possible roles of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors located in the spinal cord for the regulation of the blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. We found in the present study that intrathecal (i.t.) injection with baclofen (a GABAB receptor agonist; 1-10 μg/5 μl) or bicuculline (a GABAA receptor antagonist; 1-10 μg/5 μl) caused an elevation of the blood glucose level in a dose-dependent manner. The hyperglycemic effect induced by baclofen was more pronounced than that induced by bicuculline. However, muscimol (a GABAA receptor agonist; 1-5 μg/5 μl) or phaclofen (a GABAB receptor antagonist; 5-10 μg/5 μl) administered i.t. did not affect the blood glucose level. Baclofen-induced elevation of the blood glucose was dose-dependently attenuated by phaclofen. Furthermore, i.t. pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX; 0.05 or 0.1 μg/5 μl) for 6 days dose-dependently reduced the hyperglycemic effect induced by baclofen. Our results suggest that GABAB receptors located in the spinal cord play important roles for the elevation of the blood glucose level. Spinally located PTX-sensitive G-proteins appear to be involved in hyperglycemic effect induced by baclofen. Furthermore, inactivation of GABAA receptors located in the spinal cord appears to be responsible for tonic up-regulation of the blood glucose level.